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Sample records for chernobyl npp zone

  1. Main principles of the Chernobyl' NPP zone development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is suggested to divide the Chernobyl' NPP zone into two parts, which are the alienation and evacuation (buffer) zones. The alienation zone includes the areas with greatest contamination around the Chernobyl' NPP. The population residence in this zone is forbidden. The watching method of working with short-time personnel residence is suggested to be used in this zone. The buffer zone is the territory out of the alienation zone boundaries including all settlements, from which the population is evacuated. Constant residence is permitted in the buffer zone for persons 50 and more years old with introduction of restrictions for diet and residence organization. The production activity in this zone includes operation of three units of the Chernobyl' NPP, works with the Ukrytie object and researches. Operations connected with radioactive waste processing and redisposal from places of storage is not recommended to be done. It is suggested to develop methods for local radioactive waste processing

  2. Radionuclides in fish of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of researches of the spices-specificity, accumulation dynamics, and distribution of 90Sr, 137Cs, and transuranic elements in fish of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone are analyzed. For fish of lakes of the left-bank flood plain of the Pripyat River, the increase of the specific activity of 90Sr is registered, which is presumably connected to the dynamics of physico-chemical forms of the radionuclide in soils and their wash out in water basins from the catchment territory. Now about 90 % of the internal dose rate of fish from closed aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone are caused by the 90Sr incorporation

  3. Transformations of humus and soil mantle in the urbanized areas of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented are investigations into the demutation processes of the towns plant community in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone (Pripyat, Chernobyl, Chernobyl-2). Demonstrated is the specific nature of the reduction of humus and soil mantle in the abandoned towns under the impact of the natural factors. 21 refs., 5 tab., 7 figs

  4. Concentration peculiarities of radionuclides by freshwater molluscs of Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs content in molluscs tissue of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. The age dynamics of radionuclides content in some species of Gastropoda was studied

  5. Radionuclides in lake ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The territories of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone are characterised by significant heterogeneity of radionuclide contamination, which is reflected by the radioactive substance contents in aquatic ecosystem components. Due to high water change rate the river bottom sediments have undergone decontamination processes and over the years that passed since the accident have ceased to play the essential role as a secondary source of water contamination. On the other hand, the closed reservoirs, and in particular the lakes in the inner exclusion zone, have considerably higher levels of radioactive contamination caused by limited water change and by relatively high concentrations of radionuclides deposited in the bottom sediments. During 1997-2004 we studied the dynamics and distribution of 90Sr, 137CS, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am in the main components of the lake ecosystems within the exclusion zone, defined as a roughly circular area of 30 km radius around the destroyed unit of the Chernobyl NPP. The radionuclide content was measured in bottom sediments, water, seston, higher aquatic plants, molluscs and fish in Azbuchin Lake, Dalekoye-1 Lake and Glubokoye Lake. The analysis of radionuclide distribution in components of lake ecosystems has shown that about 98-99 % of 137CS and more than 99 % of transuranic elements of the total radionuclide content has concentrated in the bottom sediments. The content of 90Sr in sediments of lakes, due to higher solubility, amounts to 89-95 %. About 2-10 % of radionuclides concentrated in water and only about 1 %- in biota. In this percent a prevailing value for different radionuclides has the macro benthos species (especially bivalve molluscs) and higher aquatic plants. The average specific activity of radionuclides in fish tissue more than in 100 times exceeds a maximum permissible level for fish production in Ukraine. The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts, living within littoral zone of the researched lakes, due to external

  6. Problems of ground-water monitoring in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the nine years of hydrogeological studies in the Chernobyl exclusion zone scientific and methodological problems of the radio hydrogeological monitoring are discussed. Inconsistency of the official ground-water monitoring system is shown. The ways to improve the radio hydrogeological monitoring are indicated. The special attention is paid to principles of the development of monitoring well network in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in the light of the hydrogeological factors. The data are presented on ground-water contamination by strontium-90 in the zone adjacent to the Chernobyl NPP (at the right bank of the Pripyat River)

  7. Damage of common reed by gall mites and diptera within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy damage events of common reed by gall arthropods in water bodies within the Chernobyl NPP inner (10-km) exclusion zone have been studied. The mites of family Tarsonemidae - Steneotarsonemus phragmitidis and S. gibber have been discovered. The damage events of common reed by larvae of gall fly of family Chloropidae, genus Lipara have been considered as well

  8. Problems of hydrogeological monitoring and prediction of ground water contamination in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of ground water monitoring and the questions of development of the observation well network in the nearest 10-15 km area around Chernobyl NPP are considered. Ground water contamination by radionuclides in the exclusion zone is described. Results of mathematical modeling of strontium-90 migration from radioactive waste disposal sites are presented

  9. The results of fluorescence spectrums of oak and birch leaves investigation from the 30-km influenced zone of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a long-term research of laser induced fluorescence of foliage tree' leaves (oak, birch) that grow in different conditions of radioactive pollution (30-km zone of Chernobyl NPP) are presented

  10. [The main radionuclides and dose formation in fish of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Kaglian, A E; Kireev, S I; Nazarov, A B; Klenus, V G

    2008-01-01

    The results of the researches of spices-specificity, accumulation dynamics and distribution of 90Sr, of 137Cs and of transuranic elements in fish of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone are analysed. The data of estimations of absorbed doze rate from incorporated radionuclides for pray fish and predatory species are given. For the fish from the lake of the left-bank floodplain of the Pripyat River the increase of 90Sr specific activity is registered which is presumably connected with the dynamics of the physical-chemical forms of the radionuclide in soils and their wash out in water bodies from the catchment basin. Now about 90% of internal dose rate of fish from closed aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone is caused by 90Sr incorporation. PMID:18666579

  11. Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

  12. Radionuclides in higher aquatic plants of water reservoirs within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs content in higher aquatic plants of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone have been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and spice-indicators of radioactive contamination are exposed as well. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclides content in macrophites was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose have been demonstrated

  13. 90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of 90Sr and 137Cs radionuclides in higher aquatic plants of water object within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and species-indicators of radioactive contamination were revealed. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclide content in macrophytes was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 90Sr and 137Cs distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose was demonstrated

  14. Adaptation state for persons living and working in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integral health characteristics (IHC) reflecting the level of organism adaptation for persons working and living under specific conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone is suggested. IHC gives an opportunity to differentiate the adaptation degree in respect to 6 characteristics, which are encephalogram, cycle-ergometry, psychological test (uneasiness state), immunological test (T lymphocyte activity), content of chlorides in blood, state of skin bactericidal activity. Mathematical models connecting IHC with organism adaptation state are constructed. Adaptation level depends on the absorbed dose value, time of work in the 30-km zone and age of the person under examination. 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Hydrobionts of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone: dose rates and cytogenetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 2000 - 2004 the values of the absorbed dose for hydrobionts from reservoirs within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone were found. The highest value was found for hydrobionts from lakes within the embankment territory on the left-bank flood plain of Pripyat River. The high level of chromosome aberration in of snail's cells from water objects within the Chernobyl exclusion zone has been registered in comparison with Goloseevo lakes. The molluscs from Dalekoye-1 Lake and Glubokoye Lake were characterised by the maximal rate of chromosome aberration - about 20-25%, that in 10 times exceeds a level spontaneous mutagenesis for hydrobionts. A little bit less rate is registered for snails from Azbuchin Lake and Yanovsky Creek

  16. Radionuclide migration and biological effects in forest landscape of the Chernobyl NPP zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radioecological and radiobiological studies made in pine-birch plantations located at the distances of 15 and 18 km to the West from the Chrenobyl NPP in 1987-1988 are discussed. It is shown that the contents of radionuclides studied in the soil-vegetable cover of the 15-km zone decrease in the following order Cs-137 > Cs-134 > Sr-90. Sr-90 is present in firmly fixed state in soil near the Chernobyl NPP failed unit, and its great portion becomes fixed by ion exchange reaction type as the distance from the accident place increases. Cs isotopes are included into the firmly fixed compounds in soils of the 30-km zone

  17. Radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystem within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone: 15 years after accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquatic ecosystems and especially lakes are efficient collectors for the wide range of radionuclides, which are deposited in abiotic and biotic components after their intake by aquatic environments. For the time being, ecosystems of water bodies of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone continue to suffer from heavy radioactive contamination, dictating, thus, the need to carry out further research works within the framework of comprehensive regional radioecological monitoring. Particular features of radionuclide accumulation by hydrobionts substantially depend on formation of hydrochemical composition of water, which, in its turn, is a complex process, depending on functioning of aquatic ecosystems and natural conditions of a water catchment basin. Hydrochemical regimes in reservoirs are determined by external factors and internal water body processes. The results of radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am content in hydrobionts tissues of different trophic levels of water objects within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone have been analysed. Our studies were conducted: (1) to identify dynamics of radionuclide distribution in components of freshwater biocenose of water bodies within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone; (2) to study dynamic profiles of radioactive contamination levels in species of different ecological groups; (3) to assess the major factors, which determine distribution of radionuclides in the freshwater ecosystems; (4) to study the seasonal dynamics of radionuclides content in macrophites and the role of main aquatic plant associations in processes of radionuclides distribution in biotic component of biohydrocenose; (5) to assess a possibility to use hydrobionts of different trophic levels as biological indicators of radioactive contamination of water objects and (6) to assess the absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from different water bodies. (author)

  18. Dose rate and biological effects on hydrobionts within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2000-2003 the values of the absorbed dose for hydrobionts from reservoirs within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone were found to be in the range from 1.8·10-3 to 3.4 Gy/year. The highest value was found for hydrobionts from lakes within the embankment territory on the left-bank flood plain of the Pripyat River, the lowest - for specimens from the running water objects. The chromosome aberration rate in cells of the snail (Limnea stagnalis L.) embryos from the most contaminated reservoirs reached to 25%. (Authors)

  19. The content of Cs 137 in mushrooms of Chernobyl NPP alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cs 137 contents in S. luteus is more in 1.5 - 20 times, than in B. edulis, selected on one polygon. However this ratio has changed and Cs 137 contents in S. luteus equals to contents in B. edulis in territory of some polygons of Chernobyl NPP alienation zone in 2000 and 2001. Therefore, as indicators of Cs 137 contamination by wood ecosystems it is necessary to use two or more kinds of mushrooms differing by depth of mycelium's localization in soil

  20. To the problem of afforestation of lands with high contamination density in the Chernobyl' NPP zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is argued that the best conditions for radionuclide fixation will be created in the case of contaminated land afforestation. The complex approach, variation of natural forest reconstruction, tree planting and seeding are necessary for land afforestation in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone. It is recommended to apply spontaneous afforestation with time on lands with high contamination density where man participation is impossible. It should be soft-leaf species at the first stage and pines in future. The wood destiny when the cultures will achieve the ripe age is the argumentative problem

  1. Varieties of fuel particles in fallout of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil in the Chernobyl NPP 30-km zone is known to be contaminated by fine particles of dispersed irradiated fuel. Experimental data obtained by the authors shortly after the accident indicated a significant excess of 95Zr in the particles compared with its calculated amount. This suggested that particles of the U fuel also contain construction material from the core, activated Zr. The authors have isolated particles of radioactive material from the heavy soil fraction in order experimentally to confirm this. Their dimensions varied from 85 to 750 μm; their mass, from 10 to 700 μg. Such characteristics as the microstructure, elemental composition, and the concentration of 144Ce and other radionuclides obtained from electron microscope measurements, microprobe analysis, and γ- and α-spectrometry were used to classify the particles. It was found that two types of highly active particles are characteristic of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone (up to 4-5 km) and the western track of the fallout for a distance of 20 km from the destroyed fourth block. The first type are genuine particles of irradiated fuel. The second type are aggregates consisting of U and Zr oxides. The second type predominates in fallout of the exclusion zone and in the western track

  2. Mutagenesis in the blood lymphocytes of the residents of Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative examination of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone self-settlers and Yagotin region of Kiev province village residents was carried out in 1998-99. The interindividual variability and the mean frequency of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase mutations, chromosomal aberrations both of the chromosome and chromatid types and the chromosome sensitivity to bleomycin in vitro were substantially higher for the exclusion zone self-settlers than for the Yagotin region residents. An increase in the mean group frequency of cytogenetic damages for the self-settlers was caused mostly by individuals younger 60 years old. There were revealed no significant difference for the people of an older age. Chromosome sensitivity to bleomycin in vitro correlates with a mutagenesis frequency in vivo

  3. Aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone: radioactive contamination, doses and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For past 17 years after accident the character of radioactive contamination of water objects within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has undergone essential changes. First of all it connected with realisation on a wide area of deactivation works, and also with transformation of radioactive substances in water-soil systems. Besides, during 1991-95 the complex of hydraulic engineering structures as protection dams, interfering washing away of radioactive substances from soils of the left-bank catchment basin and changed a hydrological regime of these territories during a high water, was constructed. The levels of radionuclide contamination of water objects within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone was rather stabilised. Due to high water change rate the river bottom sediments have undergone decontamination processes (especially during floods and periods of high water) and over the years have ceased to play the essential role as a secondary source of water contamination. On the other hand, the closed reservoirs have considerably higher levels of radioactive contamination caused by limited water change and by relatively high concentration of radionuclides deposited in the bottom sediments. Therefore, for the majority of standing reservoirs the level of radionuclide content is determined mainly by the rates of mobile radionuclide forms exchange between bottom sediment and water, as well as by the external washout from the catchment basin. In this paper will be considered: (1) the latest data on radionuclide content (Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-238, Pu-239+240 and Am-241) and dynamics in water, seston, bottom sediments and hydrobionts of different trophic levels and ecological groups; (2) the peculiarities of formation of vegetative communities from lakes within embankment territory of Pripyat River flood-lands and its impact on radionuclide redistribution in aquatic ecosystems; (3) the major hydrochemical factors, which determine the behaviour of radionuclides in the aquatic

  4. Dynamics of faunistic complexes of parasitic organisms in the Chernobyl' NPP zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of studies made in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone, which deal with estimation of species composition and number of parasites, mammals, birds, their nest inhabitants and blood-suching insects, are discussed. It is shown that parasite species variaty is higher on the contaminated territory as compared with the control one. Number of arthropoda is greater, and those of helmines and winged blood-suching insects are smaller on the contaminated territories. The main carriers of parasites among birds are starlings, larks and tomtits in contaminated regions and those are chiff-chaff and finches in the control areas. The level of nest contaminations for rodents and birds correlates with environment contamination level

  5. Functional-ecological and age-specific regularities of radionuclide concentration by freshwater molluscs of Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the studies on 90Sr and 137Cs content in the tissues of bivalve and gastropod mollusks of water basins in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP have been analyzed. The dependence of radionuclide accumulation factors on the peculiarities of morphological structure, functional ecology and nutrition type was found. The age dynamics of 137Cs content in some species of Gastropod was studied

  6. Hydrobionts of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone. Radioactive contamination, doses and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The territories of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone are characterised by significant heterogeneity of radionuclide contamination, which is reflected by the radioactive substance contents in aquatic ecosystem components. Due to high water change rate the river bottom sediments have undergone decontamination processes and, over the years that have passed since the accident, have ceased to play an essential role as a secondary source of water contamination. On the other hand, the closed reservoirs, and in particular the lakes in the inner exclusion zone, have considerably higher levels of radioactive contamination caused by limited water change and by relatively high concentration of radionuclides deposited in the bottom sediments. In 1997-2002 the values of the absorbed dose for hydrobionts from reservoirs of the exclusion zone were found to be in the range from 1.6 x 10-3 to 3.5 Gy·year-1. The highest value was found for hydrobionts from lakes within the embankment territory on the left-bank flood plain of Pripyat River, the lowest for specimens from the running water objects. The following are considered in the paper: (1) the latest data on content of the most biohazardous radionuclides (Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-238, Pu-239+240 and 241Am) in hydrobionts of the different trophic levels and ecological groups (higher aquatic plants, molluscs and fish); (2) the possibility to use of hydrobionts of different trophic levels as biological indicators of radioactive contamination of water objects; (3) the absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from different water bodies; (4) some biological effects (somatic and citogenetic) of radiation exposure on hydrobionts living in water reservoirs with different levels of radioactive contamination. (author)

  7. Estimation of protective ability of soil-ground of aeration zone within the boundaries of the Chernobyl' NPP radiogeochemical effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique for numerical estimation of the soil-ground protective ability in the aeration zone for the Chernobyl' NPP region, which is determined by sorption because of wide ground water use as the main source of auxiliary and drinking water supply is described. Histograms for Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution in soil-grounds, coefficients of Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution in sandy-loamy grounds, are the effects of ground type in aeration zone on Cs-137 and Sr-90 absorption are estimated. The calculation scheme for soil-ground, and ground water protective abilities against long-living radionuclide effects is given. 10 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  8. Estimation of 90Sr transition in flood waters of the Pripyat' river in the near zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vertical distribution of 90Sr chemical forms in the alluvial soddy soils of the left-bank part of the Pripyat' floodplain in the near zone of the Chernobyl NPP is studied and the value of its transition to flood water at the simulation of floodplain flooding under laboratory conditions at the hydraulic extrusion from the deep soil layers to the surface is determined. It is shown that the main mechanism of formation of 90Sr concentration in the surface water is the ion exchange

  9. Technique for radionuclide composition analysis of snow cover in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone using fiber sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-sensitivity, simple and fast technique for analysis of large-dispersive and ionic components of snow cover radioactivity is suggested. It is based on separation of a sample by fractions, concentration of the dispersive fraction on mechanical filters and the dissolved one on ion-exchange sorbents and separated fraction spectrometry. The minimum measured contamination level is 3.7 Bq/dm3 for each radionuclide analyzed. The conclusion is made that the technique suggested is the reliable method for radionuclide content analysis is snow cover samples of the Chernobyl' NPP zone. 1 tab

  10. [The distribution of the radionuclides in the main components of lake ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The results of the studies devoted to the distribution of radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239 + 240Pu and 241Am in 1998-2003 in main components of Glubokoe Lake and Dalekoe-1 Lake located within Krasnensky flood lands of the Pripyat River (inner exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP) were analysed. The data about the radionuclide content in bottom sediments, in water, in seston, in macrozoobenthos (including bivalvia molluscs), in gasteropods molluscs, in higher aquatic plants and in fish are presented. PMID:16080615

  11. Chromosome aberration and hematological rates of gastropod snail (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) in water bodies of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation dose, as well as the chromosome aberration rate and a change of the hemolymph structure of the gastropod snail (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) in water bodies within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion Zone during 1998-2007, is evaluated. The absorbed dose is registered in range 0.3-85.0 μGy/h. In closed water bodies, the high rate of chromosome aberration in embryo tissues (up to 27%) and essential changes of hematological rates of adult molluscs in comparison with those in control water bodies are determined.

  12. Variability of genetic characteristics in animals kept in the zone of Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic structure and cytogenetic variability by some genetic-biochemical systems (22 locusses) in Black-and-White cows kept in the zone of Chernobyl' atomic power station with increased radionuclidic contamination have been analyzed comparatively. Increased frequency of cytogenetic anomalies, differing distribution of allele frequencies, and reduced expression of some biochemical markers have been revealed in tested animals as compared to the control

  13. Aquatic ecosystems of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone: dynamics of contamination, radiation absorbed doses, radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radioactive contamination dynamics in the main components of aquatic ecosystems and absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts within the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone has been analysed. Some cytogenetic and haematological effects of long-term irradiation on aquatic organisms as well as damage of higher aquatic plants by parasitic fungi and gall-producing arthropods have been considered. (authors)

  14. [Long-term follow-up cytogenetic survey and biological dosimetry in persons evacuated from 30-km Chernobyl NPP zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maznik, N A

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the follow-up cytogenetic survey and biological dosimetry carried out in inhabitants of Pripiat' town and nearby villages, who were departured from the Chernobyl NPP 30-km exclusive zone during first days after the Chernobyl catastrophe. The unstable chromosome aberration level in inhabitants were significantly increased above control in terms up to 1 year after evacuation and declined gardually during next 14 years. In early period the cytogenetic damage frequency in evacuees showed no dependence on gender. The chromosome type aberration level appeared to be lower in young persons comparing with adults. The dicentrics plus centric rings yield had a positive correlation with duration of staying at Chernobyl zone. The average doses of protracted exposure were calculated from the dicentrics and centric rings yields; the dose estimations appeared to be 1.4 times higher in persons evacuated 3-11 days after the accident than that of in persons with shorter departure time. Uing the Bayesian analysis the probabilistic distribution of biological doses was constructed for the studied evacuees group. This distribution was characterized by a mean dose of 360 mGy, the modal doses of 200-450 mGy and 80% of probability density within the dose range 0-1000 mGy, that seems to be sufficient for considering the increased risk of late somatic radiation effects for this cohort. PMID:15571047

  15. The dynamics of radioactive contamination of soils and plants of natural complexes in unsettled zone of the Chernobyl NPP in the territory of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data of measuring of radioactivity of soils and plants in unsettled zone of Chernobyl NPP having been made since 1986 are discussed. It revealed that the radioactivity of plants remained at high level and it was under strong annual influence of the weather conditions

  16. Clinical state, reproductive and productive indices of cattle in the near zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1987 specialists of Scientific and Technical Centre of RIA ''Pripyat'' carry out investigations of physiological and cytogenetic state of cattle at an experimental vivarium at the 30-km Chernobyl zone. The animals are represented by ones endured the Chernobyl accident at the closest zone and their generation, and by animals carried inside the zone after 1990. The first animals got about 130 Gy on thyroid gland, 2.5 Gy on whole body and 10-11 Gy on gastro-intestinal tract. Some health decline of them were observed in 1987-1988. During last 5 years of the research the most indices of cattle state, as well as productivity and reproduction, are in physiological norm limits. Since 1989 yearly calves of three generation have got from all suffered cows. Decrease of chromosome aberrations frequency to total population level has been showed. Some data testify of tension existence in hemopoietic and antioxidantic systems of organism. Nevertheless, until now there is no unique opinion of origin nature of the found atypical features. In the report numerous data of hematological, biochemical, hormonal, cytogenetic features of the animals have been presented and discussed

  17. Study of the condition of thyroid glands of cattle that was kept in the alienated zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A condition of the thyroid gland of a cow that liver in the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP for 14 years (since the moment of the accident till the death) is investigated. we atrophy of the gland and its substitution by fat and connective tissues. Nevertheless, there are found small islets of a glandular tissue with normal follicles, which contained colloid. According to our evaluations, the animal has received a dose of about 100 Gy/thyroid gland from an internal exposure of radioiodine disregarding the inhalation component. Such a dose was sufficient for the beginning of series disturbances, but was not thyroidectomy. Long life and ability to normal reproduction are connected, most likely, with the regeneration and compensating processes in the gland of the animal

  18. Carrying out and planning measures for improvement of radiation situation in alienation zone after accident at Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technogenic radionuclides that were released into environment as the result of the Chernobyl accident joined the energy and mass transfer processes, which to a great extent are determined by the specificity of natural and climatic conditions of Ukrainian woodlands. The state of the spread of radioactive materials, and the data furnished by the Dosimetric Monitoring Board of the NPO 'Pripyat' over the zone territory are reported. After the primary radioactive contamination of the terrain, with meteorfactors superimposed on the physical and chemical conditions of radioactivity release and topographic factors, a new type of vegetation has developed, as well as a pattern of the economic exploitation of the territory. The process of radioactivity redistribution by water, wind and technogenic transport must be carefully investigated. The studies on radionuclide migration and the results are discussed. The estimation of dynamic capacitance in soil in the nearby zone of the ChNPP, the studies of hydrogeological condition in the 10 km zone, the analysis of groundwater condition, the studies on the wind-lift transport and fallout of radionuclides in 30 km zone and others are reported. Decontamination measures, one of the most large scale and labor-intensive operations in the elimination of the accident effects, and the burial of radioactive waste are described. The requirements for executing the project are summarized. (K.I.)

  19. Radiobiological effects in organisms of plants and animals exposed to ionizing irradiation in the Chernobyl NPP zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of ionizing radiation on forest ecosystems most clearly revealed itself near the Chernobyl NPP (ChNPP), were magnitudes of absorbed doses reached 'lethal' values, as applied to conifers. Main contribution to absorbed dose was due to beta-radiation of short-living radionuclides. To largest extent the radiobiological effects appeared at injured plantations of pines and firs. Nevertheless, during the first year maximum absorbed doses influenced also on leaf-bearing trees (birch, alder, asp) which then rehabilitated themselves completely

  20. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident after effects at the Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of the Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident after effects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate of people working in the exclusion area

  1. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP, directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident aftereffects at Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident aftereffects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate state of people working in the exclusion area. For scientists, experts working in the field of ecology, radioecology, atom energetics, radiology, radiochemistry, radiobiology and related fields. It may be useful for postgraduates and students

  2. Features of contamination Cs 137, Sr 90 the higher water plants of reservoirs of different various the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researches of laws of accumulation Cs 137 and Sr 90 the higher water plants have allowed to establish features of their behaviour in reservoirs the exclusion zone of Chernobyl NPP, are analysed levels of the content of radioactive nuclides in the higher water plants, are positioned quotients concentrating and discrimination. It was investigated processes of seasonal dynamics depending on reservoir phylum. In the course of experiments are establish kinds concentrators of radioactive substances and antagonists. (authors)

  3. Leaching of radionuclides from two types of fuel-containing fallout particles of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel-containing fallout particles, which determine the radioactive contamination in the Chernobyl NPP 30-km zone, are still studied from many aspects. This is due to the presence in the particles of long-lived α-emitters, weathering of the particles, the appearance of microscopic open-quotes hotclose quotes particles, the resulting contamination of groundwater by the leached radionuclides, and the possibility of using the fuel-containing particles to construct a model of the accident. Interest was renewed after two types of fuel-containing particles were found in fallout of the exclusion zone. These were those with irradiated U oxides and mixed U-Zr particles. The authors isolated fuel, graphite contaminated with fuel, and radioactive manufactured particles and aerosols. The structural-genetic differences in the two types of fuel-containing particles should affect the leaching of radionuclides from them. Therefore, the authors investigated the leaching of radionuclides from particles of dispersed fuel and from U-Zr technogenic new formations

  4. The influence of ecological factors of the Chernobyl NPP zone to realize genetic effects of nonradiation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic effects of ecological factors of zone of Chernobyl disaster to posterior administration of the chemical carcinogen have been studied. Mice were exposed within zone of Chernobyl disaster during 3 months and then urethane was administered. Micronuclei in mouse bone marrow were scored at 48 h after urethane administration. Increase micronuclei induced in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) of mouse bone marrow was shown in animals exposed to more high background radiation. Under additional administration of urethane the yield of micronuclei in PCEs was risen almost three fold in comparison with mutagenic effect of urethane in animals being outside zone of Chernobyl disaster. (authors)

  5. Cytogenetic anomalies in bone marrow cells of 3 species of voles in the alienation zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the frequencies of different cytogenetic anomalies in bone marrow cells in Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus arualis, and Microtus oeconomus, trapping in places with different levels of irradiation in the zone of Chernobyl's accident is carried out. The species-specific features of the different cytogenetic anomaly frequencies under conditions of the increased ionizing levels are revealed. Possible reasons for the species and individual variabilities of karyotype destabilization under conditions of an increased level of ionizing irradiation are discussed

  6. Disturbances of bird embryo development in fall-out contaminated biocenoses of the Chernobyl NPP 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Special features of bird reproduction in Chernobyl 30-km zone are analyzed. On the areas with higher degree of contamination a decrease of hatching indices, an increase of both embryo death-rate and embryo per cent of inherent disorders have been noticed. The more frequent cases of inherent disorders for different bird species have been considered. The trend to a bird reproduction successfulness decrease has been fixed

  7. Features of contamination with 137Cs, 90Sr of higher water plants of reservoirs in different types in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus the realized research of peculiar features of accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr by the higher water plants made it possible to establish features of their behavior in reservoirs the exclusion zone of Chernobyl NPP. There were analysed levels of the content of radioactive nuclides in the higher water plants, positioned quotients of concentrating and discrimination. There were investigated the processes of seasonal dynamics depending on reservoir phylum. In the course of experiments there were establish the kinds concentrators of radioactive substances and antagonists. The most susceptible to changes of pH environment was strontium. Its transition into biological objects substantially increased in accordance with the increasing of acidity

  8. The investigation of occurrence from of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in components of pine-tree plantation in the neighboring zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the investigation of the Cs-137 and Sr- 90 in soil, wood litter, bark and wood of pine-tree are presented, as the result of determination of granulometric composition and radioactivity of wood litter specimens. In near NPP zone the basic part of forests are pine-trees, and soil are both sandy and sandy loam. Researches were spent on three sites with various distance from Chernobyl NPP and with similar soil and vegetative characteristics. Objects of research are pine plantings of near zone NPP: samples from 'red' forest and escaped pine, wood litter, soil from alive forest and after a fire. Water-soluble, exchange, mobile forms of Cs-137 and Sr-90 were defined by consecutive selective processing part samples by water, one normal solution of acetic ammonium, 1 normal and 6 normal solutions of a hydrochloric acid. The maintenance isotopes in the rest after processing by solutions designated as the fixed form isotopes. Cs-137 was defined by gamma - spectrometer method. The error of definition gamma - activity at good statistics (1-2 %) and geometry (the flat cylinder) At sizes measurement of activity, commensurable with a background gamma - spectrometer (2 Bq/kg), a mistake may reach 50-60 %. Sr-90 was defined by the radiochemical method. The total error of measurement of 90-Sr makes 30 %. The samples of a wood litter have the maximal specific activity Cs-137, decreasing in distance from Chernobyl NPP: up to 1 Bq/kg in 'red' forest , 167 kBq/kg in burn forest, 58 kBq in alive forest. The more specific activity has the average layer consisting of particles in diameter 0,25-3 mm. In wood litter of an alive forest Cs-137 it is found out basically in fixed, Sr-90 in exchange forms. In a sample of wood litter from 'red' forest woods Cs-137 and Sr-90 are present in the fixed form. In pine-tree samples (the bark, a peripheral and central part of a trunk) the most polluted is a bark that does not contradict the literary data. Cs-137 is presented in the more

  9. Radiation-sanitary essessment of surface and ground water sources in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of drinking water in artesian water-lines of the Pripyat' and Chernobyl' settlements fro the period of 1987-1991 is estimated. The flood-lands territory within the north trace boundaries, where Sr90 activity amounts to approximately 10000 Ci, contributes most importantly into water contamination of the Pripyat' river and its tributaries. The portion of contaminated drains from flood-lands territory amounts to 40% and more of the 90Sr intake from all sources of the Pripyat' river contamination. Essessment of the artesian water quality shows that drinking water is innocuous for health in respect to its composition. 90Sr and 137Cs content in artesian water in the Pripyat' and Chernobyl' settlements is lower than the maximum permissible concentration. 5 refs.; 1 tab

  10. Bioindication of the anthropogenic effects on micropopulations of Pinus sylvestris, L. in the vicinity of a plant for the storage and processing of radioactive waste and in the Chernobyl NPP zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a comparative analysis of the frequency and spectrum of cytogenetic anomalies are presented for reproductive (seeds) and vegetative (needles) samples taken from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris, L.) micropopulations growing at sites with differing levels of radioactive contamination in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, and at the location of a facility for the processing and storage of radioactive wastes (the 'Radon LWPE, near the town of Sosnovy Bor in the Leningrad Region). The data obtained indicate the presence of genotoxic contaminants in the environment of the tree micropopulations. Chemical toxins make the main contribution to the environmental contamination in the Sosnovy Bor area as compared with the influence of ionising radiation in the Chernobyl 30 km zone. The higher radioresistance of seeds of Scotch pine growing on the area of the 'Radon' LWPE and in the centre of Sosnovy Bor town was revealed with acute γ-radiation

  11. Bioindication of the anthropogenic effects on micropopulations of Pinus sylvestris, L. in the vicinity of a plant for the storage and processing of radioactive waste and in the Chernobyl NPP zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraskin, S.A. E-mail: riar@obninsk.org; Zimina, L.M.; Dikarev, V.G.; Dikareva, N.S.; Zimin, V.L.; Vasiliyev, D.V.; Oudalova, A.A.; Blinova, L.D.; Alexakhin, R.M

    2003-07-01

    Results of a comparative analysis of the frequency and spectrum of cytogenetic anomalies are presented for reproductive (seeds) and vegetative (needles) samples taken from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris, L.) micropopulations growing at sites with differing levels of radioactive contamination in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, and at the location of a facility for the processing and storage of radioactive wastes (the 'Radon LWPE, near the town of Sosnovy Bor in the Leningrad Region). The data obtained indicate the presence of genotoxic contaminants in the environment of the tree micropopulations. Chemical toxins make the main contribution to the environmental contamination in the Sosnovy Bor area as compared with the influence of ionising radiation in the Chernobyl 30 km zone. The higher radioresistance of seeds of Scotch pine growing on the area of the 'Radon' LWPE and in the centre of Sosnovy Bor town was revealed with acute {gamma}-radiation.

  12. Radionuclide distributions in vertical soil cross sections of the Chernobyl NPP 30-kilometer zone along the western fallout track. II. Chernozem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide distributions in vertical cross sections taken from chernozem in a former garden and tillable field along the western fallout track at distances of 5, 13.5, and 22 km from the fourth block of the Chernobyl NPP are studied. The distributions through the chernozem cross sections are more complicated than those of sandy soil. Although the main mass of radionuclides in the cross sections is concentrated at depths of 0-3 cm, instances are observed where up to 5-15% of the radionuclides penetrate to greater depths

  13. The distribution of radionuclides in the vertical sections of the soils inside the 30 km zone of Chernobyl NPP, along the west trace of the fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper studied the distribution of radionuclides in vertical section made in the black soil of a former garden and arable land on the west trace of the fallout at a distance of 5, 13.5 and 22 km from the 4th power unit of the Chernobyl NPP. It is shown that radionuclide distribution in the sections in the black soil are of a more complex nature than that in the sandy soils. Inspite of the fact that a major amount of radionuclides in the sections is concentrated at a depth of 0-3 cm, there are cases when 5-15 % of radionuclides penetrate into even deeper horizons

  14. Actual problems of management of territory and natural objects in the zone of population relocation at the Chernobyl' NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basing on experimental data and using the research results and estimates of other authors an attempt is made to argue and formulate the principles of management for natural and agricultural lands, which can form the basis for development of the conception for use of the population relocation zone. The list of the first-priority works dealing with the problem of rational management of the zone natural objects is given. The necessity of development of the basis for organization of radioecologic nature, reserve, is shown. The scheme of organization of territory use in the population relocation zone is given. 2 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Problems of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone, aimed at the development of technologies, equipment and devices for radioactive waste management and ChNPP accident clean-up, at studying the composition and structure of the Exclusion zone soil activity solid bearers, form transformation of the fission products of fuel fallout radionuclide composition in the ChNPP near zone, the spatial distribution of radionuclides and other radioecological issues.. Much attention is paid to medical and biological aspects of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the workers of the Exclusion zone

  16. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubina, Nataliia E.; Zarubin, Oleg L. [Institute for Nuclear Research of National Academy of Sciense, 03680, pr-t Nauki, 47, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident ({sup 131}I, {sup 140}Ba /{sup 140}La, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs). They accumulate the long-living {sup 90}Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than {sup 137}Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of {sup 137}Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more {sup 137}Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of {sup 137}Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination

  17. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident (131I, 140Ba /140La, 103Ru, 106Ru, 141Ce, 144Ce, 95Nb, 95Zr, 137Cs and 134Cs). They accumulate the long-living 90Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than 137Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of 137Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of 137Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of 137Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more 137Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of 137Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination by 137Cs is one of the principal abiotic influences on the accumulation of this radionuclide by fungi

  18. Evaluation of the role of plant communities to create barrier functions into zone of Chernobyl NPP influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of contribution of biological compound to create barrier function in the exclusion zone are shown in the article. Plant communities, especially forest ecosystems, are one of the base natural factors of radioecological situation stabilization. Total amount of radionuclides which fixed annually into plant biomass are 1,55TBq for 137Cs and 0,48 TBq for 90Sr and comparable to annual water out flax of radionuclides out of the zone

  19. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE CONCEPT OF TRANSFER TO CONDITIONS OF NORMAL POPULATION ACTIVITY OF THE SETTLEMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE ZONES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION AFTER THE CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains substantiation of criteria of return of territories with radioactive pollution caused by Chernobyl NPP accident to conditions of normal population activity. It is established that in 12 entities of the Russian Federation (except Bryansk and Kaluga regions all agricultural food produce, including that from the personal part-time farms, corresponds to hygienic specifications. Non- corresponding to the standard SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01 on 137Cs are part of the milk samples produced at personal part-time farms of the Bryansk region and most of natural foodstuff samples (berries, mushrooms, fish and wild animals meat in Bryansk and Kaluga regions. The content of 137Cs both in agricultural and in wild-growing foodstuff produced at radioactively contaminated territories depends not only on the density of radioactive pollution, but also on the types of soil. The average settlement annual effective dose of population irradiation (AAED90 in the 3700 among 4413 settlements as of 2014 was below 0.3 mSv/year. Only in 713 settlements of Bryansk, Kaluga, Oryol and Tula regions the AAED90 exceeds 0.3 mSv/year. In the Bryansk region, once subject to the greatest radioactive contamination, in 276 settlements AAED90 exceeds 1 mSv/year, and in 8 of them - 5 mSv/year.The legislation of the Russian Federation defines only criteria and requirements for consideration of the suffered territories as zones of radioactive contamination. Requirements on transfer of territories polluted by radiation accidents and their population to normal life activity conditions (regarding the radiological factor are not developed.Radiological criteria are suggested for transfer of the settlements considered to be the zone of radioactive pollution to conditions of normal life activity: average irradiation dose of critical population group: 1.0 mSv per year and lower (AAED crit; decrease of radionuclide soil contamination density to the level enabling to use the territory

  20. Some results of psychophysiological examinations of the liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP disaster consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The psychological examination of chemical troops officers being on service in the Chernobyl NPP zone and having different irradiation doses was realized. Analysis of the mental status (MS) of persons (51 men), who took part in the Chernobyl NPP accident effect elimination had shown the statistic difference of MS from persons, who did not take part in such works. The presence of the expressed syndrome of post-extremal state connected with increased mental instability was revealed. Quick diagnostics of the liquidator organisms functional states had shown hypofunction of cardiovascular, immune, central and peripheral nervous systems; hyperfunction of liver, kidneys and skeleton

  1. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health labour conditions and incidence of the people involved

  2. Remote medical consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In result of global radio-ecological disaster at the Chernobyl NPP in Armenia there has appeared a great 'risk group' of persons, who had participated in liquidation of the accident consequences. The results of medical observation of this cohort carried out in dynamics in Scientific Center of Radiation Medicine and Burns during 25 years are brought in the work

  3. Peculiarities of soil mycobiota composition in Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil mycobiota in zones of strong radiation control (Lyutizh region), nine stationaries in 30 km Chernobyl NPP zone and one in the vicinity of Kiev has been investigated. 180 species of 70 genera of micromycetes has been isolated and identified. The species of genera Penicillium, Mortierella, Trichoderma, Cladosporium dominated in all soils studied, and the species of genera Acremonium, Paecilomyces, Oidiodendron etc. were frequent. The comparison of the generic composition of micromycetes in localities studied has revealed their similarity. The characteristic feature for the mycobiota was regular revealing and specific variability of melanin-containing fungi. Many of them compose the reserve group of micromycetes. There was found new and rare species Acrodontium crateriforme (v.Beyma) de Hoog, Botryosporium longibrachiatum Oud., Chuppia sarcinifera Deighton, Harzia acremonioides Harz etc., with were not registered in these soils before the accident. The structure of the micromycete complexes presented as a correlation Pleiades has been established. Discovered Pleiades were formed mainly by melanin-containing fungi. According to the preliminary results the micro-mycetes complexes, taking into account their occurrence, can be used as indicators of unfavourable ecological soil state. To our mind, a search for such complexes may be conducted among of melanin-containing species as well as numerous species of genus Penecillium and related Paecilomyces

  4. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved. The collection comprises the information for scientists, experts, postgraduates and students in gaged in ecology, radioecology, nuclear engineering, radiology, radiochemistry and radiobiology

  5. Radioactive waste management after NPP accident: Post-Chernobyl experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident a very large amount of so-called 'Chernobyl waste' were generated in the territory of Belarus, which was contaminated much more than all other countries. These wastes relate mainly to two following categories: low-level waste (LLW) and new one 'Conventionally Radioactive Waste' (CRW). Neither regulations nor technology and equipment were sufficiently developed for such an amount and kind of waste before the accident. It required proper decisions in respect of regulations, treatment, transportation, disposal of waste, etc. (author)

  6. JUSTIFICATION OF TRANSITION FROM ZONING OF CONTAMINATED TERRITORIES TO SETTLEMENTS CLASSIFICATION AT AN AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES IN REMOTE PERIOD AFTER THE CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Vlasova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an existing exposure situation (in a remote period after the Chernobyl accident there is a need of the transition from "radioactive area zoning" to "the settlements classification by average annual effective doses to the critical group of persons among the settlement's residents", to ensure the appropriate radiation level and social protection of the settlement's residents, located on the contaminated territory.The comparative allocation analysis of the average annual external and internal effective doses, the average annual effective cumulative doses to residents of settlements, related to the relevant areas (the Council of Ministers of Belarus latest decision, the proposed dose range according to the Catalogue of average annual effective doses of residents of settlements radiation Republic of Belarus confirmed the validity of the transition from "radioactive zoning area" to "the classification of settlements by average annual effective dose."In accordance with the radiation protection principles, it seems reasonable to classify the settlements located on the contaminated territory at the average annual effective dose as follows: < 0.1 mSv / year (not required to carry out radiation protection measures in the agricultural sector;  0.1-1 mSv / year (periodic radiation monitoring should be carried out;  1 mSv / year (it is necessary to apply a complex of protective measures.

  7. Aerial contamination agroecosystems following the accident at Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regularities of the aerial contamination of agricultural ecosystems are described in the early period after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The aerial contamination is shown to be caused by the development of the above-ground biomass of plants and fallout characteristics. A specific coefficient of primary retention varied between 0.7 and 1.89 for 131In and between 0.46 and 1.2 m2 kg-1 for 137Cs. The first half-life period varies from 9.7 to 13.4 days. The second period varies from 46.2 to 52.2 days. It has been found that parameters of aerial contamination from the Chernobyl accident well correlate with the results of observation in the period of global fallout

  8. Disposal of low and medium level radioactive waste in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peculiarity of Chernobyl exclusion zone is the existence of constant and a lot of temporary points of radioactive waste of Chernobyl origin disposal in it. Chernobyl zone (exclusion zone) is the territory round Chernobyl NPP restricted in the results of Chernobyl accident with no inhabitants in it and where the economic activity was almost stopped. Nowadays the apparatus is developed the test and assembling of the automatic control system are conducted. All the results of the radioactive waste mass measurement brought to the PRAWD by car automatically put into the PC. The devices of radiation control are moving above the RAW surface with the help of robot-manipulator. The delivery of RAW to the PRAMW is produced by special cars in circulating or single containers or loaded in bulk in the body of lorries with the closed roofs

  9. Cytogenetic and population effects in oligochaeta from the Chernobyl zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on intensity and character of reproduction of oligochaeta (Dero obtusa, Nais pseudobtusa and Nais pardalis) was carried out in 1995-1996 in two water reservoirs: a) in the Chernobyl NPP zone Yanov Village, with a dose rate 14 μGyh-1 on the surface of the bottom sediment; b) at the Uzh River area (the control water reservoir). Changes in the both intensity and reproduction type were observed in worms at the contaminated water reservoir. Stimulation of paratomic division in D. obtusa as well as activation of sexual reproduction in two other species were found out along with increasing of severity of cytogenetic damages in worm populations

  10. A vertical migration of Cs-134, Ce-144, Ru-106 in different landscapes of 30-km zone near the Chernobyl' NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made on a vertical migration of Cs-134, -137, Ce-144 and Ru-106 according to a reference network, created in 1987-1988. The reference network was of radial structure, whereas the Chernobyl'-4 reactor was a center of it. A layer-by-layer sampling was made at a time at a depth of 24 cm, with separation of 9 layers. The highest contamination density (CD) (80-90%) was observed in a turf layer 1-2 cm from soil surface. CD sharply decreased in the depth interval 3-6 cm. At a large depth CD was lower than in upper layer by 2 orders. But sometimes the samples with different character of CD distribution were found. 7 refs

  11. Dynamics of tritium content in flood-land reservoirs of the Pripyat River and cooling pond of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies on the 3H content in the water of the natural and artificial reservoirs within the 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP were conducted in 1993-1997. It was shown that the 3H content in the Pripyat River reservoirs and the ChNPP cooling pond was equal in 1993 to 4.1 - 11.0 Bq/l. Increase in the 3H content more than by 10 times with the maximum value in the Pripyat River (above 120 Bq/l) was registered in May 1994 and two months later the radionuclide concentration decreased practically to the level of 1993. Analogous increase was noted in April 1995. It is supposed that one of the NPPs with the WWER-type reactors located upwards by the current from the ChNPP (the Rovenskaya or Khmel'ntskaya NPP) might be the source of contamination

  12. Virtual reality in design, planning, operation and training related to the decommissioning of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtual Reality in refueling operation and maintenance training at Leningrad NPP has been recognized by Chernobyl NPP. Institute for Energy Technology's is establishing now the Chernobyl Decommissioning Visualization Centre to be used for planning and training the dismantling procedures in addition to presenting it to the authorities and the public. It will be ready in 2007. The first scenario will be the dismantling of the refueling machines

  13. Economic damage and state policy on the overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe consequences. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident for the Republic of Belarus are given. The damage, taking into account the 30-years period needed for its overcoming, is estimated to be 235 billion US$ that is equal to 32 annual budgets of the republic of 1985. The losses connected with the deterioration of population health, damage incurred in industry and social sphere, agriculture, building complex, transport and communication, housing, with contamination of raw, mineral, land, water, forest and other resources are shown. The main directions of the state and legislative bodies activity on overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences are directed on realization of complex of measures on maximum decreasing the radiation exposure dose; providing safety of people's health at the expense of medical preventive measures, improvement of their health, social insurance and resettlement from the zones where the safe living criteria are not observed; providing safe living conditions in regions subjected to radioactive contamination; rise of population life quality in these regions; scientific research of the problems connected with radiation influence on ecosystem, etc. The medical care and social protection systems of the affected population are describe. 3 figs

  14. Analysis of nuclear fuel reliability based on Chernobyl NPP operation for validation of fuel element service life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of failure intensity of fuel assemblies at Chernobyl-1 and Chernobyl-3 NPP during 10 years are given. Fuel assembly reliability is connected with seal failure reactor operation. Preliminary results are discussed

  15. The fungous infection of human organs by resistant melanin-synthesizing species is one of pathogenic factor and one of valid consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of melanin-containing components and sources of their appearance in bronchoalveolar washout by the accident liquidators at the Chernobyl NPP is studied. The appearance of mutant melanin containing fungal forms in the zones with increased radioactive contamination is conditioned by their adaptation to changed conditions of their existence. the conclusion is made that fungal infection of the mans organs through radio- and chemi-resistant melanin-synthesizing species at the background of radiation-induced weakening of immune reaction of the man's body is one of the most dangerous and real effects of the Chernobyl NPP accident

  16. RADIATION CONDITIONS IN KALUGA REGION 30 YEARS AFTER CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Ashitko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes radiation conditions in the Kaluga region 30 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The Chernobyl NPP accident caused radioactive contamination of nine Kaluga region territories: Duminichsky, Zhizdrinsky, Kuibyshevsky, Kirovsky, Kozelsky, Ludinovsky, Meshchovsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky districts. Radioactive fallout was the strongest in three southern districts: Zhizdrinsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky, over there cesium-137 contamination density is from 1 to 15Ci/km. According to the Russian Federation Government Order in 2015 there are 300 settlements (S in the radioactive contamination zone, including 14 settlements with caesium-137 soil contamination density from 5 to 15 Ci/ km2 and 286 settlements with the contamination density ranging from 1 to 5 Ci/km2. In the first years after the Chernobyl NPP accident in Kaluga region territories, contaminated with caesium-137, there were introduced restrictive land usage, were carried out agrochemical activities (ploughing, mineral fertilizer dressing, there was toughened laboratory radiation control over the main doze-forming foodstuff. All these measures facilitated considerable decrease of caesium-137 content in local agricultural produce. Proceeding from the achieved result, in 2002 there took place the transition to more tough requirements SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01. Analysis of investigated samples from Zhizdrinsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky districts demonstrated that since 2005 meat samples didn’t exceed the standard values, same for milk samples since 2007. Till the present time, the use of wild-growing mushrooms, berries and wild animals meat involves radiation issues. It was demonstrated that average specific activity of caesium-137 in milk samples keeps decreasing year after year. Long after the Chernobyl NPP accident, the main products forming internal irradiation doses in population are the wild-growing mushrooms and berries. Population average annual

  17. Comparison of phototoxic effects of pregnant rats exposure in Chernobyl NPP site and external prolonged exposure in the dose of 0.5 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphometric study showed that within the 10-kilometre zone of the Chernobyl NPP delay of the rat fetus cerebral cortex maturation occurred, whereas used in the experiment prolonged low-dose irradiation did not cause essential disorders of cortical ontogenesis.(authors)

  18. Speciation of environmental radionuclides in the Chernobyl 30 Km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a summary from previously published ones. Speciation of environmental substances with radioactive Cs, Sr and transuranic isotopes has been examined about surface soil and water leachate sampled from the exclusion zone (30 km zone) around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP). Sequential selective extraction was carried out on surface soil samples. 90Sr in the soil was estimated to be highest in the water soluble and exchangeable fractions which were easily accessible to river and ground water as a dissolved fraction. Pu isotopes and 241Am are major radionuclides in free humic and free fulvic acid fractions. Ultra filtration has been used for water samples as another technique for speciation. Most Pu and Am exist in the molecular weight fractions of beyond 10 000 Dalton. This means that transuranic elements are associated with mobile high molecular weight materials like fulvic acids in water leachates. (authors)

  19. Animal breeding state on radioactive contaminated territory of Belarus after the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of measures providing for thyroid dose loading decreasing realized in May 1986 in the zone neighbouring the Chernobyl' NPP are analyzed. Dispensary surveillances of argicultural animals are organized begining from 1988. Experiments aimed at acceleration of radioactive cesium excretion from animal muscle tissue by using pharmacological and chemical preparations for different levels of diet contamination are conducted. Milk with increased radioactive cesium concentration is processed into butter from the first day of radioactive effuent up to now. The final product contains radioactive cesium amount decreased by the factor of 6 as compared with that for milk, and radioactive cesium traces only are present in melted butter. Sheep-breeding is forbidden in contaminated territories

  20. Radioactive Waste Management In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - 25 Years Since The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  1. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  2. Could the Chernobyl exclusion zone be recovered?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon after the Chernobyl accident occurred an area of about 3200 km2 around the plant was evacuated and has been kept off limits since, except for people working at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and/or on some special tasks in the evacuated zone. In spite of the official ban that forbids evacuated persons to return to the exclusion zone, about 1000 people, the so-called 'samosyoly', including some children, have returned and settled back in their old homes. While the authorities are not approving of their return, they are not attempting to force these people out either. Are 'samosyoly' exposing themselves to unreasonable dangers and should they be forcefully removed from the area? Or should more areas in the exclusion zone, possibly even the city of Pripyat, be opened for voluntary (re)settlement? In this paper the present contamination levels in some parts of the exclusion zone are reviewed and problems associated with the potential repopulation (of some parts) of the exclusion zone are discussed. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs., figs

  3. [90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of the Chernobyl nuclear plant exlusion zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Derevets, V V; Kuz'menko, M I; Nazarov, A B

    2001-01-01

    The content of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and species-indicators of radioactive contamination were revealed. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclide content in macrophytes was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose was demonstrated. PMID:11402559

  4. The prognosis of radioactive contamination of an environment of Belarus after catastrophe on Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    .4. The prognosis of radioactive contamination of soils by Am-241 in Belarus shows, that the high levels of contamination will be in 30-km to a zone Chernobyl NPP and on around 368 M. Germenchuk et al., 2 territories, where the population lives. Maximum volumes the activity of Am-241 will achieve to 2060 and will exceed activity of Pu-238,239,240 approximately in 2 times. Most 137Cs is located in the 0-5 cm layer of typical soils of Belarus. The radiological situation of the rivers in Belarus has stabilized. The average concentration of Cs-137 in the rivers for the period 1987-2001 has considerably decreased and are lower than Republican Permissible Levels for drink water. Decreasing of the radionuclide concentration is a result of radioactive decay. (author)

  5. Zoning Concept of The Muria NPP Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPP development planning at Ujung Lemahabang site, Balong Village, Kemang District, Jepara Regency should be integrated with the regional development planning of Jepara Regency and Jawa Tengah Province due to the site is belong to the regency area. Regional Spatial Development Planning (RTRW) of Jepara is a master plan of Jepara regional development planning and it will be as a reference for all development implementation in Jepara Regency, including the NPP planning. In the NPP Development planning, public and environmental safety aspect are the major consideration that they should be accommodated. Both of normal operation and postulated accident case should ensure public safety against ionizing radiation hazard. If there will be an emergency situation, the spatial concept should ensure public safety considering population factor, geography, and spatial condition that will be able to make emergency countermeasure after the accident such as sheltering, evacuation, iodine stable distribution, decontamination, food bans, and relocation. Zoning is the appropriate concept to give safety assurance. The method to be used in the research is safety analysis using spatial approach. Exclusion zone will be recommended inside the ring of 1 km from nuclear reactor, while the low population zone will be recommended at 3.5 km radius from nuclear reactor. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Radiation Impacts of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP - 13495

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation effects are estimated for the operation of a new dry storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP RBMK reactors. It is shown that radiation exposure during normal operation, design and beyond design basis accidents are minor and meet the criteria for safe use of radiation and nuclear facilities in Ukraine. (authors)

  7. Chernobyl and the 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region contaminated as a consequence of the accident in unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station is subdivided into 4 different zones based on the level of contamination and the additional radiation dose to be expected by the people living there. The 30-km zone, which had been evacuated completely, is currently inhabited by some 100 ''returnees'' on Ukrainian territory, with approximately 3,500 employees of the Chernobyl nuclear power station and some 13,000 persons working there who are involved in studies of scientific problems (approx. 120 projects, most of them international), plus service, maintenance and guard staff, firefighters, forest workers and gamekeepers, etc. Most of these people live in the newly built town of Slavutich. Some concrete measures have already been taken for future use of the 30-km zone (creation of a shallow land burial site for radioactive waste and decommissioning waste at the VECTOR site, construction of an interim store for the fuel elements of the nuclear power plant), but also more extensive concepts have been developed (construction of a central fuel element store for Ukrainian nuclear power plants, shallow land burial of waste with higher contents of longlived radionuclides, perhaps construction of an underground repository), which even consider touristic ambitions. (orig.)

  8. Health of the population having suffered after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1996 on the following directions: study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of the people; development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases at various categories of victims; development and introduction in practice of effective methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of both mother and child in conditions of influence of the Chernobyl accident consequences; study of genetic consequences caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident and development of effectual measures of their prevention; creation of effective preventive means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; optimization of system of measures for health saving of the having suffered population and development of ways of increase of its efficiency

  9. Introduction of nitrogen blow-through in the cooling circuit of the Chernobyl NPP Unit 3 in experimental industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of nuclide composition of Chernobyl NPP releases (inert gases) showed that Ar-41 plays there the main role (84-90%). For its decrease a system for gas tank blow-through by nitrogen of high purification was proposed

  10. Investigation of Chernobyl NPP and recovery of environment and medical service in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident will be terminated, if sufficient care of recovery for heart of people, economy and environment leads to happy Fukushima. It might be taken more than 20 years or more. The overseas NPP investigation group in the study committee for safety regulatory of NPP in PES division in JSME visited Chernobyl NPP, Ministry of Emergencies, National Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of Ukraine, Chernobyl Center, Slavutych, Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, National University of Life and Environmental Science of Ukraine, Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants and Chernobyl Museum. The investigation of bases of their new technology for deep LRW cleaning of Fukushima genesis from the whole range of radionuclides, including uranium and transuranic elements, organic impurities and simultaneous concentration of radioactive components in a small volume. The recovery of environment and care of heart of people were good in Ukraine. The lessons derived from the accident, we can decide what we should do. (author)

  11. The prognosis of radioactive contamination of an environment of Belarus after catastrophe on Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the evolution of the area under contamination exceeding 37 kBq/m2 for the period 1986-2046 shows, that in 30 years (2016) the territory contaminated with levels in excess of 37 kBq/m2 will decrease to approximately 16%, i.e. a decrease by a factor 1.5 in comparison with 1986; in 60 years (2046) the contaminated surface will be approximately 10%, i.e. it will decrease by a factor 2.4. Radioactive contamination of soils by 241Am in Belarus is generally limited to the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP. Maximum 241Am levels will be reached in 2060 and will exceed the activity of 238,239,240Pu by approximately a factor of 2. Most of the 137Cs is located in the 0-5 cm layer of typical soils of Belarus. The radiological situation of the rivers in Belarus has stabilized. The average concentrations of 137Cs in rivers for the period 1987-2001 have considerably decreased. They are lower than the Republican Permissible Level for drinking water

  12. Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning up participants in Ukraine -health status epidemiologic study main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Epidemiologic Studies System for Chernobyl NPP Accident consequences cleaning up participants (CNPP ACCP) health status was worked out and than improving in Ukraine after the CNPP Accident. The State Register of Ukraine both with several other Registers are the organizational, methodological and informational basis here. The ACCP health status worsening ,-was registered in dynamics through the post-accidental period i.e. the nervous system, digestive system, blood circulation system, respiratory system, bone-muscular system, endocrine and genitourinary systems chronic non-tumoral pathology both with mental disorders amount increase. In cohort study the differences of morbidity formation were fixed among emergency workers with different radiation exposure doses. The dependence of leukemia morbidity on presence in 30-km zone duration was noticed, it's access manifested 5 years after the participance in ACC. The ACCP disablement increase with main reason of general somatic diseases, and annual mortality growth are registered. But that doesn't exceed the mortality rate among population of working age in Ukraine

  13. Characteristics of border nervous-mental disorders for victims connected with the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is revealed that border nervouse-mental disorders for victims connected with the Chernobyl' NPP accident are the most widely spread diseases. Their specific features are the following: prevalence of the disorders from asthenic and psycho-organic circles; relatively small positive dynamics in the cause of treatment; uniformity in symptoms, which do not depend on psychological characteristics of a person. Particular efforts should be concentrated on developing psychosocial programs for rendering the victims help. 3 refs

  14. Migration properties of radionuclides released from Chernobyl NPP in agriculture and radioecological aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide in the area migration Chernobyl NPP at the 12 points of three landscape-geochemical proving grounds in Mogilev and Gomel Regions is studied. The main characteristics of contamination, the vertical migration in a soil profile, the degree of radionuclide builup by plants and the intensity of the accumulated isotope release from domestic animal bodies are investigated. The data presented could be applied for solving radioecological problems, forecasting radiation situations and developing practical recommendations

  15. Dynamics of contents and organic forms of radionuclide compounds in the liquid phase of forest soils in the zone of contamination from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the profile of forest soils in a 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP), in areas characterized by different positions in relation to the source of emission, the authors determined the relative contents of long-lived radionuclides 106Ru, 134,137Cs, and 144Ce in soil solutions (as of 1987). On the example of 137Cs, they consider the dynamics (1987-1990) of relative contents and forms in which the radionuclide is found in the liquid phase of soils in the zone of radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl NPP

  16. About the causes and circumstances of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident is the product of unsatisfactory solutions to scientific-technical, socio-economic and human problems. The documentarily recorded power excursion of the reactor and its rise velocity as well as the quick pressure rise in the separator drum admit the conclusion that the cause of the accident was the rapid power excursion of the reactor and not some external influence. (DG)

  17. The demographic cequence of the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990 the total population evacuated due to the ChNPP accident was questionared. The analysis of the data obtained became the initial base for the demographic characteristics of this population. In 1991 about 40.000 people were planned to move. The estimation of the age of the moved, their marital status makes it possible to prognose their social child-bearing and economic value for the places where they were moved. In 1991 it was supposed that not only the moved population might have given birth to regenerations the necessary rate but also their mortality might play a significant role in the increase of the death rate

  18. Characteristics of hot particles of the soil in the neighborhood of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sizes of the hot particles, their activity, and the isotopic composition have been described by several investigators. Most of the measurements have been carried out during 1986-1987, i.e., within a short period after the Chernobyl accident. This paper presents the data concerning the hot particles in the specimens of the soil drawn from the surface of the land located at a distance of 600 m from the damaged power block of the Chernobyl NPP. Measurements were carried out during February-August 1991, i.e., after a lapse of 5 years from the instance of the accident. It is noted that the hot particles falling on the soil are dangerous to the life of the organisms inhabiting the near-surface layers of the earth. In this case, the risk of decreases due to the β-active hot particles has been studied to a lesser extent. In view of this, the authors studied the accumulation of the radioactive hot particles in the pulmonary tissues of mice and the tissues of earthworms inhabiting the region of the Chernobyl NPP according to the autoradiographic method. In order to obtain α-radiograms, Kodak-LP115 and CN-8015 detectors were used, maintaining a direct contact with the surface of the soil specimens. The optimum exposure amounted to approximately 100 h

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - HISTORY AND RESULTS 25 YEARS AFTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  20. Caesium and plutonium migration in forest soils of the Chernobyl 30 km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertical distributions of radiocaesium and plutonium inventories and uranium ratios (238U:235U) are presented for forest soils at three sites within the Chernobyl 30 km exclusion zone. The uranium ratios indicate the presence of reactor fuel fragments ('hot particles') at all sites, but with declining significance with distance from the ChNPP. Caesium and plutonium distributions in soil profiles were evaluated using a compartmental model to derive migration half times for each horizon. Migration rates at each site were lowest for the AoH horizon. The AoH horizon at the site with the largest apparent population of 'hot particles' exibited the longest caesium and plutonium migration half times, which generally decreased with distance from the ChNPP (i.e. with decreasing 'hot particle' densities). Plutonium appears to be more mobile than radiocaesium, possibly due to the movement of soluble Pu humic complexes formed within the surface organic soil horizons. (author)

  1. Problem of radioactive substances in the Chernobyl NPS exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the problem of radioactive substances in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The problems raise by the technical implementation of the confinement and burial of radioactive substances, decontamination products from the near zone of the accident, the contamination of the territory are indicated and some advices to cope with these problems are given. (O.L.). 2 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  2. Evaluation of the inflammatory processes in the liquidators of the consequences at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of leukocyte and nuclear indices of intoxication in dynamics in liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP consequences is brought in this work. It is demonstrated that the study of blood indices in complex with application of leukocyte and nuclear indices intoxication formulas gives an opportunity to fix changes in blood content at liquidators exposed to small doses not only in the early, but in late post-accidental period as well. It was revealed that inflammatory processes proceeded in liquidators in the first years of post-accidental period, have a stable character which is reflected on development of total morbidity

  3. Radionuclide migration in the Chernobyl contamination zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that the Chernobyl fallout of 137 reaching the land soils with precipitation was rapidly and tightly sorbed to the fine fraction of sediment or soils. The majority of the 137Cs is retained in the top few centimetres of the soil or sediment profiles. In the absence of strong variations in precipitation over a relatively small area the total bomb-derived 137Cs fallout can assumed to be spatial uniform. The Chernobyl 137Cs fallout was mostly connected with one or two rains. So the spatial variability of this 137Cs can be higher. Furthermore because the explosion of the Chernobyl nuclear plant happened together with fire lot of ashes particles with radionuclide were distributed within vast areas. So even microvariability of Chernobyl 137Cs can be very high in some places. The horizontal migration of 137Cs connects with soil erosion processes that dominate on the agricultural lands of the Central Russia. The main goal of this investigation is to evaluate the caesium-137 horizontal and vertical migration within typical landscape of the Central Russia 11 years after the Chernobyl accident. (author). 7 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Chernobyl NPP: Completion of LRW Treatment Plant and LRW Management on Site - 12568

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since a beginning of ChNPP operation, and after a tragedy in 1986, a few thousands m3 of LRW have been collected in a storage tanks. In 2004 ChNPP started the new project on creation of LRW treatment plant (LRWTP) financed from EBRD fund. But it was stopped in 2008 because of financial and contract problems. In 2010 SIA RADON jointly with Ukrainian partners has won a tender on completion of LRWTP, in particular I and C system. The purpose of LRTP is to process liquid rad-wastes from SSE 'Chernobyl NPP' site and those liquids stored in the LRWS and SLRWS tanks as well as the would-be wastes after ChNPP Power Units 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning. The LRTP design lifetime - 20 years. Currently, the LRTP is getting ready to perform the following activities: 1. retrieval of waste from tanks stored at ChNPP LWS using waste retrieval system with existing equipment involved; 2. transfer of retrieved waste into LRTP reception tanks with partial use of existing transfer pipelines; 3. laboratory chemical and radiochemical analysis of reception tanks contest to define the full spectrum of characteristics before processing, to acknowledge the necessity of preliminary processing and to select end product recipe; 4. preliminary processing of the waste to meet the requirements for further stages of the process; 5. shrinkage (concentrating) of preliminary processed waste; 6. solidification of preliminary processed waste with concrete to make a solid-state (end product) and load of concrete compound into 200-l drums; 7. curing of end product drums in LRTP curing hall; 8. radiologic monitoring of end product drums and their loading into special overpacks; 9. overpack radiological monitoring; 10. send for disposal (ICSRM Lot 3); The current technical decisions allow to control and return to ChNPP of process media and supporting systems outputs until they satisfy the following quality norms: salt content: 5 Bq/l. (authors)

  5. Radionuclide migration in the Chernobyl contamination zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that fallout of 137Cs reaching the land soils with precipitation was rapidly and tightly sorbed to the fine fraction of sediment or soils. The majority of the 137Cs is retained in the top few centimetres of the soil or sediment profiles (Loughran et al, 1993, Owens et al, 1996). In the absence of strong variations in precipitation over a relatively small area the total bomb-derived 137Cs fallout can assumed to be spatial uniform. The Chernobyl 137Cs fallout was mostly connected with one or two rains. So the spatial variability of this 137Cs can be higher. Furthermore because the explosion on the Chernobyl nuclear plant happen together with fire, a lot of ashes particles with radionuclide were distributed within vast areas. So even microvariability of Chernobyl 137Cs can be very high in some places. The horizontal migration of 137Cs connects with soil erosion processes that dominate on the agricultural lands of the Central Russia. The main goal of this investigation is to evaluate the caesium-137 horizontal and vertical migration within typical landscape of the Central Russia 11 years after the Chernobyl accident

  6. The ecological consequences of transuranium elements realize on Belarus as a result of Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of radioactive contamination with transuranium elements (TUE) on territory of Belarus as a result of nuclear weapon tests and Chernobyl NPP accident have been assessed . The uniform contamination of soil with level of 53±17 Bq/m2 for Pu-239+240 was formed as a result of global precipitation after the nuclear weapon test. This value increased up to 1.1·105 Bq/m2 in South regions of Belarus and gradually decreased to level of global fall out on the North of the republic after Chernobyl NPP accident. The study of the atmosphere contamination with TUE in Republic of Belarus is being held since 1980 to now. The mechanism of radioactive air pollution from April, 1986 is determined by dust transfer from radioactive contaminated regions. The value of this transfer is influenced considerably by agricultural activities on contaminated territory, forest fires and other anthropogenic factors. The transfer coefficients in the soil-plant system have plant species dependence. The behavior of TUE in environment is discussed. (Authors)

  7. 25 years after Chernobyl NPP accident: experience and trends of radioactive contaminated soils rehabilitation in Belarus - 59242

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The paper describes the developed and applied soil decontamination measures and methods in Belarus after the Chernobyl NPP accident. It is considered the possibility of using of organo-mineral amendments based on natural raw materials (sapropel) and industrial wastes (hydrolyzed lignin, clay-salt slimes) for rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated soils. (author)

  8. Regulatory effect of fungus origin melanin on the generating rate and content of oxygen radical forms in the liver microsomes of animals which for a long time were hold in the zone of Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the spin trap and ESR methods, quantitative investigation of the rate of oxygen radical form generation have been carried out in the liver microsome of animals which were staying during during 1,5 years in the area of Chernobyl accident and also after preventive action of fungus melanin produced from Cladosporium cladosporioides (Patent of Ukraine 1523, 15.09.93). For the first time considerable increase (in 3 times) of the rate of peroxide anion radical generation and the content of hydroxyl radicals in the electron transport chain of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane of the liver has been discovered. As it has been found, protective properties of fungus melanin in radiation carcinogenesis under conditions of prolonged action of ionizing radiation of low intensity are in correspondence with reducing of oxygen radical form generation

  9. Contamination of fishes in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of studies of radioactive contamination of fishes' organs and tissues of different ecological groups in water bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone have presented. The increase of Sr 90 specific activity in fish of closed water bodies have registered. (authors)

  10. Peculiarities of forming and dissemination of radioactive contamination in Iput' river after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of radiation contamination forming of the river systems by Cs 137 and Sr 90 after the Chernobyl NPP accident was analyzed. It was shown that before 1990-1994 the river system contamination was formed by the initial falling out of radionuclides on the aquatic surface. After 2000 the contamination will form by means of entrance of radionuclides with surface flowing off from columbines. It was determined that the transboundary transport of radionuclides from the Russia territories influences essentially on contamination of Iput' river on the territory of Belarus. On the authors estimations such input was 30% for Cs 137 and 96% for Sr 90 in 1986, 86% for Cs 137 and 65% for Sr 90 at present

  11. Diagnostics of nervous-mental disorders for persons engaged in the Chernobyl' NPP accident effect elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the data of studying mental disorders for persons engaged in the Chernobyl' NPP accident effect elimination during the first catastrophe period (2-10 days after the accident) nonpathological neurotic effects were revealed for 69% of persons examined and neuroses were observed for 4% of them. Preclinical neurotic effects were met in 41% of cases 47% of the persons had neuroses and 0.7% of those examined had psychoses in the second period (several months later after the evacuation). Decrease in preclinical effects up to 30% because of these disorder transformations into neuroses was shown in the third period (delayed effects). The presence of border nervouse-mental and psychosomatic disorders for persons engaged in accident effect elimination, as well as the predicted growth in these disorders required realization of medical-correcting rehabilitation measures for the given contingent of persons under surveillance

  12. Prognostic assessment of radionuclides transboundary transport due to a tornado over the Chernobyl NPP cooling pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According the design documentation for the Chernobyl NPP Cooling Pond (CP) decommissioning a forecast of possible radioactive contamination of the territory of Belarus and Russian due to radionuclides resuspension followed a tornado passage over the CP drained part are made. The calculations were performed using a set of models, including the conceptual model of a tornado, the mesoscale atmospheric diffusion model of pollutant transport LEDI and dosimetric models. The radiation dose to the people of Belarus will not exceed 1 mSv, Russian- 1o-2 mSv. Hence, the safety analysis showed that a tornado passage over the CP will not result in an unacceptable dose to individuals in Belarus and Russian

  13. Radiation conditions in the Oryol region territory impacted by radioactive contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Zakharchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is retrospective analysis of radiation conditions in the Oryol region during 1986- 2015 and assessment of efficacy of the carried out sanitary and preventive activities for population protection against radiation contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident.Article materials were own memoirs of events participants, analysis of federal state statistic surveillance forms 3-DOZ across the Oryol region, f-35 “Data on patients with malignant neoplasms, f-12 “Report on MPI activities”. Risk assessment of oncological diseases occurrence is carried out on the basis of AAED for 1986- 2014 using the method of population exposure risk assessment due to long uniform man-made irradiation in small doses. Results of medical and sociological research of genetic, environmental, professional and lifestyle factors were obtained using the method of cancer patients’ anonymous survey. Data on "risk" factors were obtained from 467 patients hospitalized at the Budgetary Health Care Institution of the Oryol region “Oryol oncology clinic”; a specially developed questionnaire with 60 questions was filled out.The article employs the method of retrospective analysis of laboratory and tool research and calculation of dose loads on the Oryol region population, executed throughout the whole period after the accident.This article provides results of the carried out laboratory research of foodstuff, environment objects describing the radiation conditions in the Oryol region since the first days after the Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986 till 2015.We presented a number of activities aimed at liquidation of man-caused radiation accident consequences which were developed and executed by the experts of the Oryol region sanitary and epidemiology service in 1986-2015. On the basis of the above-stated one may draw the conclusions listed below. Due to interdepartmental interaction and active work of executive authorities in the Oryol region, the

  14. Some features of South-Ukrainian NPP information centre's interaction with mass media in post Chernobyl period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the above methods of interaction with the off-site media helped the South Ukraine NPP information centre achieve meaningful results in restoring the image of nuclear power ad making it more trustworthy. This is supported by a review of media Publications since 1989. Quantitative and qualitative modifications of the information flow to the media have yielded substantial changes of the structure of news releases about the South Ukraine NPP and nuclear power. Background information has increased from 1. 5 to 50 percent. Negative information is no longer dominating, and the Chernobyl topic is counterbalanced with diverse NucNet materials about nuclear from throughout the world. (author)

  15. The Thirty Years’ Results of Radiation Hygienic Monitoring of Tula Region territories contaminated due to the Chernobyl NPP accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Boldyreva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of Tula Region areas were contaminated after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The article provides the thirty years’ results of radiation hygienic monitoring of the Chernobyl accidental fallout - affected areas in Tula Region. The radiation situation is assessed at the initial accidental period and at the current stage. The initial levels of gamma - radiation dose intensity (up to 35 mcSv/hr are identified for the period of the “iodine” hazard along with the tabular data on the dose intensity relative stabilization by the beginning of August 1986 due to iodine-131 decay. The information is presented regarding iodine-131 tentative maximum permissible level exceedance in the dairy products of the two most contaminated regional areas - Plavskoye and Arsenievskoye. The article also provides the laboratory data on the total beta - activity in the foodstuffs in 1986-1987 and cesium-137 maximum permissible level exceedence in 1986. The radionuclide maximum permissible level exceedances in foodstuffs were registered only in 1986 due to the plants surface contamination whereas in the forest mushrooms those exceedances were repeatedly found until 2004. The black earths and grey forest soils had a benign impact upon the intensity of the radionuclide transfer into plants which resulted in the formation of internal radiation doses.At the current stage, the content of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the foodstuffs can only be quantified by a radiochemical method. The table covers all the districts within the boundaries of radiation contaminated zones. The radiochemical studies indicate the main dose - forming products. The article contains the table of internal and external radiation doses of the population in Plavsk town over 1986-1990 and displays the factors impacting population’s internal and external exposure. The Chernobyl - affected exposure dose of the population is mostly attributed to the external radiation and, for over twenty years, it

  16. About works perspectives in the ChNPP exception Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the situation that turned out by now in the 30-km exception zone of ChNPP has been carried out. The accumulation of the negative processes connected with the radionuclides transition to the soluble mobile forms are noted. The influence at least of three potentially dangerous high active sources on the increase of the subsoil water radioactive contamination level is determined. Recommendations concerning the organization of the reliable monitoring in the exception zone are given. The problems of the points of the radioactive waste provisional localization and collection are discussed. The top priority tasks connected with the management in the exception zone are defined

  17. New products formed due to interaction of fuel and construction materials in the 4th unit of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of damages in the 4th unit of Chernobyl NPP are given. Regions of localization of released fuel are indicated and its modifications are characterized. Correlation of location and routes of sample selection for one of typical products of fuel interaction with structural materials of the unit - 'elephant's foot' - are presented. Results of physochemical an radiochemical analyses are produced. Certain assumptions are made as to possible scenario of accident in the south-east guadrant of the reactor vault

  18. Epidemiological study of schizophrenia in the Chernobyl exclusion zone personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane and Ohta (1986) revealed very high (6 %) prevalence rate of schizophrenia in A-bomb survivors. The goal of this study was the epidemiological investigation of schizophrenia in the Chernobyl exclusion zone personnel on the base of 10-years follow up study and analysis of the psychiatric archives (1986-1996). As a result the register of schizophrenia spectrum disorders has been created, including 65 staff members. According to both ICD-9 and ICD-10 criteria there were 48 patients with schizophrenia. It has been revealed a statistically significant increase of the schizophrenia percentage amongst all psychoses in the Chernobyl exclusion zone personnel in comparison with the general Ukrainian population. It has been established that among 48 cases of schizophrenia there were 39 (81.2 %) of schizophrenia onset occurred in the zone. Since 1990 a significant increase (more than 4 times: 5.4 per 10,000 in the zone and 1.1 per 10,000 in Ukraine) in schizophrenia incidence has been taking place among the irradiated population of the exclusion zone in comparison with the general population. Our data testify to possibility of radiation-induced schizophrenia onset, which seem to be like stochastic effects of ionizing radiation. The mechanisms of these effects realization are the subject of further investigations. (author)

  19. [Functional-ecological and age-specific regularities in radionuclide concentration in freshwater molluscs from the Chernobyl Atomic Energy Station exclusion zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Derevets, V V; Kuz'menko, M I; Nazarov, A B

    2001-01-01

    The results of the studies on 90Sr and 137Cs content in the tissues of bivalve and gastropod mollusks of water basins in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP have been analyzed. The dependence of radionuclide accumulation factors on the peculiarities of morphological structure, functional ecology and nutrition type was found. The age dynamics of 137Cs content in some species of Gastropoda was studied. PMID:11458648

  20. Drosophila as a model object in to study Chernobyl NPP after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Water extractions of soil probes, which were selected on areas with different density of radioactive pollutions near Chernobyl exclusion zone ('Apple-tree garden' (Chernobyl); 'Island' (the bank of the pond-cooler of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant); 'Torch' (the area of revegetation near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant); 'Red forest' (side of a road) and 'Red forest' (edge of a forest)) were investigated. Dosimetric metering of all studied areas was conducted. γ- and β-activities of soil probes were determined by spectrometry and radiochemistry methods. The contents of trace elements in the soil probes of areas the 'Appletree garden' and 'Island' were determined. Water extractions from soil were prepared according to standard method (ratio - 1 : 2,5). The mutagenicity of water extractions of soil was estimated using the test of frequency of the sex-linked lethal mutations of Drosophila melanogaster. Water extractions were directly adds to a nourishing medium instead of standard component - distilled water. The strain of wild type of Drosophila Canton-S and natural populations of Drosophila from Pyriatin and Chernobyl were used in our study. The natural populations of Chernobyl and Pyriatin were included in study for more fully estimation of influence of factor on genetic processes of Drosophila, because of presence of unspecific adaptations of natural populations from radioactive polluted territories (as was shown before). According to dosimetric analysis data radiation activity of all water extractions of soils did not exceed a natural background. The probes of soil from areas the 'Red forest' and the 'Torch' were marked the higher activity; total activity of them was over 110 Mbk/kg. It is possibly that this fact was the reason of the absence of descendants in all variants of experiments conducted on medium with water extraction the 'Red forest' and in a variant of experiments concerned on study of activity of water

  1. Characteristics of small mammals in the Chernobyl' NPP accident zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of studying the low-dose ionizing radiation effects on specific features of wild rodent ecology (species variety, number dynamics, sex and age structure of the population), as well as the levels of radionuclide accumulation in animal bodies are discussed. Radionuclide concentrations detected in animal tissues in 1986 is connected with radioactive dust absorption through respiratory organs and skin-adipose tissues. The absorption is proportional to the environment primary contamination density and does not depend on animal species. The main path of radionuclides intake is their absorption via food chains in 1987

  2. Chernobyl NPP's shelter site yesterday, today and tomorrow. Present status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the beyond the design basis accident in Unit 4 at 1:23 a.m. on April 26, 1986, the core of the reactor and its protective safety barriers and safety systems were destroyed. The nuclear fuel inside lost its properties as fuel and became radioactive waste. The destroyed power unit, which could no longer perform its functions, became the scene of a comprehensive effort to mitigate the consequences of the accident. As part of the effort, a temporary shelter was constructed over the destroyed central hall of Unit 4. Called 'Shelter Site of Power Unit 4 of Chernobyl NPP'', the object now includes both accident-damaged Unit 4 and the protective structures and enclosures covering the ionizing radiation emitters ejected from the reactor core. These newly built structures are equipped with additional systems for diagnostics, dust suppression, neutron-absorbing solution injection, fire prevention water supply and other components designed to limit the effects of the accident and protect personnel and the environment. 5 refs, 2 tabs

  3. Clinical reactions of upper respiratory tract and their coupering by pulsed laser radiation under conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP effect elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unified chart for complex medical surveillance of head and neck organs in the case of professional contacts with radioactive aerosols is developed 484 persons are examined using the technique discussed. 3% of persons being surveyed have increased sensitivity of respiratory tract organs under unfavourable factor effects, or they have not such sensitivity at all. The character of changes in upper respiratory tract correlates with peculiarities of sanitary-hygeinic working conditions. High-intensity laser radiation is applied for coupering the upper respiratory tract reaction. Practical recovery or considerable progress are observed for 80% of the treated patients in the mean. High efficiency of the laser therapy technique in coupering and preventive treatment of upper respiratory tract reaction for persons being engaged in the Chernobyl' NPP zone

  4. Experience of rehabilitation of territories contaminated during Chernobyl NPP accident in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Significant part of Ukraine territory, including agricultural lands, was subjected to radioactive contamination as a result of ChNPP emergency. In the initial period of emergency the main attention was given to averting of radioactivity propagation and irradiation of the population. Irradiation of the thyroid gland for a large contingent of human, especially children, became the hardest consequence of the emergency. The main problem of minimization of the emergency consequences consisted in a complete rehabilitation of contaminated areas. Resettlement of residents of contaminated territories was appeared effective only in cases, when expected effective dose of irradiation could exceed levels of interference. In the remote terms after emergency this measure was accompanied by an unjustifiable psychological stress for the population and considerable material expenses. The adopted organizational and technological countermeasures allowed to reduce significantly a dose of irradiation for thyroid gland, especially for population of Kiev urban agglomeration - about 4 mln. persons. The efficiency of countermeasures was insufficient due to hiding of the emergency firstly, and then because of the late announcement of a danger, after iodine attack already. The program of reconstruction of irradiation doses for different groups of population was realized, i.e. the liquidators of emergency, children, inhabitants of the contaminated zone. The sharp increase of thyroid gland cancer frequency and other types of pathologies was observed. The network of specialized medical entities for consulting and clinical examination of victims was created. Iodine radionuclides entered into human organism per os with foodstuffs predominantly. Prevention of milk contamination and its processing was the most effective measures of population protection. The big part of the territory of Ukraine was subjected to radioactive contamination with fallout predominantly the area of Ukrainian

  5. Accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Getting over the consequences and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of the accident on the 4th Power Unit of the Chernobyl NPP. The power plant construction history, accident reasons, its consequences, the measures on its liquidation are represented. The current state of activity on the Chernobyl power unit decommission, the 'Shelter' object conversion into the ecologically safe system is described. The future of the Chernobyl NPP site and disposal zone is discussed

  6. ON THE ROLE OF MUSHROOMS IN THE INTERNAL DOSE FORMATION TO THE POPULATION IN THE CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT AFFECTED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Panov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present overview describes the results of the 25-year studies devoted to the estimation of the contribution of radionuclide containing mushrooms to the internal exposure dose to the population affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident. A significant increase with the time after the accident is shown for the contribution of mushrooms to the population internal exposure dose. Factors are identified influencing variability in the estimations of radionuclide from the mushroom component contribution to the population internal exposure dose.

  7. Modeling the migration of 90Sr and 137Cs in the subsurface from the Chernobyl NPP Unit-4 Shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Shelter constructed above the destroyed Unit-4 of the Chernobyl NPP contains 20 MCi of nuclear fuel. More than 1,000 m3 of intermediate-level radioactive water is disposed in its basement. The purpose of this work was to simulate migration of the radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs from the Shelter into the subsurface environment to evaluate their migration rate and migration paths. A mathematical model accounting for the coupled transport of water and radionuclides in variably saturated media was used. The lack of suitable experimental and field studies excluded the possibility of complete validating the model. Results of the simulations will be useful for future field studies

  8. State calcium-phosphorus metabolism in a set of generations in rats after prolonged stay in hazardous of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied some of the indicators of calcium-phosphorus metabolism (total alkaline phosphatase, its bone and liver isoenzymes, total calcium and inorganic phosphorus) in the number of generations of rats, long stationed in the exclusion zone of Chernobyl APS. (authors)

  9. A system for sorting radioactive waste of the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is extending the research started in 1998, which are directed on development of a Chernobyl origin radioactive waste sorting system. In this paper the principal scheme and possible engineering solutions of the system for sorting the waste placed in temporary localization dumps of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone are described

  10. Radioprotection on a large construction site located in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the tragic accident of the reactor n, units 1, 2 and 3 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) have been successively stopped. However, since the independence of the Ukraine in 1991, Russia becomes no longer responsible for reprocessing Ukrainian spent fuel. With the support of the International Community, Ukraine agreed to an interim storage solution. In July 1999, following an international invitation to tender, Ukrainian Ministry, EnergoAtom, chooses a consortium of three French companies, Framatome, Vinci Construction and Bouygues Travaux Public, to build an storage facility. Construction of the 'Interim Storage Facility-2' (ISF-2) for long term storage of the spent fuel from Chernobyl Units 1, 2 and 3, starts in March 2000. The specific feature of this civil engineering project is its location in the vicinity of the power plant, within the 'exclusion zone'. The setting up of such a major construction site in a contaminated environment requires a particular attention in radiological safety field. After a brief description the project, of its environment and radiological safety provisions, this report details the safety measures put in place and the peculiarities of the site. Different safety cultures and occasional misunderstandings between Ukrainian and Western staff created additional difficulties. In the radioprotection field, the French companies committed significant means and undertook prevention training activities in order to develop awareness of radiological risks by both expatriate and Ukrainian personnel. The experience gained on this site may be described as beneficial in the sense that it teaches lessons for use on future sites in similar conditions.staff created additional difficulties. In the radioprotection field, the French companies committed significant means and undertook prevention training activities in order to develop awareness of radiological risks by both expatriate and Ukrainian personnel. The experience gained on this site

  11. Achievement of international contract UK/TS/20 'Support to the Ukrainian authority in licensing activity related to TASIS/NSA financed decommissioning facilities at Chernobyl NPP'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukrainian Nuclear Regulation organizations in cooperation with the Nuclear and Radiation Safety Centre developed the license procedure and standard base for management with radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuels during decommissioning of Chernobyl NPP. The needed equipment for this is in process of preparation

  12. Proceedings of the second international scientific and practical conference 'Mitigation of the consequences of the catastrophe at the Chernobyl NPP: state and perspectives'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceeding reflects new scientific results and contains three parts - medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident and dose monitoring of human population; problems of the contaminated territories and social and economical development of the regions; radioecological and radiobiological consequences of the accident and their forecasting

  13. How best to utilize the experience of the expedition to 30-km Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The only Hungarian nuclear power plant (Paks NPP) generates about 40 percent of the electrical energy of Hungary. Taking into consideration the designed lifetime, the four units should be shut down between 2012 and 2017. To extend operation of the units with twenty years can be considered as the especially important part of the life-time management. In terms of life-time extension, beside technical issues and nuclear safety, the public acceptance plays a very decisive role. The Chernobyl accident had serious impact on the public; therefore, enhancing the public confidence is a main task in respect of the future of nuclear energy. The Hungarian Nuclear Society (HNS) and the Hungarian Young Generation Network (YGN), which operates within the framework of HNS, has been put already a lot of effort into it. Between 28th of May and 4th of June, 2005, under the organization of the Hungarian Nuclear Society, a scientific expedition visited the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site and the surrounding exclusion zone. Most of the participants were young Hungarian nuclear experts under the leading of more experienced colleagues. The main goals of the expedition were the followings: Getting own experiences in a direct way about the actual condition of the Chernobyl Power Plant and the contamination and the dose level of its surroundings; Gathering information about the condition of the shelter built above the damaged 4th unit; Further education of young nuclear experts by performing field measurements; Communicating to the public on our experience and consequences of the accident by utilizing our authentic measurements. The Hungarian expedition successfully achieved its objectives performing wide-ranged environmental and dosimetric measurements and collecting numerous biological and soil samples. The analysis of samples has been started immediately in the International Chernobyl Center in Slavutich. The dosimetric measurements showed that no considerable exposure of

  14. Influence of duration of exposition in the Chernobyl zone on spontaneous and chemically induced mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cycle of researches according to influence of an exposition of laboratory mice of line Af in a zone of Chernobyl disaster on spontaneous and chemically induced mutagenesis has been performed. The frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes in the mouse bone marrow was increase in term of an exposition in a zone of Chernobyl disaster with 1 till 4 months in comparison with the control. (authors)

  15. EFFECT OF CHRONIC RADIATION ON PLANT-PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS IN 30-KM CHERNOBYL ZONE

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriev A.; Dyachenko, A. I.; Grodzinsky, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    It was established in pot experiments that infection with powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC. f. sp. tritici Em. Marchal) and brown rust (Puccinia triticana Erikss. & Henn.) of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars ('Mironovskaya 808', 'Polesskay 70', and 'Kiyanka') grown from seeds, collected in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, was 1.5–2.0 times higher than that of plants grown from control seeds. On filed plots in the Chernobyl zone, wheat plant resistance to biotic stress was reduced...

  16. Radiation and genetic monitoring of populations of Pinus sylvestris L. within the zone of the Chernobyl power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic and genetic effects in populations of Pinus sylvestris L. (in forests of the external zone of the Chernobyl NPP) suffered weak, average strong and sublethal radiation damage after the accident in 1986 were studied. Absorbed doses for trees in these plantings were from 0.1 up to 20 Gy. It was shown that the amount of cells with chromosome aberrations in sprouts of seeds of a crop of 1993, are comparable with the effects marked at once after accident in 1986. In 1997 and in 1998 the amount of cells with chromosome aberrations in sprouts of seeds in majority inspected plantings decreased to control values. Effect of adaptation was detected, when seeds of Pinus sylvestris L., gathered in 1997 from inspected trees, were exposed to additional 4 Gy γ-radiation

  17. Implementation of post-Chernobyl first-priority safety improvement measures at the Leningrad NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the severe accident at Chernobyl Unit 4 and in order to ensure RBMK-1000 safe operation, a set of measures was worked out aimed at preclusion of such an accident recurrence. Implementation of these measures is described

  18. Dynamics of 137Cs in the forests of the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of the 137Cs content in the components of the forests in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) in 1986–1994 are associated mainly with such factors as the size of radioactive particles in the fallout, ecosystem humidification and soil type, tree age. The influence of particle size was especially noticable between 1986–1987 and was displayed by low biological availability of radionuclides in the near part of the zone (within the 10-km radius circle around the NPP) in comparison with more distant regions (within the 30-km radius circle). Later, the expression of this influence decreased and transfer factor (the ratio of 137Cs content in overground phytomass to the soil contamination density) became approximately the same for all plots with similar ecological and fallout characteristics. Humidity of landscape and soil type determined the velocity of radionuclide vertical migration in the soil and 137Cs biological availability. These parameters were maximum for the hydromorphic soils of wet landscapes enriched in organic substance and poor clayey minerals. Differences of 137Cs accumulation in overground phytomass of trees caused by tree age are displayed in the higher 137Cs concentration in structural parts of young trees as compared with old ones

  19. Dynamics of 137Cs in the forests of the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of the 137Cs content in the components of the forests in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) in 1986-1994 are associated mainly with such factors as the size of radioactive particles in the fallout, ecosystem humidification and soil type, tree age. The influence of particle size was especially noticeable between 1986-1987 and was displayed by low biological availability of radionuclides in the near part of the zone (within the 10-km radius circle around the NPP) in comparison with more distant regions (within the 30-km radius circle). Later, the expression of this influence decreased and transfer factor (the ratio of 137Cs content in overground phytomass to the soil contamination density) became approximately the same for all plots with similar ecological and fallout characteristics. Humidity of landscape and soil type determined the velocity of radionuclide vertical migration in the soil and 137Cs biological availability. These parameters were maximum for the hydromorphic soils of wet landscapes enriched in organic substance and poor clayey minerals. Differences of 137Cs accumulation in overground phytomass of trees caused by tree age are displayed in the higher 137Cs concentration in structural parts of young trees as compared with old ones

  20. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on (137)Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarubina, N

    2016-09-01

    Levels of soil contamination with (137)Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of (137)Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of (137)Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi. PMID:26690320

  1. Scientific and technical aspects of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection contains the presentations and scientific articles prepared for and discussed during the Conference titled '2001: International Cooperation For Chernobyl'. The materials outline the outcomes achieved while implementing Chernobyl site scientific-technical researches and projects, as well as activities aimed at enhancing the ChNPP safety, decommissioning and radwaste management. It also highlights the issues related to transforming the Unit Shelter into an ecologically safe system, represents the results of ecological researches in the Exclusion Zone, medical effects of the 1986 accident at Chernobyl NPP, together with social and economic problems the city of Slavutich faces now due to the early ChNPP Units decommissioning, and Slavutich business development opportunities under the circumstances of Special Economic Zone 'Slavutich'

  2. Reconstruction of radioactive contamination of territory the Belarus by an isotope I-131 after the catastrophe on Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the first period after the accident of Chernobyl NPP considerable increasing of exposure dose power was registered practically everywhere on the territory of Belarus. The levels of radioactive contamination induced by iodine-131 were so high that the irradiation of millions people caused by it has been qualified by experts as the period of 'iodine blow' by specialists. So reconstruction of iodine doses during the first period after the accident can considerable change current assessments of radionuclides affect upon population of Belarus as a result of Chernobyl NPP catastrophe. Nowadays the assessment of environmental short-lived radionuclides, first of all iodine isotopes, contamination is very important because high levels of iodine contents in soil, atmospheric air, water and food have caused rising of malignant thyroid cancer in the post accident period, especially among children and teenagers everywhere on the territory of the Republic of Belarus. Revealed dependence between iodine-131 contamination of soil and space distribution of malignant thyroid gland cancer incidence among children on the territory of Belarus allows one to use the reconstruction map for detection the regions of increased risk of cancer incidence. Reconstruction map of space iodine-131 distribution reflects real situation on the territory of the republic of Belarus on the May 10, 1986. Proposed approaches allow one to construct a number of maps of iodine-131 distribution for given data taking into account dynamics of real meteorological conditions formed the radioactive trace.Dose commitments on thyroid cancer caused by iodine isotopes were formed mainly during the first 2,5 months after the accident. The space distribution of malignant thyroid gland cancer incidences among children on the territory of Belarus in the period from 1986 to 1995 map was made. Comparison of iodine-131 distribution map and malignant thyroid gland cancer incidences among children on the territory of

  3. Comparative analysis of values of 90Sr distribution j coefficients as in the case of soils of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review presents the data concerning 90Sr migration behavior in the soils of the aeration zone and aquifers of Chernobyl exclusion zone. It is revealed that values of distribution coefficients of 90Sr for soils of Chernobyl exclusion zone territory are changed with time, measurement methods and type of soils

  4. Evaluation of radiation impacts of spent nuclear fuel storage (ISP-2) of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimation of radiation impacts during normal operation of dry spent fuel storage facility for ChNPP RBMK reactors, designed for long-term storage of spent fuel assemblies (SFA), which originated from the operation 1,2,and 3 units ChNPP was made. It is shown that the maximum concentration of radionuclides in the air near the ISF-2 well below allowable concentration for the population, and additional pollution is negligible in comparison with the existing one

  5. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

  6. Abstracts of papers of international scientific conference 'Fundamental and applied aspects of radiobiology: Biological effects of low doses and radioactive contamination of environment (Radioecological and medical biological consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of research works executed in Belarus, as well as in Ukraine and Russia, on various aspects of the Chernobyl problematic are given: radiation medicine and risks, radiobiological effects and their forecasting, radioecology and agricultural radiology, decontamination and radioactive wastes management, socio economic and psychological problems caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

  7. The information psychological periodization of the Chernoby'l NPP accident information in the mass media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of mass media reflecting the Chernobyl' accident in 1986-1991 has been surveilled. The information (radio, television, press conferences) given at this period was devided into seven classification periods. The analysis of the information and its assessment in each period was demonstrated. 6 refs

  8. Landscape and ecological-geochemical conditions of the Chernobyl NPP effect at the Ukrainian territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of landscape-geochemical division into districts of the Ukrainian territory in 1990-1991 are presented due to the Chernobyl accident. Landscape features of regions and indices of man-made load are described. Characteristics given also include peculiarities of geochemical landscape structure, migration conditions of chemical elements, ground water protection degree, exogenetic chemical process character, radionuclide anomalies, toxic chemical element prevalence

  9. Terrestrial invertebrate population studies in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 caused the release to atmosphere of substantial amounts of radioactivity. Precise estimates of the release vary. The USSR State Committee presented information to a meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986 indicating a release of some 2.9x105 TBq 137Cs and 2x105 TBq 90Sr, with a total fission/activation product release of 1.7x106 TBq. Other commentators suggest that up to double this amount may have been released. Estimates of deposition likewise vary, although it is probable that about half the released activity was deposited within 20 km of the release point, predominantly following two plume trajectories to the north and west. This resulted in the death of pine trees over 400 ha, the abandonment of 100,000 to 150,000 ha of agricultural land and the establishment of an exclusion zone extending to 30 km from the site. High levels of radionuclide contamination continue to prevail within the exclusion zone. Nonetheless, over the past fifteen years, re-colonisation has been widespread. Mixed deciduous woodlands, with a high proportion of birch (Betula spp.) and willow (Salix spp.), have become established in the forest areas, while agricultural land has succeeded to tall grassland and scrub. Field sites established in this study exhibited external gamma dose rates varying from 0.1 μSv h-1 to 140 μSv h-1. Corresponding mean concentrations of 137Cs in the top 20 cm of soil varied from about 6.102 to 3.106 Bq kg-1 dw. This study summarises observations over the period 2001 to 2004. Sub-surface activity, as measured by bait lamina penetration, appears to be inversely correlated with concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr in soil. Likewise, at the very highest levels of contamination, there is some loss of invertebrate diversity; although little associated change in overall biomass. Between years, population densities and species dominance vary significantly. This does not appear to correlate directly with

  10. Radioecological consequences of Chernobyl accident for Lake ecosystems within 10 km exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1997-2005 we studied distribution and dynamics of 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am in the main components of the aquatic ecosystems within exclusion zone, defined as a roughly circular area of 30-km radius around the destroyed unit of the Chernobyl NPP. Our special attention was given to bottom sediments, water, seston, higher aquatic plants, molluscs and fish of lake ecosystems within inner (10-km) exclusion zone: Azbuchin Lake, Dalekoye Lake and Glubokoye Lake. The data analysis has shown that about 98-99% of 137Cs and more than 99% of transuranic elements of the total radionuclide content has deposited in the bottom sediments. The content of 90Sr in sediments of lakes, due to higher solubility, amounts to 89-95%. About 2-10% of radionuclides concentrated in water and only about 1% - in biota. In this percent a prevailing value for different radionuclides has the macro benthos species (especially bivalve molluscs) and higher aquatic plants. The average specific activity of radionuclides in fish tissue more than in 100 times exceeds a maximum permissible level for fish production in Ukraine. The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts, living within littoral zone of the researched lakes, due to external irradiation and radionuclides incorporated in tissue was in a range from 0.2 to 3.4 Gy year-1. The highest value was found for hydrobionts from lakes within embankment territory on left-bank flood plain of the Pripyat River with high density of radionuclide contamination (Dalekoye Lake and Glubokoye Lake). The numerous effects of irradiation on hydrobionts within the exclusion zone are revealed. Some of these effects required for the short period of time for their formation, however it is supposed that an increasing importance will be got by the remote consequences - genetic damages induced by a long-term irradiation. The molluscs embryos from Dalekoye-1 Lake and Glubokoye Lake were characterised by the highest rate of chromosome aberration - about 20

  11. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl reactor accident provoked a wave of public discussion about the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and particularly so in the Federal Republic of Germany. The article in hand discusses some consequences as can be assessed so far, although information on the causes and the course of the accident still is very incomplete. From the information available so far, the possible sequence of events is described. The safety engineering and design of Federal German reactor types is compared with the reactor type installed at Chernobyl, with the result that the Soviet type never would have been licensed in the FRG. The fallout, i.e. the resulting radiation exposure of the population, is expected to remain within the limits of the natural radioactivity; the political effects and possible consequences with regard to further commitments for the advancement of the fast breeder reactor line and the reprocessing of spent fuel are discussed. (orig./RB)

  12. The rehabilitation strategies in agriculture in the long term after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience gained in the aftermath of the severe radiation accidents shows that in the case of large-scaled radionuclide contamination the limitation of internal radiation doses to people by means of restoration of agricultural lands is more realistic than reduction of levels of external irradiation. Therefore, the problems connected with the optimal restoration strategies of agricultural land subjected to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident are of crucial importance. The justification of the approach for the estimation of the effectiveness of countermeasure strategies in the long term after the Chernobyl accident, based on the classification of farms by contamination density and risk of the exceeding of radiological standards, restricting the use of agricultural products, is presented. For each class of the farms the ranking of rehabilitation options and the time periods when their application would be of importance are given. Comparative analysis of the rehabilitation strategies, which are different in their effectiveness and cost, is provided. (author)

  13. Features of high-temperature diffusion in concrete at Block 4 of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of elements (Na, Ca, Ti, Mn, Ni, Rb, Zr, U) and structural-phase changes in core samples taken from concrete wall in one of the rooms of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant subjected to penetration of lava-like fuel-containing mass were studied by γ-ray activation and crystal-optical methods and IR spectroscopy. High-temperature diffusion processes in concrete that occurred in the course of the Chernobyl accident (1986) were simulated using the developed numerical model describing concrete as a porous multiphase system occurring on the local level in the thermodynamic equilibrium with the matrix voids filled with water and gas. Comparison of theoretical results with profiles of the content of particular elements and with characteristics of newly formed minerals shows that the high-temperature fluid cloud saturated with corrosive and reducing gases played the decisive role in the processes occurring during the first stage of the accident

  14. To the problem of concepts of measures for water protection against secondary radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basing on the analysis of experience in water protection measures in the zone of the Chernobyl' accident influence some conceptual approaches to solving the problems of secondary radioactive contamination of the Dnieper river water system are discussed. The scheme of the necessary information support for decision making in the field of water protection measures in zones subjected to accidental contamination by radioactive materials is suggested. It is shown that isolation of flooded source forming radionuclide washing-out from ground and surface waters is the most efficient method for decreasing water contamination level in the zone affected by contaminated spillways and river flood-plain basins. The objects for localization are the contaminated soils or leakages from radioactive waste storage places. 12 refs.; 1 tab

  15. Radionuclides in the indigenous fish species of the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the specific activity of 90Sr and 137Cs estimation at the indigenous representatives of fish fauna in water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusion zone are presented during 2006 - 2011. The data of species specificity of radionuclide accumulation and distributing in different organs and tissues of pray and predatory fishes in water bodies with different hydrological regime and level of radioactive contamination are analyzed. The size, weight and age dynamics of radionuclide accumulation in fish are evaluated. It is note, that presently 90Sr is main dose-formed radionuclide for fishes of stagnant water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

  16. Pathology of respiratory organs in persons participated in the Chernobyl NPP accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of investigations, performed by the personnel of Pulmonology Institute of the Ministry of Health of Russian Federation, on the respiratory organs pathology resulted from the Chernobyl accident in persons participated in the accident response are presented. The studies were carried out in cooperation with French colleagues. Attention was paid to the problems of environmental contamination due to the accident pathology resulted from the acute exposure and delayed effects, specific features of the respiratory organs diseases, and programs of treatment and rehabilitation as well

  17. Dynamics of the radioecological situation in Kiev before and after the disaster on Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of long standing observations of radioecological situation in Kiev, which were carried out from the beginning of 60-th and till today in 12 selected points of control are presented in this work. The dynamics of changes of main radiation situation parameters before and after Chernobyl disaster was investigated: the γ-exposure dose rate; the activity of global precipitations, atmosphere sediments and settling dust; radioactive pollution of soil and vegetation. The comparison of the radioecological situations in Kiev and dose loads due to internal and external irradiation for Kiev population in 1985 and 1992 was carried out

  18. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident in Chernobyl also had a memorable 1986 Spring for the region of Lake Constance. Salad had to be ploughed up in the vegetable fields, the feeding of cows with fresh grass was forbidden, and becquerel values played a decisive role in food purchases. Along with the measurement of radioactivity in rainwater, the authors began to take food and soil samples; hundreds of samples were tested in the laboratories of the University of Constance. They provided, in cooperation with public authorities, for the protection of the population against radiation, and explained, in numerous lectures, the significance of this incident to everyday life. Besides, they recorded recent scientific findings about the behaviour of radioactive substances in the environment. The book gives a summary of the findings. It also includes, besides a description of the events of May 1986 at Lake Constance, a presentation of the results of scientific investigations into Chernobyl's radioactivity. This is thus the first detailed account of the diverse effects of the reactor accident with respect to one particular region which, though more than 1500 km away, was surprisingly seriously affected, and which, owing to its special features - Lake Constance is Europe's most important drinking water reservoir -, is particularly endangered, in case of radioactive release. (orig./HP) With 2 separate tabs

  19. Health of the population having suffered after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of researches is study of a condition of population health and its dynamics, as well as development of new methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases. Along with significant growth of the morbidity rate by thyroid cancer, the growth tendencies of preleucosis condition, cancers of lungs, mammary glands, urinary bladder, kidneys etc. were detected. The new clinical and laboratory methods of differential diagnostics of thyroid pathology, directed on detection of diseases at an early stage are developed. The new methods of surgical treatment of thyroid diseases are introduced. For practical use the methods of diagnostics and treatment of diseases of a liver, stomach and duodenum, secondary immuno deficits at the having suffered population, psychosomatic conditions at the liquidators are created. A number of preparations, biologically active connections, food additives is received; their complex medical biological estimation is carried out and the recommendations for use and manufacture are developed. Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1997 on the following directions: study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident

  20. EFFECT OF CHRONIC RADIATION ON PLANT-PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS IN 30-KM CHERNOBYL ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriev A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It was established in pot experiments that infection with powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC. f. sp. tritici Em. Marchal and brown rust (Puccinia triticana Erikss. & Henn. of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars ('Mironovskaya 808', 'Polesskay 70', and 'Kiyanka' grown from seeds, collected in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, was 1.5–2.0 times higher than that of plants grown from control seeds. On filed plots in the Chernobyl zone, wheat plant resistance to biotic stress was reduced. At artificial infection with brown rusts, the disease development was enhanced on plots with increased radiation background. One of the mechanisms of declined phytoimmunity potential under the action of low doses of chronic irradiation is evidently a reduced activity of plant proteinase inhibitors. Thus, in wheat and rye (Secale cereale L., cv. ‘Saratovskaya’ kernels, their activity reduced by 35–60% as compared to control. Active form and race formation in the population of the grass stem rust causal agent (Puccinia graminis Pers. was observed in the Chernobyl zone. A “new” population of this fungus with high frequency of more virulent clones than in other Ukraine regions was distinguished. The results obtained independently in greenhouse and field trials performed in the Chernobyl zone demonstrated radiation stress influence on the pathogen–plant system. They indicate a necessity of monitoring the microevolutionary processes occurring in both plants and their pathogens under conditions of technogenic stresses.

  1. Genetic effects of prolonged combined irradiation of laboratory animals in Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prolonged combined (external and internal) irradiation of mice in the r zone of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant caused hereditary disturbances physiological defects in the posterity irrespective of the fact if one or both parents were irradiated. The most favourable indices were observed in F2 posterity of the both exposed parents

  2. Vertical migration of radioactive nuclides on research sites of Chernobyl zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of migration of radionuclides of Cs, Sr, Pu, Am etc. have carried out in the soil samples of research sites of Chernobyl Exclusion zone. Research sites are characterized by contrasting landscape and geochemical conditions, physical and chemical forms of fallout and dynamic of their transformations. Calculations of several parameters of redistribution of radionuclides in soil profiles are represented also

  3. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book brings together a comprehensive history of the first 18 months of the accident at Chernobyl and the complete pictorial record of the disaster, including many photographs never seen in the West. It also gives a unique record of subsequent events in the USSR involving the evacuation and re-housing of a population of 135,000, the building of the 400,000 tonne concrete sarcophagus over the damaged reactor and the decontamination of the environment which may take years to complete. The human dimension of radiation injuries is recreated in the cast histories and hospital photographs of the firemen who brought the blaze under control. The problems of contamination of the food chain for various countries is included, and recommendations for safe levels of activity in milk are described

  4. Estimation of pollution atmosphere Cs-137 to forest fires in the Chernobyl zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A classification of fire danger and radiation factors in the Chernobyl zone is presented. The scenarios of forest fire emergence and aerial migration of Cs-137 was analysed. The characteristic of Cs-137 resulted from the forest fire of various types was estimated. It was found that this fires lead to change of radiation condition and radioecological situation in the evacuation zone. Refs. 25, refs. 2, tabs. 5

  5. Organization of radio-ecological monitoring of the areas of the Russian Federation contaminated due to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (on example of the Bryansk region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Korobova, Elena; Vakulovsky, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    A severe accident at the Chernobyl NPP on April 26th, 1986 has led to radioactive contamination of many regions of the former USSR, now belonging to the Ukraine, the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation. Both natural and arable ecosystems have been subjected to fallout of radioactive isotopes. However both the distribution of radionuclides that define radioecological situation has depended not only on the initial contamination density but also on the landscape geochemical features of the areas controlling biogenic and abiogenic factors of radionuclide migration. To study and monitor peculiarities of migration of the most radioecologically significant radionuclides of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in different natural landscapes the Russian Scientific and Practical Experimental Center of the former State Chernobyl Committee has organized in 1992 a network of experimental plots in the most contaminated western part of the Bryansk region. It included 19 plots 100 m x 100 m in size which characterized 8 meadow and 11 forested catenas in the basin of the Iput' river. Cs-137 contamination level of the plots varied in 1992 from 740 kBq/m2 to 1850 kBq/m2. Although the study site has been located in the remote zone and the contamination was of condensation type the sampling performed at 11 plots registered some refractory radionuclides (144Ce, 154Eu, 238,239,240Pu and 90Sr) that proved the presence of fuel particles in fallout as far as 200 km from the damaged reactors. The sampling and monitoring scheme was organized to determine: the isotopic composition and contamination density of the plots; 2) estimation of radionuclide vertical and lateral migration; 3) evaluation of radionuclide inventories in different soil horizons; 4) calculation of radionuclide transfer in soil-plant system. Radiation measurements included field gamma-spectrometry using collimated gamma spectrometer "Corad" developed in the Kurchatov Institute and laboratory spectrometry the soil and plant samples

  6. Chernobyl, 13 years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of Chernobyl fallout in France

  7. An experience of information support of the Russian federal programs of the overcoming of consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1992, by a number of paragraphs of the federal programs on overcoming consequences of accident on Chernobyl NPP, the measures on informational-analytic support of the federal programs were provided. Within the framework of this activity for the solution of various aspects of Chernobyl's problem central bank of generalized data and numerous information systems were created. In the report the brief description of some of them is presented. In particular the databank on radioactive situation includes the information on 12 thousand settlements of Russia which have been exposed to radioactive contamination as a result of the accident.The medico-demographic section of a databank includes information on death rate for the reasons for all subjects of Russian Federation since 1982 till the present time. The developed information systems are available to all participants of work on overcoming of consequences of the accident. There are given the examples of integral estimates in short- and long-term forecasts of development of a situation in territories suffered by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. (author)

  8. Soil unitization in accordance with cesium-137 migration intensity in typical soils of Belarus NPP influence zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper results of soil unitization in accordance with cesium-137 migration intensity in typical soils of Belarus NPP influence zone are presented. It is shown that more than 70% of the Belarusian territory of 30-km NPP zone occupies soils in which mobility Cs 137 is low or moderated. (authors)

  9. Effects of biotic and radiation stresses on plants and their pathogens in 30-km Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results obtained independently both in greenhouse and in field trials in 30-km Chernobyl exclusion zone demonstrated a decrease in plant disease resistance. The data obtained suggest that active form- and race-producing processes occurred under chronic radiation in 30-km Chernobyl zone. As a result a population structure of Puccinia graminis has been changed by appearance of a 'new' population with high frequency of more virulent clones. We believe a monitoring over microevolution processes in population of plant and their pathogens in 30-km Chernobyl zone is essential. (authors)

  10. Scientific and technical aspects of international cooperation in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection contains the presentations and scientific articles prepared for and discussed during the Conference titled '2000: International Cooperation For Chernobyl'. The materials outline the outcomes achieved while implementing Chernobyl site scientific-technical researches and projects, as well as activities aimed at enhancing the ChNPP safety, decommissioning and radwaste management. It also highlights the issues related to transforming the Unit Shelter into an ecologically safe system, represents the results of ecological researches in the Exclusion Zone, medical effects of the 1986 accident at Chernobyl NPP, together with social and economic problems the city of Slavutich faces now due to the early ChNPP Units decommissioning, and Slavutich business development opportunities under the circumstances of Special Economic Zone 'Slavutich'

  11. Soil contamination with 90Sr in the near zone of the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashparov, V A; Lundin, S M; Khomutinin, Y V; Kaminsky, S P; Levchuk, S E; Protsak, V P; Kadygrib, A M; Zvarich, S I; Yoschenko, V I; Tschiersch, J

    2001-01-01

    Representative large-scale soil sampling on a regular grid of step width about 1 km was carried out for the first time in the near zone of the Chernobyl accident (radius 36 km). An integrated map of terrestrial 90Sr contamination density in the 30 km exclusion zone (scale 1:200,000) has been created from the analysed samples. Maps of the main agrochemical characteristics of the soils, which determine the fuel particle dissolution rates and the contamination of vegetation, were produced. The total contents of 90Sr on the ground surface of the 30 km zone in Ukraine (without the reactor site and the radioactive waste storages) was about 810 TBq (8.1 x 10(+14) Bq) in 1997, which corresponds to 0.4-0.5% of the Chernobyl reactor inventory at the time of the accident. This assessment is 3-4 times lower than previous estimates. PMID:11468820

  12. Estimation of health in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning-up participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 11 years period of health observation of Chernobyl Accident's victims permits to make some conclusions. Quantitative changes of peripheral blood and bone marrow cells, changes in ultrastructural organization of hemopoietic cells, disturbance of proliferative activity of hemopoietic and stromal progenitor cells in clean-up workers testify to alterations of functional properties of hemopoiesis. There are high level of T- helpers, early appearance regenerated T-cells, which simultaneously express surface antigens of helpers and supressors, synchronization of proliferative cycle of immunocompetentive cells in these patients. Oppressing of antioxidant protection, stable changes of hormonal maintenance of adaptation and reproduction processes, disturbance of feedback mechanism between effector glands and hypophysis, significant rise of polyamines were determined. Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of health disruptions at victims. Neural and psychological diseases, suicidal cases, trauma, death in automobile accidents are rank second and third in structure of morbidity. In structure of chronic nonspecific pulmonary diseases dominated chronic obstructive bronchitis. The adrenergic tonus of vegetative nervous system was seen. The peculiarity of rehabilitation measures is complexness and continuity in-patients, out-patients service and providing facilities in health resorts. (author)

  13. Migration of radionuclides in soils of the ChNPP 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on vertical distribution of radioactive isotopes on upper horisons of soil of the ChNPP 30-km zone were presented for different areas. The analysis of the depth of radionuclide migrations in soil depending on characteristics of soils, landscape, contamination level was given. 4 refs

  14. Safety Assessment for a Surface Repository in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - Methodology for Assessing Disposal under Intervention Conditions - 13476

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (RWDF) Buryakovka was constructed in 1986 as part of the intervention measures after the accident at Chernobyl NPP (ChNPP). Today, RWDF Buryakovka is still being operated but its maximum capacity is nearly reached. Plans for enlargement of the facility exist since more than 10 years but have not been implemented yet. In the framework of an European Commission Project DBE Technology GmbH prepared a safety analysis report of the facility in its current state (SAR) and a preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR) based on the planned enlargement. Due to its history RWDF Buryakovka does not fully comply with today's best international practices and the latest Ukrainian regulations in this area. The most critical aspects are its inventory of long-lived radionuclides, and the non-existent multi-barrier waste confinement system. A significant part of the project was dedicated, therefore, to the development of a methodology for the safety assessment taking into consideration the facility's special situation and to reach an agreement with all stakeholders involved in the later review and approval procedure of the safety analysis reports. Main aspect of the agreed methodology was to analyze the safety, not strictly based on regulatory requirements but on the assessment of the actual situation of the facility including its location within the Exclusion Zone. For both safety analysis reports, SAR and PSAR, the assessment of the long-term safety led to results that were either within regulatory limits or within the limits allowing for a specific situational evaluation by the regulator. (authors)

  15. RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr{sup -1} in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  16. Radiation ecology issues associated with murine rodents and shrews in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Maklyuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the "soil-to-plant" chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy h(-1) in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the "Red Forest"). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy h(-1), respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy h(-1), respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described. PMID:21878767

  17. Radiation Ecology Issues Associated With Murine Rodents And Shrews In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr-1 in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr-1, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr-1, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  18. Current levels and trends of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystem components in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, Dmitri I.; Kaglyan, Alexander Ye.; Ganzha, Kristina D.; Klenus, Vasiliy G. [Institute of Hydrobiology, Geroyev Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA-04210 Kiev (Ukraine); Kireev, Sergey I.; Nazarov, Alexander B. [Chernobyl Specialized Enterprise, Radyanska Str. 70, UA-07270 Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    The current radiation level and its composition in aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) are conditioned, above all things, by the amount of radioactive matters released as aerosols on a water surface and adjacent territories during the period of the active phase of the accident from destroyed of the Chernobyl NPP in 1986, and also by intensity and duration of the second processes of radionuclides washout from the catchment areas and hydrodynamic processes of their transport outside of water bodies. During last 10-15 years in the soils of the ChEZ the tendency of increase of yield of the mobile bioavailable forms of radionuclides, which released into hydrological systems with surface and ground waters or localized in the closed water systems, where quickly involving in the biotic cycle is marked. On the example of lakes of the Krasnensky flood plain of the Pripyat River, which is one of the most contaminated by radionuclides territory of the ChEZ, was determined that the basic amount of radionuclides in lake ecosystem is deposited in the bottom sediments: {sup 90}Sr - 89-95%, {sup 137}Cs - 99%, transuranium elements (TUE) {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am - almost 100% of the total radionuclide amount in ecosystem. The increased migration activity of {sup 90}Sr determines its more high quantity in water (4-10%) on comparison with {sup 137}Cs (0.5-0.6%) and TUE (0.03-0.04%) and, opposite, less - in seston (0.15-0.16%) on comparison with {sup 137}Cs (0.25-0.30%). The value of {sup 90}Sr in biotic component amounts 0.25-0.61%, {sup 137}Cs - 0.14-0.47% and TUE - 0.07-0.16% of the total quantity in ecosystem. The gradual decline of radionuclide specific activity is a dominant tendency in the dynamics of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in water and aquatic biota of the majority of reservoirs and water flow in the ChEZ. The exception is water bodies, located on the dammed territories of the Krasnensky flood plain, where at the proceeding

  19. Current levels and trends of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystem components in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current radiation level and its composition in aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) are conditioned, above all things, by the amount of radioactive matters released as aerosols on a water surface and adjacent territories during the period of the active phase of the accident from destroyed of the Chernobyl NPP in 1986, and also by intensity and duration of the second processes of radionuclides washout from the catchment areas and hydrodynamic processes of their transport outside of water bodies. During last 10-15 years in the soils of the ChEZ the tendency of increase of yield of the mobile bioavailable forms of radionuclides, which released into hydrological systems with surface and ground waters or localized in the closed water systems, where quickly involving in the biotic cycle is marked. On the example of lakes of the Krasnensky flood plain of the Pripyat River, which is one of the most contaminated by radionuclides territory of the ChEZ, was determined that the basic amount of radionuclides in lake ecosystem is deposited in the bottom sediments: 90Sr - 89-95%, 137Cs - 99%, transuranium elements (TUE) 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am - almost 100% of the total radionuclide amount in ecosystem. The increased migration activity of 90Sr determines its more high quantity in water (4-10%) on comparison with 137Cs (0.5-0.6%) and TUE (0.03-0.04%) and, opposite, less - in seston (0.15-0.16%) on comparison with 137Cs (0.25-0.30%). The value of 90Sr in biotic component amounts 0.25-0.61%, 137Cs - 0.14-0.47% and TUE - 0.07-0.16% of the total quantity in ecosystem. The gradual decline of radionuclide specific activity is a dominant tendency in the dynamics of 137Cs and 90Sr in water and aquatic biota of the majority of reservoirs and water flow in the ChEZ. The exception is water bodies, located on the dammed territories of the Krasnensky flood plain, where at the proceeding decrease of 137Cs concentration, from the end of 1990's there is the gradual

  20. Features of clinical signs of nervous and psychosomatic disorders in the Chernobyl' NPP personnel and human populations of affected regions at different stages of accident and its response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical signs of nervous and psychosomatic disorders in the Chernobyl' NPP personnel and persons taking part in the emergency response were analysed. Main stress factors for the personnel side by side with radiation hazard were the following ones: house loss, family separation, future uncertainties, etc. Singularity of labour under conditions of remaining threat for life and health, absence of information on the environmental radioactivity, unsatisfactory life conditions were in the first place for arrived persons. Analysis of determined psychopathological signs testifies to the prevalence of wide range of nervous disorders peculiar to natural calamities and disasters

  1. RADIONUCLIDES BEHAVIOUR MODELLING OF 137CS AND 90SR IN GLYBOKE AND DALEKE LAKES OF CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kutlakhmedov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available  Results of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides behaviour modelling, which are the most spread radioisotopes in water bodies of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone are represented. Dynamics of radionuclides activity is modelled in water body components as the percentage of their total stock. Quantitative transfer of the radionuclides between water body components in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone is determined and predicted. 

  2. A Radiological Survey Approach to Use Prior to Decommissioning: Results from a Technology Scanning and Assessment Project Focused on the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objectives of this project are to learn how to plan and execute the Technology Scanning and Assessment (TSA) approach by conducting a project and to be able to provide the approach as a capability to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) and potentially elsewhere. A secondary objective is to learn specifics about decommissioning and in particular about radiological surveying to be performed prior to decommissioning to help ChNPP decision makers. TSA is a multi-faceted capability that monitors and analyzes scientific, technical, regulatory, and business factors and trends for decision makers and company leaders. It is a management tool where information is systematically gathered, analyzed, and used in business planning and decision making. It helps managers by organizing the flow of critical information and provides managers with information they can act upon. The focus of this TSA project is on radiological surveying with the target being ChNPP's Unit 1. This reactor was stopped on November 30, 1996. At this time, Ukraine failed to have a regulatory basis to provide guidelines for nuclear site decommissioning. This situation has not changed as of today. A number of documents have been prepared to become a basis for a combined study of the ChNPP Unit 1 from the engineering and radiological perspectives. The results of such a study are expected to be used when a detailed decommissioning plan is created

  3. Risk Informed Support of Decision Making in Nuclear Power Plant Emergency Zoning - Generic Framework towards Harmonising NPP Emergency Planning Practices

    OpenAIRE

    KUBANYI JOZEF; BOLADO LAVIN RICARDO; SERBANESCU DAN; TOTH BELA; WILKENING HEINZ

    2008-01-01

    The report provides a systematic overview of the essential aspects of risk informed support of decision making (RIDM) in nuclear power plant (NPP) emergency zoning (EZ) as a contribution to harmonising strategic practices in the area. Owing to the state-of-the-art understanding and increased characterisation of NPP severe accidents, overall management of them should be analysed as an integrated complex process. The interrelationship of NPP emergency operating procedures, safety and risk asses...

  4. The transfer of Cs-137 and Sr-90 to wild animals within the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 700 137Cs and 90Sr activity concentrations for the tissues of 8 species of mammals and 13 species of birds sampled from within the Chernobyl exclusion zone between 1988 and 2000 have been collated. These data present a useful contribution to the current development of environmental impact assessment approaches with regard to ionising radiation. Summarised transfer values are presented and discussed. (author)

  5. A social psychological portrait of the schoolboys - migrants from the Chernobyl zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of adaptation processes at migrants of the Chernobyl zone is investigated. The programs of a social pedagogical and psychological aid to the children, parents and teachers are developed. By results of psychological diagnostics is made social and psychological portrait of a migrant. On the basis of the theoretical circuit of an adaptation-disadaptation and initial rules of a therapy process the criteria of efficiency psychological aid are formulated

  6. Airborne gamma spectrometric survey in the Chernobyl exclusion zone based on oktokopter UAV type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of field studies of radioactive contamination condition of RWTSP ''Red Forest'' and ''Neftebaza'' in the Chernobyl zone, obtained by the authors in June 2015 are represented. The technique of detection of local inhomogeneities on the soil surface without contrasting borders by airborne gamma spectrometry from the board of oktokopter UAV type is worked through. The technique of searching and contouring of hidden burial of radioactive waste is practiced

  7. Features of radionuclide contamination of the area accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the process of transfer of primary fallout products significant fractionation of radionuclides occurred. It is noted that near part of contaminated zone is more safe for contamination of cesium-134, 137. Spots observed at a considerable distance from damage reactor may be almost cesium, cesium-ruthenium ones or radioactive spots contamination of the area at different distance from the reactor was displayed by irradiated nuclear fuel particles with varied volatile radionuclides with different dispersity

  8. Genetic aftermath of the Chernobyl accident in the populations of Byelorus zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, various long-term surveys have been made on congenital malformations, abnormal embryos and fetuses, multiple congenital malformations and others in Byelorus zones. This report introduces the outcome of these surveys. Legal abortuses at the gestation of 5-12 weeks and newborns were reviewed for teratogenetic and mutagenic analyses. Approximately 50 kinds of abnormal diseases were observed in legal abortuses; urogenital system disease was the most common, followed by gastrointestinal and neurological diseases. There was no significant difference in malformation frequency in legal abortuses in Minsk and Gomel before and after the Chernobyul accident. There was neither specific teratogenetic effect nor fetus growth that was thought to be attributed to radiation exposure directly due to the Chernobyl accident. However, the incidence (per 1000 deliveries) of children born with obligatory registered malformations was increased in all Byelorus zones. This tendency was noticeable especially in the newborn born in the zone of cesium-137 of 15 Ci/km2 (555 kBq/m2), which was much more than that expected by the ICRP. The correlation between some congenital malformations and ionizing radiation has been shown only indirectly by an increase in dominant hereditary abnormality in the contaminated areas. Further collection of materials, registration and statistical analysis will provide more reliable information to evaluate genetic aftermath of the Chernobyl accident objectively. (N.K.)

  9. Features of isotopic composition of uranium in natural objects of the Chernobyl' NPP area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was shown that isotopic composition of U-natural objects of the zone (238U/235U, 235U/236U, 234U/238U) was shifted in reference to natural values and could be used for estimation of 'contamination' of environment by fuel. U content in 'contaminated' natural objects was not in excess of middle natural values. Correlation of the isotopic relationships 238U/236U and 235U/236U pointed to the fact that ejection of the fuel with high degree of burnup was lacking. 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Satellite communication system for emergency monitoring within the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Satellite Emergency Monitoring system of the Chernobyl Exclusive Zone (SEM CEZ) was designed to provide the Ukraine authorities and the neighbouring countries with updated information when an emergency situation occurs in the Exclusion Zone. This is of particular importance when environment contamination has transboundary effect. SEM system consists of mobile and fixed sensors reporting data via a dedicated satellite communications link. Mobile sensors are fitted with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers that determine current coordinates of the sensor. Sensors data are transmitted to the Emergency Monitoring Centre equipped with PC and a satellite terminal. Both sensors data and the current position are visualized on digital maps

  11. Characteristics of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides in particulate form in surface waters in the exclusion zone around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi; Ueno, Takashi; Amano, Hikaru; Tkatchenko, Y.; Kovalyov, A.; Watanabe, Miki; Onuma, Yoshikazu

    1998-12-01

    The distribution of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides in river and lake water bodies at 6-40 km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was studied. Current levels of radionuclides (Cesium-137, Strontium-90, Plutonium, Americium and Curium isotopes) in water bodies and their relation to the ground contamination are presented. The investigation of the radionuclide composition of aqueous and ground contamination revealed that radionuclides on suspended solids (particulate form) originate mainly from the erosion of the contaminated surface soil layer in the zone. Apparent distribution ratios between particulate and dissolved forms are compared to known distribution coefficients.

  12. The main results of fulfilment in 1996 of the scientific part of the State programme of the Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences (1996-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1996 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes; development of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; development of effective methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of both mother and child in conditions of influence of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences; study of genetic consequences caused by the Chernobyl accident and development of effectual measures of their prevention; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological

  13. Vegetation state in the alienation zone after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetation state within the alienation zone on the territory of formed state farm 'Savichi' of the Bragin region was studied. 9 agroecosystem associations of the Braun-Blanguet system were selected. Their ecological, biological and economic characteristics are given. The research has shown that the content of Sr 90 in vegetative mass of most agroecosystem associations exceeded normative level. (authors)

  14. A case study in the Chernobyl exclusion zone - Part 2: predicting radiation induced effects in biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years national and international programmes have proposed a number of frameworks and methodologies to assess the protection of wildlife from ionising radiations. Whilst some of these are now being used by national authorities there has been little attempt to rigorously test their predictions against available data. In part this is because there are few sites where radiation induced effects have been observed. The Chernobyl exclusion zone represents a site where assessment framework predictions from exposure through to effects can be thoroughly tested. In a separate paper, we have tested predictions of terrestrial radionuclide transfer models developed within the EC FP5 project FASSET against available radionuclide activity concentration database for terrestrial biota in the exclusion zone. In this paper we use the dose conversion factors developed within the FASSET project to estimate internal and external doses to biota within the exclusion zone. The estimated doses are then used to predict effects at different biological levels of organisation using the FASSET Radiation Effects Database (FRED); predicted effects are compared to observed effects within the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The observed effects data for the exclusion zone covers organisms from soil biota through to fish and mammals. Results of the comparison are used to make recommendations for future improvements to assessment frameworks. (author)

  15. Risks from radionuclide migration to groundwater in the Chernobyl 30-km zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugai, D A; Waters, R D; Dzhepo, S P; Skal'skij, A S

    1996-07-01

    Remediation of contaminated groundwater in the Chernobyl 30-km evacuation zone is frequently identified as a priority by technical experts and Chernobyl site officials in Ukraine. In order to evaluate the health risk basis for this groundwater remediation, we have estimated both on-site and off-site health risks caused by radionuclide migration to the groundwater and compared these risks with those from exposure to radioactive contamination on the ground surface. A simple and conservative analytical model was developed to assess radionuclide transport to the groundwater from the soil surface contaminated by radioactive fallout. 90Sr, the primary radioactive contaminant of concern for the groundwater-migration exposure pathway, was evaluated in the analysis. The estimated health risk to hypothetical, self-sufficient residents in the 30-km zone is dominated by external and internal irradiation (due primarily to ingestion of agricultural products) from 137Cs, which is present in soils of the 30-km zone in roughly equal proportion with 90Sr. The estimated risk from contaminated groundwater is approximately an order of magnitude lower. Analysis of 90Sr migration via groundwater to surface water and down-river population centers shows that, despite generally unfavorable environmental conditions in the 30-km exclusion zone, radionuclide transport via the groundwater pathway has potential to contribute only marginally to the off-site radiological risk, which is governed by wash-out of radionuclides from the contaminated river flood plain and catchment areas by surface water during spring snowmelt and rains. Health risks due to off-site radionuclide migration via groundwater are below the level requiring application of counter-measures. This analysis implies that, relative to other exposure pathways, there is little current or future health risk basis for the proposed complex and costly groundwater remediation measures in the 30-km zone. Therefore, these activities should

  16. Radioecological situation and prognosis of water systems contamination after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data on radioecology of the rivers of Belarus (Sozh, Iput', Besed', Braginka) are given. The radioactive contamination of lakes is represent. Transboundary transfer of radionuclides by water way (Russia - Belarus - Ukraine) is estimated. Total activity of Cs-137 on the catchments of rivers which are large tributaries of the Dnieper river and run off of this radionuclide through the transboundary control points for period 1987-2002 are calculated. It was shown, that nowadays main transboundary transfer of radionuclides by water way is realized only by the Pripyat river and its tributaries because its catchments completely or partly situated in exclusion zone. The article demonstrates that now natural rehabilitation in big and medium rivers of the Dnieper basin has been and levels of radionuclides content in surface waters have considerably decreased in comparison with initial levels. At the same time closed water bodies (lakes, ponds, water reservoirs) have saved up and continue to save up radionuclides due to erosion and sedimentation. Some of such water bodies have approached to level of intervention and have surpassed it on levels of radioactive contamination of fish. It was shown, that contamination of the bottom sediments in Svyatskoe lake (catchments of Besed' river) and Nizhnyaya Braginka with Cs-137 exceeds Low-level waste. The prognosis of annual Cs-137 concentration change in the rivers for 2010 are given. (Authors)

  17. Radionuclide migration in the experimental polygon of the Red Forest waste site in the Chernobyl zone – Part 1: Characterization of the waste trench, fuel particle transformation processes in soils, biogenic fluxes and effects on biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review article introduces an experimental site located within the Chernobyl exclusion zone that is equipped to study radionuclide behavior in the environment after disposal of radioactive waste into shallow subsurface storage (trenches). This paper presents how the site is equipped and the methodology that was followed in order to understand and reproduce the observed 90Sr contaminant plume downstream from a shallow waste trench in an area about 2.5 km west of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP), called the Red Forest. The main results include identification of the radionuclide source term (the distribution and inventories of radionuclides in the trench, the description of the physical and chemical properties of the fuel particles encountered in the waste trench) and a model of fuel particle dissolution and subsequent radionuclide leaching into the soil solution. The biogenic migration of radionuclides from the trench to, and effects of radiation on, plants (Scots pine) are also described.

  18. Experience of Cernavoda NPP with siphoning effect on Liquid Zone Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial neutron flux in Cernavoda NPP's reactor is adjusted by means of light water inventory controlled in 14 zones, using a mechanical system. The system uses 3 water pumps, one in service, one selected stby, one off and a logical associated with water supply header pressure in order to prevent the possibility of inadvertent failure of water supply capability. NPP Cernavoda had experienced loss of running pump on liquid Zone Control System, without automatic starting of the stby pump. Due to spatial reactor core neutron flux system design, as a result of water pressure on supply header decreasing, output air operated valves automatically close to retain all available neutron absorbent light water in the reactor core. Because all 14 zones are connected together to the same pipe drain, the result of fast incoming flow and outgoing flow of water from the zones reduction gives the necessary condition to allow upper zones to drain to the lower ones by siphoning effect. The article describes how this can happen, consequences and safety concerns for this unsafe failure. Also it describes the evolution of neutron flux power during transient in the upper zones of reactor core. (authors)

  19. Securing the Chernobyl exclusion zone against illegal movement of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Within the framework of the IAEA Nuclear Security Program the technical cooperation project Strengthening Security of Nuclear Materials in Ukraine(UKR/0/008) is aimed primarily to strengthen protection the entrance/exit checkpoints of the Chernobyl exclusion zone and adjacent State borders of Ukraine against illicit movement of radioactive materials (including nuclear materials). The particular situation of the exclusion zone presents a high risk of uncontrolled movement of radioactive materials from and into the exclusion zone. In view of the future construction of the Shelter-2and decommissioning of the three closed reactor blocks it is expected that the traffic through the exclusion zone will considerably increase in the next years and those large amounts of possibly contaminated metal scrap, construction material and equipment will leave the zone. There is also a risk of illegal movement of radioactive waste into the zone, possibly also through the international border, which could make the zone to an illegal dumping ground for radioactive waste. As practice shows theft of nuclear materials cannot be excluded. The general concept of the project is based on modernization of old and deployment of new vehicle (road and railway) and pedestrian monitoring equipment at all checkpoints of the exclusion zone including road checkpoints, train stations and river ports. A central station of data acquisition and management is to be located in Chernobyl. The equipment to be installed has to meet new technical requirements developed by IAEA. This includes, e.g. sensitivity of gamma and neutron detection, identification of innocent alarms caused by NORM materials or medical radioisotopes, accurate indication of the source position in the vehicle, and remote identification of license plate by advanced video systems. The implementation of the project and deployment of the equipment is expected to start in 2003 and should be completed in 2005. (Author)

  20. Problems of a radioactive polluted soil and other Chernobyl exclusive zone radwaste disposal and way of their decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of radwaste disposal are determined, which are connected to increase of these radwaste generation volumes at realization in a near future of the plans after Chernobyl exclusive zone transformation to the ecologically safe system. It is offered to make changes to the normative documents, which will take into account specific conditions of the exclusive zone

  1. Typification and regionalization of the Chernobyl exclusion zone sedimentary cover for hydrogeological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological findings obtained within the Chernobyl zone territory before and after the accident have been generalized and analyzed. Genetic and stratigrafic division of boreholes and outcrops has permitted identifying typical sedimentary genetic and sedimentary stratigrafic complexes of the cover. Peculiarities of their structure and boundaries of their spreading are determined. It is shown that each of them may be associated with definite regularities of radionuclide migration to the ground water. The latter is necessarily to be taken into account for arrangement of hydrogeological monitoring points and analysis of the monitoring results

  2. [Radioecological studies of freshwater mollusks in the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Nazarov, A B; Dziubenko, E V; Kaglian, A E; Klenus, V G

    2009-01-01

    Species-specificity and dynamics of 90Sr, 137Cs and some transuranic elements accumulation in bivalve and gastropod freshwater molluscs of the Chernobyl exclusion zone during 1997-2008 was analyzed. The results of radiation dose and chromosome aberration rate estimation and the analysis of hemolymph composition of freshwater snail (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) was produced. The absorbed dose rate was registered in the range of 0.3-85.0 microGy/h. In closed water bodies the heightened chromosome aberration rate (up to 27%) in embryo tissues, and also the change of haematological indexes for the adult individuals of snails was registered. PMID:20143583

  3. Ecology-genetic consequences of the chronic irradiation of animals in Chernobyl alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation with the use of different molecular-genetic markers and the cytogenetic analysis of genetic-population consequences in different species of voles and experimental cattle herd reproduced in Chernobyl's alienation zone is carried out. The decrease in the number of animals with cytogenetic anomalies in bone marrow cells in voles, was revealed, that testified to the selection by the radioresistance. The obtained data allow us to make conclusion that the increase of ionizing radiation is a particular case of ecological changes leading to the microevolution events connected with the selection by the stability to new conditions of the reproduction of populations

  4. Assessment of the effect of radiation on the residents of Israel coming from Chernobyl zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A demographic analysis was carried out to estimate the number of repatriates to Israel arriving in the country with the latest tide of repatriation from areas polluted with radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident. Dose assessment at a population level permits the authors to affirm that in 94% of repatriates it cannot affect their health status and the health status of their progeny. At present a risk group of about 15.600 subjects is to be singled out from the new repatriates arriving from zones of radioactive contamination, for whom measures aimed at prevention of thyroid diseases are to be developed and carried out. Refs. 3, tabs. 3

  5. Influence of ecological factors of the zone of the Chernobyl disaster on the somatic cells of mice and their posterity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of the present research is to study the reaction of cells of the hematopoietic system and carcinogenesis in the lungs of linear mice which were in the zone of the Chernobyl disaster for 1 month and their posterity (F1). It is established that the increase in frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow for posterity F1 from mouse-parents being in the zone of the Chernobyl disaster had no statistical significance in comparison with the control groups. It is shown that the raising sensitivity of the posterity of linear mice, which were in the zone of the Chernobyl disaster, to the carcinogenic effect of urethane had more significance in comparison with the sensitivity of their parents. The estimate of the tumor process has shown that a spontaneous frequency of adenomas in the lungs for posterity F1 statistically increased more than 5 times in comparison with the similar parameter for the posterity of intact mice. (authors)

  6. Genetic effects of flow dose irradiation on higher aquatic plants within the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The rate of chromosome aberrations has been studied in four species of higher aquatic plants: common reed (Phragmites australis), sagittaria (Sagittaria sagittifolia), flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus) and manna (Glyceria maxima). The main water bodies were Glubokoye Lake and Dalekoye-1 Lake (left-bank flood lands of the Pripyat River), Azbuchin Lake and Yanovsky Crawl (right-bank flood lands of the Pripyat River), cooling pond of the Chernobyl NPP as well as Pripyat River and Uzh River. The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from above water bodies in decreasing sequence was: 3.4- 1.6 (Glubokoye Lake) > 0.09-0.05 (Dalekoye Lake) > 0.08-0.02 (Azhbuchin Lake) > 0.05- 0.01 (Yanovsky Crawl) > 0.03-0.01(cooling pond of Chernobyl NPP) > 0.004-0.002 (Pripyat River) > 0.003-0.001 Gy year-1 (Uzh River). The highest chromosome aberrations rate in root meristems (17.8-10.8%) were registered in plants from lakes within the left-bank flood lands of the Pripyat River, the lowest one (4.5-2.2%) - in plants from the Pripyat River and Uzh River. The rate of chromosome aberration in closed and slow-running water bodies of the Pripyat River flood land in 3-4 times higher than spontaneous mutagenesis level. It seems that spectrum of the main types of chromosome damages in plants of the right-bank flood land determines by the chemical mutagens (up to 69% of single fragments). The type of chromosome damages distribution in plants of the leftbank flood land points to practically equivalent effects of radiation and chemical factors - 44-49% of bridges, 43-50% of fragments and 6-8% of plural aberrations. Partial or close to complete seed sterility (from 47 to 72%.) are observed for common reed from investigated water bodies, except of running ones. The correlation between high level of chromosome damages and decrease of plant production has been registered.

  7. Chernobyl 25 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation authors describe the field trip to the territory of Chernobyl NPP. They obtained samples from contaminated territory which were analysed on the presence of plutonium-238 and plutonium-239.

  8. Chernobyl 25 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper authors describe the field trip to the territory of Chernobyl NPP. They obtained samples from contaminated territory which were analysed on the presence of plutonium-238 and plutonium-239.

  9. Distribution and migration of 90Sr in components of the Dnieper River basin and the Black Sea ecosystems after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The change in 90Sr concentrations in hydrobionts, water and bottom sediments of the Chernobyl NPP pond-cooler, the Kievskoe and Kakhovskoe reservoirs, the Northern-Crimean canal and the Black Sea after the Chernobyl NPP accident was studied. The environmental half-times for the decrease of 90Sr concentrations were determined: in water – 4.1–24.3 years; algae and flowering water plants – 3.6–7.7 years, in molluscs – 2.4–6.7 years, and in fish – 7.8–12.9 years. The time for 90Sr concentrations to decrease to pre-accident levels were estimated: in freshwater reservoirs and the northwest part of the Black Sea this was 32–44 years, and in freshwater hydrobionts this was 25–73 years. The contribution of dose from 90Sr to the hydrobionts, sampled from the Kakhovskoe reservoir, the Northern-Crimean canal and the Black Sea, has not reached values which could impact them during the entire post-accident period. This complex of comparative studies was carried out for the first time. -- Highlights: ► Regularities of change in 90Sr concentrations in the aquatic ecosystems were studied. ► Forecasts of time for 90Sr concentrations reduction to pre-accident levels were made. ► 90Sr CF values for hydrobionts did not depend on distance from the accident area. ► 90Sr is useful as a radiotracer for the chronological dating of the bottom sediments. ► Dose received by hydrobionts from 90Sr after accident period was determined

  10. Frequencies of micronuclei in bank voles from zones of high radiation at Chernobyl, Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A population of Clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole) from a highly radioactive area within the Chernobyl, Ukraine exclusion zone was sampled in June 1997 and in June and October 1998. Internal radiation doses from radiocesium were estimated to be as high as 8 rads/d. Total dose, which takes into account the internal dose form radiostrontium and the surrounding environment, was estimated to be 15 to 20 rads/d. In contrast, individuals from a reference population lying outside of the exclusion zone registered negligible levels of contamination. The authors used the micronucleus test in a double-blind study to analyze blood samples from 58 individuals. They scored more than 600,000 polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) but could not reject the null hypothesis that the frequency of micronucleated PCEs in voles exposed to radiation was equal to the frequency in unexposed voles. Results of their study stand in sharp contrast to earlier reports of increased frequencies of micronuclei in rodents exposed to fallout of the Chernobyl accident, but with radiation doses that were orders of magnitude lower than those reported here. Radio resistance and experimental methods are possible explanations for these differences in the results

  11. Evidence for selection in response to radiation exposure: Pinus sylvestris in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of genetic structures due to viability selection are likely to occur in populations exposed to rapidly and extremely changing environmental conditions after catastrophic events. However, very little is known about the extent of selective responses and in particular the proportion of the genome involved in putatively adaptive reactions for non-model plants. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) in order to investigate genetic differences between pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees which were partially exposed to extreme environmental conditions. Genetic variation patterns of pines exposed to high radiation in the Chernobyl exclusion zone with or without phenotypic stress symptoms were compared to control trees with a similar origin. Six percent of the investigated loci (15 of 222 loci) were identified as candidates for selective responses. Moderate differentiation was observed between groups of trees showing either weak or strong phenotypic responses to high radiation levels. - Highlights: → Genetic variation patterns of pines exposed to high radiation were investigated. → Pines with or without phenotypic stress symptoms were compared to control trees. → AFLP markers were used to reveal evidences of selection processes. → 15 of 222 loci are identified as candidates for selective responses. → Moderate differentiation is observed between irradiated and control trees. - Genetic responses to the exposure of trees to radiation in the Chernobyl zone may involve adaptive changes at a comparatively large part of the genome.

  12. Plants from Chernobyl zone could shed light on genome stability in radioactive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Galina; Talalaiev, Oleksandr; Doonan, John

    2016-07-01

    For nearly 30 years, despite of chronic radiation, flora in Chernobyl zone continue to flourish, evidencing the adaptation of plants to such an environment. Keeping in mind interplanetary missions, this phenomenon is a challenge for plant space research since it highlights the possible mechanisms of genome protection and stabilization in harmful environment. Plants are sessile organisms and, contrary to animals, could not escape the external impact. Therefore, plants should evolve the robust system allowing DNA-protection against damage, which is of special interest. Our investigations show that Arabidopsis thaliana from Chernobyl zone tolerate radiomimetics and heavy metals better than control plants from non-polluted areas. Besides, its genome is less affected by such mutagens. qPCR investigations have revealed up-regulation of some genes involved in DNA damage response. In particular, expression of ATR is increased slightly and downstream expression of CycB1:1 gene is increased significantly after bleomycin treatment suggesting role of ATR-dependent pathway in genome stabilization. Several DNA repair pathways are known to exist in plants. We continue investigations on gene expression from different DNA repair pathways as well as cell cycle regulation and investigation of PCD hallmarks in order to reveal the mechanism of plant tolerance to radiation environment. Our investigations provide unique information for space researchers working on biotechnology of radiation tolerant plants.

  13. The fate of long-lived radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in the Black Sea after Chernobyl NPP accident: role of hydrophysical factors and tracer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The poster summarizes studies of 137Cs and 90Sr contamination of the Black Sea Basin carried out by Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas during 1986-2005 following the Chernobyl NPP accident. Inflows of 137Cs and 90Sr from the Dnieper and the Danube Rivers, outflow through the Bosporus Strait, temporary evolution of 137Cs and 90Sr profiles and inventories in the Black Sea water column and inventories in bottom sediments were estimated over the period 1986-2005. It has been estimated that atmospheric fallout deposited after 26 April 1986 1.7-2.4 PBq of 137Cs on the surface of the Black Sea - nearly 2 % of total 137Cs release into the environment. Consequently the 137Cs inventory increased by a factor of 6-10 in the 0-50 m layer and in the whole volume of the Black Sea - by a factor of at least 2 in comparison with pre-Chernobyl value of - 1.4 ± 0.3 PBq. The contribution of Chernobyl-origin 90Sr from atmospheric fallout was estimated as 0.1-0.3 PBq. Preaccident 90Sr level around 20 Bq m-3 was reached by 1988 except NW Black Sea. The subsequent 137Cs input from the Danube and the Dnieper Rivers was very insignificant in comparison with the short-term atmospheric fallout. In contrast to this, total amount of 90Sr delivered by the two rivers into the Black Sea was closed to amount of 90Sr fallen on the Black Sea surface after Chernobyl NPP accident. The results of observations and mathematical modelling testified that in the surface layers 0-50 and 0-200 m of the Black Sea in 1986-2000 an exponential decrease of the 137Cs inventories with an effective half-lifes of 5-7 years and 9-13 years respectively have been observed. Under conditions of relatively unimportant river inputs and depletion by sedimentation from the water column, the decrease of the 137Cs inventory in the surface layer has been influenced mainly by three processes: vertical water mixing, release through the Bosphorus Strait, which accounts for 2-2.5 % of the 137Cs inventory in the 0

  14. Role of Reservoirs in Radionuclide Transport in the River Systems: Comparative Analyses for the Rivers of the Chernobyl and Fukushima Fallout Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleznyak, Mark; Kivva, , Sergei; Konoplev, Alexei; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi

    2015-04-01

    The 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP), Ukraine, caused a significant radioactive contamination of the Dnieper River basin, and, in particular, the Pripyat River watershed. The ChNPP is situated approximately 30 km from the confluence of the Pripyat River with the Kiev Reservoir of the Dnieper river. The watersheds and floodplain territory in the vicinity of the ChNPP and the surrounding watersheds (including those in Russia and Belarus) are heavy contaminated by 137Cs and 90Sr. From these contaminated areas, radionuclides migrate into the Kiev Reservoir, and, consequently, downstream along the cascade of six Dnieper reservoirs toward the Black Sea. Spring flood events, generated by snow melting, and periodic rainfall floods in the Pripyat River watershed lead to elevated levels of radioactive contamination of the water supply sources for the Ukrainian population consuming the Dnieper River water downstream from Kiev. The 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, Japan caused 137Cs contamination of the watersheds of Abukuma River - the largest river of the fallout area, and the number of the rivers crossing the heavy contaminated "no exit" territories and flowing to the populated areas of the Fukushima Prefecture. There are deep reservoirs on some of these rivers at Mano Dam - Manogawa River, at Yokokawa Dam - Otagawa River, Takanakura Dam - Mizunashi Gawa River. In both cases - after Chernobyl accident and after Fukushima accident the reservoirs play a role of the "traps" for the contaminated sediments. However the potential risks of the secondary remobilization of 137Cs during the extreme events - the highest floods of in a cases of the dam breaks should be studied as a part of the post accidental radiation safety analyses. The objective of this presentation is to provide an overview of the results of the monitoring of radionuclide fate in the rivers and reservoirs of the Dnieper River basin in comparison with the data for the rivers and

  15. Vertical distribution of radionuclides in soil of a grassland site in Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five soil profiles from a site about 8 km SE of the Chernobyl NPP were investigated for the vertical distribution of radionuclides. The average 137Cs-inventory at the site is about 2.6 MBq/m2 (reference date 1 May 1986). Apart from 137Cs, the following radionuclides have been identified (their activity ratios to 137Cs in brackets): 134Cs (0.537), 125Sb (0.068), 60Co (0.0022), 154Eu (0.016), 155Eu (0.020), 94gNb (9.5E-5), 239/240Pu (0.0088), 238Pu (0.040), 90Sr (0.30) and 241Am (0.011). Apparent vertical migration velocities are between 0.14 and 0.26 cm/a, apparent dispersion coefficients range from 0.02 to 0.13 cm2/a. The rankings of the velocities v for different radionuclides are (Sr, Cs, Sb, Co, Pu)< Am< Eu and Sr<(Cs, Nb), for D, the following rankings have been found: (Nb, Sr, Cs)< Am< Eu, Cs< Sb and Nb< Co (all on p=0.1 level)

  16. The Chernobyl catastrophe is the most terrible civil nuclear incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The 4th nuclear reactor of the Chernobyl NPP exploded on 26 April 1986, 20 years ago. It's the most terrible nuclear civil accident of all times. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident led to contamination of 3,1 million ha of arable land, 1,5 million ha of natural pasture land, 3,5 million ha of forests and changed the lifestyle for millions of people in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. It is well known that the mortality in the contaminated areas (infant mortality by cancer) drastically increased. The Chernobyl catastrophe is presented , such as a sad example for humanity, a complex political international, economical, social and, particular, ecological problem according to the traditional and new studies for the development of the nucleotide contaminated territories: 1. Financing of safety of stopped working 4th nuclear reactor (security of covering system) and of work another 3 blocks at the Chernobyl NPP. Detailed control of international financial support for guarantee the safety, security of the Chernobyl NPP and sustainable development for rehabilitation of the affected zones and people. 2. It should be marked increase in medical, demographic analysis and in social, economical protection of the people in the contaminated areas. 3. Analysis and synthesis, monitoring of the long-time data results due to environmental, ecological, social and political consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. 4. Protection from the possible terrorist (extra) actions and (inter) damage or incident function of the Chernobyl plant, such as an old generation nuclear power. 5. Planned budget for future studies in the affected territories and flexibility actually realization of budget (State and International). 6. Nuclear refuse and aria/water protection in the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia contaminated zones. 7. Risk evaluation of not good function of NPPs which are situated in Russia, Ukraine and in another places (always remembering that the Chernobyl catastrophe is the

  17. Risks from radionuclide migration to groundwater in the Chernobyl 30-KM zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remediation of contaminated groundwater in the Chernobyl 30-km evacuation zone is frequently identified as a priority by technical experts and Chernobyl site officials in Ukraine. In order to evaluate the health risk basis for this groundwater remediation, we have estimated both on-site and off-site health risks caused by radionuclide migration to the groundwater and compared these risks with those from exposure to radioactive contamination on the ground surface. A simple and conservative analytical model was developed to assess radionuclide transport to the groundwater from the soil surface contaminated by radioactive fallout. 90Sr, the primary radioactive contaminant of concern for the groundwater-migration exposure pathway, was evaluated in the analysis. The estimated health risk to hypothetical, self-sufficient residents in the 30-km zone is dominated by external and internal irradiation (due primarily to ingestion of agricultural products) from 137Cs, which is present in soils of the 30-km zone in roughly equal proportion with 90Sr. The estimated risk from contaminated groundwater is approximately an order of magnitude lower. Analysis of 90Sr migration via groundwater to surface water and down-river population centers shows that, despite generally unfavorable environmental conditions in the 30-km exclusion zone, radionuclide transport via the groundwater pathway has potential to contribute only marginally to the off-site radiological risk, which is governed by wash-out of radionuclides form the contaminated river flood plain and catchment areas by surface water during spring snowmelt and rains. Health risks due to off-site radionuclide migration via groundwater are below the level requiring application of counter-measures. 32 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Radiotropism and photoreactions of micromycetes isolated from ChNPP alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our work was comparative study of such responses of microscopic fungi as positive radiotropism reaction and photostimulation. Positive radiotropism reaction was observed just among fungi isolated from accident zone of ChNPP. It was chose 10 strains with clear radiotropic reactions. All of them were stimulated by white light of low intensity. Most noticeable parameter was primary mycelium length (its stimulation was 35 - 167% comparing to control samples). The coincidence of radiotropism and photostimulation reactions of micromycetes, which had clear radiotropic reactions on the level of primary mycelia, was absolute. Obtained differences were only quantitative

  19. The indirect plutonium isotopes' content in the ChNPP restricted zone soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is presented the procedure of indirect specific activity determination of radioisotopes238Pu and 239+240Pu in the samples of Ch NPP exclusion zone objects and environmental based on the measured specific activity values of reference radionuclides 90Sr and 154Eu, and determined reference radionuclides weighting factors. Reference radionuclides specific activities are determined by scintillation spectrometers of beta-, gamma-radiation energies. Weighting factors are determined by calibration measurements using radiochemical procedures of plutonium determination.The indirect measurements of specific activity radioisotopes 238Pu and 239+240Pu range is within 1 to 30000 Bq/kg

  20. Fuel-containing particles released from the fourth block of the Chernobyl NPP in soil samples of the Bryansk district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiography is used to identify radioactive microparticles in the small soil fraction. Microparticles containing α-emitters are detected. Radiochemical and α-spectrometric methods revealed the nature of the α-tracks. The contents of Pu and 241Am in the studied sample are estimated. The data confirm the open-quotes Chernobyl originclose quotes of the contaminated Bryanski soil (Novozybkovsk region)

  1. Variability of various genetic characteristics of animals kept in the zone of ChAPS [Chernobyl' atomic power station] accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic structure and cytogenetic variability by some genetic-biochemical systems (22 locuses) in Black-and-White cows kept in the zone of Chernobyl' atomic power station with increased radionuclidic comtamination have been analyzed comparatively. Increased frequency of cytogenetic anomalies, differing distribution of allele frequencies, and reduced expression of some biochemical markers have been revealed in tested animals as compared to the control

  2. Radioecological investigation of soil and plant cover at the neighvouring landscape areas in the zone surroimding Chernobyl' atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made on content levels and regularities of radionuclide migration in soil and plant cover at the neighbouring landscape areas in 30-km zone of Chernobyl accident. Quantitative estimation of radionuclide distribution in main components of soil and plant cover is given. Possibility of self-purification of some, most dynamic areas of geochemical integration is shown

  3. Radionuclide fluxes in ground-plant system in Chernobyl exclusion zone conditions: assessment procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of radionuclide fluxes estimation in the ground-plant system is proposed, which takes into account an areal variation of values of vertical migration fluxes and root uptake. This method uses mathematical modeling to assess fluxes of radionuclides vertical migration, principles of radioecological regioning according to soil-landscape characteristics for estimation of fluxes from soil to plants, and geostatistical analysis of spatial data. The results of application of this method (on 137Cs example) for ChNPP exclusion zone area and their discussion are given. It is shown that in the whole for exclusion zone area the process of root uptake of 137Cs is more intensive in comparison with the process of its vertical migration

  4. [Sexual function of male rats exposed to the factors of the Chernobyl exclusion zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, N A

    2000-01-01

    The influence of chronic internal and external irradiation in low doses on sexual behavior and fertility of sexual active animals keeping within the 30-km Chernobyl exclusion zone was studied. After the 1.5 month consumption of drinking water containing radionuclides of natural Chernobyl spectrum the decrease in proportion of sexual active animals and suppression of sexual motivation and erection were observed. This deviations resulted in the reducing of the inseminated females number. The dependence between the magnitude of total absorbed dose and the working of the sexual behavior regulative mechanisms was obtained. In addition, the reduction of rat fertility took place because of the increase of preimplantation, but not post-implantation death in in irradiated females coupled with irradiated males. The irradiation of males with total absorbed dose on testis 0.23 cGy decreased the fertility because of sexual behavior disturbance, and this effect was intensified by negative influence of ionizing radiation in the range of 0.7-7.0 cGy on male gametes. PMID:10778442

  5. Sexual function of male rats exposed to the factors of the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using sexually active rats for experiments the influence of chronic combined internal and external irradiation at low doses on sexual behavior and fertility of sexual active animals keeping within the 30-km Chernobyl external zone studied. After the 1.5 month consumption of drinking water containing radionuclides of natural Chernobyl spectrum the decrease in proportion of sexually active animals and suppression sexual motivation and erection were observed. This deviations resulted in the reducing of the inseminated females number. Dependence between the magnitude of total absorbed dose and the function of the sexual behavior regulatory mechanisms was obtained. In addition, the reduction of rat fertility took place because of the increase of preimplantation, but not post-implantation death in clean females coupled with irradiated males. Irradiation of males at total absorbed dose to gonads 0.23 c Gy decreased the fertility because of sexual behavior disturbance, and this effect was intensified by negative influence of ionizing radiation in the range of 0.7-7.0 c Gy on male gametes

  6. Assessment of dose contribution to population exposure from the radiation sources in the alienated Chernobyl zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main dose load of Ukrainian population is caused by radionuclide-contamination of country territories, located outside the alienated zone, following Chernobyl accident. Besides, much attention could be devoted to the contribution of dose load on population, received from the radioactivity sources that were transferred out from the zone after accident. Present research and analysis of the available documents reflecting the transfer of radioactivity from the alienated zone, provided the estimates of dose load on population, resulting from transfer of the radioactivity sources via following channels: (1) direct surface flow; (2) underground waters; (3) wind-powdered route; (4) transfer with hydrobionts; (5) transfer during irrigation; (6) biogenic route; (7) transport routes and (8) route during wood transportation. Dynamics of radiation transfer through each channel was also studied for the post-accident period. Specific gravity of radioactivity transfer is determined in relation to dose load on Ukrainian population in different regions, in particular, in Dnipro river basin. The perspectives of radioactivity transfer via each of studied channels and its role in dose load on population were also analyzed. On the basis of present results the recommendations on possible arrangements are working out that aimed to reduce the dose contribution in population exposure by radioactivity source transfer from the alienated zone via channels that stipulate the largest dose loads and collective doses

  7. Sensitivity to genotoxic effects of bleomycin of blood lymphocytes of people residing in villages of ChNPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On purpose of comparative determination of cell repair system activity of people residing without permission in the villages of ChNPP exclusion zone and of Yahotyn district, Kiev region (control group) the chromosome sensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes to genotoxic effect of bleomycin in vitro was studied. Chromatid break frequency per cell was a criterium for the estimation. It was found a significantly higher sensitivity to bleomycin in ChNPP exclusion zone self-settlers' group due to cell reaction of people younger than 60. For the elderly people there was revealed no significant difference

  8. Values and structure of dose burdens in small mammals of the Chernobyl zone in 19 years after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative analysis of published data concerning dose burdens in Chernobyl's wild small mammals are given, as well as own assessment for the conditions of year 2005. According to the calculations total values of absorbed doses and structure of contributions from various sources depend on features concrete animal species and ecological characteristics of sites. In 2005 the contribution of incorporated radionuclides (90Sr, 137Cs) averaged 55 % of absorbed dose, external beta-irradiation - 21 %, external gamma-irradiation - 23%. On some areas of the Chernobyl zone even in 19 years after the accident small mammals are getting dose burdens up to 1 - 50 mGy/day

  9. Influence of the radiation on cytogenetic parameters mouselike rodents from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of radioecological and cytogenetic studies are presented. The soil contamination on the testing experimental sites of Chernobyl exclusion zone was studied. The correlation between the concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr in the carcasses of animals and the level of soil contamination was revealed. The chronic exposure to radioecological conditions of the exclusion zone is shown to increase the pathological changes in bone marrow cells, which is determinate micro-nucleus test using

  10. Physical root-causes of the accident on Chernobyl NPP and its impact on the power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of the article is in short described the process of establishing nuclear safety and reliability for nuclear power plants, and in the second part are shortly described root-causes for two significant accidents on nuclear power plants (Three Mile Island and Chernobyl). Considered is an impact of theses accidents on the power industry and measures of the international community for assurance of reliable and safe operation of the nuclear power plants. (author)

  11. Impressions of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three years on from the nuclear power plant accident, an inaugural meeting of the Wano (World Association of Nuclear Operators) discusses impressions of the Chernobyl incident on a technical tour through the Chernobyl exclusion zone. (author)

  12. Use of GIS in the rehabilitation assessment of the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main task of the Geographical Information System of the Chernobyl exclusion zone is to estimate the applicability and perform the analysis of the body of radioecological information on the basis of which the administrative decisions about the use of territories can be made. This system is rather virtual and has several logical levels: storage of the primary radioecological and land use information; the analysis of possible ways for rehabilitation of contaminated lands; the economic evaluations based primarily on the cost-benefit comparison of scenarios with use of different countermeasures and those implementing usual technologies. This includes GIS-analysis and evaluation of risks as the basis for the decision-making. The paper presents the results of application of sophisticated GIS to the practice of radioecological research and land rehabilitation. (author)

  13. Feeding of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seasonal feed choice of a roe deer for a 3-year period has been investigated on the basis of the rumen content analysis. Results of the investigation are given. A list of 125 species of forage plants is presented. Seasonal intensity of their consumption is characterized. Significance of main plant assemblages of the evacuated zone of Chernobyl in the diet of the animal population is elucidated. Special attention is paid to the role of the above-ground parts of Oenotera biennis that comprise 34% of the average annual forage of roe deer and are consumed by the animal during 9-10 months. Recent state of the forage base of the population is estimated. An attempt to predict its dynamics for the nearest 10-15 years is made

  14. Development of the complex atlas of cartographic materials for the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl alienated zone (ChAZ) at present and in the visible future, being potentially dangerous territory for the inhabitants of Ukraine, still more or less actively utilized for industrial needs, and represents itself the unique polygon for the accomplishment of the complex diverse investigations aiming at the studies in different media of the processes and regularities, caused by the nuclear accident and by cessation of the intense economical utilization of the territory, as well as at the development of various measures concerning rehabilitation of different objects, areas, biosphere and a man himself. The maps are one of the most effective and systematically organized methods of depicting accumulated knowledge about the structure and processes in separate media. The complex cartographic analysis of these consequences could be properly accomplished only on the basis of revealing and regarding the environmental elements structure regularities and processes intrinsic for them and for the medium as a whole

  15. Radiological effects on populations of Oligochaeta in the Chernobyl contaminated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed investigation of 3 populations of Oligochaete species (Dero obtusa, Nais pseudobtusa and Nais pardalis) has been carried out in contaminated lake of the close-in Chernobyl zone and in a control lake. Hydrochemical indices and concentrations of heavy metals, chloro-organi compounds and 90Sr in bottom sediments have been measured. Absorbed doses were calculated on the basis of the results of radiochemical analysis an assessed directly with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Stimulation of paratomous division (asexual reproduction) was found in one species of worm (D. obtusa), and activation of sexual reproduction in the two other specie studied. An increase in the amount of cytogenetic damage in the somatic cells of worms from the contaminated lake was found and an attempt was made to assess the relative contributions of radiation and chemical exposure on the basis of analyses of inter-cellular aberration distributions and the types of chromosome aberrations observed in the cells

  16. Radionuclide accumulation and dose burden in small mammals in Chernobyl zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By results of complex research in the Chernobyl zone, peculiarities of radionuclide accumulation in small mammal organisms have been studied and radiation doses have been assessed. It is shown, that radionuclide intake is defined by trophic specialization of the animals, and how that depends on season and local changes of the animals diet. A detailed description of 90Sr and 137Cs distribution in organism of bank vole has been presented. Radiation dose burden has been assessed for 4 small mammal species, and for conditions of the last 7 years. As a rule, the major contributor into total dose - external beta irradiation, some less - external gamma irradiation. Internal dose depends on species radionuclide accumulation and it is mainly determined by 90Sr, with the exception of the bank vole, for which an internal irradiation is more important than external, due to extremely high 137Cs accumulation. (author)

  17. Accumulation radionuclides (Cs 137, Sr 90) the higher water plants in exclusion zone of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation and concentration factors Cs 137, Sr 90 by various groups of the higher water plants which specify in more intensive accumulation Sr 90 in comparison with Cs 137 on all ecological groups are received. Rates of accumulation Sr 90 were considerably above (4,0 times), than Cs 137 (2,8 times) in comparison with the period of the beginning of growth, and rates of decrease, on the contrary, for Sr 90 below (1,4 times), than Cs 137 (1,6 times). (authors)

  18. A parasite situation and its dynamics in the Chernobyl NPP accident zone. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total estimation of a state of parasitic groups is given as well as parasitic groups of wild birds and mammals are described. The complexes of blood-sucking dipterous insects are described too. The population dynamics of both epidemically and epizootically dangerous species of parasites are given. 2 tabs., 9 figs

  19. Cytogenetic analysis of blood lymphocytes of 30-km Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone villages residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted cytogenetic examination of the self-settlers, living in the areas with different levels radionuclide contamination of soil. The results of our study have proven the destabilising impact of low dose rate irradiation on the genetic structure of human somatic cells given the conditions of living on a radionuclide contaminated territory as well as advisability of cytogenetic monitoring of population as well as difficulty of biological dosimetry of low dose rate radiation

  20. Soil nematode assemblages as bioindicators of radiation impact in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte-Pradines, C., E-mail: catherine.lecomte-pradines@irsn.fr [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Bonzom, J.-M. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Della-Vedova, C. [Magelis, 6, rue Frederic Mistral, 84160 Cadenet (France); Beaugelin-Seiller, K. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LM2E, Building 159, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Villenave, C. [ELISOL Environment, Building 12, Campus de la Gaillarde, 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 2 (France); Gaschak, S. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Coppin, F. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, L2BT, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Dubourg, N. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, GARM Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Maksimenko, A. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Garnier-Laplace, J. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, Building 159, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France)

    2014-08-15

    In radioecology, the need to understand the long-term ecological effects of radioactive contamination has been emphasised. This requires that the health of field populations is evaluated and linked to an accurate estimate of received radiological dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of current radioactive contamination on nematode assemblages at sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. First, we estimated the total dose rates (TDRs) absorbed by nematodes, from measured current soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs, calculated using EDEN software) and soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). The impact of current TDRs on nematode assemblages was then evaluated. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) with external gamma dose rates, measured using radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, varying from 0.2 to 22 μGy h{sup −1}. These values were one order of magnitude below the TDRs. A majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal-feeding nematodes and very few of the disturbance sensitive families were identified. No statistically significant association was observed between TDR values and nematode total abundance or the Shannon diversity index (H′). The Nematode Channel Ratio (which defines the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR, suggesting that radioactive contamination may influence nematode assemblages either directly or indirectly by modifying their food resources. A greater Maturity Index (MI), usually characterising better soil quality, was associated with higher pH and TDR values. These results suggest that in the CEZ, nematode assemblages from the forest sites were slightly impacted by chronic exposure at a predicted TDR of 200 μGy h{sup −1}. This may be imputable to a dominant proportion of pollutant resistant nematodes in all sites

  1. Soil nematode assemblages as bioindicators of radiation impact in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radioecology, the need to understand the long-term ecological effects of radioactive contamination has been emphasised. This requires that the health of field populations is evaluated and linked to an accurate estimate of received radiological dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of current radioactive contamination on nematode assemblages at sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. First, we estimated the total dose rates (TDRs) absorbed by nematodes, from measured current soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs, calculated using EDEN software) and soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). The impact of current TDRs on nematode assemblages was then evaluated. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) with external gamma dose rates, measured using radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, varying from 0.2 to 22 μGy h−1. These values were one order of magnitude below the TDRs. A majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal-feeding nematodes and very few of the disturbance sensitive families were identified. No statistically significant association was observed between TDR values and nematode total abundance or the Shannon diversity index (H′). The Nematode Channel Ratio (which defines the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR, suggesting that radioactive contamination may influence nematode assemblages either directly or indirectly by modifying their food resources. A greater Maturity Index (MI), usually characterising better soil quality, was associated with higher pH and TDR values. These results suggest that in the CEZ, nematode assemblages from the forest sites were slightly impacted by chronic exposure at a predicted TDR of 200 μGy h−1. This may be imputable to a dominant proportion of pollutant resistant nematodes in all sites. This might

  2. Uptake of americium-241 by plants from contaminated Chernobyl exclusive zone test site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Americium-241 was found to accumulate in soils and biological objects of the environment. Its concentration has increased many times after the Chernobyl disaster and can be expected to increase about 40 times in the future. This research concentrated on the contaminated exclusive Chernobyl zone polluted by trace radionuclides, their behavior and accumulation by various plant species. Special attention is devoted to the bioavailability of 241Am to the plants Galium rivale, G. tinctorium, G. aparine, G. intermedium, Berteroa incana, Artemisia absinthium, A. vulgaris, Centaurea borysthenica, C. arenaria, Cirsium arvense, Succissa pratensis, Solidago virgaurea, Linaria vulgaris, Lepidium ruderale, Stenactis annua, Veronica maxima, Verbascum lychnitis, Euphorbia cyparissias, Genista tinctoria, Erigeron canadensis, Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur, which were collected from the Chernobyl, Kopachi, and Yanov districts. The plant samples of Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur were collected from the Yanov district, where the soil contamination by 241Am and 137Cs was at the level of 660 and 27 MBq/m2, respectively. Gamma spectroscopy and radiochemical methods were used to estimate the activity concentration of 137Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am. The radionuclides were measured in the dry green mass of the plant samples and in the dry soils. The contamination of the Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur samples by 137Cs was (5.8±1,5)x106, (7.4±1.1)x105, and (2.6±0.2)x106 Bq/kg dry mass, respectively, and contamination by 241Am was 47±5, 45±3 and 3.2±0.2 Bq/kg, respectively. The soil-to-plant transfer ratio for 137Cs ranged lay within the interval of 0.2 to 0.03 Bq/kg : Bq/m2, the the transfer ratio for 241Am did not exceed 7x10-5 Bq/kg : Bq/m2. The coefficient of the relative contents of the 241Am/239+240Pu radionuclides in the various plant samples varied from 3.2 to 8.3, while for soil from the Yanov district this

  3. Relation between natural and anthropogenic factors in the redistribution of radionuclides on the 30 km Chernobyl NPP territory, including the result of countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before the accident natural and anthropogenic ecosystems occupied about 90% of 30-km zone area, including 36% of forest ecosystem, ploughed lands -28%, meadows and bogs - 18%. About 10% of total areas were occupied by ameliorated lands, separate water reservoirs - 2.8% relatively large area. Ten years after the Chernobyl accident the lands structure was changed: Areas of forest territories became larger (up to 12-13%). Areas of territories occupied by different technical constructions, roads were increased too. Contamination of different objects of 30-km zone territory is very uneven, for instance variation of 137Cs contamination of soil reaches the same thousand times (From 0.1-5 up to 10000 and more Ci/km2)

  4. Comparison of retrospective luminescence dosimetry with computational modeling in two highly contaminated settlements downwind of the Chernobyl NPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailiff, I K; Stepanenko, V F; Göksu, H Y; Bøtter-Jensen, L; Brodski, L; Chumak, V; Correcher, V; Delgado, A; Golikov, V; Jungner, H; Khamidova, L G; Kolizshenkov, T V; Likhtarev, I; Meckbach, R; Petrov, S A; Sholom, S

    2004-01-01

    The cumulative absorbed dose in bricks collected from six buildings in two heavily contaminated settlements (137Cs > 2,000 kBq m(-2)) located downwind of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was determined using luminescence techniques by six laboratories. The settlements, Vesnianoje in Ukraine and Zaborie in Russia, are located in, respectively, proximal and distal locations relative to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. The luminescence determinations of cumulative dose in brick, after subtraction of the natural background dose, were translated to absorbed dose in air at a Reference Location using conversion factors derived from Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport. The simulations employed source distributions inferred from contemporary soil contamination data and also took into account heterogeneity of fallout deposition. This translation enables the luminescence determinations to be compared directly with values of cumulative absorbed dose obtained by computational modeling and also other dose reconstruction methods. For each sampled location the cumulative dose was calculated using three deterministic models, two of which are based on the attenuation of dose-rate with migration of radionuclides in soil and the third on historic instrumental gamma dose-rate data. The results of the comparison of the two methods indicate overall agreement within margins of +/-25%. The methodology developed is generally applicable and adaptable to areas contaminated by much lower levels of radioactive fallout in which brick buildings are found. PMID:14695006

  5. Radioactive contamination of the Belarus' territory causing to destruction of the building constructions of the 4th unit of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adverse scripts of development of events, causing to destruction of object 'UKRYTIE' and to contamination of the territory of Republic of Belarus are considered. The number of designs of the 4th unit has visually observed damages. Also there are hypothetically unstable constructive elements, at installation of which in a conditions of 1986 the application of reliable welded or bolt connections was impossibly. Initial events of the considered hypothetical accident are earthquake or aircraft accident. Settlement data on contamination of territory for considered accident are indicated. The account was made for a moderate- stable condition of atmosphere by the Gauss model for process of the dust particles precipitation. In this case the radionuclide falling out will take place basically on already contaminated territory of Belarus. The additional contamination may be about 2 Ci/sq.km in the Mozyr' region and 20 Ci/sq.km in Chernobyl NPP territory. In case of imposing of acts of nature (the earthquake or tornado), the all dust fraction, which available in object, may be released in atmosphere. The total activity of the dust falling out will be about 1.3 MCi, that can lead to more powerful contaminated of the south part of Belarus. Despite the hypothetical character of the scripts, the probability of their realisation at long operation of object will increase. Thus, the transformation of object 'UKRYTIE' to a safe system is an urgent problem. 1 ref., 3 figs

  6. Evacuation zone changes in Belarussian wildlife populations following the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine years of wildlife monitoring in the 30-km Chernobyl evacuation zone documented effects on faunal biodiversity at various levels of ecosystem integration, helping to focus future investigations needed to distinguish radioecological impacts from those caused by reduced human activity within this zone. Following the direct, aucte radiation effects on the fauna, some long-term stabilization appears in the radionuclide content of animal tissues. The recovery of faunal populations seems to depend more on the secondary effects of human evacuation than on direct radioecological impacts. Natural ecological succession may have accelerated due to the post-evacuation removal of human pressure on contaminated habitats. Cessation of human activity has most benefited the commercially hunted bird and mammal populations. Wild boar, elk, and roe deer populations also have increased to new levels of post-accident equilibrium whereas the recovery of other animal populations is less pronounced. While the number of some rare wildlife species increased in the affected communities, many of those wildlife populations normally associated with human activity have disappeared. In abandoned settlements, the succession of plant communities dominated by trees and shrubs now promotes recolonization by those wildlife communities that are more typical of woodland habitats undisturbed by human activity. These dynamic processes of transformation of wildlife communities offer a unique opportunity to study the development and conservation of wild animal biodiversity within the context of specific land use and landscape ecological changes

  7. Main investigation results on the forest radioecology in the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accident zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the long-term studies of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems in zones of radioactive contamination after the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accidents, the following trends were revealed: (1) High retention capacity of stand canopy with respect to radioactive fallout. This leads to high doses absorbed by apical and leaf meristems, β-radiation giving the main part of the dose; (2) Fast self-decontamination of crowns during the growth period and relatively slow decontamination in the phase of physiological rest, regardless of amount of atmospheric precipitation. The rate of crown decontamination determines the value and duration of radiation stress on woody plants; (3) Accumulation not less than 95% of the total radionuclide amount in the forest litter 1-2 years after the cessation of radioactive fallout; (4) Relatively slow migration of strontium and cesium radionuclides along the forest soil profile; (5) High capacity of the forest when serving as a biogeochemical barrier to the routes of horizontal and vertical radionuclide migration and export out of the zone of initial contamination, including migration into the river water; (6) Considerable difference between strontium and cesium when migrating in forest soils and in the soil-plant system; (7) Broad variations in transfer factors for uptake of cesium-137 from soil into forest plants depending on the plant species and soil type. The primary radiobiological effects connected with irradiation of organisms are considered and secondary disturbances due to changes of ecological bonds between the components of irradiated forest ecosystem are discussed

  8. The radioecological consequences of Chernobyl accident for fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimate of dynamics of radionuclides concentration in muscles of some game-fish from Kiev reservoir and likes in Bryansk region for period after Chernobyl accident was carried out. The concentration of 137Cs in fish has not exceeded the admissible concentration (600 Bq/kg ww) since 1993. The exceptions are the cooling-pond of Chernobyl NPP and Kozlanovskoe Lake where the concentration of 137Cs in fish's muscles exceeded the admissible level more than 5-6 times even in 1995. It was concluded that chronic irradiation of game-fish in water bodies outside 30-km zone would not affect the volume of fishing

  9. Molecular-genetic characterization of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in persons irradiated as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To elucidate the mechanism of radiation induced leukemia we studied the bcr rearrangements in 19 CML patients irradiated as a result of the Chernobyl accident and 30 CML patients without exposure to ionizing radiation. 48 patients, irrespective of radiation exposure, had M-bcr mRNA, 1 - m-bcr. Clinical-hematological data and analysis of breakpoints (ratio of b2a2 and b3a2 transcripts) demonstrated prevalence of b3a2 among the exposed persons.Regardless of exposure to ionizing radiation the high platelet count cases were more frequent among patients carrying b3a2 transcripts. This study suggests, that formation of chimeric BCR/ABL gene and its genetic products may play an important role in the development of leukemia in either radiation-induced or de novo CML

  10. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi from the Chernobyl exclusion zone and their possible influence to the accumulation of radionuclides byplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More then 30 plants species from the Chernobyl exclusion zone have been analyzed and plant samples with high level of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) colonization were selected. Spores of AM fungi have isolated from the rhizosphere of those plants, which had high accumulation abilities related to the radionuclides and were high AM colonized as well. These AM spores are used to produce inocula in order of it's forthcoming application in the phytoremediation activity

  11. Distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 230,232Th on the fractions of natural organic species soils of ChNPP alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental data determination of distribution 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am 'Chernobyl' releases and 230,232Th on the fraction of humic and fulvic acids sandy- podsolic, meadow and peaty soils taken in the exclusive zone ChNPP are presents. Soils organic matter was isolated by conventional alkali extraction (Turin's method). It was shown that, with depending of soils types 15-45 % 241Am associate with fulvic acids. In all investigated types of soils 30 - 40 % 239+240Pu connects with humic acids, as strong complexes. The distribution of environmental 230,232Th and artificial 239+240Pu on the fraction natural organic species is the same

  12. The Chernobyl Trace in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is described the radiation contamination of territory of the Republic of Belarus in 1996 as result of the Chernobyl NPP accident. The maps and diagrams showing a radiation situation in the republic are given. 24 figs

  13. Radioecological estimation of the condition of wild fauna in the zone of Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the result of long time of wildlife radioecological monitoring in the zone of Chernobyl nuclear accident the main trends in radioactive contamination of the animals of different taxones, the condition of fauna biodiversity have been shown. After a noticeable decrease of the radionuclide contents observed in the period immediately following the accident which was mainly caused by decay of short-living isotopes, in recent years a tendency of stabilising the radionuclide accumulation was found in the majority of the animal groups. The dynamics and state of the fauna depends more on the secondary effects of human evacuation than on direct radioecological impact. Natural ecological succession may have accelerated due to the post-evacuation removal of human pressure on contaminated habitats. Cessation of economic activity had the greatest effect on the structure and number of ornithocomplexes and populations of commercial game mammals. Changes in aquatic animals are expressed to a smaller extent and follow the laws of natural development to a greater extent. These dynamics processes of transformation of wildlife communities offer a unique opportunity to study the development and conservation of wild animal biodiversity within the context of specific land use and landscape ecological changes. (authors)

  14. Migration peculiarities of long-lived radionuclides in soils in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied migration of long-lived radionuclides of caesium-134/137, cerium-144 and ruthenium-106 in soil samples from regions contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. Samples of three types of contamination - fuel (A), quasi-fuel (B) and aerosol (C) - were taken at calibration sites in August 1988 down to a depth of 5 cm using conventional core samplers. The radioactivity of the samples was measured at intervals of 0.5 cm, as was the activity of three mechanical fractions of the samples: 1-2 (> 2) mm; 0.25-1.0 mm; 2) mm fractions (grass, roots and tillering nodes) in the 0-1 (to 2) cm layer, which reflects the increasing role of biogenic migration processes in mass transfer of radionuclides despite their apparent lack of mobility in biocenoses. The soil's dust and clay fraction (< 0.25 mm) helps to fix the radionuclides in the crystal structures of soil minerals and organic matter. The ratio of caesium-134/caesium-137 in soils exhibiting the quasi-fuel type of contamination varies from 0.17-0.55 in the 1-2 mm and < 0.25 mm sample fractions, evidently reflecting the various radionuclide occurrence forms and topographies in the fallout matrix, isotope separation included. (author)

  15. 90Sr and 137Cs in the Black Sea after the Chernobyl NPP accident: inventories, balance and tracer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes studies of the distributions of 90Sr and 137Cs in the water and sediments of the Black Sea carried out during a 10-year period following the 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Its goal is to assess the temporal evolution of radionuclide inventories and balances and to evaluate the mixing of water masses and the sedimentation processes using man-made radionuclides as tracers. Using mathematical models and field data, mixing time-scales of 5, 16 and 24 years have been estimated, respectively, for the water layers of depths 0-50, 0-100 and 0-200 m. For the Central Basin the ventilation time of the lower pycnocline is estimated at 15-25 years. 137Cs has been used to date shelf and deep-basin sediments, providing the history of chemical and radioactive pollution and of eutrophication during the past 50 years. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Radiation monitoring of the inhabitants and the foods in the Chernobyl zone of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system of independent radiation monitoring for contaminated territories of Belarus includes 370 local centres for radiation control (LCRC). After the analysis of the information obtained in 1996 on cesium 137 contents in food-stuffs and animal feed from private households as well as in nature products, the data are as follows: in the Gomel Region the percentage of probes, having higher of the radiation protection levels (RPL), is 11.1%; in the Mogilev Region it is 4.6%; in the Brest Region this percentage is 16%. The analysis of the information on cesium 137 contents in milk from private households in 1996 showed, that in the Gomel Region the percentage of probes exceeding RPL (111 Bq/l) is 10.7%, maximum value of contamination being in the village Mlynok, the Elsk Region (1181 Bq/l). In the Mogilev Region the percentage is 3.1%, maximum value of contamination being in the village Moshevoe, the Kostyukovichi Region (215 Bq/l). In the Brest Region it is 34.3% with maximum value being in the village Olmany, the Stolin Region (1910 Bq/l). Comparing the data of LCRC obtained in 1993-1996, one can notice that in the period of 4 years the share of contaminated food-stuffs and milk from private households has not reduced. Moreover in the Brest Region there is a tendency of growth of this share. Check of the residents made with the help of SRP (spectrometer of radiation of a person) shows, that people, especially children, living on the contaminated territories and consuming local food-stuffs have a high level of radioactivity accumulation in the organisms. In connection with these facts was recommended to take the following general preventive measures: to take into account the information of LCRC and SRP checks on accumulation of radioactivity in the organisms of the residents in some localities while making out health improving measures for the Chernobyl Zone residents; to improve the net of local centres of radiation control; to work systematically to improve the

  17. [The features of radioactive contamination of small birds in Chernobyl zone in 2003-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashchak, S P; Makliuk, Iu A; Maksimenko, A M; Maksimenko, V M; Martynenko, V I; Chizhevskiĭ, I V; Bondar'kov, M D; Mousseau, T A

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of small birds (484 individuals, 44 species) was investigated in the Chernobyl zone (Ukraine) in 2003-2005. Values variation of 90Sr and of 137Cs activity concentration reached 3-4 orders of magnitude even in one site, and maximum values amounted to hundreds Bq/g at the central plots of the zone. The biggest contamination is appropriate to birds in breeding season and to settled species, whilst migrants are the "cleanest". Change of contamination within a year reflects seasonal and short-term changes in birds diet and in behaviour. During breeding season females have higher activity concentration of 90Sr, while on 137Cs accumulation sexual differences are absent. In other seasons radioactive contamination of male and female does not differ if they live in similar conditions and have similar migratory behavior. Young birds during fledging and just after, as a rule, have higher levels of 90Sr contamination than adults, and actually do not differ on 137Cs accumulation. On a set of own and published data, it was assumed, that in small birds the half-life period of 137Cs extraction amounts to 1-2 days, and 90Sr- 5-10 days, and dynamic equilibrium of the radionuclides turnover in organism is reached over 4-7 and 17-34 days, respectively, after the birds arrival on the contaminated site. Among 44 studied species, those who search invertebrates in soil top layer or forest litter (thrushes). have noticeably higher accumulation of 90Sr and of 137Cs. Specific differences of radionuclides accumulation for the rest birds were not revealed due to small sample sizes of the species. PMID:18666578

  18. Effects of chronic radiation exposure on small mammals in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 caused the release to atmosphere of some 2 x 106 TBq, or more, of total fission/activation products. Estimates of deposition vary, although it is probable that about half the activity was deposited within 20 km of the release point, predominantly following two plume trajectories to the north and west. This resulted in the death of pine trees over 400 ha, the abandonment of up to 150 000 ha of agricultural land and the establishment of an exclusion zone extending to 30 km from the site. High levels of radionuclide contamination continue to prevail within the exclusion zone. Nonetheless, recolonisation has been widespread. Mixed deciduous woodlands, with a high proportion of birch (Betula spp.) and willow (Salix spp.), have become established in the forest areas, while agricultural land has succeeded to tall grassland and scrub. Field sites investigated in this study, during 2001-2003, exhibited external gamma dose rates varying from 0.1 μSv h-1 to 140 μSv h-1. Corresponding mean concentrations of 137Cs in the top 20 cm of soil varied from about 6 x 102 to 3 x 106 Bq kg-1 dw (dry weight). Little impact is evident on populations of small mammals in these areas, either for species diversity or overall abundance, although there is a slight (not statistically significant) trend for increasing spleen weight in the bank vole with increasing levels of contamination. Previous suggestions that populations contain a preponderance of juveniles and sub-adults at the highest contaminated sites are not supported. (author)

  19. Application of safety standards and rules in the Shelter Implementation Plan at the destroyed power unit of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the application of safety standards and rules to the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) measures. Since 1998 this plan is being implemented at the Chornobyl NPP destroyed unit (which is now known as the Shelter). It includes a set of various tasks whose performance will help partially achieve the established safety objectives. The Regulatory Authority should establish for the Shelter safety goals, principles, and criteria in general, while the Operator of the Shelter is free to independently select the optimum method for their implementation. The Operator of the Shelter must demonstrate (in safety analysis report) that established safety goals are achieved and safety principles and criteria are met. Safety goals, principles, and criteria established for radioactive waste management are reasonable to apply in measures provided for by SIP. However, due to the unique nature of the Shelter, some criteria should not be applied directly and in full scope. Norms and rules on radiation protection should be applied in full scope. The specifics of radiation protection during each Shelter-related activity are considered individually. Safety standards and rules related to technical aspects are reasonable only as a basis. Effective resolution of specific technical issues associated with safety assurance is achieved through interaction between the Operator and the Regulatory Authority during design of SIP structures and systems. Hence, effectiveness of the licensing process plays an important role in the success of the SIP.(author)

  20. Problems of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection comprises the materials of working meeting 'The Development of Technologies of the 'Ukrytie' Radioactive Waste Management', held on May 20-21, 1997 in Chernobyl. The results of research work of the experts of Ukraine and other countries directed on solving problems, concerning removal of fuel containing materials and other radioactive waste from destroyed Unit 4 of Chernobyl NPP are given. The data on waste quantities, their location and classification, strategy of waste management and some technologies are described

  1. Estimation of molecular carriers of electrons in mitochondria of adrenal cortex under conditions of long-term permanent action of low-intensive ionizing radiation after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By EPR at 77K, we study molecular carriers of electrons in mitochondria of adrenal cortex in animals under conditions of the chronic action of low-dose ionizing irradiation from incorporated radionuclides related to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP and have found a significant decrease in the content of adrenodoxine which is a molecular carrier of electrons in the system of steroid hydroxylation. The last can play an important role in the mechanism of growth of neoplasms in adrenal glands, ovarial, and mammary glands

  2. The fate of long - lived radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in the Black Sea after Chernobyl NPP accident: results of twenty - year observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation summarizes studies of 137Cs and 90Sr pollution of the Black Sea Basin carried out by Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas during 1986-2005 following the Chernobyl NPP accident. Its goal was to assess inflows of 137Cs and 90Sr from the Dnieper and the Danube Rivers, outflow through the Bosphorus Strait, inventories in bottom sediments and temporary evolution of 137Cs and 90Sr inventories in the Black Sea water column. Besides, the temporary evolution of 137Cs and 90Sr profiles in the Black Sea deep-water basin was used to estimations of a large-scale vertical water mixing. It has been estimated that the atmospheric fall outs during the first days of May 1986 have deposited 1.7-2.4 PBq of 137Cs on the Black Sea surface (nearly 2% of total 137Cs release in the environment). Therefore, 137Cs inventory in the 0-50 m layer have increased by a factor of 6-10 and the total 137Cs inventory in the whole basin have increased at least by a factor of 2 in comparison with the pre-Chernobyl value - 1.4+/-0.3 PBq. 137Cs input from the Danube and the Dnieper Rivers was insignificant in comparison with short-term atmospheric fall outs. The results of observations and mathematical modelling are testified that in the surface layers 0-50 and 0-200 m of the Black Sea deep-water basin in 1986-2000 an exponential decreases of the 137Cs inventories with an effective half-lifes of 5-6 years and 9-13 years, respectively, have been observed. The process of vertical water mixing has been observed mainly in the 0-200 m layer. The contribution of Chernobyl-origin 90Sr from atmospheric fallout was estimated around in 0.1-0.3 PBq. Pre-accident 90Sr level nearly 20 Bq m-3 was reached by 1988. At the same time, an active input of 90Sr from the Dnieper and Danube Rivers has been observed. The total amount of 90Sr delivered by the two rivers into the Black Sea was estimated to be nearly 0.1 PBq in the 1986-1995. Under conditions of insignificant river input and sedimentation on

  3. Migration behavior of released radionuclides in the river system in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has been carried out for assessment of secondary migration of the Chernobyl-derived radionuclides through a river system in terms of their amount and forms of the mobile component. It would contribute: a) to clarify controlling factors which cause remobilization/immobilization of the released radionuclides for the river system in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant; and also, b) to find effective countermeasures to prevent secondary contamination in a river system after a nuclear accident. With the objectives described above, migration behavior of the radionuclides in the river system in the exclusion zone was investigated for suspended solid, bottom sediment and river water. In this paper: i) the result of radiochemical analyses for dissolved radionuclides; and, ii) physical form of 137Cs in river waters are described and discussed

  4. Conditions of endocrine link in the adaptation system at persons who work for a long time in 30-km ChNPP zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of psychopathologic and neurosomatic diseases at persons who work for a long time in 30-km ChNPP zone was studied. Role of endocrine regulation violation mechanisms in adaption system activity is discussed

  5. Bioavailability of radionuclides and dose rate in aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Our studies were carried out during 1997-2007 within Krasnensky flood-lands on the left bank of the Pripyat River, which is the most contaminated region of the Ukrainian part of the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone. During 1991-1993 the complex of hydraulic engineering structures as flood protection dams was constructed within the Krasnensky flood-lands, which preventing washing away of radioactive substances from soils and changing a hydrological mode of flood plain flows during a high water. In its turn it was by the reason of strengthening of over-moistening and swamping processes within embankment territories. As a result - on a background of the common tendencies of increase of the mobile forms of 90Sr in soils of catchment territories and bottom sediments of the exclusion zone, there is an increase of humic acids concentrations in waterlogged soils of Krasnensky flood-lands. It is also raises the content of the water-soluble forms of 90Sr forming with acids the soluble complexes. Thus the increase of concentrations of the mobile radionuclide forms and their inclusion into biotic circulation of aquatic ecosystems is observed. It confirms also an increase of 90Sr specific activity in water of lakes within Krasnensky flood-lands, against a background of stabilisation of this parameter for 137Cs last years. Such dynamics of 90Sr and 137Cs contents is significantly reflected on dose rate for hydrobionts due to incorporated radionuclides. However if in running water bodies the decrease of radionuclide contents defines, accordingly, and the decrease of dose rates, in lakes of the left-bank flood-lands of the Pripyat River the situation has an absolutely other character. At rather stable internal absorbed dose rate, caused by 137Cs during 1993-2007, the dose, caused by the 90Sr content, has grown more than in 20 times for some species of higher aquatic plants and fish in comparison with the beginning of 1990-s. As a result the total internal dose of

  6. The weakening of cell protection as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident recovery factors affect on liquidator's organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The markers of oxidative stress as well as intracellular antioxidants (enzymatic and non- enzymatic) were studied in 100 Chernobyl accident recovery workers(liquidators). Hormone screening tests were carried out in 250 liquidators. All persons (mean age - 35 years) have got external irradiation dose from 2 to 30 cGr. Control group was selected from persons of same age having not participated in accident liquidation. The significant antioxidant imbalance was found. ROS inactivating enzymes deficiency was revealed in neutrofils, lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages (AM). For instance, superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity in liquidator's AM was 2,8±0,3 U/mg protein (4,1-±1,8 U/mg protein in controls, P<0,05). Catalase activity was also lower than in control group (P<0,05). The significant disorder of the thiol-disulfide turnover was revealed: depression of reduced glutathione by 1,71-±0,46 μmol/l (control: 3,15±-0,34 μtmol/l, P<0,05). The oxidative stress destructive action realized in the conditions of excessive production of ROS, while the antioxidant potential was diminished(P<0,05). The oxidative destruction of lipids and proteins was found to be induced by free radical action. TBARS level in alveolar macrophages of liquidators was more than three times higher compared to controls. Enhanced levels of protein carbonyl groups were found as well. The decrease of TT3 in liquidators was detected most frequently. In 19% liquidators examined, TT3 was below the reference value (0,8 ng/ml). The TT3 level was registered at the low limit of the reference range (0,8 ng/ml) in 18% of liquidators. ''Low T3'' syndrome may be considered as a cell protection weakening. All the cellular protective mechanisms take part in processes of DNA synthesis and repair, transcription and translation, cell respiration and metabolism. Significant impairment of the cellular protective systems in liquidators could be regarded as a base of persistent ''chromosomal pathology'' and imbalance of

  7. Radiation Monitoring using an Unmanned Helicopter in the Evacuation Zone Set up by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Tatsuo; Sanada, Yukihisa; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Kondo, Atsuya; Shoji, Yasunori; ikeda, Kazutaka

    2013-04-01

    By the nuclear accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) caused by the East Japan earthquake and the following tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive materials was released from the NPP. In recent years, technologies for an unmanned helicopter have been developed and applied to natural disasters. In expectation of the application of the unmanned helicopter to airborne radiation monitoring, we had developed a radiation monitoring system using an autonomous unmanned helicopter (AUH). Then, we measured the ambient dose-rate at the height of 1-m above the ground and the soil deposition of radioactive cesium (Cs-134, Cs-137) by using the AUH system in the evacuation zone of residents around the NPP. Here, we report on the measurement technique and the result. As a result measured around a river at 10-km away from the NPP, high contaminated areas compared with the circumstance are detected along the dry riverbed. It was seemed that it had flowed along the river from highly contaminated areas in the upper stream.

  8. Effects of radionuclide contamination on leaf litter decomposition in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine; Chauvet, Eric; Gaschak, Sergey; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Dubourg, Nicolas; Maksimenko, Andrey; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2016-08-15

    The effects of radioactive contamination on ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition remain largely unknown. Because radionuclides accumulated in soil and plant biomass can be harmful for organisms, the functioning of ecosystems may be altered by radioactive contamination. Here, we tested the hypothesis that decomposition is impaired by increasing levels of radioactivity in the environment by exposing uncontaminated leaf litter from silver birch and black alder at (i) eleven distant forest sites differing in ambient radiation levels (0.22-15μGyh(-1)) and (ii) along a short distance gradient of radioactive contamination (1.2-29μGyh(-1)) within a single forest in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In addition to measuring ambient external dose rates, we estimated the average total dose rates (ATDRs) absorbed by decomposers for an accurate estimate of dose-induced ecological consequences of radioactive pollution. Taking into account potential confounding factors (soil pH, moisture, texture, and organic carbon content), the results from the eleven distant forest sites, and from the single forest, showed increased litter mass loss with increasing ATDRs from 0.3 to 150μGyh(-1). This unexpected result may be due to (i) overcompensation of decomposer organisms exposed to radionuclides leading to a higher decomposer abundance (hormetic effect), and/or (ii) from preferred feeding by decomposers on the uncontaminated leaf litter used for our experiment compared to locally produced, contaminated leaf litter. Our data indicate that radio-contamination of forest ecosystems over more than two decades does not necessarily have detrimental effects on organic matter decay. However, further studies are needed to unravel the underlying mechanisms of the results reported here, in order to draw firmer conclusions on how radio-contamination affects decomposition and associated ecosystem processes. PMID:27110974

  9. CHRONIC IRRADIATION OF SCOTS PINE TREES (PINUS SYLVESTRIS) IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE: DOSIMETRY AND RADIOBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 years old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y{sup -1}) to approximately 7 Gy y{sup -1} in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established.

  10. Chronic irradiation of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: dosimetry and radiobiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoschenko, Vasyl I; Kashparov, Valery A; Melnychuk, Maxim D; Levchuk, Svjatoslav E; Bondar, Yulia O; Lazarev, Mykola; Yoschenko, Maria I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 y old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y(-1)) to approximately 7 Gy y(-1) in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified, and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established. PMID:21878765

  11. Chronic Irradiation Of Scots Pine Trees (Pinus Sylvestris) In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone: Dosimetry And Radiobiological Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 years old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y-1) to approximately 7 Gy y-1 in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established.

  12. Pulsating plant Vodopad for decontamination of complex shaped articles contaminated with radionuclides as a result of the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washing apparatus for large-sized installation with complex configuration was designed. Pulsating method of washing formed the basis of the procedure. This method admits of improvements in the process and clearing of the stall zones. Effect of hydrodynamic regimes on washing rate was studied. Nitric acid solution with 30 g/l concentration was used as washing agent. Frequency range was 0.006-0.017 Hz. Actual washing period till value of natural background covered 2-4 h. 2 refs.; 1 fig

  13. Expedition to the 30-km Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and the Utilization of its Experience in Education and Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between May 28 - June 4, 2005, under the organization of the Hungarian Nuclear Society (HNS) and the Hungarian Young Generation Network (HYGN) - which operates within the framework of the HNS - a scientific expedition visited the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the surrounding exclusion zone. The participants were young Hungarian nuclear professionals supervised by more experienced experts. The main scientific goals of the expedition were the followings: Get personal experiences in a direct way about the current status of the Chernobyl Power Plant and its surroundings, the contamination of the environment and about the doses. Gather information about the state of the shut down power plant and the shelter built above the damaged 4. unit. Training of young nuclear experts by performing on site measurements. The Hungarian expedition successfully achieved its objectives by performing wide-range of environmental and dosimetric measurements and collecting numerous biological and soil samples. Within the 30-km exclusion zone the influence of the accident occurred 20 years ago still could be measured clearly; however the level of the radioactivity is manageable in most places. The dosimetric measurements showed that no considerable exposure occurred among the members of the expedition. The analysis of samples has been started at the International Chernobyl Center in Slavutich. During the expedition not only environmental sampling and in-situ measurements were carried out but it was also well documented with photos and video recordings for educational, training and PR purposes. A documentary TV film was recorded during the expedition. The first-hand knowledge acquired during the expedition helps the authentic communication of the accident and its present-day consequences, which is especially important in 2006, 20 years after the Chernobyl accident. Since Ukraine and Hungary are neighbor countries the media constantly discuss the accident, the consequences and the risks of

  14. First use of soil nematode communities as bioindicator of radiation impact in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of former radioactive contamination on the structure of the nematode community in sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident that occurred on 26, April 1986. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ). The external gamma dose rates, measured from radiophotoluminescent dosimeters (RPL) varied from 0.2 to 22 μGy h-1 between sites. In parallel, the Total dose rates (TDR) absorbed by nematodes were predicted from measured soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCC, calculated by the EDEN software) and Soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). Results showed that TDR were one order of magnitude above the external gamma dose rate measured from RPL. This is mainly due to the contribution of alpha (241Am,238,239,240Pu) and beta (90Sr, and 137Cs) emitters in the external dose rate. The small size (in the order of mm) of nematodes promoted a high energy deposition throughout the organisms without fading, giving more weight to external dose rate induced by alpha-and beta-emitters, relatively to gamma-emitters. Analysis of the nematode community showed a majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal- feeder nematodes and almost none of the disturbance sensitive families whatever the level of radioactive contamination. Multiple regression analysis was used to establish relationships between ecological features (nematodes abundance and family diversity, indices of ecosystem structure and function) to the environmental characteristics (TDR and soil physico-chemical properties). No evidence was found that nematode total abundance and family diversity were impaired by the radiological contamination. However, the Nematode Channel Ratio (defining the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR suggesting that the radioactive contamination may influence the

  15. First use of soil nematode communities as bioindicator of radiation impact in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte, C.; Bonzom, J.M.; Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO (France); Della-Vedova, C. [Magelis, Cadenet (France); Beaugelin-Seiller, K. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LM2E (France); Gaschak, S. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear safety, Radioactive waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory (Ukraine); Coppin, F. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, L2BT (France); Garnier-Laplace, J. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS (France)

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of former radioactive contamination on the structure of the nematode community in sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident that occurred on 26, April 1986. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ). The external gamma dose rates, measured from radiophotoluminescent dosimeters (RPL) varied from 0.2 to 22 μGy h{sup -1} between sites. In parallel, the Total dose rates (TDR) absorbed by nematodes were predicted from measured soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCC, calculated by the EDEN software) and Soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). Results showed that TDR were one order of magnitude above the external gamma dose rate measured from RPL. This is mainly due to the contribution of alpha ({sup 241}Am,{sup 238,239,240}Pu) and beta ({sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs) emitters in the external dose rate. The small size (in the order of mm) of nematodes promoted a high energy deposition throughout the organisms without fading, giving more weight to external dose rate induced by alpha-and beta-emitters, relatively to gamma-emitters. Analysis of the nematode community showed a majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal- feeder nematodes and almost none of the disturbance sensitive families whatever the level of radioactive contamination. Multiple regression analysis was used to establish relationships between ecological features (nematodes abundance and family diversity, indices of ecosystem structure and function) to the environmental characteristics (TDR and soil physico-chemical properties). No evidence was found that nematode total abundance and family diversity were impaired by the radiological contamination. However, the Nematode Channel Ratio (defining the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR suggesting that the radioactive

  16. Modification of adrenergic regulation of heart function affected by radioecological factors within the ten-kilometer zone of Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats kept the ten-kilometer zone of Chernobyl disaster over a period of 30 days exhibited a decreased heart function response to β-adrenoreceptor stimulus, reduced density of the receptor structures in cardiomyocytes and their affinity to specific agonists. The number of β-adrenoreceptors in myocardium cells was restored in 6 months, but their affinity and heart function response to the effect of β-adrenoagonists remained decreased. No significvant changes were observed in regulation influenced indirectly via α-adrenoreceptors. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Features of tritium contamination of groundwater in zones around nuclear power plants (for example Zaporizhzhya NPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anishhenko O.L.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It was established that the concentration of tritium in nearby Zaporizhzhya NPP on water bodies exceeds background indicators, but considerably less than indicated in NRBU-97 hit the permissible level of tritium to drinking water.

  18. The state of nature-reserve objects in the exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landscape, flora and fauna of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone are characterized. Reserve objects, losses after fires and those caused by anthropogenic activity are described. Information about radiation situation at nature-reserve objects is presented. Criteria for choice of species promising for reserve objects of the Exclusion zone are outlined

  19. [Dynamics of tritium content in flood-lands reservoirs of the Pripyat river and cooling pond of the Chernobyl nuclear plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I

    1999-01-01

    Tritium content in water from natural and artificial reservoirs within 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP has been determined. The increase of Tritium activity in the involved water reserwous has been registered in May 1994 and April 1995. As supposed the source of the increase, nuclear power plants, equipped with WWER reactors and located in catchment area of Pripyat river. PMID:10689425

  20. Effects of ionizing radiation on the antioxidant system of microscopic fungi with radioadaptive properties found in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugay, Tatyana I; Zheltonozhskaya, Marina V; Sadovnikov, Leonid V; Tugay, Andrei V; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    Some microscopic fungi found in the area of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone appear to have unique radioadaptive properties associated with their capability to respond positively to the effects of ionizing irradiation. On the one hand, this capability can be used potentially in bio-remediation technologies, and on the other hand, it requires additional, more thorough studies to identify its underlying mechanisms. Practically, no data are currently available on mechanisms for implementation of these radioadaptive properties by microscopic fungi. The objective of the completed study was to evaluate the functioning of the antioxidant system of a microscopic fungus as one of potential mechanisms for implementation of its radioadaptive properties. The study was performed using a model system simulating the soil radioactivity in the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, with the ratio of the radioactive isotopes matching the radionuclide content in the fuel component of the Chernobyl fallout. The completed study was the first ever performed to identify a comprehensive response of the major components of the antioxidant system of the microscopic fungi to ionizing radiation, resulting in an induced melanin synthesis and increased activity of the known enzymes of antioxidant protection. Their response to ionizing radiation depended on the presence or absence of radioadaptive properties and phase of the fungal growth. Fungi with radioadaptive properties have a much higher susceptibility for inducing synthesis of melanin and antioxidant enzymes than fungi without radioadaptive properties (hereinafter referred to as the reference species or strains), which illustrates the contribution of these processes to "radiophilia" of the fungi. PMID:21878763

  1. Radiation-induced cytogenetic and hematologic effects on aquatic biota within the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Shevtsova, N L; Pomortseva, N A; Dzyubenko, E V; Kaglyan, A E; Nazarov, A B

    2016-01-01

    During 1998-2014 the rate of chromosomal aberrations in embryo tissues of the pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) and root meristems of higher aquatic plants, and also hematologic indexes of mantle liquid of the adult snails and peripheral blood of fishes in water bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (EZ) was studied. The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from water bodies of the EZ registered in a range from 0.25 to 420 μGy h(-1) and in the reference ones - up to 0.09 μGy h(-1). The level of chromosomal aberrations in the molluscs from the most contaminated water bodies of the EZ was registered within range of 18-27% and for the molluscs from the reference lakes this index was on the average 1.5% with the maximal values 2.3%. The rate of chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells of higher aquatic plants from the contaminated lakes of the EZ was in range of 7-17% and in the plants from reference water bodies was not exceed 2.1%. The positive correlation between chromosomal aberration rate and absorbed dose rate in the pond snail's embryos and root meristems of higher aquatic plants in water bodies of the EZ was registered. Analysis of hemolymph structure of snails from the most contaminated water bodies showed a high rate of dead and phagocytic cells as well as decrease of the young amoebocytes quantity. Hematologic research of fish allows to determine on the one hand an insignificant changes of leukogram structure, and from the other hand a high level of red cells with different abnormalities in the peripheral blood of fishes from the water bodies with high levels of radioactive contamination. It is suppose that qualitative indexes of red cells in peripheral blood of fish are more sensitive to long-term radiation impact in comparison with elements of white blood, which can be used for conducting of the hematologic monitoring of radioactive contaminated water bodies. PMID:26455549

  2. Modeling groundwater-surface water interactions including effects of morphogenetic depressions in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixio, A.; Gambolati, G.; Paniconi, C.; Putti, M.; Shestopalov, V.; Bublias, V.; Bohuslavsky, A.; Kasteltseva, N.; Rudenko, Y.

    2002-06-01

    Morphogenetic depressions or "dishes" in the Chernobyl exclusion zone play an important role in the transport of water and solutes (in particular the radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr), functioning as accumulation basins and facilitating their transfer between the surface and subsurface via return flow (under conditions of high soil water saturation) and infiltration. From a digital elevation model (DEM) of the 112-km2 study area, 583 dishes (covering about 10% of the area) are identified and classified into four geometric types, ranging in size from 2,500 to 22,500 m2, and a with a maximum depth of 2 m. The collective influence of these depressions on the hydrology of the study basin is investigated with a coupled model of three-dimensional saturated and unsaturated subsurface flow and one-dimensional (along the rill or channel direction s) hill-slope and stream overland flow. Special attention is given to the handling of dishes, applying a "lake boundary-following" procedure in the topographic analysis, a level pool routing algorithm to simulate the storage and retardation effects of these reservoirs, and a higher hydraulic conductivity in the topmost 3 m of soil relative to non-dish cells in accordance with field observations. Modeling the interactions between the surface and subsurface hydrologic regimes requires careful consideration of the distinction between potential and actual atmospheric fluxes and their conversion to ponding, overland flow, and infiltration, and this coupling is described in some detail. Further consideration is given to the treatment of snow accumulation, snowmelt, and soil freezing and thawing processes, handled via linear and step function variations over the winter months in atmospheric boundary conditions and in upper soil hydraulic conductivities. A 1-year simulation of the entire watershed is used to analyze the water table response and, at the surface, the ponding heads and the infiltration/exfiltration fluxes. Saturation patterns and

  3. Scenarios of radiological impacts in the long-term safety analysis of radioactive waste disposal at the Vector Site located in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Ukraine, at the Vector site in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, it is planned to dispose of large amounts of radioactive wastes, including those of Chernobyl origin, containing transuranium elements. The paper analyzes the main possible scenarios of radiological impacts of the Vector site for a long-term period after expiration of its active administrative control taking into account location of the Vector site in the exclusion zone. In the paper, assessment of total activities that can be disposed of on site is demonstrated, based on non-exceeding of admissible radiological impacts. (orig.)

  4. Scenarios of radiological impacts in the long-term safety analysis of radioactive waste disposal at the Vector Site located in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybalka, N.; Mykolaichuk, O. [State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Alekseeva, Z.; Kondratiev, S.; Nikolaev, E. [State Scientific and Technical Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    In Ukraine, at the Vector site in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, it is planned to dispose of large amounts of radioactive wastes, including those of Chernobyl origin, containing transuranium elements. The paper analyzes the main possible scenarios of radiological impacts of the Vector site for a long-term period after expiration of its active administrative control taking into account location of the Vector site in the exclusion zone. In the paper, assessment of total activities that can be disposed of on site is demonstrated, based on non-exceeding of admissible radiological impacts. (orig.)

  5. Simulation of Thermopower Influence on Fuel Core of Power Rod in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP Active Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Kulikov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems of modern methods for  calculation of designs and materials of nuclear power. A model of numerical analysis for stress-strain state of fuel pins in the NPP active zone is proposed in the paper. The paper contains simulation concerning a fuel core section of a nuclear reactor heat-generating element with subsequent solution of a temperature and thermoelastic problem in computer program complex FEA ANSYS Workbench 11.0. All the obtained results have passed through checking procedure.

  6. Chernobyl'-92. Reports of the 3. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 1. Radiation monitoring. Migration of radionuclides in natural environment. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section Radiation monitoring comprises: atlas of area radioactive contamination as a result of the Chernobyl' nuclear power station accident, state of computerized radiation control system, hydrological monitoring, radiation situation in different areas, problems of radioactive monitoring and protection of water objects, methods for determining radionuclides content, radiochemical mechanisms of radionuclide migration mobility of the Chernobyl' effluents, the results of investigations into migration of radionuclides in soils, landscapes, bottom depositions, in the soil-plant chain

  7. Forest fire as a factor of redistribution of radionuclides of Chernobyl genesis in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide composition is investigated of particles in smoke tail of forest fire in 30-km zone of Chernobyl NPP. Investigation of ratios of radioactive isotopes of cesium, cerium and plutonium in forest combustible materials and in aerosols formed during fire shows that the last ones are enriched with radiocesium. This radiocesium is fixed preliminarily by submicron particles, which are transported for a long distances. The fire region is depleted by cesium radioisotopes and by other radioactive products of Chernobyl genesis to a lesser degree

  8. Radiation-induced cytogenetic and hematologic effects on aquatic biota within the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1998-2013 we studied the rate of chromosomal aberrations in embryo tissues of the pond snails and root meristems of higher aquatic plants, and also hematologic indexes of mantle liquid of the snails and peripheral blood of fishes in water bodies with different levels of radioactive contamination within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ). The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from water bodies of the ChEZ during the period of researches registered in a range of 4.6.10-3 - 3.4 Gy year-1, and in the control water bodies - up to 1.7.10-3 Gy year-1. Cytogenetic analysis of embryos of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis testifies the increased level of chromosomal aberrations in the mollusks from stagnant water bodies of the ChEZ in comparison with control reservoirs. During the period of studies the highest values were registered for the snails of closed reservoirs of the ChEZ (Glubokoye Lake, Dalyokoe Lake, Azbuchin Lake etc.) where the rate of chromosomal aberrations was registered within range of 18-27%, that on the average more than in 10 times exceeds the spontaneous mutagenesis level for aquatic species. The pond snails of river ecosystems were characterized by the low level of aberrant cells - 2.5-3.5%. For the mollusks from the control lakes this index was reached on the average 1.5% with the maximal values 2.3%. The positive correlation between chromosomal aberration rate and absorbed dose rate in the pond snails' embryos in water bodies of the ChEZ was registered. The rate of chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells of higher aquatic plants (Phragmites australis, Stratiotes aloides, Glyceria maxima, Butomus umbellatus, Sparganium erectum and Sagittaria sagittifolia) from the most contaminated lakes of the ChEZ was in range of 7-17%. In the plants of rivers this index was on the average 3.5-5.0%, and was not exceed 2.6% in control water bodies. Thus, the rate of chromosomal aberrations in hydrobionts of the stagnant water bodies within the Ch

  9. Radiation-induced cytogenetic and hematologic effects on aquatic biota within the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, Dmitri I.; Shevtsova, Natalia L.; Pomortseva, Natalia A.; Kaglyan, Alexander Ye. [Institute of Hydrobiology, Geroyev Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA-04210 Kiev (Ukraine); Dzyubenko, Elena V. [G. Skovoroda Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsk State Teacher Training University, Sukhomlinskogo Str. 30, UA-08401 Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsk (Ukraine); Rodionova, Natalia K. [R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, Vasilkovskaya Str. 45, UA-04073 Kiev (Ukraine); Nazarov, Alexander B. [Chernobyl Specialized Enterprise, Radyanska Str. 70, UA-07270 Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    During 1998-2013 we studied the rate of chromosomal aberrations in embryo tissues of the pond snails and root meristems of higher aquatic plants, and also hematologic indexes of mantle liquid of the snails and peripheral blood of fishes in water bodies with different levels of radioactive contamination within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ). The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from water bodies of the ChEZ during the period of researches registered in a range of 4.6.10{sup -3} - 3.4 Gy year{sup -1}, and in the control water bodies - up to 1.7.10{sup -3} Gy year{sup -1}. Cytogenetic analysis of embryos of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis testifies the increased level of chromosomal aberrations in the mollusks from stagnant water bodies of the ChEZ in comparison with control reservoirs. During the period of studies the highest values were registered for the snails of closed reservoirs of the ChEZ (Glubokoye Lake, Dalyokoe Lake, Azbuchin Lake etc.) where the rate of chromosomal aberrations was registered within range of 18-27%, that on the average more than in 10 times exceeds the spontaneous mutagenesis level for aquatic species. The pond snails of river ecosystems were characterized by the low level of aberrant cells - 2.5-3.5%. For the mollusks from the control lakes this index was reached on the average 1.5% with the maximal values 2.3%. The positive correlation between chromosomal aberration rate and absorbed dose rate in the pond snails' embryos in water bodies of the ChEZ was registered. The rate of chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells of higher aquatic plants (Phragmites australis, Stratiotes aloides, Glyceria maxima, Butomus umbellatus, Sparganium erectum and Sagittaria sagittifolia) from the most contaminated lakes of the ChEZ was in range of 7-17%. In the plants of rivers this index was on the average 3.5-5.0%, and was not exceed 2.6% in control water bodies. Thus, the rate of chromosomal aberrations in hydrobionts of the stagnant

  10. State and dynamics of the radiation contamination of foodstuffs for children in the Chernobyl zone of ?Belarus according to the data from local radiation control centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigations of the 137Cs-contamination of local foodstuffs in the Chernobyl zone of Belarus was studied. The permanent consuming of foodstuffs contaminated with 137Cs causes the radionuclide concentrations in children that are dangerous for their health. All these facts testify about the necessity of the intensification of protective measures against the 137Cs entry in local foodstuffs

  11. Chernobyl, 13 years after; Tchernobyl, 13 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regniault-Lacharme, Mireille; Metivier, Henri [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1999-04-01

    This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of

  12. Speciation of caesium-137 and plutonium-isotopes in Chernobyl soil

    OpenAIRE

    Holmstrand, Marte Varpen

    2011-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident (1986) in present day Ukraine, was the first INES level 7 nuclear accident in the history of nuclear power. About 6-8 tonnes of spend uranium fuel were released and the fallout contained a series of short- and long lived radionuclides. The main deposition was in an area 30 km around the ChNPP, and the southern parts of Belarus. The area was permanently evacuated and called the exclusion zone. Some of the most long lived radionuclides released...

  13. Characteristic of lipid metabolism and state of free-radical processes in workers of 30-km alienation zone at Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study involved 54 men aged 35-50 working in 30 km alienation zone at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant. Blood serum and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation indices were estimated. Investigation of peroxidation processes in the erythrocytes allowed to reveal changes in glutation system, they being characterized by its amount elevation against the background of glutation transferase activity increase both in the persons, working in the 30 km zone, and in those from 'Ukryttia' Establishment

  14. Computer system for the assessment of radiation situation in the cases of radiological accidents and extreme weather conditions in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talerko, M.; Garger, E.; Kuzmenko, A. [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    specific activities of radionuclides within the ChEZ, external exposure doses from radioactive clouds and from fallout to the ground surface, as well as internal doses due to radionuclides inhalation. The radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am as main dose-forming ones within the ChEZ presently are considered. In addition, the list of nuclides includes {sup 131}I which may be released in the case of a radiation accident at the ISF-1. The system enables to calculate the atmospheric transport of releases from multiple sources of the same or different types (up to three ones) simultaneously for the period up to 24 hours. The software package is providing by the input meteorological information from sodar, 3 automatic meteorological stations and rain gauges network within the Zone. It enables calculations in on-line and off-line modes. The latter is used for retrospective simulations or modeling of possible emergencies consequences using meteorological parameters stored in the measurements database as well as source parameters from the release scenarios database previously formed. With the aim of emergency preparedness several possible radiological emergencies consequences are examined, including the radioactive dust releases from the 'Shelter' object and accidental releases out of the ISF-1. The consequences of the drainage of the Chernobyl NPP cooling pond, which is planned in the future, are assessed, including radionuclides resuspension caused by possible dust storms and tornadoes in the ChEZ. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  15. Computer system for the assessment of radiation situation in the cases of radiological accidents and extreme weather conditions in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    activities of radionuclides within the ChEZ, external exposure doses from radioactive clouds and from fallout to the ground surface, as well as internal doses due to radionuclides inhalation. The radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am as main dose-forming ones within the ChEZ presently are considered. In addition, the list of nuclides includes 131I which may be released in the case of a radiation accident at the ISF-1. The system enables to calculate the atmospheric transport of releases from multiple sources of the same or different types (up to three ones) simultaneously for the period up to 24 hours. The software package is providing by the input meteorological information from sodar, 3 automatic meteorological stations and rain gauges network within the Zone. It enables calculations in on-line and off-line modes. The latter is used for retrospective simulations or modeling of possible emergencies consequences using meteorological parameters stored in the measurements database as well as source parameters from the release scenarios database previously formed. With the aim of emergency preparedness several possible radiological emergencies consequences are examined, including the radioactive dust releases from the 'Shelter' object and accidental releases out of the ISF-1. The consequences of the drainage of the Chernobyl NPP cooling pond, which is planned in the future, are assessed, including radionuclides resuspension caused by possible dust storms and tornadoes in the ChEZ. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  16. Predicting the radiation exposure of terrestrial wildlife in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: an international comparison of approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Brown, J E; Hosseini, A [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Department of Emergency Preparedness and Environmental Radioactivity, Grini naeringspark 13, Postbox 55, No-1332 Oesteras (Norway); Cheng, J-J; Kamboj, S; Yu, C [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 900, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4832 (United States); Copplestone, D [England and Wales Environment Agency, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 1HG (United Kingdom); Gaschak, S [International Radioecology Laboratory (Ukraine); Nedveckaite, T [Institute of Physics, Radiation Protection, Savanoriu Avenue 231, LT-02053 Vilnius (Lithuania); Olyslaegers, G [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN, Radioecology Section, Radiation Protection Department, Boeretang 200, B-2400, Mol (Belgium); Smith, J T [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3QL (United Kingdom); Vives i Batlle, J; Vives-Lynch, S, E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.u [Westlakes Research Institute, Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3LN (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    There is now general acknowledgement that there is a requirement to demonstrate that species other than humans are protected from anthropogenic releases of radioactivity. A number of approaches have been developed for estimating the exposure of wildlife and some of these are being used to conduct regulatory assessments. There is a requirement to compare the outputs of such approaches against available data sets to ensure that they are robust and fit for purpose. In this paper we describe the application of seven approaches for predicting the whole-body ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am and Pu isotope) activity concentrations and absorbed dose rates for a range of terrestrial species within the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Predictions are compared against available measurement data, including estimates of external dose rate recorded by thermoluminescent dosimeters attached to rodent species. Potential reasons for differences between predictions between the various approaches and the available data are explored.

  17. Feeding of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident in the territory of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of seasonal feed choice of a wild boar have been carried out during a 3-year period on the basis of the stomach content. Results of the investigations are given. A list of forage plants and forage animals is presented. Seasonal intensity of their consumption is evaluated. Main plant assemblages of the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident are analyzed for their significance in the diet of a wild boar. Special attention is paid to the role of underground forage (35% of average annual forage), and to consumption of Oenotera biennis roots comprising 26% of average annual forage. Recent state of the forage base and of the wild boar population is estimated. An attempt to predict its dynamics for the nearest 10-15 years is made

  18. Problem of radioactive ash and sewage sludge management in the population areas of the Chernobyl zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident has brought about an unprecedented health risk to the population in the area of nuclear fall-out and has created unusual radioactive decontamination and waste management problems. One of them which has proven to be self-dependent is radioactively contaminated municipal domestic wastes, in particular sewage sludge arising from waste water treatment and ash wastes produced by domestic heating facilities from the use of local contaminated fire-wood and peat. This paper's intention is to show the present situation and outline the actions being taken to carry out the recommendations in the field of management and regulation

  19. Cohort formation for epidemiological study of medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belarus State Registry of the Chernobyl-affected population contains information about 276 000 residents of the Republic of Belarus exposed due to the Chernobyl NPP accident. Evidently, the population who lived in the evacuation zone was exposed mostly to radiation and also people participating in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences (emergency workers) within this zone in early post accident period of the catastrophe. Taking into account this criterion, we singled out the group out of all data files including all people who stayed in the evacuation zone not later than on May 31, 1986. The total number of the group made up 39 548 people including 4251 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. By preliminary estimation the number of person-years taking into account the deceased and left out of observation made up at the beginning of 2007- 735 600. During the period since 1986 there was detected 2671 cases of malignant tumors in the cohort and among people who were children and adolescents in 1986 there was registered 106 cases of malignant tumors (82% -thyroid cancer). Among 7483 of the deceased, malignant tumors is the cause of death at 1260 people. At present the real number of alive and remained subjects under observation makes up 25359 people including 2321 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. This group will form the base for further prospective research aiming at assessment of medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. (author)

  20. LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF RADIONUCLIDE VERTICAL MIGRATION IN SOILS OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E

    2009-11-19

    The radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident consisted of fuel and condensation components. An important radioecological task associated with the late phase of the accident is to evaluate the dynamics of radionuclide mobility in soils. Identification of the variability (or invariability) in the radionuclide transfer parameters makes it possible to (1) accurately predict migration patterns and biological availability of radionuclides and (2) evaluate long-term exposure trends for the population who may reoccupy the remediated abandoned areas. In 1986-1987, a number of experimental plots were established within various tracts of the fallout plume to assist with the determination of the long-term dynamics of radionuclide vertical migration in the soils. The transfer parameters for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 239,240}Pu in the soil profile, as well as their ecological half-time of the radionuclide residence (T{sub 1/2}{sup ecol}) values in the upper 5-cm thick soil layers of different grasslands were estimated at various times since the accident. Migration characteristics in the grassland soils tend to decrease as follows: {sup 90}Sr > {sup 137}Cs {ge} {sup 239,240}Pu. It was found that the {sup 137}Cs absolute T{sub 1/2}{sup ecol} values are 3-7 times higher than its radioactive decay half-life value. Therefore, changes in the exposure dose resulting from the soil deposited {sup 137}Cs now depend only on its radioactive decay. The {sup 90}Sr T{sub 1/2}{sup ecol} values for the 21st year after the fallout tend to decrease, indicating an intensification of its migration capabilities. This trend appears consistent with a pool of mobile {sup 90}Sr forms that grows over time due to destruction of the fuel particles.

  1. A case study in the Chernobyl exclusion zone - Part 1: testing our ability to predict radionuclide transfer to wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, national and international programmes have proposed a number of frameworks and methodologies to assess the protection of wildlife from ionising radiations. Whilst some of these are now being used by national authorities, there has been little attempt to rigorously test their predictions against available data. In part this is because of the lack of sites where radiation induced effects can be observed. One such site is the Chernobyl exclusion zone for which a considerable amount of data are available for a wide range of biota across a gradient of exposure rates. This allows predictions of assessment frameworks, from exposure through to effects, to be thoroughly tested. In this paper we spatially implement terrestrial radionuclide transfer models developed within the EC FP5 project FASSET and test predictions of radionuclide activity concentrations in biota against compiled databases. More than 700 measurements of radionuclide activity concentrations in wild animals made throughout the exclusion zone between 1988 and 2000 are available. These include 8 species of predominantly large mammals and 13 bird species. This is supplemented by approximately 900 measurements of plant components representing the diets of the herbivorous animals sampled. On the basis of comparisons of predicted and observed activity concentrations in this wide range of biota, recommendations for improving the existing transfer models are made. In a second paper we consider predictions of dose and radiation induced effects and compare these to data from the exclusion zone. (author)

  2. A brief overview of Ignalina NPP safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of the safety of Ignalina NPP in a very popular form is presented. Answers to the most frequently recurring questions concerning the Ignalina NPP are provided based on recently completed international studies. Questions are like these: can a similar accident to the one that occurred in Chernobyl take place at Ignalina NPP, does the Ignalina NPP have a containment, what are the probabilities and potential consequences of accidents, etc. The brochure contains a short description of Ignalina NPP safety improvement programs

  3. The simulation of environment contamination and the assessment of external and inhalation doses in the Gomel's region of Belarus after Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simulation of environment contamination by some radionuclides at the short post period after Chernobyl accident has been performed on the basis of the Lagrangian trajectory model and computer code NIKAT. Afterwards the reconstruction of external and inhalation population doses has been done. (orig.)

  4. Fishes of water bodies within the Ukrainian part of the Chernobyl exclusion zone: current levels of radioactive contamination and absorbed dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of studies of radioactive contamination of ichthyofauna of water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) during 2012-2013 are presented. The fish sampled from water bodies with different hydrological mode was used: (1) stagnant lakes (Vershyna, Glyboke, Azbuchyn, Daleke); (2) reservoir with slow water exchange (cooling pond of the Chernobyl NPP); (3) conditionally stagnant water bodies (separated from the main riverbed of the Pripyat River - Yanovsky and Novoshepelichesky Crawls and part of the Krasnensky former river bed); (4) semi-flowing water body (Krasnensky former river bed located outside of the dammed territory); (5) open crawls of the Pripyat river ('Schepochka' and Chernobylsky) and (6) waterway (riverbed sites of the Pripyat River). The highest levels of radionuclide concentrations were determined in fish of the stagnant water objects - 937-25907 Bq/kg (w.w.) of 137Cs and 1845-101220 Bq/kg of 90Sr. In fish of cooling pond the concentration of 137Cs registered in range 750-4200 and 90Sr - 41-512 Bq/kg. In ichthyofauna of water bodies which concern to the third group, specific activity of 137Cs and 90Sr fluctuated accordingly within range of 520-3385 and 722-6210, and in a semi-flowing reservoir - 573-2948 and 97-4484 Bq/kg. The concentrations of 137Cs in fish of the fifth and sixth groups were accordingly 25-159 and 11-224 as well as 90Sr - 36-174 and 3-14 Bq/kg. The ratio of specific activity of 90Sr/137Cs for pray fish from all studied groups of water bodies, except the second and the sixth ones, was in range 1.5-39.7. Thus intensity of water exchange is one of the defining factors, influencing on level of radionuclide specific activity in fish, especially 90Sr - the higher the flow age, the lower the level of radioactive contamination of fish inhabiting it. Calculation of the absorbed dose rate has shown that highest radiation dose was in fish inhabiting lake ecosystems where it makes for different species from 2.8 (pelagic fish) to

  5. Fishes of water bodies within the Ukrainian part of the Chernobyl exclusion zone: current levels of radioactive contamination and absorbed dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaglyan, Alexander Ye.; Gudkov, Dmitri I. [Institute of Hydrobiology of the NAS of Ukraine, Geroyiv Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA- 04210, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    The results of studies of radioactive contamination of ichthyofauna of water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) during 2012-2013 are presented. The fish sampled from water bodies with different hydrological mode was used: (1) stagnant lakes (Vershyna, Glyboke, Azbuchyn, Daleke); (2) reservoir with slow water exchange (cooling pond of the Chernobyl NPP); (3) conditionally stagnant water bodies (separated from the main riverbed of the Pripyat River - Yanovsky and Novoshepelichesky Crawls and part of the Krasnensky former river bed); (4) semi-flowing water body (Krasnensky former river bed located outside of the dammed territory); (5) open crawls of the Pripyat river ('Schepochka' and Chernobylsky) and (6) waterway (riverbed sites of the Pripyat River). The highest levels of radionuclide concentrations were determined in fish of the stagnant water objects - 937-25907 Bq/kg (w.w.) of {sup 137}Cs and 1845-101220 Bq/kg of {sup 90}Sr. In fish of cooling pond the concentration of {sup 137}Cs registered in range 750-4200 and {sup 90}Sr - 41-512 Bq/kg. In ichthyofauna of water bodies which concern to the third group, specific activity of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr fluctuated accordingly within range of 520-3385 and 722-6210, and in a semi-flowing reservoir - 573-2948 and 97-4484 Bq/kg. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in fish of the fifth and sixth groups were accordingly 25-159 and 11-224 as well as {sup 90}Sr - 36-174 and 3-14 Bq/kg. The ratio of specific activity of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 137}Cs for pray fish from all studied groups of water bodies, except the second and the sixth ones, was in range 1.5-39.7. Thus intensity of water exchange is one of the defining factors, influencing on level of radionuclide specific activity in fish, especially {sup 90}Sr - the higher the flow age, the lower the level of radioactive contamination of fish inhabiting it. Calculation of the absorbed dose rate has shown that highest radiation dose was in fish inhabiting lake

  6. Reconstruction of the doses to the population evacuated from the 30 km-zone around the Chernobyl reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, large areas around the reactor were severely contaminated. As a consequence, the 30 km zone around the reactor was evacuated. The evacuation started with the city of Pripyat with a population of approximately 50000. For early evacuees, the exposure was mainly due to external exposure and inhalation, since the time was too short to induce relevant ingestion doses (Goulko et al., 1998). In contrast to Pripyat, for most of the other evacuees from the 30 km zone the time period was long enough to receive also relevant exposures via the ingestion pathway. Various assessments performed for contaminated areas have underlined the importance of ingestion and inhalation for the exposure of the evacuated population. For the population living in the contaminated area, external exposure was one of the most relevant pathways. Short-lived radionuclides and early migration processes of the radionuclides influenced these exposures. Before the present project these contributions and processes were only implicitly taken into account in areas where a sufficient number of early gamma dose rate measurements was performed. A general model on early external exposures of the population in contaminated areas was missing. Also, for later periods there was no general model for the uncertainties of estimates of external exposures. (orig.)

  7. Psychological methods as applied to NPP personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psychologists' experience in nuclear power personnel work system is described. Possibilities of practical application of scientific information, ways and methods collected in psychology, their effect when solving problems on profession orientation, personnel selection, arrangement, training and education, are shown. Necessity to take into account personnel psychological data under conditions of increased hazard of work at NPP is illustrated taking Chernobyl NPP as an example

  8. The Chernobyl Forum: major findings and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balonov, M.I. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: m.balonov@iaea.org

    2007-07-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 was the most severe in the history of the nuclear industry, causing a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. The recently completed Chernobyl Forum concluded that after a number of years, along with reduction of radiation levels and accumulation of humanitarian consequences, severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem to be addressed by the authorities. The majority of the affected land is now safe for life and economic activities. However, in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and in some limited areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine some restrictions on land-use should be retained for decades to come. Most of the 600,000 emergency and recovery operation workers and five million residents of the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine received relatively minor radiation doses which are comparable with the natural background levels. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed at a young age and some increase of leukaemia and solid cancer in most exposed workers, there is no clearly demonstrated increase in the somatic diseases due to radiation.

  9. Dose dependence of morphological changes and aberration to the plantation of pine in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose rate to the Scots pine' (Pinus sylvestris L.) apical meristem at three experimental sites were calculated. The morphological and cytogenetic changes of the trees were estimated, and the dependences of these changes on the dose rates to the apical meristem were formulated

  10. Migration cesium 137 in the soils of pine-tree plantings of resettlement zone of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were conducted since 1986 up to 1992 on sand soils for average-aged pine-tree planting. Density of contamination of soil surface with 137Cs was about 5-225 Ci/km2. It has been shown that dissemination of 137Cs in the soil vertically with the time is changed very slowly. To the 1992-nd in the layer 0-10 cm is contained over 90% of 137Cs, what is differ a little bit from the data obtained after the accident. 3 refs., 1 tab

  11. Parameters of radiation situation on the territory of the Red Forest site in the Chernobyl exclusion zone as impact factors for wild non-human species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed description of parameters of radiation situation on the territory of the Red Forest site in the Chernobyl exclusion zone is given. Results of measurements of soil contamination by 90Sr, 134,137Cs, 154,155Eu, 241Am and 238,239,240Pu are provided. Some parameters of a spatial dynamic many-nuclides source of radiation exposure formation for wild animals are calculated. Typical profiles of radionuclides distribution in soil are demonstrated. (author)

  12. Ишемическая болезнь сердца у взрослого населения, эвакуированного из 30-км зоны чернобыльской АЭС (Результаты дескриптивных эпидемиологических исследований). Период наблюдения 1988-2012 годы = Coronary heart disease among adult population evacuated from the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP (Descriptive epidemiologic research results). Observation period 1988-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Kapustynskaia, O A

    2015-01-01

    Kapustynskaia O A. Ишемическая болезнь сердца у взрослого населения, эвакуированного из 30-км зоны чернобыльской АЭС (Результаты дескриптивных эпидемиологических исследований). Период наблюдения 1988-2012 годы = Coronary heart disease among adult population evacuated from the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP (Descriptive epidemiologic research results). Observation period 1988-2012. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(2):53-65. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.15081 http://oj...

  13. Resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: part I. Fire experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlled burning of experimental plots of forest or grassland in the Chernobyl exclusion zone has been carried out in order to estimate the parameters of radionuclide resuspension, transport and deposition during forest and grassland fires and to evaluate the working conditions of firemen. An increase of several orders of magnitude of the airborne radionuclide concentration was observed in the territory near the fire area. The resuspension factor for 137Cs and 9Sr was determined to range from 10-6 to 10-5 m-1, and for the plutonium radionuclides from 10-7 to 10-6 m-1 (related to the nuclides in the combustible biomass). These values are 2 orders of magnitude lower if they are calculated relatively to the total contamination density (including the nuclides in the soil). The radionuclide fallout along the plume axis is negligible in comparison to the existing contamination. However, the additional inhalation dose for firemen exposed in the affected area can reach the level of the additional external irradiation in the period of their mission. The plutonium nuclides constitute the dominating contribution to the inhalation dose

  14. Radiation situation and irradiation level in forest workers in places of timber works in alienation zone of Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation hygienic situation in the forest plots and dose load of the personnel at timber works in the alienation zone of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant was evaluated.It has been revealed that the density of contamination of the forest soil at the areas of timber works was 155.4-447.3 kBq centre dot m2. Maximum year equivalent dose on the lungs and total dose of external and internal irradiation in the forest workers in the zone of alienation during the work at the areas were about 40% of the values of the respective dose limits for the population of B category

  15. The account of thin isotope structure of contamination in the Belarus territory, caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident, for reconstruction of the contamination level of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive trace formed as a result of Chernobyl accident, was formed in the complex conditions which are not giving in to correct mathematical modeling. Emission of a radioactivity occurred during enough long time from various parts of the reactor core with a different degree of fuel burning out and, hence, with miscellaneous radionuclide structure of emission. Meteorological conditions changing during this time have led to rather complex radioactive contamination of territory and non-uniform both on a level of contamination and on radionuclide structure. (authors)

  16. Territory contamination with the radionuclides representing the fuel component of Chernobyl fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashparov, V A; Lundin, S M; Zvarych, S I; Yoshchenko, V I; Levchuk, S E; Khomutinin, Y V; Maloshtan, I M; Protsak, V P

    2003-12-30

    The data obtained through a series of experiments were used to specify the correlation of activities of the fuel component radionuclides of Chernobyl fallout and to create the maps of the 30-km Chernobyl zone terrestrial density of contamination with 154Eu, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am (on 01.01.2000). In the year 2000, total inventories of the fuel component radionuclides in the upper 30-cm soil layer of the 30-km Chernobyl zone in Ukraine (outside the ChNPP industrial site, excluding the activity located in the radioactive waste storages and in the cooling pond) were estimated as: 90Sr--7.7 x 10(14) Bq; 137Cs--2.8 x 10(15) Bq; 154Eu--1.4 x 10(13) Bq; 238Pu--7.2 x 10(12) Bq; 239+240Pu--1.5 x 10(13) Bq; 241Am--1.8 x 10(13) Bq. These values correspond to 0.4-0.5% of their amounts in the ChNPP unit 4 at the moment of the accident. The current estimate is 3 times lower than the previous widely-cited estimates. Inventories of the fuel component radionuclides were also estimated in other objects within the 30-km zone and outside it. This allowed more accurate data to be obtained on the magnitude of a relative release of radionuclides in the fuel particles (FP) matrix during the Chernobyl accident outside the ChNPP industrial site. It amounts to 1.5+/-0.5% of these radionuclides in the reactor, which is 2 times lower than the previous estimates. Two-thirds of the radionuclides release in the FP was deposited on the territory of Ukraine. PMID:14630415

  17. Territory contamination with the radionuclides representing the fuel component of Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data obtained through a series of experiments were used to specify the correlation of activities of the fuel component radionuclides of Chernobyl fallout and to create the maps of the 30-km Chernobyl zone terrestrial density of contamination with 154Eu, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am (on 01.01.2000). In the year 2000, total inventories of the fuel component radionuclides in the upper 30-cm soil layer of the 30-km Chernobyl zone in Ukraine (outside the ChNPP industrial site, excluding the activity located in the radioactive waste storages and in the cooling pond) were estimated as: 90Sr-7.7x1014 Bq; 137Cs-2.8x1015 Bq; 154Eu-1.4x1013 Bq; 238Pu-7.2x1012 Bq; 239+240Pu-1.5x1013 Bq; 241Am-1.8x1013 Bq. These values correspond to 0.4-0.5% of their amounts in the ChNPP unit 4 at the moment of the accident. The current estimate is 3 times lower than the previous widely-cited estimates. Inventories of the fuel component radionuclides were also estimated in other objects within the 30-km zone and outside it. This allowed more accurate data to be obtained on the magnitude of a relative release of radionuclides in the fuel particles (FP) matrix during the Chernobyl accident outside the ChNPP industrial site. It amounts to 1.5±0.5% of these radionuclides in the reactor, which is 2 times lower than the previous estimates. Two-thirds of the radionuclides release in the FP was deposited on the territory of Ukraine

  18. Radionuclide migration at experimental polygon at Red Forest waste site in Chernobyl zone. Part 2: Hydrogeological characterization and groundwater transport modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article represents the second of two articles, which review the main results of the international radioecological projects: Chernobyl Pilot Site Project (1999–2003) and Experimental Platform in Chernobyl (2004–2008). These projects studied radionuclide migration from the near-surface radioactive waste trench at the Red Forest waste dump in the Chernobyl zone, which contained nuclear fuel particles. This article presents results from the comprehensive hydrogeological site characterization program including the following issues: geological structure of the study site, hydraulic properties of the deposits, tracer tests in the aquifer, results of groundwater monitoring and unsaturated zone regime studies, as well as data on the 90Sr distribution in the unsaturated zone and aquifer, and analyses of 90Sr sorption behavior. The derived parameters were used to develop and calibrate 1D (flow tube) and 2D (cross-section) models describing the migration of 90Sr from the studied waste trench to the unsaturated zone and aquifer over a 16-a period (1986–2002). The models involved the following sub-models: (1) the geostatistical (structural) model for radioactivity distribution in the trench (using GSLIB); and (2) the radionuclide source term model (STERM1D) describing dissolution of fuel particles and a 1D of radionuclide redistribution in the trench body and unsaturated zone. The MODFLOW – MT3D codes were used to model the 2D 90Sr transport in the aquifer cross-section. Calibration of the 1D model with respect to Kds and dispersivities allowed quite accurate reproduction of 90Sr migration behavior for the early period (1995–1998). The less perfect fit between the 1D and 2D modeling results and monitoring data for the later period (1999–2002) suggests the need to improve the conceptual radionuclide migration model (i.e. to account for transient hydraulic and geochemical regimes of the waste site).

  19. A physical-chemical modeling of strontium isotopes behavior in Chernobyl Exclusion zone fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiogeochemical models for dissolution and sedimentation of isotopic forms of strontium compounds in the exclusion zone's freshwater environments were created and verified. It was established that isotope effects shall be observed both during dissolution and deposition of strontium isotopic forms. For both models, solid phase (with respect to the solution) is depleted by light isotopes of strontium (84SR, 86Sr and 87Sr) and enriched by 90Sr. Isotopic composition of strontium in the solution is governed by isotopic composition of ion mSr2+

  20. Geochemical parameters of the stability of meadow ecocenoses in the Chernobyl exclusion zone to radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main stages are defined for the 90Sr and 90Cs penetration into a meadow vegetation of the exclusion zone, the slowest of which is the mobilization from solid-phase fallout occurred in accordance with the kinetic law. Principal geochemical parameters affecting the fixation of fission products (Mg and K exchangeable forms, pH of a salt extract) and remobilization (hydrolytic acidity, soil exchangeable capacity, organic C content, exchangeable Cl, water soluble Na,K, Ca, Cu, Zn, and Sr) in the soil adsorbing complex are defined by statistical analysis. The fact of 137Cs accumulation in the turf vegetation is in conformity with the number of mobile forms in soils

  1. Continuous action local hydrogeological model of alienation and compulsory eviction zones around Chernobyl'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous action hydrogeological model (CAHM) is a special complex intended for multivariant forecasts of the underground water conditions. CAHM makes it possible to ground optimal arrangement and running of water supply and environmental control measures. CAHM takes into consideration surface storm run-off, vertical moisture and salt transfer in aeration zone soils and filtration model. Presented are mathematical models describing those phenomena. Calculation net of a regional CAHM is given. There is a map of forecasted set levels and heads of the underground water in case of functioning Yanovskij, Novoshepelichevskij and Chernobylskij water intakes at maximum flow rate. 1 refs.; 3 figs

  2. Operational conditions of storages for products of decontamination of the territories of Belarus after the accident at Chernobyl NPP and evaluation of their radioecological state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of carrying out the measures on decontamination of the territory of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident, the storages for radioactive products of decontamination have been arranged in the Republic. Up to now, 69 storage sites for radioactive products of decontamination have been examined and registered. Six of them, the most typical, with the highest activity, are under constant control with the help of the network of the hydrogeological observation holes. The analysis of the field conditions of the storage sites at the territory of Belarus has shown that there is the violation of requirements for safe storage practically for all storages. The evaluation of protection of the ground water against radioactive contamination has shown, that in 10--100 years, the contamination of the ground water with caesium-137 is possible in concentrations lower than the Republican permissible levels and with strontium in concentrations significantly exceeding the specified values

  3. Site characterization techniques used in restoration of agricultural areas on the territory of the Russian Federation contaminated after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience gained in the aftermath after the heavy radiation accidents shows the need for improvement in site characterisation techniques and methodology in order to provide a link between site characterisation and the selection of restoration strategies. This paper gives an overview of the site characterisation techniques used in restoration of contaminated agricultural lands on the territory of the Russian Federation. The approach used for site characterisation and selection of restoration strategies is described. The main site specific factors influencing the choice of restoration options are identified. Data on the efficiency of major restoration measures used for the remediation of agricultural lands after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the Kyshtym accidents are given. A description of the decision support system FORCON, designed to simplify the selection of restoration options, is presented. (author)

  4. Some aspects of radioecological monitoring of high aquatic plants from water bodies within the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone - 16368

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact analysis of low doses of ionizing radiation on the breathers in natural populations is an important part of radiobiological studies of non-human biota. The main aim of our studies was to investigate some cytogenetic, morphological and reproductive rates of the common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex. Steud.) from different water bodies within the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone. The absorbed dose rate for littoral emergent plants in sampling water bodies was varied from 1.3 E-02 to 1.6 E-01 Gy/h. The rate and main types of chromosome aberrations in roots meristems, morphological damages in seed germs, as well as rates of germinating ability and power were analyzed. There were registered rather low rate of germinating ability (14-48 %) and germinating power (<1) of seeds from all sampling water bodies with high levels of radioactive contamination in comparison to control ones. Against the general suppressed background the effect of relative stimulation of more affected seeds was observed. With increase of absorbed dose in range of 1.3 E-02-1.6 E-01 Gy/h the number of germinated seeds was increased. At the same time the number of morphological damages of seeds was increased as well. There was determined the positive correlation between absorbed dose rate and chromosome aberration rate in roots of the common reed from sampling water bodies. The highest rate of chromosome aberrations (up to 17 %) were registered in plants with high level of morphological deviations in seeds germs. The data obtained from the complex analysis of natural populations of the common reed from the radioactive contaminated water bodies testify about rather high level of genetic efficiency of low doses of long-term exposure. (authors)

  5. Environmental problems associated with decommissioning the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, B Ya; Bondarkov, M D; Gaschak, S P; Maksymenko, A M; Maksymenko, V M; Martynenko, V I; Farfán, E B; Jannik, G T; Marra, J C

    2010-11-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities associated with residual radioactive contamination of their territories is an imperative issue. Significant problems may result from decommissioning of cooling ponds with residual radioactive contamination. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond is one of the largest self-contained water reservoirs in the Chernobyl region and Ukrainian and Belorussian Polesye region. The 1986 ChNPP Reactor Unit Number Four significantly contaminated the ChNPP Cooling Pond. The total radionuclide inventory in the ChNPP Cooling Pond bottom deposits are as follows: ¹³⁷Cs: 16.28 ± 2.59 TBq; ⁹⁰Sr: 2.4 ± 0.48 TBq; and ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu: 0.00518 ± 0.00148 TBq. The ChNPP Cooling Pond is inhabited by over 500 algae species and subspecies, over 200 invertebrate species, and 36 fish species. The total mass of the living organisms in the ChNPP Cooling Pond is estimated to range from about 60,000 to 100,000 tons. The territory adjacent to the ChNPP Cooling Pond attracts many birds and mammals (178 bird species and 47 mammal species were recorded in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone). This article describes several options for the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning and environmental problems associated with its decommissioning. The article also provides assessments of the existing and potential exposure doses for the shoreline biota. For the 2008 conditions, the estimated total dose rate values were 11.4 40 μGy h⁻¹ for amphibians, 6.3 μGy h⁻¹ for birds, 15.1 μGy h⁻¹ for mammals, and 10.3 μGy h⁻¹ for reptiles, with the recommended maximum dose rate being equal to 40 μGy h⁻¹. However, drying the ChNPP Cooling Pond may increase the exposure doses to 94.5 μGy h⁻¹ for amphibians, 95.2 μGy h⁻¹ for birds, 284.0 μGy h⁻¹ for mammals, and 847.0 μGy h⁻¹ for reptiles. All of these anticipated dose rates exceed the recommended values. PMID:20938234

  6. Chernobyl: a documentary story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This account of the Chernobyl disaster of April 1986 is based on interviews with many of the participants. Realising that the Chernobyl accident was to have a massive impact on the USSR and the world, the author felt impelled to travel to the designated danger zone around the reactor, to live there and to interview firemen, first-aid workers, party and government officials and local media representatives. The result is a variety of vivid eyewitness accounts that are unprecedented in their detail and frankness. These accounts show why the author considers the Chernobyl accident to be the most important event in the Soviet Union since World War II. The book, itself a product of glasnost, reveals how the Chernobyl accident was viewed from inside the Soviet Union. (author)

  7. The retrospective estimation of radiation situation on the territory of Republic of Belarus in the first period after the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most complicated situation at the territory of Belarus has been observed in the first period after the accident at the ChNPP owing to the great quantity of the deposited short-lived radionuclides and the radionuclides with half-lives up to 1 year. In 26 April 1986, the radioactive isotopes, including radioactive noble gases and iodine isotopes have initially reached the height of 1.8 km and began transport with air flows in the North-West direction through the western and central areas of Belarus. The analyzis of the subsequent meteorological situation has shown, that the meteorological conditions of the movement of the radiation-contaminated air masses in 26 April to 10 May, 1986 have determined the radioactive contamination of Belarus, in the first phase with short-lived radionuclides. (author)

  8. Evolution of physical and chemical forms of radioactive depositions in the 30-km zone around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been elaborated a method for calculating condensation component of caesium nuclides and determining availability of a simple correlation of an average local density of radioactive depositions. Analogous correlation also exists for Sr-90. It is proved that the main share of the condensation component of caesium and strontium radionuclides have fall out the regions within 14.5-25 km and 30-52.5 km. The summarized activity being (6,7±2,5)x104 Ku and (1,3±0,9)x104 Ku, correspondingly. 85% fuel component is believed to concentrate within the 30-km zone. There have been worked out a method for determining the share of the fuel component of radioactive depositions in soil cover; the method is based on the analysis of the balance of various chemical forms of Sr-90. There have been also elaborated a method for determining the share of hot particles of fuels and their derivatives in the total balance of α-activity of the soil cover and dust of natural and technogeneous origin

  9. The Influences of Drought and Land-Cover Conversion on Inter-Annual Variation of NPP in the Three-North Shelterbelt Program Zone of China Based on MODIS Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dailiang; Wu, Chaoyang; Zhang, Bing; Huete, Alfredo; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Sun, Rui; Lei, Liping; Huang, Wenjing; Liu, Liangyun; Liu, Xinjie; Li, Jun; Luo, Shezhou; Fang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems greatly contribute to carbon (C) emission reduction targets through photosynthetic C uptake.Net primary production (NPP) represents the amount of atmospheric C fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass. The Three-North Shelterbelt Program (TNSP) zone accounts for more than 40% of China's landmass. This zone has been the scene of several large-scale ecological restoration efforts since the late 1990s, and has witnessed significant changes in climate and human activities.Assessing the relative roles of different causal factors on NPP variability in TNSP zone is very important for establishing reasonable local policies to realize the emission reduction targets for central government. In this study, we examined the relative roles of drought and land cover conversion(LCC) on inter-annual changes of TNSP zone for 2001-2010. We applied integrated correlation and decomposition analyses to a Standardized Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and MODIS land cover dataset. Our results show that the 10-year average NPP within this region was about 420 Tg C. We found that about 60% of total annual NPP over the study area was significantly correlated with SPEI (p<0.05). The LCC-NPP relationship, which is especially evident for forests in the south-central area, indicates that ecological programs have a positive impact on C sequestration in the TNSP zone. Decomposition analysis generally indicated that the contributions of LCC, drought, and other Natural or Anthropogenic activities (ONA) to changes in NPP generally had a consistent distribution pattern for consecutive years. Drought and ONA contributed about 74% and 23% to the total changes in NPP, respectively, and the remaining 3% was attributed to LCC. Our results highlight the importance of rainfall supply on NPP variability in the TNSP zone. PMID:27348303

  10. The Influences of Drought and Land-Cover Conversion on Inter-Annual Variation of NPP in the Three-North Shelterbelt Program Zone of China Based on MODIS Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dailiang Peng

    Full Text Available Terrestrial ecosystems greatly contribute to carbon (C emission reduction targets through photosynthetic C uptake.Net primary production (NPP represents the amount of atmospheric C fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass. The Three-North Shelterbelt Program (TNSP zone accounts for more than 40% of China's landmass. This zone has been the scene of several large-scale ecological restoration efforts since the late 1990s, and has witnessed significant changes in climate and human activities.Assessing the relative roles of different causal factors on NPP variability in TNSP zone is very important for establishing reasonable local policies to realize the emission reduction targets for central government. In this study, we examined the relative roles of drought and land cover conversion(LCC on inter-annual changes of TNSP zone for 2001-2010. We applied integrated correlation and decomposition analyses to a Standardized Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI and MODIS land cover dataset. Our results show that the 10-year average NPP within this region was about 420 Tg C. We found that about 60% of total annual NPP over the study area was significantly correlated with SPEI (p<0.05. The LCC-NPP relationship, which is especially evident for forests in the south-central area, indicates that ecological programs have a positive impact on C sequestration in the TNSP zone. Decomposition analysis generally indicated that the contributions of LCC, drought, and other Natural or Anthropogenic activities (ONA to changes in NPP generally had a consistent distribution pattern for consecutive years. Drought and ONA contributed about 74% and 23% to the total changes in NPP, respectively, and the remaining 3% was attributed to LCC. Our results highlight the importance of rainfall supply on NPP variability in the TNSP zone.

  11. Morphological peculiarities of duodenal peptic ulcer and leucocytes functional activity in the persons who were present in the zone of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    36 persons with duodenal peptic ulcer (DPU) who were in the zone of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station (experimental group) and 20 patients who were not exposed to small doses of ionizing radiation were examined to study morphological peculiarities of DPU and blood leucocytes functional activity in the persons who were present in the zone of the accident. The finding have shown that in the persons, exposed to small doses of ionizing radiation, peptic ulcer is often accompanied by erosive changes of gastric and duodenal mucosa. Disturbance of mucus formation in myocytes and secret evacuation from the cells, epithelium large-intestine-type metaplasia, were revealed. Shift of cellular correlation balance in inflammatory infiltrate to the side of monocytes number increase as well as decrease of leucocytes functional activity, manifesting itself by slowing a granulocytes migration to the focus of inflammation, were noted, which is necessary to take into account at administration of effective peptic ulcer therapy in the persons who were in the zone of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station

  12. Effects of long-term radiation exposure on the higher aquatic plants in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the earliest years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the radioecological study on freshwater plant communities in the water-bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) has been held. At first stages it was the research on plant species collection and radionuclide contamination of aquatic ecosystems. Now, it is the seasonal monitoring with several groups of data deals with different areas of plant communities investigation: (1) the data characterized the level of radionuclides contamination of the abiotic and biotic components of phyto-coenosis and connected absorbed dose rates for various species of aquatic plants; (2) indexes of plant reproduction, including productivity, sterility, seed germination indexes and different abnormalities of ontogenesis; (3) indexes of morphological deviations (radiomorphoses) of aquatic plant's reproduction organs such as panicle and seeds; (4) cytogenetic indexes including the rate and spectrum of chromosome aberrations in cells of apical root meristem of air-aquatic plants; (5) the group of indexes, connected with plant's immunity. The calculated absorbed dose rate for littoral emergent plants in sampling water bodies was varied from 0.7 to 1.4 Gy/year in dependence of radioactive contamination of bottom sediments, plant tissues and level of gamma-background. There were registered rather low rate of plant productivity (hundred times lower than normal), high percentage of sterility (20-80%), low germinating ability (14-48 %) and germinating power (40-50%) of seeds from all sampling water bodies within the ChEZ. Against the general suppressed background the effect of relative stimulation of more affected seeds was observed. With increase of internal absorbed dose in range of 0.2-5.3 mGy/year the number of germinated seeds was increased. At the same time the number of different abnormalities of seeds was increased as well. The highest rate of the morphological damages (up to 25 % of the total number of germinated seeds

  13. Effects of long-term radiation exposure on the higher aquatic plants in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevtsova, N.; Gudkov, D. [Institute of Hydrobiology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    From the earliest years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the radioecological study on freshwater plant communities in the water-bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) has been held. At first stages it was the research on plant species collection and radionuclide contamination of aquatic ecosystems. Now, it is the seasonal monitoring with several groups of data deals with different areas of plant communities investigation: (1) the data characterized the level of radionuclides contamination of the abiotic and biotic components of phyto-coenosis and connected absorbed dose rates for various species of aquatic plants; (2) indexes of plant reproduction, including productivity, sterility, seed germination indexes and different abnormalities of ontogenesis; (3) indexes of morphological deviations (radiomorphoses) of aquatic plant's reproduction organs such as panicle and seeds; (4) cytogenetic indexes including the rate and spectrum of chromosome aberrations in cells of apical root meristem of air-aquatic plants; (5) the group of indexes, connected with plant's immunity. The calculated absorbed dose rate for littoral emergent plants in sampling water bodies was varied from 0.7 to 1.4 Gy/year in dependence of radioactive contamination of bottom sediments, plant tissues and level of gamma-background. There were registered rather low rate of plant productivity (hundred times lower than normal), high percentage of sterility (20-80%), low germinating ability (14-48 %) and germinating power (40-50%) of seeds from all sampling water bodies within the ChEZ. Against the general suppressed background the effect of relative stimulation of more affected seeds was observed. With increase of internal absorbed dose in range of 0.2-5.3 mGy/year the number of germinated seeds was increased. At the same time the number of different abnormalities of seeds was increased as well. The highest rate of the morphological damages (up to 25 % of the total number of

  14. Cytogenetic variabilities in the mouse lines C57BL/6, BALB/c and CC57W/Mv in the 30 km Chernobyl zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of radio pollutions on the cytogenetic variability in bone marrow cells of the mouse lines C57BL/6, BALB/c, CC57W/Mv, breeding in the 30 km Chernobyl zone is investigated. The differences of all the mouse lines from the control groups are disclosed but on the different cytogenetic characters (frequencies of the metaphase plates with chromosome aberrations, aneuploidy, polyploidy). The interrelationship between increase of the chromosome aberrations, aneuploidy, polyploidy). The interrelationship between increase of the frequency of chromosome aberrations and decrease of the mitotic index is revealed

  15. The immune system status under the effect of low-level radiation: studies within the ten-kilometer zone of Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of the influence of high radiation contamination within the ten-kilometer zone of Chernobyl disaster on the structure and function of the immune system of mice. The cumulative radiation doses with respect to γ-radiation, were 0.024, 0.168 and 0.336 Gy. T-lymphocyte proliferation was shown to be activated with all radiation doses mentioned above but with doses of 0.024 and 0.168 Gy, helper T lymphocytes, and with 0.336 Gy, suppressor N-lymphocytes were primarilly activated. 9 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  16. 8 years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident is the largest radiation catastrophe in its scale and prolonged consequences. Nearly 70% of radioactive materials released into the atmosphere as a result of the reactor accident have deposited at the territory of Belarus. 23% of the territory republic turned out to be contaminated with cesium 137 with radiation density 1 Ci/sq.km. 2.1 millions of people inhabited these areas in Belarus (about 20% population). More than 18000 sq.km of agricultural land (22%) and more than 20000 sq.km of forests (30% of the entire tract) have been contaminated with radionuclides. There is not a single branch of production which is not damaged by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. After-effects of the accident tell on health of people. The increase of diseases of cardiovascular, alimentary, nervous, musculoskeletal systems, mental and lung diseases is observed in the area of radioactive contamination. Lately, the rise of thyroid cancer rates in children (from 1986 until 1994 more than 250 cases) causes particular anxiety. Nowadays, thyroid cancer is precisely considered as the direct after-effect of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Frequency of children birth with defects is nearly twice as large in the areas with density of contamination with cesium 137 radionuclides exceeding 15 Ci/sq.km. The creation of the system of radiation control is one of the main problems in elimination of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Radiometers with the ability to control over Republican permissible levels of radionuclide content in food product and water have been created in the Republic. The radiation situation have been studied and the contaminated areas have been mapped. The control over radioactive contamination of air, water, sediments in carried out. (author)

  17. NPP safety in Slovakia according to stress tests after accident in Fukushimi

    OpenAIRE

    Králik, Juraj

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the new requirements to test of the safety and reliability of the NPP structures due to the last nuclear accidents in the world. The accidents of the NPP in Chernobyl and Fukushima give us the new inspiration to verify the safety level of the NPP structures. The probabilistic assessment of NPP structures for PSA level 2 of VVER 440 in the case of LOCA accident is presented. The results of the probabilistic nonlinear analysis of the NPP structures are present...

  18. Nucleotide diversity and gene expression of Catalase and Glutathione peroxidase in irradiated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Chernobyl exclusion zone forest trees have to tolerate and to adapt to ionizing radiation, therefore the molecular basis of their adaptive responses is of the utmost interest. Based on SNP analysis and real time PCR nucleotide diversity and expression profiles of gene fragments of catalase (Cat) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which are known as radical scavenging genes, were analysed in the needles of irradiated pine trees of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In acutely and chronically irradiated trees (50 years old) planted before the accident a higher nucleotide diversity of Cat and more somatic mutations were found compared to their control. Chronically irradiated trees (20 years old) planted after the accident showed a similar nucleotide diversity of Cat compared to their control and in both collectives one somatic mutation was found. The nucleotide diversity of GPx was higher in all analysed trees compared to Cat. No somatic mutation events were found in GPx. For both gene fragments, no association between the received dose in a tree and the nucleotide diversity and mutation events was detected. The expression profiles of Cat and GPx in acutely and chronically and in chronically irradiated trees were similar. Compared to their corresponding control collectives, Cat was up-regulated and GPx slightly down-regulated.

  19. Radioactive wastes management of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern knowledge in the field of radiation waste management on example of the most serious man-made accident at Chernobyl NPP are illuminated. This nuclear power plant that after accident in 1986 became in definite aspect an experimental scientific ground, includes all variety of problems which have to be solved by NPP personnel and specialists from scientific organizations. This book is aimed for large sphere of readers. It will be useful for students, engineers, specialists and those working in the field of nuclear power, ionizing source and radiation technology use for acquiring modern experience in nuclear material management

  20. Basic results and trends of investigations in the Chernobyl' 30-km zone in recent years and for the years immediately ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented is a list of scientific investigations which have been carried out in the Chernobyl' 30-km zone. Three stages of performing investigations are recognized. The programmes of recent scientific investigations and immediate researches to be carried out in the 30-km zone are listed. It is noted that implementation of the programme must result in scientific and practical recommendations as to the protection of the personnel, population, fauna and flora against ionizing radiation under extreme conditions. Provision is made for developing new methods, technologies and technical means of elimination of the failure after-effects on natural polygons, as well as for reliable localization of radioactive wastes and practical demonstration of recovery of contaminated soils

  1. Some peculiarities of lipides peroxide oxidation and anti oxidation therapy of duodenal peptic ulcer in the persons who stayed in the zone of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have studied the links of lipides peroxide oxidation (LPO) in the blood plasma, i.e. the level of antioxidant protection at duodenal peptic ulcer (DPU) in the persons who stayed in the zone of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station. LPO intensification takes place at the expense of the primary stages (spontaneous and hydrogen peroxide induced chemo luminescence) in the liquidators with DPU, when compared with the patients having DPU who did not stay in the zone of the accident. It suggests of exhaustion of cell membranes anti-oxidate protection level which provides atypical course of inflammatory processes in the gastrointestinal tract mucous membrane. The peculiarities of blood plasma LPO changes suggest that it would be reasonable to include antioxidants (Unithiolum) to the complex treatment of the liquidators

  2. A review of possible origins of the uranium 'plume' in the aquifer under the EPIC site in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonucci, C.; Van Meir, N.; Courbet, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LETIS, POB 17, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Roux, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LETIS, POB 17, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, IRD, CEREGE UM34, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Le Gal La Salle, C.; Verdoux, P.; Lancelot, J.C. [Nimes University, Laboratoire de Geochimie Isotopique (GIS), 150 rue George Besse, 30035 Nimes (France); Ruas, A. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Processes Department, F-30207, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Bassot, S. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LAME, POB 17, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Bugai, D. [Institute of Geological Sciences, 55-b, Gonchara Str., Kiev 01054 (Ukraine); Levchuk, S.; Kashparov, V. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, UIAR NUBiP of Ukraine, Mashinobudivnykiv str. 7, Chabany, Kyiv-Svjatoshin (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    The uniqueness of the Chernobyl accident lies in the fact that so much radioactive material was discharged to the atmosphere as solid fuel particles from the reactor core. Between the 26 April and the 6 May 1986 more than 6 tons of small particles of highly radioactive uranium oxide fuel were discharged to the atmosphere and were responsible for more than 75 % of the radioactive contamination on the ground in the exclusion zone. In 1987, about 800 trenches had been dug in the exclusion zone to prevent re-suspension and to protect workers from contamination. In 1999, the IRSN, in collaboration with IGS and UIAR, equipped trench 22 (CPS) in order to monitor radionuclide migration in the environment (water, soil, plants). At the EPIC site high uranium concentrations were observed in the groundwater downstream from trench 22. We discuss the possible origins of this uranium 'plume'. (authors)

  3. A review of possible origins of the uranium 'plume' in the aquifer under the EPIC site in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uniqueness of the Chernobyl accident lies in the fact that so much radioactive material was discharged to the atmosphere as solid fuel particles from the reactor core. Between the 26 April and the 6 May 1986 more than 6 tons of small particles of highly radioactive uranium oxide fuel were discharged to the atmosphere and were responsible for more than 75 % of the radioactive contamination on the ground in the exclusion zone. In 1987, about 800 trenches had been dug in the exclusion zone to prevent re-suspension and to protect workers from contamination. In 1999, the IRSN, in collaboration with IGS and UIAR, equipped trench 22 (CPS) in order to monitor radionuclide migration in the environment (water, soil, plants). At the EPIC site high uranium concentrations were observed in the groundwater downstream from trench 22. We discuss the possible origins of this uranium 'plume'. (authors)

  4. Informational and analytical system of estimation and prognosis of radiation situation in NPP supervision area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system is devoted for prognosis of consequences of accidents at the radiation dangerous objects of NPP in a sharp stage and subsequent radionuclide redistribution in a middle stage within the supervision area. The system includes the complex of models for the estimations of release, atmospheric transport and deposition of radioactive aerosols simultaneously from several sources of different types (tall, ground, point area, volume ones). System enables to calculate fields of radionuclides near-surface air concentration and deposition density, external and internal (due tu inhalation) exposure doses for personnel and population. The system is developed for prognosis of radiation situation in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

  5. Wildlife in Chernobyl forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article is a review of a book addressed Wormwood Forest: a natural history of Chernobyl which describes life in Europe's largest wildlife sanctuary in the region surrounding the Chernobyl station. Since the accident, the area has largely been a safe haven from hunters and farmers, allowing the wildlife to live in an undisturbed environment. Against this backdrop, the book describes in detail, a highly controversial programme that released an endangered species of horse into the zone. Lack of funding for such programmes makes it nearly impossible to administer them. The book blends reportage, popular science and encounters with the zone's few residents. The result is an account of a remarkable land, its people and animals seen through the eyes of the locals, the author and the zoologists, botanists and radiologists who travelled with her around the zone. The radiation is the book's ever-present protagonist, as the author describes in detail how it works itself through the entire food chain and environment. Along the author's journey through the affected regions of Belarus and Ukraine she debunks several myths surrounding Chernobyl and the nuclear industry in general. In fact, while there have been a small number of cases of mutations observed in some species, these are not as dramatic as the Chernobyl mythology.

  6. Review and Analysis of Solid Long-lived and High Level Radioactive Waste arising at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the Restricted Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study characterised potential waste arisings in the Exclusion Zone surrounding the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Studied sites include the Industrial Zone outside the Sarcophagus, three engineered disposal sites (the so-called PZRO), non-engineered near surface trench dumps (PVLRO), contaminated soil and sites of ''unauthorized'' disposal within the Exclusion Zone. Analysis of the previous methodology used for waste characterisation and inventory estimates identified a number of errors. A new database was established, which contains the most up-to date information on radwaste in the Exclusion Zone. Based on the analysis of the available information and potential radiological consequences, a judgement was taken regarding the priority of waste retrieval. In a number of cases it is necessary to carry out risk assessment to ensure that in-situ disposal would satisfy the Ukrainian regulations. Assessments of waste stream volumes for subsequent incineration, encapsulation, storage and disposal in the planned near-surface facilities have been made. It is judged that throughput and capacity of the planned waste management facilities specified by OSAT is, in general, appropriate to the likely waste arisings. (author)

  7. [Comparative analysis of the radionuclide composition in fallout after the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenko, K V; Shinkarev, S M; Abramov, Iu V; Granovskaia, E O; Iatsenko, V N; Gavrilin, Iu I; Margulis, U Ia; Garetskaia, O S; Imanaka, T; Khoshi, M

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear accident occurred at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) (March 11, 2011) similarly to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (April 26, 1986) is related to the level 7 of the INES. It is of interest to make an analysis of the radionuclide composition of the fallout following the both accidents. The results of the spectrometric measurements were used in that comparative analysis. Two areas following the Chernobyl accident were considered: (1) the near zone of the fallout - the Belarusian part of the central spot extended up to 60 km around the Chernobyl NPS and (2) the far zone of the fallout--the "Gomel-Mogilev" spot centered 200 km to the north-northeast of the damaged reactor. In the case of Fukushima accident the near zone up to about 60 km considered. The comparative analysis has been done with respect to refractory radionuclides (95Zr, 95Nb, 141Ce, 144Ce), as well as to the intermediate and volatile radionuclides 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140La, 140Ba and the results of such a comparison have been discussed. With respect to exposure to the public the most important radionuclides are 131I and 137Cs. For the both accidents the ratios of 131I/137Cs in the considered soil samples are in the similar ranges: (3-50) for the Chernobyl samples and (5-70) for the Fukushima samples. Similarly to the Chernobyl accident a clear tendency that the ratio of 131I/137Cs in the fallout decreases with the increase of the ground deposition density of 137Cs within the trace related to a radioactive cloud has been identified for the Fukushima accident. It looks like this is a universal tendency for the ratio of 131I/137Cs versus the 137Cs ground deposition density in the fallout along the trace of a radioactive cloud as a result of a heavy accident at the NPP with radionuclides releases into the environment. This tendency is important for an objective reconstruction of 131I fallout based on the results of 137Cs measurements of soil samples carried out at

  8. Chernobyl revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations made on a visit to the Chernobyl area in July 1990 are reported. Although the main purpose of the visit was to try out thermoluminescence techniques on materials exposed to radiation during the accident, the observations reported here are of a more general nature covering the variations in dose rate and contamination of surfaces within the 30 km exclusion zone and in the deserted tow of Pripyat, and plant, animal and bird life. The most ubiquitous contamination in Pripyat is caesium, which has penetrated all porous surfaces and would probably be very difficult to remove from brick structures if rehabitation were ever contemplated. Recorded dose-rates varied considerably on and in different parts of buildings. Radiation measurements of external surfaces were typically in the range 1-10 μSv/h and an order of magnitude less within buildings. Grass verges were particularly badly contaminated; measurements up to 110 μSv/h were noted in the most polluted area of Pripyat. Ecologically, the area seems to have benefited from having been allowed to return to nature. Many birds and a wide variety of plants and trees were flourishing; some older pine trees showed evidence of damage, however. The only insects observed were peacock butterflies. (Author)

  9. The Chernobyl catastrophe consequences in the Republic of Belarus. National report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time

  10. Biological indication of production condition influence on the staff of state specialized enterprise for radioactive waste management and desactivation 'Complex' in Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of comparative cytogenetical examination of two groups are presented. First group is staff from two work-shops (RAW management and RAW deactivation) of SJE 'Complex' in Chernobyl exclusion zone. Second group consists of the persons who had no mutagenic factors influence during their professional activity (conditional control). Classical chromosome analysis method was used. It was found chromosome damages frequency in staff is significantly higher than spontaneous level in conditional control group. Professional experience duration and external exposure integral doses of both workshops staff do not differ. Staff of RAW deactivation workshop, who is additionally influenced by chemical and physical factors, has significantly higher chromosome aberration frequency, particularly due to specific cytogenetical markers of exposure. Correlation between external exposure integral doses and total chromosome aberration frequency, chromosome type aberration frequency, stabile interchromosomal exchanges frequency was found

  11. The transfer of (137)Cs, Pu isotopes and (90)Sr to bird, bat and ground-dwelling small mammal species within the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, N A; Gaschak, S; Maksimenko, Andrey; Wood, M D

    2016-03-01

    Protected species are the focus of many radiological environmental assessments. However, the lack of radioecological data for many protected species presents a significant international challenge. Furthermore, there are legislative restrictions on destructive sampling of protected species to obtain such data. Where data are not available, extrapolations are often made from 'similar' species but there has been little attempt to validate this approach. In this paper we present what, to our knowledge, is the first study purposefully designed to test the hypothesis that radioecological data for unprotected species can be used to estimate conservative radioecolgical parameters for protected species; conservatism being necessary to ensure that there is no significant impact. The study was conducted in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Consequently, we are able to present data for Pu isotopes in terrestrial wildlife. There has been limited research on Pu transfer to terrestrial wildlife which contrasts with the need to assess radiation exposure of wildlife to Pu isotopes around many nuclear facilities internationally. Our results provide overall support for the hypothesis that data for unprotected species can be used to adequately assess the impacts for ionising radiation on protected species. This is demonstrated for a range of mammalian and avian species. However, we identify one case, the shrew, for which data from other ground-dwelling small mammals would not lead to an appropriately conservative assessment of radiation impact. This indicates the need to further test our hypothesis across a range of species and ecosystems, and/or ensure adequate conservatism within assessments. The data presented are of value to those trying to more accurately estimate the radiation dose to wildlife in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, helping to reduce the considerable uncertainty in studies reporting dose-effect relationships for wildlife. A video abstract for this paper is available from

  12. Socio-geographical approach in solution of the problem of the forest resources management in Chernobyl accident zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ukraine needs wood badly, and so it is very unfortunate that large forest areas are contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident. For wood industry management purposes, forest areas have been categorized as follows: (1) protective-recreational, (2) protective-operational, (3) protective-operational with radiometric control, (4) protective with medium-intensity exploitation and radiometric control, (5) protective with lower than medium-intensity exploitation and radiometric control, (6) protective with limited wood exploitation, (7) protective with radiometric control, and (8) protective, forbidden for management. Percent fractions of forests in the various categories are given for the affected regions of the Ukraine. (P.A.)

  13. 90Sr migration to the geo-sphere from a waste burial in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from an ongoing field-scale experimental study (namely the Chernobyl Pilot Site project) aimed at characterization of processes controlling 90Sr releases from a shallow trench containing nuclear fuel particles, and subsequent radionuclide transport in the underlying sandy aquifer at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant site. Microscopic analyses of waste material and leaching experiments have shown that 10-30% of the radioactive inventory is associated with chemically extra-stable Zr-U-O particles. The largest fraction of 90Sr activity in the trench (∼30-60%) is currently associated with relatively slowly dissolving non-oxidized UO2 matrix fuel particles. The 90Sr migration velocity in the eolian sand aquifer is retarded by sorption to ∼9% of groundwater flow velocity (Kd ∼ 2 ml/g). The dispersivity values for non-reactive solute transport in the aquifer predicted by geostatistics (i.e. 0.8 6 cm) were confirmed by a natural gradient tracer test using 36Cl. The observed negative correlation between hydraulic conductivity and Kd of aquifer sediments suggests that 90Sr could be subjected to larger dispersion in the subsurface compared with 36Cl

  14. Chernobyl exclusion zone protection dyke on the pripyat river: collective dose reduction and cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The periodic floods at spring of the Pripyat river, near the Chernobyl plant, contribute to put back in suspension and to the dissolution of radioactive particles which settled during the accident of 1986 and remain present on the ground surface. These particles are then carried by the Pripyat river, then downstream by the Dnieper, to the black Sea. This secondary contamination is a significant radiological exposure source for the Ukraine population, living near the river. A project of a dam construction on the right side of the river, to supplement an existing similar dam on the left side, has been elaborated. A study of counter-evaluation relative to efficiency of the dam evaluation on a technical and a radiological domain, has been realized by the CEPN and the BG Consulting Engineers Ltd. In this framework, the CEPN realized the doses calculation and the cost benefit analysis. (A.L.B.)

  15. Conceptual model of the 'blast furnace' version of formation of nuclear-dangerous accumulation on the Ch NPP Unit 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic provisions of conceptual model of the 'blast furnace' version of formation of nuclear-dangerous accumulation of the fuel containing materials (FCM) hidden in a zone of pro-melting of a under-reactor slab of the Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 are formulated. Formation of the fragments of the former core (FFC) with a critical mass of uranium and lava-like FCM is considered as a result of two interconnected processes - molten core/concrete interactions and melting of FFC in a bathtub of silicate fusion that was formed of the materials 'furnace charges'

  16. The safety of Ignalina NPP and ecological danger in public opinion of inhabitants of Daugavpils region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inquest of Daugavpils' region pointed to a big anxiety for ecological danger of Ignalina NPP by inhabitants and experts. Absolute majority of respondents (73-78% inhabitants and 68-82% experts) apprehend the NPP as very dangerous and dangerous. More than half of respondents apprehend the dangerous increased during last two-three years. It is because no one has a good reference about situation, because tragic al Chernobyl NPP burst was on. The anxiety increases if the respondent lives nearer of NPP. Inhabitants of Daugavpils and it's region wants the better reference about situation, about future of Ignalina NPP after 2010 year, about securities means in case of NPP burst. (author)

  17. The succession of plant associations at the territories of the alienation zone in post-Chernobyl period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the results of studies on ecological succession in the zone of alienation (Vetkovskij area of the Gomel' region). The lands of this zone have not been used for agricultural purposes. The connection between characteristics of regeneration ecosystems and ecological condition of agricultural landscape is established. The change of vegetation in the course of succession is considered. Plant associations which are formed in the zone of alienation are described. (authors)

  18. Analysis of recessive sex-linked lethal mutations in genetically different strains of Drosophila melanogaster ms and w irradiated in the five-kilometer zone of the Chernobyl meltdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of induced and spontaneous recessive sex-linked lethal mutations (RSLLM) in Drosophila melanogaster strains w and ms was estimated after their chronic irradiation in the five-kilometer zone of the Chernobyl' meltdown. The mutagenic effect of relatively low radiation doses was analyzed. In an experiment conducted in 1990, a significant increase in the RSLLM frequency was recorded, while, in 1991, no significant difference between the experiment and control was found

  19. Model assessment of additional contamination of water bodies as a result of wildfires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar, Yu I; Navumau, A D; Nikitin, A N; Brown, J; Dowdall, M

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires and wild fires are recognized as a possible cause of resuspension and redistribution of radioactive substances when occurring on lands contaminated with such materials, and as such are a matter of concern within the regions of Belarus and the Ukraine which were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Modelling the effects of such fires on radioactive contaminants is a complex matter given the number of variables involved. In this paper, a probabilistic model was developed using empirical data drawn from the Polessie State Radiation-Ecological Reserve (PSRER), Belarus, and the Maximum Entropy Method. Using the model, it was possible to derive estimates of the contribution of fire events to overall variability in the levels of (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu in ground air as well as estimates of the deposition of these radionuclides to specific water bodies within the contaminated areas of Belarus. Results indicate that fire events are potentially significant redistributors of radioactive contaminants within the study area and may result in additional contamination being introduced to water bodies. PMID:25240987

  20. Model assessment of additional contamination of water bodies as a result of wildfires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest fires and wild fires are recognized as a possible cause of resuspension and redistribution of radioactive substances when occurring on lands contaminated with such materials, and as such are a matter of concern within the regions of Belarus and the Ukraine which were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Modelling the effects of such fires on radioactive contaminants is a complex matter given the number of variables involved. In this paper, a probabilistic model was developed using empirical data drawn from the Polessie State Radiation-Ecological Reserve (PSRER), Belarus, and the Maximum Entropy Method. Using the model, it was possible to derive estimates of the contribution of fire events to overall variability in the levels of 137Cs and 239,240Pu in ground air as well as estimates of the deposition of these radionuclides to specific water bodies within the contaminated areas of Belarus. Results indicate that fire events are potentially significant redistributors of radioactive contaminants within the study area and may result in additional contamination being introduced to water bodies. - Highlights: • The role of fire in redistribution of radionuclides was assessed. • Transfer of radionuclides to water bodies due to fire was estimated. • A maximum entropy method was used for modelling. • Results indicate potential for significant transfer of radionuclides

  1. International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

  2. Treatment of NPP wastes using vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass-based materials to immobilize various liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated at nuclear power plants (NPP) were designed. Glassy waste forms can be produced using electric melting including a cold crucible melting. Leach rate of cesium was found to be 10-5-10-6 g/(cm2 day) (IAEA technique). Volume reduction factor after vitrification reached 4-5. Various technologies for NPP waste vitrification were developed. Direct vitrification means feeding of source waste into the melter with formation of glassy waste form to be disposed. Joule heated ceramic melter, and cold crucible were tested. Process variables at treatment of Kursk, Chernobyl (RBMK), Kalinin, Novovoronezh (VVER) NPP wastes were determined. The most promising melter was found to be the cold crucible. Pilot plant based on the cold crucibles has been designed and constructed. Solid burnable NPP wastes are incinerated and slags are incorporated in glass. (author)

  3. Social Chernobyl participants condition in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full texts: At the moment in Lithuania live almost 6 600 Chernobyl participants (persons witch were in attendance Chernobyl nuclear power station emergency ravage liquidation works and executing another works in 30 kilometers zone). About 770 died and 170 went to other nations. Thievery other fixed illnesses coherence with being in 30 kilometers zone. According 26 October, 1990 Republic of Lithuania government's resolution No. 325 intended that Chernobyl participants credit accomplishes Ministry of Social care but until now in the Republic there is not undivided database, consequently we use different institution's and social investigations information which is not circumstantial. Chernobyl participants social condition and medicine service control certificates, government's resolutions and Ministry of health care and work and Ministry's of health care requisitions. There is not a law which guarantees Chernobyl participants social rights. Supposedly that for in Lithuania there is not the logistics which could vouch medical facilities provision for Chernobyl participants. Until 2005 sanatorium treating of Chernobyl participants was pursuance through invalids till but this treatment was not available to everyone Chernobyl participant for two reasons: 1 - Vicinities doctors and GPs not all the time contemprorize illnesses with being in The nuclear power station of the Chernobyl zone. 2 - Invalids till was not fixing the number of the permissions to the sanatoriums for the Chernobyl participants. Since 13 September, 2005 by Republic of Lithuania government's resolution No. 998 municipal governments budget bankrolls once a year may offset eighteen-days sanatorium treatment for persons which were liquidating The nuclear power-station of the Chernobyl emergency ravage but Chernobyl participants should give Specialists committee inference. Another problem social security. Chernobyl participant's requirement supply if they ill or died according Government's 18 February

  4. Byelorussia's Chernobyl legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 radioactive fall-out was widely distributed over the eastern territories of the Soviet Union and over Europe. While the effects in Europe have been well documented and have received widespread media attention, less is known about the effects within the Soviet Union. The general picture that has been painted is that while the accident was serious, it wasn't that bad and the resulting contamination is something that can be lived with. In reality many people are living in contaminated zones which would be regarded as completely unacceptable in the United Kingdom. However, the USSR Ministry of Public Health has argued that relocation is not necessary. The Ministry and other agencies including the Red Cross do not recognize the contamination as serious and feel the main side effect of Chernobyl is psychological. In Byelorussia however, 100,000 people are still living in areas of major contamination. (author)

  5. Resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: part II. Modeling the transport process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To predict parameters of radionuclide resuspension, transport and deposition during forest and grassland fires, several model modules were developed and adapted. Experimental data of controlled burning of prepared experimental plots in the Chernobyl exclusion zone have been used to evaluate the prognostic power of the models. The predicted trajectories and elevations of the plume match with those visually observed during the fire experiments in the grassland and forest sites. Experimentally determined parameters could be successfully used for the calculation of the initial plume parameters which provide the tools for the description of various fire scenarios and enable prognostic calculations. In summary, the model predicts a release of some per mille from the radionuclide inventory of the fuel material by the grassland fires. During the forest fire, up to 4% of 137Cs and 9Sr and up to 1% of the Pu isotopes can be released from the forest litter according to the model calculations. However, these results depend on the parameters of the fire events. In general, the modeling results are in good accordance with the experimental data. Therefore, the considered models were successfully validated and can be recommended for the assessment of the resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in contaminated territories

  6. METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS 90SR AND 137CS IN-VIVO MEASUREMENTS OF SMALL ANIMALS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA DEVELOPED FOR THE CONDITIONS OF THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To perform in vivo simultaneous measurements of the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content in the bodies of animals living in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ), an appropriate method and equipment were developed and installed in a mobile gamma beta spectrometry laboratory. This technique was designed for animals of relatively small sizes (up to 50 g). The {sup 90}Sr content is measured by a beta spectrometer with a 0.1 mm thick scintillation plastic detector. The spectrum processing takes into account the fact that the measured object is 'thick-layered' and contains a comparable quantity of {sup 137}Cs, which is a characteristic condition of the ChEZ. The {sup 137}Cs content is measured by a NaI scintillation detector that is part of the combined gamma beta spectrometry system. For environmental research performed in the ChEZ, the advantages of this method and equipment (rapid measurements, capability to measure live animals directly in their habitat, and the capability of simultaneous {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs measurements) far outweigh the existing limitations (considerations must be made for background radiation and the animal size, skeletal shape and body mass). The accuracy of these in vivo measurements is shown to be consistent with standard spectrometric and radiochemical methods. Apart from the in vivo measurements, the proposed methodology, after a very simple upgrade that is also described in the article, works even more accurately with samples of other media, such as soil and plants.

  7. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS OF 90SR AND 137CS CONCENTRATIONS IN AN ECOSYSTEM OF THE 'RED FOREST' AREA IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Caldwell, E.

    2011-10-01

    In the most highly contaminated region of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone: the 'Red Forest' site, the accumulation of the major dose-affecting radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) within the components of an ecological system encompassing 3,000 m{sup 2} were characterized. The sampled components included soils (top 0-10 cm depth), Molina caerulea (blue moor grass), Camponotus vagus (carpenter ants) and Pelobates fuscus (spade-footed toad). In a comparison among the components of this ecosystem, the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations measured in 40 separate grids exhibited significant differences, while the frequency distribution of the values were close to a logarithmically normal leptokurtic distribution with a significant right-side skew. While it is important to identify localized areas of high contamination or 'hot spots,' including these values in the arithmetic mean may overestimate the exposure risk. In component sample sets that exhibited logarithmically normal distribution, the geometrical mean more accurately characterizes a site. Ideally, risk assessment is most confidently achieved when the arithmetic and geometrical means are most similar, meaning the distribution approaches normal. Through bioaccumulation, the highest concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were measured in the blue moor grass and spade-footed toad. These components also possessed distribution parameters that shifted toward a normal distribution.

  8. Exopolysaccharide production by nitrogen-fixing bacteria within nodules of Medicago plants exposed to chronic radiation in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlicki-Jullian, Nathalie; Courtois, Bernard; Pillon, Michelle; Lesur, David; Le Flèche-Mateos, Anne; Laberche, Jean-Claude; Goncharova, Nadia; Courtois, Josiane

    2010-03-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from root nodules of Medicago plants growing in the 10 km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant were screened for the production of new water-soluble acidic exopolysaccharides (EPSs). The different strains belonged to the Enteriobacteriaceae family (Enterobacter ludwigii, Raoultella terrigena, Klebsiella oxytoca), except for one which belonged to the Rhizobiaceae family (Sinorhizobium meliloti). All of the bacteria produced highly viscous EPS with an average molecular weight comprised between 1 x 10(6) and 3 x 10(6) Da. Five different compositions of EPS were characterized by physico-chemical analyses and (1)H NMR spectroscopy: galactose/mannose (2/1), galactose/glucose (1/1), galactose/glucose/mannose (1/2/1), fucose/galactose/glucose (2/1/1) and fucose/galactose/glucose/mannose (2/2/1/1 or 1/1/2/4). Glucuronic acid, a charged monosaccharide, was also recovered in most of the different EPSs. PMID:20080178

  9. Complex approach to the assessment of the chronic influence of the radioactive factor on populations of mollusks in water bodies of Chernobyl nuclear accident zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollusks from river Pripyat and lake Perstok in the Chernobyl zone differed from the view point of the content of gamma-isotopes, proportion of the cells with cytogenetic damages and death features, cell composition of hemolymph and radioresistance. In 2003 gamma-activity of mollusks from river and lake amounted to 12,7 and 585 Bq kg-1, respectively. Specimens from the lake were characterized by increase of the proportion of the cells with cytogenetic damages (micronuclei) and by decrease of cells with interphase death and proportion of the young cells in hemolymph. It indicates the unfavourable environmental conditions in this water reservoir due to increased level of radioactive contamination. Nevertheless, the radioresistance of mollusks in the lake was much higher than that in the river. The revealed ratio of the cells with cytogenetic damages and apoptosis in mollusks from these water reservoirs remained after their exposure to ?-radiation in the dose of 500 Gy under the experimental conditions. The lake specimens exposed to gamma-radiation were able to produce the egg masses, but viability of the latter was restored only in one month following the exposure. It indicates intensification of the radioadaptation processes of L.stagnalis population from the lake. (authors)

  10. Estimating the exposure of small mammals at three sites within the Chernobyl exclusion zone - a test application of the ERICA Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An essential step in the development of any modelling tool is the validation of its predictions. This paper describes a study conducted within the Chernobyl exclusion zone to acquire data to conduct an independent test of the predictions of the ERICA Tool which is designed for use in assessments of radiological risk to the environment. Small mammals were repeatedly trapped at three woodland sites between early July and mid-August 2005. Thermoluminescent dosimeters mounted on collars were fitted to Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus spp. to provide measurements of external dose rate. A total of 85 TLDs were recovered. All animals from which TLDs were recovered were live-monitored to determine 90Sr and 137Cs whole-body activity concentrations. A limited number of animals were also analysed to determine 239,240Pu activity concentrations. Measurements of whole-body activity concentrations and dose rates recorded by the TLDs were compared to predictions of the ERICA-Tool. The predicted 90Sr and 137Cs mean activity concentrations were within an order of magnitude of the observed data means. Whilst there was some variation between sites in the agreement between measurements and predictions this was consistent with what would be expected from the differences in soil types at the sites. Given the uncertainties of conducting a study such as this, the agreement observed between the TLD results and the predicted external dose rates gives confidence to the predictions of the ERICA Tool

  11. Proceedings of the Chernobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium (137Cs) and strontium (90Sr). The 137Cs and 90Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place

  12. Immune cells in Chernobyl radiation workers exposed to low-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the aim of this work was to study immune response parameters in Chernobyl emergency and recovery operation radiation workers and nuclear industry workers exposed under professional limits. The monohydroxylated fatty acid content in peripheral blood mononuclear cell of radiation workers compared to unexposed control at the 12-th year after Chernobyl NPP accident was studied too

  13. After Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident mobilized profound anxieties in many people, which subsequently were repressed again and played down with the aid of the known psychological mechanisms. The authors trace the anxiety, and the resistance against it, and pose the question of whether we are at all capable of learning to think along new lines. From the contents: 10 theses on Chernobyl 1986 (Anders, G.); Anxiety, apathy and new thinking (Richter, H.-E.); On the Germans' particular way of dealing with existential threats (Wirth, H.-J.); Appeasement and delusion - small and big flights from powerlessness (Leithaeuser, T.); Socio-psychological theses on the consequences of nuclear energy (Clemenz, M.); Psychological arguments in the discussion about Chernobyl (Kettner, M.); Relationship between fear and technology (Brede, K.); Inhumanity of technology (Spangenberg, N.); Psychology of nuclear addiction (Bauriedl, T.); Nature or technology - search of the wizard's apprentice for lost salvation (Bastian, T./Hilger, M.); Living under a nuclear threat - significance of existential fear experienced during childhood (Boehnke, K., et al.); Survey of, and psychoanalytical reflections on, poisoned childhood (Petri, H.); On knowing, feeling, and experience after Chernobyl (Thiel, W.); Sociopsychological aspects of the staging of politics as a state spectacle fit for the media (Fuechner, H.). (orig./HP)

  14. Project Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the follow-up after the Chernobyl fallout is to obtain the best possible information about the environmental and dose commitment consequences in Sweden. The essential part of the work by the institute to improve the state of readiness is described. (G.B.)

  15. Chernobyl fantasy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several versions of technical reasons of Chernobyl accident, which have received a wide resonance in mass-media, and are seemed as reasonable for most public without any special education in reactor's physics, are discussed. Probable reasons of its origination are analysed, and its scientific groundlessness is shown

  16. The radioecological monitoring of wild hunting hoofed animals, living for a long time in the of alienation zone in the distant period after the failure on Chernobyl nuclear station faire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data of the 12-year-long research about contents of Cs-137 in muscle tissue of the elk and european roe deer obtained in the abandoned zone after the Chernobyl accident. The authors have shown considerable range in the contents of Cs-137 in the organism of these wild animals. All the animals of the of alienation zone had the high contents of the given radionuclide in muscle tissue, which considerably exceeded normative values established for meat of wild hunting hoofed animals.(Authors)

  17. Bhopal and Chernobyl: some comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to compare some aspects of the accidents at Bhopal and Chernobyl, their causes and consequences. There were design and management inadequacies in both cases, Maintenance inadequacies were plenty in Bhopal but not in Chernobyl. Written instructions were unsatisfactory in Bhopal. In Chernobyl the operators deliberately violated the instructions repeatedly; this compounded by the unsatisfactory nature of reactor design, led to the accident. Disaster management preparedness and emergency response were excellent at Chernobyl. At Bhopal the plant management was absolutely unprepared and contributed practically nothing to the emergency management; however, civil and military authorities did a splendid job. Immediate deaths in Bhopal are estimated to be 2,500 to 10,000 and the number affected 200,000. None of the plant staff were affected and all the casualties were in non-plant personnel living nearby. All the 31 deaths in Chernobyl were among the plant personnel. Although 135,000 persons living in a 30 Km zone round the reactor were evacuated and medically examined, none had to be hospitalised. The world scientific community seems to have forgotten Bhopal within a year or so after the accident, while Chernobyl continues to excite intense interest. Extensive knowledge of the biological effects of radiation helps to estimate the likely number of cancer and genetic effects from Chernobyl. Knowledge of Methyl iso cyanate (MIC) toxicology is woefully inadequate; recent evidence indicates the possibility of carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of MIC. Both at Bhopal and Chernobyl there are elaborate plans for detailed followup of the populations for several decades. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Bacterial biodiversity analysis of a contaminated soil from the Chernobyl exclusion zone and characterization of the committed interaction of a Microbacterium strain with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power plants accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima demonstrate the importance of the understanding of the transfer of the radioactive contamination in the environment and its ecological consequences. Although certain studies have been realized on superior organisms of the food chain, studies on telluric bacterial communities are scarce. The latter play nevertheless an essential role in the mobility of contaminants in soils by decreasing or improving their transfer towards other compartments (water, vegetables and animals). Moreover radionuclides (RNs) can have toxic effects on bacteria, leading to an inhibition of their participation in such transfer. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the impact of the radioactive contamination on bacterial communities belonging to a soil of the Chernobyl exclusion zone (trench T22) and (2) to study the uranium-bacteria interactions of a resistant strain, isolated from this soil. The various techniques used to characterize the bacterial diversity (culture of bacteria, DGGE, 454 pyro-sequencing) all testified of the multiplicity and the abundance of the bacterial communities in spite of the contamination. An impact on the community structure was difficult to assess by DGGE or cultural approach, but was nevertheless highlighted by the use of pyro-sequencing, suggesting the presence of species more adapted to the contaminated soil conditions. A specific molecular tool dedicated to the search of bacteria affiliated to the known radiation resistant Deinococcus-Thermus phylum (for example the Deinococcus radiodurans specie survives after an irradiation of several kGy) was developed. However it did not reveal the presence of bacteria affiliated to such a phylum in the studied soil. In parallel to the study of the bacterial biodiversity, about fifty culturable bacteria were isolated from this site and were used as a support to select a species (Microbacterium) capable to survive strong U(VI) concentrations. The

  19. Chernobyl catastrophe: Information for people living in the contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive blow-outs after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant catastrophe reached many states. The largest amount of them (according to experts' estimations - 70%) fell out on the Belarus territory. The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. More than 14 years have passed since the Chernobyl NPP accident but some of the problems caused by the catastrophe have not been solved. This is bound up, first of all, with a high collective dosage absorbed by the population, with difficulties in forecasting and prophylactics of remote radiological effects, with ecological and economic crisis. The consequences of the disaster greatly affect all the aspects of vital activities of the affected regions and the state as a whole. Destructive tendencies have been revealed in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population inhabiting the contaminated territory and resettled as well, require considerable optimisation. Negative factors of the Chernobyl catastrophe, which are significant for human health can be divided into two groups as follows: radiation-based, directly related to influence of ionising radiation and non radiation based, related to changes in habitat and prolonged psychological stress. The specific peculiarities of psychogenic disorders caused by the catastrophe are determined by the following reasons: insufficient knowledge of radiation effects; constant apprehension for the health and well-being of themselves and their families, especially children; unexpected change of the life stereotype (forced resettlement, the break of the former life, changing the place and the character of work, etc.); the necessity of constant keeping precaution measures and prophylactic

  20. VERTICAL MIGRATION OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE VICINITY OF THE CHERNOBYL CONFINEMENT SHELTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Marra, J.

    2011-10-01

    Studies on vertical migration of Chernobyl-origin radionuclides in the 5-km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the area of the Red Forest experimental site were completed. Measurements were made by gamma spectrometric methods using high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors with beryllium windows. Alpha-emitting isotopes of plutonium were determined by the measurement of the x-rays from their uranium progeny. The presence of {sup 60}Co, {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 154,155}Eu, and {sup 241}Am in all soil layers down to a depth of 30 cm was observed. The presence of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am were noted in the area containing automorphous soils to a depth of 60 cm. In addition, the upper soil layers at the test site were found to contain {sup 243}Am and {sup 243}Cm. Over the past ten years, the {sup 241}Am/{sup 137}Cs ratio in soil at the experimental site has increased by a factor of 3.4, nearly twice as much as would be predicted based solely on radioactive decay. This may be due to 'fresh' fallout emanating from the ChNPP Confinement Shelter.

  1. Chernobyl, 14 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) International cooperation, 7) More information about Chernobyl and 8) Glossary

  2. To ecological-sanitary essessment of the importance of surface-active substances as anthropogenic factor in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sociological analysis dealing with studying attitude of the personnel working in the duty-idle regime towards usage of special clothes treated with synthetic detergents is realized. The surface-active substances (SAS) arc adsorbed by laudered underclothes (8-17 mug/cm2) and can cause skin irritation during wearing. 77% of personnel engaged in public catering and 86% of that working in special laundry were questioned. It is revealed that presence of SAS traces on special clothes gives unfavourable effect on skin covers of the persons questioned (>68%)

  3. Influence of light with various spectral distributions on the fatty-acid profiles of microscopic fungi isolated from the Chernobyl NPP alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fatty-acid profiles of microscopic fungi isolated from highly radioactive and non-radioactive substrates and the influence of light with different spectral distributions on these profiles are studied. The quantitative and qualitative composition of the fatty acids of cell lipids is analyzed. It is shown that the 7-day action of light of different wavelengths leads to quantitative changes in the ratio of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. These changes are most significant in strains of melanin-containing species C. cladosporioides and H. resinae

  4. Leaching of radionuclides out of some novelly formed products extracted from the reactor zone of the 4th unit of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented on leaching of radionuclides from two samples of glass-like products (brown and gree glass) by 0.01 mol/l solution of sodium chloride. The level and rate of radionuclide leaching are determined. It is ascertained that green glass features a higher resistance to leaching

  5. Model of radionuclide migration in the ChNPP 30-km zone on the basis of landscape point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was shown that the territory of the 30-km zone was tinguished on secondary distribution factors of radionuclides: relief of surface and its grades, presence and propagation of closed and semiclosed drinages, lithology of soil-forming rocks and depth of bed of first water-bearing layer. Application of geoinformation systems (GIS) for submitting of geographic and radioecological information provides advantages of landscape point of view. Creation of reference points for samplers was considered

  6. Determination of (129)I and (127)I concentration in soil samples from the Chernobyl 30-km zone by AMS and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Rühm, Werner

    2009-07-01

    A large amount of radioiodine isotopes (mainly (131)I, t(1/2) = 8 days) was released from the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) in April-May 1986. An increase in childhood-thyroid cancer in the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine was demonstrated to be caused by radioiodine released at the time of the accident. However, there is a lack of quantitative data on the (131)I levels in the local environment (e.g. air, plant, soil). At this point, a long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (t(1/2) = 15.7 million years), also released with a certain ratio to (131)I from CNPP, could be used for estimating the (131)I levels in the environment. In this paper we present analytical results of the (129)I concentrations and (129)I/(127)I atom ratios in soil samples collected from the CNPP exclusion zone (30-km zone), with the aim of assessing current contamination levels and distribution patterns. For the analysis of the iodine fraction in the investigated soil samples, the pyrohydrolysis method was utilized for separation of (127)I and (129)I nuclides, and subsequently their concentration was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), respectively. The concentration of (129)I and the (129)I/(127)I atom ratio in the surface soil samples in the 30 km-zone of CNPP ranged from 4.6 to 170 mBq/kg, and from 1.4 x 10(-6) to 13 x 10(-6), respectively. These values are significantly higher than those from global (129)I fallout, indicating that most of the measured (129)I was due to the deposition of the accident. Stable iodine concentrations in this area were found to be very low (below 1 ppm) for most of the samples, suggesting the environmental iodine levels in this area to be potentially low. The (129)I/(137)Cs activity ratio in surface and sub-surface soils was not so constant, i.e., in the range (7.3-20.2) x 10(-7). This might be due to the different behavior of deposition and/or migration

  7. Chernobyl bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone ampersand Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time

  8. Chernobyl bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time.

  9. After Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses a number of effects of the Chernobyl-accident on public opinion about nuclear power. The analysis is based on a comparison of a survey conducted shortly after Chernobyl and a number of measurements in the Netherlands between 1982 and 1986. The conclusions can be summarized as follows: Attitudes towards nuclear power and especially towards building new stations have become much more negative after the disaster in Chernobyl. Although a majority of the population now wants to close existing nuclear power stations, there appears strong support for continuation of nuclear research. The structure of the nuclear debate has not changed fundamentally. Supporters and opponents have kept the same demographic characteristics. The arguments which distinguish them have not changed, except that the expectation of a serious accident has an increased impact on attitudes. A majority of the population felt the information after the accident not sufficient. Since 1982 attitudes towards coal also have become more negative, mainly as a consequence of the higher visibility of effects of acid rain. (Auth.)

  10. 17 years after the Chernobyl' accident: problems and decisions. Proceedings of the International scientific and practical conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book contains proceedings of the scientific conference on difference medical and biological problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident, as well as on the problems of rehabilitation of the contaminated territories and ecosystems

  11. Emergency preparedness lessons from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergency preparedness at nuclear power plants in the U.S has been considerably enhanced since the Three Mile Island accident, The Chernobyl accident has provided valuable data that can be used to evaluate the merit of some of these enhancements and to determine the need for additional improvements, for example, the USSR intervention levels of 25 rem and 75 rem for evacuation are contrasted with U.S Environmental Protection agency protective action guides. The manner in which 135,000 persons were evacuated from the 30-km zone around Chernobyl is contrasted with typical U.S. evacuation plans. Meteorological conditions and particulate deposition patterns were studied to infer characteristics of the radioactive plume from Chernobyl. Typical plume monitoring techniques are examined in light of lessons learned by the Soviets about plume behavior. This review has indicated a need for additional improvements in utility and government emergency plans, procedures, equipment, and training

  12. Chernobyl accident and health: end of first tenth anniversary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials on medical and social-psychological aspects, caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident are presented. Comparative evaluation of the morbidity cases, frequency of tumor formation, mortality among the accident liquidators and the public of various age in the Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation is given

  13. Visaginas NPP Project Regional Approach: Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithuania has a long standing nuclear energy history. The country is the host of the Ignalina NPP consisting of two RBMK-1500 reactors (a type of boiling water reactor developed by the Soviet Union) located in Visaginas, Lithuania. Ignalina NPP (INPP) Unit 1 came online in December 1983 and Unit 2 was completed in 1987. Lithuania agreed to close the Ignalina NPP as part of its Accession Treaty to the European Union of 2003, as the Ignalina NPP design shares similarities with the Chernobyl NPP. Unit 1 was closed in December 2004 and Unit 2 was closed on 31 December 2009. Around 80% of electricity production in Lithuania in 2009 came from Unit 2 of the INPP. However, following the closure of the Ignalina NPP, Lithuanian electricity net import was 62% of the entire electricity demand in 2010 and 59%32 in 2011. To meet its energy needs following the INPP’s closure, in the absence of a new nuclear power plant, Lithuania relies on a combination of imported electricity, predominantly from interconnections with the UPS/IPS network, and power from alternative domestic generation facilities, which are predominantly fossil plants reliant on gas or oil imports from other countries

  14. Changed level of peripheral blood red cell total and membrane-bound catalase in liquidators of the consequences of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident and in residents pf a zone with increased radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquidators of the Chernobyl accident and men permanently living in a zone with increased radiation background were examined 7.5 years after the accident. Use of tests characterizing the status of adaptation systems and defence reactions of the organism helped detect disorders in oxidative balance, to which the production of biooxidants by activated neutrophils and attenuated activity of blood catalase essentially contribute. The prooxidant shift results in injury to cell membranes manifested by the reduction of their enzyme-binding capacity. These shifts homeostasis disorders may create prerequisites for increase of morbidity of the examined populations due to disorders in the adaptation mechanisms

  15. Cytogenetic effect observed in seeds from Crepis tectorum natural populations subjected to chronical irradiation resulted from radioactive pollution within 30 km zone of Chernobyl disaster and stored for a long period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of the 1st and 3d Crepis tectorum natural populations subjected to chronic irradiation during 4 months in 1986 within 30 km zone of Chernobyl accident were stored for 5 years in laboratory. For this period germination capacity of 1st population seeds decreased but the seeds retained a germination capacity up to 1992 were characterized by the increased germination rate. The germination capacity and the germination rate of 3d population seeds did not change. The frequency of metaphases with chromosome aberrations in the first mitotic cycle of root tip meristematic cells of seedlings increased after 5 year storage

  16. Analysis of the Chernobyl zone's forests state based on the red edge position with use of the multispectral spot-4 images and ground-based reflectance and fluorescence spectra research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the ground-based research of visible reflectance and laser-induced fluorescence of pine (needles) at different stages of pine fungus damage, depending on crown position and content of incorporated radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr, as well as the results of the remote sensing data of the Red Edge Position of pine forests growing in Chernobyl zone with use of multispectral SPOT-4 images are presented. It has been established that the remote sensing data, which take into account integral state of the tested territory is more effective for the detection of root sponge stress

  17. Radioecological zoning of territory and model of territory for monitoring of agrosphere after heavy accident at the NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve the effectiveness of responses to severe accident in the field of population and agricultural production before the accident, proposed to prevent collect and analyze cartographic, statistical, environmental and others. The information needed to predict and assess the radiological situation. The methodology of radio-ecological zoning of the territory contaminated with radioactive fallout, using GIS technology, which was based on landscape-basin principle. A model of the territory, taxonomic units which are elements of the landscape or objects of agricultural land use. The river pond is a primary objective of the existing structural unit of the territory. The main characteristics are the type of soil, the type of terrain and the type of underlying surface. The application model provides the coordination of spatial and temporal distribution of characteristics, coupled models of atmospheric diffusion and migration of radionuclides on the chain ''soil - plants - animals - Products - man'' and dosimetric models to determine countermeasures that may be necessary after the accident. To forecast the radiation environment on the track used by the accidental release of the authors developed a model of atmospheric transport of radionuclides, aeral and root of plant contamination

  18. Chernobyl, 12 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) The Franco-German cooperation, and 7) Glossary

  19. Genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic radiation effects resulted from the Chernobyl accident were considered for the population of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Techniques of the assessment of genetic risk of exposure of a man was discussed. Results of cytogenetic examination of the population were presented as well as health state of pregnants and newborns following the Chernobyl accident. Elevated level of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheric blood in participants of the Chernobyl accident response and in population of contaminated zones. This fact testifies on the real genetic injury in cells due to accident. Growth of intrauterine losses in pregnancy, congenital anomalies, hereditary diseases in descendants of exposed parents. 17 figs

  20. Migration of Chernobyl plutonium in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various geochemically linked landscapes were studied for the distribution of Chernobyl plutonium in soils. Significant behaviour of the Chernobyl plutonium may be observed only in case of its fall out with finely dispersed fuel. Within the areas polluted with the volatile ejection products, the plutonium migration forecast may be based on previous estimations obtained for the forest and forest-steppe zones. (author) 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  1. Post-processing activities after Chernobyl accident in Ukraine and lesson learned to the response Fukushima Dai-ichi accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the accident of Chernobyl NPP no.4 1986, various activities including the construction of the shelter, prevention of the release of radioactive dust and liquid from the shelter, monitoring the condition of the damaged core, and disposal of radioactive waste have been implemented in the Chernobyl site for mitigating the nuclear and radioactive risks of damaged nuclear facilities, and the reducing radiation dose of working personnel. The construction of new shelter started for the decommissioning of the damaged unit no.4. facility. For reducing the radiation dose to the inhabitants from the contaminated land and feedstuff, the countermeasures including the set of the exclusive zone and permissible level of radionuclide in the foodstuff have been conducted for the countrywide. These activities include many valuable information about how to recover the condition of the site and maintain the social activities after the severe accident of NPP, and it would be important to learn the above activities in conducting the post-processing activities on the Fukushima-Daiichi accident successfully. (author)

  2. Changes in immune system of experimental animals resulting from constant irradiation of several generations in alienation zone of Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of the immune system on the constant exposure to the radiation of the Chernobyl discharge during the life of several generations of laboratory animals. It has been shown that the exposed animals (irrespective of the line, generation and sex) differ considerably from the controls both in definite immune characteristics (30-70% of the studied parameters) and in sensitivity to grippe virus

  3. Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The examination of the radioelements in macromicetae taken in the area of Como's Groane and in other areas near Lakes of Como and Maggiore and a few samples in Pine' di Trento are reported. A number of samples has been collected and analyzed at Joint Research Center, Ispra. A sampling of many pieces has been picked up by the Circolo Micologico Plinio il Vecchio and by the Unita' Sanitarie of Como and Varese. The various samples are subdivided for specie and the denomination for each one of them is given. The foundamental sampling is dated atumn 1986, a second sampling is made in autumn 1987. Gamma spectrometry has revealed the presence of many radiosotopes due to the Chernobyl fall-out. as Cs137, Cs134 and Ag110 (metastable); levels of Potassium 40, a natural radioactive element have been also measured. A discussion of results is presented and the comparison among data of the 1986 season and the 1987 one

  4. Chernobyl 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the Chernobyl accident process and consequences for the power station buildings, and also the emergency interventions to cover the reactor and avoid that the molten core reaches underground waters, the author proposes a brief overview of the consequences at the international level in the field of nuclear safety with the emergence of a culture of safety which has been applied in other industrial sectors, with the improvement of the quality of transmitted information, and with the lessons learned about the efficiency of early ingestion of iodine pills. The author evokes the construction of a containment arch to dismantle the whole installation, comments the various results published on health consequences and gives some explanations about their discrepancy

  5. Dynamics of 137Cs bioavailability in a soil-plant system in areas of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident zone with a different physico-chemical composition of radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative analysis of the dynamics of 137Cs bioavailability in soils contaminated following the Chernobyl NPP accident based on a 6-year (1987-1992) observation period, and a dynamic model describing the behaviour of radiocaesium in meadow ecosystems are presented. It has been shown that the type of deposition and soil characteristics are main factors that significantly affect (up to five times) the changes in bioavailability of this radionuclide in the soil-plant system. The presence of particles, distinguished by their resistance in the environment, can result in an irregular decrease of 137Cs uptake by plants. During the first period after fallout, 137Cs uptake by plants is considerably (up to eight times) influenced by radionuclide distribution between the soil and the mat. The rates of decrease of 137Cs uptake by plants can differ by factor of 3-5, being dependent on soil properties. The effect of these factors depends on the time lapsed after the deposition. (author)

  6. ESTE EMO and ESTE EBO - emergency response system for NPP Mochovce and NPP Bohunice V-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Programs ESTE EMO and ESTE EBO are emergency response systems that help the crisis staff of the NPP in assessing the source term (predicted possible release of radionuclides to the atmosphere ), in assessing the urgent protective measures and sectors under threat, in assessing real release (symptoms of release really detected and observed), in calculating radiological impacts of real release, averted or avertable doses, potential doses and doses during transport or evacuation on specified routes. Both systems serve as instruments in case of severe accident (DBA or BDBA) at NPP Mochovce or NPP Bohunice, accidents with threat of release of radioactivity to the atmosphere. Systems are implemented at emergency centre of Mochovce NPP and Bohunice NPP and connected online to the sources of technological and radiological data from the reactor, primary circuit, confinement, secondary circuit, ventilation stack, from the area of NPP (TDS 1) and from the emergency planning zone (TDS 11). Systems are connected online to the sources of meteorological data, too. (authors)

  7. Cell damage seen from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 30 kilometer radius forbidden zone around the Chernobyl atomic plant serves as a sobering reminder of the world's worst nuclear accident. But for former Soviet biologists, it's also a unique natural laboratory. And one scientist, Nadejda Gulaya of Kiev's Pallaguine Institute of Biochemistry, has been doing studies that she claims offer surprising evidence of Chernobyl's after-effects. Prolonged exposure to radioactive fallout from the 1986 accident, she says, has caused damage to cell membranes in both animals and humans. For the past year, Gulaya has been comparing tissues from animals such as mink, pigs, and rodents inhabiting the Chernobyl area with those from other parts of Ukraine. Her conclusion: Exposure to radiation has, in many cases, caused alterations to membrane phospholipids. These changes, are similar to those that disrupt cellular metabolism following exposure to oxidizing free radicals. Gulaya also has preliminary data from human studies. She claims to have found similar alterations in the neurons of people who have died since being exposed to Chernobyl radiation. That leads her to speculate that the frequent psychiatric disorders may not just be from mental stress or radiophobia, but might reflect actual damage to the central nervous system

  8. Chernobyl, 17 after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This information document takes stock on the Chernobyl accident effects, 17 years after the reactor accident. The domains concerned are: the Chernobyl power plant, the sanitary consequences of the accident in the most exposed countries, the Chernobyl environment and the polluted regions management, the Chernobyl accident consequences in France; Some data and technical sheets on the RBMK reactors and the international cooperation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  9. The life-span of experimental animals and their progeny under influence of the ecological conditions in the Chernobyl zone of alienation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory three-month old animals (white mongrel rats F0) were delivered to Chernobyl. The control animals were kept in a Kyiv vivarium. The indices of lifespan and dynamics of mortality of rats and their progeny have been determined using the life table methodology. The results have shown no essential difference in the indices of mortality and lifespan between control and experimental animals of the F0 generation. The expected lifespan of irradiated rats of the F1 - F2 generations increased in the age interval of 300 - 600 days. It's necessary to note that a decrease of this index in the Chernobyl groups of the F3 - F6 generations has been observed

  10. A hygienic appraisal of the effect of hard metals on the ecological situation in the zone of active influence of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented on the distribution of a soil pollution by lead in Ukraine. They allow one to ear-mark territories located along the 'western trace' of the Chernobyl outburst as the most polluted ones in comparison with background and pre-accident lead levels as well as with other territories of Ukraine. We mark the principle difference in size and composition of element associations in ground before and after the accident. The content of elements reaches ten background levels, their distribution over area cannot be described by the normal or lognormal law, i.e., it is nonequilibrium. Available element associations are not natural (Pb-Ba, Nb-Zr, etc.) and probably reflect the spectrum of elements which were dispersed during the Chernobyl accident and/or through the liquidation period and caused the pollution of territories

  11. Role of monitoring in diagnostics of diseases of the thyroid gland at children at the moment of the disaster on ChNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looking back on eighteen-year experience of liquidation of consequences of disaster on Chernobyl NPP shows the importance of monitoring in formation of pathology of a thyroid gland at children, undergone to radiating influence. (Authors)

  12. The Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl disaster is examined in chronological order from the experiment that led to the explosions, to the firefighting efforts, the release of radioactivity, its fallout, the evacuations from the contaminated zone and the long-term medical, ecological, economic and political repercussions. The sources of information are nearly all Soviet - the Ukranian and Russian press, Moscow and Kiev radio broadcasts, Soviet television documentaries and the report of the Soviet government commission to the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986. Reports by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the Central Electricity Generating Board and the International Atomic Energy Agency have also been used. The latter chapters look at who was to blame for the accident, what impact the accident has had on Soviet society and why the Soviet government continues to expand its nuclear power programme. (author)

  13. Determination of parameters of the environment for qualification of equipment of the Dukovany NPP. Post-accident parameters in the hermetic zone of Unit 1 for an accident associated with steam line rupture. Rev. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal hydraulic parameters of the environment (pressure, temperature, relative humidity and water level on the floor) in the hermetic zone of the Dukovany NPP were analyzed for an accident associated with a steam line rupture in the hermetic zone. First, the behavior of the primary and secondary circuits during the accident was analyzed by the RELAP code, and based on the outflow curves for the leak from the steam line so obtained, the response of the hermetic compartments was analyzed by the MELCOR code. The accident was found to proceed fast, so that in half an hour the thermal hydraulic situation is relatively stabilized. The results are compared with those contained in the Preliminary Safety Report and the differences are discussed

  14. ENGINEERED NEAR SURFACE DISPOSAL FACILITY OF THE INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX FOR SOLID RADWASTE MANAGEMENT AT CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the turnkey project ''Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management (ICSRM) at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP)'' an Engineered Near Surface Disposal Facility (ENSDF, LOT 3) will be built on the VEKTOR site within the 30 km Exclusion Zone of the ChNPP. This will be performed by RWE NUKEM GmbH, Germany, and it governs the design, licensing support, fabrication, assembly, testing, inspection, delivery, erection, installation and commissioning of the ENSDF. The ENSDF will receive low to intermediate level, short lived, processed/conditioned wastes from the ICSRM Solid Waste Processing Facility (SWPF, LOT 2), the ChNPP Liquid Radwaste Treatment Plant (LRTP) and the ChNPP Interim Storage Facility for RBMK Fuel Assemblies (ISF). The ENSDF has a capacity of 55,000 m3. The primary functions of the ENSDF are: to receive, monitor and record waste packages, to load the waste packages into concrete disposal units, to enable capping and closure of the disposal unit s, to allow monitoring following closure. The ENSDF comprises the turnkey installation of a near surface repository in the form of an engineered facility for the final disposal of LILW-SL conditioned in the ICSRM SWPF and other sources of Chernobyl waste. The project has to deal with the challenges of the Chernobyl environment, the fulfillment of both Western and Ukrainian standards, and the installation and coordination of an international project team. It will be shown that proven technologies and processes can be assembled into a unique Management Concept dealing with all the necessary demands and requirements of a turnkey project. The paper emphasizes the proposed concepts for the ENSDF and their integration into existing infrastructure and installations of the VEKTOR site. Further, the paper will consider the integration of Western and Ukrainian Organizations into a cohesive project team and the requirement to guarantee the fulfillment of both Western standards and Ukrainian regulations

  15. Experience of soil rehabilitation in the scenario of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl post-accident scenario became nowadays a natural radioecology laboratory, where a wide range of decontamination methods can be applied, validated or developed. This paper presents the application of a soil rehabilitation technique, the removal of vegetation and associated soil, in the experimental fields of Bourakovka and Chistogalovka surrounding the Chernobyl NPP. The results obtained have shown soil decontamination factors higher than 90% for caesium and strontium. This technique involves the removal of deposited hot particles released at the accident, and the experience allowed a detailed study of one of them corresponding to a nuclear fuel fragment, probably generated at the beginning of the breakdown. 16 refs. (Author)

  16. Scientific provision of the problems of overcoming the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present in the Republic of Belarus the research works on the problems of overcoming of the Chernobyl accident consequences are carried out in the following directions: radiation protection of the population; health of the population affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident; complex radiation-ecological estimation of the environment and conditions of the life activity of the population; rehabilitation of the contaminated territories; instrumental and methodical provision of the radiation control

  17. Scientific provision of the problems of overcoming the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present in the Republic of Belarus the research works on the problems of overcoming of the Chernobyl accident consequences are carried out in the following directions: radiation protection of the population; health of the population affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident; complex radiation-ecological estimation of the environment and conditions of the life activity of the population; rehabilitation of the contaminated territories; instrumental and methodical provision of the radiation control. (authors)

  18. Model-directed sampling in Chernobyl forests: General methodology and 1994 sampling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiologically-contaminated forest and natural ecosystems contribute significantly to the human radiation dose in the intermediate (several years) and long (several decades) terms following the radionuclide release. As a result of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, extensive forested areas in Europe were significantly contaminated with cesium, strontium, plutonium and other radionuclides. This study develops a dynamic model that describes the pathways of radionuclides which undergo complex transfer processes in forests and natural ecosystems. This generic model, FORESTPATH, calculates time-dependent radionuclide concentrations in forest compartments based on the information available on residence half-times. Because of the high complexity, traditional sampling programs often provide only limited and fragmented information for the ecosystem to be modeled. A model-directed sampling program was initiated which implies close feedback between ecosystem sampling and modeling of the radionuclide pathways using the FORESTPATH model. This program is now being applied by an international team of USA, European Union (EU) and Newly Independent States (NIS) members in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Exclusion Zone

  19. Morbidity of the thyroid gland cancer of inhabitants of Bryansk area after the accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As a result of accident on the fourth power unit of the Chernobyl NPP all the territory of Bryansk area underwent the influence of radioactive iodine. The density of losses has made from 1-5 up to 30 and more Ci/km2 on different areas. Besides in the territory of Bryansk area the deficiency of iodine is registered from easy weight up to an average degree. Among the problems of modern thyroidology the thyroid gland cancer takes a special place in connection with progressing increase of its frequency in zones of ecological trouble and iodic deficiency. The purpose of the given work consisted in estimation of dynamics of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer of inhabitants of Bryansk area before and after accident on the Chernobyl NPP. For the period from 1975 to 1985 on the territory of Bryansk area 308 cases of thyroid gland cancer, including 2 cases of thyroid gland cancer at children (in 1975 and 1984) have been revealed. These years morbidity in Bryansk area has changed from 0,78 on 100000 population in 1975 up to 2,6 in 1981-1982. Since 1986 up to 2004 on territory of Bryansk area 2638 cases of thyroid gland cancer have been revealed. Morbidity of the given pathology has increased from 3,3 on 100 thousand population in 1986 up to 23,6 on 100 thousand in 2004. The highest all-Russian parameter of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer was in 2003 - 5,4. Thus, morbidity of thyroid gland cancer in our area since 1989 up to 1999 was on the average 2 times more, than across the Russian Federation, and in 1999-2004 - more than 3 times. Thus rates of the increase of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer at inhabitants of southwest territories (density of radioactive pollution of Cs 137 over 5 Ci/km2, more than at inhabitants of Bryansk area. The highest parameter on these territories is noted in 2004 (27,3), more than in 5 times more, than in the Russian Federation. The parity of men and women among inhabitants of Bryansk area, who fell ill with thyroid gland cancer

  20. Accidental internal exposure of all groups of Chernobyl nuclear power plant employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidental internal exposure of Chernobyl NPP employees has started from April, 1986 and it was found to be decreased to pre-accident level at the end of 1987. Significant number of people from all groups of staff and temporary employees were measured using whole body counters situated in Clinical Department of the Institute of Biophysics, which has represented the main body for medical assistance and expertise in these people including those, who suffered from acute radiation syndrome as well as the people engaged in all kinds of works at Chernobyl NPP site. Technical characteristics of the equipment and techniques used to assess the internal exposure are given. (author)

  1. THE AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES FOR THE POPULATION IN THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ATTRIBUTED TO ZONES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (FOR ZONATION PURPOSES, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ja. Bruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accident in 1986 is one of the most large-scale radiation accidents in the world. It led to radioactive contamination of large areas in the European part of the Russian Federation and at the neighboring countries. Now, there are more than 4000 settlements with the total population of 1.5 million in the radioactively contaminated areas of the Russian Federation. The Bryansk region is the most intensely contaminated region. For example, the Krasnogorskiy district still has settlements with the level of soil contamination by cesium-137 exceeding 40 Cu/km2. The regions of Tula, Kaluga and Orel are also significantly affected. In addition to these four regions, there are 10 more regions with the radioactively contaminated settlements. After the Chernobyl accident, the affected areas were divided into zones of radioactive contamination. The attribution of the settlements to a particular zone is determined by the level of soil contamination with 137Cs and by a value of the average annual effective dose that could be formed in the absence of: 1 active measures for radiation protection, and 2 self-limitation in consumption of the local food products. The main regulatory document on this issue is the Federal law № 1244-1 (dated May, 15,1991 «On the social protection of the citizens who have been exposed to radiation as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant». The law extends to the territories, where, since 1991: – The average annual effective dose for the population exceeds 1 mSv (the value of effective dose that could be formed in the absence of active radiation protection measures and self-limitation in consumption of the local food products; – Soil surface contamination with cesium-137 exceeds 1 Cu/km2. The paper presents results of calculations of the average effective doses in 2014. The purpose was to use the dose values (SGED90 in zonation of contaminated territories. Therefore, the

  2. Hydrotechnical facilities within the Chernobyl nuclear power plant exclusion zone: impacts on hydrologic regime and plant growth patterns of floodplain water bodies of the Pripyat River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Zub, L N; Savitsky, A L

    2003-01-01

    As result of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident the territory of the left-bank flood-lands of the Pripyat River have undergone intensive radionuclide contamination. With the purpose of preventing the washing away of radioactive substances, a complex of flood protection dams was constructed. This construction changed the hydrological regime of these territories and caused overgrowth by higher aquatic plants. Absence of a flowing mode of reservoirs, the stagnant phenomena during spring and seasonal high waters on the embank site have caused amplification of eutrophication processes, swamping and, connected with it, increase of water-marsh floristic complex in the structure of the vegetative cover. PMID:14653638

  3. Report 1. An experiment model. Radiation loading in animals living in conditions of external and internal irradiation within the zone of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation conditions in which laboratory animals were kept in experimental laboratories of Chernobyl and Kiev after the accident APS are described. The data are presented on the spectral structure and activity of radionuclides in the diet as well as in the organs and tissues of the animals. The radition loads have been estimated with regard to an external gamma-component and the internal one contributed by the incorporated radionuclides. It has been shown that radiation doses received by the animals during their lifetime due to these contributions do not exceed units of cGy

  4. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the most severe in the nuclear industry. The accident caused the rapid death of 31 power plant employees and firemen, mainly from acute radiation exposures and burns, and brought about the evacuation of 116,000 people within a few weeks. In addition, about half a million workers and four million members of the public have been exposed, to some extent, to radiation doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. A large number of radiation measurements have been made since the accident in order to reconstruct the doses received by the most exposed populations. On the basis of currently available information, it appears that: (1) average doses received by clean-up workers from external irradiation decreased with time, being about 300 mGy for the persons who worked in the first three months after the accident, about 170 mGy for the remainder of 1986, 130 mGy in 1987, 30 mGy in 1988, and 15 mGy in 1989; (2) the evacuees received, before evacuation, effective doses averaging 11 mSv for the population of Pripyat, and 18 mSv for the remainder of the population of the 30 km zone, with maximum effective doses ranging up to 380 mSv; and (3) among the populations living in contaminated areas, the highest doses were those delivered to the thyroids of children. Thyroid doses derived from thyroid measurements among Belarussian and Ukrainian children indicate median thyroid doses of about 300 mGy, and more than 1% of the children with thyroid doses in excess of 5000 mGy. A description is provided of the epidemiological studies that the National Cancer Institute has, since 1990, at the request of the Department of Energy, endeavoured to undertake, in cooperation with Belarus and Ukraine, on two possible health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident: (1, thyroid cancer in children living in contaminated areas during the first few weeks following the accident, and (2) leukaemia among workers involved in clean

  5. Mochovce NPP simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochovce NPP simulator basic features and detailed description of its characteristics are presented with its performance, certification and application for training of NPP operators as well as the training scenario

  6. Genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl fallout to agricultural crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the fallout to agricultural crops after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 have been studied. In the first, acute, period of this accident, when the absorbed dose was primarily due to external β- and γ-irradiation, the radiation injury of agricultural crops, according to the basic cytogenetic tests resembled the effect produced by acute γ-irradiation at comparable doses. The yield of cytogenetic damage in leaf meristem of plants grown in the 10-km zone of the ChNPP in 1987-1989 (the period of chronic, lower level radiation exposure) was shown to be enhanced and dependent on the level of radioactive contamination. The rate of decline with time in cytogenetic damage induced by chronic exposure lagged considerably behind that of the radiation exposure. Analysis of genetic variability in three sequentia generations of rye and wheat revealed increased cytogenetic damage in plants exposed to chronic irradiation during the 2nd and 3rd years

  7. NPP operation, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of NPP service in 2001 on a global scale are presented. Numerical data on service indexes of NPP in different countries are reviewed. Summary power of operating NPP in 2001 was as much as 372 857 MW. List of ten NPP having the best characteristics in electric power generation on one nuclear bock is given. Nuclear power plants of Germany were recognized as the best units on a global scale

  8. The Chernobyl accident: bibliography of the science literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information about the scientific publications in 1986-1995 on the problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident is presented in the book. A significant, unique actual material about results of radiation influence on men, animals, vegetative world and other components of an environment is collected to the present of time. Radiation dozes are determined and combined influence of the both radiation and chemical factors is investigated, clinical epidemiological and genetic estimation of a condition of health of the population is given. Agriculture technologies for conditions of radioactive contamination are developed and used. Normative base for both decontamination works and radioactive wastes storage is created. These and other problems are reflected in the publications described in the collection. The following sections are available: Radiobiology and radioecology (1445 refs.); Radiation medicine (703 refs.); Agriculture radiology (194 refs.); Decontamination and radioactive wastes storage (86 refs.); Economic consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident (36 refs.); Social and psychological problems (39 refs.)

  9. Safety analysis of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a short review of the parallel safety analysis of the various types of NPP. The NPP with PWR, WWER, BWR and HWR type reactors are mentioned. Technical, economic, location and ecology aspects of the safety of the NPP have been analysed. (author)

  10. Radioactive airborne particles from Chernobyl forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spring and summer, 1992 within 30-km zone near Chernobyl NPP were very hot and dry. That lead to forest fires in May (4 ... 9,23 ... 25), July (28 ... 30) and August (10...12). The Cs-137 soil contamination density (SCD) was equal to 1...400 Ci/km2 at various forest sections of combustion. The stationary air samplers with capacity of 1500 m3/h were used for the monitoring of aerosol emissions during fires. These samplers were situated at a distance of 5...10km from fires boundaries. Smoke particles were collected by the fibrous filters FPP-15-1,5 (Russia). After exposure the activity of aerosols of Cs which deposited by a filter was measured by a gamma-spectrometer. For the separation of Sr-90 and isotopes of Pu the radiochemical analysis was used. It was found that the concentration of Cs-137 increased up to 10...100 times compare with open-quotes backgroundclose quotes one even at several km from fires. The concentration of Cs-137 inside of combustion zone was estimated could exceed the Russian maximum permissible one both for population (0.49 nCi/m3) and for professionals (14 nCi/m3) if the SCD will be more than 0.5 and 7 Ci/km2, respectively. It was measured that Cs-137/Sr-90 and Cs-137/Pu-238 ratios increase in fire emissions. It is obviously, that such enrichment was a consequense of radioactive cesium evaporation at temperature more than 500 C. The experimental forest fire was carry out in August, 1993 in Bryansk region (Russia). The forest section with area 50x50 m was selected. The SCD of Cs-137 was equal to 30 Ci/km2. The Cs-137 concentration during the day before the experiment was equal to 0.16pCi/m3. The concentration was varied from 1.6 to 15 pCi/m3 during the experiment. For the determination of particle sizes the filter pack technique (Budyka et al, 1993) was used. It was found that particle size distribution was a bimodal in plume

  11. Proceedings of the 6rd Radiobiological conference with international participation dedicated to 20th anniversary of nuclear accident in Chernobyl, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific conference deals with problems in radiobiology, photobiology and radio-environmental sciences. Some papers deal with the historical aspects development of reactor accidents (Chernobyl NPP and NPP A-1 Jaslovske Bohunice) as well as history of nuclear sciences in former Czechoslovakia. Proceedings contain forty-seven papers

  12. Determination of technogenic radionuclides prevalence and the most polluted zones in the ecosystem of lake Drukshiai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regular measurements of 1989 - 1993 indicate show that radioecological situation in lake Drukshiai is not stable. Ignalina NPP generated radionuclides together with the debalance water are thrown into the warm water throw-out zone where industrial - rain and domestic wastewater gets too. Getting off radionuclides into the lake partly depends on the wash-out of the radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere. In the cooler of Ignalina NPP - lake Drukshiai, secondary long-living source of radionuclide pollution, i.e. bottom sediments, forms. The system, accumulating radionuclides and other pollutants of anthropogenic origin, is conservative, as well as cleans hardly and Chernobyl radionuclides are already accumulated in lake's deep-parts. (author). 8 refs., 7 figs

  13. The structure of insect larvae complexes in the soil of shore zone of lake Drukshiai during the first period of Ignalina NPP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexes of insect larvae were investigated in 1986-1988 in five standard points situated 0.2 to 5 km from the nuclear power plant (NPP ) on the shores of Lake Drukshiai and in the control point on the shore of Lake Zheimenis, 50 km from the plant. The greatest larvae abundance and species variety were found on bogged shores of Lake Drukshiai, 5 km from the nuclear power plant. The lowest abundance was found on the eastern sandy shores (Mialka) also 5 km from the plant. The variety of larvae species was the greatest (58) in the control point, their abundance being close to that in Shashkai and canal. After starting the NPP, larvae species variety increased in all standard points 2-8 times, and in the bogged points their abundance also increased 1.5-3.5 times. On the sandy shore of Mialka the amount of larvae reduced nearly 18 times and was at its minimum after starting the plant. Starting the plant influenced also the dominant structure of larvae species variety. Before starting, larvae of the family Chironomidae were eudominant only in one point, whereas after starting the plant they became eudominant in all points except that of Mialka, where larvae of the family Sciomyzidae became eudominant. (author).12 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  14. On protecting the inexperienced reader from Chernobyl myths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident continue to attract the attention of experts, decision-makers and the general public, and now these consequences have been given added relevance by the similar accident in 2011 at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant (NPP) in Japan. Expert analysis of radiation levels and effects has been conducted by international bodies—UNSCEAR in 2008 and the Chernobyl Forum during 2003–5. At the same time, three Russian and Belarusian scientists, Yablokov, Nesterenko and Nesterenko (2009 Chernobyl. Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences)) published both in Russian and English a substantial review of the consequences of Chernobyl based mostly on Russian-language papers. In this book, they suggested a departure from analytical epidemiological studies in favour of ecological ones. This erroneous approach resulted in the overestimation of the number of accident victims by more than 800 000 deaths during 1987–2004. This paper investigates the mistakes in methodology made by Yablokov et al and concludes that these errors led to a clear exaggeration of radiation-induced health effects. Should similar mistakes be made following the 2011 accident at Fukushima-1 NPP this could lead quite unnecessarily to a panic reaction by the public about possible health effects and to erroneous decisions by the authorities in Japan. (opinion)

  15. On protecting the inexperienced reader from Chernobyl myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonov, M I

    2012-06-01

    The health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident continue to attract the attention of experts, decision-makers and the general public, and now these consequences have been given added relevance by the similar accident in 2011 at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant (NPP) in Japan. Expert analysis of radiation levels and effects has been conducted by international bodies--UNSCEAR in 2008 and the Chernobyl Forum during 2003-5. At the same time, three Russian and Belarusian scientists, Yablokov, Nesterenko and Nesterenko (2009 Chernobyl. Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences)) published both in Russian and English a substantial review of the consequences of Chernobyl based mostly on Russian-language papers. In this book, they suggested a departure from analytical epidemiological studies in favour of ecological ones. This erroneous approach resulted in the overestimation of the number of accident victims by more than 800 000 deaths during 1987-2004. This paper investigates the mistakes in methodology made by Yablokov et al and concludes that these errors led to a clear exaggeration of radiation-induced health effects. Should similar mistakes be made following the 2011 accident at Fukushima-1 NPP this could lead quite unnecessarily to a panic reaction by the public about possible health effects and to erroneous decisions by the authorities in Japan. PMID:22569279

  16. The estimation of 137Cs and 90Sr location in the biomass of the macrophytes from the Yenisei river (Krasnoyarsky region, Russia) and Glubokoe lake (Chernobyl accident exclusion zone, Ukraine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of cesium and strontium as well as their chemical analogs potassium and calcium in the biomass of aquatic plants collected in zone of radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River and in Glubokoe Lake, in Chernobyl accident exclusion zone, was investigated with chemical fractionation technique. Despite of the essential difference in activity concentration in the biomass of the plants from the two water bodies, the distribution of 137Cs among the biomass fractions was similar. 90Sr was recorded in the biomass in more mobile form, than 137 Cs. The distribution of cesium in the biomass of plants essentially differed from the distribution of it's chemical analog, potassium. The distribution of elements - analogs, 90S and Ca, in the biomass of the plants was similar. More than half of cesium concentration in the samples of plants from the Yenisei River was associated with particles of seston, bound to the surface of the plants. The results obtained should be considered while interpret the data of radioecological monitoring and modeling of the migration of radionuclides in the water bodies.

  17. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

  18. Acute and long-term effects of irradiation on pine (Pinus silvestris) stands post-Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkhipov, N.P.; Kuchma, N.D. (Department of Radiology and Land Restoration, Pripyat Research and Industrial Association, Chernobyl (Ukraine)); Askbrant, S. (National Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)); Pasternak, P.S.; Musica, V.V. (Lyes Research and Industrial Association, Kharykov (Ukraine))

    1994-10-14

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the viability of pine stands after the fallout from the damaged nuclear energy plant at Chernobyl (ChNPP) was shown within the territory of the 10-km zone. During the period 1986-1991, irradiated and damaged forest stands, so-called 'red forest', located in this area were systematically classified by observation. Mortality rate, re-establishment, development of tree canopies, reproduction anomalies and stand viability were shown to be dependent on absorbed irradiation dose, on the age of the stand and on forest composition. For pine stands in the acutely affected zone, doses of more than 60 Gy resulted in a massive mortality and no regeneration of pine trees since 1987. The injured trees had burned or had dried-up. The drying process was accelerated by a massive production of pathogenic insects invading the dying trees. Specifically, irradiation doses of 10-60 Gy, 1-10 Gy and 0.1-1 Gy caused high, medium and low injury to the forest stands, respectively. Doses of less than 0.1 Gy did not cause any visible damage to the trees. In 1987, repair processes were displayed by the tree canopies and practically the entire viability of the forest stands had recovered except for trees in the acute and highly affected zones. The young forest was reestablished in the same place as the perished trees and new pine saplings were planted on the reclaimed areas.

  19. Behavior of radionuclides on territory of the west aureole of the Chernobyl contamination landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main regularities of the distribution and migration of strontium 90, cesium 134, cesium 137, ruthenium 106 and cerium 144 of global (bomb) and accident (Chernobyl NPP) fallout in the Pripyat Poles'e landscapes are considered. The behavior of radionuclides was estimated on water-soluble, exchange, acid-soluble and strength fixed forms

  20. OVERVIEW OF THE COOPERATION BETWEEN THE CHERNOBYL CENTER'S INTERNATIONAL RADIOECOLOGY LABORATORY IN SLAVUTYCH, UKRAINE AND U.S. RESEARCH CENTERS BETWEEN 2000-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    The International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL) located in Slavutych, Ukraine was created in 1999 under the initiative of the United States Government and the Government of Ukraine in the framework of international cooperation on evaluation and minimization of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP) accident. Since the time the IRL was founded, it has participated in a large number of projects, including the following: (1) study of radionuclide accumulation, distribution, and migration in components of various ecological systems of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ); (2) radiation dose assessments; (3) study of the effects of radiation influence on biological systems; (4) expert analysis of isotopic and quantitative composition of radioactive contaminants; (5) development of new methods and technologies intended for radioecological research; (6) evaluation of future developments and pathways for potential remediation of the ChEZ areas; (7) assistance in provision of physical protection systems for ionizing irradiation sources at Ukrainian enterprises; (8) reviews of open Russian language publications on issues associated with consequences of the ChNPP accident, radioactive waste management, radioecological monitoring, and ChNPP decommissioning; (9) conduct of training courses on problems of radioecology, radiation safety, radioecological characterization of test sites and environmental media, and on research methods; (10) conduct of on-site scientific conferences and workshops on the ChEZ and radioecology problems; participation in off-site scientific conferences and meetings; and (11) preparation of scientific and popular science publications, and interactions with mass media representatives. This article provides a brief overview of the major achievements resulting from this cooperation between the IRL and U.S. research centers.

  1. The health status of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident liquidators in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in 1986 is so far the largest nuclear accident, and has created a new problem for nuclear medicine. This accident has also become a problem for Latvia due to the more than 6000 residents who participated in the clean-up works at Chernobyl. The aim of our study was to assess the health status of Chernobyl NPP accident liquidators, in comparison with a male control group in Latvia. We have examined the health of 2512 Chernobyl clean-up workers (males between age of 35-55 with documented and biologically estimated doses of received ionising radiation). For comparison of morbidity, we used a control group consisting of 3887 employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (males of the same age groups). The morbidity of Chernobyl NPP accident clean-up workers was generally higher than of control group. The highest contribution to morbidity in each age group of liquidators was from digestive, musculosceletal, nervous system and circulatory system diseases, as well as from mental disorders. (author)

  2. RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  3. Radiation Dose Assessment For The Biota Of Terrestrial Ecosystems In The Shoreline Zone Of The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from 90Sr and 137Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  4. NPP life management (abstracts)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstracts of the papers presented at the International conference of the Ukrainian Nuclear Society 'NPP Life Management'. The following problems are considered: modernization of the NPP; NPP life management; waste and spent nuclear fuel management; decommissioning issues; control systems (including radiation and ecological control systems); information and control systems; legal and regulatory framework. State nuclear regulatory control; PR in nuclear power; training of personnel; economics of nuclear power engineering

  5. RADIATION SITUATION ON THE TERRITORY OF THE OREL REGION AFFECTED BY THE RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Zakharchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of radiation situation monitoring on the territory of the Orel region after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Actions of the sanitary epidemiological authority for the emergency response management, actions of the region administration for the population protection from the overexposure are analyzed. Data on morbidity of the liquidators of Chernobyl accident and region inhabitants, living on the contaminated territories, is presented.

  6. Health consequences of Chernobyl. 25 years after the reactor catastrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is an evaluation of studies indicating health effects as a consequence of the reactor catastrophe in Chernobyl. The most exposed population include the cleaning personnel (liquidators), the population evacuated from the 30 km zone, the populations in highly contaminated regions in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, the European population in lass contaminated regions. The following issues are discussed: the liquidators, infant mortality, genetic and teratogenic damages, thyroid carcinoma and other thyroid diseases, carcinogenic diseases and leukemia, other diseases following the Chernobyl catastrophe.

  7. Integrated impact of radiation in the zone of ChNPP on the auto flora state of the animals' large in testiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of microbiocenosis of large intestines of rats and furae which were exposed to continuous integrated radiation has been studied in the field experiments emergency premises and in the adjacent zone of its impact

  8. Analysis of the accident at the Chernobylsk-2 NPP due to make-up deficit in the cooling circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP power unit 2, which occurred on October 11, 1991, due to non-sanctioned connection to the net of turbogenerator planned for repair, is analyzed. The accident resulted in heavy fire in the machine hall and subsequent failure of safety-significant systems, providing for project mode of reactor cooling. The investigation of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP power unit 2 indicated the necessity of developing procedures for the personnel actions in situations with complete or partial feed-up loss of multiple forced circulation circuit from high-pressure water feed-up sources. 5 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Particle size distribution of radioactive aerosols after the Fukushima and the Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Fukushima accident, a series of aerosol samples were taken between 24th March and 13th April 2011 by cascade impactors in the Czech Republic to obtain the size distribution of 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, and 7Be aerosols. All distributions could be considered monomodal. The arithmetic means of the activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) for artificial radionuclides and for 7Be were 0.43 and 0.41 μm with GDSs 3.6 and 3.0, respectively. The time course of the AMADs of 134Cs, 137Cs and 7Be in the sampled period showed a slight decrease at a significance level of 0.05, whereas the AMAD pertaining to 131I increased at a significance level of 0.1. Results obtained after the Fukushima accident were compared with results obtained after the Chernobyl accident. The radionuclides released during the Chernobyl accident for which we determined the AMAD fell into two categories: refractory radionuclides (140Ba, 140La 141Ce, 144Ce, 95Zr and 95Nb) and volatile radionuclides (134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, and 132Te). The AMAD of the refractory radionuclides was approximately 3 times higher than the AMAD of the volatile radionuclides; nevertheless, the size distributions for volatile radionuclides having a mean AMAD value of 0.51 μm were very close to the distributions after the Fukushima accident. -- Highlights: • AMADs after the Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents in the Czech Rep. were determined. • The mean value of AMADs of the monitored nuclides from the NPP Fukushima was 0.43 μm. • Nuclides from the NPP Chernobyl fell into two categories – refractory and volatile. • The mean value of AMADs of volatile nuclides from the NPP Chernobyl was 0.51 μm. • AMADs of volatile nucl. from the NPP Chernobyl were 3× smaller than of the refractory radionuclides

  10. Chernobyl - Ten years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decade later, in April 1996, more than 800 experts from 71 countries and 20 organizations, observed by over 200 journalists, met to review the Chernobyl accident's actual and possible future consequences, and to put these into proper perspective. They came together at the international conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident, held at the Austria Center in Vienna. The Chernobyl Conference was a model of international co-operation: six organizations of the UN family, including the IAEA, and two important regional agencies were involved in its organization

  11. Use of combined microscopic and spectroscopic techniques to reveal interactions between uranium and Microbacterium sp. A9, a strain isolated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBVME, LIPM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); CNRS, UMR 7265, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Université d' Aix-Marseille, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/L2BT, bat 183, B.P. 3, F-13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chapon, Virginie [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBVME, LIPM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); CNRS, UMR 7265, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Université d' Aix-Marseille, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Coppin, Fréderic; Floriani, Magali [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/L2BT, bat 183, B.P. 3, F-13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vercouter, Thomas [CEA, DEN, DANS, DPC SEARS, LANIE, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Sergeant, Claire [Univ Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Camilleri, Virginie [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/L2BT, bat 183, B.P. 3, F-13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Berthomieu, Catherine [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBVME, LIPM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); CNRS, UMR 7265, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Université d' Aix-Marseille, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Février, Laureline, E-mail: laureline.fevrier@irsn.fr [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/L2BT, bat 183, B.P. 3, F-13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Microbacterium sp. A9 develops various detoxification mechanisms. • Microbacterium sp. A9 promotes metal efflux from the cells. • Microbacterium sp. A9 releases phosphate to prevent uranium entrance in the cells. • Microbacterium sp. A9 stores U intracellularly as autunite. - Abstract: Although uranium (U) is naturally found in the environment, soil remediation programs will become increasingly important in light of certain human activities. This work aimed to identify U(VI) detoxification mechanisms employed by a bacteria strain isolated from a Chernobyl soil sample, and to distinguish its active from passive mechanisms of interaction. The ability of the Microbacterium sp. A9 strain to remove U(VI) from aqueous solutions at 4 °C and 25 °C was evaluated, as well as its survival capacity upon U(VI) exposure. The subcellular localisation of U was determined by TEM/EDX microscopy, while functional groups involved in the interaction with U were further evaluated by FTIR; finally, the speciation of U was analysed by TRLFS. We have revealed, for the first time, an active mechanism promoting metal efflux from the cells, during the early steps following U(VI) exposure at 25 °C. The Microbacterium sp. A9 strain also stores U intracellularly, as needle-like structures that have been identified as an autunite group mineral. Taken together, our results demonstrate that this strain exhibits a high U(VI) tolerance based on multiple detoxification mechanisms. These findings support the potential role of the genus Microbacterium in the remediation of aqueous environments contaminated with U(VI) under aerobic conditions.

  12. Investigation of radionuclides and anthropic tracer migration in groundwater at the Chernobyl site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal La Salle, Corinnne; Simonucci, Caroline; Roux, Céline; Bugai, Dmitry; Aquilina, Luc; Fourré, Elise; Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Labasque, Thierry; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Fifield, Keith; Team Aster Team; Van Meir, Nathalie; Kashparov, Valeriy; Diez, Olivier; Bassot, Sylvain; Lancelot, Joel

    2013-04-01

    Following the reactor 4 explosion of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP), at least 1019 Bq of radionuclides (RN) were released in the environment. In order to protect workers and prevent further atmospheric RN dispersion in the area adjacent to the ChNPP, contaminated wastes including fuel particles, topsoil layer and forest remains were buried in approximately 800 shallow trenches in the sand formation in the Red Forest waste dump site [1]. No containment measures were taken, and since then RN have leaked to the unsaturated zone and to the groundwater. Since 1999, migration of RN in the vicinity of the trench 22 at Red Forest site has been investigated within the frame of the EPIC program carried out by IRSN in collaboration with UIAR and IGS [2, 3]. A plume of 90Sr was shown downgradient from the trench 22 with activites reaching 3750 Bq/L [2]. In 2008, further studies were initiated through the TRASSE research group, based on a collaboration between IRSN and CNRS. These programs aim at combining groundwater dating with RN migration monitoring studies in order to constrain RN transport models [3]. Groundwater residence time was investigated based on 3H/He and CFC. Both tracers led to ages ranging from modern (1-3 y) at 2 m depth below the groundwater table to significantly higher apparent ages of 50-60 y at 27 m below the groundwater table [3]. 36Cl/Cl ratios 2 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than the theoretical natural ratio are measured in groundwater. Similarly, SF6 shows concentrations as high as 1200 pptv while natural concentrations are in the order of 6-7 pptv. Based on apparent groundwater ages, both contaminations are linked to the Chernobyl explosion. Hence those tracers show excellent potential to constrain conservative and reactive transport, respectively. In contrast, 238U/235U ratio down gradient from trench 22 remains similar to the natural ratio. This suggests that either most of the U contained in the trench is in a non soluble form

  13. Proposal for extension of the zone of working positions of the 6th cluster of emergency control assemblies above 200 cm (modification of limits and conditions for the Dukovany NPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are summarized of an analysis of 2 variants of releasing the limiting condition of the WWER-440 reactor at the Dukovany NPP, imposing limits on the upper boundary of the zone of working positions of the 6th cluster of emergency control assemblies. In Variant I, the operating zone is changed to approximately 235 ± 15 cm, a deeper insertion being possible as far as the level corresponding to the current limits and conditions, i.e. 150 or 125 cm. In Variant II, the basic operating zone remains unchanged, i.e. 175 ± 25 cm or, more realistically, 185 ± 15 cm, and only the upper limiting position during transients is released to 250 cm. The impacts of the two variants are analyzed with regard to the operating properties of the reactor units and to the compliance with all nuclear safety-related criteria. Variant I is acceptable if evidence is obtained that the change in efficiency of the HO-3 accident protection does not exceed the limit of necessary safety margins and that the resulting positive effect, namely, the dramatic risk reduction during a single emergency control assembly ejection accident or an uncontrolled emergency control rod assembly cluster withdrawal accident, is highly significant. There may exist a single reason that would substantiate rejection of Variant II, ie., if the behavior of the HO-3 accident protection proved to be adversely affected. This, however, will only concern short-term transients and will be comparable with the reduction in efficiency of this protective intervention occurring towards the end of the cycles. (J.B.). 13 tabs., 4 refs

  14. Chernobyl: fourteen years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current situation around Chernobyl is observed, special attention being paid to the status of SARCOPHAGUS and consequences for human health. The problem of low doses is reviewed, with an impact to what the hormesis is

  15. Chernobyl and the media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The way the media reported the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident was discussed at a day seminar in Birmingham in July. Contributors were from the Forsmark nuclear power station in Sweden where the disaster was first noticed, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Russian film industry, French TV and SCRAM. Personal experiences and opinions of Chernobyl and the media were discussed. The approach in West Germany, France, Finland and the United Kingdom is compared. (UK)

  16. Chernobyl, 16 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

  17. Chernobyl: Chronicle of difficult weeks [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. Chernobyl : chronicle of difficult weeks. Shevchenko's film crew was the first in the disaster zone following the meltdown of the core of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. They shot continuously for more than three months. Portions of the film are exposed with white blotches - a radiation leakage. The film demonstrates how authorities and volunteers dealt with the accident, shows the efforts to get the fire under control, to take care of patients with radiation injuries, and to evacuate about 100,000 inhabitants of the area. 2. The BAM zone : permanent residents. The Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM) railroad in Siberia is called the longest monument to the stagnation of the Brezhnev years. The film shows the lives and fates of the people in contrast to the marches and songs praising the project

  18. Radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneity of contamination of the territory by alpha-, beta- and gamma-radioactive substances with various periods of half-life, presence of radioactive isotopes practically in all components of ecosystems and their involvement in the geochemical and trophic cycles of migration. All this calls forth plurality of ways of the external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. The dynamics of radiation situation in the nearest future and for the perspective will be determined by nuclear decay, radionuclides migration, the transformation of forms of their existence. There is registered the number of radiation-induced changes of flora and fauna, especially on molecular-cellular and organism levels and less marked-on the population and ecosystem levels. The series of consequences for natural complexes and animals is connected with changes in economic activity and nature use. The accumulation of genetic burden and other changes in the systems of organism and metabolic processes may result in the change of plants and animals communities. This demands further study of radiation situation dynamics, the radionuclides behaviour in soil, water, air, inclusion of the radionuclides into the food chains, accumulation in plants and organisms of animals and estimation of biological effects. (authors). 2 tabs., 13 figs

  19. Content of the technogenic radionuclides accumulation in small mammals from the exclusion zone of Chernobyl in remote period after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data of the researches of radioactive contamination territory and the levels of the radionuclides' accumulation in the body of the small rodents from the exclusion zone of Chornobyl are presented in this work. Interspecies differences in the levels of the accumulation of the radionuclide 137Cs and 90Sr were found. Transition coefficients radionuclide 137Cs and 90Sr in one of the links of the trophic chain - ''soil - animal'' were calculated.

  20. Medical consequences for children population of survivors after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (12 years later)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl NPP accident is recognized as the global disaster. Wide amount of population including children was involved. According to the direct measurements results from 1986 the 40% of children population received thyroid irradiation doses from 0.3 to 2.0 Gy and 10% of them - over 2 Gy respectively. Cesium incorporation value calculated per irradiation dose not exceeded 0.5 rem in 97% of kids. Children examination was organized in 2 steps. Within 1. one various transient reactions of nervous system, skin, mucosa, blood formula were revealed. Within 2. one the complete medical examinations were carried out both with dosimetric control. ChNPP accident poly-factor nature was fixed. Wide amount of somatic pathology not related to radiation exposure dose was registered. 12 years after the accident as the result of wide-scale epidemiological study was found out that children population had been exposed to both acute (evacuated persons) and long-term chronic (contaminated territories residents) effect of radiation factor. The main health risk for children involved in nuclear disaster zone is connected with non-oncological blood and haemopoietic organs diseases, digestive system pathology and mental disorders. Parameters excess was revealed in group of persons with higher collective dose accumulated for 10-12 years. Thyroid cancer incidence rate growth is recognized as the radioinduced effect. 12 years after the accident is obvious that 'health detriment' for children population of ChNPP accident survivors is expressed in additional number of endocrine system diseases cases - 24%, blood and haemopoietic organs - 33%, digestive system - 24%, mental disorders - 52% respectively. (authors)

  1. The restoration of radioactive-contaminated territories of Belarus after Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After Chernobyl catastrophes the system of radiation monitoring of the environment in Belarus has ensured the collection and analysis of information about radioactive contamination of an atmospheric air, surface waters and territories. These results of radiation monitoring are used for an estimation of a radiation condition of a environment and prognosis it of restoring. The analysis of results of monitoring shows, that in the first period after catastrophe the maximum levels of a exposure gamma-ray dose in cities were fixed in Bragin (April 30, 1986). The numerical prognosis shows, that the restoring of this magnitude lakes before catastrophe is possible to expect approximately in 65 years. The map of contamination of Belarus by Cs-137 was constructed about use Geo Information System based of results of monitoring, which are introduced in an automated data bank. Due to use GIS the prognosis of restoring of the contaminated territories, contaminated by Cs-137 to 2016 and 2046 was obtained. The analysis of dynamics of squares of contamination more than 37 kBq/sq.m for period 1986 - 2046 shows: The square of initial contamination (1986) by Cs-137 more than 37 kBq/sq.m was equaled 23,7 %; In 30 years (2016) squares of contamination will make approximately 16 %, i.e. will decrease in 1,5 on a comparison 1986; In 60 years (2046) squares of contamination will make approximately 10 %, i.e. will decrease in 2,4 on a comparison 1986. The prognosis of space distribution of activity Am-241 in Belarus shows, that the high levels of contamination will be in 30-km to a zone Chernobyl NPP and on around territories, where the population lives. Maximum volumes the activity of Am-241 will achieve to 2060 and will exceed activity of Pu-238,239,240 approximately in 2 times

  2. Sociological investigations on Ignalina NPP and within its surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of Ignalina NPP and Visaginas town on the social territorial processes in the region and to reveal the impact of Ignalina NPP on the regional economic, social, demographic, political and cultural processes in the context of ecological and psychological affect. According to the results of this research three quarters of the inhabitants and the functionaries of local administration hold an opinion that operation of Ignalina NPP posses threat for the population and environment. Meanwhile they are sure that danger of Ignalina NPP is not critical. 21 - 35 % of the local administrators speak for the closure of Ignalina NPP , whereas half of Visaginas residents and three quarters of the local administrators indicate that operation of reactors is expedient. Over 90% of the population do not have sufficient information on the operation of Ignalina NPP. In the opinion of the rest Lithuanian people Ignalina NPP zone is related with the physical danger and the image of Visaginas residents as the 'others', 'strangers'. More than 90% of Ignalina NPP employees are Russian speaking, not native Lithuanians. The social relations of Visaginas with the environment are poor as a result of the situation of the town, lack of communications and cultural self isolation. (author)

  3. Chernobyl lesson and the nuclear power prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At sixteen years from the disaster which made the commercial power reactor nr. 4 of the Chernobyl NPP known worldwide, the radiation effects and the consequences are still vivid. A basic statement is to be underlined, namely, the Chernobyl event was not an accident in a nuclear power plant being in an industrial, commercial state of operation but an accident following an experiment done on the reactor. Lack of professionalism, of nuclear safety culture, the outrageous violation of basic rules and regulations, established for the unit operation, represent some of the causes originating the Chernobyl disaster. One of the most unfair consequences enhanced by an incorrect mass media information and political manipulation was the ensuing antinuclear media campaign. The paper quotes recent monographs and United Nations Documents showing how the facts were distorted to render arguments and support for various political, economical or humanistic goals. Thus, over more than 15 years due to the hard controversies and irrational campaigns on a global scale the nuclear power was discredited. Practically, all the nuclear power plant constructions were either delayed or cancelled. Moreover, some governments have sustained even closing the existing nuclear stations. The author asks himself rhetorically whether somebody has considered and quantified the immense losses produced by such unmotivated policy or else the additional damage and abuse caused to our home planet by the additional burning of fossil fuels to replace the nuclear fuel burning in nuclear power plants. The paper ends by mentioning the environmental advantages and economic efficiency of that clean energy source which is the nuclear power

  4. Main peculiarities of 90Sr and 137Cs redistribution in 'soil - pines' system of the forest biogeocenoses in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific researches were carried out at nine experimental plots represented by the pine forests. The redistribution of radioactive nuclides of 90Sr and 137Cs in main components of biogeocenoses was analyzed and vertical migration intensity of 90Sr and 137Cs was determined. Also, intensity of the radionuclides accumulation in the main forest species - pine tree in the Exclusion zone was investigated. It is identified that cumulative inventory of 90Sr is significant for the perennial parts of wood species (first of all for - timber). The highest concentration of 90Sr is found in the photosynthetic parts of the pine tree - needles, and the lowest concentration is found in wood. In this concern, according to the obtained results bark has an intermediate position. The same characteristics refer to 137Cs

  5. Chernobyl record. The definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    conditions, such as psychosocial illnesses. Chapter 19 is an English translation from 'Pravda' of a short memoir entitled 'My duty is to tell about this' by Academician Valery Legasov, the First Deputy Director of the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow, who committed suicide on the 2nd anniversary of the accident, April 1988. Previously he had been one of the leading Soviet proponents of the nuclear power option for electricity generation. Chapter 20 records the local history and culture of Ukrainian Polissya, the area which includes most of the 30 km zone. What was borne in mind throughout the research for this book, including the eye witness accounts, have been the words of Thomas Gradgrind in the Charles Dickens novel Hard Times: 'Now what I want to hear is facts'. This philosophy has, is believed to ensure that what follows is a balanced account of the accident and its aftermath, excluding media hype and biased accounts of self-interest groups, and debunking some of the myths which have surrounded Chernobyl

  6. Chernobyl record. The definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mould, R.F

    2000-07-01

    -malignant diseases and conditions, such as psychosocial illnesses. Chapter 19 is an English translation from 'Pravda' of a short memoir entitled 'My duty is to tell about this' by Academician Valery Legasov, the First Deputy Director of the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow, who committed suicide on the 2nd anniversary of the accident, April 1988. Previously he had been one of the leading Soviet proponents of the nuclear power option for electricity generation. Chapter 20 records the local history and culture of Ukrainian Polissya, the area which includes most of the 30 km zone. What was borne in mind throughout the research for this book, including the eye witness accounts, have been the words of Thomas Gradgrind in the Charles Dickens novel Hard Times: 'Now what I want to hear is facts'. This philosophy has, is believed to ensure that what follows is a balanced account of the accident and its aftermath, excluding media hype and biased accounts of self-interest groups, and debunking some of the myths which have surrounded Chernobyl.

  7. Healthy living after Chernobyl?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our food today is endangered not only through environmental poisons and the machinations of profit-hungry manufacturers but also, after the reactor disaster of Chernobyl, by radioactive materials. There is great uncertainty amongst consumers: Whan can I still eat? How can I best protect my children from food products contaminated by radioactivity or enriched with pollutants? Does it still make sense to buy organically produced foodstuffs? Which food products are low in pollutants? With this book the authors want to counteract general helplessness and help the reader with comprehensible and sound information as well as practical tips for eating and living healthily after Chernobyl. (orig.)

  8. Chernobyl - the government reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Farmers' Union of Wales submitted this memorandum to the Agriculture Committee of the House of Commons giving its interpretation of the Government's reaction to the Chernobyl disaster. The primary aim of the paper is to provide an objective assessment of the impact of the disaster and the Government's handling of it, for future reference. The subject is dealt with under the following headings:- Chernobyl nuclear fallout in Wales, monitoring of milk and fresh vegetables, silage contamination, the North Wales Sheep Sector, soil, herbage and genetic implications, recommendations for the future. (UK)

  9. INTERNATIONAL ASSESSMENTS OF IMPACTS OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: THE CHERNOBYL FORUM (2003–2005 AND UNSCEAR (2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Balonov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiological consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP were recently revisited by the UN Chernobyl Forum (2003-2005 and UNSCEAR (2005-2008. For the first time environmental impacts were considered in detail, including radioactive contamination of terrestrial and aquatic environments, application and effectiveness of countermeasures and effects on biota. Updated dosimetric data were presented for more than half a million of emergency and recovery operation workers, about 100 million inhabitants of the three most affected countries, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and for 500 million inhabitants of other European countries. Several hundred of the emergency workers received high radiation doses; of whom 28 persons died in 1986 due to acute radiation sickness. Children at the time of the accident, who drank milk with high levels of radioactive iodine, received high doses to the thyroid. Since early 1990s there was the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among them. Also in 1990s there was some increase of leukaemia in most exposed workers. The UN Chernobyl Forum concluded that severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem. The vast majority of the population need not live in fear of serious health consequences from the Chernobyl accident.

  10. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  11. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  12. Geostatistics: a decision-support tool for the decontamination and the recovery of radiocontaminated territories. Study at the scale of the T22 trench in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Lien; de Fouquet, Chantal; Courbet, Christelle; Simonucci, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    The explosion of Chernobyl reactor n°4 released nearly 13.1019 Bq of radionuclides in the atmosphere and led to the delineation of a 30 km radius exclusion zone. The following year, about 800 shallow trenches were dug and the low to medium activity nuclear wastes were buried in order to prevent their dispersal. However, those trenches are dug in permeable aeolian sand and do not prevent the migration of radionuclides in the superficial aquifer. As the Ukrainian authorities would like to recover part of the exclusion zone territory, it is necessary to quickly assess the radionuclide stock, which could still possibly contaminate the groundwater, by reliable means. The study of the T22 trench shows the effectiveness and the relevance of geostatistics in this issue. The stock of cesium-137 available in 1999 in the T22 trench and its uncertainties related to the spatial variability are assessed. To do so, the limits of the trench basement are first interpolated using the results of ground penetrating radar profiles, undertaken to characterize the subsoil, and using the results of the in situ gamma spectrometry carried on boreholes drilled in the trench. Different geostatistical approaches are examined. Then, the raw data characterizing the intensity of gamma radiation in the soil are analyzed according to their localization in the trench to reassess the limits of the trench, the volume of radiocontaminated soil, the stock of cesium-137 in 1999 and the associated uncertainties. The results of the current and previous analysis of the radionuclide stock and its limits are discussed and the different results of the trench limits are compared. Finally, a hydrogeological model is constructed. The hydraulic parameters are estimated and compared using different methodologies of inverse modeling. Several geostatistical simulations based on the variogram model of the radionuclide stock are introduced in the hydrogeological model in order to evaluate the impact of the

  13. The Republic of Belarus: 9 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of a situation in a 9 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident is given. In accordance with the republic programme of overcoming of the catastrophe consequences the main attention is given to a wide scales medical and preventive work, increase of a quality of the medical aid, creation of conditions for normal activity on the contaminated territory, maintenance of all groups of the population by an objective information about radioecological condition and radiation protection. Scientific researches in the field of radiation medicine and agricultural radiology are executed. Development of means and methods of decontamination, both social psychological and social economical rehabilitation are carried out. 1 fig

  14. Hygienic training of population being victims of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study results on the role of social factors in formation of attitude to own health and its self-evaluation by the population of the regions, subjected to impact of the Chernobyl NPP accident. An extremely important component block is determined in the programs on hygienic training of the population being victims of the accident, namely, adequate information of the public on dose-effect dependencies, on radionuclide behaviour in the environmental objects, on possible measures for reduction of undesirable effects. Necessity is noted of transfer from universal programs of hygienic training to differential ones up to individual training

  15. Multimedia system for the visitors' centre at the Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents illustrated with video clips, animations, photographs, show the follwing: History of Ignalina NPP (INPP) growing; Visaginas - how the town came into being; Lake Druksiai; Development of nuclear power; Technical data of INPP; Description of INPP; Characteristic features of RBMK reactors; Reactor design; Technical parametres of RBMK-1500 reactor; Nuclear reaction and nuclear fission; Types of nuclear reactors; Circuits and systems; Radiation safety; Safety systems at the INPP; Upgrading nuclear safety at INPP following the Chernobyl accident; Safety problems at MP; Radioactive waste management in the world; RW Management at MP; Energy in Lithuania (thermal power stations, cogeneration plants, producing biogas from organic waste)

  16. Reconstruction of the composition of the Chernobyl radionuclide fallout and external radiation absorbed doses to the population in areas of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of reconstruction of the radionuclide composition of the Chernobyl fallout in the territories of Russia is presented. Reconstruction has been carried out by means of statistical analysis of the gamma spectrometry data on 2867 soil samples collected in the territories of Ukraine, Byelarus and Russia from 1986 to 1988. To verify the data, aggregated estimates of the fuel composition of the 4th block at the moment of the accident (available from the literature) have been used, as well as the estimates of activity released to the atmosphere. As a result, correlation and regression dependences have been obtained between the activities of the radionuclides most contributing to the dose (137Cs, 134Cs, 131I, 140Ba, 140La, 95Zr, 95Nb, 103Ru, 106Ru, 141Ce, 144Ce, 125Sb). Statistically significant regression relations between different pairs of radionuclides (including analysis of the 'noise' contribution to the data) depending on the distance between the point of sample collection and the power station are presented for the 'north-east track' - the northern part of the 30 km zone and southern part of the Gomel 'district (Byelarus) and the Briansk, Kaluga, Tula and Orel districts (Russia). A methodology is also described for reconstructing space-time characteristics of the contamination of the territories by major dose-forming radionuclides released from the Chernobyl NPP 4th unit. (Author)

  17. Structural-genetic approach to analysis and mapping of Chernobyl's radionuclide contamination field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a main tool for revealing and interpreting the internal structure of radionuclide contamination field, around the Chernobyl NPP the reliable and validated detailed scale maps of contamination densities could serve. Such maps should have, on the one hand, a high enough density of initial observation points (not less than 1 to 10 points per 1 sq.cm. of final map) and, on the other hand, a high representativeness of each observation point, i.e. reliability of presentation of its vicinity (0.1 to 1 sq.km). The available analytical data files of soil sampling in the exclusion zone conform neither to the first requirement, nor to the second one: real density of sampling does not exceed 0-2 to 0.5 points per 1 sq.m, and the representativeness of obtained results has a typical variation from medium values (in the neighbourhood of 0.1 to 1 sq.km) to 3 to 5 times

  18. Long term effects of Minks of the radiation factors from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of small radiation dose influence on human and animal reproductive functions becomes more and more topical after Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident. In the number of cases, animals that reside in continues internal, as well as external exposure zone, have pregnancy interruption in its early stages (up to 30 days). This, without any doubts testifies for reproductive process disorder as a whole (hypophysis-ovary-uterus system) and also, as its separate links. The important thing is that a break in any one of those links leads to pregnancy interruption. Hence, in order to determine any disorders in reproductive system functional state, profound and detailed morphofunctional study of the system links (accounting for radiation exposure factors) needs to be done. Because research in this field has just started, we were unable to find any material on this topic. There are, however, some references for morphofunctional changes of endocrine glands, hypophysis in particular and sex glands, refereed to small radiation doses

  19. Medical and socio-psychological consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the post-accident period the affected population has more significant, in comparison with the republican indices, morbidity growth practically on all classes of diseases and in the first place, digestive, cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine, urogenital, otolaryngological, among adult as well as children's population. There continues worsening of the health state of children and adolescents permanently residing radioactive contaminated territories especially accompanied by long-lasting and considerable accumulation of long-living radionuclides by the organism - cesium 137 and strontium 90. The health state of the participants of the liquidation of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe consequences and evacuated from alienation zone, absorbed considerable radiation doses for the whole organism (the growth of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous systems diseases, etc.). In the republic a considerable increase of thyroid cancer morbidity of children and adolescents especially in the Gomel and Brest regions has been registered. This is stipulated by dose burdens on thyroid gland at the expense of iodine-radionuclides in the first period after the accident, goiter endemic, incorrect iodine prophylactics, etc. Alongside with it in Gomel region mainly there is observed the marked increase of oncological diseases morbidity, especially in areas with high radionuclides contamination level and subsequently with larger radiation doses. This in the first place concerns the increase of morbidity of lungs, mammary gland, urine bladder, kidney cancer, etc

  20. Medical and socio-psychological consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the post-accident period the affected population has more significant, in comparison with the republican indices, morbidity growth practically on all classes of diseases and in the first place, digestive, cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine, urogenital, otolaryngological, among adult as well as children's population. There continues worsening of the health state of children and adolescents permanently residing radioactive contaminated territories especially accompanied by long-lasting and considerable accumulation of long-living radionuclides by the organism - Cs-137 and Sr-90. The health state of the participants of the liquidation of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe consequences and evacuated from alienation zone, absorbed considerable radiation doses for the whole organism (the growth of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous systems diseases, etc.). In the republic a considerable increase of thyroid cancer morbidity of children and adolescents especially in Gomel and Brest regions has been registered. This is stipulated by dose burdens on thyroid gland at the expense of iodine-radionuclides in the first period after the accident, goiter endemic, incorrect iodine prophylactics, etc. Alongside with it in Gomel region mainly there is observed the marked increase of oncological diseases morbidity, especially in areas with high radionuclides contamination level and subsequently with larger radiation doses. This in the first place concerns the increase of morbidity of lungs, mammary gland, urine bladder, kidney cancer, etc. (authors). 1 tab., 22 figs

  1. Nuclear energy after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper on fundamental questions by a representative of the Federal German Government focuses on the following subjects: Nuclear energy as a part of the energy policy of the Federal German Government, the justifiability of nuclear energy, lessons from Chernobyl, nuclear phase-out, safety concepts for the future, supply of nuclear power plants, and nuclear waste disposal. (UA)

  2. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  3. Chernobyl: The WHO helps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet addresses concerns of the populations of the areas of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia affected by the Chernobyl accident. Answers to commonly asked questions comprise the bulk of the information, but the booklet also describes the WHO's work to study and mitigate the effects on the exposed populations

  4. Chernobyl and our health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health impacts in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident are discussed in this booklet. Five experts of different relevant fields (biology, radioecology, nuclear physics and psychology) give their views on probable radiation doses and health effects from these doses, contamination of food chains etc. (L.E.)

  5. Science. Chernobyl-96. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection contains the results of Chernobyl accident investigation on the territory of Ukraine. The conference was devoted to the following problems: -equipment and dosimetry; - agriculture and forestry radioecology and environmental monitoring; - medical, biological and social consequences; - waste management; - 'Shelter' problems; - information and simulation technologies

  6. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

  7. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  8. The Chernobyl effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In what way and to what extent does an event like the Chernobyl reactor accident influence the citizen's attitudes and political commitment. This book evolves a number of theses on these questions dealing above all with the determinants of political protest. Two investigations are presented in order to verify those theses: in 1982 and 1987 (some nine months after the Chernobyl reactor accident), the same persons were interviewed. In addition, representative surveys in the Federal Republic of Germany are analysed, in order to assess in general the impact of Chernobyl. From the contents: explanation model for political protest; Chernobyl effect: effect of critical events on the mobilization of political protest; discontent with nuclear energy use, political alienation and protest; internal incentives for protest: norms, readiness for aggression, and entertainment quality of protest; resources as determinants of political protest; sanctions and protest; social nets and political protest; verification of a central model of political protest, and problems encountered by research. Appendix: investigation plan and random sampling of the panel of nuclear power opponents. (orig./HP)

  9. Hydrogeological influences on radionuclide migration from the major radioactive waste burial sites at Chernobyl (A review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the recent hydrogeological investigations of several research organizations on waste confinement at the major radioactive waste (RW) burial sites immediately adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Ch. NPP). Hydrogeological conditions and radiologic ground-water contamination levels are described. Ongoing ground-water monitoring practices are evaluated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the radionuclides within the burial sites are considered. Ground water and radionuclide transport modeling studies related to problems of the RW disposal sites are also reviewed. Current concerns on future impacts of the RW burial sites on the hydrological environment and water resources of the Ch.NPP area are discussed

  10. Determination of requirements to the level of radiation protection for the staff and equipment in realization of reforestation and wood processing technologies in the zones contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the method of calculation of dose levels for the staff developed by the authors with Monte-Carlo method, which gives the connection between the level of radiation and the working conditions, preliminary requirements to the level of radiation protection have been developed. Estimations for possible ways for effective realization of protection have been conducted. The investigations conducted have shown that the protection is reasonable to estimate as an element of the general system of forest reprocessing

  11. Radioactivity levels of trees before and after the Chernobyl reactor accident as well as in vitro determinations of cesium to evaluate leaf uptake and deep zone distribution in adaxial leaf cuticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was the aim of the study described here to investigate into radionuclide concentrations in various species of trees encountered in forests that are detectable over prolonged periods of time after the Chernobyl accident. Separate radionuclide measurements for the individual tree organs (leaves, needles and branches of different ages, wood, fruit and semen) permitted conclusions to be drawn as to the fate of the isotopes under investigation. A survey is given of the distribution of invading radionuclides, changes over time and their migration into newly grown parts of trees. The findings are evaluated in the context of measurements made in comparable samples obtained before the Chernobyl accident. (orig.)

  12. Foreign NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different versions of NPP decommisioning, which worked out their life are considered. Dismantling work technology as well as devices for cutting and decontamination of equipment and concrete structures are described. Data on the quantity of shutdown and dismantled NPPs are given. It is noted that to perform successfully dismantling works it is necessary to: choose NPP decommisioning version; calculate radioactivity level; substantiate necessity of decontamination; develop the plan of removal of radioactive equipment; radioactive concrete and structures; contaminated systems; transport and bury solid, liquid and gaseous radioactive and chemical wastes; evaluate the accepted solutions of dismantling from the point of view of the effect on environment; determine costs. It is shown that optimal period of complete or partial dismantling after the NPP decommisioning is 15 years. NPPs dismantling expenditures can reach 10-15% of expenditures for their construction

  13. EMAS at Doel NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 1995, Doel NPP of Electrabel, Belgium opted to seek registration under the EC Eco-management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). A comprehensive environmental management system (EMS) has been introduced and implemented, encompassing all four PWRs and the supporting departments. A critical step was to seek certification from an accredited environmental auditing body against the International Standard ISO 14001. This provided the foundation for the publicly available environmental statement required by EMAS. The complications of achieving EMAS at a time when national and international standards were being re-formulated were successfully overcome and Doel NPP passed its EMAS audit in June 1997. (author)

  14. Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

  15. Some aspects of thyroid system status in persons exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid system status estimation held in post-accidental period dynamics among 7868 children evacuated from the 30-km Chernobyl zone and resident now in Slavutich city (Cs-137 contaminated area), among contaminated regions permanent residents, among native kievites and evacuated from 30-km zone. The thyroid pathology incidence dependence on residence place during Chernobyl Accident and after that was revealed. The immune-inflammatory thyroid disorders are characteristic for 30-km zone migrants, goitre different forms - for the radionuclides contaminated territories residents. No thyroid function abnormalities frequency confidential increase was registered during the research activities run. The total serum cholesterol level application unavailability is revealed in Chernobyl accident survivors thyroid hormones metabolic effects estimation. Data concerning Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) presented additionally. (author)

  16. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  17. Chernobyl: The aftermath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear accident in Chernobyl prompted vehement and sometimes controversial public and political reaction in the Federal Republic of Germany, as it did elsewhere. What remained after the initial concern subsided? We at the IIUG feel obligated to make a contribution to the preservation and the improvement of our environmental quality, both in basic and specialized research aimed at environmental problems. It is time to take stock of the findings of our own work; we must access the feedback to and implementation of this research; the candidness and integrity of the scientific-economic-political community; superfluous knowledge or information gaps; structural obstacles and possible alternatives. This paper presents, in condensed form, the results of the 'post-Chernobyl' discussions at the IIUG, based on our work in various projects. (orig.)

  18. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  19. Reflections on Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl and Three Mile Island reactor accidents are revealing some of the social costs of such failures, widespread opposition to nuclear power. As far as mortality and morbidity go, Chernobyl was probably a smaller incident than the chemical disaster at Bhopal. But nuclear people must accept the idea that a nuclear hazard is perceived as somehow different. Since nuclear energy will be needed to replace oil eventually, and the environmental impacts of properly operating nuclear power plants are far less than those of fossil fuelled power plants, this appears to be an appropriate time for the United States and other interested countries to start developing inherently safe nuclear power plants which will be acceptable to the public

  20. Chernobyl: Geographic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the geographic considerations that could effect the long range consequences of the Chernobyl accident. First, the explosion and fire lofted the radionuclides that were released, so the areas that should have been most severely effected were the areas that were downwind of the accident. Curiously, the Soviets have not mentioned the number of casualties from these areas. A second consideration is that Chernobyl is located upstream from the Dnieper River which is the source for six major reservoirs. These reservoirs provide drinking water, industrial and irrigation water, and recreational and commercial fishing for over six million people. The Soviets say that they have taken measures to prevent the radioactive contamination of the Dnieper but they neglected to explain the methods used to accomplish this feat