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Sample records for chernobyl npp otsenka

  1. Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

  2. Main principles of the Chernobyl' NPP zone development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is suggested to divide the Chernobyl' NPP zone into two parts, which are the alienation and evacuation (buffer) zones. The alienation zone includes the areas with greatest contamination around the Chernobyl' NPP. The population residence in this zone is forbidden. The watching method of working with short-time personnel residence is suggested to be used in this zone. The buffer zone is the territory out of the alienation zone boundaries including all settlements, from which the population is evacuated. Constant residence is permitted in the buffer zone for persons 50 and more years old with introduction of restrictions for diet and residence organization. The production activity in this zone includes operation of three units of the Chernobyl' NPP, works with the Ukrytie object and researches. Operations connected with radioactive waste processing and redisposal from places of storage is not recommended to be done. It is suggested to develop methods for local radioactive waste processing

  3. Radionuclides in fish of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of researches of the spices-specificity, accumulation dynamics, and distribution of 90Sr, 137Cs, and transuranic elements in fish of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone are analyzed. For fish of lakes of the left-bank flood plain of the Pripyat River, the increase of the specific activity of 90Sr is registered, which is presumably connected to the dynamics of physico-chemical forms of the radionuclide in soils and their wash out in water basins from the catchment territory. Now about 90 % of the internal dose rate of fish from closed aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone are caused by the 90Sr incorporation

  4. Remote medical consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In result of global radio-ecological disaster at the Chernobyl NPP in Armenia there has appeared a great 'risk group' of persons, who had participated in liquidation of the accident consequences. The results of medical observation of this cohort carried out in dynamics in Scientific Center of Radiation Medicine and Burns during 25 years are brought in the work

  5. Radioactive waste management after NPP accident: Post-Chernobyl experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident a very large amount of so-called 'Chernobyl waste' were generated in the territory of Belarus, which was contaminated much more than all other countries. These wastes relate mainly to two following categories: low-level waste (LLW) and new one 'Conventionally Radioactive Waste' (CRW). Neither regulations nor technology and equipment were sufficiently developed for such an amount and kind of waste before the accident. It required proper decisions in respect of regulations, treatment, transportation, disposal of waste, etc. (author)

  6. Aerial contamination agroecosystems following the accident at Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regularities of the aerial contamination of agricultural ecosystems are described in the early period after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The aerial contamination is shown to be caused by the development of the above-ground biomass of plants and fallout characteristics. A specific coefficient of primary retention varied between 0.7 and 1.89 for 131In and between 0.46 and 1.2 m2 kg-1 for 137Cs. The first half-life period varies from 9.7 to 13.4 days. The second period varies from 46.2 to 52.2 days. It has been found that parameters of aerial contamination from the Chernobyl accident well correlate with the results of observation in the period of global fallout

  7. Transformations of humus and soil mantle in the urbanized areas of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented are investigations into the demutation processes of the towns plant community in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone (Pripyat, Chernobyl, Chernobyl-2). Demonstrated is the specific nature of the reduction of humus and soil mantle in the abandoned towns under the impact of the natural factors. 21 refs., 5 tab., 7 figs

  8. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubina, Nataliia E.; Zarubin, Oleg L. [Institute for Nuclear Research of National Academy of Sciense, 03680, pr-t Nauki, 47, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident ({sup 131}I, {sup 140}Ba /{sup 140}La, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs). They accumulate the long-living {sup 90}Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than {sup 137}Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of {sup 137}Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more {sup 137}Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of {sup 137}Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination

  9. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident (131I, 140Ba /140La, 103Ru, 106Ru, 141Ce, 144Ce, 95Nb, 95Zr, 137Cs and 134Cs). They accumulate the long-living 90Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than 137Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of 137Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of 137Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of 137Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more 137Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of 137Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination by 137Cs is one of the principal abiotic influences on the accumulation of this radionuclide by fungi

  10. Concentration peculiarities of radionuclides by freshwater molluscs of Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs content in molluscs tissue of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. The age dynamics of radionuclides content in some species of Gastropoda was studied

  11. Virtual reality in design, planning, operation and training related to the decommissioning of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtual Reality in refueling operation and maintenance training at Leningrad NPP has been recognized by Chernobyl NPP. Institute for Energy Technology's is establishing now the Chernobyl Decommissioning Visualization Centre to be used for planning and training the dismantling procedures in addition to presenting it to the authorities and the public. It will be ready in 2007. The first scenario will be the dismantling of the refueling machines

  12. Analysis of nuclear fuel reliability based on Chernobyl NPP operation for validation of fuel element service life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of failure intensity of fuel assemblies at Chernobyl-1 and Chernobyl-3 NPP during 10 years are given. Fuel assembly reliability is connected with seal failure reactor operation. Preliminary results are discussed

  13. Peculiarities of soil mycobiota composition in Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil mycobiota in zones of strong radiation control (Lyutizh region), nine stationaries in 30 km Chernobyl NPP zone and one in the vicinity of Kiev has been investigated. 180 species of 70 genera of micromycetes has been isolated and identified. The species of genera Penicillium, Mortierella, Trichoderma, Cladosporium dominated in all soils studied, and the species of genera Acremonium, Paecilomyces, Oidiodendron etc. were frequent. The comparison of the generic composition of micromycetes in localities studied has revealed their similarity. The characteristic feature for the mycobiota was regular revealing and specific variability of melanin-containing fungi. Many of them compose the reserve group of micromycetes. There was found new and rare species Acrodontium crateriforme (v.Beyma) de Hoog, Botryosporium longibrachiatum Oud., Chuppia sarcinifera Deighton, Harzia acremonioides Harz etc., with were not registered in these soils before the accident. The structure of the micromycete complexes presented as a correlation Pleiades has been established. Discovered Pleiades were formed mainly by melanin-containing fungi. According to the preliminary results the micro-mycetes complexes, taking into account their occurrence, can be used as indicators of unfavourable ecological soil state. To our mind, a search for such complexes may be conducted among of melanin-containing species as well as numerous species of genus Penecillium and related Paecilomyces

  14. Radionuclides in lake ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The territories of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone are characterised by significant heterogeneity of radionuclide contamination, which is reflected by the radioactive substance contents in aquatic ecosystem components. Due to high water change rate the river bottom sediments have undergone decontamination processes and over the years that passed since the accident have ceased to play the essential role as a secondary source of water contamination. On the other hand, the closed reservoirs, and in particular the lakes in the inner exclusion zone, have considerably higher levels of radioactive contamination caused by limited water change and by relatively high concentrations of radionuclides deposited in the bottom sediments. During 1997-2004 we studied the dynamics and distribution of 90Sr, 137CS, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am in the main components of the lake ecosystems within the exclusion zone, defined as a roughly circular area of 30 km radius around the destroyed unit of the Chernobyl NPP. The radionuclide content was measured in bottom sediments, water, seston, higher aquatic plants, molluscs and fish in Azbuchin Lake, Dalekoye-1 Lake and Glubokoye Lake. The analysis of radionuclide distribution in components of lake ecosystems has shown that about 98-99 % of 137CS and more than 99 % of transuranic elements of the total radionuclide content has concentrated in the bottom sediments. The content of 90Sr in sediments of lakes, due to higher solubility, amounts to 89-95 %. About 2-10 % of radionuclides concentrated in water and only about 1 %- in biota. In this percent a prevailing value for different radionuclides has the macro benthos species (especially bivalve molluscs) and higher aquatic plants. The average specific activity of radionuclides in fish tissue more than in 100 times exceeds a maximum permissible level for fish production in Ukraine. The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts, living within littoral zone of the researched lakes, due to external

  15. Some results of psychophysiological examinations of the liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP disaster consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The psychological examination of chemical troops officers being on service in the Chernobyl NPP zone and having different irradiation doses was realized. Analysis of the mental status (MS) of persons (51 men), who took part in the Chernobyl NPP accident effect elimination had shown the statistic difference of MS from persons, who did not take part in such works. The presence of the expressed syndrome of post-extremal state connected with increased mental instability was revealed. Quick diagnostics of the liquidator organisms functional states had shown hypofunction of cardiovascular, immune, central and peripheral nervous systems; hyperfunction of liver, kidneys and skeleton

  16. Problems of ground-water monitoring in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the nine years of hydrogeological studies in the Chernobyl exclusion zone scientific and methodological problems of the radio hydrogeological monitoring are discussed. Inconsistency of the official ground-water monitoring system is shown. The ways to improve the radio hydrogeological monitoring are indicated. The special attention is paid to principles of the development of monitoring well network in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in the light of the hydrogeological factors. The data are presented on ground-water contamination by strontium-90 in the zone adjacent to the Chernobyl NPP (at the right bank of the Pripyat River)

  17. Evaluation of Radiation Impacts of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP - 13495

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation effects are estimated for the operation of a new dry storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP RBMK reactors. It is shown that radiation exposure during normal operation, design and beyond design basis accidents are minor and meet the criteria for safe use of radiation and nuclear facilities in Ukraine. (authors)

  18. Damage of common reed by gall mites and diptera within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy damage events of common reed by gall arthropods in water bodies within the Chernobyl NPP inner (10-km) exclusion zone have been studied. The mites of family Tarsonemidae - Steneotarsonemus phragmitidis and S. gibber have been discovered. The damage events of common reed by larvae of gall fly of family Chloropidae, genus Lipara have been considered as well

  19. Problems of hydrogeological monitoring and prediction of ground water contamination in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of ground water monitoring and the questions of development of the observation well network in the nearest 10-15 km area around Chernobyl NPP are considered. Ground water contamination by radionuclides in the exclusion zone is described. Results of mathematical modeling of strontium-90 migration from radioactive waste disposal sites are presented

  20. Health of the population having suffered after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1996 on the following directions: study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of the people; development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases at various categories of victims; development and introduction in practice of effective methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of both mother and child in conditions of influence of the Chernobyl accident consequences; study of genetic consequences caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident and development of effectual measures of their prevention; creation of effective preventive means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; optimization of system of measures for health saving of the having suffered population and development of ways of increase of its efficiency

  1. Introduction of nitrogen blow-through in the cooling circuit of the Chernobyl NPP Unit 3 in experimental industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of nuclide composition of Chernobyl NPP releases (inert gases) showed that Ar-41 plays there the main role (84-90%). For its decrease a system for gas tank blow-through by nitrogen of high purification was proposed

  2. The results of fluorescence spectrums of oak and birch leaves investigation from the 30-km influenced zone of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a long-term research of laser induced fluorescence of foliage tree' leaves (oak, birch) that grow in different conditions of radioactive pollution (30-km zone of Chernobyl NPP) are presented

  3. Investigation of Chernobyl NPP and recovery of environment and medical service in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident will be terminated, if sufficient care of recovery for heart of people, economy and environment leads to happy Fukushima. It might be taken more than 20 years or more. The overseas NPP investigation group in the study committee for safety regulatory of NPP in PES division in JSME visited Chernobyl NPP, Ministry of Emergencies, National Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of Ukraine, Chernobyl Center, Slavutych, Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, National University of Life and Environmental Science of Ukraine, Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants and Chernobyl Museum. The investigation of bases of their new technology for deep LRW cleaning of Fukushima genesis from the whole range of radionuclides, including uranium and transuranic elements, organic impurities and simultaneous concentration of radioactive components in a small volume. The recovery of environment and care of heart of people were good in Ukraine. The lessons derived from the accident, we can decide what we should do. (author)

  4. [The main radionuclides and dose formation in fish of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Kaglian, A E; Kireev, S I; Nazarov, A B; Klenus, V G

    2008-01-01

    The results of the researches of spices-specificity, accumulation dynamics and distribution of 90Sr, of 137Cs and of transuranic elements in fish of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone are analysed. The data of estimations of absorbed doze rate from incorporated radionuclides for pray fish and predatory species are given. For the fish from the lake of the left-bank floodplain of the Pripyat River the increase of 90Sr specific activity is registered which is presumably connected with the dynamics of the physical-chemical forms of the radionuclide in soils and their wash out in water bodies from the catchment basin. Now about 90% of internal dose rate of fish from closed aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone is caused by 90Sr incorporation. PMID:18666579

  5. Characteristics of border nervous-mental disorders for victims connected with the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is revealed that border nervouse-mental disorders for victims connected with the Chernobyl' NPP accident are the most widely spread diseases. Their specific features are the following: prevalence of the disorders from asthenic and psycho-organic circles; relatively small positive dynamics in the cause of treatment; uniformity in symptoms, which do not depend on psychological characteristics of a person. Particular efforts should be concentrated on developing psychosocial programs for rendering the victims help. 3 refs

  6. Radionuclides in higher aquatic plants of water reservoirs within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs content in higher aquatic plants of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone have been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and spice-indicators of radioactive contamination are exposed as well. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclides content in macrophites was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose have been demonstrated

  7. 90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of 90Sr and 137Cs radionuclides in higher aquatic plants of water object within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and species-indicators of radioactive contamination were revealed. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclide content in macrophytes was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 90Sr and 137Cs distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose was demonstrated

  8. Migration properties of radionuclides released from Chernobyl NPP in agriculture and radioecological aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide in the area migration Chernobyl NPP at the 12 points of three landscape-geochemical proving grounds in Mogilev and Gomel Regions is studied. The main characteristics of contamination, the vertical migration in a soil profile, the degree of radionuclide builup by plants and the intensity of the accumulated isotope release from domestic animal bodies are investigated. The data presented could be applied for solving radioecological problems, forecasting radiation situations and developing practical recommendations

  9. About the causes and circumstances of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident is the product of unsatisfactory solutions to scientific-technical, socio-economic and human problems. The documentarily recorded power excursion of the reactor and its rise velocity as well as the quick pressure rise in the separator drum admit the conclusion that the cause of the accident was the rapid power excursion of the reactor and not some external influence. (DG)

  10. The demographic cequence of the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990 the total population evacuated due to the ChNPP accident was questionared. The analysis of the data obtained became the initial base for the demographic characteristics of this population. In 1991 about 40.000 people were planned to move. The estimation of the age of the moved, their marital status makes it possible to prognose their social child-bearing and economic value for the places where they were moved. In 1991 it was supposed that not only the moved population might have given birth to regenerations the necessary rate but also their mortality might play a significant role in the increase of the death rate

  11. Characteristics of hot particles of the soil in the neighborhood of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sizes of the hot particles, their activity, and the isotopic composition have been described by several investigators. Most of the measurements have been carried out during 1986-1987, i.e., within a short period after the Chernobyl accident. This paper presents the data concerning the hot particles in the specimens of the soil drawn from the surface of the land located at a distance of 600 m from the damaged power block of the Chernobyl NPP. Measurements were carried out during February-August 1991, i.e., after a lapse of 5 years from the instance of the accident. It is noted that the hot particles falling on the soil are dangerous to the life of the organisms inhabiting the near-surface layers of the earth. In this case, the risk of decreases due to the β-active hot particles has been studied to a lesser extent. In view of this, the authors studied the accumulation of the radioactive hot particles in the pulmonary tissues of mice and the tissues of earthworms inhabiting the region of the Chernobyl NPP according to the autoradiographic method. In order to obtain α-radiograms, Kodak-LP115 and CN-8015 detectors were used, maintaining a direct contact with the surface of the soil specimens. The optimum exposure amounted to approximately 100 h

  12. Hydrobionts of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone: dose rates and cytogenetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 2000 - 2004 the values of the absorbed dose for hydrobionts from reservoirs within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone were found. The highest value was found for hydrobionts from lakes within the embankment territory on the left-bank flood plain of Pripyat River. The high level of chromosome aberration in of snail's cells from water objects within the Chernobyl exclusion zone has been registered in comparison with Goloseevo lakes. The molluscs from Dalekoye-1 Lake and Glubokoye Lake were characterised by the maximal rate of chromosome aberration - about 20-25%, that in 10 times exceeds a level spontaneous mutagenesis for hydrobionts. A little bit less rate is registered for snails from Azbuchin Lake and Yanovsky Creek

  13. Radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystem within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone: 15 years after accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquatic ecosystems and especially lakes are efficient collectors for the wide range of radionuclides, which are deposited in abiotic and biotic components after their intake by aquatic environments. For the time being, ecosystems of water bodies of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone continue to suffer from heavy radioactive contamination, dictating, thus, the need to carry out further research works within the framework of comprehensive regional radioecological monitoring. Particular features of radionuclide accumulation by hydrobionts substantially depend on formation of hydrochemical composition of water, which, in its turn, is a complex process, depending on functioning of aquatic ecosystems and natural conditions of a water catchment basin. Hydrochemical regimes in reservoirs are determined by external factors and internal water body processes. The results of radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am content in hydrobionts tissues of different trophic levels of water objects within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone have been analysed. Our studies were conducted: (1) to identify dynamics of radionuclide distribution in components of freshwater biocenose of water bodies within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone; (2) to study dynamic profiles of radioactive contamination levels in species of different ecological groups; (3) to assess the major factors, which determine distribution of radionuclides in the freshwater ecosystems; (4) to study the seasonal dynamics of radionuclides content in macrophites and the role of main aquatic plant associations in processes of radionuclides distribution in biotic component of biohydrocenose; (5) to assess a possibility to use hydrobionts of different trophic levels as biological indicators of radioactive contamination of water objects and (6) to assess the absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from different water bodies. (author)

  14. Adaptation state for persons living and working in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integral health characteristics (IHC) reflecting the level of organism adaptation for persons working and living under specific conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone is suggested. IHC gives an opportunity to differentiate the adaptation degree in respect to 6 characteristics, which are encephalogram, cycle-ergometry, psychological test (uneasiness state), immunological test (T lymphocyte activity), content of chlorides in blood, state of skin bactericidal activity. Mathematical models connecting IHC with organism adaptation state are constructed. Adaptation level depends on the absorbed dose value, time of work in the 30-km zone and age of the person under examination. 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Dose rate and biological effects on hydrobionts within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2000-2003 the values of the absorbed dose for hydrobionts from reservoirs within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone were found to be in the range from 1.8·10-3 to 3.4 Gy/year. The highest value was found for hydrobionts from lakes within the embankment territory on the left-bank flood plain of the Pripyat River, the lowest - for specimens from the running water objects. The chromosome aberration rate in cells of the snail (Limnea stagnalis L.) embryos from the most contaminated reservoirs reached to 25%. (Authors)

  16. The content of Cs 137 in mushrooms of Chernobyl NPP alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cs 137 contents in S. luteus is more in 1.5 - 20 times, than in B. edulis, selected on one polygon. However this ratio has changed and Cs 137 contents in S. luteus equals to contents in B. edulis in territory of some polygons of Chernobyl NPP alienation zone in 2000 and 2001. Therefore, as indicators of Cs 137 contamination by wood ecosystems it is necessary to use two or more kinds of mushrooms differing by depth of mycelium's localization in soil

  17. Evaluation of the inflammatory processes in the liquidators of the consequences at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of leukocyte and nuclear indices of intoxication in dynamics in liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP consequences is brought in this work. It is demonstrated that the study of blood indices in complex with application of leukocyte and nuclear indices intoxication formulas gives an opportunity to fix changes in blood content at liquidators exposed to small doses not only in the early, but in late post-accidental period as well. It was revealed that inflammatory processes proceeded in liquidators in the first years of post-accidental period, have a stable character which is reflected on development of total morbidity

  18. To the problem of afforestation of lands with high contamination density in the Chernobyl' NPP zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is argued that the best conditions for radionuclide fixation will be created in the case of contaminated land afforestation. The complex approach, variation of natural forest reconstruction, tree planting and seeding are necessary for land afforestation in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone. It is recommended to apply spontaneous afforestation with time on lands with high contamination density where man participation is impossible. It should be soft-leaf species at the first stage and pines in future. The wood destiny when the cultures will achieve the ripe age is the argumentative problem

  19. Radionuclide migration and biological effects in forest landscape of the Chernobyl NPP zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radioecological and radiobiological studies made in pine-birch plantations located at the distances of 15 and 18 km to the West from the Chrenobyl NPP in 1987-1988 are discussed. It is shown that the contents of radionuclides studied in the soil-vegetable cover of the 15-km zone decrease in the following order Cs-137 > Cs-134 > Sr-90. Sr-90 is present in firmly fixed state in soil near the Chernobyl NPP failed unit, and its great portion becomes fixed by ion exchange reaction type as the distance from the accident place increases. Cs isotopes are included into the firmly fixed compounds in soils of the 30-km zone

  20. Chernobyl NPP: Completion of LRW Treatment Plant and LRW Management on Site - 12568

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since a beginning of ChNPP operation, and after a tragedy in 1986, a few thousands m3 of LRW have been collected in a storage tanks. In 2004 ChNPP started the new project on creation of LRW treatment plant (LRWTP) financed from EBRD fund. But it was stopped in 2008 because of financial and contract problems. In 2010 SIA RADON jointly with Ukrainian partners has won a tender on completion of LRWTP, in particular I and C system. The purpose of LRTP is to process liquid rad-wastes from SSE 'Chernobyl NPP' site and those liquids stored in the LRWS and SLRWS tanks as well as the would-be wastes after ChNPP Power Units 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning. The LRTP design lifetime - 20 years. Currently, the LRTP is getting ready to perform the following activities: 1. retrieval of waste from tanks stored at ChNPP LWS using waste retrieval system with existing equipment involved; 2. transfer of retrieved waste into LRTP reception tanks with partial use of existing transfer pipelines; 3. laboratory chemical and radiochemical analysis of reception tanks contest to define the full spectrum of characteristics before processing, to acknowledge the necessity of preliminary processing and to select end product recipe; 4. preliminary processing of the waste to meet the requirements for further stages of the process; 5. shrinkage (concentrating) of preliminary processed waste; 6. solidification of preliminary processed waste with concrete to make a solid-state (end product) and load of concrete compound into 200-l drums; 7. curing of end product drums in LRTP curing hall; 8. radiologic monitoring of end product drums and their loading into special overpacks; 9. overpack radiological monitoring; 10. send for disposal (ICSRM Lot 3); The current technical decisions allow to control and return to ChNPP of process media and supporting systems outputs until they satisfy the following quality norms: salt content: 5 Bq/l. (authors)

  1. Radiobiological effects in organisms of plants and animals exposed to ionizing irradiation in the Chernobyl NPP zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of ionizing radiation on forest ecosystems most clearly revealed itself near the Chernobyl NPP (ChNPP), were magnitudes of absorbed doses reached 'lethal' values, as applied to conifers. Main contribution to absorbed dose was due to beta-radiation of short-living radionuclides. To largest extent the radiobiological effects appeared at injured plantations of pines and firs. Nevertheless, during the first year maximum absorbed doses influenced also on leaf-bearing trees (birch, alder, asp) which then rehabilitated themselves completely

  2. RADIATION CONDITIONS IN KALUGA REGION 30 YEARS AFTER CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Ashitko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes radiation conditions in the Kaluga region 30 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The Chernobyl NPP accident caused radioactive contamination of nine Kaluga region territories: Duminichsky, Zhizdrinsky, Kuibyshevsky, Kirovsky, Kozelsky, Ludinovsky, Meshchovsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky districts. Radioactive fallout was the strongest in three southern districts: Zhizdrinsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky, over there cesium-137 contamination density is from 1 to 15Ci/km. According to the Russian Federation Government Order in 2015 there are 300 settlements (S in the radioactive contamination zone, including 14 settlements with caesium-137 soil contamination density from 5 to 15 Ci/ km2 and 286 settlements with the contamination density ranging from 1 to 5 Ci/km2. In the first years after the Chernobyl NPP accident in Kaluga region territories, contaminated with caesium-137, there were introduced restrictive land usage, were carried out agrochemical activities (ploughing, mineral fertilizer dressing, there was toughened laboratory radiation control over the main doze-forming foodstuff. All these measures facilitated considerable decrease of caesium-137 content in local agricultural produce. Proceeding from the achieved result, in 2002 there took place the transition to more tough requirements SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01. Analysis of investigated samples from Zhizdrinsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky districts demonstrated that since 2005 meat samples didn’t exceed the standard values, same for milk samples since 2007. Till the present time, the use of wild-growing mushrooms, berries and wild animals meat involves radiation issues. It was demonstrated that average specific activity of caesium-137 in milk samples keeps decreasing year after year. Long after the Chernobyl NPP accident, the main products forming internal irradiation doses in population are the wild-growing mushrooms and berries. Population average annual

  3. Economic damage and state policy on the overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe consequences. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident for the Republic of Belarus are given. The damage, taking into account the 30-years period needed for its overcoming, is estimated to be 235 billion US$ that is equal to 32 annual budgets of the republic of 1985. The losses connected with the deterioration of population health, damage incurred in industry and social sphere, agriculture, building complex, transport and communication, housing, with contamination of raw, mineral, land, water, forest and other resources are shown. The main directions of the state and legislative bodies activity on overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences are directed on realization of complex of measures on maximum decreasing the radiation exposure dose; providing safety of people's health at the expense of medical preventive measures, improvement of their health, social insurance and resettlement from the zones where the safe living criteria are not observed; providing safe living conditions in regions subjected to radioactive contamination; rise of population life quality in these regions; scientific research of the problems connected with radiation influence on ecosystem, etc. The medical care and social protection systems of the affected population are describe. 3 figs

  4. Varieties of fuel particles in fallout of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil in the Chernobyl NPP 30-km zone is known to be contaminated by fine particles of dispersed irradiated fuel. Experimental data obtained by the authors shortly after the accident indicated a significant excess of 95Zr in the particles compared with its calculated amount. This suggested that particles of the U fuel also contain construction material from the core, activated Zr. The authors have isolated particles of radioactive material from the heavy soil fraction in order experimentally to confirm this. Their dimensions varied from 85 to 750 μm; their mass, from 10 to 700 μg. Such characteristics as the microstructure, elemental composition, and the concentration of 144Ce and other radionuclides obtained from electron microscope measurements, microprobe analysis, and γ- and α-spectrometry were used to classify the particles. It was found that two types of highly active particles are characteristic of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone (up to 4-5 km) and the western track of the fallout for a distance of 20 km from the destroyed fourth block. The first type are genuine particles of irradiated fuel. The second type are aggregates consisting of U and Zr oxides. The second type predominates in fallout of the exclusion zone and in the western track

  5. The ecological consequences of transuranium elements realize on Belarus as a result of Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of radioactive contamination with transuranium elements (TUE) on territory of Belarus as a result of nuclear weapon tests and Chernobyl NPP accident have been assessed . The uniform contamination of soil with level of 53±17 Bq/m2 for Pu-239+240 was formed as a result of global precipitation after the nuclear weapon test. This value increased up to 1.1·105 Bq/m2 in South regions of Belarus and gradually decreased to level of global fall out on the North of the republic after Chernobyl NPP accident. The study of the atmosphere contamination with TUE in Republic of Belarus is being held since 1980 to now. The mechanism of radioactive air pollution from April, 1986 is determined by dust transfer from radioactive contaminated regions. The value of this transfer is influenced considerably by agricultural activities on contaminated territory, forest fires and other anthropogenic factors. The transfer coefficients in the soil-plant system have plant species dependence. The behavior of TUE in environment is discussed. (Authors)

  6. 25 years after Chernobyl NPP accident: experience and trends of radioactive contaminated soils rehabilitation in Belarus - 59242

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The paper describes the developed and applied soil decontamination measures and methods in Belarus after the Chernobyl NPP accident. It is considered the possibility of using of organo-mineral amendments based on natural raw materials (sapropel) and industrial wastes (hydrolyzed lignin, clay-salt slimes) for rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated soils. (author)

  7. Aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone: radioactive contamination, doses and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For past 17 years after accident the character of radioactive contamination of water objects within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has undergone essential changes. First of all it connected with realisation on a wide area of deactivation works, and also with transformation of radioactive substances in water-soil systems. Besides, during 1991-95 the complex of hydraulic engineering structures as protection dams, interfering washing away of radioactive substances from soils of the left-bank catchment basin and changed a hydrological regime of these territories during a high water, was constructed. The levels of radionuclide contamination of water objects within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone was rather stabilised. Due to high water change rate the river bottom sediments have undergone decontamination processes (especially during floods and periods of high water) and over the years have ceased to play the essential role as a secondary source of water contamination. On the other hand, the closed reservoirs have considerably higher levels of radioactive contamination caused by limited water change and by relatively high concentration of radionuclides deposited in the bottom sediments. Therefore, for the majority of standing reservoirs the level of radionuclide content is determined mainly by the rates of mobile radionuclide forms exchange between bottom sediment and water, as well as by the external washout from the catchment basin. In this paper will be considered: (1) the latest data on radionuclide content (Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-238, Pu-239+240 and Am-241) and dynamics in water, seston, bottom sediments and hydrobionts of different trophic levels and ecological groups; (2) the peculiarities of formation of vegetative communities from lakes within embankment territory of Pripyat River flood-lands and its impact on radionuclide redistribution in aquatic ecosystems; (3) the major hydrochemical factors, which determine the behaviour of radionuclides in the aquatic

  8. Peculiarities of forming and dissemination of radioactive contamination in Iput' river after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of radiation contamination forming of the river systems by Cs 137 and Sr 90 after the Chernobyl NPP accident was analyzed. It was shown that before 1990-1994 the river system contamination was formed by the initial falling out of radionuclides on the aquatic surface. After 2000 the contamination will form by means of entrance of radionuclides with surface flowing off from columbines. It was determined that the transboundary transport of radionuclides from the Russia territories influences essentially on contamination of Iput' river on the territory of Belarus. On the authors estimations such input was 30% for Cs 137 and 96% for Sr 90 in 1986, 86% for Cs 137 and 65% for Sr 90 at present

  9. Mutagenesis in the blood lymphocytes of the residents of Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative examination of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone self-settlers and Yagotin region of Kiev province village residents was carried out in 1998-99. The interindividual variability and the mean frequency of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase mutations, chromosomal aberrations both of the chromosome and chromatid types and the chromosome sensitivity to bleomycin in vitro were substantially higher for the exclusion zone self-settlers than for the Yagotin region residents. An increase in the mean group frequency of cytogenetic damages for the self-settlers was caused mostly by individuals younger 60 years old. There were revealed no significant difference for the people of an older age. Chromosome sensitivity to bleomycin in vitro correlates with a mutagenesis frequency in vivo

  10. Diagnostics of nervous-mental disorders for persons engaged in the Chernobyl' NPP accident effect elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the data of studying mental disorders for persons engaged in the Chernobyl' NPP accident effect elimination during the first catastrophe period (2-10 days after the accident) nonpathological neurotic effects were revealed for 69% of persons examined and neuroses were observed for 4% of them. Preclinical neurotic effects were met in 41% of cases 47% of the persons had neuroses and 0.7% of those examined had psychoses in the second period (several months later after the evacuation). Decrease in preclinical effects up to 30% because of these disorder transformations into neuroses was shown in the third period (delayed effects). The presence of border nervouse-mental and psychosomatic disorders for persons engaged in accident effect elimination, as well as the predicted growth in these disorders required realization of medical-correcting rehabilitation measures for the given contingent of persons under surveillance

  11. Prognostic assessment of radionuclides transboundary transport due to a tornado over the Chernobyl NPP cooling pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According the design documentation for the Chernobyl NPP Cooling Pond (CP) decommissioning a forecast of possible radioactive contamination of the territory of Belarus and Russian due to radionuclides resuspension followed a tornado passage over the CP drained part are made. The calculations were performed using a set of models, including the conceptual model of a tornado, the mesoscale atmospheric diffusion model of pollutant transport LEDI and dosimetric models. The radiation dose to the people of Belarus will not exceed 1 mSv, Russian- 1o-2 mSv. Hence, the safety analysis showed that a tornado passage over the CP will not result in an unacceptable dose to individuals in Belarus and Russian

  12. Dynamics of faunistic complexes of parasitic organisms in the Chernobyl' NPP zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of studies made in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone, which deal with estimation of species composition and number of parasites, mammals, birds, their nest inhabitants and blood-suching insects, are discussed. It is shown that parasite species variaty is higher on the contaminated territory as compared with the control one. Number of arthropoda is greater, and those of helmines and winged blood-suching insects are smaller on the contaminated territories. The main carriers of parasites among birds are starlings, larks and tomtits in contaminated regions and those are chiff-chaff and finches in the control areas. The level of nest contaminations for rodents and birds correlates with environment contamination level

  13. The prognosis of radioactive contamination of an environment of Belarus after catastrophe on Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: On the 26th of April 1986 an accident at the 4th unit of the Chernobyl NPP took place. The accident became known to the whole world as a Chernobyl catastrophe. By its scale, by complexity of global problems stipulated by the accident, by long-term consequences it is the largest and the gravest catastrophe in the history of nuclear energy application. After Chernobyl catastrophe the system of radiation monitoring of the environment in Belarus has ensured the collection and analysis of information about radioactive contamination of an atmospheric air, surface waters and territories. These results of radiation monitoring are used for an estimation of a radiation condition of an environment and prognosis in future. The analysis of results of monitoring shows, that in the first period after catastrophe the maximum levels of an exposure gamma-rates in cities were fixed in Bragin (April 30, 1986). The results of monitoring show, that exposure gamma-rates decreases in a result of processes of natural radioactive decay and vertical migration of radionuclides in soil. The results of monitoring of exposure gamma-rates allow to make the prognosis and to calculate a year, when exposure gamma-rates will be equal to levels before the catastrophe on ChNPP. The numerical prognosis shows, that in Bragin town exposure gamma-rates will be equal to level before the catastrophe on ChNPP approximately after 65 years, in Slavgorod and Chechersk towns - after 23-24 years. Due to use GIS the prognosis of restoring of the contaminated territories, contaminated by Cs- 37 to 2016 and 2046 was obtained. The analysis of the evolution of area under contamination exceeding 37 kBq/m2 for the period 1986 - 2046 shows: - In 30 years (2016) the territory contaminated with levels in excess of 37 kBq/m2 will be approximately 16%, i.e. a decrease with a factor 1,5 in comparison with 1986; - In 60 years (2046) contaminated surface will be approximately 10%, i.e. will decrease with a factor 2

  14. Animal breeding state on radioactive contaminated territory of Belarus after the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of measures providing for thyroid dose loading decreasing realized in May 1986 in the zone neighbouring the Chernobyl' NPP are analyzed. Dispensary surveillances of argicultural animals are organized begining from 1988. Experiments aimed at acceleration of radioactive cesium excretion from animal muscle tissue by using pharmacological and chemical preparations for different levels of diet contamination are conducted. Milk with increased radioactive cesium concentration is processed into butter from the first day of radioactive effuent up to now. The final product contains radioactive cesium amount decreased by the factor of 6 as compared with that for milk, and radioactive cesium traces only are present in melted butter. Sheep-breeding is forbidden in contaminated territories

  15. Dynamics of tritium content in flood-land reservoirs of the Pripyat River and cooling pond of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies on the 3H content in the water of the natural and artificial reservoirs within the 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP were conducted in 1993-1997. It was shown that the 3H content in the Pripyat River reservoirs and the ChNPP cooling pond was equal in 1993 to 4.1 - 11.0 Bq/l. Increase in the 3H content more than by 10 times with the maximum value in the Pripyat River (above 120 Bq/l) was registered in May 1994 and two months later the radionuclide concentration decreased practically to the level of 1993. Analogous increase was noted in April 1995. It is supposed that one of the NPPs with the WWER-type reactors located upwards by the current from the ChNPP (the Rovenskaya or Khmel'ntskaya NPP) might be the source of contamination

  16. Some features of South-Ukrainian NPP information centre's interaction with mass media in post Chernobyl period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the above methods of interaction with the off-site media helped the South Ukraine NPP information centre achieve meaningful results in restoring the image of nuclear power ad making it more trustworthy. This is supported by a review of media Publications since 1989. Quantitative and qualitative modifications of the information flow to the media have yielded substantial changes of the structure of news releases about the South Ukraine NPP and nuclear power. Background information has increased from 1. 5 to 50 percent. Negative information is no longer dominating, and the Chernobyl topic is counterbalanced with diverse NucNet materials about nuclear from throughout the world. (author)

  17. Functional-ecological and age-specific regularities of radionuclide concentration by freshwater molluscs of Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the studies on 90Sr and 137Cs content in the tissues of bivalve and gastropod mollusks of water basins in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP have been analyzed. The dependence of radionuclide accumulation factors on the peculiarities of morphological structure, functional ecology and nutrition type was found. The age dynamics of 137Cs content in some species of Gastropod was studied

  18. New products formed due to interaction of fuel and construction materials in the 4th unit of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of damages in the 4th unit of Chernobyl NPP are given. Regions of localization of released fuel are indicated and its modifications are characterized. Correlation of location and routes of sample selection for one of typical products of fuel interaction with structural materials of the unit - 'elephant's foot' - are presented. Results of physochemical an radiochemical analyses are produced. Certain assumptions are made as to possible scenario of accident in the south-east guadrant of the reactor vault

  19. Chernobyl NPP's shelter site yesterday, today and tomorrow. Present status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the beyond the design basis accident in Unit 4 at 1:23 a.m. on April 26, 1986, the core of the reactor and its protective safety barriers and safety systems were destroyed. The nuclear fuel inside lost its properties as fuel and became radioactive waste. The destroyed power unit, which could no longer perform its functions, became the scene of a comprehensive effort to mitigate the consequences of the accident. As part of the effort, a temporary shelter was constructed over the destroyed central hall of Unit 4. Called 'Shelter Site of Power Unit 4 of Chernobyl NPP'', the object now includes both accident-damaged Unit 4 and the protective structures and enclosures covering the ionizing radiation emitters ejected from the reactor core. These newly built structures are equipped with additional systems for diagnostics, dust suppression, neutron-absorbing solution injection, fire prevention water supply and other components designed to limit the effects of the accident and protect personnel and the environment. 5 refs, 2 tabs

  20. The prognosis of radioactive contamination of an environment of Belarus after catastrophe on Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the evolution of the area under contamination exceeding 37 kBq/m2 for the period 1986-2046 shows, that in 30 years (2016) the territory contaminated with levels in excess of 37 kBq/m2 will decrease to approximately 16%, i.e. a decrease by a factor 1.5 in comparison with 1986; in 60 years (2046) the contaminated surface will be approximately 10%, i.e. it will decrease by a factor 2.4. Radioactive contamination of soils by 241Am in Belarus is generally limited to the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP. Maximum 241Am levels will be reached in 2060 and will exceed the activity of 238,239,240Pu by approximately a factor of 2. Most of the 137Cs is located in the 0-5 cm layer of typical soils of Belarus. The radiological situation of the rivers in Belarus has stabilized. The average concentrations of 137Cs in rivers for the period 1987-2001 have considerably decreased. They are lower than the Republican Permissible Level for drinking water

  1. Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning up participants in Ukraine -health status epidemiologic study main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Epidemiologic Studies System for Chernobyl NPP Accident consequences cleaning up participants (CNPP ACCP) health status was worked out and than improving in Ukraine after the CNPP Accident. The State Register of Ukraine both with several other Registers are the organizational, methodological and informational basis here. The ACCP health status worsening ,-was registered in dynamics through the post-accidental period i.e. the nervous system, digestive system, blood circulation system, respiratory system, bone-muscular system, endocrine and genitourinary systems chronic non-tumoral pathology both with mental disorders amount increase. In cohort study the differences of morbidity formation were fixed among emergency workers with different radiation exposure doses. The dependence of leukemia morbidity on presence in 30-km zone duration was noticed, it's access manifested 5 years after the participance in ACC. The ACCP disablement increase with main reason of general somatic diseases, and annual mortality growth are registered. But that doesn't exceed the mortality rate among population of working age in Ukraine

  2. Hydrobionts of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone. Radioactive contamination, doses and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The territories of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone are characterised by significant heterogeneity of radionuclide contamination, which is reflected by the radioactive substance contents in aquatic ecosystem components. Due to high water change rate the river bottom sediments have undergone decontamination processes and, over the years that have passed since the accident, have ceased to play an essential role as a secondary source of water contamination. On the other hand, the closed reservoirs, and in particular the lakes in the inner exclusion zone, have considerably higher levels of radioactive contamination caused by limited water change and by relatively high concentration of radionuclides deposited in the bottom sediments. In 1997-2002 the values of the absorbed dose for hydrobionts from reservoirs of the exclusion zone were found to be in the range from 1.6 x 10-3 to 3.5 Gy·year-1. The highest value was found for hydrobionts from lakes within the embankment territory on the left-bank flood plain of Pripyat River, the lowest for specimens from the running water objects. The following are considered in the paper: (1) the latest data on content of the most biohazardous radionuclides (Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-238, Pu-239+240 and 241Am) in hydrobionts of the different trophic levels and ecological groups (higher aquatic plants, molluscs and fish); (2) the possibility to use of hydrobionts of different trophic levels as biological indicators of radioactive contamination of water objects; (3) the absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from different water bodies; (4) some biological effects (somatic and citogenetic) of radiation exposure on hydrobionts living in water reservoirs with different levels of radioactive contamination. (author)

  3. Estimation of 90Sr transition in flood waters of the Pripyat' river in the near zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vertical distribution of 90Sr chemical forms in the alluvial soddy soils of the left-bank part of the Pripyat' floodplain in the near zone of the Chernobyl NPP is studied and the value of its transition to flood water at the simulation of floodplain flooding under laboratory conditions at the hydraulic extrusion from the deep soil layers to the surface is determined. It is shown that the main mechanism of formation of 90Sr concentration in the surface water is the ion exchange

  4. Technique for radionuclide composition analysis of snow cover in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone using fiber sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-sensitivity, simple and fast technique for analysis of large-dispersive and ionic components of snow cover radioactivity is suggested. It is based on separation of a sample by fractions, concentration of the dispersive fraction on mechanical filters and the dissolved one on ion-exchange sorbents and separated fraction spectrometry. The minimum measured contamination level is 3.7 Bq/dm3 for each radionuclide analyzed. The conclusion is made that the technique suggested is the reliable method for radionuclide content analysis is snow cover samples of the Chernobyl' NPP zone. 1 tab

  5. [The distribution of the radionuclides in the main components of lake ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The results of the studies devoted to the distribution of radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239 + 240Pu and 241Am in 1998-2003 in main components of Glubokoe Lake and Dalekoe-1 Lake located within Krasnensky flood lands of the Pripyat River (inner exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP) were analysed. The data about the radionuclide content in bottom sediments, in water, in seston, in macrozoobenthos (including bivalvia molluscs), in gasteropods molluscs, in higher aquatic plants and in fish are presented. PMID:16080615

  6. Chromosome aberration and hematological rates of gastropod snail (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) in water bodies of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation dose, as well as the chromosome aberration rate and a change of the hemolymph structure of the gastropod snail (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) in water bodies within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion Zone during 1998-2007, is evaluated. The absorbed dose is registered in range 0.3-85.0 μGy/h. In closed water bodies, the high rate of chromosome aberration in embryo tissues (up to 27%) and essential changes of hematological rates of adult molluscs in comparison with those in control water bodies are determined.

  7. Estimation of protective ability of soil-ground of aeration zone within the boundaries of the Chernobyl' NPP radiogeochemical effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique for numerical estimation of the soil-ground protective ability in the aeration zone for the Chernobyl' NPP region, which is determined by sorption because of wide ground water use as the main source of auxiliary and drinking water supply is described. Histograms for Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution in soil-grounds, coefficients of Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution in sandy-loamy grounds, are the effects of ground type in aeration zone on Cs-137 and Sr-90 absorption are estimated. The calculation scheme for soil-ground, and ground water protective abilities against long-living radionuclide effects is given. 10 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  8. ON THE ROLE OF MUSHROOMS IN THE INTERNAL DOSE FORMATION TO THE POPULATION IN THE CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT AFFECTED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Panov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present overview describes the results of the 25-year studies devoted to the estimation of the contribution of radionuclide containing mushrooms to the internal exposure dose to the population affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident. A significant increase with the time after the accident is shown for the contribution of mushrooms to the population internal exposure dose. Factors are identified influencing variability in the estimations of radionuclide from the mushroom component contribution to the population internal exposure dose.

  9. Modeling the migration of 90Sr and 137Cs in the subsurface from the Chernobyl NPP Unit-4 Shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Shelter constructed above the destroyed Unit-4 of the Chernobyl NPP contains 20 MCi of nuclear fuel. More than 1,000 m3 of intermediate-level radioactive water is disposed in its basement. The purpose of this work was to simulate migration of the radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs from the Shelter into the subsurface environment to evaluate their migration rate and migration paths. A mathematical model accounting for the coupled transport of water and radionuclides in variably saturated media was used. The lack of suitable experimental and field studies excluded the possibility of complete validating the model. Results of the simulations will be useful for future field studies

  10. The fungous infection of human organs by resistant melanin-synthesizing species is one of pathogenic factor and one of valid consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of melanin-containing components and sources of their appearance in bronchoalveolar washout by the accident liquidators at the Chernobyl NPP is studied. The appearance of mutant melanin containing fungal forms in the zones with increased radioactive contamination is conditioned by their adaptation to changed conditions of their existence. the conclusion is made that fungal infection of the mans organs through radio- and chemi-resistant melanin-synthesizing species at the background of radiation-induced weakening of immune reaction of the man's body is one of the most dangerous and real effects of the Chernobyl NPP accident

  11. [Long-term follow-up cytogenetic survey and biological dosimetry in persons evacuated from 30-km Chernobyl NPP zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maznik, N A

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the follow-up cytogenetic survey and biological dosimetry carried out in inhabitants of Pripiat' town and nearby villages, who were departured from the Chernobyl NPP 30-km exclusive zone during first days after the Chernobyl catastrophe. The unstable chromosome aberration level in inhabitants were significantly increased above control in terms up to 1 year after evacuation and declined gardually during next 14 years. In early period the cytogenetic damage frequency in evacuees showed no dependence on gender. The chromosome type aberration level appeared to be lower in young persons comparing with adults. The dicentrics plus centric rings yield had a positive correlation with duration of staying at Chernobyl zone. The average doses of protracted exposure were calculated from the dicentrics and centric rings yields; the dose estimations appeared to be 1.4 times higher in persons evacuated 3-11 days after the accident than that of in persons with shorter departure time. Uing the Bayesian analysis the probabilistic distribution of biological doses was constructed for the studied evacuees group. This distribution was characterized by a mean dose of 360 mGy, the modal doses of 200-450 mGy and 80% of probability density within the dose range 0-1000 mGy, that seems to be sufficient for considering the increased risk of late somatic radiation effects for this cohort. PMID:15571047

  12. The dynamics of radioactive contamination of soils and plants of natural complexes in unsettled zone of the Chernobyl NPP in the territory of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data of measuring of radioactivity of soils and plants in unsettled zone of Chernobyl NPP having been made since 1986 are discussed. It revealed that the radioactivity of plants remained at high level and it was under strong annual influence of the weather conditions

  13. Achievement of international contract UK/TS/20 'Support to the Ukrainian authority in licensing activity related to TASIS/NSA financed decommissioning facilities at Chernobyl NPP'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukrainian Nuclear Regulation organizations in cooperation with the Nuclear and Radiation Safety Centre developed the license procedure and standard base for management with radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuels during decommissioning of Chernobyl NPP. The needed equipment for this is in process of preparation

  14. Proceedings of the second international scientific and practical conference 'Mitigation of the consequences of the catastrophe at the Chernobyl NPP: state and perspectives'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceeding reflects new scientific results and contains three parts - medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident and dose monitoring of human population; problems of the contaminated territories and social and economical development of the regions; radioecological and radiobiological consequences of the accident and their forecasting

  15. Comparison of phototoxic effects of pregnant rats exposure in Chernobyl NPP site and external prolonged exposure in the dose of 0.5 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphometric study showed that within the 10-kilometre zone of the Chernobyl NPP delay of the rat fetus cerebral cortex maturation occurred, whereas used in the experiment prolonged low-dose irradiation did not cause essential disorders of cortical ontogenesis.(authors)

  16. Implementation of post-Chernobyl first-priority safety improvement measures at the Leningrad NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the severe accident at Chernobyl Unit 4 and in order to ensure RBMK-1000 safe operation, a set of measures was worked out aimed at preclusion of such an accident recurrence. Implementation of these measures is described

  17. Study of the condition of thyroid glands of cattle that was kept in the alienated zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A condition of the thyroid gland of a cow that liver in the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP for 14 years (since the moment of the accident till the death) is investigated. we atrophy of the gland and its substitution by fat and connective tissues. Nevertheless, there are found small islets of a glandular tissue with normal follicles, which contained colloid. According to our evaluations, the animal has received a dose of about 100 Gy/thyroid gland from an internal exposure of radioiodine disregarding the inhalation component. Such a dose was sufficient for the beginning of series disturbances, but was not thyroidectomy. Long life and ability to normal reproduction are connected, most likely, with the regeneration and compensating processes in the gland of the animal

  18. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on (137)Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarubina, N

    2016-09-01

    Levels of soil contamination with (137)Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of (137)Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of (137)Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi. PMID:26690320

  19. Reconstruction of radioactive contamination of territory the Belarus by an isotope I-131 after the catastrophe on Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the first period after the accident of Chernobyl NPP considerable increasing of exposure dose power was registered practically everywhere on the territory of Belarus. The levels of radioactive contamination induced by iodine-131 were so high that the irradiation of millions people caused by it has been qualified by experts as the period of 'iodine blow' by specialists. So reconstruction of iodine doses during the first period after the accident can considerable change current assessments of radionuclides affect upon population of Belarus as a result of Chernobyl NPP catastrophe. Nowadays the assessment of environmental short-lived radionuclides, first of all iodine isotopes, contamination is very important because high levels of iodine contents in soil, atmospheric air, water and food have caused rising of malignant thyroid cancer in the post accident period, especially among children and teenagers everywhere on the territory of the Republic of Belarus. Revealed dependence between iodine-131 contamination of soil and space distribution of malignant thyroid gland cancer incidence among children on the territory of Belarus allows one to use the reconstruction map for detection the regions of increased risk of cancer incidence. Reconstruction map of space iodine-131 distribution reflects real situation on the territory of the republic of Belarus on the May 10, 1986. Proposed approaches allow one to construct a number of maps of iodine-131 distribution for given data taking into account dynamics of real meteorological conditions formed the radioactive trace.Dose commitments on thyroid cancer caused by iodine isotopes were formed mainly during the first 2,5 months after the accident. The space distribution of malignant thyroid gland cancer incidences among children on the territory of Belarus in the period from 1986 to 1995 map was made. Comparison of iodine-131 distribution map and malignant thyroid gland cancer incidences among children on the territory of

  20. Evaluation of radiation impacts of spent nuclear fuel storage (ISP-2) of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimation of radiation impacts during normal operation of dry spent fuel storage facility for ChNPP RBMK reactors, designed for long-term storage of spent fuel assemblies (SFA), which originated from the operation 1,2,and 3 units ChNPP was made. It is shown that the maximum concentration of radionuclides in the air near the ISF-2 well below allowable concentration for the population, and additional pollution is negligible in comparison with the existing one

  1. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

  2. Abstracts of papers of international scientific conference 'Fundamental and applied aspects of radiobiology: Biological effects of low doses and radioactive contamination of environment (Radioecological and medical biological consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of research works executed in Belarus, as well as in Ukraine and Russia, on various aspects of the Chernobyl problematic are given: radiation medicine and risks, radiobiological effects and their forecasting, radioecology and agricultural radiology, decontamination and radioactive wastes management, socio economic and psychological problems caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

  3. The information psychological periodization of the Chernoby'l NPP accident information in the mass media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of mass media reflecting the Chernobyl' accident in 1986-1991 has been surveilled. The information (radio, television, press conferences) given at this period was devided into seven classification periods. The analysis of the information and its assessment in each period was demonstrated. 6 refs

  4. Variability of genetic characteristics in animals kept in the zone of Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic structure and cytogenetic variability by some genetic-biochemical systems (22 locusses) in Black-and-White cows kept in the zone of Chernobyl' atomic power station with increased radionuclidic contamination have been analyzed comparatively. Increased frequency of cytogenetic anomalies, differing distribution of allele frequencies, and reduced expression of some biochemical markers have been revealed in tested animals as compared to the control

  5. Landscape and ecological-geochemical conditions of the Chernobyl NPP effect at the Ukrainian territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of landscape-geochemical division into districts of the Ukrainian territory in 1990-1991 are presented due to the Chernobyl accident. Landscape features of regions and indices of man-made load are described. Characteristics given also include peculiarities of geochemical landscape structure, migration conditions of chemical elements, ground water protection degree, exogenetic chemical process character, radionuclide anomalies, toxic chemical element prevalence

  6. Aquatic ecosystems of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone: dynamics of contamination, radiation absorbed doses, radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radioactive contamination dynamics in the main components of aquatic ecosystems and absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts within the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone has been analysed. Some cytogenetic and haematological effects of long-term irradiation on aquatic organisms as well as damage of higher aquatic plants by parasitic fungi and gall-producing arthropods have been considered. (authors)

  7. Experience of rehabilitation of territories contaminated during Chernobyl NPP accident in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Significant part of Ukraine territory, including agricultural lands, was subjected to radioactive contamination as a result of ChNPP emergency. In the initial period of emergency the main attention was given to averting of radioactivity propagation and irradiation of the population. Irradiation of the thyroid gland for a large contingent of human, especially children, became the hardest consequence of the emergency. The main problem of minimization of the emergency consequences consisted in a complete rehabilitation of contaminated areas. Resettlement of residents of contaminated territories was appeared effective only in cases, when expected effective dose of irradiation could exceed levels of interference. In the remote terms after emergency this measure was accompanied by an unjustifiable psychological stress for the population and considerable material expenses. The adopted organizational and technological countermeasures allowed to reduce significantly a dose of irradiation for thyroid gland, especially for population of Kiev urban agglomeration - about 4 mln. persons. The efficiency of countermeasures was insufficient due to hiding of the emergency firstly, and then because of the late announcement of a danger, after iodine attack already. The program of reconstruction of irradiation doses for different groups of population was realized, i.e. the liquidators of emergency, children, inhabitants of the contaminated zone. The sharp increase of thyroid gland cancer frequency and other types of pathologies was observed. The network of specialized medical entities for consulting and clinical examination of victims was created. Iodine radionuclides entered into human organism per os with foodstuffs predominantly. Prevention of milk contamination and its processing was the most effective measures of population protection. The big part of the territory of Ukraine was subjected to radioactive contamination with fallout predominantly the area of Ukrainian

  8. Features of contamination Cs 137, Sr 90 the higher water plants of reservoirs of different various the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researches of laws of accumulation Cs 137 and Sr 90 the higher water plants have allowed to establish features of their behaviour in reservoirs the exclusion zone of Chernobyl NPP, are analysed levels of the content of radioactive nuclides in the higher water plants, are positioned quotients concentrating and discrimination. It was investigated processes of seasonal dynamics depending on reservoir phylum. In the course of experiments are establish kinds concentrators of radioactive substances and antagonists. (authors)

  9. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl reactor accident provoked a wave of public discussion about the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and particularly so in the Federal Republic of Germany. The article in hand discusses some consequences as can be assessed so far, although information on the causes and the course of the accident still is very incomplete. From the information available so far, the possible sequence of events is described. The safety engineering and design of Federal German reactor types is compared with the reactor type installed at Chernobyl, with the result that the Soviet type never would have been licensed in the FRG. The fallout, i.e. the resulting radiation exposure of the population, is expected to remain within the limits of the natural radioactivity; the political effects and possible consequences with regard to further commitments for the advancement of the fast breeder reactor line and the reprocessing of spent fuel are discussed. (orig./RB)

  10. Drosophila as a model object in to study Chernobyl NPP after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Water extractions of soil probes, which were selected on areas with different density of radioactive pollutions near Chernobyl exclusion zone ('Apple-tree garden' (Chernobyl); 'Island' (the bank of the pond-cooler of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant); 'Torch' (the area of revegetation near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant); 'Red forest' (side of a road) and 'Red forest' (edge of a forest)) were investigated. Dosimetric metering of all studied areas was conducted. γ- and β-activities of soil probes were determined by spectrometry and radiochemistry methods. The contents of trace elements in the soil probes of areas the 'Appletree garden' and 'Island' were determined. Water extractions from soil were prepared according to standard method (ratio - 1 : 2,5). The mutagenicity of water extractions of soil was estimated using the test of frequency of the sex-linked lethal mutations of Drosophila melanogaster. Water extractions were directly adds to a nourishing medium instead of standard component - distilled water. The strain of wild type of Drosophila Canton-S and natural populations of Drosophila from Pyriatin and Chernobyl were used in our study. The natural populations of Chernobyl and Pyriatin were included in study for more fully estimation of influence of factor on genetic processes of Drosophila, because of presence of unspecific adaptations of natural populations from radioactive polluted territories (as was shown before). According to dosimetric analysis data radiation activity of all water extractions of soils did not exceed a natural background. The probes of soil from areas the 'Red forest' and the 'Torch' were marked the higher activity; total activity of them was over 110 Mbk/kg. It is possibly that this fact was the reason of the absence of descendants in all variants of experiments conducted on medium with water extraction the 'Red forest' and in a variant of experiments concerned on study of activity of water

  11. The rehabilitation strategies in agriculture in the long term after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience gained in the aftermath of the severe radiation accidents shows that in the case of large-scaled radionuclide contamination the limitation of internal radiation doses to people by means of restoration of agricultural lands is more realistic than reduction of levels of external irradiation. Therefore, the problems connected with the optimal restoration strategies of agricultural land subjected to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident are of crucial importance. The justification of the approach for the estimation of the effectiveness of countermeasure strategies in the long term after the Chernobyl accident, based on the classification of farms by contamination density and risk of the exceeding of radiological standards, restricting the use of agricultural products, is presented. For each class of the farms the ranking of rehabilitation options and the time periods when their application would be of importance are given. Comparative analysis of the rehabilitation strategies, which are different in their effectiveness and cost, is provided. (author)

  12. Features of high-temperature diffusion in concrete at Block 4 of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of elements (Na, Ca, Ti, Mn, Ni, Rb, Zr, U) and structural-phase changes in core samples taken from concrete wall in one of the rooms of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant subjected to penetration of lava-like fuel-containing mass were studied by γ-ray activation and crystal-optical methods and IR spectroscopy. High-temperature diffusion processes in concrete that occurred in the course of the Chernobyl accident (1986) were simulated using the developed numerical model describing concrete as a porous multiphase system occurring on the local level in the thermodynamic equilibrium with the matrix voids filled with water and gas. Comparison of theoretical results with profiles of the content of particular elements and with characteristics of newly formed minerals shows that the high-temperature fluid cloud saturated with corrosive and reducing gases played the decisive role in the processes occurring during the first stage of the accident

  13. Radiation conditions in the Oryol region territory impacted by radioactive contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Zakharchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is retrospective analysis of radiation conditions in the Oryol region during 1986- 2015 and assessment of efficacy of the carried out sanitary and preventive activities for population protection against radiation contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident.Article materials were own memoirs of events participants, analysis of federal state statistic surveillance forms 3-DOZ across the Oryol region, f-35 “Data on patients with malignant neoplasms, f-12 “Report on MPI activities”. Risk assessment of oncological diseases occurrence is carried out on the basis of AAED for 1986- 2014 using the method of population exposure risk assessment due to long uniform man-made irradiation in small doses. Results of medical and sociological research of genetic, environmental, professional and lifestyle factors were obtained using the method of cancer patients’ anonymous survey. Data on "risk" factors were obtained from 467 patients hospitalized at the Budgetary Health Care Institution of the Oryol region “Oryol oncology clinic”; a specially developed questionnaire with 60 questions was filled out.The article employs the method of retrospective analysis of laboratory and tool research and calculation of dose loads on the Oryol region population, executed throughout the whole period after the accident.This article provides results of the carried out laboratory research of foodstuff, environment objects describing the radiation conditions in the Oryol region since the first days after the Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986 till 2015.We presented a number of activities aimed at liquidation of man-caused radiation accident consequences which were developed and executed by the experts of the Oryol region sanitary and epidemiology service in 1986-2015. On the basis of the above-stated one may draw the conclusions listed below. Due to interdepartmental interaction and active work of executive authorities in the Oryol region, the

  14. The Thirty Years’ Results of Radiation Hygienic Monitoring of Tula Region territories contaminated due to the Chernobyl NPP accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Boldyreva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of Tula Region areas were contaminated after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The article provides the thirty years’ results of radiation hygienic monitoring of the Chernobyl accidental fallout - affected areas in Tula Region. The radiation situation is assessed at the initial accidental period and at the current stage. The initial levels of gamma - radiation dose intensity (up to 35 mcSv/hr are identified for the period of the “iodine” hazard along with the tabular data on the dose intensity relative stabilization by the beginning of August 1986 due to iodine-131 decay. The information is presented regarding iodine-131 tentative maximum permissible level exceedance in the dairy products of the two most contaminated regional areas - Plavskoye and Arsenievskoye. The article also provides the laboratory data on the total beta - activity in the foodstuffs in 1986-1987 and cesium-137 maximum permissible level exceedence in 1986. The radionuclide maximum permissible level exceedances in foodstuffs were registered only in 1986 due to the plants surface contamination whereas in the forest mushrooms those exceedances were repeatedly found until 2004. The black earths and grey forest soils had a benign impact upon the intensity of the radionuclide transfer into plants which resulted in the formation of internal radiation doses.At the current stage, the content of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the foodstuffs can only be quantified by a radiochemical method. The table covers all the districts within the boundaries of radiation contaminated zones. The radiochemical studies indicate the main dose - forming products. The article contains the table of internal and external radiation doses of the population in Plavsk town over 1986-1990 and displays the factors impacting population’s internal and external exposure. The Chernobyl - affected exposure dose of the population is mostly attributed to the external radiation and, for over twenty years, it

  15. Pathology of respiratory organs in persons participated in the Chernobyl NPP accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of investigations, performed by the personnel of Pulmonology Institute of the Ministry of Health of Russian Federation, on the respiratory organs pathology resulted from the Chernobyl accident in persons participated in the accident response are presented. The studies were carried out in cooperation with French colleagues. Attention was paid to the problems of environmental contamination due to the accident pathology resulted from the acute exposure and delayed effects, specific features of the respiratory organs diseases, and programs of treatment and rehabilitation as well

  16. Dynamics of the radioecological situation in Kiev before and after the disaster on Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of long standing observations of radioecological situation in Kiev, which were carried out from the beginning of 60-th and till today in 12 selected points of control are presented in this work. The dynamics of changes of main radiation situation parameters before and after Chernobyl disaster was investigated: the γ-exposure dose rate; the activity of global precipitations, atmosphere sediments and settling dust; radioactive pollution of soil and vegetation. The comparison of the radioecological situations in Kiev and dose loads due to internal and external irradiation for Kiev population in 1985 and 1992 was carried out

  17. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident in Chernobyl also had a memorable 1986 Spring for the region of Lake Constance. Salad had to be ploughed up in the vegetable fields, the feeding of cows with fresh grass was forbidden, and becquerel values played a decisive role in food purchases. Along with the measurement of radioactivity in rainwater, the authors began to take food and soil samples; hundreds of samples were tested in the laboratories of the University of Constance. They provided, in cooperation with public authorities, for the protection of the population against radiation, and explained, in numerous lectures, the significance of this incident to everyday life. Besides, they recorded recent scientific findings about the behaviour of radioactive substances in the environment. The book gives a summary of the findings. It also includes, besides a description of the events of May 1986 at Lake Constance, a presentation of the results of scientific investigations into Chernobyl's radioactivity. This is thus the first detailed account of the diverse effects of the reactor accident with respect to one particular region which, though more than 1500 km away, was surprisingly seriously affected, and which, owing to its special features - Lake Constance is Europe's most important drinking water reservoir -, is particularly endangered, in case of radioactive release. (orig./HP) With 2 separate tabs

  18. Clinical state, reproductive and productive indices of cattle in the near zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1987 specialists of Scientific and Technical Centre of RIA ''Pripyat'' carry out investigations of physiological and cytogenetic state of cattle at an experimental vivarium at the 30-km Chernobyl zone. The animals are represented by ones endured the Chernobyl accident at the closest zone and their generation, and by animals carried inside the zone after 1990. The first animals got about 130 Gy on thyroid gland, 2.5 Gy on whole body and 10-11 Gy on gastro-intestinal tract. Some health decline of them were observed in 1987-1988. During last 5 years of the research the most indices of cattle state, as well as productivity and reproduction, are in physiological norm limits. Since 1989 yearly calves of three generation have got from all suffered cows. Decrease of chromosome aberrations frequency to total population level has been showed. Some data testify of tension existence in hemopoietic and antioxidantic systems of organism. Nevertheless, until now there is no unique opinion of origin nature of the found atypical features. In the report numerous data of hematological, biochemical, hormonal, cytogenetic features of the animals have been presented and discussed

  19. Health of the population having suffered after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of researches is study of a condition of population health and its dynamics, as well as development of new methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases. Along with significant growth of the morbidity rate by thyroid cancer, the growth tendencies of preleucosis condition, cancers of lungs, mammary glands, urinary bladder, kidneys etc. were detected. The new clinical and laboratory methods of differential diagnostics of thyroid pathology, directed on detection of diseases at an early stage are developed. The new methods of surgical treatment of thyroid diseases are introduced. For practical use the methods of diagnostics and treatment of diseases of a liver, stomach and duodenum, secondary immuno deficits at the having suffered population, psychosomatic conditions at the liquidators are created. A number of preparations, biologically active connections, food additives is received; their complex medical biological estimation is carried out and the recommendations for use and manufacture are developed. Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1997 on the following directions: study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident

  20. Leaching of radionuclides from two types of fuel-containing fallout particles of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel-containing fallout particles, which determine the radioactive contamination in the Chernobyl NPP 30-km zone, are still studied from many aspects. This is due to the presence in the particles of long-lived α-emitters, weathering of the particles, the appearance of microscopic open-quotes hotclose quotes particles, the resulting contamination of groundwater by the leached radionuclides, and the possibility of using the fuel-containing particles to construct a model of the accident. Interest was renewed after two types of fuel-containing particles were found in fallout of the exclusion zone. These were those with irradiated U oxides and mixed U-Zr particles. The authors isolated fuel, graphite contaminated with fuel, and radioactive manufactured particles and aerosols. The structural-genetic differences in the two types of fuel-containing particles should affect the leaching of radionuclides from them. Therefore, the authors investigated the leaching of radionuclides from particles of dispersed fuel and from U-Zr technogenic new formations

  1. Carrying out and planning measures for improvement of radiation situation in alienation zone after accident at Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technogenic radionuclides that were released into environment as the result of the Chernobyl accident joined the energy and mass transfer processes, which to a great extent are determined by the specificity of natural and climatic conditions of Ukrainian woodlands. The state of the spread of radioactive materials, and the data furnished by the Dosimetric Monitoring Board of the NPO 'Pripyat' over the zone territory are reported. After the primary radioactive contamination of the terrain, with meteorfactors superimposed on the physical and chemical conditions of radioactivity release and topographic factors, a new type of vegetation has developed, as well as a pattern of the economic exploitation of the territory. The process of radioactivity redistribution by water, wind and technogenic transport must be carefully investigated. The studies on radionuclide migration and the results are discussed. The estimation of dynamic capacitance in soil in the nearby zone of the ChNPP, the studies of hydrogeological condition in the 10 km zone, the analysis of groundwater condition, the studies on the wind-lift transport and fallout of radionuclides in 30 km zone and others are reported. Decontamination measures, one of the most large scale and labor-intensive operations in the elimination of the accident effects, and the burial of radioactive waste are described. The requirements for executing the project are summarized. (K.I.)

  2. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book brings together a comprehensive history of the first 18 months of the accident at Chernobyl and the complete pictorial record of the disaster, including many photographs never seen in the West. It also gives a unique record of subsequent events in the USSR involving the evacuation and re-housing of a population of 135,000, the building of the 400,000 tonne concrete sarcophagus over the damaged reactor and the decontamination of the environment which may take years to complete. The human dimension of radiation injuries is recreated in the cast histories and hospital photographs of the firemen who brought the blaze under control. The problems of contamination of the food chain for various countries is included, and recommendations for safe levels of activity in milk are described

  3. An experience of information support of the Russian federal programs of the overcoming of consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1992, by a number of paragraphs of the federal programs on overcoming consequences of accident on Chernobyl NPP, the measures on informational-analytic support of the federal programs were provided. Within the framework of this activity for the solution of various aspects of Chernobyl's problem central bank of generalized data and numerous information systems were created. In the report the brief description of some of them is presented. In particular the databank on radioactive situation includes the information on 12 thousand settlements of Russia which have been exposed to radioactive contamination as a result of the accident.The medico-demographic section of a databank includes information on death rate for the reasons for all subjects of Russian Federation since 1982 till the present time. The developed information systems are available to all participants of work on overcoming of consequences of the accident. There are given the examples of integral estimates in short- and long-term forecasts of development of a situation in territories suffered by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. (author)

  4. Estimation of health in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning-up participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 11 years period of health observation of Chernobyl Accident's victims permits to make some conclusions. Quantitative changes of peripheral blood and bone marrow cells, changes in ultrastructural organization of hemopoietic cells, disturbance of proliferative activity of hemopoietic and stromal progenitor cells in clean-up workers testify to alterations of functional properties of hemopoiesis. There are high level of T- helpers, early appearance regenerated T-cells, which simultaneously express surface antigens of helpers and supressors, synchronization of proliferative cycle of immunocompetentive cells in these patients. Oppressing of antioxidant protection, stable changes of hormonal maintenance of adaptation and reproduction processes, disturbance of feedback mechanism between effector glands and hypophysis, significant rise of polyamines were determined. Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of health disruptions at victims. Neural and psychological diseases, suicidal cases, trauma, death in automobile accidents are rank second and third in structure of morbidity. In structure of chronic nonspecific pulmonary diseases dominated chronic obstructive bronchitis. The adrenergic tonus of vegetative nervous system was seen. The peculiarity of rehabilitation measures is complexness and continuity in-patients, out-patients service and providing facilities in health resorts. (author)

  5. Features of clinical signs of nervous and psychosomatic disorders in the Chernobyl' NPP personnel and human populations of affected regions at different stages of accident and its response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical signs of nervous and psychosomatic disorders in the Chernobyl' NPP personnel and persons taking part in the emergency response were analysed. Main stress factors for the personnel side by side with radiation hazard were the following ones: house loss, family separation, future uncertainties, etc. Singularity of labour under conditions of remaining threat for life and health, absence of information on the environmental radioactivity, unsatisfactory life conditions were in the first place for arrived persons. Analysis of determined psychopathological signs testifies to the prevalence of wide range of nervous disorders peculiar to natural calamities and disasters

  6. Radionuclide distributions in vertical soil cross sections of the Chernobyl NPP 30-kilometer zone along the western fallout track. II. Chernozem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide distributions in vertical cross sections taken from chernozem in a former garden and tillable field along the western fallout track at distances of 5, 13.5, and 22 km from the fourth block of the Chernobyl NPP are studied. The distributions through the chernozem cross sections are more complicated than those of sandy soil. Although the main mass of radionuclides in the cross sections is concentrated at depths of 0-3 cm, instances are observed where up to 5-15% of the radionuclides penetrate to greater depths

  7. The distribution of radionuclides in the vertical sections of the soils inside the 30 km zone of Chernobyl NPP, along the west trace of the fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper studied the distribution of radionuclides in vertical section made in the black soil of a former garden and arable land on the west trace of the fallout at a distance of 5, 13.5 and 22 km from the 4th power unit of the Chernobyl NPP. It is shown that radionuclide distribution in the sections in the black soil are of a more complex nature than that in the sandy soils. Inspite of the fact that a major amount of radionuclides in the sections is concentrated at a depth of 0-3 cm, there are cases when 5-15 % of radionuclides penetrate into even deeper horizons

  8. A Radiological Survey Approach to Use Prior to Decommissioning: Results from a Technology Scanning and Assessment Project Focused on the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objectives of this project are to learn how to plan and execute the Technology Scanning and Assessment (TSA) approach by conducting a project and to be able to provide the approach as a capability to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) and potentially elsewhere. A secondary objective is to learn specifics about decommissioning and in particular about radiological surveying to be performed prior to decommissioning to help ChNPP decision makers. TSA is a multi-faceted capability that monitors and analyzes scientific, technical, regulatory, and business factors and trends for decision makers and company leaders. It is a management tool where information is systematically gathered, analyzed, and used in business planning and decision making. It helps managers by organizing the flow of critical information and provides managers with information they can act upon. The focus of this TSA project is on radiological surveying with the target being ChNPP's Unit 1. This reactor was stopped on November 30, 1996. At this time, Ukraine failed to have a regulatory basis to provide guidelines for nuclear site decommissioning. This situation has not changed as of today. A number of documents have been prepared to become a basis for a combined study of the ChNPP Unit 1 from the engineering and radiological perspectives. The results of such a study are expected to be used when a detailed decommissioning plan is created

  9. The main results of fulfilment in 1996 of the scientific part of the State programme of the Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences (1996-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1996 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes; development of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; development of effective methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of both mother and child in conditions of influence of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences; study of genetic consequences caused by the Chernobyl accident and development of effectual measures of their prevention; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological

  10. The influence of ecological factors of the Chernobyl NPP zone to realize genetic effects of nonradiation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic effects of ecological factors of zone of Chernobyl disaster to posterior administration of the chemical carcinogen have been studied. Mice were exposed within zone of Chernobyl disaster during 3 months and then urethane was administered. Micronuclei in mouse bone marrow were scored at 48 h after urethane administration. Increase micronuclei induced in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) of mouse bone marrow was shown in animals exposed to more high background radiation. Under additional administration of urethane the yield of micronuclei in PCEs was risen almost three fold in comparison with mutagenic effect of urethane in animals being outside zone of Chernobyl disaster. (authors)

  11. The investigation of occurrence from of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in components of pine-tree plantation in the neighboring zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the investigation of the Cs-137 and Sr- 90 in soil, wood litter, bark and wood of pine-tree are presented, as the result of determination of granulometric composition and radioactivity of wood litter specimens. In near NPP zone the basic part of forests are pine-trees, and soil are both sandy and sandy loam. Researches were spent on three sites with various distance from Chernobyl NPP and with similar soil and vegetative characteristics. Objects of research are pine plantings of near zone NPP: samples from 'red' forest and escaped pine, wood litter, soil from alive forest and after a fire. Water-soluble, exchange, mobile forms of Cs-137 and Sr-90 were defined by consecutive selective processing part samples by water, one normal solution of acetic ammonium, 1 normal and 6 normal solutions of a hydrochloric acid. The maintenance isotopes in the rest after processing by solutions designated as the fixed form isotopes. Cs-137 was defined by gamma - spectrometer method. The error of definition gamma - activity at good statistics (1-2 %) and geometry (the flat cylinder) At sizes measurement of activity, commensurable with a background gamma - spectrometer (2 Bq/kg), a mistake may reach 50-60 %. Sr-90 was defined by the radiochemical method. The total error of measurement of 90-Sr makes 30 %. The samples of a wood litter have the maximal specific activity Cs-137, decreasing in distance from Chernobyl NPP: up to 1 Bq/kg in 'red' forest , 167 kBq/kg in burn forest, 58 kBq in alive forest. The more specific activity has the average layer consisting of particles in diameter 0,25-3 mm. In wood litter of an alive forest Cs-137 it is found out basically in fixed, Sr-90 in exchange forms. In a sample of wood litter from 'red' forest woods Cs-137 and Sr-90 are present in the fixed form. In pine-tree samples (the bark, a peripheral and central part of a trunk) the most polluted is a bark that does not contradict the literary data. Cs-137 is presented in the more

  12. Clinical reactions of upper respiratory tract and their coupering by pulsed laser radiation under conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP effect elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unified chart for complex medical surveillance of head and neck organs in the case of professional contacts with radioactive aerosols is developed 484 persons are examined using the technique discussed. 3% of persons being surveyed have increased sensitivity of respiratory tract organs under unfavourable factor effects, or they have not such sensitivity at all. The character of changes in upper respiratory tract correlates with peculiarities of sanitary-hygeinic working conditions. High-intensity laser radiation is applied for coupering the upper respiratory tract reaction. Practical recovery or considerable progress are observed for 80% of the treated patients in the mean. High efficiency of the laser therapy technique in coupering and preventive treatment of upper respiratory tract reaction for persons being engaged in the Chernobyl' NPP zone

  13. Features of contamination with 137Cs, 90Sr of higher water plants of reservoirs in different types in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus the realized research of peculiar features of accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr by the higher water plants made it possible to establish features of their behavior in reservoirs the exclusion zone of Chernobyl NPP. There were analysed levels of the content of radioactive nuclides in the higher water plants, positioned quotients of concentrating and discrimination. There were investigated the processes of seasonal dynamics depending on reservoir phylum. In the course of experiments there were establish the kinds concentrators of radioactive substances and antagonists. The most susceptible to changes of pH environment was strontium. Its transition into biological objects substantially increased in accordance with the increasing of acidity

  14. Chernobyl 25 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation authors describe the field trip to the territory of Chernobyl NPP. They obtained samples from contaminated territory which were analysed on the presence of plutonium-238 and plutonium-239.

  15. Chernobyl 25 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper authors describe the field trip to the territory of Chernobyl NPP. They obtained samples from contaminated territory which were analysed on the presence of plutonium-238 and plutonium-239.

  16. Distribution and migration of 90Sr in components of the Dnieper River basin and the Black Sea ecosystems after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The change in 90Sr concentrations in hydrobionts, water and bottom sediments of the Chernobyl NPP pond-cooler, the Kievskoe and Kakhovskoe reservoirs, the Northern-Crimean canal and the Black Sea after the Chernobyl NPP accident was studied. The environmental half-times for the decrease of 90Sr concentrations were determined: in water – 4.1–24.3 years; algae and flowering water plants – 3.6–7.7 years, in molluscs – 2.4–6.7 years, and in fish – 7.8–12.9 years. The time for 90Sr concentrations to decrease to pre-accident levels were estimated: in freshwater reservoirs and the northwest part of the Black Sea this was 32–44 years, and in freshwater hydrobionts this was 25–73 years. The contribution of dose from 90Sr to the hydrobionts, sampled from the Kakhovskoe reservoir, the Northern-Crimean canal and the Black Sea, has not reached values which could impact them during the entire post-accident period. This complex of comparative studies was carried out for the first time. -- Highlights: ► Regularities of change in 90Sr concentrations in the aquatic ecosystems were studied. ► Forecasts of time for 90Sr concentrations reduction to pre-accident levels were made. ► 90Sr CF values for hydrobionts did not depend on distance from the accident area. ► 90Sr is useful as a radiotracer for the chronological dating of the bottom sediments. ► Dose received by hydrobionts from 90Sr after accident period was determined

  17. The fate of long-lived radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in the Black Sea after Chernobyl NPP accident: role of hydrophysical factors and tracer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The poster summarizes studies of 137Cs and 90Sr contamination of the Black Sea Basin carried out by Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas during 1986-2005 following the Chernobyl NPP accident. Inflows of 137Cs and 90Sr from the Dnieper and the Danube Rivers, outflow through the Bosporus Strait, temporary evolution of 137Cs and 90Sr profiles and inventories in the Black Sea water column and inventories in bottom sediments were estimated over the period 1986-2005. It has been estimated that atmospheric fallout deposited after 26 April 1986 1.7-2.4 PBq of 137Cs on the surface of the Black Sea - nearly 2 % of total 137Cs release into the environment. Consequently the 137Cs inventory increased by a factor of 6-10 in the 0-50 m layer and in the whole volume of the Black Sea - by a factor of at least 2 in comparison with pre-Chernobyl value of - 1.4 ± 0.3 PBq. The contribution of Chernobyl-origin 90Sr from atmospheric fallout was estimated as 0.1-0.3 PBq. Preaccident 90Sr level around 20 Bq m-3 was reached by 1988 except NW Black Sea. The subsequent 137Cs input from the Danube and the Dnieper Rivers was very insignificant in comparison with the short-term atmospheric fallout. In contrast to this, total amount of 90Sr delivered by the two rivers into the Black Sea was closed to amount of 90Sr fallen on the Black Sea surface after Chernobyl NPP accident. The results of observations and mathematical modelling testified that in the surface layers 0-50 and 0-200 m of the Black Sea in 1986-2000 an exponential decrease of the 137Cs inventories with an effective half-lifes of 5-7 years and 9-13 years respectively have been observed. Under conditions of relatively unimportant river inputs and depletion by sedimentation from the water column, the decrease of the 137Cs inventory in the surface layer has been influenced mainly by three processes: vertical water mixing, release through the Bosphorus Strait, which accounts for 2-2.5 % of the 137Cs inventory in the 0

  18. State calcium-phosphorus metabolism in a set of generations in rats after prolonged stay in hazardous of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied some of the indicators of calcium-phosphorus metabolism (total alkaline phosphatase, its bone and liver isoenzymes, total calcium and inorganic phosphorus) in the number of generations of rats, long stationed in the exclusion zone of Chernobyl APS. (authors)

  19. Fuel-containing particles released from the fourth block of the Chernobyl NPP in soil samples of the Bryansk district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiography is used to identify radioactive microparticles in the small soil fraction. Microparticles containing α-emitters are detected. Radiochemical and α-spectrometric methods revealed the nature of the α-tracks. The contents of Pu and 241Am in the studied sample are estimated. The data confirm the open-quotes Chernobyl originclose quotes of the contaminated Bryanski soil (Novozybkovsk region)

  20. Radiation-sanitary essessment of surface and ground water sources in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of drinking water in artesian water-lines of the Pripyat' and Chernobyl' settlements fro the period of 1987-1991 is estimated. The flood-lands territory within the north trace boundaries, where Sr90 activity amounts to approximately 10000 Ci, contributes most importantly into water contamination of the Pripyat' river and its tributaries. The portion of contaminated drains from flood-lands territory amounts to 40% and more of the 90Sr intake from all sources of the Pripyat' river contamination. Essessment of the artesian water quality shows that drinking water is innocuous for health in respect to its composition. 90Sr and 137Cs content in artesian water in the Pripyat' and Chernobyl' settlements is lower than the maximum permissible concentration. 5 refs.; 1 tab

  1. Cytogenetic anomalies in bone marrow cells of 3 species of voles in the alienation zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the frequencies of different cytogenetic anomalies in bone marrow cells in Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus arualis, and Microtus oeconomus, trapping in places with different levels of irradiation in the zone of Chernobyl's accident is carried out. The species-specific features of the different cytogenetic anomaly frequencies under conditions of the increased ionizing levels are revealed. Possible reasons for the species and individual variabilities of karyotype destabilization under conditions of an increased level of ionizing irradiation are discussed

  2. Physical root-causes of the accident on Chernobyl NPP and its impact on the power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of the article is in short described the process of establishing nuclear safety and reliability for nuclear power plants, and in the second part are shortly described root-causes for two significant accidents on nuclear power plants (Three Mile Island and Chernobyl). Considered is an impact of theses accidents on the power industry and measures of the international community for assurance of reliable and safe operation of the nuclear power plants. (author)

  3. Disturbances of bird embryo development in fall-out contaminated biocenoses of the Chernobyl NPP 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Special features of bird reproduction in Chernobyl 30-km zone are analyzed. On the areas with higher degree of contamination a decrease of hatching indices, an increase of both embryo death-rate and embryo per cent of inherent disorders have been noticed. The more frequent cases of inherent disorders for different bird species have been considered. The trend to a bird reproduction successfulness decrease has been fixed

  4. Comparison of retrospective luminescence dosimetry with computational modeling in two highly contaminated settlements downwind of the Chernobyl NPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailiff, I K; Stepanenko, V F; Göksu, H Y; Bøtter-Jensen, L; Brodski, L; Chumak, V; Correcher, V; Delgado, A; Golikov, V; Jungner, H; Khamidova, L G; Kolizshenkov, T V; Likhtarev, I; Meckbach, R; Petrov, S A; Sholom, S

    2004-01-01

    The cumulative absorbed dose in bricks collected from six buildings in two heavily contaminated settlements (137Cs > 2,000 kBq m(-2)) located downwind of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was determined using luminescence techniques by six laboratories. The settlements, Vesnianoje in Ukraine and Zaborie in Russia, are located in, respectively, proximal and distal locations relative to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. The luminescence determinations of cumulative dose in brick, after subtraction of the natural background dose, were translated to absorbed dose in air at a Reference Location using conversion factors derived from Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport. The simulations employed source distributions inferred from contemporary soil contamination data and also took into account heterogeneity of fallout deposition. This translation enables the luminescence determinations to be compared directly with values of cumulative absorbed dose obtained by computational modeling and also other dose reconstruction methods. For each sampled location the cumulative dose was calculated using three deterministic models, two of which are based on the attenuation of dose-rate with migration of radionuclides in soil and the third on historic instrumental gamma dose-rate data. The results of the comparison of the two methods indicate overall agreement within margins of +/-25%. The methodology developed is generally applicable and adaptable to areas contaminated by much lower levels of radioactive fallout in which brick buildings are found. PMID:14695006

  5. Radioactive contamination of the Belarus' territory causing to destruction of the building constructions of the 4th unit of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adverse scripts of development of events, causing to destruction of object 'UKRYTIE' and to contamination of the territory of Republic of Belarus are considered. The number of designs of the 4th unit has visually observed damages. Also there are hypothetically unstable constructive elements, at installation of which in a conditions of 1986 the application of reliable welded or bolt connections was impossibly. Initial events of the considered hypothetical accident are earthquake or aircraft accident. Settlement data on contamination of territory for considered accident are indicated. The account was made for a moderate- stable condition of atmosphere by the Gauss model for process of the dust particles precipitation. In this case the radionuclide falling out will take place basically on already contaminated territory of Belarus. The additional contamination may be about 2 Ci/sq.km in the Mozyr' region and 20 Ci/sq.km in Chernobyl NPP territory. In case of imposing of acts of nature (the earthquake or tornado), the all dust fraction, which available in object, may be released in atmosphere. The total activity of the dust falling out will be about 1.3 MCi, that can lead to more powerful contaminated of the south part of Belarus. Despite the hypothetical character of the scripts, the probability of their realisation at long operation of object will increase. Thus, the transformation of object 'UKRYTIE' to a safe system is an urgent problem. 1 ref., 3 figs

  6. To the problem of concepts of measures for water protection against secondary radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basing on the analysis of experience in water protection measures in the zone of the Chernobyl' accident influence some conceptual approaches to solving the problems of secondary radioactive contamination of the Dnieper river water system are discussed. The scheme of the necessary information support for decision making in the field of water protection measures in zones subjected to accidental contamination by radioactive materials is suggested. It is shown that isolation of flooded source forming radionuclide washing-out from ground and surface waters is the most efficient method for decreasing water contamination level in the zone affected by contaminated spillways and river flood-plain basins. The objects for localization are the contaminated soils or leakages from radioactive waste storage places. 12 refs.; 1 tab

  7. Molecular-genetic characterization of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in persons irradiated as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To elucidate the mechanism of radiation induced leukemia we studied the bcr rearrangements in 19 CML patients irradiated as a result of the Chernobyl accident and 30 CML patients without exposure to ionizing radiation. 48 patients, irrespective of radiation exposure, had M-bcr mRNA, 1 - m-bcr. Clinical-hematological data and analysis of breakpoints (ratio of b2a2 and b3a2 transcripts) demonstrated prevalence of b3a2 among the exposed persons.Regardless of exposure to ionizing radiation the high platelet count cases were more frequent among patients carrying b3a2 transcripts. This study suggests, that formation of chimeric BCR/ABL gene and its genetic products may play an important role in the development of leukemia in either radiation-induced or de novo CML

  8. The Chernobyl Trace in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is described the radiation contamination of territory of the Republic of Belarus in 1996 as result of the Chernobyl NPP accident. The maps and diagrams showing a radiation situation in the republic are given. 24 figs

  9. Organization of radio-ecological monitoring of the areas of the Russian Federation contaminated due to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (on example of the Bryansk region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Korobova, Elena; Vakulovsky, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    A severe accident at the Chernobyl NPP on April 26th, 1986 has led to radioactive contamination of many regions of the former USSR, now belonging to the Ukraine, the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation. Both natural and arable ecosystems have been subjected to fallout of radioactive isotopes. However both the distribution of radionuclides that define radioecological situation has depended not only on the initial contamination density but also on the landscape geochemical features of the areas controlling biogenic and abiogenic factors of radionuclide migration. To study and monitor peculiarities of migration of the most radioecologically significant radionuclides of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in different natural landscapes the Russian Scientific and Practical Experimental Center of the former State Chernobyl Committee has organized in 1992 a network of experimental plots in the most contaminated western part of the Bryansk region. It included 19 plots 100 m x 100 m in size which characterized 8 meadow and 11 forested catenas in the basin of the Iput' river. Cs-137 contamination level of the plots varied in 1992 from 740 kBq/m2 to 1850 kBq/m2. Although the study site has been located in the remote zone and the contamination was of condensation type the sampling performed at 11 plots registered some refractory radionuclides (144Ce, 154Eu, 238,239,240Pu and 90Sr) that proved the presence of fuel particles in fallout as far as 200 km from the damaged reactors. The sampling and monitoring scheme was organized to determine: the isotopic composition and contamination density of the plots; 2) estimation of radionuclide vertical and lateral migration; 3) evaluation of radionuclide inventories in different soil horizons; 4) calculation of radionuclide transfer in soil-plant system. Radiation measurements included field gamma-spectrometry using collimated gamma spectrometer "Corad" developed in the Kurchatov Institute and laboratory spectrometry the soil and plant samples

  10. Migration peculiarities of long-lived radionuclides in soils in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied migration of long-lived radionuclides of caesium-134/137, cerium-144 and ruthenium-106 in soil samples from regions contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. Samples of three types of contamination - fuel (A), quasi-fuel (B) and aerosol (C) - were taken at calibration sites in August 1988 down to a depth of 5 cm using conventional core samplers. The radioactivity of the samples was measured at intervals of 0.5 cm, as was the activity of three mechanical fractions of the samples: 1-2 (> 2) mm; 0.25-1.0 mm; 2) mm fractions (grass, roots and tillering nodes) in the 0-1 (to 2) cm layer, which reflects the increasing role of biogenic migration processes in mass transfer of radionuclides despite their apparent lack of mobility in biocenoses. The soil's dust and clay fraction (< 0.25 mm) helps to fix the radionuclides in the crystal structures of soil minerals and organic matter. The ratio of caesium-134/caesium-137 in soils exhibiting the quasi-fuel type of contamination varies from 0.17-0.55 in the 1-2 mm and < 0.25 mm sample fractions, evidently reflecting the various radionuclide occurrence forms and topographies in the fallout matrix, isotope separation included. (author)

  11. 90Sr and 137Cs in the Black Sea after the Chernobyl NPP accident: inventories, balance and tracer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes studies of the distributions of 90Sr and 137Cs in the water and sediments of the Black Sea carried out during a 10-year period following the 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Its goal is to assess the temporal evolution of radionuclide inventories and balances and to evaluate the mixing of water masses and the sedimentation processes using man-made radionuclides as tracers. Using mathematical models and field data, mixing time-scales of 5, 16 and 24 years have been estimated, respectively, for the water layers of depths 0-50, 0-100 and 0-200 m. For the Central Basin the ventilation time of the lower pycnocline is estimated at 15-25 years. 137Cs has been used to date shelf and deep-basin sediments, providing the history of chemical and radioactive pollution and of eutrophication during the past 50 years. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Bioindication of the anthropogenic effects on micropopulations of Pinus sylvestris, L. in the vicinity of a plant for the storage and processing of radioactive waste and in the Chernobyl NPP zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a comparative analysis of the frequency and spectrum of cytogenetic anomalies are presented for reproductive (seeds) and vegetative (needles) samples taken from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris, L.) micropopulations growing at sites with differing levels of radioactive contamination in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, and at the location of a facility for the processing and storage of radioactive wastes (the 'Radon LWPE, near the town of Sosnovy Bor in the Leningrad Region). The data obtained indicate the presence of genotoxic contaminants in the environment of the tree micropopulations. Chemical toxins make the main contribution to the environmental contamination in the Sosnovy Bor area as compared with the influence of ionising radiation in the Chernobyl 30 km zone. The higher radioresistance of seeds of Scotch pine growing on the area of the 'Radon' LWPE and in the centre of Sosnovy Bor town was revealed with acute γ-radiation

  13. Bioindication of the anthropogenic effects on micropopulations of Pinus sylvestris, L. in the vicinity of a plant for the storage and processing of radioactive waste and in the Chernobyl NPP zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraskin, S.A. E-mail: riar@obninsk.org; Zimina, L.M.; Dikarev, V.G.; Dikareva, N.S.; Zimin, V.L.; Vasiliyev, D.V.; Oudalova, A.A.; Blinova, L.D.; Alexakhin, R.M

    2003-07-01

    Results of a comparative analysis of the frequency and spectrum of cytogenetic anomalies are presented for reproductive (seeds) and vegetative (needles) samples taken from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris, L.) micropopulations growing at sites with differing levels of radioactive contamination in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, and at the location of a facility for the processing and storage of radioactive wastes (the 'Radon LWPE, near the town of Sosnovy Bor in the Leningrad Region). The data obtained indicate the presence of genotoxic contaminants in the environment of the tree micropopulations. Chemical toxins make the main contribution to the environmental contamination in the Sosnovy Bor area as compared with the influence of ionising radiation in the Chernobyl 30 km zone. The higher radioresistance of seeds of Scotch pine growing on the area of the 'Radon' LWPE and in the centre of Sosnovy Bor town was revealed with acute {gamma}-radiation.

  14. Application of safety standards and rules in the Shelter Implementation Plan at the destroyed power unit of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the application of safety standards and rules to the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) measures. Since 1998 this plan is being implemented at the Chornobyl NPP destroyed unit (which is now known as the Shelter). It includes a set of various tasks whose performance will help partially achieve the established safety objectives. The Regulatory Authority should establish for the Shelter safety goals, principles, and criteria in general, while the Operator of the Shelter is free to independently select the optimum method for their implementation. The Operator of the Shelter must demonstrate (in safety analysis report) that established safety goals are achieved and safety principles and criteria are met. Safety goals, principles, and criteria established for radioactive waste management are reasonable to apply in measures provided for by SIP. However, due to the unique nature of the Shelter, some criteria should not be applied directly and in full scope. Norms and rules on radiation protection should be applied in full scope. The specifics of radiation protection during each Shelter-related activity are considered individually. Safety standards and rules related to technical aspects are reasonable only as a basis. Effective resolution of specific technical issues associated with safety assurance is achieved through interaction between the Operator and the Regulatory Authority during design of SIP structures and systems. Hence, effectiveness of the licensing process plays an important role in the success of the SIP.(author)

  15. Problems of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection comprises the materials of working meeting 'The Development of Technologies of the 'Ukrytie' Radioactive Waste Management', held on May 20-21, 1997 in Chernobyl. The results of research work of the experts of Ukraine and other countries directed on solving problems, concerning removal of fuel containing materials and other radioactive waste from destroyed Unit 4 of Chernobyl NPP are given. The data on waste quantities, their location and classification, strategy of waste management and some technologies are described

  16. Estimation of molecular carriers of electrons in mitochondria of adrenal cortex under conditions of long-term permanent action of low-intensive ionizing radiation after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By EPR at 77K, we study molecular carriers of electrons in mitochondria of adrenal cortex in animals under conditions of the chronic action of low-dose ionizing irradiation from incorporated radionuclides related to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP and have found a significant decrease in the content of adrenodoxine which is a molecular carrier of electrons in the system of steroid hydroxylation. The last can play an important role in the mechanism of growth of neoplasms in adrenal glands, ovarial, and mammary glands

  17. The fate of long - lived radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in the Black Sea after Chernobyl NPP accident: results of twenty - year observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation summarizes studies of 137Cs and 90Sr pollution of the Black Sea Basin carried out by Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas during 1986-2005 following the Chernobyl NPP accident. Its goal was to assess inflows of 137Cs and 90Sr from the Dnieper and the Danube Rivers, outflow through the Bosphorus Strait, inventories in bottom sediments and temporary evolution of 137Cs and 90Sr inventories in the Black Sea water column. Besides, the temporary evolution of 137Cs and 90Sr profiles in the Black Sea deep-water basin was used to estimations of a large-scale vertical water mixing. It has been estimated that the atmospheric fall outs during the first days of May 1986 have deposited 1.7-2.4 PBq of 137Cs on the Black Sea surface (nearly 2% of total 137Cs release in the environment). Therefore, 137Cs inventory in the 0-50 m layer have increased by a factor of 6-10 and the total 137Cs inventory in the whole basin have increased at least by a factor of 2 in comparison with the pre-Chernobyl value - 1.4+/-0.3 PBq. 137Cs input from the Danube and the Dnieper Rivers was insignificant in comparison with short-term atmospheric fall outs. The results of observations and mathematical modelling are testified that in the surface layers 0-50 and 0-200 m of the Black Sea deep-water basin in 1986-2000 an exponential decreases of the 137Cs inventories with an effective half-lifes of 5-6 years and 9-13 years, respectively, have been observed. The process of vertical water mixing has been observed mainly in the 0-200 m layer. The contribution of Chernobyl-origin 90Sr from atmospheric fallout was estimated around in 0.1-0.3 PBq. Pre-accident 90Sr level nearly 20 Bq m-3 was reached by 1988. At the same time, an active input of 90Sr from the Dnieper and Danube Rivers has been observed. The total amount of 90Sr delivered by the two rivers into the Black Sea was estimated to be nearly 0.1 PBq in the 1986-1995. Under conditions of insignificant river input and sedimentation on

  18. The weakening of cell protection as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident recovery factors affect on liquidator's organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The markers of oxidative stress as well as intracellular antioxidants (enzymatic and non- enzymatic) were studied in 100 Chernobyl accident recovery workers(liquidators). Hormone screening tests were carried out in 250 liquidators. All persons (mean age - 35 years) have got external irradiation dose from 2 to 30 cGr. Control group was selected from persons of same age having not participated in accident liquidation. The significant antioxidant imbalance was found. ROS inactivating enzymes deficiency was revealed in neutrofils, lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages (AM). For instance, superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity in liquidator's AM was 2,8±0,3 U/mg protein (4,1-±1,8 U/mg protein in controls, P<0,05). Catalase activity was also lower than in control group (P<0,05). The significant disorder of the thiol-disulfide turnover was revealed: depression of reduced glutathione by 1,71-±0,46 μmol/l (control: 3,15±-0,34 μtmol/l, P<0,05). The oxidative stress destructive action realized in the conditions of excessive production of ROS, while the antioxidant potential was diminished(P<0,05). The oxidative destruction of lipids and proteins was found to be induced by free radical action. TBARS level in alveolar macrophages of liquidators was more than three times higher compared to controls. Enhanced levels of protein carbonyl groups were found as well. The decrease of TT3 in liquidators was detected most frequently. In 19% liquidators examined, TT3 was below the reference value (0,8 ng/ml). The TT3 level was registered at the low limit of the reference range (0,8 ng/ml) in 18% of liquidators. ''Low T3'' syndrome may be considered as a cell protection weakening. All the cellular protective mechanisms take part in processes of DNA synthesis and repair, transcription and translation, cell respiration and metabolism. Significant impairment of the cellular protective systems in liquidators could be regarded as a base of persistent ''chromosomal pathology'' and imbalance of

  19. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE CONCEPT OF TRANSFER TO CONDITIONS OF NORMAL POPULATION ACTIVITY OF THE SETTLEMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE ZONES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION AFTER THE CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains substantiation of criteria of return of territories with radioactive pollution caused by Chernobyl NPP accident to conditions of normal population activity. It is established that in 12 entities of the Russian Federation (except Bryansk and Kaluga regions all agricultural food produce, including that from the personal part-time farms, corresponds to hygienic specifications. Non- corresponding to the standard SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01 on 137Cs are part of the milk samples produced at personal part-time farms of the Bryansk region and most of natural foodstuff samples (berries, mushrooms, fish and wild animals meat in Bryansk and Kaluga regions. The content of 137Cs both in agricultural and in wild-growing foodstuff produced at radioactively contaminated territories depends not only on the density of radioactive pollution, but also on the types of soil. The average settlement annual effective dose of population irradiation (AAED90 in the 3700 among 4413 settlements as of 2014 was below 0.3 mSv/year. Only in 713 settlements of Bryansk, Kaluga, Oryol and Tula regions the AAED90 exceeds 0.3 mSv/year. In the Bryansk region, once subject to the greatest radioactive contamination, in 276 settlements AAED90 exceeds 1 mSv/year, and in 8 of them - 5 mSv/year.The legislation of the Russian Federation defines only criteria and requirements for consideration of the suffered territories as zones of radioactive contamination. Requirements on transfer of territories polluted by radiation accidents and their population to normal life activity conditions (regarding the radiological factor are not developed.Radiological criteria are suggested for transfer of the settlements considered to be the zone of radioactive pollution to conditions of normal life activity: average irradiation dose of critical population group: 1.0 mSv per year and lower (AAED crit; decrease of radionuclide soil contamination density to the level enabling to use the territory

  20. Chernobyl'-92. Reports of the 3. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 1. Radiation monitoring. Migration of radionuclides in natural environment. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section Radiation monitoring comprises: atlas of area radioactive contamination as a result of the Chernobyl' nuclear power station accident, state of computerized radiation control system, hydrological monitoring, radiation situation in different areas, problems of radioactive monitoring and protection of water objects, methods for determining radionuclides content, radiochemical mechanisms of radionuclide migration mobility of the Chernobyl' effluents, the results of investigations into migration of radionuclides in soils, landscapes, bottom depositions, in the soil-plant chain

  1. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident after effects at the Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of the Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident after effects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate of people working in the exclusion area

  2. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP, directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident aftereffects at Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident aftereffects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate state of people working in the exclusion area. For scientists, experts working in the field of ecology, radioecology, atom energetics, radiology, radiochemistry, radiobiology and related fields. It may be useful for postgraduates and students

  3. A brief overview of Ignalina NPP safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of the safety of Ignalina NPP in a very popular form is presented. Answers to the most frequently recurring questions concerning the Ignalina NPP are provided based on recently completed international studies. Questions are like these: can a similar accident to the one that occurred in Chernobyl take place at Ignalina NPP, does the Ignalina NPP have a containment, what are the probabilities and potential consequences of accidents, etc. The brochure contains a short description of Ignalina NPP safety improvement programs

  4. The simulation of environment contamination and the assessment of external and inhalation doses in the Gomel's region of Belarus after Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simulation of environment contamination by some radionuclides at the short post period after Chernobyl accident has been performed on the basis of the Lagrangian trajectory model and computer code NIKAT. Afterwards the reconstruction of external and inhalation population doses has been done. (orig.)

  5. Chernobyl, 13 years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of Chernobyl fallout in France

  6. Psychological methods as applied to NPP personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psychologists' experience in nuclear power personnel work system is described. Possibilities of practical application of scientific information, ways and methods collected in psychology, their effect when solving problems on profession orientation, personnel selection, arrangement, training and education, are shown. Necessity to take into account personnel psychological data under conditions of increased hazard of work at NPP is illustrated taking Chernobyl NPP as an example

  7. The account of thin isotope structure of contamination in the Belarus territory, caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident, for reconstruction of the contamination level of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive trace formed as a result of Chernobyl accident, was formed in the complex conditions which are not giving in to correct mathematical modeling. Emission of a radioactivity occurred during enough long time from various parts of the reactor core with a different degree of fuel burning out and, hence, with miscellaneous radionuclide structure of emission. Meteorological conditions changing during this time have led to rather complex radioactive contamination of territory and non-uniform both on a level of contamination and on radionuclide structure. (authors)

  8. Relation between natural and anthropogenic factors in the redistribution of radionuclides on the 30 km Chernobyl NPP territory, including the result of countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before the accident natural and anthropogenic ecosystems occupied about 90% of 30-km zone area, including 36% of forest ecosystem, ploughed lands -28%, meadows and bogs - 18%. About 10% of total areas were occupied by ameliorated lands, separate water reservoirs - 2.8% relatively large area. Ten years after the Chernobyl accident the lands structure was changed: Areas of forest territories became larger (up to 12-13%). Areas of territories occupied by different technical constructions, roads were increased too. Contamination of different objects of 30-km zone territory is very uneven, for instance variation of 137Cs contamination of soil reaches the same thousand times (From 0.1-5 up to 10000 and more Ci/km2)

  9. Operational conditions of storages for products of decontamination of the territories of Belarus after the accident at Chernobyl NPP and evaluation of their radioecological state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of carrying out the measures on decontamination of the territory of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident, the storages for radioactive products of decontamination have been arranged in the Republic. Up to now, 69 storage sites for radioactive products of decontamination have been examined and registered. Six of them, the most typical, with the highest activity, are under constant control with the help of the network of the hydrogeological observation holes. The analysis of the field conditions of the storage sites at the territory of Belarus has shown that there is the violation of requirements for safe storage practically for all storages. The evaluation of protection of the ground water against radioactive contamination has shown, that in 10--100 years, the contamination of the ground water with caesium-137 is possible in concentrations lower than the Republican permissible levels and with strontium in concentrations significantly exceeding the specified values

  10. A vertical migration of Cs-134, Ce-144, Ru-106 in different landscapes of 30-km zone near the Chernobyl' NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made on a vertical migration of Cs-134, -137, Ce-144 and Ru-106 according to a reference network, created in 1987-1988. The reference network was of radial structure, whereas the Chernobyl'-4 reactor was a center of it. A layer-by-layer sampling was made at a time at a depth of 24 cm, with separation of 9 layers. The highest contamination density (CD) (80-90%) was observed in a turf layer 1-2 cm from soil surface. CD sharply decreased in the depth interval 3-6 cm. At a large depth CD was lower than in upper layer by 2 orders. But sometimes the samples with different character of CD distribution were found. 7 refs

  11. Site characterization techniques used in restoration of agricultural areas on the territory of the Russian Federation contaminated after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience gained in the aftermath after the heavy radiation accidents shows the need for improvement in site characterisation techniques and methodology in order to provide a link between site characterisation and the selection of restoration strategies. This paper gives an overview of the site characterisation techniques used in restoration of contaminated agricultural lands on the territory of the Russian Federation. The approach used for site characterisation and selection of restoration strategies is described. The main site specific factors influencing the choice of restoration options are identified. Data on the efficiency of major restoration measures used for the remediation of agricultural lands after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the Kyshtym accidents are given. A description of the decision support system FORCON, designed to simplify the selection of restoration options, is presented. (author)

  12. The retrospective estimation of radiation situation on the territory of Republic of Belarus in the first period after the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most complicated situation at the territory of Belarus has been observed in the first period after the accident at the ChNPP owing to the great quantity of the deposited short-lived radionuclides and the radionuclides with half-lives up to 1 year. In 26 April 1986, the radioactive isotopes, including radioactive noble gases and iodine isotopes have initially reached the height of 1.8 km and began transport with air flows in the North-West direction through the western and central areas of Belarus. The analyzis of the subsequent meteorological situation has shown, that the meteorological conditions of the movement of the radiation-contaminated air masses in 26 April to 10 May, 1986 have determined the radioactive contamination of Belarus, in the first phase with short-lived radionuclides. (author)

  13. Scientific and technical aspects of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection contains the presentations and scientific articles prepared for and discussed during the Conference titled '2001: International Cooperation For Chernobyl'. The materials outline the outcomes achieved while implementing Chernobyl site scientific-technical researches and projects, as well as activities aimed at enhancing the ChNPP safety, decommissioning and radwaste management. It also highlights the issues related to transforming the Unit Shelter into an ecologically safe system, represents the results of ecological researches in the Exclusion Zone, medical effects of the 1986 accident at Chernobyl NPP, together with social and economic problems the city of Slavutich faces now due to the early ChNPP Units decommissioning, and Slavutich business development opportunities under the circumstances of Special Economic Zone 'Slavutich'

  14. JUSTIFICATION OF TRANSITION FROM ZONING OF CONTAMINATED TERRITORIES TO SETTLEMENTS CLASSIFICATION AT AN AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES IN REMOTE PERIOD AFTER THE CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Vlasova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an existing exposure situation (in a remote period after the Chernobyl accident there is a need of the transition from "radioactive area zoning" to "the settlements classification by average annual effective doses to the critical group of persons among the settlement's residents", to ensure the appropriate radiation level and social protection of the settlement's residents, located on the contaminated territory.The comparative allocation analysis of the average annual external and internal effective doses, the average annual effective cumulative doses to residents of settlements, related to the relevant areas (the Council of Ministers of Belarus latest decision, the proposed dose range according to the Catalogue of average annual effective doses of residents of settlements radiation Republic of Belarus confirmed the validity of the transition from "radioactive zoning area" to "the classification of settlements by average annual effective dose."In accordance with the radiation protection principles, it seems reasonable to classify the settlements located on the contaminated territory at the average annual effective dose as follows: < 0.1 mSv / year (not required to carry out radiation protection measures in the agricultural sector;  0.1-1 mSv / year (periodic radiation monitoring should be carried out;  1 mSv / year (it is necessary to apply a complex of protective measures.

  15. 8 years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident is the largest radiation catastrophe in its scale and prolonged consequences. Nearly 70% of radioactive materials released into the atmosphere as a result of the reactor accident have deposited at the territory of Belarus. 23% of the territory republic turned out to be contaminated with cesium 137 with radiation density 1 Ci/sq.km. 2.1 millions of people inhabited these areas in Belarus (about 20% population). More than 18000 sq.km of agricultural land (22%) and more than 20000 sq.km of forests (30% of the entire tract) have been contaminated with radionuclides. There is not a single branch of production which is not damaged by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. After-effects of the accident tell on health of people. The increase of diseases of cardiovascular, alimentary, nervous, musculoskeletal systems, mental and lung diseases is observed in the area of radioactive contamination. Lately, the rise of thyroid cancer rates in children (from 1986 until 1994 more than 250 cases) causes particular anxiety. Nowadays, thyroid cancer is precisely considered as the direct after-effect of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Frequency of children birth with defects is nearly twice as large in the areas with density of contamination with cesium 137 radionuclides exceeding 15 Ci/sq.km. The creation of the system of radiation control is one of the main problems in elimination of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Radiometers with the ability to control over Republican permissible levels of radionuclide content in food product and water have been created in the Republic. The radiation situation have been studied and the contaminated areas have been mapped. The control over radioactive contamination of air, water, sediments in carried out. (author)

  16. NPP safety in Slovakia according to stress tests after accident in Fukushimi

    OpenAIRE

    Králik, Juraj

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the new requirements to test of the safety and reliability of the NPP structures due to the last nuclear accidents in the world. The accidents of the NPP in Chernobyl and Fukushima give us the new inspiration to verify the safety level of the NPP structures. The probabilistic assessment of NPP structures for PSA level 2 of VVER 440 in the case of LOCA accident is presented. The results of the probabilistic nonlinear analysis of the NPP structures are present...

  17. Accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Getting over the consequences and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of the accident on the 4th Power Unit of the Chernobyl NPP. The power plant construction history, accident reasons, its consequences, the measures on its liquidation are represented. The current state of activity on the Chernobyl power unit decommission, the 'Shelter' object conversion into the ecologically safe system is described. The future of the Chernobyl NPP site and disposal zone is discussed

  18. Radioactive wastes management of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern knowledge in the field of radiation waste management on example of the most serious man-made accident at Chernobyl NPP are illuminated. This nuclear power plant that after accident in 1986 became in definite aspect an experimental scientific ground, includes all variety of problems which have to be solved by NPP personnel and specialists from scientific organizations. This book is aimed for large sphere of readers. It will be useful for students, engineers, specialists and those working in the field of nuclear power, ionizing source and radiation technology use for acquiring modern experience in nuclear material management

  19. The safety of Ignalina NPP and ecological danger in public opinion of inhabitants of Daugavpils region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inquest of Daugavpils' region pointed to a big anxiety for ecological danger of Ignalina NPP by inhabitants and experts. Absolute majority of respondents (73-78% inhabitants and 68-82% experts) apprehend the NPP as very dangerous and dangerous. More than half of respondents apprehend the dangerous increased during last two-three years. It is because no one has a good reference about situation, because tragic al Chernobyl NPP burst was on. The anxiety increases if the respondent lives nearer of NPP. Inhabitants of Daugavpils and it's region wants the better reference about situation, about future of Ignalina NPP after 2010 year, about securities means in case of NPP burst. (author)

  20. Scientific and technical aspects of international cooperation in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection contains the presentations and scientific articles prepared for and discussed during the Conference titled '2000: International Cooperation For Chernobyl'. The materials outline the outcomes achieved while implementing Chernobyl site scientific-technical researches and projects, as well as activities aimed at enhancing the ChNPP safety, decommissioning and radwaste management. It also highlights the issues related to transforming the Unit Shelter into an ecologically safe system, represents the results of ecological researches in the Exclusion Zone, medical effects of the 1986 accident at Chernobyl NPP, together with social and economic problems the city of Slavutich faces now due to the early ChNPP Units decommissioning, and Slavutich business development opportunities under the circumstances of Special Economic Zone 'Slavutich'

  1. International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

  2. Treatment of NPP wastes using vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass-based materials to immobilize various liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated at nuclear power plants (NPP) were designed. Glassy waste forms can be produced using electric melting including a cold crucible melting. Leach rate of cesium was found to be 10-5-10-6 g/(cm2 day) (IAEA technique). Volume reduction factor after vitrification reached 4-5. Various technologies for NPP waste vitrification were developed. Direct vitrification means feeding of source waste into the melter with formation of glassy waste form to be disposed. Joule heated ceramic melter, and cold crucible were tested. Process variables at treatment of Kursk, Chernobyl (RBMK), Kalinin, Novovoronezh (VVER) NPP wastes were determined. The most promising melter was found to be the cold crucible. Pilot plant based on the cold crucibles has been designed and constructed. Solid burnable NPP wastes are incinerated and slags are incorporated in glass. (author)

  3. Immune cells in Chernobyl radiation workers exposed to low-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the aim of this work was to study immune response parameters in Chernobyl emergency and recovery operation radiation workers and nuclear industry workers exposed under professional limits. The monohydroxylated fatty acid content in peripheral blood mononuclear cell of radiation workers compared to unexposed control at the 12-th year after Chernobyl NPP accident was studied too

  4. After Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident mobilized profound anxieties in many people, which subsequently were repressed again and played down with the aid of the known psychological mechanisms. The authors trace the anxiety, and the resistance against it, and pose the question of whether we are at all capable of learning to think along new lines. From the contents: 10 theses on Chernobyl 1986 (Anders, G.); Anxiety, apathy and new thinking (Richter, H.-E.); On the Germans' particular way of dealing with existential threats (Wirth, H.-J.); Appeasement and delusion - small and big flights from powerlessness (Leithaeuser, T.); Socio-psychological theses on the consequences of nuclear energy (Clemenz, M.); Psychological arguments in the discussion about Chernobyl (Kettner, M.); Relationship between fear and technology (Brede, K.); Inhumanity of technology (Spangenberg, N.); Psychology of nuclear addiction (Bauriedl, T.); Nature or technology - search of the wizard's apprentice for lost salvation (Bastian, T./Hilger, M.); Living under a nuclear threat - significance of existential fear experienced during childhood (Boehnke, K., et al.); Survey of, and psychoanalytical reflections on, poisoned childhood (Petri, H.); On knowing, feeling, and experience after Chernobyl (Thiel, W.); Sociopsychological aspects of the staging of politics as a state spectacle fit for the media (Fuechner, H.). (orig./HP)

  5. Project Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the follow-up after the Chernobyl fallout is to obtain the best possible information about the environmental and dose commitment consequences in Sweden. The essential part of the work by the institute to improve the state of readiness is described. (G.B.)

  6. Chernobyl fantasy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several versions of technical reasons of Chernobyl accident, which have received a wide resonance in mass-media, and are seemed as reasonable for most public without any special education in reactor's physics, are discussed. Probable reasons of its origination are analysed, and its scientific groundlessness is shown

  7. Chernobyl, 14 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) International cooperation, 7) More information about Chernobyl and 8) Glossary

  8. Chernobyl bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone ampersand Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time

  9. Chernobyl bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time.

  10. After Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses a number of effects of the Chernobyl-accident on public opinion about nuclear power. The analysis is based on a comparison of a survey conducted shortly after Chernobyl and a number of measurements in the Netherlands between 1982 and 1986. The conclusions can be summarized as follows: Attitudes towards nuclear power and especially towards building new stations have become much more negative after the disaster in Chernobyl. Although a majority of the population now wants to close existing nuclear power stations, there appears strong support for continuation of nuclear research. The structure of the nuclear debate has not changed fundamentally. Supporters and opponents have kept the same demographic characteristics. The arguments which distinguish them have not changed, except that the expectation of a serious accident has an increased impact on attitudes. A majority of the population felt the information after the accident not sufficient. Since 1982 attitudes towards coal also have become more negative, mainly as a consequence of the higher visibility of effects of acid rain. (Auth.)

  11. 17 years after the Chernobyl' accident: problems and decisions. Proceedings of the International scientific and practical conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book contains proceedings of the scientific conference on difference medical and biological problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident, as well as on the problems of rehabilitation of the contaminated territories and ecosystems

  12. The Chernobyl catastrophe is the most terrible civil nuclear incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The 4th nuclear reactor of the Chernobyl NPP exploded on 26 April 1986, 20 years ago. It's the most terrible nuclear civil accident of all times. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident led to contamination of 3,1 million ha of arable land, 1,5 million ha of natural pasture land, 3,5 million ha of forests and changed the lifestyle for millions of people in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. It is well known that the mortality in the contaminated areas (infant mortality by cancer) drastically increased. The Chernobyl catastrophe is presented , such as a sad example for humanity, a complex political international, economical, social and, particular, ecological problem according to the traditional and new studies for the development of the nucleotide contaminated territories: 1. Financing of safety of stopped working 4th nuclear reactor (security of covering system) and of work another 3 blocks at the Chernobyl NPP. Detailed control of international financial support for guarantee the safety, security of the Chernobyl NPP and sustainable development for rehabilitation of the affected zones and people. 2. It should be marked increase in medical, demographic analysis and in social, economical protection of the people in the contaminated areas. 3. Analysis and synthesis, monitoring of the long-time data results due to environmental, ecological, social and political consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. 4. Protection from the possible terrorist (extra) actions and (inter) damage or incident function of the Chernobyl plant, such as an old generation nuclear power. 5. Planned budget for future studies in the affected territories and flexibility actually realization of budget (State and International). 6. Nuclear refuse and aria/water protection in the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia contaminated zones. 7. Risk evaluation of not good function of NPPs which are situated in Russia, Ukraine and in another places (always remembering that the Chernobyl catastrophe is the

  13. Chernobyl accident and health: end of first tenth anniversary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials on medical and social-psychological aspects, caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident are presented. Comparative evaluation of the morbidity cases, frequency of tumor formation, mortality among the accident liquidators and the public of various age in the Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation is given

  14. Visaginas NPP Project Regional Approach: Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithuania has a long standing nuclear energy history. The country is the host of the Ignalina NPP consisting of two RBMK-1500 reactors (a type of boiling water reactor developed by the Soviet Union) located in Visaginas, Lithuania. Ignalina NPP (INPP) Unit 1 came online in December 1983 and Unit 2 was completed in 1987. Lithuania agreed to close the Ignalina NPP as part of its Accession Treaty to the European Union of 2003, as the Ignalina NPP design shares similarities with the Chernobyl NPP. Unit 1 was closed in December 2004 and Unit 2 was closed on 31 December 2009. Around 80% of electricity production in Lithuania in 2009 came from Unit 2 of the INPP. However, following the closure of the Ignalina NPP, Lithuanian electricity net import was 62% of the entire electricity demand in 2010 and 59%32 in 2011. To meet its energy needs following the INPP’s closure, in the absence of a new nuclear power plant, Lithuania relies on a combination of imported electricity, predominantly from interconnections with the UPS/IPS network, and power from alternative domestic generation facilities, which are predominantly fossil plants reliant on gas or oil imports from other countries

  15. Chernobyl, 12 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) The Franco-German cooperation, and 7) Glossary

  16. Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The examination of the radioelements in macromicetae taken in the area of Como's Groane and in other areas near Lakes of Como and Maggiore and a few samples in Pine' di Trento are reported. A number of samples has been collected and analyzed at Joint Research Center, Ispra. A sampling of many pieces has been picked up by the Circolo Micologico Plinio il Vecchio and by the Unita' Sanitarie of Como and Varese. The various samples are subdivided for specie and the denomination for each one of them is given. The foundamental sampling is dated atumn 1986, a second sampling is made in autumn 1987. Gamma spectrometry has revealed the presence of many radiosotopes due to the Chernobyl fall-out. as Cs137, Cs134 and Ag110 (metastable); levels of Potassium 40, a natural radioactive element have been also measured. A discussion of results is presented and the comparison among data of the 1986 season and the 1987 one

  17. Chernobyl 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the Chernobyl accident process and consequences for the power station buildings, and also the emergency interventions to cover the reactor and avoid that the molten core reaches underground waters, the author proposes a brief overview of the consequences at the international level in the field of nuclear safety with the emergence of a culture of safety which has been applied in other industrial sectors, with the improvement of the quality of transmitted information, and with the lessons learned about the efficiency of early ingestion of iodine pills. The author evokes the construction of a containment arch to dismantle the whole installation, comments the various results published on health consequences and gives some explanations about their discrepancy

  18. Regulatory effect of fungus origin melanin on the generating rate and content of oxygen radical forms in the liver microsomes of animals which for a long time were hold in the zone of Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the spin trap and ESR methods, quantitative investigation of the rate of oxygen radical form generation have been carried out in the liver microsome of animals which were staying during during 1,5 years in the area of Chernobyl accident and also after preventive action of fungus melanin produced from Cladosporium cladosporioides (Patent of Ukraine 1523, 15.09.93). For the first time considerable increase (in 3 times) of the rate of peroxide anion radical generation and the content of hydroxyl radicals in the electron transport chain of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane of the liver has been discovered. As it has been found, protective properties of fungus melanin in radiation carcinogenesis under conditions of prolonged action of ionizing radiation of low intensity are in correspondence with reducing of oxygen radical form generation

  19. Impressions of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three years on from the nuclear power plant accident, an inaugural meeting of the Wano (World Association of Nuclear Operators) discusses impressions of the Chernobyl incident on a technical tour through the Chernobyl exclusion zone. (author)

  20. Chernobyl, 17 after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This information document takes stock on the Chernobyl accident effects, 17 years after the reactor accident. The domains concerned are: the Chernobyl power plant, the sanitary consequences of the accident in the most exposed countries, the Chernobyl environment and the polluted regions management, the Chernobyl accident consequences in France; Some data and technical sheets on the RBMK reactors and the international cooperation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  1. Role of monitoring in diagnostics of diseases of the thyroid gland at children at the moment of the disaster on ChNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looking back on eighteen-year experience of liquidation of consequences of disaster on Chernobyl NPP shows the importance of monitoring in formation of pathology of a thyroid gland at children, undergone to radiating influence. (Authors)

  2. Chernobyl revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations made on a visit to the Chernobyl area in July 1990 are reported. Although the main purpose of the visit was to try out thermoluminescence techniques on materials exposed to radiation during the accident, the observations reported here are of a more general nature covering the variations in dose rate and contamination of surfaces within the 30 km exclusion zone and in the deserted tow of Pripyat, and plant, animal and bird life. The most ubiquitous contamination in Pripyat is caesium, which has penetrated all porous surfaces and would probably be very difficult to remove from brick structures if rehabitation were ever contemplated. Recorded dose-rates varied considerably on and in different parts of buildings. Radiation measurements of external surfaces were typically in the range 1-10 μSv/h and an order of magnitude less within buildings. Grass verges were particularly badly contaminated; measurements up to 110 μSv/h were noted in the most polluted area of Pripyat. Ecologically, the area seems to have benefited from having been allowed to return to nature. Many birds and a wide variety of plants and trees were flourishing; some older pine trees showed evidence of damage, however. The only insects observed were peacock butterflies. (Author)

  3. The radioecological consequences of Chernobyl accident for fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimate of dynamics of radionuclides concentration in muscles of some game-fish from Kiev reservoir and likes in Bryansk region for period after Chernobyl accident was carried out. The concentration of 137Cs in fish has not exceeded the admissible concentration (600 Bq/kg ww) since 1993. The exceptions are the cooling-pond of Chernobyl NPP and Kozlanovskoe Lake where the concentration of 137Cs in fish's muscles exceeded the admissible level more than 5-6 times even in 1995. It was concluded that chronic irradiation of game-fish in water bodies outside 30-km zone would not affect the volume of fishing

  4. Experience of soil rehabilitation in the scenario of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl post-accident scenario became nowadays a natural radioecology laboratory, where a wide range of decontamination methods can be applied, validated or developed. This paper presents the application of a soil rehabilitation technique, the removal of vegetation and associated soil, in the experimental fields of Bourakovka and Chistogalovka surrounding the Chernobyl NPP. The results obtained have shown soil decontamination factors higher than 90% for caesium and strontium. This technique involves the removal of deposited hot particles released at the accident, and the experience allowed a detailed study of one of them corresponding to a nuclear fuel fragment, probably generated at the beginning of the breakdown. 16 refs. (Author)

  5. Scientific provision of the problems of overcoming the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present in the Republic of Belarus the research works on the problems of overcoming of the Chernobyl accident consequences are carried out in the following directions: radiation protection of the population; health of the population affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident; complex radiation-ecological estimation of the environment and conditions of the life activity of the population; rehabilitation of the contaminated territories; instrumental and methodical provision of the radiation control

  6. Scientific provision of the problems of overcoming the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present in the Republic of Belarus the research works on the problems of overcoming of the Chernobyl accident consequences are carried out in the following directions: radiation protection of the population; health of the population affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident; complex radiation-ecological estimation of the environment and conditions of the life activity of the population; rehabilitation of the contaminated territories; instrumental and methodical provision of the radiation control. (authors)

  7. Accidental internal exposure of all groups of Chernobyl nuclear power plant employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidental internal exposure of Chernobyl NPP employees has started from April, 1986 and it was found to be decreased to pre-accident level at the end of 1987. Significant number of people from all groups of staff and temporary employees were measured using whole body counters situated in Clinical Department of the Institute of Biophysics, which has represented the main body for medical assistance and expertise in these people including those, who suffered from acute radiation syndrome as well as the people engaged in all kinds of works at Chernobyl NPP site. Technical characteristics of the equipment and techniques used to assess the internal exposure are given. (author)

  8. Mochovce NPP simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochovce NPP simulator basic features and detailed description of its characteristics are presented with its performance, certification and application for training of NPP operators as well as the training scenario

  9. NPP operation, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of NPP service in 2001 on a global scale are presented. Numerical data on service indexes of NPP in different countries are reviewed. Summary power of operating NPP in 2001 was as much as 372 857 MW. List of ten NPP having the best characteristics in electric power generation on one nuclear bock is given. Nuclear power plants of Germany were recognized as the best units on a global scale

  10. The Chernobyl accident: bibliography of the science literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information about the scientific publications in 1986-1995 on the problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident is presented in the book. A significant, unique actual material about results of radiation influence on men, animals, vegetative world and other components of an environment is collected to the present of time. Radiation dozes are determined and combined influence of the both radiation and chemical factors is investigated, clinical epidemiological and genetic estimation of a condition of health of the population is given. Agriculture technologies for conditions of radioactive contamination are developed and used. Normative base for both decontamination works and radioactive wastes storage is created. These and other problems are reflected in the publications described in the collection. The following sections are available: Radiobiology and radioecology (1445 refs.); Radiation medicine (703 refs.); Agriculture radiology (194 refs.); Decontamination and radioactive wastes storage (86 refs.); Economic consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident (36 refs.); Social and psychological problems (39 refs.)

  11. Safety analysis of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a short review of the parallel safety analysis of the various types of NPP. The NPP with PWR, WWER, BWR and HWR type reactors are mentioned. Technical, economic, location and ecology aspects of the safety of the NPP have been analysed. (author)

  12. Proceedings of the 6rd Radiobiological conference with international participation dedicated to 20th anniversary of nuclear accident in Chernobyl, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific conference deals with problems in radiobiology, photobiology and radio-environmental sciences. Some papers deal with the historical aspects development of reactor accidents (Chernobyl NPP and NPP A-1 Jaslovske Bohunice) as well as history of nuclear sciences in former Czechoslovakia. Proceedings contain forty-seven papers

  13. Chernobyl, 13 years after; Tchernobyl, 13 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regniault-Lacharme, Mireille; Metivier, Henri [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1999-04-01

    This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of

  14. Disposal of low and medium level radioactive waste in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peculiarity of Chernobyl exclusion zone is the existence of constant and a lot of temporary points of radioactive waste of Chernobyl origin disposal in it. Chernobyl zone (exclusion zone) is the territory round Chernobyl NPP restricted in the results of Chernobyl accident with no inhabitants in it and where the economic activity was almost stopped. Nowadays the apparatus is developed the test and assembling of the automatic control system are conducted. All the results of the radioactive waste mass measurement brought to the PRAWD by car automatically put into the PC. The devices of radiation control are moving above the RAW surface with the help of robot-manipulator. The delivery of RAW to the PRAMW is produced by special cars in circulating or single containers or loaded in bulk in the body of lorries with the closed roofs

  15. On protecting the inexperienced reader from Chernobyl myths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident continue to attract the attention of experts, decision-makers and the general public, and now these consequences have been given added relevance by the similar accident in 2011 at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant (NPP) in Japan. Expert analysis of radiation levels and effects has been conducted by international bodies—UNSCEAR in 2008 and the Chernobyl Forum during 2003–5. At the same time, three Russian and Belarusian scientists, Yablokov, Nesterenko and Nesterenko (2009 Chernobyl. Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences)) published both in Russian and English a substantial review of the consequences of Chernobyl based mostly on Russian-language papers. In this book, they suggested a departure from analytical epidemiological studies in favour of ecological ones. This erroneous approach resulted in the overestimation of the number of accident victims by more than 800 000 deaths during 1987–2004. This paper investigates the mistakes in methodology made by Yablokov et al and concludes that these errors led to a clear exaggeration of radiation-induced health effects. Should similar mistakes be made following the 2011 accident at Fukushima-1 NPP this could lead quite unnecessarily to a panic reaction by the public about possible health effects and to erroneous decisions by the authorities in Japan. (opinion)

  16. On protecting the inexperienced reader from Chernobyl myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonov, M I

    2012-06-01

    The health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident continue to attract the attention of experts, decision-makers and the general public, and now these consequences have been given added relevance by the similar accident in 2011 at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant (NPP) in Japan. Expert analysis of radiation levels and effects has been conducted by international bodies--UNSCEAR in 2008 and the Chernobyl Forum during 2003-5. At the same time, three Russian and Belarusian scientists, Yablokov, Nesterenko and Nesterenko (2009 Chernobyl. Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences)) published both in Russian and English a substantial review of the consequences of Chernobyl based mostly on Russian-language papers. In this book, they suggested a departure from analytical epidemiological studies in favour of ecological ones. This erroneous approach resulted in the overestimation of the number of accident victims by more than 800 000 deaths during 1987-2004. This paper investigates the mistakes in methodology made by Yablokov et al and concludes that these errors led to a clear exaggeration of radiation-induced health effects. Should similar mistakes be made following the 2011 accident at Fukushima-1 NPP this could lead quite unnecessarily to a panic reaction by the public about possible health effects and to erroneous decisions by the authorities in Japan. PMID:22569279

  17. The Chernobyl Forum: major findings and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balonov, M.I. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: m.balonov@iaea.org

    2007-07-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 was the most severe in the history of the nuclear industry, causing a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. The recently completed Chernobyl Forum concluded that after a number of years, along with reduction of radiation levels and accumulation of humanitarian consequences, severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem to be addressed by the authorities. The majority of the affected land is now safe for life and economic activities. However, in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and in some limited areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine some restrictions on land-use should be retained for decades to come. Most of the 600,000 emergency and recovery operation workers and five million residents of the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine received relatively minor radiation doses which are comparable with the natural background levels. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed at a young age and some increase of leukaemia and solid cancer in most exposed workers, there is no clearly demonstrated increase in the somatic diseases due to radiation.

  18. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

  19. Behavior of radionuclides on territory of the west aureole of the Chernobyl contamination landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main regularities of the distribution and migration of strontium 90, cesium 134, cesium 137, ruthenium 106 and cerium 144 of global (bomb) and accident (Chernobyl NPP) fallout in the Pripyat Poles'e landscapes are considered. The behavior of radionuclides was estimated on water-soluble, exchange, acid-soluble and strength fixed forms

  20. The health status of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident liquidators in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in 1986 is so far the largest nuclear accident, and has created a new problem for nuclear medicine. This accident has also become a problem for Latvia due to the more than 6000 residents who participated in the clean-up works at Chernobyl. The aim of our study was to assess the health status of Chernobyl NPP accident liquidators, in comparison with a male control group in Latvia. We have examined the health of 2512 Chernobyl clean-up workers (males between age of 35-55 with documented and biologically estimated doses of received ionising radiation). For comparison of morbidity, we used a control group consisting of 3887 employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (males of the same age groups). The morbidity of Chernobyl NPP accident clean-up workers was generally higher than of control group. The highest contribution to morbidity in each age group of liquidators was from digestive, musculosceletal, nervous system and circulatory system diseases, as well as from mental disorders. (author)

  1. NPP life management (abstracts)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstracts of the papers presented at the International conference of the Ukrainian Nuclear Society 'NPP Life Management'. The following problems are considered: modernization of the NPP; NPP life management; waste and spent nuclear fuel management; decommissioning issues; control systems (including radiation and ecological control systems); information and control systems; legal and regulatory framework. State nuclear regulatory control; PR in nuclear power; training of personnel; economics of nuclear power engineering

  2. RADIATION SITUATION ON THE TERRITORY OF THE OREL REGION AFFECTED BY THE RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Zakharchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of radiation situation monitoring on the territory of the Orel region after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Actions of the sanitary epidemiological authority for the emergency response management, actions of the region administration for the population protection from the overexposure are analyzed. Data on morbidity of the liquidators of Chernobyl accident and region inhabitants, living on the contaminated territories, is presented.

  3. Analysis of the accident at the Chernobylsk-2 NPP due to make-up deficit in the cooling circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP power unit 2, which occurred on October 11, 1991, due to non-sanctioned connection to the net of turbogenerator planned for repair, is analyzed. The accident resulted in heavy fire in the machine hall and subsequent failure of safety-significant systems, providing for project mode of reactor cooling. The investigation of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP power unit 2 indicated the necessity of developing procedures for the personnel actions in situations with complete or partial feed-up loss of multiple forced circulation circuit from high-pressure water feed-up sources. 5 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Particle size distribution of radioactive aerosols after the Fukushima and the Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Fukushima accident, a series of aerosol samples were taken between 24th March and 13th April 2011 by cascade impactors in the Czech Republic to obtain the size distribution of 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, and 7Be aerosols. All distributions could be considered monomodal. The arithmetic means of the activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) for artificial radionuclides and for 7Be were 0.43 and 0.41 μm with GDSs 3.6 and 3.0, respectively. The time course of the AMADs of 134Cs, 137Cs and 7Be in the sampled period showed a slight decrease at a significance level of 0.05, whereas the AMAD pertaining to 131I increased at a significance level of 0.1. Results obtained after the Fukushima accident were compared with results obtained after the Chernobyl accident. The radionuclides released during the Chernobyl accident for which we determined the AMAD fell into two categories: refractory radionuclides (140Ba, 140La 141Ce, 144Ce, 95Zr and 95Nb) and volatile radionuclides (134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, and 132Te). The AMAD of the refractory radionuclides was approximately 3 times higher than the AMAD of the volatile radionuclides; nevertheless, the size distributions for volatile radionuclides having a mean AMAD value of 0.51 μm were very close to the distributions after the Fukushima accident. -- Highlights: • AMADs after the Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents in the Czech Rep. were determined. • The mean value of AMADs of the monitored nuclides from the NPP Fukushima was 0.43 μm. • Nuclides from the NPP Chernobyl fell into two categories – refractory and volatile. • The mean value of AMADs of volatile nuclides from the NPP Chernobyl was 0.51 μm. • AMADs of volatile nucl. from the NPP Chernobyl were 3× smaller than of the refractory radionuclides

  5. Chernobyl - Ten years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decade later, in April 1996, more than 800 experts from 71 countries and 20 organizations, observed by over 200 journalists, met to review the Chernobyl accident's actual and possible future consequences, and to put these into proper perspective. They came together at the international conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident, held at the Austria Center in Vienna. The Chernobyl Conference was a model of international co-operation: six organizations of the UN family, including the IAEA, and two important regional agencies were involved in its organization

  6. Chernobyl: fourteen years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current situation around Chernobyl is observed, special attention being paid to the status of SARCOPHAGUS and consequences for human health. The problem of low doses is reviewed, with an impact to what the hormesis is

  7. Chernobyl: a documentary story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This account of the Chernobyl disaster of April 1986 is based on interviews with many of the participants. Realising that the Chernobyl accident was to have a massive impact on the USSR and the world, the author felt impelled to travel to the designated danger zone around the reactor, to live there and to interview firemen, first-aid workers, party and government officials and local media representatives. The result is a variety of vivid eyewitness accounts that are unprecedented in their detail and frankness. These accounts show why the author considers the Chernobyl accident to be the most important event in the Soviet Union since World War II. The book, itself a product of glasnost, reveals how the Chernobyl accident was viewed from inside the Soviet Union. (author)

  8. Chernobyl and the media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The way the media reported the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident was discussed at a day seminar in Birmingham in July. Contributors were from the Forsmark nuclear power station in Sweden where the disaster was first noticed, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Russian film industry, French TV and SCRAM. Personal experiences and opinions of Chernobyl and the media were discussed. The approach in West Germany, France, Finland and the United Kingdom is compared. (UK)

  9. Chernobyl, 16 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

  10. Characteristics of small mammals in the Chernobyl' NPP accident zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of studying the low-dose ionizing radiation effects on specific features of wild rodent ecology (species variety, number dynamics, sex and age structure of the population), as well as the levels of radionuclide accumulation in animal bodies are discussed. Radionuclide concentrations detected in animal tissues in 1986 is connected with radioactive dust absorption through respiratory organs and skin-adipose tissues. The absorption is proportional to the environment primary contamination density and does not depend on animal species. The main path of radionuclides intake is their absorption via food chains in 1987

  11. Radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneity of contamination of the territory by alpha-, beta- and gamma-radioactive substances with various periods of half-life, presence of radioactive isotopes practically in all components of ecosystems and their involvement in the geochemical and trophic cycles of migration. All this calls forth plurality of ways of the external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. The dynamics of radiation situation in the nearest future and for the perspective will be determined by nuclear decay, radionuclides migration, the transformation of forms of their existence. There is registered the number of radiation-induced changes of flora and fauna, especially on molecular-cellular and organism levels and less marked-on the population and ecosystem levels. The series of consequences for natural complexes and animals is connected with changes in economic activity and nature use. The accumulation of genetic burden and other changes in the systems of organism and metabolic processes may result in the change of plants and animals communities. This demands further study of radiation situation dynamics, the radionuclides behaviour in soil, water, air, inclusion of the radionuclides into the food chains, accumulation in plants and organisms of animals and estimation of biological effects. (authors). 2 tabs., 13 figs

  12. Chernobyl lesson and the nuclear power prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At sixteen years from the disaster which made the commercial power reactor nr. 4 of the Chernobyl NPP known worldwide, the radiation effects and the consequences are still vivid. A basic statement is to be underlined, namely, the Chernobyl event was not an accident in a nuclear power plant being in an industrial, commercial state of operation but an accident following an experiment done on the reactor. Lack of professionalism, of nuclear safety culture, the outrageous violation of basic rules and regulations, established for the unit operation, represent some of the causes originating the Chernobyl disaster. One of the most unfair consequences enhanced by an incorrect mass media information and political manipulation was the ensuing antinuclear media campaign. The paper quotes recent monographs and United Nations Documents showing how the facts were distorted to render arguments and support for various political, economical or humanistic goals. Thus, over more than 15 years due to the hard controversies and irrational campaigns on a global scale the nuclear power was discredited. Practically, all the nuclear power plant constructions were either delayed or cancelled. Moreover, some governments have sustained even closing the existing nuclear stations. The author asks himself rhetorically whether somebody has considered and quantified the immense losses produced by such unmotivated policy or else the additional damage and abuse caused to our home planet by the additional burning of fossil fuels to replace the nuclear fuel burning in nuclear power plants. The paper ends by mentioning the environmental advantages and economic efficiency of that clean energy source which is the nuclear power

  13. Radioactive Waste Management In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - 25 Years Since The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  14. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  15. Healthy living after Chernobyl?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our food today is endangered not only through environmental poisons and the machinations of profit-hungry manufacturers but also, after the reactor disaster of Chernobyl, by radioactive materials. There is great uncertainty amongst consumers: Whan can I still eat? How can I best protect my children from food products contaminated by radioactivity or enriched with pollutants? Does it still make sense to buy organically produced foodstuffs? Which food products are low in pollutants? With this book the authors want to counteract general helplessness and help the reader with comprehensible and sound information as well as practical tips for eating and living healthily after Chernobyl. (orig.)

  16. Chernobyl - the government reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Farmers' Union of Wales submitted this memorandum to the Agriculture Committee of the House of Commons giving its interpretation of the Government's reaction to the Chernobyl disaster. The primary aim of the paper is to provide an objective assessment of the impact of the disaster and the Government's handling of it, for future reference. The subject is dealt with under the following headings:- Chernobyl nuclear fallout in Wales, monitoring of milk and fresh vegetables, silage contamination, the North Wales Sheep Sector, soil, herbage and genetic implications, recommendations for the future. (UK)

  17. INTERNATIONAL ASSESSMENTS OF IMPACTS OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: THE CHERNOBYL FORUM (2003–2005 AND UNSCEAR (2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Balonov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiological consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP were recently revisited by the UN Chernobyl Forum (2003-2005 and UNSCEAR (2005-2008. For the first time environmental impacts were considered in detail, including radioactive contamination of terrestrial and aquatic environments, application and effectiveness of countermeasures and effects on biota. Updated dosimetric data were presented for more than half a million of emergency and recovery operation workers, about 100 million inhabitants of the three most affected countries, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and for 500 million inhabitants of other European countries. Several hundred of the emergency workers received high radiation doses; of whom 28 persons died in 1986 due to acute radiation sickness. Children at the time of the accident, who drank milk with high levels of radioactive iodine, received high doses to the thyroid. Since early 1990s there was the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among them. Also in 1990s there was some increase of leukaemia in most exposed workers. The UN Chernobyl Forum concluded that severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem. The vast majority of the population need not live in fear of serious health consequences from the Chernobyl accident.

  18. Forest fire as a factor of redistribution of radionuclides of Chernobyl genesis in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide composition is investigated of particles in smoke tail of forest fire in 30-km zone of Chernobyl NPP. Investigation of ratios of radioactive isotopes of cesium, cerium and plutonium in forest combustible materials and in aerosols formed during fire shows that the last ones are enriched with radiocesium. This radiocesium is fixed preliminarily by submicron particles, which are transported for a long distances. The fire region is depleted by cesium radioisotopes and by other radioactive products of Chernobyl genesis to a lesser degree

  19. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  20. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  1. The Republic of Belarus: 9 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of a situation in a 9 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident is given. In accordance with the republic programme of overcoming of the catastrophe consequences the main attention is given to a wide scales medical and preventive work, increase of a quality of the medical aid, creation of conditions for normal activity on the contaminated territory, maintenance of all groups of the population by an objective information about radioecological condition and radiation protection. Scientific researches in the field of radiation medicine and agricultural radiology are executed. Development of means and methods of decontamination, both social psychological and social economical rehabilitation are carried out. 1 fig

  2. Cytogenetic and population effects in oligochaeta from the Chernobyl zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on intensity and character of reproduction of oligochaeta (Dero obtusa, Nais pseudobtusa and Nais pardalis) was carried out in 1995-1996 in two water reservoirs: a) in the Chernobyl NPP zone Yanov Village, with a dose rate 14 μGyh-1 on the surface of the bottom sediment; b) at the Uzh River area (the control water reservoir). Changes in the both intensity and reproduction type were observed in worms at the contaminated water reservoir. Stimulation of paratomic division in D. obtusa as well as activation of sexual reproduction in two other species were found out along with increasing of severity of cytogenetic damages in worm populations

  3. Hygienic training of population being victims of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study results on the role of social factors in formation of attitude to own health and its self-evaluation by the population of the regions, subjected to impact of the Chernobyl NPP accident. An extremely important component block is determined in the programs on hygienic training of the population being victims of the accident, namely, adequate information of the public on dose-effect dependencies, on radionuclide behaviour in the environmental objects, on possible measures for reduction of undesirable effects. Necessity is noted of transfer from universal programs of hygienic training to differential ones up to individual training

  4. Multimedia system for the visitors' centre at the Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents illustrated with video clips, animations, photographs, show the follwing: History of Ignalina NPP (INPP) growing; Visaginas - how the town came into being; Lake Druksiai; Development of nuclear power; Technical data of INPP; Description of INPP; Characteristic features of RBMK reactors; Reactor design; Technical parametres of RBMK-1500 reactor; Nuclear reaction and nuclear fission; Types of nuclear reactors; Circuits and systems; Radiation safety; Safety systems at the INPP; Upgrading nuclear safety at INPP following the Chernobyl accident; Safety problems at MP; Radioactive waste management in the world; RW Management at MP; Energy in Lithuania (thermal power stations, cogeneration plants, producing biogas from organic waste)

  5. Dynamics of contents and organic forms of radionuclide compounds in the liquid phase of forest soils in the zone of contamination from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the profile of forest soils in a 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP), in areas characterized by different positions in relation to the source of emission, the authors determined the relative contents of long-lived radionuclides 106Ru, 134,137Cs, and 144Ce in soil solutions (as of 1987). On the example of 137Cs, they consider the dynamics (1987-1990) of relative contents and forms in which the radionuclide is found in the liquid phase of soils in the zone of radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl NPP

  6. Wildlife in Chernobyl forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article is a review of a book addressed Wormwood Forest: a natural history of Chernobyl which describes life in Europe's largest wildlife sanctuary in the region surrounding the Chernobyl station. Since the accident, the area has largely been a safe haven from hunters and farmers, allowing the wildlife to live in an undisturbed environment. Against this backdrop, the book describes in detail, a highly controversial programme that released an endangered species of horse into the zone. Lack of funding for such programmes makes it nearly impossible to administer them. The book blends reportage, popular science and encounters with the zone's few residents. The result is an account of a remarkable land, its people and animals seen through the eyes of the locals, the author and the zoologists, botanists and radiologists who travelled with her around the zone. The radiation is the book's ever-present protagonist, as the author describes in detail how it works itself through the entire food chain and environment. Along the author's journey through the affected regions of Belarus and Ukraine she debunks several myths surrounding Chernobyl and the nuclear industry in general. In fact, while there have been a small number of cases of mutations observed in some species, these are not as dramatic as the Chernobyl mythology.

  7. Nuclear energy after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper on fundamental questions by a representative of the Federal German Government focuses on the following subjects: Nuclear energy as a part of the energy policy of the Federal German Government, the justifiability of nuclear energy, lessons from Chernobyl, nuclear phase-out, safety concepts for the future, supply of nuclear power plants, and nuclear waste disposal. (UA)

  8. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  9. Chernobyl: The WHO helps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet addresses concerns of the populations of the areas of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia affected by the Chernobyl accident. Answers to commonly asked questions comprise the bulk of the information, but the booklet also describes the WHO's work to study and mitigate the effects on the exposed populations

  10. Chernobyl and our health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health impacts in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident are discussed in this booklet. Five experts of different relevant fields (biology, radioecology, nuclear physics and psychology) give their views on probable radiation doses and health effects from these doses, contamination of food chains etc. (L.E.)

  11. Science. Chernobyl-96. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection contains the results of Chernobyl accident investigation on the territory of Ukraine. The conference was devoted to the following problems: -equipment and dosimetry; - agriculture and forestry radioecology and environmental monitoring; - medical, biological and social consequences; - waste management; - 'Shelter' problems; - information and simulation technologies

  12. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

  13. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  14. The Chernobyl effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In what way and to what extent does an event like the Chernobyl reactor accident influence the citizen's attitudes and political commitment. This book evolves a number of theses on these questions dealing above all with the determinants of political protest. Two investigations are presented in order to verify those theses: in 1982 and 1987 (some nine months after the Chernobyl reactor accident), the same persons were interviewed. In addition, representative surveys in the Federal Republic of Germany are analysed, in order to assess in general the impact of Chernobyl. From the contents: explanation model for political protest; Chernobyl effect: effect of critical events on the mobilization of political protest; discontent with nuclear energy use, political alienation and protest; internal incentives for protest: norms, readiness for aggression, and entertainment quality of protest; resources as determinants of political protest; sanctions and protest; social nets and political protest; verification of a central model of political protest, and problems encountered by research. Appendix: investigation plan and random sampling of the panel of nuclear power opponents. (orig./HP)

  15. Hydrogeological influences on radionuclide migration from the major radioactive waste burial sites at Chernobyl (A review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the recent hydrogeological investigations of several research organizations on waste confinement at the major radioactive waste (RW) burial sites immediately adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Ch. NPP). Hydrogeological conditions and radiologic ground-water contamination levels are described. Ongoing ground-water monitoring practices are evaluated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the radionuclides within the burial sites are considered. Ground water and radionuclide transport modeling studies related to problems of the RW disposal sites are also reviewed. Current concerns on future impacts of the RW burial sites on the hydrological environment and water resources of the Ch.NPP area are discussed

  16. Speciation of caesium-137 and plutonium-isotopes in Chernobyl soil

    OpenAIRE

    Holmstrand, Marte Varpen

    2011-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident (1986) in present day Ukraine, was the first INES level 7 nuclear accident in the history of nuclear power. About 6-8 tonnes of spend uranium fuel were released and the fallout contained a series of short- and long lived radionuclides. The main deposition was in an area 30 km around the ChNPP, and the southern parts of Belarus. The area was permanently evacuated and called the exclusion zone. Some of the most long lived radionuclides released...

  17. Foreign NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different versions of NPP decommisioning, which worked out their life are considered. Dismantling work technology as well as devices for cutting and decontamination of equipment and concrete structures are described. Data on the quantity of shutdown and dismantled NPPs are given. It is noted that to perform successfully dismantling works it is necessary to: choose NPP decommisioning version; calculate radioactivity level; substantiate necessity of decontamination; develop the plan of removal of radioactive equipment; radioactive concrete and structures; contaminated systems; transport and bury solid, liquid and gaseous radioactive and chemical wastes; evaluate the accepted solutions of dismantling from the point of view of the effect on environment; determine costs. It is shown that optimal period of complete or partial dismantling after the NPP decommisioning is 15 years. NPPs dismantling expenditures can reach 10-15% of expenditures for their construction

  18. EMAS at Doel NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 1995, Doel NPP of Electrabel, Belgium opted to seek registration under the EC Eco-management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). A comprehensive environmental management system (EMS) has been introduced and implemented, encompassing all four PWRs and the supporting departments. A critical step was to seek certification from an accredited environmental auditing body against the International Standard ISO 14001. This provided the foundation for the publicly available environmental statement required by EMAS. The complications of achieving EMAS at a time when national and international standards were being re-formulated were successfully overcome and Doel NPP passed its EMAS audit in June 1997. (author)

  19. Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

  20. Environmental problems associated with decommissioning the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, B Ya; Bondarkov, M D; Gaschak, S P; Maksymenko, A M; Maksymenko, V M; Martynenko, V I; Farfán, E B; Jannik, G T; Marra, J C

    2010-11-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities associated with residual radioactive contamination of their territories is an imperative issue. Significant problems may result from decommissioning of cooling ponds with residual radioactive contamination. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond is one of the largest self-contained water reservoirs in the Chernobyl region and Ukrainian and Belorussian Polesye region. The 1986 ChNPP Reactor Unit Number Four significantly contaminated the ChNPP Cooling Pond. The total radionuclide inventory in the ChNPP Cooling Pond bottom deposits are as follows: ¹³⁷Cs: 16.28 ± 2.59 TBq; ⁹⁰Sr: 2.4 ± 0.48 TBq; and ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu: 0.00518 ± 0.00148 TBq. The ChNPP Cooling Pond is inhabited by over 500 algae species and subspecies, over 200 invertebrate species, and 36 fish species. The total mass of the living organisms in the ChNPP Cooling Pond is estimated to range from about 60,000 to 100,000 tons. The territory adjacent to the ChNPP Cooling Pond attracts many birds and mammals (178 bird species and 47 mammal species were recorded in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone). This article describes several options for the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning and environmental problems associated with its decommissioning. The article also provides assessments of the existing and potential exposure doses for the shoreline biota. For the 2008 conditions, the estimated total dose rate values were 11.4 40 μGy h⁻¹ for amphibians, 6.3 μGy h⁻¹ for birds, 15.1 μGy h⁻¹ for mammals, and 10.3 μGy h⁻¹ for reptiles, with the recommended maximum dose rate being equal to 40 μGy h⁻¹. However, drying the ChNPP Cooling Pond may increase the exposure doses to 94.5 μGy h⁻¹ for amphibians, 95.2 μGy h⁻¹ for birds, 284.0 μGy h⁻¹ for mammals, and 847.0 μGy h⁻¹ for reptiles. All of these anticipated dose rates exceed the recommended values. PMID:20938234

  1. [90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of the Chernobyl nuclear plant exlusion zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Derevets, V V; Kuz'menko, M I; Nazarov, A B

    2001-01-01

    The content of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and species-indicators of radioactive contamination were revealed. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclide content in macrophytes was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose was demonstrated. PMID:11402559

  2. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  3. Chernobyl: The aftermath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear accident in Chernobyl prompted vehement and sometimes controversial public and political reaction in the Federal Republic of Germany, as it did elsewhere. What remained after the initial concern subsided? We at the IIUG feel obligated to make a contribution to the preservation and the improvement of our environmental quality, both in basic and specialized research aimed at environmental problems. It is time to take stock of the findings of our own work; we must access the feedback to and implementation of this research; the candidness and integrity of the scientific-economic-political community; superfluous knowledge or information gaps; structural obstacles and possible alternatives. This paper presents, in condensed form, the results of the 'post-Chernobyl' discussions at the IIUG, based on our work in various projects. (orig.)

  4. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  5. Byelorussia's Chernobyl legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 radioactive fall-out was widely distributed over the eastern territories of the Soviet Union and over Europe. While the effects in Europe have been well documented and have received widespread media attention, less is known about the effects within the Soviet Union. The general picture that has been painted is that while the accident was serious, it wasn't that bad and the resulting contamination is something that can be lived with. In reality many people are living in contaminated zones which would be regarded as completely unacceptable in the United Kingdom. However, the USSR Ministry of Public Health has argued that relocation is not necessary. The Ministry and other agencies including the Red Cross do not recognize the contamination as serious and feel the main side effect of Chernobyl is psychological. In Byelorussia however, 100,000 people are still living in areas of major contamination. (author)

  6. Reflections on Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl and Three Mile Island reactor accidents are revealing some of the social costs of such failures, widespread opposition to nuclear power. As far as mortality and morbidity go, Chernobyl was probably a smaller incident than the chemical disaster at Bhopal. But nuclear people must accept the idea that a nuclear hazard is perceived as somehow different. Since nuclear energy will be needed to replace oil eventually, and the environmental impacts of properly operating nuclear power plants are far less than those of fossil fuelled power plants, this appears to be an appropriate time for the United States and other interested countries to start developing inherently safe nuclear power plants which will be acceptable to the public

  7. Chernobyl: Geographic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the geographic considerations that could effect the long range consequences of the Chernobyl accident. First, the explosion and fire lofted the radionuclides that were released, so the areas that should have been most severely effected were the areas that were downwind of the accident. Curiously, the Soviets have not mentioned the number of casualties from these areas. A second consideration is that Chernobyl is located upstream from the Dnieper River which is the source for six major reservoirs. These reservoirs provide drinking water, industrial and irrigation water, and recreational and commercial fishing for over six million people. The Soviets say that they have taken measures to prevent the radioactive contamination of the Dnieper but they neglected to explain the methods used to accomplish this feat

  8. NPP Krsko decommissioning concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of the operational lifetime of a nuclear power plant (NPP) it is necessary to take measures for the decommissioning as stated in different international regulations and also in the national Slovenian law. Based on these requirements Slovenian authorities requested the development of a site specific decommissioning plan for the NPP Krsko. In September 1995, the Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (NEK) developed a site specific scope and content for a decommissioning plan including the assumptions for determination of the decommissioning costs. The NEK Decommissioning Plan contains sufficient information to fulfill the decommissioning requirements identified by NRC, IAEA and OECD - NEA regulations. In this paper the activities and results of development of NEK Decommissioning Plan consisting of the development of three decommissioning strategies for the NPP Krsko and selection of the most suitable strategy based on site specific, social, technical, radiological and economic aspects, cost estimates for the strategies including the costs for construction of final disposal facilities for fuel/high level waste (fuel/HLW) and low/intermediate level waste (LLW/ILW) and scheduling of all activities necessary for the decommissioning of the NPP Krsko are presented. (author)

  9. NPP Krsko decommissioning concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of the operational lifetime of a nuclear power plant (NPP) it is necessary to take measures for the decommissioning as stated in different international regulations and also in the national Slovenian law. Based on these requirements Slovenian authorities requested the development of a site specific decommissioning plan for the NPP KRSKO. In September 1995, the Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (NEK) developed a site specific scope and content for decommissioning plan including the assumptions for determination of the decommissioning costs. The NEK Decommissioning Plan contains sufficient information to fulfill decommissioning requirements identified by NRC, IAEA and OECD - NEA regulations. In this paper the activities and the results of development of NEK Decommissioning Plan consisting of the development of three decommissioning strategies for the NPP Krsko and selection of the most suitable strategy based on site specific, social, technical, radiological and economical aspects, cost estimates for the strategies including the costs for construction of final disposal facilities for fuel/high level waste (fuel/HLW) and low/intermediate level waste (LLW/ILW) and scheduling all activities necessary for the decommissioning of the NPP KRSKO are presented. (author)

  10. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  11. Chernobyl: a year after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity measurements in the year after the Chernobyl accident, carried out by the Radioprotection Division of the Joint Research Centre of Ispra, are reported. Air at ground level and in grass, milk, wheat, meat, fishes and man have been measured. The evaluation of the 1987 individual dose equivalent due to the exposure of the population living in N.W. Italy is compared with the dose equivalent absorbed in the year following the accident

  12. Chernobyl 25 years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief recall on radioactivity measurement units and on radioactivity itself, this report describes and comments the Chernobyl accident, its consequent releases, the scattering of the radioactive plume over Europe, the formation of radioactive deposits in Europe, the contamination of the different environments and of the food chain, the health impact in the most contaminated areas, the doses received in France and their associated risks. It finally draws some lessons from this accident

  13. Fallout over Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friends of the Earth Ltd set up a mobile radiation monitoring unit between October and November 1988 which surveyed grass, silage, vegetables, meat in areas in Cumbria, North Wales, the Isle of Man and Scotland affected by the restrictions on the slaughter and movement of sheep following the accident at Chernobyl in 1986. This report contains the results of 357 sample analyses for CS 134 and Cs 137 examined during the survey and discusses discrepancies with official data. (U.K.)

  14. Chernobyl: radiation and disinformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is presented of the accident at Chernobyl and the delay in reporting it. A hypothesis is suggested for the cause of the accident and subsequent increase in intensity as resulting from decomposition of water and release of hydrogen at the high temperatures reached. Comments are also made on radiation levels compared with those from natural background radiation and from mass-radiography. (V.J.H.)

  15. The chernobyl experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschki, Wolfgang

    Numerous articles have been published about the events which occurred at Chernobyl and the radiological impact on the environment and the public. This article tries to find out which experience can be, should be or has already been gained from that accident. The fields which have been studied are: nuclear safety; radiation protection of rescue workers; medical treatment of overexposed persons; decontamination of agricultural land, buildings and cities; behaviour of radionuclides in ecosystems; effects of low doses on human beings.

  16. Two managerial grids in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, the nuclear power corporation (NPC) enjoys the profit of LCEP (the low carbon economic policy). at the same time, they also enduring more and more pressure. For example, the partner competition or the NPP potential occupational risk . The efficient counterplot of risk is the self-ability cultivation. It is essential to research the NPP managerial flow. The nuclear power plant (NPP) unit is a carrier of the NPC enterprise management system, and has taken on a new look 'pull one portion then the whole moving'. The NPP has three systematical characters, the security responsibility center, the man-machine system and the input-output system. The manufacturing system and the enterprise management system are the great constituents of the NPP managerial flows. Means of systems analysis, we can find out the truth of the NPP running interface. In CHINA, there are many operating experiences near 20 years. It indicates that the NPP manufacturing system and the enterprise system are the roots of the nuclear power corporation, the core of the all NPP systems must be based on it. So the ability cultivation is the work core to NPP. It is reliably to ensure the NPP to be up against problems, for instance, the security duty, the costing control and the man-machine system running harmoniously. This paper introduces the NPP managerial flow and the present state of QNPC, also come up with a proposal to refer for the NPC development actions of collective measure, specialization, standardization, fine. (author)

  17. Return to Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the catastrophic accident at the Chernobylsk 4 reactor in 1986, the Ukraine is currently expanding its nuclear industry. The government is committed to increasing the share of nuclear output to 40% of the country's electric power and the Chernobyl plant is included in this plan. All the Chernobyl reactors were closed down at the time of the accident, but units 1, 2 and 3 had all been restarted after safety modifications by December 1987. A fire in the turbine hall of unit 2 in 1991 resulted in the closure of that reactor and precipitated a political decision to close the entire plant by 1993. The economic consequences of such action and the safe operation of the remaining two reactors led, however, to the reversal of that decision. Work is now far advanced on unit 2 for a restart in 1996 and the management wants to upgrade all three reactors according to IAEA guidelines. Nevertheless, the question of closure of the Chernobyl plant remains in the air. A conditional acceptance of closure by 2000 has been made by the Ukraine provided the shortfall in power is taken up by a new gas-fired station. International finance is being sought for decommissioning, for urgent action on the decaying sarcophagus of unit 4, and for the gas-fired plant. Closure of the plant, given the social upheaval of the accident and recent political events, could contribute to the health of the Ukrainian national psyche. (UK)

  18. Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic and scientific methodical ways of it fulfilling; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences, search

  19. Level of health of cleaners taking part in the Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period of 1986-1988 about 3,000 Moldova citizens took part in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences elimination. In this article the level of morbidity, disability and mortality among Chernobyl accident consequences liquidation participants is analyzed. As a result of analysis of medical documentation and statistical data was revealed that the sickness rate among disaster fighters 2,3 times higher than general sickness rate of the population in Moldova. Disability in this category is at average of 73 per cent as opposed to the overall index for the population of Moldova - 4,4%, this means it is 17 times higher. Mortality among the participants of the accident at Chernobyl NPP is 6 times higher of general data. The participants of the breakdown elimination of Chernobyl accident consequences are equal in their right with the participants and invalids of war and with the disabled workers. Medical and social security of this group is regulated by the legislation of the Republic of Moldova

  20. Cohort formation for epidemiological study of medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belarus State Registry of the Chernobyl-affected population contains information about 276 000 residents of the Republic of Belarus exposed due to the Chernobyl NPP accident. Evidently, the population who lived in the evacuation zone was exposed mostly to radiation and also people participating in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences (emergency workers) within this zone in early post accident period of the catastrophe. Taking into account this criterion, we singled out the group out of all data files including all people who stayed in the evacuation zone not later than on May 31, 1986. The total number of the group made up 39 548 people including 4251 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. By preliminary estimation the number of person-years taking into account the deceased and left out of observation made up at the beginning of 2007- 735 600. During the period since 1986 there was detected 2671 cases of malignant tumors in the cohort and among people who were children and adolescents in 1986 there was registered 106 cases of malignant tumors (82% -thyroid cancer). Among 7483 of the deceased, malignant tumors is the cause of death at 1260 people. At present the real number of alive and remained subjects under observation makes up 25359 people including 2321 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. This group will form the base for further prospective research aiming at assessment of medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. (author)

  1. 20 years after the Chernobyl catastrophe: the consequences in the Republic of Belarus and their overcoming. National report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the report there were used the results of the scientific research carried out on demand of the Chernobyl committee, the data of the National academy of sciences of Belarus, of the Ministry of natural resources and environment protection, the Ministries of health, agriculture and food, forestry, education and other authorities of management control, participating in the measures aimed at getting over the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. It was written the Chernobyl NPP accident and radioactive contamination of territory of Belarus, radioecological consequences of the disaster, population exposure doses and health effect of the Chernobyl accident, economic and social damage. The State policy of the Republic of Belarus on overcoming of the accident consequences and outcomes of the countermeasures targeted at mitigation of the Chernobyl consequences were given. It was done analysis of the international cooperation in solving of the Chernobyl problems. The aim of the national report is to promote the distribution of the impartial information about the situation after the Chernobyl catastrophe in the Republic of Belarus

  2. Challenges to decision makers after urban contamination: The Chernobyl experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The real history of the Chernobyl decisions will probably be published in ten or fifty years after the death of the politicians who made those decisions and the soviet scientists who were there creating them. But that is not out of the possibility that real and tragic history will never be published at all. This is mainly because the most hard and responsible Chernobyl decisions which had to be made in the situation of acute time, skill and information deficit, had been marked by the stamp of time and society where all of us, including the authors, were living. Never before, and I hope very much, never in the future, has humanity faced the industrial nuclear-radiation accident with the scale like Chernobyl NPP accident. So it's extremely important to summarise and put together not only the scientific but human experience of the scientists which directly formed the large-scale decisions. It is very important to explain to society not only the scientific background of those decisions but also the scientists' personal views, their personal impressions as at the time of decision making as in eight years after the accident. (author)

  3. Slovak Chernobyl /1976/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this video-film history of Bohunice A-1 NPP is presented. The A-1 reactor was an experimental reactor, which during 1973 - 1977 this NPP produced electricity. In January 5, 1976 during refuelling of fuel elements one of them was hurled and carbon dioxide leaks into reactor hall. The operator Viliam Paces packed the hole with refuelling machine. In this film process of refuelling and this reactor accident are reconstructed and reasons are analysed. Two workers were killed outside the premises of the reactor hall. Direct participants as well as one son of the victim recall about this accident. After repairing of the reactor this nuclear power plant was again put into operation. But in February 22, 1977 the second accident (level 4 of the INES scale) occurred after which the nuclear power plant has been closed.

  4. Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

  5. Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacronique, J.F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Deconinck, F.; Govaerts, P.; Eggermont, C. [SCK-CEN - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Cort, M. de [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, DG JRC EC (Italy); Joulia, J.P. [EuropeAid Co-operation Office, EC, Brussels (Belgium); Dal, A.H.; Balonov, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Kenigsberg, J. [Commission on Radiation protection, council of ministry (Belarus); Hindie, E. [Universites Paris, 75 (France); Havenaar, M. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

  6. Chernobyl risk reduction via ventilation stack repair: a successful international project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently completed project to repair the ChNPP Unit 3/4 ventilation stack is the first international project providing a direct physical improvement and safety upgrade at the Shelter (Ukrytie) facility. The 1986 explosion at Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 severely damaged the ventilation stack framework of bracing and its foundation. At one node, where six elements of the framework joined together, one element was completely missing one element was torn from the node and left hanging from its other end, and one element was badly bent and dented. Foundation supports were knocked measurably off plumb. Repair of the ChNPP ventilation stack is the first international project providing direct physical improvement and safety upgrade at the Shelter facility. The repairs have restored the stack to full design strength, from an emergency condition with a high probability of collapse

  7. [Dynamics of tritium content in flood-lands reservoirs of the Pripyat river and cooling pond of the Chernobyl nuclear plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I

    1999-01-01

    Tritium content in water from natural and artificial reservoirs within 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP has been determined. The increase of Tritium activity in the involved water reserwous has been registered in May 1994 and April 1995. As supposed the source of the increase, nuclear power plants, equipped with WWER reactors and located in catchment area of Pripyat river. PMID:10689425

  8. Electrical Grid Conditioning For First NPP Integration, a Systems Engineering Approach Incorporating Quality Function Deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant has a high potential to cause serious harm to environment as evidenced by effects of Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents. A reliable electrical power is required for a NPP to facilitate cooling after a shutdown. Failure of electrical power supply during shutdown increases core damage probability. Research shows that a total of 39% of LOOP related events in US are electrical grid centered. In Korea, 38% and 29% of all events that led to NPP shutdown at Hanul units 3-6 and at Hanbit units 3-6 respectively were electrical related. Electric grids for both operating and new NPPs must therefore be examined and upgraded for reliability improvement in order to enhance NPP safety

  9. Chernobyl - and then?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes how the different parties of the nuclear debate react to, and deal with, the information that arises on the issue, i.e. the process that leads to decision making. After the Chernobyl accident, a public enquiry was made, to form a base for decisions regarding the future energy policy of Sweden, including the phasing-out of nuclear power. The differing interpretations and uses of the results of this enquiry are studied, in the hope to clarify and separate factual and value-based appreciations of different energy policy alternatives

  10. Chernobyl: an early report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview and assessment of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl is presented. The authors have assembled data from throughout Europe to estimate upper bounds for the possible radiation releases from the accident, the exposures these may produce in humans, and the health consequences that may follow. Measurements of radioactivity in air, fallout, and milk and other food are included. Doses from the accident are compared with those from other sources of radiation exposure and a comparison is made of the annual risk of cancer from this and other causes

  11. The accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

  12. Chernobyl' 94. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains materials of the 4th International Scientific and Technical Conference devoted to the results of 8-years work on Chernobyl accident consequences mitigation. Main results of research in radiation monitoring, applied radioecology, effect of radionuclides on biological objects in contaminated territories are presented. Information about waste management and medical consequences of the accident is given. Methodology and strategic of further research on radionuclides in environment and their influence on living organisms is determined. Large factual materials and its generalization may be usefull for scientists and practical workers in the field of radiation monitoring, radiology and medicine

  13. Evaluation investigation 'Chernobyl'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an evaluation of the attitude of the Dutch government in response to the Chernobyl accident. It deals with measures taken by the government in order to minimize the (possible) effects, apparent shortcomings and how one has dealt with them, measures which can be taken at least by the Netherlands in case of a reactor accident given the presence of dozens of nuclear power plants in Europe. Good and less good aspects of the temporary organization are noted and some general recommendations are given. (Auth.)

  14. US perspective on Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Soviet medical response to the Chernobyl catastrophe was impressive and demonstrated an enviable level of radiobiologic competence. It also afforded the first opportunity to test the usefulness of bone marrow transplantation as life saving therapy for heavily irradiated patients under emergency conditions. More than 135,000 persons were at risk of exposure to life-threatening levels of radiation. A remarkably engineered evacuation of this population prevented the medical consequences from becoming worse than they were. Our medical perspective is based on the 40-year history of radiation incidents worldwide and especially in the United States

  15. Chernobyl, fifteen years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has been constituted around four questions: the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor, and the sarcophagus around it; the health consequences of the accident on the persons that have worked on the damaged reactor and on the population in the countries the most exposed to fallout,; the situation of contaminated territories around the power plant and their management today; the last question concerns especially the France with the consequences of the radioactive cloud and what we know about the health risks induced by this event. (N.C.)

  16. Control of NPP aging processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of the control program on the NPP aging processes is considered. The methodological algorithms for the working programs plotting and realization, intended for accomplishing the measures for mitigating the aging mechanisms and factors, effecting the NPP safety, are presented. The efficiency of the equipment for the aging processes control and power units systems, aimed at the control of the NPP service life, is analyzed

  17. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl Sarcophagus waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen years after the accident of unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP the Sarcophagus still remains one of the most dangerous nuclear facilities in the world. The ruin of the destroyed unit 4 and its surrounding Sarcophagus together are termed object Shelter, which still comprises about 96 % of the spent nuclear fuel. The big amount of irradiated nuclear fuel and radioactive waste may cause potential radiological hazards. Thus, a comprehensive and detailed description of all parameters having influence on the safety state of the Sarcophagus was needed. At the Vienna Chernobyl Conference in April 1996 Germany and France declared to support the international co-operation of institutions of the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia in view of a solution of the Chernobyl related issues. The first project identified within the French-German Initiative (FGI) was dedicated to the safety state of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus. This FGI project has been funded by the governments and by the electricity utilities of Germany and France, respectively, with 2 million Euro. The main aim of the project was to collect, analyse and verify all safety relevant data and to integrate these data in a comprehensive data base. The major fields of investigation were building constructions, systems and equipment, radiological situation, nuclear fuel, radioactive waste and environmental impact. In this paper in a first step the spent nuclear fuel and the correlating radiological hazards will be described briefly. In the following sections the FGI Sarcophagus project along with some results and practical applications to estimate the radiological risks as well as to support maintenance, waste management and stabilization measures will be presented

  18. Development of an NDA system for high-level waste from the Chernobyl new safe confinement construction site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-yoon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Browne, Michael C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rael, Carlos D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carroll, Colin J [SONALYST INC.; Sunshine, Alexander [NA-243; Novikov, Alexander [CHNPP; Lebedev, Evgeny [CHNPP

    2010-01-01

    In early 2009, preliminary excavation work has begun in preparation for the construction of the New Safe Confinement (NSC) at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in Ukraine. The NSC is the structure that will replace the present containment structure and will confine the radioactive remains of the ChNPP Unit-4 reactor for the next 100 years. It is expected that special nuclear material (SNM) that was ejected from the Unit-4 reactor during the accident in 1986 could be uncovered and would therefore need to be safeguarded. ChNPP requested the assistance of the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) with developing a new non-destructive assay (NDA) system that is capable of assaying radioactive debris stored in 55-gallon drums. The design of the system has to be tailored to the unique circumstances and work processes at the NSC construction site and the ChNPP. This paper describes the Chernobyl Drum Assay System (CDAS), the solution devised by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sonalysts Inc., and the ChNPP, under NNSA's International Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP). The neutron counter measures the spontaneous fission neutrons from the {sup 238}U, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 244}Cm in a waste drum and estimates the mass contents of the SNMs in the drum by using of isotopic compositions determined by fuel burnup. The preliminary evaluation on overall measurement uncertainty shows that the system meets design performance requirements imposed by the facility.

  19. Chernobyl: the long shadow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl: the Long Shadow offers a balanced review of what happened there, why and how it happened, and what the main lessons and implications of the accident are. It looks back on events during and after the disaster, in particular reviewing how it and the radiation fallout were dealt with in different countries, and looks forward to how the incident might affect the nuclear power industry around the world. The book explores the significance of the accident within the Soviet Union, considers its impact on public confidence in nuclear power, and reviews what improvements are necessary in emergency planning throughout the rest of the world. It is written from an inter-disciplinary perspective; based on detailed scientific research, which is described in non-specialist terms, it considers themes like attitudes to nuclear power and political reactions to the accident itself. It sets the Chernobyl accident into a proper context, and will appeal to students and teachers of geography, environmental science, international politics, nuclear physics, and to anyone interested in current affairs and environmental problems. (author)

  20. Chernobyl, an opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the circumstances of the Chernobyl accident, and given some indications of associated releases (iodine 131, caesium 134 and 137), the authors gives an overview of biological effects of radiations: generalities (doses, biological effects), results of epidemiological studies in terms of stochastic effects of radiations (for survivals of atomic explosions, in other epidemiological studies, in epidemiological studies related to thyroid), of relationship between dose and effect in the case of low doses (generalities, risk coefficients), and of extrapolation. In the next part, the authors discuss the health consequences of the accident in the former USSR and in the world: consequences noticed by the end of 2000 (non stochastic effects, stochastic effects like occurrence of thyroid cancers or of leukaemia, exposed populations, occurrence of other cancers), predictions of impacts and death on a long term due to stochastic effects (for thyroid cancers, leukaemia and other cancers), global assessment. Then, they discuss the impact of the Chernobyl accident: generalities, doses delivered to the whole body, thyroid cancers

  1. Dispersion modelling after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the time of the Chernobyl accident, little was known about the magnitude and time pattern of the release from the damaged reactor. This paper describes the detective work done in the weeks following the accident to assess the release and its dispersal across Europe; also new calculations done since the USSR presentations in Vienna at the end of August 1986 and some estimates of longer term collective dose commitment are given. The MESOS computer model developed at Imperial College to simulate the dispersal of hypothetical accidental releases of important radionuclides, out to distances of several hundred kilometers, and estimate levels of contamination in the air and deposited on the ground, was adapted for real time use. Combined with meteorological data and measurements of radionuclides collected from miscellaneous sources across Europe, it was possible to estimate how much had been released. To conclude, some general remarks are made about the implications of the Chernobyl accident for technical support in emergency procedures for any future nuclear accident. (UK)

  2. The international Chernobyl project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article summarizes the official report of the International Advisory Committee at the conference of the International Chernobyl Project held in Vienna, May 1991. More details will be found in the actual report, ''The International Chernobyl Project: An Overview'' (INI22:066284/5). Measurements and assessments carried out under the project provided general corroboration of the levels of surface cesium-137 contamination reported in the official maps. The project also concluded that the official procedures for estimating radiation doses to the population were scientifically sound, although they generally resulted in overestimates of two- to threefold. The project could find no marked increase in the incidence of leukemia or cancer, but reported absorbed thyroid doses in children might lead to a statistically detectable rise in the incidence of thyroid tumors. Significant non-radiation-related health disorders were found, and the accident had substantial psychological consequences in terms of anxiety and stress. The project concluded that the protective measures taken were too extreme, and that population relocation and foodstuff restrictions should have been less extensive

  3. Territory contamination with the radionuclides representing the fuel component of Chernobyl fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashparov, V A; Lundin, S M; Zvarych, S I; Yoshchenko, V I; Levchuk, S E; Khomutinin, Y V; Maloshtan, I M; Protsak, V P

    2003-12-30

    The data obtained through a series of experiments were used to specify the correlation of activities of the fuel component radionuclides of Chernobyl fallout and to create the maps of the 30-km Chernobyl zone terrestrial density of contamination with 154Eu, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am (on 01.01.2000). In the year 2000, total inventories of the fuel component radionuclides in the upper 30-cm soil layer of the 30-km Chernobyl zone in Ukraine (outside the ChNPP industrial site, excluding the activity located in the radioactive waste storages and in the cooling pond) were estimated as: 90Sr--7.7 x 10(14) Bq; 137Cs--2.8 x 10(15) Bq; 154Eu--1.4 x 10(13) Bq; 238Pu--7.2 x 10(12) Bq; 239+240Pu--1.5 x 10(13) Bq; 241Am--1.8 x 10(13) Bq. These values correspond to 0.4-0.5% of their amounts in the ChNPP unit 4 at the moment of the accident. The current estimate is 3 times lower than the previous widely-cited estimates. Inventories of the fuel component radionuclides were also estimated in other objects within the 30-km zone and outside it. This allowed more accurate data to be obtained on the magnitude of a relative release of radionuclides in the fuel particles (FP) matrix during the Chernobyl accident outside the ChNPP industrial site. It amounts to 1.5+/-0.5% of these radionuclides in the reactor, which is 2 times lower than the previous estimates. Two-thirds of the radionuclides release in the FP was deposited on the territory of Ukraine. PMID:14630415

  4. Territory contamination with the radionuclides representing the fuel component of Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data obtained through a series of experiments were used to specify the correlation of activities of the fuel component radionuclides of Chernobyl fallout and to create the maps of the 30-km Chernobyl zone terrestrial density of contamination with 154Eu, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am (on 01.01.2000). In the year 2000, total inventories of the fuel component radionuclides in the upper 30-cm soil layer of the 30-km Chernobyl zone in Ukraine (outside the ChNPP industrial site, excluding the activity located in the radioactive waste storages and in the cooling pond) were estimated as: 90Sr-7.7x1014 Bq; 137Cs-2.8x1015 Bq; 154Eu-1.4x1013 Bq; 238Pu-7.2x1012 Bq; 239+240Pu-1.5x1013 Bq; 241Am-1.8x1013 Bq. These values correspond to 0.4-0.5% of their amounts in the ChNPP unit 4 at the moment of the accident. The current estimate is 3 times lower than the previous widely-cited estimates. Inventories of the fuel component radionuclides were also estimated in other objects within the 30-km zone and outside it. This allowed more accurate data to be obtained on the magnitude of a relative release of radionuclides in the fuel particles (FP) matrix during the Chernobyl accident outside the ChNPP industrial site. It amounts to 1.5±0.5% of these radionuclides in the reactor, which is 2 times lower than the previous estimates. Two-thirds of the radionuclides release in the FP was deposited on the territory of Ukraine

  5. Russian NPP I and C systems and NPP safety problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long experience of nuclear power plant (NPP) operation both in Russia and over the world confirms that both power and economic characteristics as well as NPP safety depend on possibilities and specifications of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems. That is why the more serious attention is paid to the problems of improvement of I and C systems in all countries

  6. Chernobyl catastrophe: Information for people living in the contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive blow-outs after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant catastrophe reached many states. The largest amount of them (according to experts' estimations - 70%) fell out on the Belarus territory. The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. More than 14 years have passed since the Chernobyl NPP accident but some of the problems caused by the catastrophe have not been solved. This is bound up, first of all, with a high collective dosage absorbed by the population, with difficulties in forecasting and prophylactics of remote radiological effects, with ecological and economic crisis. The consequences of the disaster greatly affect all the aspects of vital activities of the affected regions and the state as a whole. Destructive tendencies have been revealed in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population inhabiting the contaminated territory and resettled as well, require considerable optimisation. Negative factors of the Chernobyl catastrophe, which are significant for human health can be divided into two groups as follows: radiation-based, directly related to influence of ionising radiation and non radiation based, related to changes in habitat and prolonged psychological stress. The specific peculiarities of psychogenic disorders caused by the catastrophe are determined by the following reasons: insufficient knowledge of radiation effects; constant apprehension for the health and well-being of themselves and their families, especially children; unexpected change of the life stereotype (forced resettlement, the break of the former life, changing the place and the character of work, etc.); the necessity of constant keeping precaution measures and prophylactic

  7. Chernobyl's legacy: Health, environmental and socio-economic impacts and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The Chernobyl Forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, many questions remained unanswered regarding the health, environmental, and socio-economic consequences of the disaster. The individuals and countries most affected had yet to obtain a clear scientific consensus on the impact of the accident and authoritative answers to outstanding questions. To fill this void and to promote better understanding and improved measures to deal with the impacts of the accident, the Chernobyl Forum was established in 2003. The Chernobyl Forum is an initiative of the IAEA, in cooperation with the WHO, UNDP, FAO, UNEP, UN-OCHA, UNSCEAR, the World Bank and the governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten-year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. To provide a basis for achieving the goal of the Forum, the IAEA convened an expert working group of scientists to summarize the environmental effects, and the WHO convened an expert group to summarize the health effects and medical care programmes in the three most affected countries. The information presented in this document and in the two full expert group reports has been drawn from scientific studies undertaken by the IAEA, WHO, UNSCEAR and numerous other authoritative bodies. In addition, UNDP has drawn on the work of eminent economists and policy specialists to assess the socio-economic impact of the Chernobyl accident, based largely on the 2002 UN study as above

  8. Preparation for Ignalina NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latest developments of atomic energy in Lithuania, works done to prepare Ignalina NPP for final shutdown and decommissioning are described. Information on decommissioning program for Ignalina NPP unit 1, decommissioning method, stages and funding is presented. Other topics: radiation protection, radioactive waste management and disposal. Key facts related to nuclear energy in Lithuania are listed

  9. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the most severe in the nuclear industry. The accident caused the rapid death of 31 power plant employees and firemen, mainly from acute radiation exposures and burns, and brought about the evacuation of 116,000 people within a few weeks. In addition, about half a million workers and four million members of the public have been exposed, to some extent, to radiation doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. A large number of radiation measurements have been made since the accident in order to reconstruct the doses received by the most exposed populations. On the basis of currently available information, it appears that: (1) average doses received by clean-up workers from external irradiation decreased with time, being about 300 mGy for the persons who worked in the first three months after the accident, about 170 mGy for the remainder of 1986, 130 mGy in 1987, 30 mGy in 1988, and 15 mGy in 1989; (2) the evacuees received, before evacuation, effective doses averaging 11 mSv for the population of Pripyat, and 18 mSv for the remainder of the population of the 30 km zone, with maximum effective doses ranging up to 380 mSv; and (3) among the populations living in contaminated areas, the highest doses were those delivered to the thyroids of children. Thyroid doses derived from thyroid measurements among Belarussian and Ukrainian children indicate median thyroid doses of about 300 mGy, and more than 1% of the children with thyroid doses in excess of 5000 mGy. A description is provided of the epidemiological studies that the National Cancer Institute has, since 1990, at the request of the Department of Energy, endeavoured to undertake, in cooperation with Belarus and Ukraine, on two possible health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident: (1, thyroid cancer in children living in contaminated areas during the first few weeks following the accident, and (2) leukaemia among workers involved in clean

  10. Chernobyl. Answers to your questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, this document takes stock on the existing information and enhance the elements which can be set with certainty. The accident is recalled and the environmental and biological effects are presented. (A.L.B.)

  11. IAEA recommendations on NPP safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codes developed in IAEA on the basis of the NUSS program (Nuclear Safety Standards) concerning nuclear safety of thermal reactor NPPs and published in 1978 are considered. 5 main codes and manuals have been stated: 1. Governmental organization for the regulation of NPP; 2. Safety in NPP siting; 3. Design for safety of NPP; 4. Safety in NPP operation; 5. Quality assuarance for safety in Nuclear Power Plants. The Codes contain recommendations on providing safety of population and personnel as well as on environmental protection. They also contain criteria and proper measures corresponding to both operating conditions of NPP and possible emergency conditions. Some provisions in the Codes may be also used, for providing radiation safety and at the external fuel cycle plants

  12. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  13. Bhopal and Chernobyl: some comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to compare some aspects of the accidents at Bhopal and Chernobyl, their causes and consequences. There were design and management inadequacies in both cases, Maintenance inadequacies were plenty in Bhopal but not in Chernobyl. Written instructions were unsatisfactory in Bhopal. In Chernobyl the operators deliberately violated the instructions repeatedly; this compounded by the unsatisfactory nature of reactor design, led to the accident. Disaster management preparedness and emergency response were excellent at Chernobyl. At Bhopal the plant management was absolutely unprepared and contributed practically nothing to the emergency management; however, civil and military authorities did a splendid job. Immediate deaths in Bhopal are estimated to be 2,500 to 10,000 and the number affected 200,000. None of the plant staff were affected and all the casualties were in non-plant personnel living nearby. All the 31 deaths in Chernobyl were among the plant personnel. Although 135,000 persons living in a 30 Km zone round the reactor were evacuated and medically examined, none had to be hospitalised. The world scientific community seems to have forgotten Bhopal within a year or so after the accident, while Chernobyl continues to excite intense interest. Extensive knowledge of the biological effects of radiation helps to estimate the likely number of cancer and genetic effects from Chernobyl. Knowledge of Methyl iso cyanate (MIC) toxicology is woefully inadequate; recent evidence indicates the possibility of carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of MIC. Both at Bhopal and Chernobyl there are elaborate plans for detailed followup of the populations for several decades. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs

  14. Some problems of invalids of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe caused health disorders of the liquidators, and as a result many of them became handicapped. The rate of health disorders among the invalids of Chernobyl is a few times higher than that of other citizens of the country. The invalids of Chernobyl need constant support, social help, medical rehabilitation and qualified medical care. Invalids of Chernobyl suffered from the consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe most of all. We are turning to foreign charity organizations for help in creating the Center of Psychological Support and organizing working places with flexible hours for Invalids of Chernobyl. (Authors)

  15. Health effects from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many misconceptions of the effects on health from the accident at Chernobyl. The 1996 conference in Vienna held one decade after the event, and more recent material being examined by UNSCEAR, provide a more soundly-based view. Apart from an increase in thyroid cancer in some of those people exposed as children, there is no evidence of a major public health impact to date from radiation exposures caused by the accident. There is no increase in leukemia attributable to radiation exposure, the most likely indicator, even in the group of radiation workers. Definitive studies of the health status of the various groups involved have been difficult to carry out because of the socio-economic conditions. Clearly, their continuation is going to need further international cooperation. (author)

  16. Chernobyl health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 26 April 1986, a few short minutes were not enough to destroy one of the four nuclear reactors at Chernobyl and cause, over the next few weeks, the deaths of 31 people from among the staff, rescuers and firefighters who had dealt with the accident and prevented the spread of the catastrophe to the other three reactors on the site. The experts and the authorities soon recognized that the consequences of this event for the environment and for the surrounding populations would last several decades. Forecast estimates from very diverse sources of the nature and extent of these consequences came thick and fast, particularly in the years 1986 and 1987. Unfortunately, they differed so greatly in both time and space that they lacked all credibility. As the news spread through the public, it could only worsen a social climate which was already seriously upset by the effects of the catastrophe itself. 55 refs

  17. Environmental radioactivity from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broadly based programme of environmental measurements following the Chernobyl accident is summarised and discussed. Levels of radionuclides in air and atmospheric deposition were increased substantially for a period of some weeks following the accident. The quantity of 137Cs in surface soils was doubled in some regions of the North and West of the UK. Observations of the rates of deposition and resuspension, and weathering from grass, a river catchment and buildings, provided confirmation of several aspects of the environmental behaviour of 137Cs, and extended understanding of these processes. Levels of 137Cs in imported crops and in individuals in S. England, and the brief increase in external radiation, were generally low, confirming that the dose to the regional population was small. (author)

  18. The Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl disaster is examined in chronological order from the experiment that led to the explosions, to the firefighting efforts, the release of radioactivity, its fallout, the evacuations from the contaminated zone and the long-term medical, ecological, economic and political repercussions. The sources of information are nearly all Soviet - the Ukranian and Russian press, Moscow and Kiev radio broadcasts, Soviet television documentaries and the report of the Soviet government commission to the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986. Reports by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the Central Electricity Generating Board and the International Atomic Energy Agency have also been used. The latter chapters look at who was to blame for the accident, what impact the accident has had on Soviet society and why the Soviet government continues to expand its nuclear power programme. (author)

  19. Problems of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collection includes the materials, in which are, from one hand, the results of previous years works aimed at mitigation of Chernobyl accident aftermath and decrease of 'Ukryttia' object impact to surrounding environment are generalized and summed up, and from another hand, decisions and technologies are seen that are aimed at decrease of nuclear and radiation safety during the works of converting 'Ukryttia' object into an ecologically safe system. over fifteen years passed from the accident moment a rich experience in overcoming the accident aftermath has been accumulated and a great volume of experimental and theoretical data was gained, that is becoming as a base for further developments and testing of new technologies of 'Ukryttia' object rad waste management, lowering of risks during the works of 'Ukryttia' object conversion, improvement of its nuclear and radiation safety

  20. Ten years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As was amply demonstrated during the EU/IAEA/WHO Summing-up-Conference in Vienna, Austria, April 8-12, 1996, the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident were, fortunately, not as serious as frequently presented in the media: 28 people died from acute radiation syndrome in 1986, 14 more of possibly radiation-related causes since. Of the <1000 thyroid cancers in children, 90 to 95% are curable. There have so far been no other demonstrable increases in the former Soviet Union, as well as in Western Europe, of leukemias, solid cancers, or genetic defects, nor are any to be expected in the future. Even among the open-quotes liquidatorsclose quotes with doses ∼100 mSv, of the ∼150 additional expected leukemias during the 10 yr after the accident, none have been observed. The economical, social, and political consequences, however, both in the former Soviet Union and in Western Europe, have been very substantial. Whole countries developed an hysterical 'radiation sickness.' As A. Merkel, the German Minister of Environment and Reactor Safety, who chaired the conference, pointed out, 'the radiation sensitivity of societies far exceeds that of individuals.' It is obvious that important groups in Ukraine, Belaurus, and Russia try to blame a large fraction of all economic, social, and health problems during the last decade, which are substantial (∼ 6 yr less life expectancy, twice the homicides and traffic deaths, increased alcoholism, and so forth), on radiation of the Chernobyl accident in an effort to attract more support. Western scientists refute such claims but admit large non-radiation-related problems caused by the accident

  1. Risk Assessments for Workers and the Population Following the Chernobyl Accident. Annex XI of Technical Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The doses received by emergency workers at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP were much lower than those of the Chernobyl emergency workers (referred to as ‘liquidators’) and there is no evidence of an increased risk for Chernobyl workers below an equivalent dose of 150 mGy, so the inferred risks are expected to be small. Nevertheless, it is useful to adopt a similar modelling approach. The main estimates of radiation risks for the cohort of Chernobyl emergency workers who received moderate doses are in good quantitative agreement with the results for atomic bomb survivors if the linear non-threshold (LNT) model is used. The minimum latency period for radiation related solid cancers in the Russian cohort was estimated as four years. No statistically significant relationship was found between the thyroid cancer incidence and external radiation for the Russian cohort of liquidators

  2. Problems of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone, aimed at the development of technologies, equipment and devices for radioactive waste management and ChNPP accident clean-up, at studying the composition and structure of the Exclusion zone soil activity solid bearers, form transformation of the fission products of fuel fallout radionuclide composition in the ChNPP near zone, the spatial distribution of radionuclides and other radioecological issues.. Much attention is paid to medical and biological aspects of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the workers of the Exclusion zone

  3. Chernobyl disaster non-stochastic effects on thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a thyroid system clinical-laboratory study among the Chernobyl NPP accident survivors are presented.Studies have been carried out in hospital and out-patient clinics for 13 years since the accident.Over 23,000 persons were examined according to the standardised protocol with general clinical examination,thyroid ultrasonography and hormonal assay.Persons involved were representatives of the surviving population of various registration groups both control and comparison groups.Development of chronic thyroiditis and hypothyroidism - the thyroid radiation exposure non-stochastic effects was surveyed.The direct link between them and radiation exposure,dose threshold and dose-effect relationship were revealed.The role of immuno endocrine and neuroendocrine disorders in the thyroid diseases genesis was fixed in survivors

  4. Immunological status of different categories of population after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of immune status of the victims of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident irradiated in different doses was performed. Acute postradiation immunodeficiency in heavily exposed persons was changed in 6-24 months to the 5-7 year period of restitution and the latter was succeeded by normalization of CD3+, CD+, CD11+ cell count and serum IgG and IgA content in certain patients, while the others revealed immunologic deficiency of the mixed type. HLA-antigenic combinations connected to the increased radiosensitivity were found out. Elaboration of in vitro tests for surface antigens expression in response to thymic peptides allowed to make adequate immunocorrection if needed. (author)

  5. Development and licensing of a melting plant for Chernobyl scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One decade after the accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a melting plant for radioactively contaminated metallic materials, the so-called SURF facility, is being planned and licensed for erection in the direct neighbourhood of the NPP area. Main goal is the recycling of the material largely decontaminated by the melting process, by means of manufacturing of casks and containers for waste disposal and of shielding equipment. The melting plant will be part of the Ukrainian waste handling centre (CPPRO). The technology is based on the long-term experience gained at Siempelkamp's CARLA plant in Krefeld. Within 1995 and 1996 the licensing conditions were defined, the licensing documents prepared and the formal procedure initiated. The complex is scheduled to start operation in 2001, in case the necessary financing is allocated. To this end the proposed site of the facility has undergone the state assessment. The technical documentation for construction is at the stage of development. (author)

  6. Speciation of environmental radionuclides in the Chernobyl 30 Km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a summary from previously published ones. Speciation of environmental substances with radioactive Cs, Sr and transuranic isotopes has been examined about surface soil and water leachate sampled from the exclusion zone (30 km zone) around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP). Sequential selective extraction was carried out on surface soil samples. 90Sr in the soil was estimated to be highest in the water soluble and exchangeable fractions which were easily accessible to river and ground water as a dissolved fraction. Pu isotopes and 241Am are major radionuclides in free humic and free fulvic acid fractions. Ultra filtration has been used for water samples as another technique for speciation. Most Pu and Am exist in the molecular weight fractions of beyond 10 000 Dalton. This means that transuranic elements are associated with mobile high molecular weight materials like fulvic acids in water leachates. (authors)

  7. NPP Prevlaka - Preparation of construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of study 'Optimal electricity generation structure till the year 2000' production of 3 x 500 MWe in nuclear power plants has been anticipated. Second Croatian-Slovenian NPP project will be based on the same principles the first one (NPP Krsko) was based on. Preconstruction investigation studies are performed at site Prevlaka on river Sava downstream of Zagreb. Licensing procedure has started with republic Urban countryside planning activities. Preconstruction activities are planned to be finished by the end of 1986. while the construction is expected to start during 1987. Parallel to investigation studies for NPP Prevlaka, evaluation of nuclear technology and reactor type is planned to be made. (author)

  8. The seismic reassessment Mochovce NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of Mochovce NPP was based on the Novo-Voronez type WWER-440/213 reactor - twin units. Seismic characteristic of this region is characterized by very low activity. Mochovce NPP site is located on the rock soil with volcanic layer (andesit). Seismic reassessment of Mochovce NPP was done in two steps: deterministic approach up to commissioning confirmed value Horizontal Peak Ground Acceleration HPGA=0.1 g and activities after commissioning as a consequence of the IAEA mission indicate higher hazard values. (author)

  9. Chernobyl and status of nuclear power development in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident has seriously affected development of the USSR nuclear power program. But it has not eliminated the basic prerequisites for nuclear power development in the USSR which are: - resources and consumption territorial disproportions; - large share of oil and gas in electricity generation; - negative ecological aspects of coal plants; - high power industry development rate. At the same time it has aggravated the old problems and has given rise to some new-ones of which the most important are: - increased safety requirements; rise in costs; longer construction schedules; public opinion. On the whole for further safe development of nuclear power a detailed analysis of the Chernobyl accident is required, including studies of long-term accident consequences and measures of their mitigation and elimination. A necessary condition for NPP operation to be continued would also be development and rapid implementation of technical approaches which would permit to eliminate the design shortcomings in the RBMK NPPs both operating and those under construction. At the same time we have to ensure their competitiveness with other energy sources and possibility of expansion of their applications. The problem of public opinion should be emphasised. After the Chernobyl accident we have faced a social phenomenon which is quite new in this country. There is almost no site where the population was not opposed to NPP construction. For us these problems are especially difficult as we have had no experience of this kind of interactions with the public. We are planning and begin to realize a program basing on the current world experience. This program includes primarily a wide series of publications on the problems of nuclear energy its ecologic and economic advantages as compared with conventional and alternative energy sources,, using all cur-rent media. Centers of public information discussion clubs, exhibitions etc are being organized. In particular, our Institute has

  10. Psychological state of the Chernobyl invalids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have conducted an extensive research studying the impact of the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe upon the psychological state of the liquidators, evacuees and invalids of Chernobyl. More than 600 people who suffered from the tragedy in Chernobyl have been interviewed face to face. This report presents the unique findings of the survey conducted

  11. Selection of NPP for Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial NPP for Kazakhstan should to meet to several main requirements: 1). Safety operation (accident probability not more than 10-6 1/p. year). 2). High efficiency > 40 %. 3). Possibility of use for high-temperature chemistry and hydrogen production. 4). Possibility for manufacturing of considerable part of equipment in Kazakhstan. 5). Possibility for fuel production and reprocessing in Kazakhstan. 6). Independence from existence of large water-supply sources. Comparative analysis of several NPP with different reactors (WWR-1000, Candu, BREST, VG-400; graphite molten salt reactor) shows that NPP with the graphite molten salt reactor meets to all above requirements, but hydrogen production it is possible by more complete 4-stage technology, since coolant temperature is 800 Deg. C. The principle advantage is possibility of manufacturing of main equipment and fuel in Kazakhstan that reduce the cost of NPP construction and operation

  12. Proceedings of the Chernobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium (137Cs) and strontium (90Sr). The 137Cs and 90Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place

  13. Speciation of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this analysis was to verify the hypothesis that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in the fallout after the accident could depend on the transport conditions, including the distance of a sampling location from Chernobyl. From the results it is obvious that the prevailing form in all samples taken in the period of direct contamination was water-soluble radiocesium. It can be concluded from the presented results that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol and fallout after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl as well as particulate size distribution can depend on the distance or the conditions of transport from a contamination source to a sampling location. The influence of the conditions of radiocesium transport could result in observed differences in the 137Cs penetration into soil profile in different locations and also in the found dependence on the resuspension factor for 137Cs on the level of its fallout in the period of NPP accident for different locations in Europe. (J.K.) 1 tab

  14. Chernobyl the health consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses initially on selected aspects of the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, and then goes on to discuss some of the pitfalls involved in trying to assess the health detriment in isolation and without regard for the context in which it occurs. The accident on 26 April 1986 was unique. Two explosions, followed by a graphite fire in the destroyed reactor, not only dispersed radionuclides high into the atmosphere, but the fire was instrumental in ensuring the continued dispersion for about ten days. This prolonged discharge into the atmosphere combined with changes in wind direction ensured that radionuclides were widely distributed over Europe and were even detected throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The actual ground deposition was very variable, depending on may factors such as coincident rainfall during the passage of the plume, wind speed and direction, and the topography of the terrain. The mosaic distribution of the ground deposition became much more variable with distance from the site, and is responsible for the wide range of individual doses that characterises this accident. The paper details the health effects of the accident on those immediately involved, and also the delayed health effects, including increased incidence of thyroid cancer, among the populations of surrounding areas of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. It also discusses the widespread psychosocial detriment which resulted from the accident. Finally, the paper evaluated the efficacy of decontamination measures which were adopted in the affected areas in the years following the accident

  15. Psychology of NPP operation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book is devoted to psychologic investigations into different aspects of NPP operative personnel activities. The whole set of conditions on which successful and accident-free personnel operation depends, is analysed. Based on original engineering and socio-psychologic investigations complex psychologic support for NPP personnel and a system of training and upkeep of operative personnel skills are developed. The methods proposed have undergone a practical examination and proved their efficiency. 154 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs

  16. Investigations of radioactivity level variations in Armenia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of radioactive pollution of biosphere has been acquiring a special topicality after nuclear weapon testing and NPP-induced accidents that have already brought to global pollution of the Earth with radioactive substances. One of visual examples of regional radioactive pollution is dispersion of emissions all over the territory of Central Europe after the Chernobyl accident, which aftermaths impacted Armenia, as well. Monitoring investigations in the Ararat Valley showed a precise peak of gross radioactivity of atmospheric fallout in 1986 - the year of Chernobyl accident. Gross mean annual radioactivity was established 1783 10 7 Bq/KXm 2 yr. Later, a sharp fall in the activity was observed. Mostly, radioactive fallout consisted of short-lived radionuclides. Measurements for 1986-1987 showed that gross β-radioactivity level in soils amounted to 977-1022 Bq/KXg, repeated measurements in 1991 allowed establishing 640-656 Bq/KXg. A precise indicator of radioactive emissions that reached Armenia after the Chernobyl accident was a short-lived radionuclide 134 Cs (T1/2=2.07 yr) identified in soils. Measurements made 2 years later showed half as much decay of 134 Cs, and in some points established were its traces only. 137 Cs/134 Cs ratio in varied 1.4 to 1.8 in atmospheric fallout and 2.1 to 33.4 in soils. Thus, monitoring investigations evidence a regional character of Chernobyl emission dispersion, this being proved by investigations of radioactivity level variations in Armenia, too

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - HISTORY AND RESULTS 25 YEARS AFTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  18. Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we present the design review done to date in Canada by AECL. From the Canadian point of view it covers: 1) relevant information on the Chernobyl design and the accident, both as presented by the Soviets at the Post-Accident Review Meeting (PARM) held in Vienna from August 25-29, 1986, and as deduced from publicly available Soviet documentation; and 2) details of AECL's technical review of the CANDU PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) against the background of the Chernobyl accident, and implications of the Chernobyl accident. Reviews of operational aspects are underway by the Canadian electrical utilities and a review by the Canadian regulatory agency (the Atomic Energy Control Board) is near completion

  19. Emergency preparedness lessons from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergency preparedness at nuclear power plants in the U.S has been considerably enhanced since the Three Mile Island accident, The Chernobyl accident has provided valuable data that can be used to evaluate the merit of some of these enhancements and to determine the need for additional improvements, for example, the USSR intervention levels of 25 rem and 75 rem for evacuation are contrasted with U.S Environmental Protection agency protective action guides. The manner in which 135,000 persons were evacuated from the 30-km zone around Chernobyl is contrasted with typical U.S. evacuation plans. Meteorological conditions and particulate deposition patterns were studied to infer characteristics of the radioactive plume from Chernobyl. Typical plume monitoring techniques are examined in light of lessons learned by the Soviets about plume behavior. This review has indicated a need for additional improvements in utility and government emergency plans, procedures, equipment, and training

  20. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techniques currently used in off-site consequence modelling are applied to the Chernobyl accident. Firstly, the time dependent spread of radioactive material across the European continent is considered, followed by a preliminary assessment of the dosimetric impact (in terms of collective and mean individual doses) on the various countries of Eastern and Western Europe. The consequences of the accident in the USSR are also discussed. Finally, the likely implications of the Chernobyl event on research in the field of environmental consequence assessment are outlined. (author)

  1. Chernobyl - considerations of an insurer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author underlines the insurers' reactions after the Chernobyl accident. Firstly, their reactions as providers of security for loss and destruction in power plants and for third party liability: offers of financial cover have not been affected - quite the contrary - since 26 April 1986. He then refers to their consideration of the detrimental consequences: Chernobyl has revealed a new aspect of nuclear incidents - the addition of various types of expenditure quite apart from compensation of personal injury or property may considerably increase their economic impact (NEA)

  2. Post-Chernobyl emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the result of a study ordered by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the National Swedish Institute of Radiation Protection to evaluate the measurements taken in Sweden in response to the Chernobyl accident. The enquiry was also given the task of suggesting improvements of the nuclear accidents emergency planning and other activities relevant to nuclear accidents. Detailed accounts are given of the course of events in Sweden at the Chernobyl accident and the steps taken by central or local authorities are discussed. Several alterations of the emergency planning are proposed and a better coordination of the affected organizations is suggested. (L.E.)

  3. Chernobyl catastrophe: An unexpected result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six years ago, the Chernobyl-4 reactor has exploded. During 10 days , an important part of radioactive products of reactor heart has been ejected in the atmosphere, shaping a radioactive cloud whose the trajectories and fall-outs on all Europe have worried the public opinion. The author, J.C. Nenot and R. Coulon, 6 years after, take stock of the ecological, agricultural and sanitary consequences and if the ecological effects are in a good issue of regression, even near to Chernobyl, on the other hand in medical and sanitary scopes stay uncertainties. 8 refs., 4 figs

  4. The Chernobyl catastrophe consequences in the Republic of Belarus. National report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time

  5. Environmental monitoring of the Kozloduy NPP: 20 year experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation monitoring system of the Kozloduy NPP is described and the assessment of the environmental impact of the power plant is presented. Measurements are carried out in 36 control points distributed in 3 areas: radiation protected area (3 km diameter), radiation controlled area (12 km) and surveillance area (100 km). Comparison of radiation monitoring data for 1993 with data recorded in the pre-operational period (1972-74) show that no significant changes can be detected in the activity of 90 Sr and gross beta activity. An increase in Cs-137 activity (38 Bq/kg d.w. versus 7 Bq/kg d.w.) is found in the soil and bottom sediments in the Danube river, which is attributed to Chernobyl accident. The Kozloduy NPP operation is continuously monitored for release of artificial radionuclides by gaseous and liquid effluents. It is reported that the average population exposure in the 30 km area due to liquid effluents is 3-4.10-4 man Sv/a. A system for automated continuous radiation monitoring in 10 control stations is available in case of radiation accidents. It is supplemented by a mobile laboratory. Meteorological measurements are carried out by automatic station MC-10 and a second station is under construction. 21 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  7. [Comparative analysis of the radionuclide composition in fallout after the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenko, K V; Shinkarev, S M; Abramov, Iu V; Granovskaia, E O; Iatsenko, V N; Gavrilin, Iu I; Margulis, U Ia; Garetskaia, O S; Imanaka, T; Khoshi, M

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear accident occurred at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) (March 11, 2011) similarly to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (April 26, 1986) is related to the level 7 of the INES. It is of interest to make an analysis of the radionuclide composition of the fallout following the both accidents. The results of the spectrometric measurements were used in that comparative analysis. Two areas following the Chernobyl accident were considered: (1) the near zone of the fallout - the Belarusian part of the central spot extended up to 60 km around the Chernobyl NPS and (2) the far zone of the fallout--the "Gomel-Mogilev" spot centered 200 km to the north-northeast of the damaged reactor. In the case of Fukushima accident the near zone up to about 60 km considered. The comparative analysis has been done with respect to refractory radionuclides (95Zr, 95Nb, 141Ce, 144Ce), as well as to the intermediate and volatile radionuclides 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140La, 140Ba and the results of such a comparison have been discussed. With respect to exposure to the public the most important radionuclides are 131I and 137Cs. For the both accidents the ratios of 131I/137Cs in the considered soil samples are in the similar ranges: (3-50) for the Chernobyl samples and (5-70) for the Fukushima samples. Similarly to the Chernobyl accident a clear tendency that the ratio of 131I/137Cs in the fallout decreases with the increase of the ground deposition density of 137Cs within the trace related to a radioactive cloud has been identified for the Fukushima accident. It looks like this is a universal tendency for the ratio of 131I/137Cs versus the 137Cs ground deposition density in the fallout along the trace of a radioactive cloud as a result of a heavy accident at the NPP with radionuclides releases into the environment. This tendency is important for an objective reconstruction of 131I fallout based on the results of 137Cs measurements of soil samples carried out at

  8. Caesium and plutonium migration in forest soils of the Chernobyl 30 km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertical distributions of radiocaesium and plutonium inventories and uranium ratios (238U:235U) are presented for forest soils at three sites within the Chernobyl 30 km exclusion zone. The uranium ratios indicate the presence of reactor fuel fragments ('hot particles') at all sites, but with declining significance with distance from the ChNPP. Caesium and plutonium distributions in soil profiles were evaluated using a compartmental model to derive migration half times for each horizon. Migration rates at each site were lowest for the AoH horizon. The AoH horizon at the site with the largest apparent population of 'hot particles' exibited the longest caesium and plutonium migration half times, which generally decreased with distance from the ChNPP (i.e. with decreasing 'hot particle' densities). Plutonium appears to be more mobile than radiocaesium, possibly due to the movement of soluble Pu humic complexes formed within the surface organic soil horizons. (author)

  9. Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the preparation for the decommissioning of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) an Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management (ICSRM) will be built under the EC TACIS Program in the vicinity of ChNPP. The paper will present the proposed concepts and their integration into existing buildings and installations. Further, the paper will consider the safety cases, as well as the integration of Western and Ukrainian Organizations into a cohesive project team and the requirement to guarantee the fulfillment of both Western standards and Ukrainian regulations and licensing requirements. The paper will provide information on the status of the interim design and the effects of value engineering on the output of basic design phase. The paper therefor summarizes the design results of the involved design engineers of the Design and Process Providers BNFL (LOT 1), RWE NUKEM GmbH (LOT 2 and General) and INITEC (LOT 3)

  10. 20 years after Chernobyl Accident. Future outlook. National Report of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scale of the Chernobyl catastrophe - the most severe man made nuclear accident in the history of mankind - is well known to both scientists and politicians worldwide. The basic causes of the catastrophe were as follows: Conduction an incompletely and incorrectly prepared electrical experiment; The low professional level of operators, and of the NPP management and the officials of the Ministry of Electrification as a whole in the area of NPP safety; Insufficient safety level of the graphite-uranium reactor RBMK-1000; Constructive faults RBMK-1000; Personnel mistakes. The report describes and reviews the actions of the governments of the USSR, Ukraine, and the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine; the activities of scientists in elimination of the accident consequences; and elimination of the additional experience gained over the past years. Mistakes made during these activities are highlighted

  11. Informational and analytical system of estimation and prognosis of radiation situation in NPP supervision area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system is devoted for prognosis of consequences of accidents at the radiation dangerous objects of NPP in a sharp stage and subsequent radionuclide redistribution in a middle stage within the supervision area. The system includes the complex of models for the estimations of release, atmospheric transport and deposition of radioactive aerosols simultaneously from several sources of different types (tall, ground, point area, volume ones). System enables to calculate fields of radionuclides near-surface air concentration and deposition density, external and internal (due tu inhalation) exposure doses for personnel and population. The system is developed for prognosis of radiation situation in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

  12. Experimental Study on NPP MCR Operators' Performance Measure using Functional Performance Measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development for enhancing reliability and safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) have been mainly focused on areas such as automation of facilities, securing safety margin of safety systems, and improvement of main process systems. However the studies of Three Mile Island (TMI), Chernobyl, and other NPP events have revealed that deficiencies in human factors such as poor control room design, procedure, and training, are significant contributing factors to NPPs incidents and accidents. Above of all, human performance measures, therefore, are important to enhance human performance and to reduce the probability of incidents and accidents in NPP. There are several methods to evaluate the human performance such as Operator Performance Assessment System (OPAS) developed by Halden, Human Performance Evaluation Support System (HUPESS), Functional Performance Measure proposed by NRC project and several questionnaire methods. In this paper, Functional Performance Measure is used to evaluate the human operators' performances with Full-scope simulators

  13. Chernobyl assessed (Report of NEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern state of knowledge about Chernobyl accident effect on men's health as well as radiological and social-economic impacts for population of Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation is presented in the report of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Accepted estimations of absorbed radiation dose of population suggest that except the thyroid disease it is improbable that irradiation causes radiation effects among population

  14. Miners take stock after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia's uranium producers, already facing a tough market have been plunged further into the unknown following the accident at Chernobyl. The production of uranium in Australia is reviewed with emphasis on the three uranium miners -Queensland Mines, Energy Resources of Australia and Western Mining Corporation

  15. Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986, the Number 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the Soviet Union suffered a severe accident which destroyed the reactor core and led to a loss of life. The four reactors at this station are of the RBMK-1000 type - boiling-light-water cooled, graphite moderated, vertical pressure-tube reactors, each generating 1000 MW of electricity through two turbines. AECL has carefully studied the accident, and the design of Chernobyl, to see if anything has been overlooked in the CANDU design. This report reviews the results of that study, in particular the relevant features of the Chernobyl design which exacerbated the accident, and compares them to the CANDU 600 design. A number of issues (the sign of the void coefficent and the pressure-tube design) have also been given some international prominence in the post-Chernobyl analysis; these are discussed in this report and shown to be irrelevant to the CANDU design. Finally this report describes the subjects identified for further design follow-up in Canada

  16. Chernobyl its effect on Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the results of the measurements made during the first six months after the Chernobyl accident to determine the extent of the resultant environmental contamination. Estimates are presented of the individual and collective doses received by the public during the first six months and the first year after the accident

  17. The Chernobyl accident. Appendix B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In appendix B, the models introduced in chapter 6 are applied to the study of the Chernobyl accident. This event is very important in the teaching of nuclear engineering, and I have included in this Appendix a relatively detailed description of the accident. However, the analysis is limited to the physics of the relevant phenomena. (author)

  18. Cell damage seen from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 30 kilometer radius forbidden zone around the Chernobyl atomic plant serves as a sobering reminder of the world's worst nuclear accident. But for former Soviet biologists, it's also a unique natural laboratory. And one scientist, Nadejda Gulaya of Kiev's Pallaguine Institute of Biochemistry, has been doing studies that she claims offer surprising evidence of Chernobyl's after-effects. Prolonged exposure to radioactive fallout from the 1986 accident, she says, has caused damage to cell membranes in both animals and humans. For the past year, Gulaya has been comparing tissues from animals such as mink, pigs, and rodents inhabiting the Chernobyl area with those from other parts of Ukraine. Her conclusion: Exposure to radiation has, in many cases, caused alterations to membrane phospholipids. These changes, are similar to those that disrupt cellular metabolism following exposure to oxidizing free radicals. Gulaya also has preliminary data from human studies. She claims to have found similar alterations in the neurons of people who have died since being exposed to Chernobyl radiation. That leads her to speculate that the frequent psychiatric disorders may not just be from mental stress or radiophobia, but might reflect actual damage to the central nervous system

  19. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

  20. Standby after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

  1. Emergency preparedness at Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brief review of Ignalina NPP safety upgrading and personnel preparedness to act in cases of accidents is presented. Though great activities are performed in enhancing the plant operation safety, the Ignalina NPP management pays a lot of attention to preparedness for emergency elimination and take measures to stop emergency spreading. A new Ignalina NPP emergency preparedness plan was drawn up and became operational. It is the main document to carry out organizational, technical, medical, evacuation and other activities to protect plant personnel, population, the plant and the environment from accident consequences. Great assistance was rendered by Swedish experts in drawing this new emergency preparedness plan. The plan consists of 3 parts: general part, operative part and appendixes. The plan is applied to the Ignalina NPP personnel, Special and Fire Brigade and also to other contractor organizations personnel carrying out works at Ignalina NPP. There are set the following emergency classes: incident, emergency situation, alert, local emergency, general emergency. Separate intervention level corresponds to each emergency class. Overview of personnel training to act in case of an emergency is also presented

  2. Teledosimetry system of Mochovce NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-site monitoring posts, inner circuit there are installed 16 detectors for measuring dose rates in a circle line inside the power plant site at the distances between approximately 200 m and 520 m from the exhaust air stack of Mochovce-1,2 NPP. The technical versions of all these measuring posts are from the same type On-site are installed 3 large containers for measuring gamma dose rate and activity concentration of aerosols and iodine too. Off-site monitoring posts at places of living consist of 16 small containers with dose rate measurements and iodine sampling units and 8 large containers with dose rate measurement and aerosol and iodine monitoring unit. Three of these large containers are installed nearby the NPP inside the fence of the NPP area. The technical version of these measuring posts are from the same type. Five of these containers are installed faraway of the NPP outside the fence of the NPP. These five posts are from the same type. The process data is continuously acquired, stored and processed by the Central Radiological Computer System of the power plant. The tele-dosimetry system data are a main part of the radiological information system, which continuously provide the information of the measurements and evaluate possible radiological consequences. (author)

  3. Temelin NPP status and challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation author deals with the NPP Temelin status and challenge. It was concluded that: - Temelin NPP was modified from the every beginning in order to meat internationally acceptable safety level; - IAEA, US and Western countries safety principles, criteria and requirements are mostly applied; - Number of international safety review missions confirmed this fact; All assessments of the Temelin NPP have been positive and all recommendations were carefully considered and either implemented or other equivalent solution was found. Temelin NPP Halliburton NUS audit in 1992 stated that Temelin can be licensable, but licensibility could not be assured unless the audit team's technical and programmatic recommendations are implemented. ENCONET Consulting (Austria) in 1998 stated that: - After modifications are fully implemented, Temelin NPP will be a much safer plant than originally designed and much more safer than some of the already operating WWER 1000 plants; - The process of compatibility was specifically assured by selecting prudent practices acceptable in the Western countries. IAEA mission on Safety issues resolution (1996) stated that: - It is recognized that the Czech Electric Company (CEZ) has made a large effort to improve the design of Temelin independently of the identification of safety issues by the IAEA

  4. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health labour conditions and incidence of the people involved

  5. Safety culture at Mochovce NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the approach of Mochovce NPP to the Safety culture. It presents activities, which have been taken by Mochovce NPP up to date in the area of Safety culture enhancement with the aim of getting the term into the subconscious of each employee, and thus minimising the human factor impact on occurrence of operational events in all safety areas. The article furthermore presents the most essential information on how the elements characterising a continuous progress in reaching the planned Safety culture goals of the company management have been implemented at Mochovce NPP, as well as the management's efforts to get among the best nuclear power plant operators in this area and to be an example for the others. (author)

  6. Ignalina NPP Safety Improvement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 1991, when Lithuania became independent, the new safety improvement activities were initiated. Lithuania committed its responsibility for Ignalina NPP safety. However, it was lack of money for adequate safety improvement. Countries of Western Europe, USA and IAEA assisted Lithuania to carry out a comprehensive Ignalina NPP safety improvement program. Agreement with EBRD was signed in 1994. As a result of some bilateral and multilateral cooperation projects the Ignalina NPP Safety Improvement Programme (SIP-1) was accepted in 1993.This program was being implemented during 1993-1996. The Safety Analysis Report was issued in 1996. Review of the SAR was performed and RSR report was issued. On basis of both documents the Ignalina Safety Panel prepared recommendations for Lithuanian Government. These documents were used as a basis for the Safety Improvement Programme No.2. SIP-2 was accepted in 1997 and shall be finished in 2000

  7. Regulatory aspects of NPP safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive review of the NPP Safety is presented including tasks of Ministry of Health, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Environment and Waters, Ministry of Defense in the field of national system for monitoring the nuclear power. In the frame of national nuclear safety legislation Bulgaria is in the process of approximation of the national legislation to that of EC. Detailed analysis of the status of regulatory body, its functions, organisation structure, responsibilities and future tasks is included. Basis for establishing the system of regulatory inspections and safety enforcement as well as intensification of inspections is described. Assessment of safety modifications is concerned with complex program for reconstruction of Units 1-4 of Kozloduy NPP, as well as for modernisation of Units 5 and 6. Qualification and licensing of the NPP personnel, Year 2000 problem, priorities and the need of international assistance are mentioned

  8. Environmental Problems Associated with Decommissioning of Chernobyl Power Plant Cooling Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, T. Q.; Oskolkov, B. Y.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gashchak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.; Jannik, G. T.; Farfan, E. B.; Marra, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities associated with residual radioactive contamination is a fairly pressing issue. Significant problems may result from decommissioning of cooling ponds. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond is one of the largest self-contained bodies of water in the Chernobyl Region and Ukrainian Polesye with a water surface area of 22.9 km2. The major hydrological feature of the ChNPP Cooling Pond is that its water level is 6-7 m higher than the water level in the Pripyat River and water losses due to seepage and evaporation are replenished by pumping water from the Pripyat River. In 1986, the accident at the ChNPP #4 Reactor Unit significantly contaminated the ChNPP Cooling Pond. According to the 2001 data, the total radionuclide inventory in the ChNPP Cooling Pond bottom deposits was as follows: 16.28 ± 2.59 TBq for 137Cs; 2.4 ± 0.48 TBq for 90Sr, and 0.00518 ± 0.00148 TBq for 239+240Pu. Since ChNPP is being decommissioned, the ChNPP Cooling Pond of such a large size will no longer be needed and cost effective to maintain. However, shutdown of the water feed to the Pond would expose the contaminated bottom deposits and change the hydrological features of the area, destabilizing the radiological and environmental situation in the entire region in 2007 - 2008, in order to assess potential consequences of draining the ChNPP Cooling Pond, the authors conducted preliminary radio-ecological studies of its shoreline ecosystems. The radioactive contamination of the ChNPP Cooling Pond shoreline is fairly variable and ranges from 75 to 7,500 kBq/m2. Three areas with different contamination levels were selected to sample soils, vegetation, small mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptilians in order to measure their 137Cs and 90Sr content. Using the ERICA software, their dose exposures were estimated. For the 2008 conditions, the estimated dose rates were found to be as follows: amphibians - 11

  9. Supervision of Operation Safety at Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description of VATESI supervision functions during operation and maintenance of Ignalina NPP is presented. Comparison of collective exposure dose of Ignalina NPP and other organizations with previous years is made. The number of emergency outings of Ignalina NPP units during the years is presented

  10. Training of experts on NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents difficulties and problems in training of NPP decommissioning experts in Ukraine. The scientific and technical cluster is offered to be constructed as a territorial association of enterprises and organizations related to NPP decommissioning issues and spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management. The center is to be based on scientific and educational center in Slavutych, satellite city of Chornobyl NPP.

  11. NPP Krsko secondary side analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to analyze secondary side thermohydraulics response on steam generator tube plugging in order to ensure nominal NPP power. We had established that the additional opening of the governing valve No. 3 and 4 can compensate pressure drop caused by steam generator tube plugging. Two main steam flows with four governing valves were simulated. Steam expansion in turbine and feed water system was modeled separately. All important process point and steam moisture changes impact on nominal NPP power were analysed. (author)

  12. Chernobyl, 14 years later; Tchernobyl, 14 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) International cooperation, (7) More information about Chernobyl and (8) Glossary.

  13. Chernobyl victims: realistic evaluation of medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective assessment of early and delayed medical consequence of the Chernobyl accident is presented. Mortality of people due to acute radiation disease, burns and mechanical injuries are attributed to the early effects. Oncological and genetic diseases are considered as the delayed effects. Delayed radiation effects on the residents of contaminated territories were estimated by epidemiologic examination taking into account the dose due to radioactive fallout. Certain regions of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine were mostly exposed to contamination. Contamination density by 137Cs is considered and radiation doses due to natural sources and Chernobyl accident are compared. Disease incidence is analysed for carcinoma and genetic diseases. Health hazard caused by non-radiation accidental factors (psychological stress, victim psychology thrusting, groundless evacuation) is assessed

  14. Social Chernobyl participants condition in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full texts: At the moment in Lithuania live almost 6 600 Chernobyl participants (persons witch were in attendance Chernobyl nuclear power station emergency ravage liquidation works and executing another works in 30 kilometers zone). About 770 died and 170 went to other nations. Thievery other fixed illnesses coherence with being in 30 kilometers zone. According 26 October, 1990 Republic of Lithuania government's resolution No. 325 intended that Chernobyl participants credit accomplishes Ministry of Social care but until now in the Republic there is not undivided database, consequently we use different institution's and social investigations information which is not circumstantial. Chernobyl participants social condition and medicine service control certificates, government's resolutions and Ministry of health care and work and Ministry's of health care requisitions. There is not a law which guarantees Chernobyl participants social rights. Supposedly that for in Lithuania there is not the logistics which could vouch medical facilities provision for Chernobyl participants. Until 2005 sanatorium treating of Chernobyl participants was pursuance through invalids till but this treatment was not available to everyone Chernobyl participant for two reasons: 1 - Vicinities doctors and GPs not all the time contemprorize illnesses with being in The nuclear power station of the Chernobyl zone. 2 - Invalids till was not fixing the number of the permissions to the sanatoriums for the Chernobyl participants. Since 13 September, 2005 by Republic of Lithuania government's resolution No. 998 municipal governments budget bankrolls once a year may offset eighteen-days sanatorium treatment for persons which were liquidating The nuclear power-station of the Chernobyl emergency ravage but Chernobyl participants should give Specialists committee inference. Another problem social security. Chernobyl participant's requirement supply if they ill or died according Government's 18 February

  15. [Functional-ecological and age-specific regularities in radionuclide concentration in freshwater molluscs from the Chernobyl Atomic Energy Station exclusion zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Derevets, V V; Kuz'menko, M I; Nazarov, A B

    2001-01-01

    The results of the studies on 90Sr and 137Cs content in the tissues of bivalve and gastropod mollusks of water basins in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP have been analyzed. The dependence of radionuclide accumulation factors on the peculiarities of morphological structure, functional ecology and nutrition type was found. The age dynamics of 137Cs content in some species of Gastropoda was studied. PMID:11458648

  16. Tracking the cloud from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the aftermath of the accident at Chernobul nuclear power station, many scientists are studying how the radionuclides from the reactor's core dispersed across Europe and became deposited on the ground. A group in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Imperial College have developed a computer model, MESOS, specifically to study the transport of pollutants in the atmosphere over very large distances. In the past, this model has been used to study the potential consequences of hypothetical accidents at nuclear power plants in neighbouring countries. Now it has been used to estimate where the radioactivity from Chernobyl went. The Chernobyl model is explained and some estimates from the MESOS model are presented. By comparing the model estimates with observations a full assessment of the environmental consequences of the accident will be possible. It should be possible to find out the way in which pollutants travel long distances, how they are deposited on the ground and their transport through food chains. (U.K.)

  17. RCM at Kozloduy NPP, Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RCM methodology is applied within the task for Maintenance and Repair Optimization which is part of a big project started in 2005 for Optimization of maintenance using risk-informed PSA applications for Units 5 and 6 (VVER 10001320) of Kozloduy NPP. The project is still under development

  18. Application of Robotic System for Emergency Response in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing energy demand and concerns over climate change make increasing use of nuclear power plant in worldwide. Even though the probability of accident is greatly reduced, safety is the highest priority issue in the nuclear energy industry. Applying highly reliable and conservative 'defense in depth' concepts with the design and construction of NPP, there are very little possibilities with which accidents are occur and radioactive materials are released to environments in NPP. But NPP have prepared with the emergency response procedures and conduct exercises for post-accident circumstance according to the procedures. The application of robots for emergency response task for post-accident in nuclear facilities is not a new concept. Robots have been sent to recover the damaged reactor at Chernobyl where human workers could receive a lifetime dose of radiation in minutes. Based on NRC's TMI-2 Cleanup Program, several robots were built in the 1980s to help gather information and remove debris from a reactor at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant that partially melted down in 1979. The first robot was lowered into the basement through a hatch and human operators monitoring in a control room drove it through mud, water and debris, capturing the initial post-accident images of the reactor's basement. It was used for several years equipped with various tools allowing it to scour surfaces, scoop samples and vacuum sludge. A second version carried a core sampler to determine the intensity and depth of the radiation that had permeated into the walls. To perform cleanup tasks, they built Workhorse that featured system redundancy and had a boom extendable to reach high places, but it was never used because it had too many complexities and to clean and fix. While remote robotics technology has proven to remove the human from the radioactive environment, it is also difficult to make it useful because it may requires skill about remote control and obtaining remote

  19. Application of Robotic System for Emergency Response in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyung Min; Seo, Yong Chil; Shin, Ho Chul; Lee, Sung Uk; Cho, Jae Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Kim, Chang Hoi; Kim, Seung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Increasing energy demand and concerns over climate change make increasing use of nuclear power plant in worldwide. Even though the probability of accident is greatly reduced, safety is the highest priority issue in the nuclear energy industry. Applying highly reliable and conservative 'defense in depth' concepts with the design and construction of NPP, there are very little possibilities with which accidents are occur and radioactive materials are released to environments in NPP. But NPP have prepared with the emergency response procedures and conduct exercises for post-accident circumstance according to the procedures. The application of robots for emergency response task for post-accident in nuclear facilities is not a new concept. Robots have been sent to recover the damaged reactor at Chernobyl where human workers could receive a lifetime dose of radiation in minutes. Based on NRC's TMI-2 Cleanup Program, several robots were built in the 1980s to help gather information and remove debris from a reactor at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant that partially melted down in 1979. The first robot was lowered into the basement through a hatch and human operators monitoring in a control room drove it through mud, water and debris, capturing the initial post-accident images of the reactor's basement. It was used for several years equipped with various tools allowing it to scour surfaces, scoop samples and vacuum sludge. A second version carried a core sampler to determine the intensity and depth of the radiation that had permeated into the walls. To perform cleanup tasks, they built Workhorse that featured system redundancy and had a boom extendable to reach high places, but it was never used because it had too many complexities and to clean and fix. While remote robotics technology has proven to remove the human from the radioactive environment, it is also difficult to make it useful because it may requires skill about remote control and

  20. Unique Chernobyl Cranes for Deconstruction Activities in the New Safe Confinement - 13542

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The devastation left behind from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident which occurred on April 26, 1986 presented unparalleled technical challenges to the world engineering and scientific community. One of the largest tasks that are in progress is the design and construction of the New Safe Confinement (NSC). The NSC is an engineered enclosure for the entire object shelter (OS) that includes a suite of process equipment. The process equipment will be used for the dismantling of the destroyed Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit. One of the major mechanical handling systems to be installed in the NSC is the Main Cranes System (MCS). The planned decontamination and decommissioning or dismantling (D and D) activities will require the handling of heavily shielded waste disposal casks containing nuclear fuel as well as lifting and transporting extremely large structural elements. These activities, to be performed within the NSC, will require large and sophisticated cranes. The article will focus on the unique design features of the MCS for the D and D activities. (authors)

  1. VERTICAL MIGRATION OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE VICINITY OF THE CHERNOBYL CONFINEMENT SHELTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Marra, J.

    2011-10-01

    Studies on vertical migration of Chernobyl-origin radionuclides in the 5-km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the area of the Red Forest experimental site were completed. Measurements were made by gamma spectrometric methods using high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors with beryllium windows. Alpha-emitting isotopes of plutonium were determined by the measurement of the x-rays from their uranium progeny. The presence of {sup 60}Co, {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 154,155}Eu, and {sup 241}Am in all soil layers down to a depth of 30 cm was observed. The presence of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am were noted in the area containing automorphous soils to a depth of 60 cm. In addition, the upper soil layers at the test site were found to contain {sup 243}Am and {sup 243}Cm. Over the past ten years, the {sup 241}Am/{sup 137}Cs ratio in soil at the experimental site has increased by a factor of 3.4, nearly twice as much as would be predicted based solely on radioactive decay. This may be due to 'fresh' fallout emanating from the ChNPP Confinement Shelter.

  2. Accident assessment for Chernobyl unit 3 from potential collapse of adjacent structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, B.F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Simonov, I.M.; Kritsky, A.B. [Ministry for Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1998-09-01

    This study assessed the likelihood of a serious, explosive accident to be caused at Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) unit 3 by a collapse that might occur in the nearby shelter (Ukrytie) constructed over the destroyed unit 4 or in the intermediate building block V separating the two units. In order to determine quickly and economically the significance of the hazard to unit 3, the analysis was based on existing information and expert judgment. No new structural analysis calculations were performed. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) managed and directed the methodology of the study. The expert judgment assessments of likely scenarios and event probabilities were carried out by Ukrainian experts. Most of the project team was drawn from the State Scientific and Technical Center of the Ministry of Environmental Protection of Ukraine with support from personnel of the Chernobyl NPP, the Interbranch Agency of the Ukrainian Scientific and Technical Center, and the Ukrainian Nuclear Regulatory Administration. It was truly an international project; the PNNL project manager resided in Ukraine during the study and met regularly with the Ukrainian team to review progress and to discuss approach and methodology. Peer reviews were obtained from Ukrainian, US, and Canadian risk analysis and RBMK systems and operations experts. The full report of the study and its results was published by the Ukrainian team.

  3. Monstrosities - an outcome of Chernobyl?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the western parts of Turkey, which have been particularly hard hidden by the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident, an extremely high number of malformations in newborns have been recorded. There is reason to attribute this to the high radioactivity level measured in this region after the accident. But most radiation experts refuse to accept any connection between the miscarriages or malformation and the reactor accident. (orig./HP)

  4. Chernobyl: Insight from the inside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author dispenses with the usual detachment of historical analysis and tells what happened in Chernobyl in April through the unshielded and horrified perceptions and largely unedited language of those who were there. A common thread running through the book is the duplicity of Soviet officials, particularly in reference to the 650,000 emergency workers. The author maintains that the accident would have been avoided if the reactor design had not been inherently flawed, unadmitted by Soviet officials

  5. The reactor accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

  6. Chernobyl reactor transient simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the Chernobyl nuclear power station transient simulation study. The Chernobyl (RBMK) reactor is a graphite moderated pressure tube type reactor. It is cooled by circulating light water that boils in the upper parts of vertical pressure tubes to produce steam. At equilibrium fuel irradiation, the RBMK reactor has a positive void reactivity coefficient. However, the fuel temperature coefficient is negative and the net effect of a power change depends upon the power level. Under normal operating conditions the net effect (power coefficient) is negative at full power and becomes positive under certain transient conditions. A series of dynamic performance transient analysis for RBMK reactor, pressurized water reactor (PWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) have been performed using digital simulator codes, the purpose of this transient study is to show that an accident of Chernobyl's severity does not occur in PWR or FBR nuclear power reactors. This appears from the study of the inherent, stability of RBMK, PWR and FBR under certain transient conditions. This inherent stability is related to the effect of the feed back reactivity. The power distribution stability in the graphite RBMK reactor is difficult to maintain throughout its entire life, so the reactor has an inherent instability. PWR has larger negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, therefore, the PWR by itself has a large amount of natural stability, so PWR is inherently safe. FBR has positive sodium expansion coefficient, therefore it has insufficient stability it has been concluded that PWR has safe operation than FBR and RBMK reactors

  7. 25 years since Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and food radioactivity surveillance in Romania, begun since the early 60's, with 47 laboratories from National Environment Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) in the framework of Ministry of Environmental and the network of 21 Radiation Hygiene Laboratories (RHL) from centers and institutes of the Ministry of Public Health. The surveillance was conducted by global beta and alpha measurements, necessary to make some quick decisions as well as gamma spectrometry to detect high and low resolution profile accident. Thus the two networks together and some departmental labs recorded from the first moments (since April 30, 1986) the presence of the contaminated radioactive cloud originated from Ukraine, after the nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl NPP, on the Romanian territory. NERSN followed up the radioactive contamination of air (gamma dose rate, atmospheric aerosols and total deposition), surface water, uncultivated soil, and spontaneous vegetation while the RHL monitored the drinking water and food. Early notification of this event allowed local and central authorities to take protective measures like: administration of stable iodine, advertisements in media on avoiding consumption of heavily contaminated food, prohibition of certain events that took place outdoors, interdiction of drinking milk and eating milk products for one month long. Most radionuclides, fission and activation products (22 radionuclides), released during the accident, have been determined in the environmental factors. A special attention was paid to radionuclides like Sr-90, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137, especially in aerosol samples, where the maximum values were recorded on Toaca Peak (Ceahlau Mountain) on May, the first, 1986: 103 Bq/m3, I-131, 63 Bq/m3, Cs-137. The highest value of I-131 in drinking water, 21 Bq/l, was achieved on May, the third, 1986 in Bucharest and in cow milk exceeded the value of 3000 Bq/l. For sheep milk some sporadic values exceeding 10

  8. Chernobyl's legacy: Health, environmental and socio-economic impacts and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The Chernobyl Forum 2003-2005. Second revised version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, many questions remained unanswered regarding the health, environmental, and socio-economic consequences of the disaster. The individuals and countries most affected had yet to obtain a clear scientific consensus on the impact of the accident and authoritative answers to outstanding questions. To fill this void and to promote better understanding and improved measures to deal with the impacts of the accident, the Chernobyl Forum was established in 2003. The Chernobyl Forum is an initiative of the IAEA, in cooperation with the WHO, UNDP, FAO, UNEP, UN-OCHA, UNSCEAR, the World Bank and the governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten-year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. To provide a basis for achieving the goal of the Forum, the IAEA convened an expert working group of scientists to summarize the environmental effects, and the WHO convened an expert group to summarize the health effects and medical care programmes in the three most affected countries. The information presented in this document and in the two full expert group reports has been drawn from scientific studies undertaken by the IAEA, WHO, UNSCEAR and numerous other authoritative bodies. In addition, UNDP has drawn on the work of eminent economists and policy specialists to assess the socio-economic impact of the Chernobyl accident, based largely on the 2002 UN study as above

  9. Chernobyl's legacy: Health, environmental and socio-economic impacts and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The Chernobyl Forum: 2003-2005. Second revised version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, many questions remained unanswered regarding the health, environmental, and socio-economic consequences of the disaster. The individuals and countries most affected had yet to obtain a clear scientific consensus on the impact of the accident and authoritative answers to outstanding questions. To fill this void and to promote better understanding and improved measures to deal with the impacts of the accident, the Chernobyl Forum was established in 2003. The Chernobyl Forum is an initiative of the IAEA, in cooperation with the WHO, UNDP, FAO, UNEP, UN-OCHA, UNSCEAR, the World Bank and the governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten-year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. To provide a basis for achieving the goal of the Forum, the IAEA convened an expert working group of scientists to summarize the environmental effects, and the WHO convened an expert group to summarize the health effects and medical care programmes in the three most affected countries. The information presented in this document and in the two full expert group reports has been drawn from scientific studies undertaken by the IAEA, WHO, UNSCEAR and numerous other authoritative bodies. In addition, UNDP has drawn on the work of eminent economists and policy specialists to assess the socio-economic impact of the Chernobyl accident, based largely on the 2002 UN study as above

  10. Radioactive airborne particles from Chernobyl forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spring and summer, 1992 within 30-km zone near Chernobyl NPP were very hot and dry. That lead to forest fires in May (4 ... 9,23 ... 25), July (28 ... 30) and August (10...12). The Cs-137 soil contamination density (SCD) was equal to 1...400 Ci/km2 at various forest sections of combustion. The stationary air samplers with capacity of 1500 m3/h were used for the monitoring of aerosol emissions during fires. These samplers were situated at a distance of 5...10km from fires boundaries. Smoke particles were collected by the fibrous filters FPP-15-1,5 (Russia). After exposure the activity of aerosols of Cs which deposited by a filter was measured by a gamma-spectrometer. For the separation of Sr-90 and isotopes of Pu the radiochemical analysis was used. It was found that the concentration of Cs-137 increased up to 10...100 times compare with open-quotes backgroundclose quotes one even at several km from fires. The concentration of Cs-137 inside of combustion zone was estimated could exceed the Russian maximum permissible one both for population (0.49 nCi/m3) and for professionals (14 nCi/m3) if the SCD will be more than 0.5 and 7 Ci/km2, respectively. It was measured that Cs-137/Sr-90 and Cs-137/Pu-238 ratios increase in fire emissions. It is obviously, that such enrichment was a consequense of radioactive cesium evaporation at temperature more than 500 C. The experimental forest fire was carry out in August, 1993 in Bryansk region (Russia). The forest section with area 50x50 m was selected. The SCD of Cs-137 was equal to 30 Ci/km2. The Cs-137 concentration during the day before the experiment was equal to 0.16pCi/m3. The concentration was varied from 1.6 to 15 pCi/m3 during the experiment. For the determination of particle sizes the filter pack technique (Budyka et al, 1993) was used. It was found that particle size distribution was a bimodal in plume

  11. Fallout from Chernobyl [Letters to the editor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six brief letters discuss the possible health effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident including an increase in thyroid cancer in children in Belarus, chromosomal abnormalities in workers from Latvia who cleared up the Chernobyl accident site, an increased trisomy 21 in Berlin but a lack of increased childhood leukaemia incidence in Greece. (UK)

  12. Fallout from Chernobyl [Letters to the editor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, E.D. (Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Abelin, T.; Egger, M. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland)) (and others)

    1994-11-12

    Six brief letters discuss the possible health effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident including an increase in thyroid cancer in children in Belarus, chromosomal abnormalities in workers from Latvia who cleared up the Chernobyl accident site, an increased trisomy 21 in Berlin but a lack of increased childhood leukaemia incidence in Greece. (UK).

  13. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved. The collection comprises the information for scientists, experts, postgraduates and students in gaged in ecology, radioecology, nuclear engineering, radiology, radiochemistry and radiobiology

  14. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit trademark) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report

  15. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  16. Optimisation of information influences on problems of consequences of Chernobyl accident and quantitative criteria for estimation of information actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident still very important for Belarus. About 2 million Byelorussians live in the districts polluted by Chernobyl radionuclides. Modern approaches to the decision of after Chernobyl problems in Belarus assume more active use of information and educational actions to grow up a new radiological culture. It will allow to reduce internal doze of radiation without spending a lot of money and other resources. Experience of information work with the population affected by Chernobyl since 1986 till 2004 has shown, that information and educational influences not always reach the final aim - application of received knowledge on radiating safety in practice and changing the style of life. If we take into account limited funds and facilities, we should optimize information work. The optimization can be achieved on the basis of quantitative estimations of information actions effectiveness. It is possible to use two parameters for this quantitative estimations: 1) increase in knowledge of the population and experts on the radiating safety, calculated by new method based on applied theory of the information (Mathematical Theory of Communication) by Claude E. Shannon and 2) reduction of internal doze of radiation, calculated on the basis of measurements on human irradiation counter (HIC) before and after an information or educational influence. (author)

  17. Epidemiology of cancer in population living in contaminated territories of Ukraine, Belarus, Russia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical data of oncology service of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia on the number of new patients with cancer and leukemia in 1980-1994 in 12 regions adjacent to the Chernobyl NPP are generalized. Spatio-temporal for incidence of malignant diseases in population are developed. The analysis of possible connections between the effective dose and incidence of cancer in population living in the area contaminated by radionuclides is performed. Spatio-temporal models for the incidence of cancer including leukemias and lymphomas are found to be the same in the pre- and post-accidental periods. Nine years after the Chernobyl accident there are no scientific evidence for the excess of incidence of malignant tumors, except thyroid cancer, attributed to radiation factor, even in the most contaminated areas. Appearance of previously unregistered thyroid cancer cases in children living in the territory, where considerable amount of radioactive iodine was deposited, can indicate stochastic radiation effects in thyroid

  18. Risk indicators at Cofrentes NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the tend to try to find indicators to show the excellence in the performance where Nuclear Power Plants are currently involved, Cofrentes NPP are managing several indicators related with risk. The concept of risk is classically associated with the product RISK = PROBABILITY * DAMAGE So what a risk based indicator will show is the probability of having a 'damage'. Speaking about a period of time, we will have frequencies of having 'damages'. What is call 'damage' can be differently interpreted depending of what we concern. In western NPP is very extended the concept of 'core damage', meaning the loss of fuel integrity, as a final state to avoid. This have carried in most of western NPP to develop a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA/PSA), that using technical based in fault trees and event trees models, looks for the frequency to reach core damage. The PSA in Cofrentes NPP has been deeply applied to find weakness in the design and procedures, prioritizations in maintenance activities, quality assurance requirements, justifications to continued operation, and others. A Risk Monitor based in PSA models (and so monitoring the Core Damage Frequency) has been developed and is currently installed in the Control Room to help operators to control the risk associated with each configuration of availability or unavailability of equipments. This PSA Monitor is the source for some indicators that Cofrentes NPP has defined and are sharing with IAEA trying to find an standard. Maximum Core Damage Frequency reached and accumulated annual probability is calculated and compared with expected values and with predefined limits. As the PSA in Cofrentes NPP is only for at power Operations, there has been developed a methodology based on NUMARC 91-06 to measure and control the risk during shutdowns. The 'damage' here is a concept related with the safety functions. Some coefficients are applied to each configuration according with how the safety functions are fulfilled (defense

  19. Safety enhancement at Beznau NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two units of the Beznau Nuclear Power Plant, Switzerland, are presented, and their safety related progress is evaluated. The largest safety enhancement has been the addition of a completely self-contained emergency system. Safety enhancements through backfitting measures in older nuclear power plants, however, have distinctive disadvantages compared to more modern plants. At Beznau NPP, safety has always priority over economics. (N.T.)

  20. Artificial intelligence and NPP safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main tasks of the software for probabilistic safety analysis, thermal hydraulic analysis and probabilistic risk assessment are discussed. Their combination for direct improvement of NPP operation through information support of the staff is stressed. The general philosophy (in-depth protection) of computerized Emergency Response Guidelines (ERGs) - symptom based (safety parameters) and events-oriented (types of accident) is pointed out. The use of expert systems for proper diagnosing of the accident, its forecasting and finding the way of overcoming it is shown. Mandatory components of the modern management policy in abnormal situations are: the ERGs, the installation of Safety Parameter Display panels, the availability of an safety engineer (superviser); local, regional and national systems for monitoring of the radiation environment within and outside the NPP; local protection centres for maintenance in the case of accident. The importance of verification and validation (V and V) approach and benchmark exercise is stressed. Some peculiarities of the on-going implementation of the computerized information system for radiation control in Kozloduj NPP are discussed. 3 figs, 7 refs

  1. New approach of second Romanian NPP siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NPP sitting studies in Romania began before 1975. The first Romanian NPP CANDU 6 type reactor gone to erection in 1980 on Cernavoda site planned to have 5 units. Gained the experience from Cernavoda NPP sitting, the first mission of new multi-branch of specialists team was to choose new NPP sites adapting the NPP Cernavoda project to the new parameters of close water cooling circuit and hard less and no rock foundation strata. The studies were carrying out in different stages on the inner rivers Olt, Mures, Somes in Transylvania historical region. This paper tries to reconsider shortly the old analysis according to the last IAEA Safety Standards, taking into account the new NPP generation requirement. Paper is focused on geological aspects and other local sites characteristics. (authors)

  2. Activities of the central authorities in 1990-1991 on the Chernobyl accident response and social defence of it's victims. Long-term programs on the Chernobyl accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapter presents the information on the approved All-Union Programs to eliminate the long-term consequences of the CNPP accident and on problems linked with the social protection of the victims. Three stages of the activity to overcome the consequences of the accident are studied: 1-st period - 1986; 2-nd period - 1987-1989; third period (reconstruction) -1990-1995 and subsequent years. Attention is focused on the All-Union section of the State Union and Republic Program to protect the USSR population against the effects of the Chernobyl NPP in 1991-1995 and during the period up to 2000

  3. The enduring lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major impacts of the Chernobyl accident fall into three categories: the physical impacts, in terms of health and environmental effects; the psycho-social impacts on the affected populations; and the influence of the accident on the nuclear industry worldwide. The physical impacts mark Chernobyl as the site of the most serious nuclear accident in history. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core released a cloud of radionuclides that contaminated large areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Hundreds of thousands of workers participated in efforts to mitigate the consequences of the accident, and many of these individuals were exposed to substantial radiation doses. The psycho-social impacts were also devastating. Over 100 000 people were evacuated immediately after the accident, and the total number of evacuees from severely contaminated areas eventually reached 350 000 people. While these resettlements helped to reduce the collective dose of radiation, it was deeply traumatic for those involved. The third impact I mentioned is the enormous influence of the Chernobyl accident on the nuclear industry. A decade earlier, the accident at Three Mile Island had already cast doubt on the ability of nuclear power plant operators to prevent severe accidents. Chernobyl had far greater impact; the accident emblazoned itself on public consciousness as proof positive that nuclear safety was an oxymoron. Some countries decided to reduce or terminate further construction of nuclear facilities, and the expansion of nuclear capacity came to a near standstill. It has taken nearly two decades of strong safety performance to repair the industry's reputation. From the time of the accident, the IAEA has been continuously involved in technical assistance and research projects to mitigate the environmental and health consequences in affected areas. Since 1990, more than $15 million has been disbursed through the IAEA technical cooperation programme on a broad range of these

  4. 10th anniversary of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every issue has its defining event. There is no doubt that the single word which now embodies that difficult-to express unease felt by many people about nuclear power is Chernobyl. In this sense, April 26 1996 will be far more than an anniversary, just as Chernobyl was far more than a very serious accident which was nonetheless largely localised in its effects. It will be used by those who wish to the industry - the professional campaigners in the Green movement - and those who see an opportunity to sell newspapers or TV programmes - the professional exaggerators - to spread that unease as far as possible. The British Nuclear Industry Forum, which consists of seventy member companies at the heart of nuclear power in the UK, has convened a Task Force, with an international membership, in an attempt to make sure that we are ready for the anniversary, and to respond to the tactics of the opposition in as effective a way as possible. This paper outlines the general principles which have so far emerged from our discussions. There are two guiding principles to our approach. The first is that no matter how good a story is about Chernobyl, it is still a bad story. But secondly, this anniversary will be big news whether we like it or not, so we must make the best of it. In this sense the event brings with it opportunities to remind people of positive messages, on fuel diversity, on environment, and on Western efforts to help to improve the safety standards of the nuclear industry in the region, and the health of the people near Chernobyl. This leads to a position for the campaign which might appear paradoxical. We must be proactive but low-profile. We simply cannot afford to keep quiet and let the wildest claims about the effects of Chernobyl be spouted unchallenged. This does not simply mean generating responses to stories once they have been published. It means analysing press coverage of previous anniversaries to understand how the media are likely to treat it; it means

  5. Chernobyl fallout in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl deposition in the UK was sampled in May and October 1986 and in June of 1987. The sampling concentrated on grassy vegetation but in October 1986 other vegetation, soils and wildlife were included. Deposition patterns have been established and a greater degree of retention and recycling indicated for the organic soils of upland Britain. For wild animals concentration factors varied not only between species but with sex and age. Highest tissue concentrations were recorded in species feeding on heather (Blue hares and Grouse) and the lowest in rabbits feeding on grass over mineral soils. Radiocaesium was found in a carnivore (the fox) at the top of the food chain. (author)

  6. An ill wind from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the effects that the poisonous dust emanating from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor explosion of 1986 had on human, animal and plant population in the Soviet Union and across Europe. One of the chief criticisms raised is of governments, inside and outside the Soviet Block restricting information about danger to people or, in some cases, denying any consequences. This has led to widespread public opinion against nuclear programmes for power generation, and calls for adequate and appropriate compensation for victims of the accident. (UK)

  7. Chernobyl, 12 years later; Tchernobyl, douze ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3) Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) The Franco-German cooperation, and (7) Glossary.

  8. Chernobyl record. The definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of Chernobyl Record have taken 14 years to compile and this period of time was necessary to enable information to be released from Soviet sources, measurements to be made in the environment, for estimation of radiation doses and for follow-up of the health of population groups which had been exposed. This time frame also includes the 10th anniversary conferences and the completion of joint projects of the European Commission, Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. It has also enabled me to visit the power plant site, Chernobyl town and Pripyat relatively soon after the accident and also some 10 years later: December 1987 and June 1998. Without such visits some of the photographs in this Record could not have been obtained. Information is also contained in these pages of comparisons of various aspects of the Chernobyl accident with data from the Three Mile Island accident in the USA in 1979, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, the highly contaminated Techa river area in the Urals in Russia and the accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. The first two chapters are introductory in that they describe terminology which is necessary for an understanding of the remaining chapters. Chapters 3-6 describes the early events: including those leading up to the explosion and then what followed in the immediate aftermath. Chapters 7-8 describe the Sarcophagus and the past and future of nuclear power for electricity generation, including the future of the Chernobyl power station. Chapters 9-11 consider the radiation doses received by various populations, including liquidators, evacuees and those living on contaminated territories: and the contamination of milk by 131I, and the contamination of other parts of the food chain by 137Cs. Chapters 12-14 describe the environmental impact of the accident, as does chapter 11. Chapters 15-18 detail the long-term effects on health, including not only the incidence of cancer, but also of non-malignant diseases and

  9. Chernobyl record. The definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mould, R.F

    2000-07-01

    The contents of Chernobyl Record have taken 14 years to compile and this period of time was necessary to enable information to be released from Soviet sources, measurements to be made in the environment, for estimation of radiation doses and for follow-up of the health of population groups which had been exposed. This time frame also includes the 10th anniversary conferences and the completion of joint projects of the European Commission, Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. It has also enabled me to visit the power plant site, Chernobyl town and Pripyat relatively soon after the accident and also some 10 years later: December 1987 and June 1998. Without such visits some of the photographs in this Record could not have been obtained. Information is also contained in these pages of comparisons of various aspects of the Chernobyl accident with data from the Three Mile Island accident in the USA in 1979, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, the highly contaminated Techa river area in the Urals in Russia and the accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. The first two chapters are introductory in that they describe terminology which is necessary for an understanding of the remaining chapters. Chapters 3-6 describes the early events: including those leading up to the explosion and then what followed in the immediate aftermath. Chapters 7-8 describe the Sarcophagus and the past and future of nuclear power for electricity generation, including the future of the Chernobyl power station. Chapters 9-11 consider the radiation doses received by various populations, including liquidators, evacuees and those living on contaminated territories: and the contamination of milk by {sup 131}I, and the contamination of other parts of the food chain by {sup 137}Cs. Chapters 12-14 describe the environmental impact of the accident, as does chapter 11. Chapters 15-18 detail the long-term effects on health, including not only the incidence of cancer, but also of non

  10. Electric spin resonance and instrumental neutron activation element analyses of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident clean-up worker teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentrations of macro-, micro-, and trace elements (Ca, Ba, Sr, Mn, Se, Zn, Co) in teeth of Chernobyl's NPP accident clean-up workers examined in the Centre of Occupational and Radiological medicine of P.Stradins Clinical Hospital, Medicine Academy of Latvia. The strontium concentration was high in teeth of clean-up that in control teeth. Electron spin resonance was used to determine the absorption dose. The absorbed dose reconstruction was achieved by additive dose method. The absorbed dose measured by ESR in teeth was always higher than the documented exposure doses. (author)

  11. NPP technical and economical parameters and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of the ratio between technical and economic indices of NPP and its safety has been considered. It is suggested that safety indices of NPP projected should be made allowance for, when calculating net cost of electric power generated so, that NPP with higher safety indices remained competitive. The problem can be solved using a special invariance fund for compensating the costs of protection measures taken. The amount of contribution is to be the higher, the lower are safety indices of NPP. 2 refs

  12. Ignalina NPP: living and working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference was devoted to discuss the social problems related with the operation of Ignalina NPP. The main topics are the following: analysis of public opinion of surrounding region of Ignalina NPP including neighbouring Daugavpils district in Latvia, environment impact evaluation of Daugavpils district, assessment of the influence of Ignalina NPP operation to the development of business in the region, investigation of problems of Visaginas town - residence of Ignalina NPP personnel. The specificity of Visaginas (former Sniechkus) is defined by the majority of non-native Lithuanians living there. Cultural transformation and political organization of the region were surveyed as well

  13. Effective long term operation for Dukovany NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukovany NPP now started third decade of service that is also its last decade of design life time. It is clear that the NPP has all considerations for service past the design life time called Long Term Operation (LTO). This LTO has two main aspects, technical and economical, that influence each other. From technical view the age of NPP systems, structures and components (SSCs) affects negatively the ability to perform necessary design changes in a good quality and also the long lived SSC reliability. These possible impacts have also their safety aspects and to obtain regulatory body agreement with LTO of NPP it is necessary to show that these impacts are acceptable. It means to show that all applied design changes are done in agreement with NPP design bases (DB) and all ageing impacts on SSCs functions important for safety are properly managed. From economical view that is significant for NPP owner it is necessary to demonstrate a required profitability of investment for effective LTO. These are reasons why Dukovany NPP performs three following projects: - Safety design bases collation and reconstitution, - Enhancement of plant life management program (New program preparation), - Technical-economical (TE) study of NPP LTO. All of these projects are managed by Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (NRI) and performed in close cooperation with NPP staff and different co-operaters. This presentation will be concentrated to the last named project.

  14. Metamorphosis of NPP A1, V1, V2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this book the history of construction, commissioning and exploitation of NPP A1, NPP V1 and NPP V2 in Jaslovske Bohunice is presented on documentary photos. Vicinity around of these NPPs is presented, too

  15. ASSESSMENT OF THE RADIONUCLIDE COMPOSITION OF "HOT PARTICLES" SAMPLED IN THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT FOURTH REACTOR UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Marra, J.

    2011-10-01

    Fuel-containing materials sampled from within the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) 4th Reactor Unit Confinement Shelter were spectroscopically studied for gamma and alpha content. Isotopic ratios for cesium, europium, plutonium, americium, and curium were identified and the fuel burnup in these samples was determined. A systematic deviation in the burnup values based on the cesium isotopes, in comparison with other radionuclides, was observed. The conducted studies were the first ever performed to demonstrate the presence of significant quantities of {sup 242}Cm and {sup 243}Cm. It was determined that there was a systematic underestimation of activities of transuranic radionuclides in fuel samples from inside of the ChNPP Confinement Shelter, starting from {sup 241}Am (and going higher), in comparison with the theoretical calculations.

  16. The evaluation of residual resource of the technological channels of the 1-st ChNPP's unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of study of the technological channels (TC) of the 1-st Chernobyl NPP's unit after 18 years of operation are analyzed in this work. It is showed that zirconium alloy of TC operated at normal conditions has satisfactory plastic and strength properties; hydrogen concentration doesn't exceed 60 ppm; the joint devices have safety factor more 2 even at presence of microcracks. The conclusion is done that residual resource of normal operating TC after 18 years of service doesn't still exhaust

  17. Conceptual model of the 'blast furnace' version of formation of nuclear-dangerous accumulation on the Ch NPP Unit 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic provisions of conceptual model of the 'blast furnace' version of formation of nuclear-dangerous accumulation of the fuel containing materials (FCM) hidden in a zone of pro-melting of a under-reactor slab of the Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 are formulated. Formation of the fragments of the former core (FFC) with a critical mass of uranium and lava-like FCM is considered as a result of two interconnected processes - molten core/concrete interactions and melting of FFC in a bathtub of silicate fusion that was formed of the materials 'furnace charges'

  18. Chernobyl: Anatomy of the explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Friday, 26 April 1986, it was planned to shut down the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station, U.S.S.R., for periodic maintenance. The procedure supplied the opportunity to perform a further experiment; operation of the turbine in free rotation regime, which occurs when the steam is cut down while the turbine is still running. It so happened that carrying out this experiment turned out to be the worst accident in the history of nuclear power industry. The first part of the article proceeds to a second by second detailed analysis of the causes of the catastrophe. The analysis uses official data and reports. The author covers the sequence of events, which led up to two explosions in the second hour of that tragic morning. In the second part of the article, the author provides hints and suggestions, so that 'the tragedy of Chernobyl does not become a useless lesson'. With regard to what, so far, has been published, the novelty of the article may be a diagram showing the excessive changes that affected the main parameters (power, water flow through circulating pumps, steam pressure in separators, and length of the immersed part of control rods) in the fourth unit during the last seconds before the explosion. If may be noteworthy to mention that the curves supplied here are based on data stored in the computer 'SCALA'. 2 figs

  19. Impressions of Chelyabinsk and Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international delegation touring Russia and Ukraine was demonstrated the consequences of the accidents at the nuclear installations of Chelvabinsk and Chernobyl. On the site in Russia, an explosion of a tank filled with high level radioactive waste in 1957 released a radioactive cloud of approx. 20 million Ci, of which 90% rained down in the immediate vicinity, while 10% spread over an area of 23,000 square kilometers. 10,200 persons were resettled for this reason within two years. Among the population in the contaminated area, the cancer rate rose, but is still said to be lower than at other industrialized sites. At a distance of 44 km from the Chernobyl nuclear power plants, the new city of Pripyat has been established for 23,000 inhabitants. Planning work on additional nuclear generating units was stopped after the accident of unit 4. The complete loss of unit 4 has been felt by the USSR as a bigger economic disaster than the radioactive contamination of the environment. (orig.)

  20. Genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic radiation effects resulted from the Chernobyl accident were considered for the population of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Techniques of the assessment of genetic risk of exposure of a man was discussed. Results of cytogenetic examination of the population were presented as well as health state of pregnants and newborns following the Chernobyl accident. Elevated level of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheric blood in participants of the Chernobyl accident response and in population of contaminated zones. This fact testifies on the real genetic injury in cells due to accident. Growth of intrauterine losses in pregnancy, congenital anomalies, hereditary diseases in descendants of exposed parents. 17 figs

  1. Chernobyl - state of the art; Chernobyl - o estado da arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Borges, Jessica F.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Souza, Carla D.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Benega, Marcos A.G.; Souza, Anderson S. de; Silva, Thais H. da, E-mail: dcsouza@ipen.br, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.br, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.br, E-mail: rtiezzi@ipen.br, E-mail: carladdsouza@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marcosagbenega@ipen.br, E-mail: bteigarodrigues@gmail.com, E-mail: thaishunk@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to analyze what has been done so far in relation to damage caused by the accident and the state of art in Chernobyl, as well as the impact on radiation protection applied safety nuclear power plants. In the first part of the work a data survey was done through a bibliographic review and the in the second part data was collected during a visit, in June 2013 at the crash site, when was observed dose values in the affected areas and the works of repairs that have been made in the sarcophagus and surroundings as well as in official reports available through active international bodies. The main results indicate significant improvements in radiation protection systems.

  2. Emergency preparedness at Barsebaeck NPP in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-site emergency preparedness plan at Barsebaeck NPP is presented. In an emergency the responsibility of the NPP is to alarm the emergency organizations, spend all efforts to restore safe operation, assess the potential source term as to size and time, protect their own personnel, inform personnel and public. Detailed emergency procedures overview is provided

  3. Safety culture in Ignalina NPP, regulatory view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation describes how success on the way to a high level Safety Culture in Ignalina NPP may be achieved by daily, well motivated activities with good attitude and proper management participation, ensuring the development and proper implementation of Safety Culture principles within the activities of Operational organization of Ignalina NPP

  4. VMEbus technology in NPP control automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In frames of SPAS project (system for emergency situations and accident prevention at NPPs in Ukraine) a series of developments was made to increase the efficiency and control of NPP equipment and main technological processes. They are based on information which is permanently renewed and accumulated in regular NPP system. Technical parameters of this system are described

  5. Chernobyl: The bitter taste of wormwood [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vivid account of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, the far-reaching effects of radioactivity, monitoring radiation, evacuation of victims, etc. The video deals mainly with the impact and consequences of the accident in Sweden and Ukraine

  6. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  7. Seismic characterization of the NPP Krsko site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of NPP Krsko PSA Project Update was the inclusion of plant changes (i.e. configuration/operational related) through the period January 1, 1993 till the OUTAGE99 (April 1999) into the integrated Internal/External Level 1/Level 2 NPP Krsko PSA RISK SPECTRUM model. NPP Krsko is located on seismotectonic plate. Highest earthquake was recorded in 1917 with magnitude 5.8 at a distance of 7-9 km. Site (founded) on Pliocene sediments which are as deep as several hundred meters. No surface faulting at the Krsko site has been observed and thus it is not to be expected. NPP Krsko is equipped with seismic instrumentation, which allows it to complete OBE (SSE). The seismic PSA successfully showed high seismic margin at Krsko plant. NPP Krsko seismic design is based on US regulations and standards

  8. Alpha emitters in Chernobyl hot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alpha radioactive component of hot particles from the Chernobyl fallout was analysed for cases studied previously by gamma spectroscopy. Correlations established from the absolute alpha activity determination and high resolution analysis provided information on actinides release during accident and on some aspects of the Chernobyl reactor fuel composition. Unexpected features revealed during the analysis of one specific particle are presented. 11 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  9. Migration of Chernobyl plutonium in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various geochemically linked landscapes were studied for the distribution of Chernobyl plutonium in soils. Significant behaviour of the Chernobyl plutonium may be observed only in case of its fall out with finely dispersed fuel. Within the areas polluted with the volatile ejection products, the plutonium migration forecast may be based on previous estimations obtained for the forest and forest-steppe zones. (author) 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Fright from Chernobyl; Skremselet fra Tsjernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    Research on nuclear power be defined through catastrophes, said Norwegian experts. The worst of them throwing after 25 years still an equally long and dark shadow. 25 years since the Chernobyl accident. The article has fact boxes on the three major reactor accidents, Chernobyl with RBMK reactor; Three Mile Island with PWR and BWR reactor at Fukushima. Points out the danger by untrained personnel deal with risky situations. (AG)

  11. Alpha emitters in Chernobyl hot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, R.; Kubica, B.; Szeglowski, Z.; Zuber, K. (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland))

    1989-01-01

    The alpha radioactive component of hot particles from the Chernobyl fallout was analyzed for cases studied previously by gamma spectroscopy. Correlations established from the absolute alpha activity determination and high resolution analysis provided information on the release of actinides during the accident and on some aspects of the Chernobyl reactor fuel composition. Unexpected features revealed during the analysis of one specific particle are presented. (orig.).

  12. Space Radar Image of Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its surroundings, centered at 51.17 north latitude and 30.15 west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 16th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area is located on the northern border of the Ukraine Republic and was produced by using the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The differences in the intensity are due to differences in vegetation cover, with brighter areas being indicative of more vegetation. These data were acquired as part of a collaboration between NASA and the National Space Agency of Ukraine in Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences. NASA has included several sites provided by the Ukrainian space agency as targets of opportunity during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The Ukrainian space agency also plans to conduct airborne surveys of these sites during the mission. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located toward the top of the image near the Pripyat River. The 12-kilometer (7.44-mile)-long cooling pond is easily distinguishable as an elongated dark shape in the center near the top of the image. The reactor complex is visible as the bright area to the extreme left of the cooling pond and the city of Chernobyl is the bright area just below the cooling pond next to the Pripyat River. The large dark area in the bottom right of the image is the Kiev Reservoir just north of Kiev. Also visible is the Dnieper River, which feeds into the Kiev Reservoir from the top of the image. The Soviet government evacuated 116,000 people within 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) of the Chernobyl reactor after the explosion and fire on April 26, 1986. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight

  13. Radiation effects blamed on Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strictly speaking, the nature of an epidemiological study would not permit the same causal links to be established as an experimental study does. Instead, it merely provides circumstantial evidence, from which some conclusions can be drawn as to the causative factors in the occurrences recorded. To summarize it may be stated that as fas as the Germans are concerned no scientific evidence has so far been provided to prove health impairments attributable to an added radiation load from the Chernobyl fallout. On the other hand, it can not be denied that there are indications of health damage in a few individuals unreasonably changing their eating habits for fear of radiation injuries. The question as to whether the event instilled a permanent feeling of unease in some population groups still remains largely obscure. (orig.)

  14. Chernobyl - state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article aims to analyze what has been done so far in relation to damage caused by the accident and the state of art in Chernobyl, as well as the impact on radiation protection applied safety nuclear power plants. In the first part of the work a data survey was done through a bibliographic review and the in the second part data was collected during a visit, in June 2013 at the crash site, when was observed dose values in the affected areas and the works of repairs that have been made in the sarcophagus and surroundings as well as in official reports available through active international bodies. The main results indicate significant improvements in radiation protection systems

  15. Summary of Chernobyl followup research activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In NUREG-1251, ''Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States,'' April 1989, the NRC staff concluded that no immediate changes in NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors were needed; however, it recommended that certain issues be considered further. NRC's Chernobyl followup research program consisted of the research tasks undertaken in response to the recommendations in NUREG-1251. It included 23 tasks that addressed potential lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident. This report presents summaries of NRC's Chernobyl followup research tasks. For each task, the Chernobyl-related issues are indicated, the work is described, and the staff's findings and conclusions are presented. More detailed reports concerning the work are referenced where applicable. This report closes out NRC's Chernobyl followup research program as such, but additional research will be conducted on some issues as needed. The report includes remarks concerning significant further activity with respect to the issues addressed

  16. Chernobyl reactor accident: medical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrome, producing extensive mucous in the oropharynx, was first seen in Chernobyl. The patients were treated with saline wash of the mouth. The patients who had radioactive contamination due to radioactive iodine were given stable iodine, following wash with soap, water and monitored. Fourteen survivors died subsequently due to other causes. Late health effects seen so far include excess of thyroid cancer in the children and psychological disorders due to stress. No excess leukemia has been reported so

  17. Reviewing NPP Cernavoda site evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Power Plant Cernavoda site was selected before the IAEA Safety Guide issue, during NUSS program development. The Romanian codes issued in 1976, as a regulatory body requirements, establish general criteria regarding safety concept and concentration limits of different radionuclides in air and water body and limits of individual or collective dose. In 1979 the Romanian Authority signed the contract with AECL to improve the CANDU-600 concept in the nuclear development programme and erection of 4 units on the Cernavoda site. The construction work started in 1980. In 1983 the former Romanian Government decided to build up another unit (finally it will be 5 units) on Cernavoda site, so the total gross electrical power we have 3,500 MW. The Canadian safety and quality standards or requirements was harmonized with the Romanian rules and regulations. Many studies, investigations and research were done to qualify the site and have a good knowledge about its characteristics coupled with CANDU-600 performance. The new evolution of the site was performed by Romanian technical staff in CITON and the final conclusions were favourable for erection and operation of NPP. The first unit of Cernavoda NPP is on operation and now the efforts are concentrated to continue the works for the unit 2. The paper underlines how the Cernavoda site characteristics meet IAEA Code of Practice and Safety Guides issued until now. (author)

  18. The decommissioning NPP A-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project of decommissioning NPP A-1 is split into 4 main groups of tasks. Tasks in group 1 are focused on the solution of selected problems that have immediate impact on the environment. It is mainly the solution of problems in the building of cleaning station of wastage water and in the building with underground storage tanks for wastage water and solid radwaste, including the prevention of wash-out and penetration of contaminated soil from these buildings into surface and underground waters. A part of addressing these tasks is a controlled of generated radwaste-predominatly sludge with various physical and chemical properties. Tasks in group 2- following the removal of spent fuel-are focused on the management of all radwaste in the long-term storage facility, in the short-term storage facility, equipment of transport and technology part, equipment in hot cells. Tasks in group 3 are focused on development of technology procedures for treatment and conditioning of sludge, contaminated soils and concrete crush, saturated ionexes and ash from incineration facility of the Bohunice radwaste treatment and conditioning complex. Tasks in group 4 are focused on the methodology. And technical support for particular activities applicable during decommissioning NPP

  19. Safety culture at Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with Article 27 of the Law on Nuclear Energy of the Republic of Lithuania, the organization operating the nuclear power facility must ensure adequate safety culture. Safety culture comprises specific features and characteristics of the organisation's activities as well as human behavior ensuring that the issues of a nuclear power facility's safety will be given attention consistent with their importance. To ensure adequate level of safety culture, Ignalina NPP has been following IAEA recommendations. The INPP draws up and implements plans of safety culture assurance every year. The Director General meets with IAEA personnel on a regular basis and discusses issues that hold most interest for them. In 2005, INPP management reviewed and approved on September 30 the new policy of safety and quality assurance. The document differs from the policy approved in 1995 in that priorities are set for INPP decommissioning. It is emphasized that INPP Unit 2 operation must be terminated in the most efficient and safest manner, with adequate social security of the personnel assured and effective management system of the facility maintained. The work commenced in 2004 at the Ignalina NPP on identification and application of safety culture indicators was continued in 2005. (author)

  20. Operating Experience at NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic analysis of operational experience by assessment of internal and industry events and the feedback of lessons learned is one of the essential activities in the improvement of the operational safety and reliability of the nuclear power plant. At NPP Krsko we have developed a document called ''Operating Experience Assessment Program''. Its purpose is to establish administrative guidance for the processing of operating events including on-site and industry events. Assessment of internal events is based on the following methods: Event and Causal Factor Charting, Change Analysis, Barrier Analysis, MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree Analysis) and Human Performance Evaluation. The operating experience group has developed a sophisticated program entitled ''Operating experience tracking system'' (OETS) in response to the need for a more efficient way of processing internal and industry operating experience information. The Operating Experience Tracking System is used to initiate and track operational events including recommended actions follow up. Six screens of the system contain diverse essential information which allows tracking of operational events and enables different kinds of browsing. OETS is a part of the NPP Krsko nuclear network system and can be easily accessed by all plant personnel. (author)

  1. Seismic risk at NPP Cernavoda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a brief description of the probabilistic analysis method employed to analyze a nuclear power plant (NPP) state during seismic events. For evaluating the seismic hazard at NPP Cernavoda, deterministic judgment are employed for determining the focus position, the attenuation of the seismic intensity and the local effects. The authors have designed a support device which can operate in damping regimes or as a snubber having also the function of non-linear elastic support with a progressive characteristic for permanent loads. This support can take over very great static and dynamics loads. The support and damping devices are hydro-pneumatic systems which completely eliminate the gaskets. The non-linear elastic supporting force is provided by compressing a volume of gas and the damping force is provided by a liquid flowing through a system of calibrated nozzles covered on one side or the other by a set of elastic blades of an imposed stiffness. The sizes and weight of the devices are under the ones of the current devices and they provide higher reliability. (Author)

  2. The Tokai NPP decommissioning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokai power station was closed down in March 1998 and started decommissioning from December 2001 as a pioneer of NPP decommissioning. This article presented current state of Tokai NPP decommissioning technique. As the second stage of decommissioning works, removal works of steam raising unit (four units of heat exchangers) were started from 2006 by jacking down method with decommissioning data accumulated. Each heat exchanger was divided into top head, seven 'tears' of shell and bottom head. Each 'tear' was out and separated into a cylinder, and then divided into two by remote-operated cutting equipment with manipulators for gas cutting and motor disk cutting under monitoring works by fixed and mobile cameras. Divided 'tear' was further cut into center baffle plate, heat transfer tubes and fine pieces of shell. Cutting works would produce radioactive fine particles, which were filtered by temporary ventilation equipment with exhaust fan and filters. Appropriate works using existing technique combined and their rationalization were important at this stage. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting

  4. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report relates the Chernobylsk accident, why following a succession of technical malfunctions and human errors, reactor no. 4 of the Chernobylsk nuclear power plant explodes on April 26. 1986. Radioactive dust, aerosols and gases (including caesium and iodine) are ejected into atmosphere. The regions worst hit are in the immediate vicinity of the plant, but deposits are very uneven, producing a leopard spot type of pattern. Propelled by easterly winds, the radioactive cloud disperses increasingly, scattering deposits over the whole of Europe. At the beginning of May, the cloud arrives in France. the eastern portion of the country is most strongly affected. Ground, water and agriculture are contaminated by caesium deposits in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation. About the contamination in France, ground contamination is slight, fourteen years later, however, it is still detectable. Relative to the impact on health in the vicinity of Chernobylsk plant, it is hard to assess this impact. Among children in Southern Belarus, the number of thyroid cancers has risen one hundred-fold. In France, the doses delivered represents generally less than 1% of the average annual dose from radioactivity of natural origin. But some of the doses received were higher. Today, the protective sarcophagus covering the damaged reactor is fragile. Reactor no.3, still in operation, continues to pose a risk but the shutdown is provided for december 2000. (N.C.)

  5. Forest territory rehabilitation which were contaminated after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suggested arrangements of rehabilitation of contaminated forests and unused agricultural lands are directed to decrease of collective dose, nonhazardous using of forest and land resources and decrease of imported fuel dependence. Such activity consists of the next counter-measure: decontamination of the forest soils, change the tradition forestry, woodworking, utilization of wood wastes, ash waste disposal

  6. Accumulation radionuclides (Cs 137, Sr 90) the higher water plants in exclusion zone of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation and concentration factors Cs 137, Sr 90 by various groups of the higher water plants which specify in more intensive accumulation Sr 90 in comparison with Cs 137 on all ecological groups are received. Rates of accumulation Sr 90 were considerably above (4,0 times), than Cs 137 (2,8 times) in comparison with the period of the beginning of growth, and rates of decrease, on the contrary, for Sr 90 below (1,4 times), than Cs 137 (1,6 times). (authors)

  7. The Chernobyl NPP accident. Social and phychological rehabilitation of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The questions of social and psychological of the affected population have been surveyed. The results of the sociological research have been given. The existing approaches to solution of the given problem have been surveyed.(author)

  8. Special features of pathophysiological mechanisms of psychical disadaptation under influence of the Chernobyl NPP disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complex clinical-laboratory examination of 110 patients with various phenomena of psychical disadaptation has been carried out.In the first group (5% of examined patients) the signs of psychical-organical syndrome characteristics for dismnestical dementia has been stated. In the second group (75% of examined patients) the neurological (vascular, vegetative, convulsive) disorders, developed due to systemic lesion of subcortical mezodiencephalular and limbic formation of the brain, have been revealed. For the third group of patients the neurotical and neurosis-like disorders have been typical. The most characteristic changes of electroencephalogram, higher neural activity, psychic-test data, indexes of vegetative-vascular tonus, exchange of biogenic amines (catecholamines and serotonin), the content of key metabolites in the blood, glomeruli filtration of kidneys have been investigated for the patients of each group

  9. Radioecological situation and prognosis of water systems contamination after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data on radioecology of the rivers of Belarus (Sozh, Iput', Besed', Braginka) are given. The radioactive contamination of lakes is represent. Transboundary transfer of radionuclides by water way (Russia - Belarus - Ukraine) is estimated. Total activity of Cs-137 on the catchments of rivers which are large tributaries of the Dnieper river and run off of this radionuclide through the transboundary control points for period 1987-2002 are calculated. It was shown, that nowadays main transboundary transfer of radionuclides by water way is realized only by the Pripyat river and its tributaries because its catchments completely or partly situated in exclusion zone. The article demonstrates that now natural rehabilitation in big and medium rivers of the Dnieper basin has been and levels of radionuclides content in surface waters have considerably decreased in comparison with initial levels. At the same time closed water bodies (lakes, ponds, water reservoirs) have saved up and continue to save up radionuclides due to erosion and sedimentation. Some of such water bodies have approached to level of intervention and have surpassed it on levels of radioactive contamination of fish. It was shown, that contamination of the bottom sediments in Svyatskoe lake (catchments of Besed' river) and Nizhnyaya Braginka with Cs-137 exceeds Low-level waste. The prognosis of annual Cs-137 concentration change in the rivers for 2010 are given. (Authors)

  10. Definition of the filtration coefficient in the alluvial sands area of the Chernobyl NPP industrial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of the filter coefficients of the alluvial soils of the first unconfined aquifer according roses pumping water from wells perfect. Filtration coefficient is one of the main parameters of the soil, which has a significant impact on the reliability of the forecasts of changes. Radio- hydrogeological conditions of the area and water calculations

  11. Hygienic estimation of protective measures on minimisation of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic attention at development of protective measures on decrease of individual irradiation dozes of population of the republic is directed on restriction of internal irradiation. It is reached by optimum regulation of intake radionuclides in a body with products of food, realisation nation-wide agrotechniques protective measures. The data analysis on irradiation dozes for 1988-1996, has shown the proof tendency to gradual decrease of external irradiation levels from 4,4-11,6 mSv in 1988 to 1,6-4,3 mSv in 1996. Realisation the whole complex of measures of radiation protection in 1986-1987 has allowed to achieve decrease of the thyroid dose loading of the children in 5-20 times, internal irradiation dose in 10 and more time. Since 1991 work on study of an opportunity of decrease irradiation of the population due to natural radionuclides, first of all radon and its daughter products, are conducted. Since 1992 sanitary-epidemic service fulfils works for decrease of irradiation of population due to x-ray medical procedures

  12. Features of radionuclide contamination of the area accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the process of transfer of primary fallout products significant fractionation of radionuclides occurred. It is noted that near part of contaminated zone is more safe for contamination of cesium-134, 137. Spots observed at a considerable distance from damage reactor may be almost cesium, cesium-ruthenium ones or radioactive spots contamination of the area at different distance from the reactor was displayed by irradiated nuclear fuel particles with varied volatile radionuclides with different dispersity

  13. Features of isotopic composition of uranium in natural objects of the Chernobyl' NPP area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was shown that isotopic composition of U-natural objects of the zone (238U/235U, 235U/236U, 234U/238U) was shifted in reference to natural values and could be used for estimation of 'contamination' of environment by fuel. U content in 'contaminated' natural objects was not in excess of middle natural values. Correlation of the isotopic relationships 238U/236U and 235U/236U pointed to the fact that ejection of the fuel with high degree of burnup was lacking. 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  14. To the problem of radiostability of plant population growing in the Chernobyl' NPP region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As operation of the DNA reparation system gives the basic contribution into cell or organism radiosensitivity, this parameter change may be applied for prediction of further variations in populations. The DNA post-irradiation reconstruction is studied using the seeds of dandelion, arabidopsis and mouse peas collected on contaminated territories. DNA increased radiostability determined using the criterion of DNA single rupture yields per unit of additional gamma radiation dose is registered for all forms of plans begining from 1987

  15. Peculiarities of social-economical adaptation of people, suffered from a crash on the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiarities of economical behavior of people in the conditions of restrictions connected with radioactive pollution are analyzed. On the basis of data of sociological research specificity of social-economical adaptation of the different age groups is considered, the basic problems and perspectives of the development of these regions are revealed. (authors)

  16. A parasite situation and its dynamics in the Chernobyl NPP accident zone. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total estimation of a state of parasitic groups is given as well as parasitic groups of wild birds and mammals are described. The complexes of blood-sucking dipterous insects are described too. The population dynamics of both epidemically and epizootically dangerous species of parasites are given. 2 tabs., 9 figs

  17. Decontamination of soils contaminated with cesium radionuclides as the result of accident at Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composition of eluting solution for decontamination of soil and ground from 137Cs radionuclides has been developed and tested in the course of laboratory and trial full-scale investigations in Bryansk region. The degree of 137Cs deactivation under laboratory conditions amounted to (70±5)%, while in trial full-scale ones - (45±5)%. Agrochemical indices of the soil as a result of decontamination changed but slightly. 8 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  18. Cytogenetic analysis of blood lymphocytes of 30-km Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone villages residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted cytogenetic examination of the self-settlers, living in the areas with different levels radionuclide contamination of soil. The results of our study have proven the destabilising impact of low dose rate irradiation on the genetic structure of human somatic cells given the conditions of living on a radionuclide contaminated territory as well as advisability of cytogenetic monitoring of population as well as difficulty of biological dosimetry of low dose rate radiation

  19. Post-processing activities after Chernobyl accident in Ukraine and lesson learned to the response Fukushima Dai-ichi accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the accident of Chernobyl NPP no.4 1986, various activities including the construction of the shelter, prevention of the release of radioactive dust and liquid from the shelter, monitoring the condition of the damaged core, and disposal of radioactive waste have been implemented in the Chernobyl site for mitigating the nuclear and radioactive risks of damaged nuclear facilities, and the reducing radiation dose of working personnel. The construction of new shelter started for the decommissioning of the damaged unit no.4. facility. For reducing the radiation dose to the inhabitants from the contaminated land and feedstuff, the countermeasures including the set of the exclusive zone and permissible level of radionuclide in the foodstuff have been conducted for the countrywide. These activities include many valuable information about how to recover the condition of the site and maintain the social activities after the severe accident of NPP, and it would be important to learn the above activities in conducting the post-processing activities on the Fukushima-Daiichi accident successfully. (author)

  20. Industrial complex for solid radwaste management (ICSRM) at Chernobyl nuclear power plant functionality of the facilities. Factors of success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an international tendering process NUKEM was awarded to build the Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management (ICSRM) at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. The ICSRM project is one component of an integrated radioactive waste management programme for the entire Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP). The Project includes radioactive waste retrieval, processing and packaging for interim storage or final disposal. Waste management operations performed as part of the ICSRM Project include the following: - Waste volume reduction through compaction and incineration. - Waste solidification through immobilization in concrete, also known as grouting. The immobilization material provides good resistance to external factors, such as water and weather. Also, grouting creates a monolith with few voids, thus ensuring the integrity of the waste form. NUKEM is the first western company who has successfully accomplished a radwaste treatment plant within the ChNPP site. NUKEM has received all payments from the EC due to the final acceptance of the facilities. In addition to the main contract NUKEM has successfully accomplished a contract regarding the ventilation system of LOT 0. Based on the ICSRM success NUKEM is currently executing other projects in Ukraine and is involved in several tenders. (orig.)

  1. Radioecological problems of NPP reservoirs-coolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioecological problems of NPP reservoir-coolers are considered in connection with thermal effluents and partly radiactive wastes. It is shown that one of real means to reduce undesirable ecological consequences of surplus heat release into the medium is the usage of NPP heated waters in energy-biological and agro-industrial complexes. In case of NPP operation the normalized environmental disposal of a number of radionuclides is specified. In this connection the necessity is pointed out to establish a list of the most dangerous radionuclides to be discharged into water medium by various NPP types, to study their behaviour in main water reservoir components; to determine coefficients of radionuclides accumulation in organisms related to human food chain. Actual is the problem of biological effects which can arise in hydrocenoses of reservoir-coolers as a result of long-term or chronic action of NPP radioactive waste disposal. A wide program of ecological investigations is laid down related to the problem of using NPP water thermal effluents and radioecology of reservoirs-coolers, the realization of the program being initiated in the vicinity of the Beloyarsk NPP

  2. Agro-industrial sphere-radiological consequence of Chernobyl accident and major safety measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early spring radionuclide fall as a consequence of Chernobyl accident caused air contamination of aerial part of agriculture crop - winter crops, natural and seeded permanent grasses. For other plants the soil and wind contamination are prevailing. After radionuclide fall most of them are concentrated in the soil upper layer. Radionuclide uptake depends on the ratio of their concentration in soils, that is varied due to the soil type. The soil development results in variation of radionuclide migration in the crop. In cattle production two main trends are the most significant: estimation of food contamination (primarily of milk and meat) and analysis of physiological state of animals near NPP. Organization and land-improvement measures permitting a stable agro-industrial functionaing on the contaminated territory are considered

  3. ESTE EMO and ESTE EBO - emergency response system for NPP Mochovce and NPP Bohunice V-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Programs ESTE EMO and ESTE EBO are emergency response systems that help the crisis staff of the NPP in assessing the source term (predicted possible release of radionuclides to the atmosphere ), in assessing the urgent protective measures and sectors under threat, in assessing real release (symptoms of release really detected and observed), in calculating radiological impacts of real release, averted or avertable doses, potential doses and doses during transport or evacuation on specified routes. Both systems serve as instruments in case of severe accident (DBA or BDBA) at NPP Mochovce or NPP Bohunice, accidents with threat of release of radioactivity to the atmosphere. Systems are implemented at emergency centre of Mochovce NPP and Bohunice NPP and connected online to the sources of technological and radiological data from the reactor, primary circuit, confinement, secondary circuit, ventilation stack, from the area of NPP (TDS 1) and from the emergency planning zone (TDS 11). Systems are connected online to the sources of meteorological data, too. (authors)

  4. Ignalina NPP confinement response in case of large LOCA and failure of water injection to RCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of the RBMK power plants response to Beyond Design Basis Accidents (BDBA) and especially to Severe Accidents is very important. Until now very little attention was paid to it and much speculation remains after the Chernobyl accident. This paper aims to present the current knowledge regarding the response of Ignalina NPP confinement (it is titled as Accident Localisation System (ALS) to severe accident). A large Loss-of-Coolant Accident with failure of pumped water injection to Reactor Cooling System was selected for the analysis. The analysis was performed using a detailed nodalisation developed for COCOSYS code. The analysis showed that many uncertainties remain in the BDBA phenomena analysis for the RBMK reactors and the work should be continued investigating other accident scenarios, e.g. station blackout, multiple rupture of fuel channels, etc. (author)

  5. Improved technical specifications for Korean NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PWRs use Technical Specifications(Tech. Spec.) to ensure safe operation of the plant. Recently, many efforts were made to improve Tech. Spec. and as a result, Improved Standard Technical Specifications(ISTS) have been developed. Korean NPP technical specifications were converted to ISTS format. KAERI also provided supporting documents for technical specification conversion including mark-up's and description of changes. This paper describes and summarizes the results of implementation of ISTS for Korean NPP. The new Tech. Spec. will improve safety of Korean NPP

  6. KEPIC application on Korean NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the management of nuclear power plant, the security of safety is most important and the such a safety security is closely related to the governing code requirements for nuclear facility. In the first stage of NPP construction in Korea, there was no independent Korean codes for the nuclear facility, accordingly different kind of foreign codes were applied. From the later of 1980, KHNP leads the development of KEPIC (Korea Electric Power Industry Code). The development had been being performed in the three step and finished in the end of Dec. 2000. After that, the KEPIC developed had been selectively applied for the UI-Chin 5 and 6 units construction and it is now expected that the application of KEPIC will be markably expended in the Shin-Kori 1 and 2 and Shin Wol-Sung 1 and 2 units scheduled. Thereby here I introduce the status of development and application of the KEPIC for information of persons interested

  7. Fuel reliability of Bohunice NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper summarizes experience from last 15 years of operation at NPP Jaslovske Bohunice. During this period, leaking fuel assemblies have had been identified by in-core sipping method and verified by vendor specified canister sipping method. Methodology of operational and outage fuel integrity monitoring is described. Full survey of identified leaking assemblies is given. Fuel failure rates are calculated separately for V-1 (V-230 type) and V-2 (V-213 type) units. Systematic difference - significantly lower fuel failure rate at V-213 units exists for all period investigated. Analysis of potential fuel failure reasons and all related measures (planned and already implemented) are presented. Design, operation and fabrication features have been analyzed with the aim to identify dominant factors contributing to fuel failure. No unambiguous reasons have been found so far. It is believed that there is a superposition of several factors and differences causing higher failure rate at V-230 type units. (author)

  8. Morbidity of the thyroid gland cancer of inhabitants of Bryansk area after the accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As a result of accident on the fourth power unit of the Chernobyl NPP all the territory of Bryansk area underwent the influence of radioactive iodine. The density of losses has made from 1-5 up to 30 and more Ci/km2 on different areas. Besides in the territory of Bryansk area the deficiency of iodine is registered from easy weight up to an average degree. Among the problems of modern thyroidology the thyroid gland cancer takes a special place in connection with progressing increase of its frequency in zones of ecological trouble and iodic deficiency. The purpose of the given work consisted in estimation of dynamics of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer of inhabitants of Bryansk area before and after accident on the Chernobyl NPP. For the period from 1975 to 1985 on the territory of Bryansk area 308 cases of thyroid gland cancer, including 2 cases of thyroid gland cancer at children (in 1975 and 1984) have been revealed. These years morbidity in Bryansk area has changed from 0,78 on 100000 population in 1975 up to 2,6 in 1981-1982. Since 1986 up to 2004 on territory of Bryansk area 2638 cases of thyroid gland cancer have been revealed. Morbidity of the given pathology has increased from 3,3 on 100 thousand population in 1986 up to 23,6 on 100 thousand in 2004. The highest all-Russian parameter of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer was in 2003 - 5,4. Thus, morbidity of thyroid gland cancer in our area since 1989 up to 1999 was on the average 2 times more, than across the Russian Federation, and in 1999-2004 - more than 3 times. Thus rates of the increase of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer at inhabitants of southwest territories (density of radioactive pollution of Cs 137 over 5 Ci/km2, more than at inhabitants of Bryansk area. The highest parameter on these territories is noted in 2004 (27,3), more than in 5 times more, than in the Russian Federation. The parity of men and women among inhabitants of Bryansk area, who fell ill with thyroid gland cancer

  9. Chernobyl information: The ALARA backlash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk information to the public failed after the Chernobyl accident, also in countries where radiation protection authorities and experts initially enjoyed public confidence. In contrast to many other large accidents, the responsibility for the information failure stays mainly with the authorities and experts themselves, not with the mass media. Many factors together caused the radiation risk information from SSI (Swedish Radiation Protection Institute), and its sister authorities in many other countries, to be confusing and inadequate, despite the best of intentions. The two major malefactors were the handling of food contamination restrictions and the short-sighted risk optimisation by applying the ALARA principle. In addition, the assurance that the Chernobyl contamination was fairly harmless made no sense to the layman, as a massive array of controlling procedures was enforced simultaneously. The food regulations became unfortunately focused on becquerel per kilogram limits instead of the primary goal, a dose reduction per year, corresponding to an yearly intake of Cs-137. The lesson learned is that the risk significant long-term intake ambition must be understood and digested by laymen and media, before any secondary limits, e.g. the activity concentration of foodstuffs expressed as becquerel per kg, for controlling or trading purposes, are introduced. As it were, the experts and authorities lost credibility, due to what people considered as ambiguities. The concept of ALARA (As Low As Readily Achievable) is in the backbone of every ionising radiation expert, and a useful strategy for optimising dose burdens during controlled situations. In connection to the Chernobyl accident many advices to the public was given based on the ALARA principle. 'Rinse leafy vegetables' sounds at first very reasonable, cheap and innocent, but if the averted dose is low, such an advice should not be given. The individual dose-reduction should be weighted against all negative

  10. Lessons learnt from clean-up of urban area after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Chernobyl NPP showed that huge territories including densely populated areas can be exposed to contamination as a result of unforeseen circumstances. The Chernobyl accident forced reconsidering of many regulations in the field of population protection and was a powerful incentive to development of many applied sciences. In 1992-1996, an international team of scientists carried out investigations on ECP-4 project 'Strategies of Decontamination'. Including of an independent sub-project 'Urban environment and countermeasures' into the project of French-German initiative on Chernobyl 'Radioecology' was the extension of work on study of urban environment contamination. The aim of the projects ware to synthesize the large body of experimental data received during elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident and in the course of special studies carried out in former USSR and later in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, and prediction on this basis of radionuclide behavior in the urban environment. In 2003 the EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) project was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Urban Remediation Working Group of the EMRAS has focused on the assessment of the effectiveness of countermeasures employed in urban settings after releases of radioactivity. This review considers results of principally Ukrainian, Russian, and Belarus researchers who worked on these projects. Over the 20-year period a number of publications have reviewed the effectiveness of countermeasures, particularly those used after the Chernobyl accident. The general principles of radiological protection are based on radiation doses, intervention levels and effective countermeasures. Decontamination of densely built-up cities constructed of various building materials with total surface area significantly exceeding the administrative city area is an extremely difficult task. In the Late-Phase Response, 'classical' radiological

  11. Chernobyl from the point of view of disaster sociology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some social aspects of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus are considered. The information system of publications on this theme is analyzed. The influence of various factors of the Chernobyl accident on social changes in the areas of radioactive contamination is investigated. The Chernobyl subculture formation process in the contaminated areas is considered. Practical recommendations of sociologists on the elimination of the Chernobyl catastrophe effects are given. 12 refs

  12. Suomi NPP VIIRS Imagery evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillger, Donald; Seaman, Curtis; Liang, Calvin; Miller, Steven; Lindsey, Daniel; Kopp, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) combines the best aspects of both civilian and military heritage instrumentation. VIIRS has improved capabilities over its predecessors: a wider swath width and much higher spatial resolution at swath edge. The VIIRS day-night band (DNB) is sensitive to very low levels of visible light and is capable of detecting low clouds, land surface features, and sea ice at night, in addition to light emissions from both man-made and natural sources. Imagery from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite has been in the checkout process since its launch on 28 October 2011. The ongoing evaluation of VIIRS Imagery helped resolve several imagery-related issues, including missing radiance measurements. In particular, near-constant contrast imagery, derived from the DNB, had a large number of issues to overcome, including numerous missing or blank-fill images and a stray light leakage problem that was only recently resolved via software fixes. In spite of various sensor issues, the VIIRS DNB has added tremendous operational and research value to Suomi NPP. Remarkably, it has been discovered to be sensitive enough to identify clouds even in very low light new moon conditions, using reflected light from the Earth's airglow layer. Impressive examples of the multispectral imaging capabilities are shown to demonstrate its applications for a wide range of operational users. Future members of the Joint Polar Satellite System constellation will also carry and extend the use of VIIRS. Imagery evaluation will continue with these satellites to ensure the quality of imagery for end users.

  13. Krsko NPP radioactive waste characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 2005 Krsko NPP initiated the Radioactive Waste Characterization Project and commissioned its realization to the consulting company Enconet International, Zagreb. The Agency for Radwaste Management was invited to participate on the Project. The Project was successfully closed out in August 2006. The main Project goal consisted of systematization the existing and gathering the missing radiological, chemical, physical, mechanical, thermal and biological information and data on radioactive waste. In a general perspective, the Project may also be considered as a part of broader scope of activities to support state efforts to find a disposal solution for radioactive waste in Slovenia. The operational low and intermediate level radioactive waste has been structured into 6 waste streams that contain evaporator concentrates and tank sludges, spent ion resins, spent filters, compressible and non-compressible waste as well as specific waste. For each of mentioned waste streams, process schemes have been developed including raw waste, treatment and conditioning technologies, waste forms, containers and waste packages. In the paper the main results of the Characterization Project will be briefly described. The results will indicate that there are 17 different types of raw waste that have been processed by applying 9 treatment/conditioning technologies. By this way 18 different waste forms have been produced and stored into 3 types of containers. Within each type of container several combinations should be distinguished. Considering all of this, there are 34 different types of waste packages altogether that are currently stored in the Solid Radwaste Storage Facility at the Krsko NPP site. Because of these findings a new identification system has been recommended and consequently the improvement of the existing database on radioactive waste has been proposed. The potential areas of further in depth characterization are indicated. In the paper a brief description on the

  14. ENGINEERED NEAR SURFACE DISPOSAL FACILITY OF THE INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX FOR SOLID RADWASTE MANAGEMENT AT CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the turnkey project ''Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management (ICSRM) at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP)'' an Engineered Near Surface Disposal Facility (ENSDF, LOT 3) will be built on the VEKTOR site within the 30 km Exclusion Zone of the ChNPP. This will be performed by RWE NUKEM GmbH, Germany, and it governs the design, licensing support, fabrication, assembly, testing, inspection, delivery, erection, installation and commissioning of the ENSDF. The ENSDF will receive low to intermediate level, short lived, processed/conditioned wastes from the ICSRM Solid Waste Processing Facility (SWPF, LOT 2), the ChNPP Liquid Radwaste Treatment Plant (LRTP) and the ChNPP Interim Storage Facility for RBMK Fuel Assemblies (ISF). The ENSDF has a capacity of 55,000 m3. The primary functions of the ENSDF are: to receive, monitor and record waste packages, to load the waste packages into concrete disposal units, to enable capping and closure of the disposal unit s, to allow monitoring following closure. The ENSDF comprises the turnkey installation of a near surface repository in the form of an engineered facility for the final disposal of LILW-SL conditioned in the ICSRM SWPF and other sources of Chernobyl waste. The project has to deal with the challenges of the Chernobyl environment, the fulfillment of both Western and Ukrainian standards, and the installation and coordination of an international project team. It will be shown that proven technologies and processes can be assembled into a unique Management Concept dealing with all the necessary demands and requirements of a turnkey project. The paper emphasizes the proposed concepts for the ENSDF and their integration into existing infrastructure and installations of the VEKTOR site. Further, the paper will consider the integration of Western and Ukrainian Organizations into a cohesive project team and the requirement to guarantee the fulfillment of both Western standards and Ukrainian regulations

  15. Chernobyl after five years and over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26th 1986 the catastrophe occurred at the nuclear electric power generation system. The first inkling of the accident was known through the Swedish monitoring station about the radioactive fallout. It was also in 1986 that the USSR gave an idea of an earlier accident which happened in 1957. The Chernobyl reactor has pressure tubes and is a pressure vessel reactor. Graphite is used as an industrial material. In western reactors in USA with the increase in heat, power generation comes down. The international AEC discussed the Chernobyl comprehensively and came out with conclusion of deficiency in design which was accepted by the Soviet side without any demur. In 1970, in UK an accident has been reported with pressurized reactor. In 1987, Chernobyl was discussed under the chair of Eugene Volkov by USSR. In 1989, another conference was arranged at Sicily. The first annual nuclear safety met at Minsk in 1990 (June); USSR/USA meet on Chernobyl was also held at Solchin in 1989. A future meeting on Chernobyl was held at Paris in July 1991. In all these meetings, it is emphasized that more training and safety culture establishment was necessary by the international nuclear safety advisory group on safety. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab

  16. Radionuclide migration in the Chernobyl contamination zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that the Chernobyl fallout of 137 reaching the land soils with precipitation was rapidly and tightly sorbed to the fine fraction of sediment or soils. The majority of the 137Cs is retained in the top few centimetres of the soil or sediment profiles. In the absence of strong variations in precipitation over a relatively small area the total bomb-derived 137Cs fallout can assumed to be spatial uniform. The Chernobyl 137Cs fallout was mostly connected with one or two rains. So the spatial variability of this 137Cs can be higher. Furthermore because the explosion of the Chernobyl nuclear plant happened together with fire lot of ashes particles with radionuclide were distributed within vast areas. So even microvariability of Chernobyl 137Cs can be very high in some places. The horizontal migration of 137Cs connects with soil erosion processes that dominate on the agricultural lands of the Central Russia. The main goal of this investigation is to evaluate the caesium-137 horizontal and vertical migration within typical landscape of the Central Russia 11 years after the Chernobyl accident. (author). 7 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Introduction: geoscientific knowledgebase of Chernobyl and Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Voitsekhovych, Oleg; Korobova, Elena; Stohl, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard; Kita, Kazuyuki; Aoyama, Michio; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2013-04-01

    Radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011) accidents is a multi-disciplinary geoscience problem. Just this session (GI1.4) contains presentations of (i) atmospheric transport for both short and long distances, (ii) aerosol physics and chemistry, (ii) geophysical measurement method and logistics, (iv) inversion method to estimate the geophysical source term and decay, (v) transport, migration, and sedimentation in the surface water system, (vi) transport and sedimentation in the ocean, (vii) soil chemistry and physics, (viii) forest ecosystem, (ix) risk assessments, which are inter-related to each other. Because of rareness of a severe accident like Chernobyl and Fukushima, the Chernobyl's 27 years experience is the only knowledgebase that provides a good guidance for the Fukushima case in understanding the physical/chemical processes related to the environmental radioactive contamination and in providing future prospectives, e.g., what we should do next for the observation/remediation. Unfortunately, the multi-disciplinary nature of the radioactive contamination problem makes it very difficult for a single scientist to obtain the overview of all geoscientific aspects of the Chernobyl experience. The aim of this introductory talk is to give a comprehensive knowledge of the wide geoscientific aspects of the Chernobyl contamination to Fukushima-related geoscience community.

  18. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T. (eds.); Antipkin, Yu.G. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L.P. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D.A. [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)] (and others)

    2006-04-15

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

  19. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations

  20. Optimizing NPP performance and service life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most effective way for new power production in Ukraine is the completions of the Khmelnitskij 2 and Rovno 4 NPP project. The report presents the financing terms and conditions of the Energoatom corporate bonds issue

  1. Krsko NPP Periodic Safety Review program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for conducting a Periodic Safety Review for the Krsko NPP has been clearly recognized both by the NEK and the regulator (SNSA). The PSR would be highly desirable both in the light of current trends in safety oversight practices and because of many benefits it is capable to provide. On January 11, 2001 the SNSA issued a decision requesting the Krsko NPP to prepare a program and determine a schedule for the implementation of the program for 'Periodic Safety Review of NPP Krsko'. The program, which is required to be in accordance with the IAEA safety philosophy and with the EU practice, was submitted for the approval to the SNSA by the end of March 2001. The paper summarizes Krsko NPP Periodic Safety Review Program [1] including implemented SNSA and IAEA Expert Mission comments.(author)

  2. Analysis of safety culture at Rovno NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main concepts of safety culture which relate to safety increase in reactor unit operation, their reliable work, high qualification of personnel and personal responsibility of operators are developed. They will be introduced at the Rovno NPP

  3. Issues of risk management during NPP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper outlines risk management issues during safety assessments of nuclear facilities and summarizes international experience in NPP risk management in different countries. The need is also considered to elaborate risk management and optimization procedures for Ukrainian NPPs

  4. Prognosis for tumor morbidity among the salvaging personnel of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preduction of oncological disease rate in persons participating in the Chernobyl accident response for Russia group of liquidators (100000 persons) worked in 1986 is presented based on the assumption that neoplasm development period will consists subsequent 15 years (up to 2015). According to the official data in 1986, radiation doses to liquidators did not exceed 25 h. But real radiation doses to liquidators in most cases were not determined because of the absence of personal dosemeters. Radiation dose due to radionuclides inhalation was not accounted. Average dose to liquidators worked at the destroyed unit of Chernobyl NPP was 0.40 Sv in Summer, 1986, with the account of internal exposure. Data on the oncological disease rate, 12 years later the disaster, show that the neoplasms of respiratory organs and digestive organs are the most spread (36.2 and 28.3% correspondingly). Further, in the order of decreasing, the neoplasms follow of hematopoietic and lymphatic systems, urinary system and brain. Preventive therapy combination including A, C, E vitamins, provitamin A, selenium with lecithin in nut oil is recommended

  5. Model-directed sampling in Chernobyl forests: General methodology and 1994 sampling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiologically-contaminated forest and natural ecosystems contribute significantly to the human radiation dose in the intermediate (several years) and long (several decades) terms following the radionuclide release. As a result of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, extensive forested areas in Europe were significantly contaminated with cesium, strontium, plutonium and other radionuclides. This study develops a dynamic model that describes the pathways of radionuclides which undergo complex transfer processes in forests and natural ecosystems. This generic model, FORESTPATH, calculates time-dependent radionuclide concentrations in forest compartments based on the information available on residence half-times. Because of the high complexity, traditional sampling programs often provide only limited and fragmented information for the ecosystem to be modeled. A model-directed sampling program was initiated which implies close feedback between ecosystem sampling and modeling of the radionuclide pathways using the FORESTPATH model. This program is now being applied by an international team of USA, European Union (EU) and Newly Independent States (NIS) members in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Exclusion Zone

  6. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  7. Leukaemia incidents after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romania and especially its Eastern territory were among the most heavily affected area after Chernobyl accident. The objective of our study was to investigate whether or not the nuclear accident determined an increased number of leukaemia cases. The specific rates of leukaemia incidents by age group were calculated in 588167 children aged 0-6 years in April 1986 and 99917 children which have been exposed 'in utero'. The rates of 1989-1994 period were compared with the rates of 1980-1985 period. The incidence rates were lower in the exposed group than that in controls for children under 1 year (20.52/105 inh vs 23.11/105 inh), 1-3 years (13.26/105 inh vs 16.11/105 inh) and 4-6 years (9.58/105 inh vs 10.58/105 inh). The cohort of 'in utero' exposed children presented a leukaemia incidences insignificantly higher than that before the accident (23.10/105 inh vs 15.93/105 inh)

  8. Chernobyl - ethical and environmental considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarises briefly the main facts of the Chernobyl incident, the reactions to it, and the consequences in terms of global atmospheric pollution. Meteorological conditions determined the pattern of fallout, which over the United Kingdom for Cs137 varied in the ratio 10 : 4000 Bq/m2 (on grass). There has been poor understanding by the media and the public of the quantitative aspects, aggravated by the differing characteristics of the several radionuclides (15 are listed), and the different units used in the USSR and the UK. Very complete information on fallout in the British Isles was obtained from meteorological data and the atmospheric dispersion models operated at Imperial College. Transfer through food chains depended on the variety of circumstances: the monitoring programmes and control measures were found to be in need of improvement, as no criteria existed for the amounts that justify intervention in the supply of foodstuffs to the public. Long-term effects in the UK of the measured radiation from this incident, in terms of deaths per year attributed to cancer are given and compared with other health hazards. The disaster has underlined the responsibilities of top management and of professional engineers, the need to promote a 'safety culture', and the value of effective organisation, the international exchange of experience, and the role of the media in improving public information. (author)

  9. Chernobyl. Disaster and its legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundreds of thousands of people have been helping to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident, but there still are many areas in which many people have to live with the risks induced by elevated environmental radioactivity. The authors of the book have been participating in the measuring programme of the Federal Republic of Germany, intended to measure and map the radiation exposure of the population and the environment in the states of the former Soviet Union affected by the disaster. Due to their participation in biophysical and medical measuring programmes, the authors are familiar with the situation on site. Their report is intended to give the general reader a picture of the causes and progress of the reactor accident of April 1986, and of its longlasting effects on human health and the food chain. The information presented is based on authentic material and data and reveals the biologic, medical and social consequences as well as the related scientific and ecologic problems. (orig./HP)

  10. Phytoremediation of Chernobyl Contaminated Land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the land within a 10 km radius of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant is still heavily contaminated by the 1986 accident. In 1998, a 3 year investigation of the potential of willow vegetation systems to stabilise the contaminated land and thereby reduce the dispersion of radionuclides was initiated under the PHYTOR project. During the first year, a number of screening tests were carried out on the contaminated flood plain of the river Pripyat. Survival of new willow plantations was tested at several locations. Except for the predominantly moist peaty soil in the vicinity of Yanov (where survival was nearly 100%), survival was low (0-30%). Notwithstanding, willows are found everywhere on the Pripyat flood plains: 7-8 year old plantations exist on the upper terraces and 1-2 year old saplings cover the newly deposited alluvial sands. For these willows radiocaesium transfer factors ranged from 10-4 and 10-3 m2.kg-1 and strontium transfer factors from 10-3 and 10-2 m2.kg-1. Biomass production was low: 70-100 kg.ha-1.y-1. Therefore, the radionuclide immobilisation in the biomass was insignificant. Even when based on the exchangeable caesium fraction, less then 0.1% for radiocaesium and less than 1% for radiostrontium became incorporated into the wood. Nevertheless, establishment of willow would reduce resuspension and erosion of soil and sediment. (author)

  11. Geological evaluation of the Paks NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geological evaluation of the site of nuclear power plant constitutes the basis for the assessment of seismic hazard important in terms of the NPP safety. Its re-evaluation is imperative because of the new safety requirements and the new scientific knowledge. Geological evaluation of the Paks NPP site is presented in this paper. Based on seismotectonic evaluation and the seismological data, the seismic hazard of the plant site was determined by using both probabilistic and deterministic methods

  12. Training human resource for NPP in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietnam will establish the first NPP in the near future. With us the first important thing is the human resource, but now there is no university in Vietnam training nuclear engineers. In EPU (Electric Power University), now we are preparing for training nuclear engineers. In this paper, we review the nuclear man power and the way to train the high quality human resource for NPP and for other nuclear application in Vietnam. (author)

  13. Ignalina NPP Safety Analysis: Models and Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research directions, linked to safety assessment of the Ignalina NPP, of the scientific safety analysis group are presented: Thermal-hydraulic analysis of accidents and operational transients; Thermal-hydraulic assessment of Ignalina NPP Accident Localization System and other compartments; Structural analysis of plant components, piping and other parts of Main Circulation Circuit; Assessment of RBMK-1500 reactor core and other. Models and main works carried out last year are described. (author)

  14. Chernobyl - Could it happen here? [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at the Soviet nuclear power station at Chernobyl in April 1986, the CEGB produced this video which has now been updated in the light of the information provided by the Soviets at the International Atomic Energy Agency Conference in Vienna. At this conference it was made clear that the Chernobyl accident would have been impossible in any nuclear reactor operational outside the USSR. This video explains why. It examines the main reasons for the failure of the reactor at Chernobyl and the two fundamental design flaws which resulted in the sequence of events leading up to the accident. It shows how British reactors have built-in protection to compensate for failure in any part of the system, and how the reactors are tolerant to operator error. The programme also explains the safety standards and regulations which are enforced in CEGB nuclear power stations and the rigorous training that reactor operators have to undergo

  15. Post-Chernobyl scientific perspectives: Thyroid effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population in the area around Chernobyl, particularly southern Belarus and northern Ukraine, was exposed to high levels of fallout from the Chernobyl accident including large amounts of radioactive iodine. As the thyroid gland concentrates iodine, it was exposed to higher levels of radiation than other body tissues. The radioactive isotope of iodine, iodine-131, has been extensively and safely used in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis. Thus, the report of increased numbers of thyroid carcinoma in children in areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl was surprising to some, both because of the previous lack of thyroid carcinoma in patients treated with radioactive iodine, and because of the very short time (four years) between exposure and the start of the increase

  16. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  17. Latest report about health effects of the chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After twenty years of Chernobyl accident, the international conference was hold in Kyiv, Ukraine, 24-26, April in 2006. During the conference WHO declares the paper named health effects of the Chernobyl accident. The report look back the nuclear accident in the history, and then recite conclusion about health effects of the Chernobyl accident, which from doses received from the Chernobyl accident, thyroid cancer, non-thyroid solid cancer, leukemia, mortality, cataract and cardiovascular disease. The report is considered as milestone events in the studying of health effects of Chernobyl accident. (authors)

  18. Genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl fallout to agricultural crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the fallout to agricultural crops after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 have been studied. In the first, acute, period of this accident, when the absorbed dose was primarily due to external β- and γ-irradiation, the radiation injury of agricultural crops, according to the basic cytogenetic tests resembled the effect produced by acute γ-irradiation at comparable doses. The yield of cytogenetic damage in leaf meristem of plants grown in the 10-km zone of the ChNPP in 1987-1989 (the period of chronic, lower level radiation exposure) was shown to be enhanced and dependent on the level of radioactive contamination. The rate of decline with time in cytogenetic damage induced by chronic exposure lagged considerably behind that of the radiation exposure. Analysis of genetic variability in three sequentia generations of rye and wheat revealed increased cytogenetic damage in plants exposed to chronic irradiation during the 2nd and 3rd years

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.

    2009-09-30

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  20. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-11-09

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  1. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  2. Real and mythical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes the public Unacceptance of Nuclear Power as a consequence of Chernobyl Accident, an accident which was a severest event in the history of the nuclear industry. It was a shock for everybody, who has been involved in nuclear power programs. But nobody could expect that it was also the end romantic page in the nuclear story. The scale of the detriment was a great, and it could be compared with other big technological man-made catastrophes. But immediately after an accident mass media and news agencies started to transmit an information with a great exaggerations of the consequences of the event. In a report on the Seminar The lessons of the Chernobyl - 1' in 1996 examples of such incorrect information, were cited. Particularly, in the mass media it was declared that consequences of the accident could be compared with a results of the second world war, the number of victims were more than hundred thousand people, more than million of children have the serious health detriments. Such and other cases of the misconstruction have been called as myths. The real consequences of Chernobyl disaster have been summed on the International Conference 'One decade after Chernobyl' - 2, in April 1996. A very important result of the Chernobyl accident was a dissemination of stable unacceptance of the everything connected with 'the atom'. A mystic horror from invisible mortal radiation has been inspired in the masses. And from such public attitude the Nuclear Power Programs in many countries have changed dramatically. A new more pragmatic and more careful atomic era started with a slogan: 'Kernkraftwerk ? Nein, danke'. No doubt, a Chernobyl accident was a serious technical catastrophe in atomic industry. The scale of detriment is connected with a number of involved peoples, not with a number of real victims. In comparison with Bhopal case, earthquakes, crashes of the airplanes, floods, traffic accidents and other risky events of our life - the Chernobyl is

  3. The Nordic Chernobyl data base project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl Data Base has been established with the purpose of collecting the large amount of data resulting from measurements made in several laboratories in the period following the Chernobyl accident. All information is stored in the C data base handling system developed especially for this kind of environmental data. The C base data handling system allows for easy input from a variety of sources and easy output to other computer programs for further data treatment. This paper describes the structures, codes and methods used and the present status of the project. (au)

  4. Consequences and problems of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data on epidemic situation in connection with the Chernobyl accident, based on the personal medical and dosimetric information on all the persons, subjected to radiation effect, and included in the Russian state medicodosimetric register, are presented. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident become the cause for origination of serious radiation injures by 134 persons (with lethal outcome by 37 patients) and also remote radiation stochastic effects by children (thyroid gland cancer) and by liquidators (thyroid gland leucosis and cancer). The permanent stress and other unfavorable factors conditioned aggravation of chronical and increase in somatic diseases and psychoneurotic disorders

  5. The Chernobyl disaster - ten years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large areas of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine are contaminated with very high levels of radioactivity from the fallout of the Chernobyl reactor accident. The most affected areas are in the vicinity of Chernobyl, and east of Gomel (in Belarus), where much of the radioactive plume came down. The article describes the contamination with cesium 137 and iodine 131, as well as the immediate countermeasures taken after the accident, and the long-term action for decontamination of the polluted soil. Information is given on the radiation dose received by the population, in particular the thyroid doses, and prognostic data on thyroid cancer incidence. (orig.)

  6. Nuclear disasters at Chornobyl NPP, Fukushima NPP and nuclear power engineering in the 21- century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents a brief analysis of nuclear accidents at the Chornobyl NPP 91986) and Fukushima NPP (2011), discusses causes and scenarios of the accidents. The radioactive contamination of the environment resulting from the disasters is characterized, and top-priority actions for mitigation of the consequences and protection of public are discussed

  7. Selection of compositions for the cementation of liquid radioactive waste of Kudankulam NPP and Volgodonskaya NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is the selection of formulations for the cementation of liquid radioactive waste of Kudankulam NPP and Volgodonskaya NPP. The simulators of the following radioactive waste have been used for the works: concentrated still bottoms (CSB) with saline content 600-800 g/l, sludge, pulps of ion-exchange resins (IER), activated carbon, titanium and ion-exchange sorbents of Kudankulam NPP and concentrated still bottoms with saline content 900 g/l, pulps of ion-exchange resins, sludge of Volgodonskaya NPP. For Kudankulam NPP there was made a separate research of the cementation of each type of waste and also joint cementation of concentrated still bottoms and ion-exchange resin. For Volgodonskaya NPP - joint cementation of CSB and IER or sludge. The properties of the compounds were determined, which are regulated by GOST R 51883-2002, spread ability and setting time of the cement grouts. The study has shown that as a main component of the combined binding material for the cementation of low level radioactive waste (LRW) of Kudankulam NPP and Volgodonskaya NPP, the usage of Portland cement is preferable. As additives for the binding materials it is better to use lime and bentonite clay powder. Maximal inclusion of LRW into the compound when using these materials will be (% of the compound weight): CSB: 30%, sludge - 14%, IER - 14%, activated carbon - 18%, titanium sorbent - 20%, ion-selective sorbent - 14%

  8. Impact of 1986 Chernobyl accidental radioactive release on biomass supply for industrial use in central western Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1986 reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) in Ukraine had caused considerable radioactive fallouts throughout much of Belarus. It has been estimated that more than 20 % of Belarus would still remain contaminated with radionuclides 30 years after the NPP accident. Residual Cs-137 radionuclide is considered to be the most important. The physical half-life of Cs-137 is 30 years. Relatively high level of Cs-137 was identified to have been deposited in the top soil of several areas in the western region of Grodno oblast, during the first decade after the NPP accident. The mobility of Cs-137 in the soil is similar to that of K. In the 2004 survey data released by the United Nations, Cs-137 in the top soil of most of Belarus appeared to have dissipated largely into the natural cycle, including physical decay, high water solubility, and transference from the soil into the growing biomass (e.g., annual grain crops) which is exported from the affected region. The accumulation of Cs-137 in wood residues could be very problematic. Unlike annual cereal crops, trees are harvested typically in ~80-year cycles. Repeated exposure of workers to fugitive Cs-137 in wood wastes could pose a significant health hazard

  9. Radioecological evaluations of Ignalina NPP Lithuania Normal operating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ignalina NPP (INPP) with two RBMK-1500 reactors is constructed in north-eastern part of Lithuania, close to its borders with Latvia and Belarus. The natural Lake Drukshiai serves as a cooling basin for INPP. Environmental monitoring in INPP region is conducted since 1979. It was extended since 1993 due to implementation of State Scientific Research Programme INPP and Environment. Radionuclides transport in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in this time was studied especially comprehensively. Accumulation of artificial radionuclides in lake is governed by biogeochemical transport of radionuclides from three sources, i.e. of global ones, emitted after Chernobyl accident and released from INPP. Radioactive releases from INPP into lake formed small activity fraction of different radionuclides in water, bottom sediments as well as in biota. Radionuclides activity in water varied from 1.4 to 7 for 137 Cs, from 0.5 to 1.7 for 60 Co, from 25 to 60 Bq/m 3 for 90 Sr, and were not detected for 134 Cs and 54 Mn. Considering terrestrial ecosystem areal distribution of radionuclides in soil and biota were evaluated. Artificial radionuclides from three mentioned above sources are distributed in ecosystem which can be treated as little contaminated (mean 137 Cs activity reaches 1000 Bq/m 2 ). Local anomalies close to INPP are related to releases from water communications of INPP. Using site specific data nuclide specific dose factors for both atmospheric and aquatic pathways and individual effective doses to members of critical groups were calculated. Doses caused by radioactive releases into water and into air during 1997 are equal 0.01 mSv/a and 0.001 mSv/a, respectively

  10. International Chernobyl project [AEA report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA have co-ordinated the first international assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the affected areas outside the 30km prohibited zone around the reactor. These areas have a total population of about 1 million people, living in approximately 2700 settlements. The main aim of the project was to answer the question 'Is it safe for the population to go on living in the affected areas?'. The project did not investigate radiological health effects among more than 100 000 people evacuated from the 30 km prohibited zone. Nor did it study effects among the emergency personnel temporarily brought into the region for accident management and recovery work (the so-called 'liquidators'). Project teams reviewed official data on environmental contamination from 500 settlements, data collection practices and reporting and also official information on radiation doses received by people living in seven settlements. Other project teams reviewed official data at key medical centres and institutes. Then they examined people both from surveyed contaminated settlement and from surveyed control settlements. The team concluded that there were significant non-radiation related health disorders in populations of both contaminated and control settlements. None of the disorders could be attributed directly to radiation exposure. In particular, no evidence was found for a significant increase in foetal abnormalities; infant and prenatal mortality rates had fallen since the accident. Children were found to be generally healthy with no abnormalities in either thyroid stimulating or thyroid hormones. The accident had created substantial negative psychological consequences, manifesting themselves in terms of anxiety and stress due to continuing high levels of uncertainty. (author)

  11. Chernobyl birds have smaller brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Pape Møller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage.

  12. Chernobylsk NPP accident and its medical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical effects of the Chernobyl accident for various groups of people engaged in liquidation of the accident aftereffects and residents of the regions affected are assessed. Specific medical and social recommendations for each of the five groups of patients are made. Special attention is paid to the health of children who were exposed to external radiation in combination with intake of iodine isotopes. Extremely unfavourable influence of the mass media on the health of people involved in the Chernobyl accident is painted out. The necessity of adequate rehabilitation measures for various categories of patients involved in a large-scale accident is emphasized

  13. Operation Aspect of the Main Control Room of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main control room of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is operational centre to control all of the operation activity of NPP. NPP must be operated carefully and safely. Many aspect that contributed to operation of NPP, such as man power whose operated, technology type used, ergonomic of main control room, operational management, etc. The disturbances of communication in control room must be anticipated so the high availability of NPP can be achieved. The ergonomic of the NPP control room that will be used in Indonesia must be designed suitable to anthropometric of Indonesia society. (author)

  14. Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anunti, Aake; Larsson, Helena; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  15. Decommissioning Study of Oskarshamn NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Helena; Anunti, Aake; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for Oskarshamn NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  16. Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding

  17. Decommissioning Study of Oskarshamn NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for Oskarshamn NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding

  18. Application of collimated detector emergency response in engine room of power unit 4 of NPP prior to uranium sorption from pulps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods providing for remote measurement of surface density distribution of ionizing radiation source activity, for plotting maps of radiation activity surface distribution, for calculating exposure dose maps or exposure doses at any prescribed point, for evaluating the contribution of various sources to exposure doses, for forcasting variations in dependence on planned or accidental activity change at any place of the closed building are considered. The advantage of the methods consists in that all calculations, various version modeling, choice of optimal ways are carried out without personnel irradiation. The methodology mentioned above was aplied in the course of elimination of accident consequences at the Chernobyl NPP

  19. Fallout from Chernobyl and atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Chernobyl in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some results and experience gained so far in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident are discussed in the light of knowledge obtained from the studies of fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Cesium-137, which was an important radionuclide in the bomb fallout, was still more important after Chernobyl. For most Swedes the external irradiation from deposited Cs-137 was the dominating source of irradiation. Studies of Chernobyl fallout have given new information in the fate of contamination in the forest environment, lakes, urban areas, on shielding factors for houses etc. The releases from Chernobyl gave relatively lower dietary doses than expected form the same amount of Cs-137, released through nuclear weapons testing. However lake fish, moose and forest products have shown to be of greater importance than earlier realized. The main reason for the lower dietary doses from Chernobyl was the seasonal distribution of the fallout with deposition just before the start of the growing season. The various actions taken also reduced the intake of Cs-137 and Cs-134. Otherwise, there are no radical differences in the behaviour of cesium in the environment after the bombs and after Chernobyl. Differences may exist, primarily during the first year, due to different fallout conditions, where also the physical-chemical form of the fallout might have been of some importance. The average Swede will have an effective dose commitment of around 1 mSv from Chernobyl, which is about the same as from the bomb fallout. The highest doses due to Chernobyl area received by people living in high deposition areas (>80 kBq/m2 of CS-137) and consuming larger amounts of game animals, lake fish and reindeer. (66 refs.)

  20. Changing NPP consumption patterns in the Holocene: from Megafauna "liberated" NPP to "ecological bankruptcy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, C.

    2015-12-01

    There have been vast changes in how net primary production (NPP) is consumed by humans and animals during the Holocene beginning with a potential increase in availability following the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions. This was followed by the development of agriculture which began to gradually restrict availability of NPP for wild animals. Finally, humans entered the industrial era using non-plant based energies to power societies. Here I ask the following questions about these three energy transitions: 1. How much NPP energy may have become available following the megafauna extinctions? 2. When did humans, through agriculture and domestic animals, consume more NPP than wild mammals in each country? 3. When did humans and wild mammals use more energy than was available in total NPP in each country? To answer this last question I calculate NPP consumed by wild animals, crops, livestock, and energy use (all converted to units of MJ) and compare this with the total potential NPP (also in MJ) for each country. We develop the term "ecological bankruptcy" to refer to the level of consumption where not all energy needs can be met by the country's NPP. Currently, 82 countries and a net population of 5.4 billion are in the state of ecologically bankruptcy, crossing this threshold at various times over the past 40 years. By contrast, only 52 countries with a net population of 1.2 billion remain ecologically solvent. Overall, the Holocene has seen remarkable changes in consumption patterns of NPP, passing through three distinct phases. Humans began in a world where there was 1.6-4.1% unclaimed NPP to consume. From 1700-1850, humans began to consume more than wild animals (globally averaged). At present, >82% of people live in countries where not even all available plant matter could satisfy our energy demands.