WorldWideScience

Sample records for chernobyl exclusion zone

  1. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident after effects at the Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of the Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident after effects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate of people working in the exclusion area

  2. Problems of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone, aimed at the development of technologies, equipment and devices for radioactive waste management and ChNPP accident clean-up, at studying the composition and structure of the Exclusion zone soil activity solid bearers, form transformation of the fission products of fuel fallout radionuclide composition in the ChNPP near zone, the spatial distribution of radionuclides and other radioecological issues.. Much attention is paid to medical and biological aspects of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the workers of the Exclusion zone

  3. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health labour conditions and incidence of the people involved

  4. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved. The collection comprises the information for scientists, experts, postgraduates and students in gaged in ecology, radioecology, nuclear engineering, radiology, radiochemistry and radiobiology

  5. Transformations of humus and soil mantle in the urbanized areas of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented are investigations into the demutation processes of the towns plant community in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone (Pripyat, Chernobyl, Chernobyl-2). Demonstrated is the specific nature of the reduction of humus and soil mantle in the abandoned towns under the impact of the natural factors. 21 refs., 5 tab., 7 figs

  6. Radioactive Waste Management In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - 25 Years Since The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  7. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  8. Radionuclides in the indigenous fish species of the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the specific activity of 90Sr and 137Cs estimation at the indigenous representatives of fish fauna in water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusion zone are presented during 2006 - 2011. The data of species specificity of radionuclide accumulation and distributing in different organs and tissues of pray and predatory fishes in water bodies with different hydrological regime and level of radioactive contamination are analyzed. The size, weight and age dynamics of radionuclide accumulation in fish are evaluated. It is note, that presently 90Sr is main dose-formed radionuclide for fishes of stagnant water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

  9. RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr{sup -1} in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  10. Radiation ecology issues associated with murine rodents and shrews in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Maklyuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the "soil-to-plant" chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy h(-1) in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the "Red Forest"). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy h(-1), respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy h(-1), respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described. PMID:21878767

  11. Problems of a radioactive polluted soil and other Chernobyl exclusive zone radwaste disposal and way of their decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of radwaste disposal are determined, which are connected to increase of these radwaste generation volumes at realization in a near future of the plans after Chernobyl exclusive zone transformation to the ecologically safe system. It is offered to make changes to the normative documents, which will take into account specific conditions of the exclusive zone

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - HISTORY AND RESULTS 25 YEARS AFTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  13. Evidence for selection in response to radiation exposure: Pinus sylvestris in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of genetic structures due to viability selection are likely to occur in populations exposed to rapidly and extremely changing environmental conditions after catastrophic events. However, very little is known about the extent of selective responses and in particular the proportion of the genome involved in putatively adaptive reactions for non-model plants. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) in order to investigate genetic differences between pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees which were partially exposed to extreme environmental conditions. Genetic variation patterns of pines exposed to high radiation in the Chernobyl exclusion zone with or without phenotypic stress symptoms were compared to control trees with a similar origin. Six percent of the investigated loci (15 of 222 loci) were identified as candidates for selective responses. Moderate differentiation was observed between groups of trees showing either weak or strong phenotypic responses to high radiation levels. - Highlights: → Genetic variation patterns of pines exposed to high radiation were investigated. → Pines with or without phenotypic stress symptoms were compared to control trees. → AFLP markers were used to reveal evidences of selection processes. → 15 of 222 loci are identified as candidates for selective responses. → Moderate differentiation is observed between irradiated and control trees. - Genetic responses to the exposure of trees to radiation in the Chernobyl zone may involve adaptive changes at a comparatively large part of the genome.

  14. How best to utilize the experience of the expedition to 30-km Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The only Hungarian nuclear power plant (Paks NPP) generates about 40 percent of the electrical energy of Hungary. Taking into consideration the designed lifetime, the four units should be shut down between 2012 and 2017. To extend operation of the units with twenty years can be considered as the especially important part of the life-time management. In terms of life-time extension, beside technical issues and nuclear safety, the public acceptance plays a very decisive role. The Chernobyl accident had serious impact on the public; therefore, enhancing the public confidence is a main task in respect of the future of nuclear energy. The Hungarian Nuclear Society (HNS) and the Hungarian Young Generation Network (YGN), which operates within the framework of HNS, has been put already a lot of effort into it. Between 28th of May and 4th of June, 2005, under the organization of the Hungarian Nuclear Society, a scientific expedition visited the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site and the surrounding exclusion zone. Most of the participants were young Hungarian nuclear experts under the leading of more experienced colleagues. The main goals of the expedition were the followings: Getting own experiences in a direct way about the actual condition of the Chernobyl Power Plant and the contamination and the dose level of its surroundings; Gathering information about the condition of the shelter built above the damaged 4th unit; Further education of young nuclear experts by performing field measurements; Communicating to the public on our experience and consequences of the accident by utilizing our authentic measurements. The Hungarian expedition successfully achieved its objectives performing wide-ranged environmental and dosimetric measurements and collecting numerous biological and soil samples. The analysis of samples has been started immediately in the International Chernobyl Center in Slavutich. The dosimetric measurements showed that no considerable exposure of

  15. Use of GIS in the rehabilitation assessment of the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main task of the Geographical Information System of the Chernobyl exclusion zone is to estimate the applicability and perform the analysis of the body of radioecological information on the basis of which the administrative decisions about the use of territories can be made. This system is rather virtual and has several logical levels: storage of the primary radioecological and land use information; the analysis of possible ways for rehabilitation of contaminated lands; the economic evaluations based primarily on the cost-benefit comparison of scenarios with use of different countermeasures and those implementing usual technologies. This includes GIS-analysis and evaluation of risks as the basis for the decision-making. The paper presents the results of application of sophisticated GIS to the practice of radioecological research and land rehabilitation. (author)

  16. Soil nematode assemblages as bioindicators of radiation impact in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte-Pradines, C., E-mail: catherine.lecomte-pradines@irsn.fr [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Bonzom, J.-M. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Della-Vedova, C. [Magelis, 6, rue Frederic Mistral, 84160 Cadenet (France); Beaugelin-Seiller, K. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LM2E, Building 159, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Villenave, C. [ELISOL Environment, Building 12, Campus de la Gaillarde, 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 2 (France); Gaschak, S. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Coppin, F. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, L2BT, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Dubourg, N. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, GARM Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Maksimenko, A. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Garnier-Laplace, J. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, Building 159, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France)

    2014-08-15

    In radioecology, the need to understand the long-term ecological effects of radioactive contamination has been emphasised. This requires that the health of field populations is evaluated and linked to an accurate estimate of received radiological dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of current radioactive contamination on nematode assemblages at sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. First, we estimated the total dose rates (TDRs) absorbed by nematodes, from measured current soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs, calculated using EDEN software) and soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). The impact of current TDRs on nematode assemblages was then evaluated. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) with external gamma dose rates, measured using radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, varying from 0.2 to 22 μGy h{sup −1}. These values were one order of magnitude below the TDRs. A majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal-feeding nematodes and very few of the disturbance sensitive families were identified. No statistically significant association was observed between TDR values and nematode total abundance or the Shannon diversity index (H′). The Nematode Channel Ratio (which defines the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR, suggesting that radioactive contamination may influence nematode assemblages either directly or indirectly by modifying their food resources. A greater Maturity Index (MI), usually characterising better soil quality, was associated with higher pH and TDR values. These results suggest that in the CEZ, nematode assemblages from the forest sites were slightly impacted by chronic exposure at a predicted TDR of 200 μGy h{sup −1}. This may be imputable to a dominant proportion of pollutant resistant nematodes in all sites

  17. Radioprotection on a large construction site located in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the tragic accident of the reactor n, units 1, 2 and 3 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) have been successively stopped. However, since the independence of the Ukraine in 1991, Russia becomes no longer responsible for reprocessing Ukrainian spent fuel. With the support of the International Community, Ukraine agreed to an interim storage solution. In July 1999, following an international invitation to tender, Ukrainian Ministry, EnergoAtom, chooses a consortium of three French companies, Framatome, Vinci Construction and Bouygues Travaux Public, to build an storage facility. Construction of the 'Interim Storage Facility-2' (ISF-2) for long term storage of the spent fuel from Chernobyl Units 1, 2 and 3, starts in March 2000. The specific feature of this civil engineering project is its location in the vicinity of the power plant, within the 'exclusion zone'. The setting up of such a major construction site in a contaminated environment requires a particular attention in radiological safety field. After a brief description the project, of its environment and radiological safety provisions, this report details the safety measures put in place and the peculiarities of the site. Different safety cultures and occasional misunderstandings between Ukrainian and Western staff created additional difficulties. In the radioprotection field, the French companies committed significant means and undertook prevention training activities in order to develop awareness of radiological risks by both expatriate and Ukrainian personnel. The experience gained on this site may be described as beneficial in the sense that it teaches lessons for use on future sites in similar conditions.staff created additional difficulties. In the radioprotection field, the French companies committed significant means and undertook prevention training activities in order to develop awareness of radiological risks by both expatriate and Ukrainian personnel. The experience gained on this site

  18. Effects of radionuclide contamination on leaf litter decomposition in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine; Chauvet, Eric; Gaschak, Sergey; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Dubourg, Nicolas; Maksimenko, Andrey; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2016-08-15

    The effects of radioactive contamination on ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition remain largely unknown. Because radionuclides accumulated in soil and plant biomass can be harmful for organisms, the functioning of ecosystems may be altered by radioactive contamination. Here, we tested the hypothesis that decomposition is impaired by increasing levels of radioactivity in the environment by exposing uncontaminated leaf litter from silver birch and black alder at (i) eleven distant forest sites differing in ambient radiation levels (0.22-15μGyh(-1)) and (ii) along a short distance gradient of radioactive contamination (1.2-29μGyh(-1)) within a single forest in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In addition to measuring ambient external dose rates, we estimated the average total dose rates (ATDRs) absorbed by decomposers for an accurate estimate of dose-induced ecological consequences of radioactive pollution. Taking into account potential confounding factors (soil pH, moisture, texture, and organic carbon content), the results from the eleven distant forest sites, and from the single forest, showed increased litter mass loss with increasing ATDRs from 0.3 to 150μGyh(-1). This unexpected result may be due to (i) overcompensation of decomposer organisms exposed to radionuclides leading to a higher decomposer abundance (hormetic effect), and/or (ii) from preferred feeding by decomposers on the uncontaminated leaf litter used for our experiment compared to locally produced, contaminated leaf litter. Our data indicate that radio-contamination of forest ecosystems over more than two decades does not necessarily have detrimental effects on organic matter decay. However, further studies are needed to unravel the underlying mechanisms of the results reported here, in order to draw firmer conclusions on how radio-contamination affects decomposition and associated ecosystem processes.

  19. Effects of radionuclide contamination on leaf litter decomposition in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine; Chauvet, Eric; Gaschak, Sergey; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Dubourg, Nicolas; Maksimenko, Andrey; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2016-08-15

    The effects of radioactive contamination on ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition remain largely unknown. Because radionuclides accumulated in soil and plant biomass can be harmful for organisms, the functioning of ecosystems may be altered by radioactive contamination. Here, we tested the hypothesis that decomposition is impaired by increasing levels of radioactivity in the environment by exposing uncontaminated leaf litter from silver birch and black alder at (i) eleven distant forest sites differing in ambient radiation levels (0.22-15μGyh(-1)) and (ii) along a short distance gradient of radioactive contamination (1.2-29μGyh(-1)) within a single forest in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In addition to measuring ambient external dose rates, we estimated the average total dose rates (ATDRs) absorbed by decomposers for an accurate estimate of dose-induced ecological consequences of radioactive pollution. Taking into account potential confounding factors (soil pH, moisture, texture, and organic carbon content), the results from the eleven distant forest sites, and from the single forest, showed increased litter mass loss with increasing ATDRs from 0.3 to 150μGyh(-1). This unexpected result may be due to (i) overcompensation of decomposer organisms exposed to radionuclides leading to a higher decomposer abundance (hormetic effect), and/or (ii) from preferred feeding by decomposers on the uncontaminated leaf litter used for our experiment compared to locally produced, contaminated leaf litter. Our data indicate that radio-contamination of forest ecosystems over more than two decades does not necessarily have detrimental effects on organic matter decay. However, further studies are needed to unravel the underlying mechanisms of the results reported here, in order to draw firmer conclusions on how radio-contamination affects decomposition and associated ecosystem processes. PMID:27110974

  20. Airborne gamma spectrometric survey in the Chernobyl exclusion zone based on oktokopter UAV type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of field studies of radioactive contamination condition of RWTSP ''Red Forest'' and ''Neftebaza'' in the Chernobyl zone, obtained by the authors in June 2015 are represented. The technique of detection of local inhomogeneities on the soil surface without contrasting borders by airborne gamma spectrometry from the board of oktokopter UAV type is worked through. The technique of searching and contouring of hidden burial of radioactive waste is practiced

  1. Current levels and trends of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystem components in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current radiation level and its composition in aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) are conditioned, above all things, by the amount of radioactive matters released as aerosols on a water surface and adjacent territories during the period of the active phase of the accident from destroyed of the Chernobyl NPP in 1986, and also by intensity and duration of the second processes of radionuclides washout from the catchment areas and hydrodynamic processes of their transport outside of water bodies. During last 10-15 years in the soils of the ChEZ the tendency of increase of yield of the mobile bioavailable forms of radionuclides, which released into hydrological systems with surface and ground waters or localized in the closed water systems, where quickly involving in the biotic cycle is marked. On the example of lakes of the Krasnensky flood plain of the Pripyat River, which is one of the most contaminated by radionuclides territory of the ChEZ, was determined that the basic amount of radionuclides in lake ecosystem is deposited in the bottom sediments: 90Sr - 89-95%, 137Cs - 99%, transuranium elements (TUE) 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am - almost 100% of the total radionuclide amount in ecosystem. The increased migration activity of 90Sr determines its more high quantity in water (4-10%) on comparison with 137Cs (0.5-0.6%) and TUE (0.03-0.04%) and, opposite, less - in seston (0.15-0.16%) on comparison with 137Cs (0.25-0.30%). The value of 90Sr in biotic component amounts 0.25-0.61%, 137Cs - 0.14-0.47% and TUE - 0.07-0.16% of the total quantity in ecosystem. The gradual decline of radionuclide specific activity is a dominant tendency in the dynamics of 137Cs and 90Sr in water and aquatic biota of the majority of reservoirs and water flow in the ChEZ. The exception is water bodies, located on the dammed territories of the Krasnensky flood plain, where at the proceeding decrease of 137Cs concentration, from the end of 1990's there is the gradual

  2. First use of soil nematode communities as bioindicator of radiation impact in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte, C.; Bonzom, J.M.; Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO (France); Della-Vedova, C. [Magelis, Cadenet (France); Beaugelin-Seiller, K. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LM2E (France); Gaschak, S. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear safety, Radioactive waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory (Ukraine); Coppin, F. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, L2BT (France); Garnier-Laplace, J. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS (France)

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of former radioactive contamination on the structure of the nematode community in sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident that occurred on 26, April 1986. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ). The external gamma dose rates, measured from radiophotoluminescent dosimeters (RPL) varied from 0.2 to 22 μGy h{sup -1} between sites. In parallel, the Total dose rates (TDR) absorbed by nematodes were predicted from measured soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCC, calculated by the EDEN software) and Soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). Results showed that TDR were one order of magnitude above the external gamma dose rate measured from RPL. This is mainly due to the contribution of alpha ({sup 241}Am,{sup 238,239,240}Pu) and beta ({sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs) emitters in the external dose rate. The small size (in the order of mm) of nematodes promoted a high energy deposition throughout the organisms without fading, giving more weight to external dose rate induced by alpha-and beta-emitters, relatively to gamma-emitters. Analysis of the nematode community showed a majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal- feeder nematodes and almost none of the disturbance sensitive families whatever the level of radioactive contamination. Multiple regression analysis was used to establish relationships between ecological features (nematodes abundance and family diversity, indices of ecosystem structure and function) to the environmental characteristics (TDR and soil physico-chemical properties). No evidence was found that nematode total abundance and family diversity were impaired by the radiological contamination. However, the Nematode Channel Ratio (defining the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR suggesting that the radioactive

  3. CHRONIC IRRADIATION OF SCOTS PINE TREES (PINUS SYLVESTRIS) IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE: DOSIMETRY AND RADIOBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 years old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y{sup -1}) to approximately 7 Gy y{sup -1} in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established.

  4. Radiation-induced cytogenetic and hematologic effects on aquatic biota within the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, Dmitri I.; Shevtsova, Natalia L.; Pomortseva, Natalia A.; Kaglyan, Alexander Ye. [Institute of Hydrobiology, Geroyev Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA-04210 Kiev (Ukraine); Dzyubenko, Elena V. [G. Skovoroda Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsk State Teacher Training University, Sukhomlinskogo Str. 30, UA-08401 Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsk (Ukraine); Rodionova, Natalia K. [R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, Vasilkovskaya Str. 45, UA-04073 Kiev (Ukraine); Nazarov, Alexander B. [Chernobyl Specialized Enterprise, Radyanska Str. 70, UA-07270 Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    During 1998-2013 we studied the rate of chromosomal aberrations in embryo tissues of the pond snails and root meristems of higher aquatic plants, and also hematologic indexes of mantle liquid of the snails and peripheral blood of fishes in water bodies with different levels of radioactive contamination within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ). The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from water bodies of the ChEZ during the period of researches registered in a range of 4.6.10{sup -3} - 3.4 Gy year{sup -1}, and in the control water bodies - up to 1.7.10{sup -3} Gy year{sup -1}. Cytogenetic analysis of embryos of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis testifies the increased level of chromosomal aberrations in the mollusks from stagnant water bodies of the ChEZ in comparison with control reservoirs. During the period of studies the highest values were registered for the snails of closed reservoirs of the ChEZ (Glubokoye Lake, Dalyokoe Lake, Azbuchin Lake etc.) where the rate of chromosomal aberrations was registered within range of 18-27%, that on the average more than in 10 times exceeds the spontaneous mutagenesis level for aquatic species. The pond snails of river ecosystems were characterized by the low level of aberrant cells - 2.5-3.5%. For the mollusks from the control lakes this index was reached on the average 1.5% with the maximal values 2.3%. The positive correlation between chromosomal aberration rate and absorbed dose rate in the pond snails' embryos in water bodies of the ChEZ was registered. The rate of chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells of higher aquatic plants (Phragmites australis, Stratiotes aloides, Glyceria maxima, Butomus umbellatus, Sparganium erectum and Sagittaria sagittifolia) from the most contaminated lakes of the ChEZ was in range of 7-17%. In the plants of rivers this index was on the average 3.5-5.0%, and was not exceed 2.6% in control water bodies. Thus, the rate of chromosomal aberrations in hydrobionts of the stagnant

  5. A case study in the Chernobyl exclusion zone - Part 1: testing our ability to predict radionuclide transfer to wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, national and international programmes have proposed a number of frameworks and methodologies to assess the protection of wildlife from ionising radiations. Whilst some of these are now being used by national authorities, there has been little attempt to rigorously test their predictions against available data. In part this is because of the lack of sites where radiation induced effects can be observed. One such site is the Chernobyl exclusion zone for which a considerable amount of data are available for a wide range of biota across a gradient of exposure rates. This allows predictions of assessment frameworks, from exposure through to effects, to be thoroughly tested. In this paper we spatially implement terrestrial radionuclide transfer models developed within the EC FP5 project FASSET and test predictions of radionuclide activity concentrations in biota against compiled databases. More than 700 measurements of radionuclide activity concentrations in wild animals made throughout the exclusion zone between 1988 and 2000 are available. These include 8 species of predominantly large mammals and 13 bird species. This is supplemented by approximately 900 measurements of plant components representing the diets of the herbivorous animals sampled. On the basis of comparisons of predicted and observed activity concentrations in this wide range of biota, recommendations for improving the existing transfer models are made. In a second paper we consider predictions of dose and radiation induced effects and compare these to data from the exclusion zone. (author)

  6. Feeding of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seasonal feed choice of a roe deer for a 3-year period has been investigated on the basis of the rumen content analysis. Results of the investigation are given. A list of 125 species of forage plants is presented. Seasonal intensity of their consumption is characterized. Significance of main plant assemblages of the evacuated zone of Chernobyl in the diet of the animal population is elucidated. Special attention is paid to the role of the above-ground parts of Oenotera biennis that comprise 34% of the average annual forage of roe deer and are consumed by the animal during 9-10 months. Recent state of the forage base of the population is estimated. An attempt to predict its dynamics for the nearest 10-15 years is made

  7. Feeding of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident in the territory of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of seasonal feed choice of a wild boar have been carried out during a 3-year period on the basis of the stomach content. Results of the investigations are given. A list of forage plants and forage animals is presented. Seasonal intensity of their consumption is evaluated. Main plant assemblages of the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident are analyzed for their significance in the diet of a wild boar. Special attention is paid to the role of underground forage (35% of average annual forage), and to consumption of Oenotera biennis roots comprising 26% of average annual forage. Recent state of the forage base and of the wild boar population is estimated. An attempt to predict its dynamics for the nearest 10-15 years is made

  8. A review of possible origins of the uranium 'plume' in the aquifer under the EPIC site in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonucci, C.; Van Meir, N.; Courbet, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LETIS, POB 17, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Roux, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LETIS, POB 17, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, IRD, CEREGE UM34, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Le Gal La Salle, C.; Verdoux, P.; Lancelot, J.C. [Nimes University, Laboratoire de Geochimie Isotopique (GIS), 150 rue George Besse, 30035 Nimes (France); Ruas, A. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Processes Department, F-30207, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Bassot, S. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LAME, POB 17, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Bugai, D. [Institute of Geological Sciences, 55-b, Gonchara Str., Kiev 01054 (Ukraine); Levchuk, S.; Kashparov, V. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, UIAR NUBiP of Ukraine, Mashinobudivnykiv str. 7, Chabany, Kyiv-Svjatoshin (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    The uniqueness of the Chernobyl accident lies in the fact that so much radioactive material was discharged to the atmosphere as solid fuel particles from the reactor core. Between the 26 April and the 6 May 1986 more than 6 tons of small particles of highly radioactive uranium oxide fuel were discharged to the atmosphere and were responsible for more than 75 % of the radioactive contamination on the ground in the exclusion zone. In 1987, about 800 trenches had been dug in the exclusion zone to prevent re-suspension and to protect workers from contamination. In 1999, the IRSN, in collaboration with IGS and UIAR, equipped trench 22 (CPS) in order to monitor radionuclide migration in the environment (water, soil, plants). At the EPIC site high uranium concentrations were observed in the groundwater downstream from trench 22. We discuss the possible origins of this uranium 'plume'. (authors)

  9. Effects of long-term radiation exposure on the higher aquatic plants in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevtsova, N.; Gudkov, D. [Institute of Hydrobiology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    From the earliest years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the radioecological study on freshwater plant communities in the water-bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) has been held. At first stages it was the research on plant species collection and radionuclide contamination of aquatic ecosystems. Now, it is the seasonal monitoring with several groups of data deals with different areas of plant communities investigation: (1) the data characterized the level of radionuclides contamination of the abiotic and biotic components of phyto-coenosis and connected absorbed dose rates for various species of aquatic plants; (2) indexes of plant reproduction, including productivity, sterility, seed germination indexes and different abnormalities of ontogenesis; (3) indexes of morphological deviations (radiomorphoses) of aquatic plant's reproduction organs such as panicle and seeds; (4) cytogenetic indexes including the rate and spectrum of chromosome aberrations in cells of apical root meristem of air-aquatic plants; (5) the group of indexes, connected with plant's immunity. The calculated absorbed dose rate for littoral emergent plants in sampling water bodies was varied from 0.7 to 1.4 Gy/year in dependence of radioactive contamination of bottom sediments, plant tissues and level of gamma-background. There were registered rather low rate of plant productivity (hundred times lower than normal), high percentage of sterility (20-80%), low germinating ability (14-48 %) and germinating power (40-50%) of seeds from all sampling water bodies within the ChEZ. Against the general suppressed background the effect of relative stimulation of more affected seeds was observed. With increase of internal absorbed dose in range of 0.2-5.3 mGy/year the number of germinated seeds was increased. At the same time the number of different abnormalities of seeds was increased as well. The highest rate of the morphological damages (up to 25 % of the total number of

  10. Nucleotide diversity and gene expression of Catalase and Glutathione peroxidase in irradiated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Chernobyl exclusion zone forest trees have to tolerate and to adapt to ionizing radiation, therefore the molecular basis of their adaptive responses is of the utmost interest. Based on SNP analysis and real time PCR nucleotide diversity and expression profiles of gene fragments of catalase (Cat) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which are known as radical scavenging genes, were analysed in the needles of irradiated pine trees of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In acutely and chronically irradiated trees (50 years old) planted before the accident a higher nucleotide diversity of Cat and more somatic mutations were found compared to their control. Chronically irradiated trees (20 years old) planted after the accident showed a similar nucleotide diversity of Cat compared to their control and in both collectives one somatic mutation was found. The nucleotide diversity of GPx was higher in all analysed trees compared to Cat. No somatic mutation events were found in GPx. For both gene fragments, no association between the received dose in a tree and the nucleotide diversity and mutation events was detected. The expression profiles of Cat and GPx in acutely and chronically and in chronically irradiated trees were similar. Compared to their corresponding control collectives, Cat was up-regulated and GPx slightly down-regulated.

  11. Biological indication of production condition influence on the staff of state specialized enterprise for radioactive waste management and desactivation 'Complex' in Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of comparative cytogenetical examination of two groups are presented. First group is staff from two work-shops (RAW management and RAW deactivation) of SJE 'Complex' in Chernobyl exclusion zone. Second group consists of the persons who had no mutagenic factors influence during their professional activity (conditional control). Classical chromosome analysis method was used. It was found chromosome damages frequency in staff is significantly higher than spontaneous level in conditional control group. Professional experience duration and external exposure integral doses of both workshops staff do not differ. Staff of RAW deactivation workshop, who is additionally influenced by chemical and physical factors, has significantly higher chromosome aberration frequency, particularly due to specific cytogenetical markers of exposure. Correlation between external exposure integral doses and total chromosome aberration frequency, chromosome type aberration frequency, stabile interchromosomal exchanges frequency was found

  12. Structural investigation of an exopolysaccharide substituted with a lactyl ether group produced by Raoultella terrigena Ez-555-6 isolated in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillon, M; Pau-Roblot, C; Lequart, V; Pilard, S; Courtois, B; Courtois, J; Pawlicki-Jullian, N

    2010-06-16

    Raoultella terrigena strain Ez-555-6, isolated from a root nodule of Medicago sativa harvested in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, produces a non-referenced high-molecular-mass exopolysaccharide (EPS). The structure of this EPS was determined using a combination approach including monosaccharide composition (GLC-FID, HPAEC-PAD), determination of glycosylation sites (GLC-EIMS) and 1D/2D NMR ((1)H, (13)C) and ESIMS (HR, MS/MS) studies of oligosaccharides obtained from mild acid hydrolysis. The EPS was found to be a charged pentasaccharide with a repeating unit composed of D-galactose, D-glucose, D-mannose and D-glucuronic acid (1:2:1:1). Lactic acid and O-acetyl substituents were localized on galactose and glucose residues, respectively, as presented in the following structure:

  13. Frequency distributions of 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations in an ecosystem of the "Red Forest" area in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Makliuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Chizhevsky, Igor; Caldwell, Eric F; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    In the most highly contaminated region of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, the "Red Forest" site, the accumulation of the major dose-affecting radionuclides (90Sr and 137Cs) within the components of an ecological system encompassing 3,000 m(2) was characterized. The sampled components included soils (top 0-10 cm depth), Molina caerulea (blue moor grass), Camponotus vagus (carpenter ants), and Pelobates fuscus (spade-footed toad). In a comparison among the components of this ecosystem, the 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations measured in 40 separate grids exhibited significant differences, while the frequency distribution of the values was close to a logarithmically-normal leptokurtic distribution with a significant right-side skew. While it is important to identify localized areas of high contamination or "hot spots," including these values in the arithmetic mean may overestimate the exposure risk. In component sample sets that exhibited logarithmically normal distribution, the geometric mean more accurately characterizes a site. Ideally, risk assessment is most confidently achieved when the arithmetic and geometric means are most similar, meaning the distribution approaches normal. Through bioaccumulation, the highest concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs were measured in the blue moor grass and spade-footed toad. These components also possessed distribution parameters that shifted toward a normal distribution. PMID:21878766

  14. METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS 90SR AND 137CS IN-VIVO MEASUREMENTS OF SMALL ANIMALS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA DEVELOPED FOR THE CONDITIONS OF THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To perform in vivo simultaneous measurements of the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content in the bodies of animals living in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ), an appropriate method and equipment were developed and installed in a mobile gamma beta spectrometry laboratory. This technique was designed for animals of relatively small sizes (up to 50 g). The {sup 90}Sr content is measured by a beta spectrometer with a 0.1 mm thick scintillation plastic detector. The spectrum processing takes into account the fact that the measured object is 'thick-layered' and contains a comparable quantity of {sup 137}Cs, which is a characteristic condition of the ChEZ. The {sup 137}Cs content is measured by a NaI scintillation detector that is part of the combined gamma beta spectrometry system. For environmental research performed in the ChEZ, the advantages of this method and equipment (rapid measurements, capability to measure live animals directly in their habitat, and the capability of simultaneous {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs measurements) far outweigh the existing limitations (considerations must be made for background radiation and the animal size, skeletal shape and body mass). The accuracy of these in vivo measurements is shown to be consistent with standard spectrometric and radiochemical methods. Apart from the in vivo measurements, the proposed methodology, after a very simple upgrade that is also described in the article, works even more accurately with samples of other media, such as soil and plants.

  15. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS OF 90SR AND 137CS CONCENTRATIONS IN AN ECOSYSTEM OF THE 'RED FOREST' AREA IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Caldwell, E.

    2011-10-01

    In the most highly contaminated region of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone: the 'Red Forest' site, the accumulation of the major dose-affecting radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) within the components of an ecological system encompassing 3,000 m{sup 2} were characterized. The sampled components included soils (top 0-10 cm depth), Molina caerulea (blue moor grass), Camponotus vagus (carpenter ants) and Pelobates fuscus (spade-footed toad). In a comparison among the components of this ecosystem, the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations measured in 40 separate grids exhibited significant differences, while the frequency distribution of the values were close to a logarithmically normal leptokurtic distribution with a significant right-side skew. While it is important to identify localized areas of high contamination or 'hot spots,' including these values in the arithmetic mean may overestimate the exposure risk. In component sample sets that exhibited logarithmically normal distribution, the geometrical mean more accurately characterizes a site. Ideally, risk assessment is most confidently achieved when the arithmetic and geometrical means are most similar, meaning the distribution approaches normal. Through bioaccumulation, the highest concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were measured in the blue moor grass and spade-footed toad. These components also possessed distribution parameters that shifted toward a normal distribution.

  16. Frequency distributions of 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations in an ecosystem of the "Red Forest" area in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Makliuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Chizhevsky, Igor; Caldwell, Eric F; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    In the most highly contaminated region of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, the "Red Forest" site, the accumulation of the major dose-affecting radionuclides (90Sr and 137Cs) within the components of an ecological system encompassing 3,000 m(2) was characterized. The sampled components included soils (top 0-10 cm depth), Molina caerulea (blue moor grass), Camponotus vagus (carpenter ants), and Pelobates fuscus (spade-footed toad). In a comparison among the components of this ecosystem, the 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations measured in 40 separate grids exhibited significant differences, while the frequency distribution of the values was close to a logarithmically-normal leptokurtic distribution with a significant right-side skew. While it is important to identify localized areas of high contamination or "hot spots," including these values in the arithmetic mean may overestimate the exposure risk. In component sample sets that exhibited logarithmically normal distribution, the geometric mean more accurately characterizes a site. Ideally, risk assessment is most confidently achieved when the arithmetic and geometric means are most similar, meaning the distribution approaches normal. Through bioaccumulation, the highest concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs were measured in the blue moor grass and spade-footed toad. These components also possessed distribution parameters that shifted toward a normal distribution.

  17. Bacterial biodiversity analysis of a contaminated soil from the Chernobyl exclusion zone and characterization of the committed interaction of a Microbacterium strain with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power plants accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima demonstrate the importance of the understanding of the transfer of the radioactive contamination in the environment and its ecological consequences. Although certain studies have been realized on superior organisms of the food chain, studies on telluric bacterial communities are scarce. The latter play nevertheless an essential role in the mobility of contaminants in soils by decreasing or improving their transfer towards other compartments (water, vegetables and animals). Moreover radionuclides (RNs) can have toxic effects on bacteria, leading to an inhibition of their participation in such transfer. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the impact of the radioactive contamination on bacterial communities belonging to a soil of the Chernobyl exclusion zone (trench T22) and (2) to study the uranium-bacteria interactions of a resistant strain, isolated from this soil. The various techniques used to characterize the bacterial diversity (culture of bacteria, DGGE, 454 pyro-sequencing) all testified of the multiplicity and the abundance of the bacterial communities in spite of the contamination. An impact on the community structure was difficult to assess by DGGE or cultural approach, but was nevertheless highlighted by the use of pyro-sequencing, suggesting the presence of species more adapted to the contaminated soil conditions. A specific molecular tool dedicated to the search of bacteria affiliated to the known radiation resistant Deinococcus-Thermus phylum (for example the Deinococcus radiodurans specie survives after an irradiation of several kGy) was developed. However it did not reveal the presence of bacteria affiliated to such a phylum in the studied soil. In parallel to the study of the bacterial biodiversity, about fifty culturable bacteria were isolated from this site and were used as a support to select a species (Microbacterium) capable to survive strong U(VI) concentrations. The

  18. Model assessment of additional contamination of water bodies as a result of wildfires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest fires and wild fires are recognized as a possible cause of resuspension and redistribution of radioactive substances when occurring on lands contaminated with such materials, and as such are a matter of concern within the regions of Belarus and the Ukraine which were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Modelling the effects of such fires on radioactive contaminants is a complex matter given the number of variables involved. In this paper, a probabilistic model was developed using empirical data drawn from the Polessie State Radiation-Ecological Reserve (PSRER), Belarus, and the Maximum Entropy Method. Using the model, it was possible to derive estimates of the contribution of fire events to overall variability in the levels of 137Cs and 239,240Pu in ground air as well as estimates of the deposition of these radionuclides to specific water bodies within the contaminated areas of Belarus. Results indicate that fire events are potentially significant redistributors of radioactive contaminants within the study area and may result in additional contamination being introduced to water bodies. - Highlights: • The role of fire in redistribution of radionuclides was assessed. • Transfer of radionuclides to water bodies due to fire was estimated. • A maximum entropy method was used for modelling. • Results indicate potential for significant transfer of radionuclides

  19. LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF RADIONUCLIDE VERTICAL MIGRATION IN SOILS OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E

    2009-11-19

    The radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident consisted of fuel and condensation components. An important radioecological task associated with the late phase of the accident is to evaluate the dynamics of radionuclide mobility in soils. Identification of the variability (or invariability) in the radionuclide transfer parameters makes it possible to (1) accurately predict migration patterns and biological availability of radionuclides and (2) evaluate long-term exposure trends for the population who may reoccupy the remediated abandoned areas. In 1986-1987, a number of experimental plots were established within various tracts of the fallout plume to assist with the determination of the long-term dynamics of radionuclide vertical migration in the soils. The transfer parameters for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 239,240}Pu in the soil profile, as well as their ecological half-time of the radionuclide residence (T{sub 1/2}{sup ecol}) values in the upper 5-cm thick soil layers of different grasslands were estimated at various times since the accident. Migration characteristics in the grassland soils tend to decrease as follows: {sup 90}Sr > {sup 137}Cs {ge} {sup 239,240}Pu. It was found that the {sup 137}Cs absolute T{sub 1/2}{sup ecol} values are 3-7 times higher than its radioactive decay half-life value. Therefore, changes in the exposure dose resulting from the soil deposited {sup 137}Cs now depend only on its radioactive decay. The {sup 90}Sr T{sub 1/2}{sup ecol} values for the 21st year after the fallout tend to decrease, indicating an intensification of its migration capabilities. This trend appears consistent with a pool of mobile {sup 90}Sr forms that grows over time due to destruction of the fuel particles.

  20. Computer system for the assessment of radiation situation in the cases of radiological accidents and extreme weather conditions in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation situation within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) is determined by high radionuclides contamination of the land surface formed after the 1986 accident, as well as the presence of a number of potentially hazardous objects (the 'Shelter' object, the Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Facility ISF-1, radioactive waste disposal sites, radioactive waste temporary localization sites etc.). The air concentration of radionuclides over the ChEZ territory and radiation exposure of personnel are influenced by natural and anthropogenic factors: variable weather conditions, forest fires, construction and excavation activity etc. The comprehensive radiation monitoring and early warning system in the ChEZ was established under financial support of European Commission in 2011. It involves the computer system developed for assessment and prediction of radiological emergencies consequences in the ChEZ ensuring the protection of personnel and the population living near its borders. The system assesses radiation situation under both normal conditions in the ChEZ and radiological emergencies which result in considerable radionuclides emission into the air (accidents at radiation hazardous objects, extreme weather conditions). Three different types of radionuclides release sources can be considered in the software package. So it is based on a set of different models of emission, atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides: 1) mesoscale model of radionuclide atmospheric transport LEDI for calculations of the radionuclides emission from stacks and buildings; 2) model of atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides due to anthropogenic resuspension from contaminated area (area surface source model) as a result of construction and excavation activity, heavy traffic etc.; 3) model of resuspension, atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the ChEZ. The system calculates the volume and surface specific

  1. Computer system for the assessment of radiation situation in the cases of radiological accidents and extreme weather conditions in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talerko, M.; Garger, E.; Kuzmenko, A. [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Radiation situation within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) is determined by high radionuclides contamination of the land surface formed after the 1986 accident, as well as the presence of a number of potentially hazardous objects (the 'Shelter' object, the Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Facility ISF-1, radioactive waste disposal sites, radioactive waste temporary localization sites etc.). The air concentration of radionuclides over the ChEZ territory and radiation exposure of personnel are influenced by natural and anthropogenic factors: variable weather conditions, forest fires, construction and excavation activity etc. The comprehensive radiation monitoring and early warning system in the ChEZ was established under financial support of European Commission in 2011. It involves the computer system developed for assessment and prediction of radiological emergencies consequences in the ChEZ ensuring the protection of personnel and the population living near its borders. The system assesses radiation situation under both normal conditions in the ChEZ and radiological emergencies which result in considerable radionuclides emission into the air (accidents at radiation hazardous objects, extreme weather conditions). Three different types of radionuclides release sources can be considered in the software package. So it is based on a set of different models of emission, atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides: 1) mesoscale model of radionuclide atmospheric transport LEDI for calculations of the radionuclides emission from stacks and buildings; 2) model of atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides due to anthropogenic resuspension from contaminated area (area surface source model) as a result of construction and excavation activity, heavy traffic etc.; 3) model of resuspension, atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the ChEZ. The system calculates the volume and surface

  2. Fishes of water bodies within the Ukrainian part of the Chernobyl exclusion zone: current levels of radioactive contamination and absorbed dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of studies of radioactive contamination of ichthyofauna of water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) during 2012-2013 are presented. The fish sampled from water bodies with different hydrological mode was used: (1) stagnant lakes (Vershyna, Glyboke, Azbuchyn, Daleke); (2) reservoir with slow water exchange (cooling pond of the Chernobyl NPP); (3) conditionally stagnant water bodies (separated from the main riverbed of the Pripyat River - Yanovsky and Novoshepelichesky Crawls and part of the Krasnensky former river bed); (4) semi-flowing water body (Krasnensky former river bed located outside of the dammed territory); (5) open crawls of the Pripyat river ('Schepochka' and Chernobylsky) and (6) waterway (riverbed sites of the Pripyat River). The highest levels of radionuclide concentrations were determined in fish of the stagnant water objects - 937-25907 Bq/kg (w.w.) of 137Cs and 1845-101220 Bq/kg of 90Sr. In fish of cooling pond the concentration of 137Cs registered in range 750-4200 and 90Sr - 41-512 Bq/kg. In ichthyofauna of water bodies which concern to the third group, specific activity of 137Cs and 90Sr fluctuated accordingly within range of 520-3385 and 722-6210, and in a semi-flowing reservoir - 573-2948 and 97-4484 Bq/kg. The concentrations of 137Cs in fish of the fifth and sixth groups were accordingly 25-159 and 11-224 as well as 90Sr - 36-174 and 3-14 Bq/kg. The ratio of specific activity of 90Sr/137Cs for pray fish from all studied groups of water bodies, except the second and the sixth ones, was in range 1.5-39.7. Thus intensity of water exchange is one of the defining factors, influencing on level of radionuclide specific activity in fish, especially 90Sr - the higher the flow age, the lower the level of radioactive contamination of fish inhabiting it. Calculation of the absorbed dose rate has shown that highest radiation dose was in fish inhabiting lake ecosystems where it makes for different species from 2.8 (pelagic fish) to

  3. Main principles of the Chernobyl' NPP zone development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is suggested to divide the Chernobyl' NPP zone into two parts, which are the alienation and evacuation (buffer) zones. The alienation zone includes the areas with greatest contamination around the Chernobyl' NPP. The population residence in this zone is forbidden. The watching method of working with short-time personnel residence is suggested to be used in this zone. The buffer zone is the territory out of the alienation zone boundaries including all settlements, from which the population is evacuated. Constant residence is permitted in the buffer zone for persons 50 and more years old with introduction of restrictions for diet and residence organization. The production activity in this zone includes operation of three units of the Chernobyl' NPP, works with the Ukrytie object and researches. Operations connected with radioactive waste processing and redisposal from places of storage is not recommended to be done. It is suggested to develop methods for local radioactive waste processing

  4. Main peculiarities of 90Sr and 137Cs redistribution in 'soil - pines' system of the forest biogeocenoses in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific researches were carried out at nine experimental plots represented by the pine forests. The redistribution of radioactive nuclides of 90Sr and 137Cs in main components of biogeocenoses was analyzed and vertical migration intensity of 90Sr and 137Cs was determined. Also, intensity of the radionuclides accumulation in the main forest species - pine tree in the Exclusion zone was investigated. It is identified that cumulative inventory of 90Sr is significant for the perennial parts of wood species (first of all for - timber). The highest concentration of 90Sr is found in the photosynthetic parts of the pine tree - needles, and the lowest concentration is found in wood. In this concern, according to the obtained results bark has an intermediate position. The same characteristics refer to 137Cs

  5. [90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of the Chernobyl nuclear plant exlusion zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Derevets, V V; Kuz'menko, M I; Nazarov, A B

    2001-01-01

    The content of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and species-indicators of radioactive contamination were revealed. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclide content in macrophytes was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose was demonstrated.

  6. Soil contamination with 90Sr in the near zone of the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashparov, V A; Lundin, S M; Khomutinin, Y V; Kaminsky, S P; Levchuk, S E; Protsak, V P; Kadygrib, A M; Zvarich, S I; Yoschenko, V I; Tschiersch, J

    2001-01-01

    Representative large-scale soil sampling on a regular grid of step width about 1 km was carried out for the first time in the near zone of the Chernobyl accident (radius 36 km). An integrated map of terrestrial 90Sr contamination density in the 30 km exclusion zone (scale 1:200,000) has been created from the analysed samples. Maps of the main agrochemical characteristics of the soils, which determine the fuel particle dissolution rates and the contamination of vegetation, were produced. The total contents of 90Sr on the ground surface of the 30 km zone in Ukraine (without the reactor site and the radioactive waste storages) was about 810 TBq (8.1 x 10(+14) Bq) in 1997, which corresponds to 0.4-0.5% of the Chernobyl reactor inventory at the time of the accident. This assessment is 3-4 times lower than previous estimates. PMID:11468820

  7. Use of combined microscopic and spectroscopic techniques to reveal interactions between uranium and Microbacterium sp. A9, a strain isolated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBVME, LIPM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); CNRS, UMR 7265, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Université d' Aix-Marseille, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/L2BT, bat 183, B.P. 3, F-13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chapon, Virginie [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBVME, LIPM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); CNRS, UMR 7265, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Université d' Aix-Marseille, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Coppin, Fréderic; Floriani, Magali [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/L2BT, bat 183, B.P. 3, F-13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vercouter, Thomas [CEA, DEN, DANS, DPC SEARS, LANIE, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Sergeant, Claire [Univ Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Camilleri, Virginie [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/L2BT, bat 183, B.P. 3, F-13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Berthomieu, Catherine [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBVME, LIPM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); CNRS, UMR 7265, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Université d' Aix-Marseille, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Février, Laureline, E-mail: laureline.fevrier@irsn.fr [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/L2BT, bat 183, B.P. 3, F-13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Microbacterium sp. A9 develops various detoxification mechanisms. • Microbacterium sp. A9 promotes metal efflux from the cells. • Microbacterium sp. A9 releases phosphate to prevent uranium entrance in the cells. • Microbacterium sp. A9 stores U intracellularly as autunite. - Abstract: Although uranium (U) is naturally found in the environment, soil remediation programs will become increasingly important in light of certain human activities. This work aimed to identify U(VI) detoxification mechanisms employed by a bacteria strain isolated from a Chernobyl soil sample, and to distinguish its active from passive mechanisms of interaction. The ability of the Microbacterium sp. A9 strain to remove U(VI) from aqueous solutions at 4 °C and 25 °C was evaluated, as well as its survival capacity upon U(VI) exposure. The subcellular localisation of U was determined by TEM/EDX microscopy, while functional groups involved in the interaction with U were further evaluated by FTIR; finally, the speciation of U was analysed by TRLFS. We have revealed, for the first time, an active mechanism promoting metal efflux from the cells, during the early steps following U(VI) exposure at 25 °C. The Microbacterium sp. A9 strain also stores U intracellularly, as needle-like structures that have been identified as an autunite group mineral. Taken together, our results demonstrate that this strain exhibits a high U(VI) tolerance based on multiple detoxification mechanisms. These findings support the potential role of the genus Microbacterium in the remediation of aqueous environments contaminated with U(VI) under aerobic conditions.

  8. Radiation danger of exclusion zone objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholosha, V.I.; Proskura, N.I.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Kazakov, S.V.; Arkhipov, A.N. [Ministry of Ukraine of Emergencies and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chornobyl Catastrophe (Ukraine)

    2001-03-01

    The analysis of radiation danger of the Exclusion Zone objects was made. Here, the Zone is defined as the territory from which the population has been evacuated in 1986 owing to the Chernobyl accident and possible outflow of the contaminated substances out of the borders is potentially dangerous to the Ukraine. In the present work were analyzed such problems as sources of radiation danger in the Zone, ways of radionuclide migration out of the borders of the Zone in normal and emergency situations, the non-radiation (ecological) danger factors of the Zone objects, doses (individual and collective) from various sources and on separate ways of their formation, and the characteristics of radiation danger of the Zone objects. The conclusions are: (1) Radionuclide flows both from technologic and natural sources exceed those from Shelter objects, (2) Under emergency conditions, radionuclide flows and doze loading remain comparable with those from emergency sources, (3) To solve some management tasks in radiation situation, the basic works on the Shelter objects should be oriented to decrease probability of emergency occurrence and to reduce radiation influence (prevention wash-outs during high waters, fire-prevention measures in forests and strengthening of the control behind non-authorized use of objects in the Zone). (S. Ohno)

  9. Problems of Chornobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved.

  10. Animal Radioecology in the Exclusion Zone Since the Chernobyl Catastrophe%切尔诺贝利核事故以来隔离区动物生态的研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leonid Frantsevich

    2006-01-01

    综述了切尔诺贝利核事故以来乌克兰Schmalhausen动物研究所(SIZ)对核工厂周围隔离区(exclusion zone, EZ)的野生动物所进行的长达20年的放射生态学调查研究. 基于乌克兰以往鸟类迁移的观察资料, 评估了137Cs和90 Sr在隔离区候鸟体内的含量. 而且还选择一些动物物种作为环境状况的标准指示生物, 目的是为了阐明: 137 Cs在隔离区脊椎动物体内的污染情况;整个第聂伯河流域、基辅行政区和隔离区软体动物贝壳内90 Sr的β活性. 结果表明不同物种相对放射性核累积、迁移和累积因素呈有规律的季节性和长期性变化趋势, 这些参数的运用可以大大地减少数据的波动和复杂性. 直接辐射毁坏森林后, 营养链的崩溃和病死树昆虫害虫的爆发导致了其次级生态变化. 99%的隔离区并不直接受辐射的影响, 人员撤离、农业和森林管理停止以及大规模排除污染是这些区域生态变化的主要因素. 在初始变化之后, 由于自然资源、捕食者和偷猎者等的限制, 隔离区的动物密度和分布达到一个稳定的极限值. 数年前成功地在隔离区引入了一群蒙古野马, 该群体保持了稳定增长. 重新评估了以前划定的若干自然保护位点目前的保护状况, 并提出了建议扩大这些自然保护区的范围等保护措施.%We review 20 year long investigations by the Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology on radioecological and ecological consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe for wild animals in the Exclusion Zone (EZ) around the nuclear plant. Using previous observations on bird migrations through Ukraine, we assessed the 137 Cs and 90 Sr carry-out with migrants from the EZ. In addition, we selected animal species as standard indicators of the state of the environment to map: 1) contamination of vertebrates with 137 Cs in the EZ and 2) beta-activity of mollusc shells indicating 90 Sr, in the whole Dnieper drainage

  11. [Long-term follow-up cytogenetic survey and biological dosimetry in persons evacuated from 30-km Chernobyl NPP zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maznik, N A

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the follow-up cytogenetic survey and biological dosimetry carried out in inhabitants of Pripiat' town and nearby villages, who were departured from the Chernobyl NPP 30-km exclusive zone during first days after the Chernobyl catastrophe. The unstable chromosome aberration level in inhabitants were significantly increased above control in terms up to 1 year after evacuation and declined gardually during next 14 years. In early period the cytogenetic damage frequency in evacuees showed no dependence on gender. The chromosome type aberration level appeared to be lower in young persons comparing with adults. The dicentrics plus centric rings yield had a positive correlation with duration of staying at Chernobyl zone. The average doses of protracted exposure were calculated from the dicentrics and centric rings yields; the dose estimations appeared to be 1.4 times higher in persons evacuated 3-11 days after the accident than that of in persons with shorter departure time. Uing the Bayesian analysis the probabilistic distribution of biological doses was constructed for the studied evacuees group. This distribution was characterized by a mean dose of 360 mGy, the modal doses of 200-450 mGy and 80% of probability density within the dose range 0-1000 mGy, that seems to be sufficient for considering the increased risk of late somatic radiation effects for this cohort. PMID:15571047

  12. Genetic effects of prolonged combined irradiation of laboratory animals in Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prolonged combined (external and internal) irradiation of mice in the r zone of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant caused hereditary disturbances physiological defects in the posterity irrespective of the fact if one or both parents were irradiated. The most favourable indices were observed in F2 posterity of the both exposed parents

  13. Estimation of pollution atmosphere Cs-137 to forest fires in the Chernobyl zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A classification of fire danger and radiation factors in the Chernobyl zone is presented. The scenarios of forest fire emergence and aerial migration of Cs-137 was analysed. The characteristic of Cs-137 resulted from the forest fire of various types was estimated. It was found that this fires lead to change of radiation condition and radioecological situation in the evacuation zone. Refs. 25, refs. 2, tabs. 5

  14. Reflection of block neotectonics in geological structure of paleogene strata of Chornobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neotectonic block differentiation of Chernobyl Exclusion zone area was fixed by the results of the geological and structure analysis of paleogene strata in complex with the space survey data interpretation. Structural plan of the latest tectonic movements had a block character; it was shown by the fracture systems, which represent the components of known regional tectonic zones of various trends and are found in the features of phanerozoic rock mass structure. The territory under study is divided into two parts - the northern one, where in the neotectonic movements are generally more intensive with manifestation practically all over the fracture zones, and the southern part, where in the newest breaks belong mainly to submeridional also to south-western regional fracture zones. The southern part of the Exclusion zone, as a whole, holds the greatest promise by comparison with the northern one in the view of neotectonic criteria regarding the geological repository siting for radioactive waste disposal

  15. The influence of ecological factors of the Chernobyl NPP zone to realize genetic effects of nonradiation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic effects of ecological factors of zone of Chernobyl disaster to posterior administration of the chemical carcinogen have been studied. Mice were exposed within zone of Chernobyl disaster during 3 months and then urethane was administered. Micronuclei in mouse bone marrow were scored at 48 h after urethane administration. Increase micronuclei induced in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) of mouse bone marrow was shown in animals exposed to more high background radiation. Under additional administration of urethane the yield of micronuclei in PCEs was risen almost three fold in comparison with mutagenic effect of urethane in animals being outside zone of Chernobyl disaster. (authors)

  16. The results of fluorescence spectrums of oak and birch leaves investigation from the 30-km influenced zone of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a long-term research of laser induced fluorescence of foliage tree' leaves (oak, birch) that grow in different conditions of radioactive pollution (30-km zone of Chernobyl NPP) are presented

  17. 33 CFR 2.30 - Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusive Economic Zone. 2.30... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.30 Exclusive Economic Zone. (a) With respect to the United States... States exercises sovereignty, exclusive economic zone means the zone seaward of and adjacent to...

  18. Definition of Exclusion Zones Using Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartal, Y.; Villagran, M.; Ben Horin, Y.; Leonard, G.; Joswig, M.

    - In verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), there is a motivation to be effective, efficient and economical and to prevent abuse of the right to conduct an On-site Inspection (OSI) in the territory of a challenged State Party. In particular, it is in the interest of a State Party to avoid irrelevant search in specific areas. In this study we propose several techniques to determine `exclusion zones', which are defined as areas where an event could not have possibly occurred. All techniques are based on simple ideas of arrival time differences between seismic stations and thus are less prone to modeling errors compared to standard event location methods. The techniques proposed are: angular sector exclusion based on a tripartite micro array, half-space exclusion based on a station pair, and closed area exclusion based on circumferential networks.

  19. Adaptation state for persons living and working in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integral health characteristics (IHC) reflecting the level of organism adaptation for persons working and living under specific conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone is suggested. IHC gives an opportunity to differentiate the adaptation degree in respect to 6 characteristics, which are encephalogram, cycle-ergometry, psychological test (uneasiness state), immunological test (T lymphocyte activity), content of chlorides in blood, state of skin bactericidal activity. Mathematical models connecting IHC with organism adaptation state are constructed. Adaptation level depends on the absorbed dose value, time of work in the 30-km zone and age of the person under examination. 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  20. Vegetation state in the alienation zone after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetation state within the alienation zone on the territory of formed state farm 'Savichi' of the Bragin region was studied. 9 agroecosystem associations of the Braun-Blanguet system were selected. Their ecological, biological and economic characteristics are given. The research has shown that the content of Sr 90 in vegetative mass of most agroecosystem associations exceeded normative level. (authors)

  1. Ecology-genetic consequences of the chronic irradiation of animals in Chernobyl alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation with the use of different molecular-genetic markers and the cytogenetic analysis of genetic-population consequences in different species of voles and experimental cattle herd reproduced in Chernobyl's alienation zone is carried out. The decrease in the number of animals with cytogenetic anomalies in bone marrow cells in voles, was revealed, that testified to the selection by the radioresistance. The obtained data allow us to make conclusion that the increase of ionizing radiation is a particular case of ecological changes leading to the microevolution events connected with the selection by the stability to new conditions of the reproduction of populations

  2. The content of Cs 137 in mushrooms of Chernobyl NPP alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cs 137 contents in S. luteus is more in 1.5 - 20 times, than in B. edulis, selected on one polygon. However this ratio has changed and Cs 137 contents in S. luteus equals to contents in B. edulis in territory of some polygons of Chernobyl NPP alienation zone in 2000 and 2001. Therefore, as indicators of Cs 137 contamination by wood ecosystems it is necessary to use two or more kinds of mushrooms differing by depth of mycelium's localization in soil

  3. The concept of the Economic Exclusive Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Patuzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The important and the new concept that brought the third UN Conference of the Law of the Sea was the Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ, requested by countries whose coasts are bordering on the oceans, seas, but also in harmony with the interests of countries which have extensive coastline or those with specific geographical features, which have a very narrow coastal zone. On December 10, 1982, nearly 120 countries signed the new United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, as one of the most significant international conferences. Part V of that Convention (more precisely Articles 55 to 75 provides for an “Exclusive Economic Zone” extending 200 nautical miles seaward from the coast. If all coastal states thus exercised their jurisdiction over their own EEZ, some 38 million square nautical miles would become their “economic patrimony”. It should be mentioned that the ocean represents 71% of the total surface of the earth and that 32% of that falls under the jurisdiction of coastal states. Consequently inside these economic zones would lie 90% of global fishing, 87% of oil deposits and 10 % of polymetallic nodules. The EEZ provisions have received widespread support and have become an integral part of international practice especially when the Convention of 1982 entered into force, also articles 55 and 86 of the Convention make it clear that the EEZ is not a part of the territorial sea, but it is a zone sui generis, with a statute of its own. Some countries had claimed 200-mile EEZ and other have established a 200- mile Exclusive Fishing Zone (EFZ. The countries benefiting the most from the EEZ concept are in order of the size of their zones: USA, Australia, Indonesia, New Zealand, Canada and Russia. If this concept was to be applied by all coastal Mediterranean States, the entire sea would be covered by EEZs of the littoral countries. The countries of the Mediterranean that would most benefit from the EEZ are Greece, Cyprus, Italy and Malta

  4. Influence of ecological factors of the zone of the Chernobyl disaster on the somatic cells of mice and their posterity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of the present research is to study the reaction of cells of the hematopoietic system and carcinogenesis in the lungs of linear mice which were in the zone of the Chernobyl disaster for 1 month and their posterity (F1). It is established that the increase in frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow for posterity F1 from mouse-parents being in the zone of the Chernobyl disaster had no statistical significance in comparison with the control groups. It is shown that the raising sensitivity of the posterity of linear mice, which were in the zone of the Chernobyl disaster, to the carcinogenic effect of urethane had more significance in comparison with the sensitivity of their parents. The estimate of the tumor process has shown that a spontaneous frequency of adenomas in the lungs for posterity F1 statistically increased more than 5 times in comparison with the similar parameter for the posterity of intact mice. (authors)

  5. Review and Analysis of Solid Long-lived and High Level Radioactive Waste arising at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the Restricted Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study characterised potential waste arisings in the Exclusion Zone surrounding the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Studied sites include the Industrial Zone outside the Sarcophagus, three engineered disposal sites (the so-called PZRO), non-engineered near surface trench dumps (PVLRO), contaminated soil and sites of ''unauthorized'' disposal within the Exclusion Zone. Analysis of the previous methodology used for waste characterisation and inventory estimates identified a number of errors. A new database was established, which contains the most up-to date information on radwaste in the Exclusion Zone. Based on the analysis of the available information and potential radiological consequences, a judgement was taken regarding the priority of waste retrieval. In a number of cases it is necessary to carry out risk assessment to ensure that in-situ disposal would satisfy the Ukrainian regulations. Assessments of waste stream volumes for subsequent incineration, encapsulation, storage and disposal in the planned near-surface facilities have been made. It is judged that throughput and capacity of the planned waste management facilities specified by OSAT is, in general, appropriate to the likely waste arisings. (author)

  6. Plants from Chernobyl zone could shed light on genome stability in radioactive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Galina; Talalaiev, Oleksandr; Doonan, John

    2016-07-01

    For nearly 30 years, despite of chronic radiation, flora in Chernobyl zone continue to flourish, evidencing the adaptation of plants to such an environment. Keeping in mind interplanetary missions, this phenomenon is a challenge for plant space research since it highlights the possible mechanisms of genome protection and stabilization in harmful environment. Plants are sessile organisms and, contrary to animals, could not escape the external impact. Therefore, plants should evolve the robust system allowing DNA-protection against damage, which is of special interest. Our investigations show that Arabidopsis thaliana from Chernobyl zone tolerate radiomimetics and heavy metals better than control plants from non-polluted areas. Besides, its genome is less affected by such mutagens. qPCR investigations have revealed up-regulation of some genes involved in DNA damage response. In particular, expression of ATR is increased slightly and downstream expression of CycB1:1 gene is increased significantly after bleomycin treatment suggesting role of ATR-dependent pathway in genome stabilization. Several DNA repair pathways are known to exist in plants. We continue investigations on gene expression from different DNA repair pathways as well as cell cycle regulation and investigation of PCD hallmarks in order to reveal the mechanism of plant tolerance to radiation environment. Our investigations provide unique information for space researchers working on biotechnology of radiation tolerant plants.

  7. Assessment of dose contribution to population exposure from the radiation sources in the alienated Chernobyl zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main dose load of Ukrainian population is caused by radionuclide-contamination of country territories, located outside the alienated zone, following Chernobyl accident. Besides, much attention could be devoted to the contribution of dose load on population, received from the radioactivity sources that were transferred out from the zone after accident. Present research and analysis of the available documents reflecting the transfer of radioactivity from the alienated zone, provided the estimates of dose load on population, resulting from transfer of the radioactivity sources via following channels: (1) direct surface flow; (2) underground waters; (3) wind-powdered route; (4) transfer with hydrobionts; (5) transfer during irrigation; (6) biogenic route; (7) transport routes and (8) route during wood transportation. Dynamics of radiation transfer through each channel was also studied for the post-accident period. Specific gravity of radioactivity transfer is determined in relation to dose load on Ukrainian population in different regions, in particular, in Dnipro river basin. The perspectives of radioactivity transfer via each of studied channels and its role in dose load on population were also analyzed. On the basis of present results the recommendations on possible arrangements are working out that aimed to reduce the dose contribution in population exposure by radioactivity source transfer from the alienated zone via channels that stipulate the largest dose loads and collective doses

  8. Mapping and research in the exclusive economic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Bonnie A.; Lockwood, Millington

    1985-01-01

    By proclamation of the President on March 10, 1983, the United States claimed sovereign rights and jurisdiction within an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The United States is responsible for wisely developing and managing the EEZ and its marine resources and for protecting its environment. The U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone is a region that

  9. The legacy of Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojcun, M.

    1991-04-20

    This article looks at daily life in the Northern Ukraine, where the fallout effects from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident were felt most keenly. High levels of radioactive iodine 131, strontium 90 and caesium 137 are still present five years on and the health of the population, including those evacuated from the exclusion zones, is at risk from leukaemia and thyroid problems, especially among children. Other worrying reports suggest the occurence of a new disease, ''Chernobyl AIDs'', in which sufferers' immune systems are depressed. Other major outstanding problems include the integrity of the concrete sarcophagus enclosing the damaged reactor, and the continued consumption of locally grown contaminated food due to government inadequacies in supplying ''clean'' equivalents. (UK).

  10. Main investigation results on the forest radioecology in the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accident zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the long-term studies of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems in zones of radioactive contamination after the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accidents, the following trends were revealed: (1) High retention capacity of stand canopy with respect to radioactive fallout. This leads to high doses absorbed by apical and leaf meristems, β-radiation giving the main part of the dose; (2) Fast self-decontamination of crowns during the growth period and relatively slow decontamination in the phase of physiological rest, regardless of amount of atmospheric precipitation. The rate of crown decontamination determines the value and duration of radiation stress on woody plants; (3) Accumulation not less than 95% of the total radionuclide amount in the forest litter 1-2 years after the cessation of radioactive fallout; (4) Relatively slow migration of strontium and cesium radionuclides along the forest soil profile; (5) High capacity of the forest when serving as a biogeochemical barrier to the routes of horizontal and vertical radionuclide migration and export out of the zone of initial contamination, including migration into the river water; (6) Considerable difference between strontium and cesium when migrating in forest soils and in the soil-plant system; (7) Broad variations in transfer factors for uptake of cesium-137 from soil into forest plants depending on the plant species and soil type. The primary radiobiological effects connected with irradiation of organisms are considered and secondary disturbances due to changes of ecological bonds between the components of irradiated forest ecosystem are discussed

  11. Cytogenetic anomalies in bone marrow cells of 3 species of voles in the alienation zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the frequencies of different cytogenetic anomalies in bone marrow cells in Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus arualis, and Microtus oeconomus, trapping in places with different levels of irradiation in the zone of Chernobyl's accident is carried out. The species-specific features of the different cytogenetic anomaly frequencies under conditions of the increased ionizing levels are revealed. Possible reasons for the species and individual variabilities of karyotype destabilization under conditions of an increased level of ionizing irradiation are discussed

  12. Radionuclide migration in the experimental polygon of the Red Forest waste site in the Chernobyl zone – Part 1: Characterization of the waste trench, fuel particle transformation processes in soils, biogenic fluxes and effects on biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review article introduces an experimental site located within the Chernobyl exclusion zone that is equipped to study radionuclide behavior in the environment after disposal of radioactive waste into shallow subsurface storage (trenches). This paper presents how the site is equipped and the methodology that was followed in order to understand and reproduce the observed 90Sr contaminant plume downstream from a shallow waste trench in an area about 2.5 km west of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP), called the Red Forest. The main results include identification of the radionuclide source term (the distribution and inventories of radionuclides in the trench, the description of the physical and chemical properties of the fuel particles encountered in the waste trench) and a model of fuel particle dissolution and subsequent radionuclide leaching into the soil solution. The biogenic migration of radionuclides from the trench to, and effects of radiation on, plants (Scots pine) are also described.

  13. Manganese nodules in the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mauritius

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; ShyamPrasad, M.

    The distribution of manganese nodules in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the island nation Mauritius was delineated during cruise SK-35 of ORV Sagar Kanya in 1987. The areas surveyed included Saya de Malha and Nazareth Banks, the Cargados Carajos...

  14. Scientific and technical aspects of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection contains the presentations and scientific articles prepared for and discussed during the Conference titled '2001: International Cooperation For Chernobyl'. The materials outline the outcomes achieved while implementing Chernobyl site scientific-technical researches and projects, as well as activities aimed at enhancing the ChNPP safety, decommissioning and radwaste management. It also highlights the issues related to transforming the Unit Shelter into an ecologically safe system, represents the results of ecological researches in the Exclusion Zone, medical effects of the 1986 accident at Chernobyl NPP, together with social and economic problems the city of Slavutich faces now due to the early ChNPP Units decommissioning, and Slavutich business development opportunities under the circumstances of Special Economic Zone 'Slavutich'

  15. [The features of radioactive contamination of small birds in Chernobyl zone in 2003-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashchak, S P; Makliuk, Iu A; Maksimenko, A M; Maksimenko, V M; Martynenko, V I; Chizhevskiĭ, I V; Bondar'kov, M D; Mousseau, T A

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of small birds (484 individuals, 44 species) was investigated in the Chernobyl zone (Ukraine) in 2003-2005. Values variation of 90Sr and of 137Cs activity concentration reached 3-4 orders of magnitude even in one site, and maximum values amounted to hundreds Bq/g at the central plots of the zone. The biggest contamination is appropriate to birds in breeding season and to settled species, whilst migrants are the "cleanest". Change of contamination within a year reflects seasonal and short-term changes in birds diet and in behaviour. During breeding season females have higher activity concentration of 90Sr, while on 137Cs accumulation sexual differences are absent. In other seasons radioactive contamination of male and female does not differ if they live in similar conditions and have similar migratory behavior. Young birds during fledging and just after, as a rule, have higher levels of 90Sr contamination than adults, and actually do not differ on 137Cs accumulation. On a set of own and published data, it was assumed, that in small birds the half-life period of 137Cs extraction amounts to 1-2 days, and 90Sr- 5-10 days, and dynamic equilibrium of the radionuclides turnover in organism is reached over 4-7 and 17-34 days, respectively, after the birds arrival on the contaminated site. Among 44 studied species, those who search invertebrates in soil top layer or forest litter (thrushes). have noticeably higher accumulation of 90Sr and of 137Cs. Specific differences of radionuclides accumulation for the rest birds were not revealed due to small sample sizes of the species. PMID:18666578

  16. Modification of adrenergic regulation of heart function affected by radioecological factors within the ten-kilometer zone of Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats kept the ten-kilometer zone of Chernobyl disaster over a period of 30 days exhibited a decreased heart function response to β-adrenoreceptor stimulus, reduced density of the receptor structures in cardiomyocytes and their affinity to specific agonists. The number of β-adrenoreceptors in myocardium cells was restored in 6 months, but their affinity and heart function response to the effect of β-adrenoagonists remained decreased. No significvant changes were observed in regulation influenced indirectly via α-adrenoreceptors. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Dynamics of contents and organic forms of radionuclide compounds in the liquid phase of forest soils in the zone of contamination from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the profile of forest soils in a 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP), in areas characterized by different positions in relation to the source of emission, the authors determined the relative contents of long-lived radionuclides 106Ru, 134,137Cs, and 144Ce in soil solutions (as of 1987). On the example of 137Cs, they consider the dynamics (1987-1990) of relative contents and forms in which the radionuclide is found in the liquid phase of soils in the zone of radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl NPP

  18. The dynamics of radioactive contamination of soils and plants of natural complexes in unsettled zone of the Chernobyl NPP in the territory of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data of measuring of radioactivity of soils and plants in unsettled zone of Chernobyl NPP having been made since 1986 are discussed. It revealed that the radioactivity of plants remained at high level and it was under strong annual influence of the weather conditions

  19. 75 FR 79330 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act; Recordkeeping and Reporting AGENCY: National... fisheries in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area under the... part 679 is proposed to be amended as follows: PART 679--FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE...

  20. 76 FR 12884 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act; Recordkeeping and Reporting AGENCY: National.... groundfish fisheries in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area... 679 is amended as follows: PART 679--FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA 0 1....

  1. 77 FR 70061 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska and Pacific Halibut Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Part 902 50 CFR Part 679 Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska and Pacific... Administration 15 CFR Part 902 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-BB42 Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone... in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) and the Gulf...

  2. Chernobyl: exclusive investigation. How the French nuclear lobby buries the truth in contaminated areas. The After-Chernobyl or 'Living happy' in contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the results of this inquiry, the CEPN (study centre on assessment of protection in the nuclear sector) has been created by the main actors of the nuclear industrial sector (EFG, Cogema, CEA and IRSN) and is at the origin of the ETHOS and CORE projects. Moreover, these projects have been financed by public funds. It also shows that the FNSEA (farmer trade union) has been allied to the French nuclear lobby for the distribution probably contaminated and radioactive foodstuff. It evokes the case of Belarus researcher who denounced such contamination and the misappropriation of international funds, and who was sent to jail. It comments the collaboration between the French nuclear sector and the Belarus regime, denounces how the truth about Chernobyl has been hidden, the cynical results of the ETOS program which would imply the consumption of contaminated foodstuff in France in case of nuclear accident. Some proposals are made: to dismantle the CEPN, to stop the participation of French organisations to the CORE and FARMING programs, creation of an independent commission on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and so on. For the authors, phasing out nuclear is the only solution o avoid a new Chernobyl

  3. Carrying out and planning measures for improvement of radiation situation in alienation zone after accident at Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technogenic radionuclides that were released into environment as the result of the Chernobyl accident joined the energy and mass transfer processes, which to a great extent are determined by the specificity of natural and climatic conditions of Ukrainian woodlands. The state of the spread of radioactive materials, and the data furnished by the Dosimetric Monitoring Board of the NPO 'Pripyat' over the zone territory are reported. After the primary radioactive contamination of the terrain, with meteorfactors superimposed on the physical and chemical conditions of radioactivity release and topographic factors, a new type of vegetation has developed, as well as a pattern of the economic exploitation of the territory. The process of radioactivity redistribution by water, wind and technogenic transport must be carefully investigated. The studies on radionuclide migration and the results are discussed. The estimation of dynamic capacitance in soil in the nearby zone of the ChNPP, the studies of hydrogeological condition in the 10 km zone, the analysis of groundwater condition, the studies on the wind-lift transport and fallout of radionuclides in 30 km zone and others are reported. Decontamination measures, one of the most large scale and labor-intensive operations in the elimination of the accident effects, and the burial of radioactive waste are described. The requirements for executing the project are summarized. (K.I.)

  4. Characteristic of lipid metabolism and state of free-radical processes in workers of 30-km alienation zone at Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study involved 54 men aged 35-50 working in 30 km alienation zone at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant. Blood serum and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation indices were estimated. Investigation of peroxidation processes in the erythrocytes allowed to reveal changes in glutation system, they being characterized by its amount elevation against the background of glutation transferase activity increase both in the persons, working in the 30 km zone, and in those from 'Ukryttia' Establishment

  5. Radiation and genetic monitoring of populations of Pinus sylvestris L. within the zone of the Chernobyl power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic and genetic effects in populations of Pinus sylvestris L. (in forests of the external zone of the Chernobyl NPP) suffered weak, average strong and sublethal radiation damage after the accident in 1986 were studied. Absorbed doses for trees in these plantings were from 0.1 up to 20 Gy. It was shown that the amount of cells with chromosome aberrations in sprouts of seeds of a crop of 1993, are comparable with the effects marked at once after accident in 1986. In 1997 and in 1998 the amount of cells with chromosome aberrations in sprouts of seeds in majority inspected plantings decreased to control values. Effect of adaptation was detected, when seeds of Pinus sylvestris L., gathered in 1997 from inspected trees, were exposed to additional 4 Gy γ-radiation

  6. Problem of radioactive ash and sewage sludge management in the population areas of the Chernobyl zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident has brought about an unprecedented health risk to the population in the area of nuclear fall-out and has created unusual radioactive decontamination and waste management problems. One of them which has proven to be self-dependent is radioactively contaminated municipal domestic wastes, in particular sewage sludge arising from waste water treatment and ash wastes produced by domestic heating facilities from the use of local contaminated fire-wood and peat. This paper's intention is to show the present situation and outline the actions being taken to carry out the recommendations in the field of management and regulation

  7. Scientific and technical aspects of international cooperation in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection contains the presentations and scientific articles prepared for and discussed during the Conference titled '2000: International Cooperation For Chernobyl'. The materials outline the outcomes achieved while implementing Chernobyl site scientific-technical researches and projects, as well as activities aimed at enhancing the ChNPP safety, decommissioning and radwaste management. It also highlights the issues related to transforming the Unit Shelter into an ecologically safe system, represents the results of ecological researches in the Exclusion Zone, medical effects of the 1986 accident at Chernobyl NPP, together with social and economic problems the city of Slavutich faces now due to the early ChNPP Units decommissioning, and Slavutich business development opportunities under the circumstances of Special Economic Zone 'Slavutich'

  8. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on radioactive contamination of groundwater utilized for water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the notions of classic hydrogeology, the groundwaters of deep-laying aquifers were considered to be safely protected against various external contaminants, due to high sorption properties of aeration zone soils, regional distribution of aquitards, and very long periods of ground water formation. Contamination of upper subsurface aquifer and a part of artesian aquifers is exclusively significant in Chernobyl exclusion zone characterized by high levels of surface contamination with radionuclides

  9. Dynamics of 137Cs in the forests of the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of the 137Cs content in the components of the forests in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) in 1986–1994 are associated mainly with such factors as the size of radioactive particles in the fallout, ecosystem humidification and soil type, tree age. The influence of particle size was especially noticable between 1986–1987 and was displayed by low biological availability of radionuclides in the near part of the zone (within the 10-km radius circle around the NPP) in comparison with more distant regions (within the 30-km radius circle). Later, the expression of this influence decreased and transfer factor (the ratio of 137Cs content in overground phytomass to the soil contamination density) became approximately the same for all plots with similar ecological and fallout characteristics. Humidity of landscape and soil type determined the velocity of radionuclide vertical migration in the soil and 137Cs biological availability. These parameters were maximum for the hydromorphic soils of wet landscapes enriched in organic substance and poor clayey minerals. Differences of 137Cs accumulation in overground phytomass of trees caused by tree age are displayed in the higher 137Cs concentration in structural parts of young trees as compared with old ones

  10. Dynamics of 137Cs in the forests of the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of the 137Cs content in the components of the forests in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) in 1986-1994 are associated mainly with such factors as the size of radioactive particles in the fallout, ecosystem humidification and soil type, tree age. The influence of particle size was especially noticeable between 1986-1987 and was displayed by low biological availability of radionuclides in the near part of the zone (within the 10-km radius circle around the NPP) in comparison with more distant regions (within the 30-km radius circle). Later, the expression of this influence decreased and transfer factor (the ratio of 137Cs content in overground phytomass to the soil contamination density) became approximately the same for all plots with similar ecological and fallout characteristics. Humidity of landscape and soil type determined the velocity of radionuclide vertical migration in the soil and 137Cs biological availability. These parameters were maximum for the hydromorphic soils of wet landscapes enriched in organic substance and poor clayey minerals. Differences of 137Cs accumulation in overground phytomass of trees caused by tree age are displayed in the higher 137Cs concentration in structural parts of young trees as compared with old ones

  11. 77 FR 65843 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revisions to IFQ Program Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Gulf of Alaska (GOA) and the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ...: PART 679--FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA 1. The authority citation for part 679... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revisions to IFQ Program Regulations AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  12. 75 FR 69016 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish Observer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... INFORMATION: Background NMFS manages the U.S. groundfish fisheries in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA 0 1. The authority citation for 50 CFR part 679 continues to read as... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish Observer Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  13. Determination of (129)I and (127)I concentration in soil samples from the Chernobyl 30-km zone by AMS and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Rühm, Werner

    2009-07-01

    A large amount of radioiodine isotopes (mainly (131)I, t(1/2) = 8 days) was released from the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) in April-May 1986. An increase in childhood-thyroid cancer in the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine was demonstrated to be caused by radioiodine released at the time of the accident. However, there is a lack of quantitative data on the (131)I levels in the local environment (e.g. air, plant, soil). At this point, a long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (t(1/2) = 15.7 million years), also released with a certain ratio to (131)I from CNPP, could be used for estimating the (131)I levels in the environment. In this paper we present analytical results of the (129)I concentrations and (129)I/(127)I atom ratios in soil samples collected from the CNPP exclusion zone (30-km zone), with the aim of assessing current contamination levels and distribution patterns. For the analysis of the iodine fraction in the investigated soil samples, the pyrohydrolysis method was utilized for separation of (127)I and (129)I nuclides, and subsequently their concentration was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), respectively. The concentration of (129)I and the (129)I/(127)I atom ratio in the surface soil samples in the 30 km-zone of CNPP ranged from 4.6 to 170 mBq/kg, and from 1.4 x 10(-6) to 13 x 10(-6), respectively. These values are significantly higher than those from global (129)I fallout, indicating that most of the measured (129)I was due to the deposition of the accident. Stable iodine concentrations in this area were found to be very low (below 1 ppm) for most of the samples, suggesting the environmental iodine levels in this area to be potentially low. The (129)I/(137)Cs activity ratio in surface and sub-surface soils was not so constant, i.e., in the range (7.3-20.2) x 10(-7). This might be due to the different behavior of deposition and/or migration

  14. Sonograph mosaic of U. S. west coast Exclusive Economic Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, J.V.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Edwards, B.D.; Field, M.E.; Hampton, M.A.; Karl, H.A.; McCulloch, D.S.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.

    1986-07-01

    The Geological Long-Range Inclined Asdic (GLORIA) side-scanning sonar system was used to obtain data that were compiled as an image-enhanced acoustic mosaic, similar to an aerial photograph, of the sea floor from the edge of the continental shelf to 200 nmi offshore within the US Exclusive Economic Zone off California, Oregon, and Washington. The mosaic clearly displays the large-scale geomorphic and sedimentologic features of the sea floor, including spreading centers, seamounts, fracture zones, sediment fans, continental-slope canyons, and abyssal-plain channels. Hundreds of seamounts (some previously uncharted) dot the deep sea floor, and many have large summit craters and attendant volcanic flows. The major Nitinat, Astoria, Delgada, and Monterey sediment fans are traversed by lengthy channel-levee complexes that extend from morphologically diverse canyons on the adjacent continental slope. Areally extensive sediment-wave fields occur adjacent to the complexes. Some channels on the abyssal plain are straight whereas others are highly sinuous, suggesting that various channel-forming processes occur on the sea floor. The contrast between the transform tectonic regime south of Cape Mendocino and the convergent tectonic regime to the north is particularly apparent on the mosaic. The linear basement ridges that were generated at the Gorda and Juan de Fuca spreading centers and were later moved apart by sea-floor spreading are abruptly truncated by the Mendocino and Blanco fracture zones that accommodate horizontal slip between adjacent lithospheric plates.

  15. Radiation situation and irradiation level in forest workers in places of timber works in alienation zone of Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation hygienic situation in the forest plots and dose load of the personnel at timber works in the alienation zone of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant was evaluated.It has been revealed that the density of contamination of the forest soil at the areas of timber works was 155.4-447.3 kBq centre dot m2. Maximum year equivalent dose on the lungs and total dose of external and internal irradiation in the forest workers in the zone of alienation during the work at the areas were about 40% of the values of the respective dose limits for the population of B category

  16. NONFUEL MINERAL RESOURCES OF THE PACIFIC EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, David; Bischoff, James; Howell, David

    1984-01-01

    The Pacific Exclusive Economic Zone contains a variety of hard mineral resources. Sand and gravel and their associated placer deposits of heavy minerals are the most likely to be developed in the near future, but offshore and deep water deposits of phosphorite, abyssal manganese nodules, ferromanganese crusts enriched in cobalt, and massive sulfide deposits all represent future resources. The distribution, extent, and formation of these deposits are poorly understood and will be clarified only with additional exploration, framework geologic mapping, and study of the processes by which these resources form. It is pointed out that the initial discovery of most hard-mineral resources in the EEZ was made during routine scientific marine-geologic surveys aimed at understanding the framework geology and geologic processes of an offshore region.

  17. MINERAL RESOURCES OF THE ATLANTIC EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, William P.

    1984-01-01

    Potential mineral resources of the Atlantic Exclusive Economic Zone (including the Gulf of Mexico and US Caribbean areas) include petroleum, sand and gravel, phosphorite, placer deposits of heavy mineral sands, ferromanganese nodules, and fresh water. Although major efforts have been made to search for petroleum, the oil and gas resources of the region are well known only in the western Gulf Shelf and more exploration is under way. Heavy-mineral placer deposits, which may be sources of titanium, gold, rare earths, etc. , have been sampled, but the extent and, therefore, economic value of the deposits have not been identified. Sand and gravel, phosphorite, and ferromanganese nodules all are represented by fairly well established deposits, and only modified market conditions would be necessary to cause detailed exploration and mining.

  18. Chernobyl disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, V.; Bojcun, M.

    1988-01-01

    The Chernobyl disaster is examined in chronological order from the experiment that led to the explosions, to the firefighting efforts, the release of radioactivity, its fallout, the evacuations from the contaminated zone and the long-term medical, ecological, economic and political repercussions. The sources of information are nearly all Soviet - the Ukranian and Russian press, Moscow and Kiev radio broadcasts, Soviet television documentaries and the report of the Soviet government commission to the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986. Reports by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the Central Electricity Generating Board and the International Atomic Energy Agency have also been used. The latter chapters look at who was to blame for the accident, what impact the accident has had on Soviet society and why the Soviet government continues to expand its nuclear power programme.

  19. 10 CFR 100.11 - Determination of exclusion area, low population zone, and population center distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of exclusion area, low population zone, and population center distance. 100.11 Section 100.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REACTOR... and for Testing Reactors § 100.11 Determination of exclusion area, low population zone, and...

  20. 75 FR 78172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish Retention Standard; Emergency Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ...) in the Exclusive Economic Zone under the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-BA29 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish Retention Standard; Emergency Rule AGENCY: National Marine...

  1. 77 FR 19605 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... FMP are available for public review and comment. The salmon fisheries in the exclusive economic zone... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-BB77 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...

  2. 77 FR 75570 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... vast majority of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off Alaska. The FMP establishes the Salmon... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-BB77 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...

  3. 76 FR 40336 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Prohibited Species Donation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA434 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off... exclusive economic zone of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI) and Gulf of Alaska... program was published in the Federal Register on July 24, 1996 (61 FR 38358). The salmon donation...

  4. Continuous action local hydrogeological model of alienation and compulsory eviction zones around Chernobyl'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous action hydrogeological model (CAHM) is a special complex intended for multivariant forecasts of the underground water conditions. CAHM makes it possible to ground optimal arrangement and running of water supply and environmental control measures. CAHM takes into consideration surface storm run-off, vertical moisture and salt transfer in aeration zone soils and filtration model. Presented are mathematical models describing those phenomena. Calculation net of a regional CAHM is given. There is a map of forecasted set levels and heads of the underground water in case of functioning Yanovskij, Novoshepelichevskij and Chernobylskij water intakes at maximum flow rate. 1 refs.; 3 figs

  5. Distribution of the main physicochemical forms of the Chernobyl origin radionuclides in aquatic plants of the Glyboke lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of the physicochemical forms of radionuclides in the aquatic vegetation of the Glyboke lake located on the territory of the inner Chernobyl exclusion zone is studied. The interspecific features of 137Cs and 90Sr accumulation are analyzed, and the differences in the distributions of radionuclide physicochemical forms in accordance with the nutrition type of the studied plant species are determined.

  6. Evolution of physical and chemical forms of radioactive depositions in the 30-km zone around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been elaborated a method for calculating condensation component of caesium nuclides and determining availability of a simple correlation of an average local density of radioactive depositions. Analogous correlation also exists for Sr-90. It is proved that the main share of the condensation component of caesium and strontium radionuclides have fall out the regions within 14.5-25 km and 30-52.5 km. The summarized activity being (6,7±2,5)x104 Ku and (1,3±0,9)x104 Ku, correspondingly. 85% fuel component is believed to concentrate within the 30-km zone. There have been worked out a method for determining the share of the fuel component of radioactive depositions in soil cover; the method is based on the analysis of the balance of various chemical forms of Sr-90. There have been also elaborated a method for determining the share of hot particles of fuels and their derivatives in the total balance of α-activity of the soil cover and dust of natural and technogeneous origin

  7. 75 FR 53025 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery... Part 679 RIN 0648-AX89 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch...: NMFS manages the groundfish fisheries in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Bering Sea...

  8. 76 FR 81247 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment 88

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Part 679 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska... 0648-BA97 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska..., (907) 586-7228. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The groundfish fisheries in the exclusive economic zone...

  9. Chernobyl, 13 years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of Chernobyl fallout in France

  10. Wildlife in Chernobyl forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article is a review of a book addressed Wormwood Forest: a natural history of Chernobyl which describes life in Europe's largest wildlife sanctuary in the region surrounding the Chernobyl station. Since the accident, the area has largely been a safe haven from hunters and farmers, allowing the wildlife to live in an undisturbed environment. Against this backdrop, the book describes in detail, a highly controversial programme that released an endangered species of horse into the zone. Lack of funding for such programmes makes it nearly impossible to administer them. The book blends reportage, popular science and encounters with the zone's few residents. The result is an account of a remarkable land, its people and animals seen through the eyes of the locals, the author and the zoologists, botanists and radiologists who travelled with her around the zone. The radiation is the book's ever-present protagonist, as the author describes in detail how it works itself through the entire food chain and environment. Along the author's journey through the affected regions of Belarus and Ukraine she debunks several myths surrounding Chernobyl and the nuclear industry in general. In fact, while there have been a small number of cases of mutations observed in some species, these are not as dramatic as the Chernobyl mythology.

  11. 76 FR 65500 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA747 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements; Public Workshops AGENCY: National Marine...

  12. 75 FR 4770 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT74 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements; Public Workshops AGENCY: National Marine...

  13. Distribution of hydromedusae from the exclusive economic zone of the west and east coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.; Nair, V.R.

    Distribution and abundance of hydromedusae from the exclusive economic zone of the west and east coasts of India is carried out based on zooplankton collections (on board FORV Sagar Sampada) during the period 1985-1990. The 661 samples collected...

  14. Social Chernobyl participants condition in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full texts: At the moment in Lithuania live almost 6 600 Chernobyl participants (persons witch were in attendance Chernobyl nuclear power station emergency ravage liquidation works and executing another works in 30 kilometers zone). About 770 died and 170 went to other nations. Thievery other fixed illnesses coherence with being in 30 kilometers zone. According 26 October, 1990 Republic of Lithuania government's resolution No. 325 intended that Chernobyl participants credit accomplishes Ministry of Social care but until now in the Republic there is not undivided database, consequently we use different institution's and social investigations information which is not circumstantial. Chernobyl participants social condition and medicine service control certificates, government's resolutions and Ministry of health care and work and Ministry's of health care requisitions. There is not a law which guarantees Chernobyl participants social rights. Supposedly that for in Lithuania there is not the logistics which could vouch medical facilities provision for Chernobyl participants. Until 2005 sanatorium treating of Chernobyl participants was pursuance through invalids till but this treatment was not available to everyone Chernobyl participant for two reasons: 1 - Vicinities doctors and GPs not all the time contemprorize illnesses with being in The nuclear power station of the Chernobyl zone. 2 - Invalids till was not fixing the number of the permissions to the sanatoriums for the Chernobyl participants. Since 13 September, 2005 by Republic of Lithuania government's resolution No. 998 municipal governments budget bankrolls once a year may offset eighteen-days sanatorium treatment for persons which were liquidating The nuclear power-station of the Chernobyl emergency ravage but Chernobyl participants should give Specialists committee inference. Another problem social security. Chernobyl participant's requirement supply if they ill or died according Government's 18 February

  15. Project Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the follow-up after the Chernobyl fallout is to obtain the best possible information about the environmental and dose commitment consequences in Sweden. The essential part of the work by the institute to improve the state of readiness is described. (G.B.)

  16. Byelorussia's Chernobyl legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 radioactive fall-out was widely distributed over the eastern territories of the Soviet Union and over Europe. While the effects in Europe have been well documented and have received widespread media attention, less is known about the effects within the Soviet Union. The general picture that has been painted is that while the accident was serious, it wasn't that bad and the resulting contamination is something that can be lived with. In reality many people are living in contaminated zones which would be regarded as completely unacceptable in the United Kingdom. However, the USSR Ministry of Public Health has argued that relocation is not necessary. The Ministry and other agencies including the Red Cross do not recognize the contamination as serious and feel the main side effect of Chernobyl is psychological. In Byelorussia however, 100,000 people are still living in areas of major contamination. (author)

  17. Bhopal and Chernobyl: some comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to compare some aspects of the accidents at Bhopal and Chernobyl, their causes and consequences. There were design and management inadequacies in both cases, Maintenance inadequacies were plenty in Bhopal but not in Chernobyl. Written instructions were unsatisfactory in Bhopal. In Chernobyl the operators deliberately violated the instructions repeatedly; this compounded by the unsatisfactory nature of reactor design, led to the accident. Disaster management preparedness and emergency response were excellent at Chernobyl. At Bhopal the plant management was absolutely unprepared and contributed practically nothing to the emergency management; however, civil and military authorities did a splendid job. Immediate deaths in Bhopal are estimated to be 2,500 to 10,000 and the number affected 200,000. None of the plant staff were affected and all the casualties were in non-plant personnel living nearby. All the 31 deaths in Chernobyl were among the plant personnel. Although 135,000 persons living in a 30 Km zone round the reactor were evacuated and medically examined, none had to be hospitalised. The world scientific community seems to have forgotten Bhopal within a year or so after the accident, while Chernobyl continues to excite intense interest. Extensive knowledge of the biological effects of radiation helps to estimate the likely number of cancer and genetic effects from Chernobyl. Knowledge of Methyl iso cyanate (MIC) toxicology is woefully inadequate; recent evidence indicates the possibility of carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of MIC. Both at Bhopal and Chernobyl there are elaborate plans for detailed followup of the populations for several decades. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs

  18. JUSTIFICATION OF TRANSITION FROM ZONING OF CONTAMINATED TERRITORIES TO SETTLEMENTS CLASSIFICATION AT AN AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES IN REMOTE PERIOD AFTER THE CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Vlasova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an existing exposure situation (in a remote period after the Chernobyl accident there is a need of the transition from "radioactive area zoning" to "the settlements classification by average annual effective doses to the critical group of persons among the settlement's residents", to ensure the appropriate radiation level and social protection of the settlement's residents, located on the contaminated territory.The comparative allocation analysis of the average annual external and internal effective doses, the average annual effective cumulative doses to residents of settlements, related to the relevant areas (the Council of Ministers of Belarus latest decision, the proposed dose range according to the Catalogue of average annual effective doses of residents of settlements radiation Republic of Belarus confirmed the validity of the transition from "radioactive zoning area" to "the classification of settlements by average annual effective dose."In accordance with the radiation protection principles, it seems reasonable to classify the settlements located on the contaminated territory at the average annual effective dose as follows: < 0.1 mSv / year (not required to carry out radiation protection measures in the agricultural sector;  0.1-1 mSv / year (periodic radiation monitoring should be carried out;  1 mSv / year (it is necessary to apply a complex of protective measures.

  19. 75 FR 39892 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... parts 300, 600, 679, and 680. Overview of the CDQ Program The CDQ Program is an economic development... economic development in western Alaska, to alleviate poverty and provide economic and social benefits...

  20. 78 FR 16617 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC569 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual Fishing Quota Program AGENCY: National... Federal Register, November 9, 1993 (58 FR 59375) and subsequent amendments. This announcement...

  1. 78 FR 41332 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 660 to End, revised...

  2. 75 FR 11471 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XV03 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual Fishing Quota Program AGENCY: National... (58 FR 59375) and subsequent amendments. This announcement is consistent with Sec. 679.23(g)(1),...

  3. The Legality of Foreign Military Activities in the Exclusive Economic Zone under UNCLOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geng, Jing

    2012-01-01

    During negotiations for the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), military activities in another state's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) were a point of contention. Currently, the issue remains controversial in state practice. UNCLOS attempts to balance the differing interests of c

  4. 78 FR 73842 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; North Pacific Groundfish and Halibut...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC959 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off... (77 FR 70062). Regulations implementing the Observer Program are set forth at 50 CFR part 679, subpart... the ex-vessel value of groundfish and halibut. The proposed rule for Amendments 86/76 (77 FR...

  5. 75 FR 23189 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Individual Fishing Quota Program; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-AY37 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Individual Fishing Quota Program; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Individual Fishing Quota Program for the sablefish and halibut fisheries off Alaska (75 FR 20526), make...

  6. 76 FR 31881 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish Retention Standard; Emergency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-BA29 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish Retention Standard; Emergency Rule Extension AGENCY: National Marine... 679.27(j)(1) through (4), through June 13, 2011 (75 FR 78172). NMFS invited public comments...

  7. 78 FR 44033 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in the Western Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... manages the groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC769 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska...

  8. 78 FR 17886 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC581 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...

  9. 77 FR 48916 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder in the Bering Sea and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... INFORMATION: NMFS manages the groundfish fishery in the (BSAI) exclusive economic zone according to the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC129 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...

  10. 77 FR 38013 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ...--FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA 0 1. The authority citation for part 679 continues to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-BC23 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment 88; Correction AGENCY:...

  11. 78 FR 74079 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Proposed 2014 and 2015...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ...: NMFS manages the GOA groundfish fisheries in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the GOA under the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC895 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Proposed 2014 and 2015 Harvest Specifications for...

  12. 78 FR 42022 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; “Other Rockfish” in the Western Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... manages the groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC753 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; ``Other Rockfish'' in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska...

  13. 76 FR 45217 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... review and comment. The groundfish fisheries in the exclusive economic zone of Alaska are managed under... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-BA97 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program; Amendment 88 AGENCY: National...

  14. 78 FR 62005 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-11

    ... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC918 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: NMFS manages the groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to... specifications for groundfish of the GOA (78 FR 13162, February 26, 2013). In accordance with Sec....

  15. 77 FR 56564 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC206 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...

  16. 76 FR 15826 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska License Limitation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska License Limitation Program AGENCY: National... fisheries in the exclusive economic zone of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (BSAI) and... October 1, 1998 (63 FR 52642), and LLP licenses were required for Federal groundfish fisheries...

  17. 78 FR 20037 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC606 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...

  18. 78 FR 9849 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC493 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...

  19. 75 FR 64172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XZ81 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...

  20. 76 FR 12883 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XA276 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY:...

  1. 75 FR 14498 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XV51 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY:...

  2. 77 FR 44172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... BSAI exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC119 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY:...

  3. 78 FR 57537 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shortraker Rockfish in the Bering Sea and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... fishery in the BSAI exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC876 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shortraker Rockfish in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...

  4. 75 FR 52891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XY57 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...

  5. 76 FR 24404 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... BSAI exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XA405 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...

  6. 77 FR 12214 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... the groundfish fishery in the BSAI exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XB038 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY:...

  7. 78 FR 15643 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC550 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...

  8. 75 FR 19562 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XV80 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...

  9. 78 FR 57097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC873 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...

  10. 76 FR 46208 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; “Other Rockfish” in the Western Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ...: NMFS manages the groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XA613 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; ``Other Rockfish'' in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska...

  11. 78 FR 14932 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ...: NMFS manages the groundfish fishery in the BSAI exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC543 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY:...

  12. 78 FR 17885 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC582 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY:...

  13. 78 FR 63405 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: NMFS manages the groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC926 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...

  14. 75 FR 14498 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: NMFS manages the groundfish fishery in the BSAI exclusive economic zone according to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XV52 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...

  15. Chernobyl, 14 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) International cooperation, 7) More information about Chernobyl and 8) Glossary

  16. The succession of plant associations at the territories of the alienation zone in post-Chernobyl period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the results of studies on ecological succession in the zone of alienation (Vetkovskij area of the Gomel' region). The lands of this zone have not been used for agricultural purposes. The connection between characteristics of regeneration ecosystems and ecological condition of agricultural landscape is established. The change of vegetation in the course of succession is considered. Plant associations which are formed in the zone of alienation are described. (authors)

  17. Chernobyl bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time.

  18. Chernobyl bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone ampersand Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time

  19. Actual problems of management of territory and natural objects in the zone of population relocation at the Chernobyl' NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basing on experimental data and using the research results and estimates of other authors an attempt is made to argue and formulate the principles of management for natural and agricultural lands, which can form the basis for development of the conception for use of the population relocation zone. The list of the first-priority works dealing with the problem of rational management of the zone natural objects is given. The necessity of development of the basis for organization of radioecologic nature, reserve, is shown. The scheme of organization of territory use in the population relocation zone is given. 2 figs.; 1 tab

  20. Chernobyl liquidators. The people and the doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the data available from the scientific literature concerning clean-up workers, or so-called liquidators, of the Chernobyl accident. There are several different definitions of liquidators: Legal definitions of 'liquidators'. Their importance rests on the fact that some state Chernobyl registers are based on these definitions. Definitions from various scientific reports. Definitions for the purpose, which have been published in scientific papers and books. The simplified definition of liquidators would be people who were directly involved in clean-up operations in the exclusion zone in 1986-1991. Estimations of the number of liquidators vary from 100 000 to 800 000 people. Four major cohorts of liquidators are now split among Russia (168,000 people), Belarus (63,500 people), Ukraine (123,536 people) and the Baltic States (about 15,000 people from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). The definition of liquidator and the formation of cohort are the most critical factor in liquidator-related studies and not enough attention is paid to this matter by researchers. The term 'liquidator' describes a very heterogeneous group of people. Liquidators may be grouped according to work performed in the exclusion zone or affiliation to various organisations. The majority of liquidators in 1986-1987 were conscripts and reservists of the Soviet Union Army. According to data from Russian National Medical and Dosimetric Registry, 76% of liquidators were 25-39 years old at the moment of arrival to the Chernobyl area. Only about 1% of liquidators was women. From the results of biodosimetry we know that the average accumulated dose estimation for the liquidator group is about 0.2 Gy. The official documented average dose from the Russian National Medical Dosimetric Registry is 0.13 Gy. However, the liquidator group contains some overexposed subgroups with a higher accumulated dose. Individual dosimetry is only available for small subgroups of liquidators

  1. Emergency preparedness lessons from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergency preparedness at nuclear power plants in the U.S has been considerably enhanced since the Three Mile Island accident, The Chernobyl accident has provided valuable data that can be used to evaluate the merit of some of these enhancements and to determine the need for additional improvements, for example, the USSR intervention levels of 25 rem and 75 rem for evacuation are contrasted with U.S Environmental Protection agency protective action guides. The manner in which 135,000 persons were evacuated from the 30-km zone around Chernobyl is contrasted with typical U.S. evacuation plans. Meteorological conditions and particulate deposition patterns were studied to infer characteristics of the radioactive plume from Chernobyl. Typical plume monitoring techniques are examined in light of lessons learned by the Soviets about plume behavior. This review has indicated a need for additional improvements in utility and government emergency plans, procedures, equipment, and training

  2. The radioecological monitoring of wild hunting hoofed animals, living for a long time in the of alienation zone in the distant period after the failure on Chernobyl nuclear station faire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data of the 12-year-long research about contents of Cs-137 in muscle tissue of the elk and european roe deer obtained in the abandoned zone after the Chernobyl accident. The authors have shown considerable range in the contents of Cs-137 in the organism of these wild animals. All the animals of the of alienation zone had the high contents of the given radionuclide in muscle tissue, which considerably exceeded normative values established for meat of wild hunting hoofed animals.(Authors)

  3. 75 FR 38452 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Central Gulf of Alaska License Limitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-AY42 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Central Gulf of Alaska License Limitation Program; Amendment 86 AGENCY: National... (FMP) is available for public review and comment. The groundfish fisheries in the exclusive...

  4. Determination of plutonium isotopes in samples of the Chernobyl exclusion zone by means of characteristic Ix-radiation of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for measurement of alpha-emitting Pu isotopes by means of characteristic Lx-radiation of uranium in environmental samples has been proposed. This method was compared with standard radiochemistry determination of Pu isotopes in soil samples from the Red forest. The results of comparison between both methods have a high correlation

  5. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE CONCEPT OF TRANSFER TO CONDITIONS OF NORMAL POPULATION ACTIVITY OF THE SETTLEMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE ZONES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION AFTER THE CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains substantiation of criteria of return of territories with radioactive pollution caused by Chernobyl NPP accident to conditions of normal population activity. It is established that in 12 entities of the Russian Federation (except Bryansk and Kaluga regions all agricultural food produce, including that from the personal part-time farms, corresponds to hygienic specifications. Non- corresponding to the standard SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01 on 137Cs are part of the milk samples produced at personal part-time farms of the Bryansk region and most of natural foodstuff samples (berries, mushrooms, fish and wild animals meat in Bryansk and Kaluga regions. The content of 137Cs both in agricultural and in wild-growing foodstuff produced at radioactively contaminated territories depends not only on the density of radioactive pollution, but also on the types of soil. The average settlement annual effective dose of population irradiation (AAED90 in the 3700 among 4413 settlements as of 2014 was below 0.3 mSv/year. Only in 713 settlements of Bryansk, Kaluga, Oryol and Tula regions the AAED90 exceeds 0.3 mSv/year. In the Bryansk region, once subject to the greatest radioactive contamination, in 276 settlements AAED90 exceeds 1 mSv/year, and in 8 of them - 5 mSv/year.The legislation of the Russian Federation defines only criteria and requirements for consideration of the suffered territories as zones of radioactive contamination. Requirements on transfer of territories polluted by radiation accidents and their population to normal life activity conditions (regarding the radiological factor are not developed.Radiological criteria are suggested for transfer of the settlements considered to be the zone of radioactive pollution to conditions of normal life activity: average irradiation dose of critical population group: 1.0 mSv per year and lower (AAED crit; decrease of radionuclide soil contamination density to the level enabling to use the territory

  6. Analysis of the Chernobyl zone's forests state based on the red edge position with use of the multispectral spot-4 images and ground-based reflectance and fluorescence spectra research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the ground-based research of visible reflectance and laser-induced fluorescence of pine (needles) at different stages of pine fungus damage, depending on crown position and content of incorporated radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr, as well as the results of the remote sensing data of the Red Edge Position of pine forests growing in Chernobyl zone with use of multispectral SPOT-4 images are presented. It has been established that the remote sensing data, which take into account integral state of the tested territory is more effective for the detection of root sponge stress

  7. Cytogenetic effect observed in seeds from Crepis tectorum natural populations subjected to chronical irradiation resulted from radioactive pollution within 30 km zone of Chernobyl disaster and stored for a long period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of the 1st and 3d Crepis tectorum natural populations subjected to chronic irradiation during 4 months in 1986 within 30 km zone of Chernobyl accident were stored for 5 years in laboratory. For this period germination capacity of 1st population seeds decreased but the seeds retained a germination capacity up to 1992 were characterized by the increased germination rate. The germination capacity and the germination rate of 3d population seeds did not change. The frequency of metaphases with chromosome aberrations in the first mitotic cycle of root tip meristematic cells of seedlings increased after 5 year storage

  8. 75 FR 43118 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska License Limitation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-AY42 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska License Limitation Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... economic zone (EEZ) of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (BSAI) and the Gulf of...

  9. 75 FR 37371 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Fisheries of the Bering Sea Subarea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-AY34 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Fisheries of the Bering Sea Subarea AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... of the Northern Bering Sea Research Area to establish the Modified Gear Trawl Zone and to expand...

  10. 76 FR 79620 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Proposed 2012 and 2013...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XA711 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Proposed 2012 and 2013 Harvest Specifications for Groundfish... economic zone (EEZ) of the GOA under the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska...

  11. 76 FR 72384 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Gulf of Alaska Pollock Fishery..., then enter in the keyword search. Locate the document you wish to comment on from the resulting list.... The groundfish fisheries in the exclusive economic zone of the GOA are managed under the FMP. The...

  12. A monoclonal antibody marker for the exclusion-zone filaments of Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decossas Marion

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trypanosoma brucei is a haemoflagellate pathogen of man, wild animals and domesticated livestock in central and southern Africa. In all life cycle stages this parasite has a single mitochondrion that contains a uniquely organised genome that is condensed into a flat disk-like structure called the kinetoplast. The kinetoplast is essential for insect form procyclic cells and therefore is a potential drug target. The kinetoplast is unique in nature because it consists of novel structural proteins and thousands of circular, interlocking, DNA molecules (kDNA. Secondly, kDNA replication is critically timed to coincide with nuclear S phase and new flagellum biogenesis. Thirdly, the kinetoplast is physically attached to the flagellum basal bodies via a structure called the tripartite attachment complex (TAC. The TAC consists of unilateral filaments (within the mitochondrion matrix, differentiated mitochondrial membranes and exclusion-zone filaments that extend from the distal end of the basal bodies. To date only one protein, p166, has been identified to be a component of the TAC. Results In the work presented here we provide data based on a novel EM technique developed to label and characterise cytoskeleton structures in permeabilised cells without extraction of mitochondrion membranes. We use this protocol to provide data on a new monoclonal antibody reagent (Mab 22 and illustrate the precise localisation of basal body-mitochondrial linker proteins. Mab 22 binds to these linker proteins (exclusion-zone filaments and provides a new tool for the characterisation of cytoskeleton mediated kinetoplast segregation. Conclusion The antigen(s recognised by Mab 22 are cytoskeletal, insensitive to extraction by high concentrations of non-ionic detergent, extend from the proximal region of basal bodies and bind to the outer mitochondrial membrane. This protein(s is the first component of the TAC exclusion-zone fibres to be identified. Mab 22

  13. Chernobyl, 17 after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This information document takes stock on the Chernobyl accident effects, 17 years after the reactor accident. The domains concerned are: the Chernobyl power plant, the sanitary consequences of the accident in the most exposed countries, the Chernobyl environment and the polluted regions management, the Chernobyl accident consequences in France; Some data and technical sheets on the RBMK reactors and the international cooperation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  14. Cell damage seen from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 30 kilometer radius forbidden zone around the Chernobyl atomic plant serves as a sobering reminder of the world's worst nuclear accident. But for former Soviet biologists, it's also a unique natural laboratory. And one scientist, Nadejda Gulaya of Kiev's Pallaguine Institute of Biochemistry, has been doing studies that she claims offer surprising evidence of Chernobyl's after-effects. Prolonged exposure to radioactive fallout from the 1986 accident, she says, has caused damage to cell membranes in both animals and humans. For the past year, Gulaya has been comparing tissues from animals such as mink, pigs, and rodents inhabiting the Chernobyl area with those from other parts of Ukraine. Her conclusion: Exposure to radiation has, in many cases, caused alterations to membrane phospholipids. These changes, are similar to those that disrupt cellular metabolism following exposure to oxidizing free radicals. Gulaya also has preliminary data from human studies. She claims to have found similar alterations in the neurons of people who have died since being exposed to Chernobyl radiation. That leads her to speculate that the frequent psychiatric disorders may not just be from mental stress or radiophobia, but might reflect actual damage to the central nervous system

  15. Protein Tpr is required for establishing nuclear pore-associated zones of heterochromatin exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Sandra; Dörries, Julia; Boysen, Björn; Reidenbach, Sonja; Magnius, Lars; Norder, Helene; Thyberg, Johan; Cordes, Volker C

    2010-05-19

    Amassments of heterochromatin in somatic cells occur in close contact with the nuclear envelope (NE) but are gapped by channel- and cone-like zones that appear largely free of heterochromatin and associated with the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). To identify proteins involved in forming such heterochromatin exclusion zones (HEZs), we used a cell culture model in which chromatin condensation induced by poliovirus (PV) infection revealed HEZs resembling those in normal tissue cells. HEZ occurrence depended on the NPC-associated protein Tpr and its large coiled coil-forming domain. RNAi-mediated loss of Tpr allowed condensing chromatin to occur all along the NE's nuclear surface, resulting in HEZs no longer being established and NPCs covered by heterochromatin. These results assign a central function to Tpr as a determinant of perinuclear organization, with a direct role in forming a morphologically distinct nuclear sub-compartment and delimiting heterochromatin distribution.

  16. Zone inhomogeneity with the random asymmetric simple exclusion process in a one-lane system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Song; Cai Jiu-Ju; Liu Fei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we use theoretical analysis and extensive simulations to study zone inhomogeneity with the random asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP). In the inhomogeneous zone, the hopping probability is less than 1. Two typical lattice geometries axe investigated here. In case A, the lattice includes two equal segments. The hopping probability in the left segment is equal to 1, and in the right segment it is equal to p, which is less than 1. In case B, there are three equal segments in the system; the hopping probabilities in the left and right segments are equal to 1, and in the middle segment it is equal to p, which is leas than 1. Through theoretical analysis, we can discover the effect on these systems when p is changed.

  17. Development instability of plants and radiation from Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, A.P. [Univ. Pierre et Marie curie, Lab. d`Ecologie, Paris Cedex (France)

    1998-04-01

    Phenotypic measures of developmental instability were used to assess the hypothesis that radiation from Chernobyl in Ukraine directly affects the developmental processes of plants. Fluctuating asymmetry and the frequency of pheno-deviants in three species of plants. Robinia pseudoacacia. Sorbus aucuparia and Matricaria perforata, were assessed along a transect from the security zone of Chernobyl towards the largely uncontaminated area 225 km SE of Chernobyl. Measures of developmental instability decreased in a similar way for the three species with increasing distance from Chernobyl the level of developmental instability being three to four times as large near Chernobyl as in the control area. Developmental instability was positively related to the level of radiation by caesium-137 along the transect. In conclusion, radiation from Chernobyl has resulted in a reduced ability of plants to control the stability of their developmental processes. (au) 15 refs.

  18. The Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl disaster is examined in chronological order from the experiment that led to the explosions, to the firefighting efforts, the release of radioactivity, its fallout, the evacuations from the contaminated zone and the long-term medical, ecological, economic and political repercussions. The sources of information are nearly all Soviet - the Ukranian and Russian press, Moscow and Kiev radio broadcasts, Soviet television documentaries and the report of the Soviet government commission to the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986. Reports by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the Central Electricity Generating Board and the International Atomic Energy Agency have also been used. The latter chapters look at who was to blame for the accident, what impact the accident has had on Soviet society and why the Soviet government continues to expand its nuclear power programme. (author)

  19. Changes in immune system of experimental animals resulting from constant irradiation of several generations in alienation zone of Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of the immune system on the constant exposure to the radiation of the Chernobyl discharge during the life of several generations of laboratory animals. It has been shown that the exposed animals (irrespective of the line, generation and sex) differ considerably from the controls both in definite immune characteristics (30-70% of the studied parameters) and in sensitivity to grippe virus

  20. Speciation of caesium-137 and plutonium-isotopes in Chernobyl soil

    OpenAIRE

    Holmstrand, Marte Varpen

    2011-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident (1986) in present day Ukraine, was the first INES level 7 nuclear accident in the history of nuclear power. About 6-8 tonnes of spend uranium fuel were released and the fallout contained a series of short- and long lived radionuclides. The main deposition was in an area 30 km around the ChNPP, and the southern parts of Belarus. The area was permanently evacuated and called the exclusion zone. Some of the most long lived radionuclides released...

  1. Climatological Analysis of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico Based on 10 Years of Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, E.; Trasviña-Castro, A.; Aguirre Bahena, F.

    2013-05-01

    To visualize the variability of inorganic carbon in the waters of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico we analysed over 10 years of monthly data 4-km resolution from the MODIS-AQUA satellite. This sensor provides various types of information and for this discussion we selected particulate organic carbon, sea surface temperature and euphotic zone depth. We constructed climatological maps for each month of the year to show the average, maximum, minimum and standard deviation of the three variables. The result of the average particulate organic carbon climatology indicates that the main areas of inorganic carbon production (> 200 mg m3) are the Gulf of California, the west coast of the peninsula of Baja California, the coast of Colima, the Gulf of Tehuantepec and in the Gulf of Mexico the coasts of Yucatan, Tabasco and Tamaulipas. The months presenting higher production occur between December and April. In comparison, lowest climatological mean sea surface temperature (below 14 oC) occurs on the west coast of the Baja California peninsula and it is observed associated with the highest mean particulate organic carbon (>250 mg m-3). Climatological mean sea surface temperature on the coast of Colima, Yucatan, Tabasco and Tamaulipas are about 25 °C and coincide with high values of particulate organic carbon (> 200 mg m-3). The climatological mean euphotic zone depth show lowest values (zone. The oceanic region shows maximum values for both sea surface temperatures and depth of the euphotic zone as is to be expected in oligotrophic regions of the sea. Anomalies for all three variables will also shown to discuss the interannual variability of this 10-years period of study.

  2. Chernobyl' 96. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems of radiation monitoring, ''Ukrytiye'' safety, wave management, radiation and radioecological situation in 30-km exclusion zone, agricultural and medical radiology, justification of measures and means for mitigation of radioactive contamination influence on biological object and man are discussed. The results of research in scientific establishments of Ukraine, Russia, Belorussia, USA,Belgium, Germany, Sweden and Japan are exposed

  3. The life-span of experimental animals and their progeny under influence of the ecological conditions in the Chernobyl zone of alienation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory three-month old animals (white mongrel rats F0) were delivered to Chernobyl. The control animals were kept in a Kyiv vivarium. The indices of lifespan and dynamics of mortality of rats and their progeny have been determined using the life table methodology. The results have shown no essential difference in the indices of mortality and lifespan between control and experimental animals of the F0 generation. The expected lifespan of irradiated rats of the F1 - F2 generations increased in the age interval of 300 - 600 days. It's necessary to note that a decrease of this index in the Chernobyl groups of the F3 - F6 generations has been observed

  4. Vertical intensity modulation for improved radiographic penetration and reduced exclusion zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendahan, J.; Langeveld, W. G. J.; Bharadwaj, V.; Amann, J.; Limborg, C.; Nosochkov, Y.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, a method to direct the X-ray beam in real time to the desired locations in the cargo to increase penetration and reduce exclusion zone is presented. Cargo scanners employ high energy X-rays to produce radiographic images of the cargo. Most new scanners employ dual-energy to produce, in addition to attenuation maps, atomic number information in order to facilitate the detection of contraband. The electron beam producing the bremsstrahlung X-ray beam is usually directed approximately to the center of the container, concentrating the highest X-ray intensity to that area. Other parts of the container are exposed to lower radiation levels due to the large drop-off of the bremsstrahlung radiation intensity as a function of angle, especially for high energies (>6 MV). This results in lower penetration in these areas, requiring higher power sources that increase the dose and exclusion zone. The capability to modulate the X-ray source intensity on a pulse-by-pulse basis to deliver only as much radiation as required to the cargo has been reported previously. This method is, however, controlled by the most attenuating part of the inspected slice, resulting in excessive radiation to other areas of the cargo. A method to direct a dual-energy beam has been developed to provide a more precisely controlled level of required radiation to highly attenuating areas. The present method is based on steering the dual-energy electron beam using magnetic components on a pulse-to-pulse basis to a fixed location on the X-ray production target, but incident at different angles so as to direct the maximum intensity of the produced bremsstrahlung to the desired locations. The details of the technique and subsystem and simulation results are presented.

  5. High 36Cl/Cl ratios in Chernobyl groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the explosion of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in April 1986, contaminated material was buried in shallow trenches within the exclusion zone. A 90Sr plume was evidenced downgradient of one of these trenches, trench T22. Due to its conservative properties, 36Cl is investigated here as a potential tracer to determine the maximal extent of the contamination plume from the trench in groundwater. 36Cl/Cl ratios measured in groundwater, trench soil water and leaf leachates are 1–5 orders of magnitude higher than the theoretical natural 36Cl/Cl ratio. This contamination occurred after the Chernobyl explosion and currently persists. Trench T22 acts as an obvious modern point source of 36Cl, however other sources have to be involved to explain such contamination. 36Cl contamination of groundwater can be explained by dilution of trench soil water by uncontaminated water (rainwater or deep groundwater). With a plume extending further than that of 90Sr, radionuclide which is impacted by retention and decay processes, 36Cl can be considered as a suitable tracer of contamination from the trench in groundwater provided that modern release processes of 36Cl from trench soil are better characterized. - Highlights: • High 36Cl/Cl ratios measured in the Chernobyl Pilot Site groundwater. • Trench T22 acts as a modern source of groundwater contamination by 36Cl but other sources are involved. • Contamination results from dilution of a contaminated “T22” soil water with rainwater. • Processes involved in the modern release need to be investigated

  6. Proceedings of the Chernobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium (137Cs) and strontium (90Sr). The 137Cs and 90Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place

  7. Spanish economic exclusive zone (zeee) project: valencia trough and balearic sea (western mediterranean) results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Carrillo, F.; Palomo, C.; Martín Davila, J.; Carbó, A.; Acosta, J.; Catalán, M.; Herranz, P.; Muñoz Martín, A.; Muñoz Recio, A.; Marín, J. A.

    2003-04-01

    On 1993, the Spanish Government decided to perform a systematic hydrographic/oceanographic study of the so called "Spanish Exclusive Economic Zone" (ZEEE), that is, the marine area surrounding Spanish coast within the 200 nm limit. To achieve it, the oceanographic ship "Hespérides" would be at disposal of the Defense Ministry during one moth a year. A "ZEEE-Plan" was established on 1994 with the main objective to improve cartography of the ZEEE zone and acquire different geophysical parameters to characterize it. A "ZEEE-group" was conformed by personnel coming from the Hydrographic Institute of the Spanish Navy (IHM) and the Spanish Oceanographic Institute (IEO), the Institutions responsible of the campaigns, as well as San Fernando Naval Observatory (ROA), University Complutense of Madrid (UCM), and others. From 1995 to 1997 systematic marine campaigns were carried out at the Valencia Trough and Balearic Sea (Western Mediterranean), complemented by two additional campaigns, carried out on 1999 and 2000. As a result of those campaigns maps of Bathymetry, Geomagnetic Anomalies and Free Air/Bouguer Gravity Anomalies have been published, six maps of 1:200.000 scale and one additional map, of 1:500.000 scale, for the whole area (the maps are available at IEO: Juan.acosta@md.ieo.es, fax: +34 914135597, and IHM: fax: +34 956599396). In this work the above mentioned results will be presented, together with the main characteristics of the surveys.

  8. The Legality of Foreign Military Activities in the Exclusive Economic Zone under UNCLOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Geng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During negotiations for the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS, military activities in another state's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ were a point of contention. Currently, the issue remains controversial in state practice. UNCLOS attempts to balance the differing interests of coastal and maritime states, but is silent or ambiguous on the legality of military operations in foreign EEZs. Coastal states seek to assert increasing control over their maritime zones while maritime states prioritize the freedom of navigation. This article examines the competing views on these issues in the context of the 2009 Impeccable incident between China and the United States that occurred in the South China Sea. The issue of military activities in the EEZ will continue to be a complex subject, without clear definitions in the nature and scope of permissible activity. As state practice evolves, the potential for hostilities is high, particularly in semi-enclosed sea areas such as the South China Sea. This article concludes that states should create dialogues and form agreements to help clarify the contours of military activity in the EEZ, focusing on mutual interests, interdependence, and coexistence rather than perceiving the ocean as a zero-sum resource. 

  9. 75 FR 48298 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Recordkeeping... removes the Crab Rationalization Program requirements for catcher/processors to weigh all offloaded crab... INFORMATION CONTACT: Patsy A. Bearden, 907-586-7228. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: NMFS manages the U.S....

  10. 75 FR 56485 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... Register on August 10, 2010 (75 FR 48298), with a public comment period that closed August 25, 2010. One... Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Recordkeeping... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NMFS issues regulations to remove the...

  11. 77 FR 22753 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska and Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Observer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-BB42 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska and Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Observer Program AGENCY: National Marine...

  12. 78 FR 35572 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in the Bering Sea and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC722 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013), NMFS closed the directed fishery for northern rockfish...

  13. 76 FR 17107 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA295 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off... the intercooperative agreement for salmon bycatch reduction is at 72 FR 61070 (October 29, 2007). Information regarding Amendment 91 for Bering Sea Chinook salmon bycatch management is at 75 FR 53026,...

  14. 76 FR 70972 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA642 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off... implementation of Amendment 80 to the FMP on September 14, 2007 (72 FR 52668), halibut mortality limits were... was conducted by members of the Amendment 80 sector under EFP 09-02 (74 FR 12113, March 23,...

  15. 78 FR 42023 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC752 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... under Sec. 679.2(d)(1)(iii) on June 11, 2013 (78 FR 35771, June 14, 2013). As of July 8, 2013, NMFS...

  16. 76 FR 39792 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in the Bering Sea and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XA547 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... the final 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1,...

  17. 77 FR 29961 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska and Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Observer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-BB42 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska and Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Observer Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries..., we, NMFS, published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (77 FR 23326) to restructure the...

  18. 78 FR 74063 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2014 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC927 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2014 and 2015 Harvest Specifications for... specifications published in the Federal Register on March 1, 2013 (78 FR 13813) except for Pacific cod...

  19. 77 FR 69796 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC309 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off... the Federal Register on April 18, 2012 (77 FR 23326). Implementation of the restructured...

  20. 75 FR 3180 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XT86 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY: National Marine...

  1. 75 FR 49422 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XY14 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY: National Marine...

  2. Report 1. An experiment model. Radiation loading in animals living in conditions of external and internal irradiation within the zone of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation conditions in which laboratory animals were kept in experimental laboratories of Chernobyl and Kiev after the accident APS are described. The data are presented on the spectral structure and activity of radionuclides in the diet as well as in the organs and tissues of the animals. The radition loads have been estimated with regard to an external gamma-component and the internal one contributed by the incorporated radionuclides. It has been shown that radiation doses received by the animals during their lifetime due to these contributions do not exceed units of cGy

  3. THE AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES FOR THE POPULATION IN THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ATTRIBUTED TO ZONES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (FOR ZONATION PURPOSES, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ja. Bruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accident in 1986 is one of the most large-scale radiation accidents in the world. It led to radioactive contamination of large areas in the European part of the Russian Federation and at the neighboring countries. Now, there are more than 4000 settlements with the total population of 1.5 million in the radioactively contaminated areas of the Russian Federation. The Bryansk region is the most intensely contaminated region. For example, the Krasnogorskiy district still has settlements with the level of soil contamination by cesium-137 exceeding 40 Cu/km2. The regions of Tula, Kaluga and Orel are also significantly affected. In addition to these four regions, there are 10 more regions with the radioactively contaminated settlements. After the Chernobyl accident, the affected areas were divided into zones of radioactive contamination. The attribution of the settlements to a particular zone is determined by the level of soil contamination with 137Cs and by a value of the average annual effective dose that could be formed in the absence of: 1 active measures for radiation protection, and 2 self-limitation in consumption of the local food products. The main regulatory document on this issue is the Federal law № 1244-1 (dated May, 15,1991 «On the social protection of the citizens who have been exposed to radiation as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant». The law extends to the territories, where, since 1991: – The average annual effective dose for the population exceeds 1 mSv (the value of effective dose that could be formed in the absence of active radiation protection measures and self-limitation in consumption of the local food products; – Soil surface contamination with cesium-137 exceeds 1 Cu/km2. The paper presents results of calculations of the average effective doses in 2014. The purpose was to use the dose values (SGED90 in zonation of contaminated territories. Therefore, the

  4. Hypoxia in the central Arabian Gulf Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar during summer season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, Ebrahim M. A. S.; Rowe, G.; Abdel-Moati, M. A. R.; Yigiterhan, O.; Al-Maslamani, I.; Al-Yafei, M. A.; Al-Shaikh, I.; Upstill-Goddard, R.

    2015-06-01

    One of the most fascinating and unexpected discoveries during the Qatar University Marine Expeditions to the marine Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar in 2000-2001, was the detection of a hypoxic water layer in the central region of the Arabian Gulf in waters deeper than 50 m. Hypoxia was defined as the region where the concentration of dissolved oxygen was less than 2 mg L-1. This article presents the discovery of hypoxia in the Arabian Gulf, based on samples collected (mainly during evening or night time) from vertical profiles along transects of the EEZ of Qatar and analyzed for physico-chemical properties, nutrients and chlorophyll-a. Hypoxia occurred in the summer months caused by an interaction between physical stratification of the water column that prevents oxygen replenishment, and biological respiration that consumes oxygen. Strong south-westerly winds (the SW monsoon) from June to September drive the relatively low-salinity nutrient-rich surface water from the Arabian Sea/Arabian Gulf (Sea of Oman) through the Strait of Hormuz into the central-Arabian Gulf, and this surface current penetration fertilizes the deep central-Arabian Gulf during the summer period. A strong seasonal pycnocline is formed between deeper waters at an ambient temperature of 20.9 °C and surface waters at 31.9 °C. This prevents the mixing of supersaturated O2 (>100-130%) water from the upper layer that would otherwise raise concentrations of dissolved oxygen below the thermocline, thus resulting in deep water hypoxia, i.e. dissolved oxygen levels of less than 0.86 ml L-1 at 17.3% saturation. These are the lowest values ever recorded for the Arabian Gulf. The calculated area of hypoxia is around 7220 square kilometers, and occurs in a layer about ≥15 m thick above the sea floor which extends toward the deep part of the Qatar Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The biological consequences of this hypoxia on the sea floor are yet to be investigated.

  5. GLORIA II Sonograph Mosaic of the Western U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacchione, D. A.; Drake, D. E.; Edwards, B.; Field, M.; Gardner, J.; Hampton, M.; Karl, H.; McCulloch, D.; Kenyon, N.; Masson, D.

    In 1983 the United States declared sovereign rights and jurisdiction over living and nonliving resources in an area extending 200 nautical miles (370 km) seaward from its shores. In response to the establishment of this Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has implemented a program, called EEZ-Scan, to systematically map the EEZ, using the Geological Long- Range Inclined ASDIC (GLORIA) II longrange side scan sonar system developed by the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences (IOS) of Great Britain [Somers et al, 1978]. The first part of the EEZ-Scan field program was completed in the summer of 1984, when USGS and IOS scientists surveyed the EEZ off the western conterminous United States aboard the British research vessel Farnella (Figure 1). The west coast survey, requiring 96 days of ship time and four separate legs, has resulted in virtually total sonograph coverage of the sea floor from the continental shelf break to the 200-nautical mile limit between the Mexican and Canadian borders, an area of about 850,000 km2 . Other data collected on the cruises included two-channel digital seismic reflection and 3.5-kHz highresolution and 10-kHz bathymetric profiles, as well as towed magnetometer data along approximately 20,000 km of trackline spaced nominally at 30-km intervals.

  6. Benthos and demersal fish habitats in the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Hermann; Reiss, Henning; Ehrich, Siegfried; Sell, Anne; Panten, Kay; Kloppmann, Matthias; Wilhelms, Ingo; Kröncke, Ingrid

    2013-09-01

    We compiled data from different monitoring surveys to analyse and compare community and diversity patterns of fish, epi- and infauna in the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea in order to identify benthic habitats common to all faunal components. We found congruent community patterns of fish, epi- and infauna for the coastal waters, the Oysterground and the area called "Duck's Bill", which coincided with specific abiotic characteristics of these regions. The three regions were defined as special habitats for fish, epi- and infauna species in the German EEZ. The differences in the seasonal variability of abiotic factors seem to be the most important discriminating abiotic characteristic for the three habitats. The spatial distribution of fish, epifauna and infauna communities remained stable over time although habitat characteristics such as sea surface temperature increased due to climate change. However, it is expected that the coastal habitat will be more sensitive to future climate change effects in contrast to the Oysterground and Duck's Bill habitat.

  7. Morphology of the Andaman outer shelf and upper slope of the Thai exclusive economic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jintasaeranee, Pachoenchoke; Weinrebe, Wilhelm; Klaucke, Ingo; Snidvongs, Anond; Flueh, Ernst R.

    2012-03-01

    Following the devastating 2004 tsunami that hit the southwestern coast of Thailand, the need for detailed bathymetric data of the Andaman Sea outer shelf became evident in order to better predict tsunami wave propagation and coastal impact. Bathymetric data and subbottom profiler records covering the outer shelf and upper slope of the Thai exclusive economic zone (EEZ) were collected onboard Thai RV Chakratong Tongyai in 2006 and 2007. The data cover an area of approximately 3000 km2 between 500 and 1600 m water depth. The soundings allowed generating a final bathymetric grid with 50 m grid cell spacing. The outer shelf is rather smooth and slightly inclined southward, while the upper slope is strongly dissected by gullies. Several previously unknown features are identified including mud-domes, pockmarks, three large plateaus surrounded by moats, gas-charged sediment on subbottom profiler records, and only few indications for small submarine landslides on the upper slope. The largest of these possibly translational submarine landslides involved 2.2 × 107 m3 of sediment. This slide would have generated a tsunami wave of less than 0.12 m wave height. Considering the entire data, there is no evidence that landslides have been the source of tsunami waves in recent geological time.

  8. Heavy-metal pollution of sediments from the Polish exclusive economic zone, southern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefer, P.; Glasby, G. P.; Geldon, J.; Renner, R. M.; Björn, E.; Snell, J.; Frech, W.; Warzocha, J.

    2009-04-01

    Analysis of 59 surface sediment samples from the Polish exclusive economic zone (EEZ) shows that Szczecin Lagoon sediments are the most polluted by heavy metals and that the degree of heavy-metal pollution decreases substantially on passing from the Szczecin Lagoon to the Pomeranian Bay and the inner shelf area and then on passing to the Bornholm Deep and Słupsk Furrow. Heavy-metal pollution in the sediments of the western part of the Polish EEZ therefore appears to follow the dispersion of the Oder River. Fluffy material from the Oder estuary appears to be the main source of heavy metals in the muddy sediments of the Bornholm Deep. The formation of sulphides is therefore not the principal factor controlling the enrichment of heavy metals in the sediments of this anoxic basin, although it may be responsible for the uptake of Mo, Sb and As. Two main factors control the distribution of the rare earth elements (REE) in sediments of the Polish EEZ: the input of Fe-organic colloids from rivers and the presence of detrital material in the sediments.

  9. [The retrospective cytogenetic dosimetry using the results of conventional chromosomal analysis in Chernobyl clean-up workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maznik, N A; Vinnikov, V A

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the cohortal biodosimetry carried out in 435 Chernobyl clean-up workers, who were surveyed with the conventional cytogenetic technique in terms from several days to 10 years after the end of their duties in the Chernobyl accident exclusive zone. An empirical model of the aberrant cell dynamics was utilized for the calculation of mean initial yields of dicentrics and centric rings in groups with different terms and duration of staying in the Chernobyl zone. Corresponding protracted irradiation doses estimated from aberration levels ranged from 79 to 670 mGy. The probabilistic distribution of the radiation doses was constructed by the applying the Bayesian analysis to initial individual chromosome exchange yields extrapolated to the exposure termination moment. This distribution was characterized by the mean dose about 460 mGy and maximum of probability density in the interval of 50-300 mGy. For the late somatic risk assessment in clean-up workers the probabilistic distribution of equivalentally-acute radiation doses was proposed; that had the mean value about 270 mGy, modal classes of 250-350 mGy and 99.8% of the probability density concentrated within the dose range from 0 to 1000 mGy. PMID:16454338

  10. Chernobyl - Ten years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decade later, in April 1996, more than 800 experts from 71 countries and 20 organizations, observed by over 200 journalists, met to review the Chernobyl accident's actual and possible future consequences, and to put these into proper perspective. They came together at the international conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident, held at the Austria Center in Vienna. The Chernobyl Conference was a model of international co-operation: six organizations of the UN family, including the IAEA, and two important regional agencies were involved in its organization

  11. Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing Control in the Exclusive Economic Zone: a Brief Appraisal of Regulatory Deficits and Accountability Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Rosello, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of fish stocks in the world’s exclusive economic zones (EEZs), which collectively harbour the vast majority of marine-living resources, is the primary responsibility of coastal States. As the effects of failures by coastal States to protect those stocks from the impacts of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing may extend beyond domestic boundaries, this paper questions whether and how coastal States may be made accountable in respect of their regulatory deficits. ...

  12. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: cohort description and related epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Tekkel, Mare; Veidebaum, Toomas; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Bigbee, William L; Hartshorne, Michael F; Inskip, Peter D; Boice, John D

    2015-12-01

    The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers was one of the first investigations to evaluate the possible health consequences of working in the Chernobyl area (the 30 km exclusion zone and/or adjacent territories) after the 1986 reactor accident. The cohort consists of 4831 men who were dispatched in 1986-1991 for tasks involving decontamination, construction of buildings, transport, radiation measurement, guard duty or other activities. By 31 December 2012, the follow-up of the cohort yielded 102 158 person-years of observation. Exposure and health data were collected by postal questionnaires, biodosimetry evaluations, thyroid screenings, and record-linkages with cancer, causes of death and health insurance reimbursement registers and databases. These data cover socio-demographic factors, employment history, aspects of health behaviour, medical history, work and living conditions in the Chernobyl area, biomarkers of exposure, cancer and non-cancer disease occurrence and causes of death. Cancer incidence data were obtained for 1986-2008, mortality data for 1986-2011 and non-cancer morbidity data for 2004-2012. Although the cohort is relatively small, it has been extensively examined and benefited from comprehensive nationwide population and health registers. The major finding was an increased risk of suicide. Thyroid examinations did not reveal an association with thyroid nodular disease and radiation dose, but did indicate the importance of accounting for screening when making comparisons with unscreened populations. No risk of leukaemia was observed and risks higher than 2.5-fold could be excluded with 95% confidence. Biodosimetry included GPA analyses and chromosomal translocation analyses and indicated that the Estonian cleanup workers experienced a relatively low mean exposure of the order of 0.1 Gy. One value of the Estonian study is in the methodologic processes brought to bear in addressing possible health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Twenty

  13. Health consequences of Chernobyl. 25 years after the reactor catastrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is an evaluation of studies indicating health effects as a consequence of the reactor catastrophe in Chernobyl. The most exposed population include the cleaning personnel (liquidators), the population evacuated from the 30 km zone, the populations in highly contaminated regions in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, the European population in lass contaminated regions. The following issues are discussed: the liquidators, infant mortality, genetic and teratogenic damages, thyroid carcinoma and other thyroid diseases, carcinogenic diseases and leukemia, other diseases following the Chernobyl catastrophe.

  14. Problems of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection comprises the materials of working meeting 'The Development of Technologies of the 'Ukrytie' Radioactive Waste Management', held on May 20-21, 1997 in Chernobyl. The results of research work of the experts of Ukraine and other countries directed on solving problems, concerning removal of fuel containing materials and other radioactive waste from destroyed Unit 4 of Chernobyl NPP are given. The data on waste quantities, their location and classification, strategy of waste management and some technologies are described

  15. Chernobyl, 16 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

  16. Radiation Dose Assessment For The Biota Of Terrestrial Ecosystems In The Shoreline Zone Of The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from 90Sr and 137Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  17. RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  18. The Chernobyl catastrophe is the most terrible civil nuclear incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The 4th nuclear reactor of the Chernobyl NPP exploded on 26 April 1986, 20 years ago. It's the most terrible nuclear civil accident of all times. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident led to contamination of 3,1 million ha of arable land, 1,5 million ha of natural pasture land, 3,5 million ha of forests and changed the lifestyle for millions of people in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. It is well known that the mortality in the contaminated areas (infant mortality by cancer) drastically increased. The Chernobyl catastrophe is presented , such as a sad example for humanity, a complex political international, economical, social and, particular, ecological problem according to the traditional and new studies for the development of the nucleotide contaminated territories: 1. Financing of safety of stopped working 4th nuclear reactor (security of covering system) and of work another 3 blocks at the Chernobyl NPP. Detailed control of international financial support for guarantee the safety, security of the Chernobyl NPP and sustainable development for rehabilitation of the affected zones and people. 2. It should be marked increase in medical, demographic analysis and in social, economical protection of the people in the contaminated areas. 3. Analysis and synthesis, monitoring of the long-time data results due to environmental, ecological, social and political consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. 4. Protection from the possible terrorist (extra) actions and (inter) damage or incident function of the Chernobyl plant, such as an old generation nuclear power. 5. Planned budget for future studies in the affected territories and flexibility actually realization of budget (State and International). 6. Nuclear refuse and aria/water protection in the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia contaminated zones. 7. Risk evaluation of not good function of NPPs which are situated in Russia, Ukraine and in another places (always remembering that the Chernobyl catastrophe is the

  19. Distribution of 210Pb activity concentrations in marine surface sediments within East Coast Peninsula Malaysia Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sampling expedition into the East Coast Peninsula Malaysia Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was carried in June 2008. Marine surface sediment samples were taken and the activity concentrations of 210Pb have been determined. Its distribution was plotted and the findings show that the activity concentrations decline from north to south. On the other hand, the activity concentrations are increasing from west to east right to the edge of the EEZ. The highest activity concentrations were found to be near offshore oil platforms. The 210Pb activity concentrations were found to be in the range of 18.3 - 123.1 Bq/ kg. (author)

  20. Chernobyl record. The definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mould, R.F

    2000-07-01

    -malignant diseases and conditions, such as psychosocial illnesses. Chapter 19 is an English translation from 'Pravda' of a short memoir entitled 'My duty is to tell about this' by Academician Valery Legasov, the First Deputy Director of the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow, who committed suicide on the 2nd anniversary of the accident, April 1988. Previously he had been one of the leading Soviet proponents of the nuclear power option for electricity generation. Chapter 20 records the local history and culture of Ukrainian Polissya, the area which includes most of the 30 km zone. What was borne in mind throughout the research for this book, including the eye witness accounts, have been the words of Thomas Gradgrind in the Charles Dickens novel Hard Times: 'Now what I want to hear is facts'. This philosophy has, is believed to ensure that what follows is a balanced account of the accident and its aftermath, excluding media hype and biased accounts of self-interest groups, and debunking some of the myths which have surrounded Chernobyl.

  1. Chernobyl and our health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health impacts in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident are discussed in this booklet. Five experts of different relevant fields (biology, radioecology, nuclear physics and psychology) give their views on probable radiation doses and health effects from these doses, contamination of food chains etc. (L.E.)

  2. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

  3. Drosophila as a model object in to study Chernobyl NPP after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Water extractions of soil probes, which were selected on areas with different density of radioactive pollutions near Chernobyl exclusion zone ('Apple-tree garden' (Chernobyl); 'Island' (the bank of the pond-cooler of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant); 'Torch' (the area of revegetation near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant); 'Red forest' (side of a road) and 'Red forest' (edge of a forest)) were investigated. Dosimetric metering of all studied areas was conducted. γ- and β-activities of soil probes were determined by spectrometry and radiochemistry methods. The contents of trace elements in the soil probes of areas the 'Appletree garden' and 'Island' were determined. Water extractions from soil were prepared according to standard method (ratio - 1 : 2,5). The mutagenicity of water extractions of soil was estimated using the test of frequency of the sex-linked lethal mutations of Drosophila melanogaster. Water extractions were directly adds to a nourishing medium instead of standard component - distilled water. The strain of wild type of Drosophila Canton-S and natural populations of Drosophila from Pyriatin and Chernobyl were used in our study. The natural populations of Chernobyl and Pyriatin were included in study for more fully estimation of influence of factor on genetic processes of Drosophila, because of presence of unspecific adaptations of natural populations from radioactive polluted territories (as was shown before). According to dosimetric analysis data radiation activity of all water extractions of soils did not exceed a natural background. The probes of soil from areas the 'Red forest' and the 'Torch' were marked the higher activity; total activity of them was over 110 Mbk/kg. It is possibly that this fact was the reason of the absence of descendants in all variants of experiments conducted on medium with water extraction the 'Red forest' and in a variant of experiments concerned on study of activity of water

  4. Complete release from regulatory control via the density of radioactive contamination of soil of the Chornobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In this work a general procedure of establishment the criterion of complete release from regulatory control via the density of radioactive contamination of soil of alone areas of the Chornobyl exclusion zone is represented by the following three stages, namely: 1) Justification of the dose criterion of complete release by applying the fundamental approaches of regulating the prolonged exposure of the public on a basement of ICRP Publication No. 82; 2) Justification of a procedure for establishment of dose constraint through evaluation of the statistical distribution of a controlled radiation value through determination of the high boundary of the confidence interval; 3) Generalization of conversion coefficients (via the density of radioactive contamination of soil) and coverage coefficients for the dose forming factors of the public (inhalation intake of transuranium radionuclides both at natural and technogenic dust resuspension, peroral intake of 137Cs and 90Sr via food stuff, external exposure from 137Cs); on a basis of these coefficients average doses and dose constraint of a critical group of the public are calculated. As it is shown in the work, the generalized criterion of complete release from regulatory control via the density of radioactive contamination of soil of the Chornobyl exclusion zone can be defined by dividing the recommended ICRP dose clearance level for situation of the post-accidental prolonged exposure of a critical group of the public, namely, 0.3 mSv·year-1 to the dose conversion coefficient (i.e. transfer from the superficial soil contamination of radioactivity to the dose constraint for the Chornobyl exclusion zone), namely, 12.9 μSv·year-1/((kBq·M-2). Thus, a level of the density of radioactive contamination of soil, that provides the complete release from regulatory control makes 23.3 kBq·M-2. For completion of the work on justification of the criterion of complete territory release in the conditions of prolonged post

  5. Accumulation and potential dissolution of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides in river bottom sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanada, Yukihisa E-mail: sanada@tokai.jnc.go.jp; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Nagao, Seiya; Amano, Hikaru; Takada, Hideshige; Tkachenko, Yuri

    2002-05-01

    Areas contaminated with radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident have been identified in Pripyat River near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. The river bottom sediment cores contained {sup 137}Cs (10{sup 5}- 10{sup 6} Bq/m{sup 2}) within 0-30 cm depth, whose concentration is comparable to that in the ground soil in the vicinity of the nuclear power plant (the Exclusion Zone). The sediment cores also accumulated {sup 90}Sr (10{sup 5} Bq/m{sup 2}), {sup 239,240}Pu (10{sup 4} Bq/m{sup 2}) and {sup 241}Am (10{sup 4} Bq/m{sup 2}) derived from the accident. Several nuclear fuel particles have been preserved at 20-25 cm depth that is the peak area of the concentrations of the radionuclides. Th ese inventories in the bottom sediments were compared with those of the released radionuclides during the accident. An analysis using a selective sequential extraction technique was applied for the radionuclides in the sediments. Results suggest that the possibility of release of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu from the bottom sediment was low compared with {sup 90}Sr. The potential dissolution and subsequent transport of {sup 90}Sr from the river bottom sediment should be taken into account with respect to the long-term radiological influence on the aquatic environment.

  6. A survey of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of Chernobyl liquidators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevan`kaev, A.V.; Moiseenko, V.V.; Zhloba, A.A. [Medical Radiological Research Centre, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Lloyd, D.C.; Edwards, A.A. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom); Braselmann, H. [G.S.F. Institut fuer Strahlenbiologie (Germany)

    1995-04-01

    Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of 875 Chernobyl liquidators have been scored and by comparison with control subjects the dicentric plus ring and excess acentric fragment frequencies are higher for persons who worked in the exclusion zone in 1986-1988 but not in 1989. Aberration yields are too low for individual biological dosimetry but, after taking account of the time interval between irradiation and blood sampling, the dicentric plus ring frequencies indicate average doses for 1986, 1987 and 1989 in good agreement with the annual averages in the Obninsk Registry. For 1988 the cytogenetic data indicate a significant higher average dose than the Registry. Liquidators who were not issued with a personal film badge tend to have higher aberration yields than those for whom badge data are recorded. This is particularly evident for those persons who worked in the first three months after the accident where physical dosimetry data are less complete or reliable. The persons probably experienced the highest exposures of all liquidators and the chromosomal data suggest an average value of about 300 mGy. (author).

  7. Brain damage in utero after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The report presents research study results of neuropsychiatric consequences of the children exposed in utero, who were born just after the Chernobyl accident (between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987). The children were under investigation for three stages: in 1990-1992; 1994-1996; 2002-2004. We use the data on health state, IQ level tests and individual dose reconstruction data. First correlation between prenatal acute exposure after atomic bombing and intellectual level decrease was demonstrated by Japanese scientists. It is known that while the Chernobyl whole body irradiation doses are much lower than the Japanese doses, thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident are significantly higher. During the first stage the five-year-old prenatally exposed children were under examination. The results showed much more somatic diseases and neurofunctional mental disorders. It was also established in this cohort that starting with the 0.3 Sv threshold dose thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level grown along with fetal thyroid dose increase. Thereupon the radiation-induced malfunction of the thyroid-pituitary system was suggested as an important biological mechanism in the genesis of mental disorders in prenatally irradiated children. The epidemiological WHO project 'Brain Damage in Utero' (IPHECA) was implemented in the second stage. The examination of prenatally exposed children from the contaminated territories (555 kBq/m2 and more) resulted in an increased frequency of moderate mental retardation, emotional and behavioral disorders. Increasing of borderline nervous and psychological disorders of parents from the main group was higher than from the control. However it was rather hard to treat these results because individual dosimetric data were not available. Only in the third stage reconstruction of individual doses of children born to mothers evacuated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone was carried out at taking internal and external exposure. It was

  8. To The Question Of Problems In The Legal Regulation Of The Lawful Activity In An Exclusive (Sea Economic Zone Of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana V. Averochkina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article current state of legislative instruments of lawful activity in the exclusive (sea economic zone of Ukraine is analyzed, gaps and possible ways of their overcoming are specified. An itemized analysis of the Law of Ukraine "About the exclusive (sea economic zone of Ukraine" is conducted, problems in some articles of the legal regulation are discussed, it is noted that they considerably complicate separate types of lawful activities in the considered area (freedom of the seas, construction, operation and use of artificial islands, installations and constructions, carrying out sea scientific researches. Carried-out analysis of current Ukrainian legislation on the exclusive economic zone showed that today there is a number of unresolved problems connected with the embodiment into the law-enforcement practice of the special Law norms, as a result, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 1982 in Ukraine. The need of development and adoption of the number of subordinate normative legal acts in development of the Law of Ukraine "About the exclusive (sea economic zone of Ukraine" provisions is noted, namely: the procedure of freedoms of the sea in an economic zone, Order of artificial islands, installations and constructions construction, operation and use and the Order of sea scientific researches carrying out.

  9. 76 FR 11161 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... (58 FR 59375) and subsequent amendments. This announcement is consistent with Sec. 679.23(g)(1), which... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual Fishing Quota Program AGENCY: National... under the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) Program and the Community Development Quota (CDQ) Program....

  10. 77 FR 14304 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Federal Register, November 9, 1993 (58 FR 59375) and subsequent amendments. This announcement is... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual Fishing Quota Program AGENCY: National... under the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) Program and the Community Development Quota (CDQ) Program....

  11. 75 FR 41424 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Skates Management in the Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... impacts of the action are disproportionality and profitability. As noted above, there are no economic... profitability, the economic impacts would not be significant. Criteria Used to Evaluate Whether the Rule Would... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Skates Management in the Groundfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea and...

  12. Chernobyl: Geographic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the geographic considerations that could effect the long range consequences of the Chernobyl accident. First, the explosion and fire lofted the radionuclides that were released, so the areas that should have been most severely effected were the areas that were downwind of the accident. Curiously, the Soviets have not mentioned the number of casualties from these areas. A second consideration is that Chernobyl is located upstream from the Dnieper River which is the source for six major reservoirs. These reservoirs provide drinking water, industrial and irrigation water, and recreational and commercial fishing for over six million people. The Soviets say that they have taken measures to prevent the radioactive contamination of the Dnieper but they neglected to explain the methods used to accomplish this feat

  13. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  14. Chernobyl: The aftermath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear accident in Chernobyl prompted vehement and sometimes controversial public and political reaction in the Federal Republic of Germany, as it did elsewhere. What remained after the initial concern subsided? We at the IIUG feel obligated to make a contribution to the preservation and the improvement of our environmental quality, both in basic and specialized research aimed at environmental problems. It is time to take stock of the findings of our own work; we must access the feedback to and implementation of this research; the candidness and integrity of the scientific-economic-political community; superfluous knowledge or information gaps; structural obstacles and possible alternatives. This paper presents, in condensed form, the results of the 'post-Chernobyl' discussions at the IIUG, based on our work in various projects. (orig.)

  15. Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing Control in the Exclusive Economic Zone: a Brief Appraisal of Regulatory Deficits and Accountability Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosello Mercedes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of fish stocks in the world’s exclusive economic zones (EEZs, which collectively harbour the vast majority of marine-living resources, is the primary responsibility of coastal States. As the effects of failures by coastal States to protect those stocks from the impacts of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU fishing may extend beyond domestic boundaries, this paper questions whether and how coastal States may be made accountable in respect of their regulatory deficits. With the proliferation of non-legal conduct rules to guide the regulatory role of States and their agencies, non-judicial mechanisms have the potential to foster coastal State stewardship of domestic fisheries. Outlining a number of international, transnational and domestic approaches, this paper gives consideration to the opportunities and limitations they present in order to strengthen coastal State accountability for IUU fishing control deficits.

  16. Strontium-90 activity concentration in soil samples from the exclusion zone of the Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Kavasi, Norbert; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Tokonami, Shinji; Mietelski, Jerzy Wojciech; Łokas, Edyta; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The radioactive fission product 90Sr has a long biological half-life (˜18 y) in the human body. Due to its chemical similarity to calcium it accumulates in bones and irradiates the bone marrow, causing its high radio-toxicity. Assessing 90Sr is therefore extremely important in case of a nuclear disaster. In this work 16 soil samples were collected from the exclusion zone (contamination originated from the Fukushima nuclear accident was obvious due to the presence of 134Cs. However, 90Sr contamination was not confirmed in all samples although detectable amounts of 90Sr can be expected in Japanese soils, as a background, stemming from global fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Correlation analysis between 90Sr and 137Cs activity concentrations provides a potentially powerful tool to discriminate background 90Sr level from its Fukushima contribution.

  17. Concentration, composition and sources of PAHs in the coastal sediments of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of Qatar, Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Y S; Al Ansari, E M S; Wade, T L

    2014-08-30

    Surface sediments were collected from sixteen locations in order to assess levels and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Qatar exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Samples were analyzed for 16 parent PAHs, 18 alkyl homologs and for dibenzothiophenes. Total PAHs concentration (∑PAHs) ranged from 2.6 ng g(-1) to 1025 ng g(-1). The highest PAHs concentrations were in sediments in and adjacent to harbors. Alkylated PAHs predominated most of the sampling locations reaching up to 80% in offshore locations. Parent PAHs and parent high molecular weight PAHs dominated location adjacent to industrial activities and urban areas. The origin of PAHs sources to the sediments was elucidated using ternary plot, indices, and molecular ratios of specific compounds such as (Ant/Phe+Ant), (Flt/Flt+Pyr). PAHs inputs to most coastal sites consisted of mixture of petroleum and combustion derived sources. However, inputs to the offshore sediments were mainly of petroleum origin. PMID:24798421

  18. GLORIA sidescan-sonar imagery for parts of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskevich, Valerie F.; Wong, Florence L.; O'Malley, John J.; Stevenson, Andrew J.; Gutmacher, Christina E.

    2011-01-01

    In 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a Proclamation establishing the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the United States extending its territory 200 nautical miles from the coasts of the United States, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, and other U.S. territories and possessions. The charter of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) places the primary responsibility for mapping the territories of the United States within the USGS. Upon declaration of the EEZ, the territory of the United States was enlarged by more than 13 million square kilometers, all of which are under water. The USGS EEZ-SCAN program to systematically map the EEZ began in 1984 and continued through 1991. This digital publication contains all the GLORIA sidescan imagery of the deep-water (greater than 200 meters) portion of the EEZ mapped during those 8 years of data collection. For each EEZ area, we describe the data collection surveys and provide downloads of the GLORIA data and metadata.

  19. The taxation jurisdiction of the ISSQN in the exclusive economic zone; A competencia tributaria do ISSQN na zona economica exclusiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raposo, Rodrigo Luis Keller [Keller Raposo Escritorio Juridico, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The oil and natural gas exploitation in the Exclusive Economic Zone will propel the economy of the country, states and municipalities, due to tax revenues, jobs creation. It will also attract new businesses needed to support all the demand created by the main service and correlates. The Tax Service, under the municipal jurisdiction, is a major source of revenue. As the services are performed on the high seas and there is no law to regulate the territorial extent of each municipality, it can be argued that certain Artificial Island (oil platform, for example) is located within the extension of municipal sovereignty, which will allow the ISS taxation, problems will arise. This paper addresses these problems. (author)

  20. Basis for a valuation of the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone of the Baltic Sea: Rationale and quest for tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marcin Węsławski

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises current knowledge of goods and servicesin the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone of the Baltic Sea ecosystem.It reviews specific properties of the Baltic that could be usedfor economic valuation. Goods and services range from the familiarresources of fish and minerals, which were valued with the ProductivityMethod, to less obvious services provided by the ecosystem suchas biofiltration in coastal sands, valued with either the ReplacementCost or Damage Cost Avoided methods. Disservices to the marineecosystem are also considered, e.g. erosion and coastal flooding,including the costs of planned mitigating measures. This paperemphasises the importance of using valuation methods to helpmake better-educated decisions for the sustainability of theBaltic Sea.

  1. Chernobyl: a year after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity measurements in the year after the Chernobyl accident, carried out by the Radioprotection Division of the Joint Research Centre of Ispra, are reported. Air at ground level and in grass, milk, wheat, meat, fishes and man have been measured. The evaluation of the 1987 individual dose equivalent due to the exposure of the population living in N.W. Italy is compared with the dose equivalent absorbed in the year following the accident

  2. Some aspects of thyroid system status in persons exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid system status estimation held in post-accidental period dynamics among 7868 children evacuated from the 30-km Chernobyl zone and resident now in Slavutich city (Cs-137 contaminated area), among contaminated regions permanent residents, among native kievites and evacuated from 30-km zone. The thyroid pathology incidence dependence on residence place during Chernobyl Accident and after that was revealed. The immune-inflammatory thyroid disorders are characteristic for 30-km zone migrants, goitre different forms - for the radionuclides contaminated territories residents. No thyroid function abnormalities frequency confidential increase was registered during the research activities run. The total serum cholesterol level application unavailability is revealed in Chernobyl accident survivors thyroid hormones metabolic effects estimation. Data concerning Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) presented additionally. (author)

  3. The radioecological consequences of Chernobyl accident for fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimate of dynamics of radionuclides concentration in muscles of some game-fish from Kiev reservoir and likes in Bryansk region for period after Chernobyl accident was carried out. The concentration of 137Cs in fish has not exceeded the admissible concentration (600 Bq/kg ww) since 1993. The exceptions are the cooling-pond of Chernobyl NPP and Kozlanovskoe Lake where the concentration of 137Cs in fish's muscles exceeded the admissible level more than 5-6 times even in 1995. It was concluded that chronic irradiation of game-fish in water bodies outside 30-km zone would not affect the volume of fishing

  4. Chernobyl, 13 years after; Tchernobyl, 13 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regniault-Lacharme, Mireille; Metivier, Henri [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1999-04-01

    This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of

  5. Incidental catches of pelagic megafauna by the Dutch pelagic fleet in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone during the years 1999 - 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.; Zeeberg, J.J.; Haan, de D.; Couperus, A.S.; Mantingh, I.T.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents all registered catches of pelagic megafauna by the Dutch pelagic fleet in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone during the years 1999-2003. ‘By-catches’ incidentally include large species, notably cetaceans, sea turtles, sharks, rays, and some large pelagic fish such as swordf

  6. Catch composition of the Dutch pelagic fleet in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone during the year 2003: results of the scientific observer program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the total catches of the Dutch pelagic fleet in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone during the year 2003. Data have been obtained by the 'Scientific Observer Program', which monitors the catch (both landings and discards) of the Dutch fishery for small pelagics in Mauritani

  7. Assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and gas resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Weaver, Jean N.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 million barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and 244 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in the Puerto Rico–U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone.

  8. Analysis of external dose to the people living at the territory contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of international collaboration took place in 1996-1999 State Specialised Enterprise 'RADEC' (now it is SSSIE Ecocentre) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) measurements was performed of equivalent dose of people living at the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In 1997-1998, 273 people were chosen from 23 villages of the Chernobyl exclusion zone and each of them acquired three dosimeters Toshiba GD-400. The first dosimeter was assigned for the measurement of external individual dose, indoor dose inside dwellings and outdoor dose in yards. Exposition time varied from one to three months. Linear approximation of the obtained data gave possibility to find dependence of individual, home and outdoor doses on the surface density of 137Cs contamination of village territory. This coefficient for the individual dose was found about 0.7μSv.year-1 /(kBq.m-2) that is agreed with literature data. Also a constant contribution of the natural external exposure to the individual dose was found about 0.9 mSv.year-1 . Availability of results for three types of doses (i.e. individual, home and outdoor) let calculate two other useful coefficients, namely, the shielding factor and the behaviour factor. These factors were found equal 4.8 and 0.39, correspondingly. Studying of variation of the experimental data around the approximated values let assess statistics uncertainties of the measurements. Having applied the 99% percentile to the distribution of the ratio of the measured dose to the approximation the safety factor was found about 3. Also the external radiation long-term series provided by the automated system of monitoring of radiation situation (ASMRS) at the Chernobyl exclusion zone were analysed. That analysis revealed that the dose rate is leveled off during the last 6 years (taking into account radioactive decay). However, our finding is not compliant to other authors according to whom the rate of diminishing of the environmental external dose rate

  9. Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

  10. Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacronique, J.F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Deconinck, F.; Govaerts, P.; Eggermont, C. [SCK-CEN - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Cort, M. de [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, DG JRC EC (Italy); Joulia, J.P. [EuropeAid Co-operation Office, EC, Brussels (Belgium); Dal, A.H.; Balonov, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Kenigsberg, J. [Commission on Radiation protection, council of ministry (Belarus); Hindie, E. [Universites Paris, 75 (France); Havenaar, M. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

  11. Delimitation of the continental shelf and exclusive economic Zone the Sea Border between Romania and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Mereuţă

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision I.C.J. from The Hague, since 3rd February 2009, in the case of “Romania vs. Ukraine - the maritime delimitation in the Black Sea”, has an important role in bilateral relations and regional plans of the riparian states and thus also eliminating a potential factor of instability at the sea border between the two countries and in the Black Sea. Drawing a line of demarcation equitable maritime economic zone and continental shelf between the two countries was an example of dispute settlement in the wider Black Sea area. Snake Island was not considered relevant in substantiating the court decision, because the I.C.J. has not declared it a rock, giving it a length of 12 nautical miles territorial sea and has not ruled on the nature of this formation, in accordance with the provisions of art. 121 of the Montego Bay Convention of 1982.

  12. Biological valorisation of the southern Baltic Sea (Polish Exclusive Economic Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marcin Węsławski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A biological valuation system to assess the value associated with ecosystem stability and richness (and not that from the point of view of users is proposed to provide scientific decision support for marine protected areas and marine spatial planning. The system is based on the assessment of individual species and habitat/species assemblages. An extensive set of recently collected (2007-08 and archival (1970-2000 data on the occurrence of marine benthos was analysed for the Polish Marine Areas. Based on matching data sets of sediments, the euphotic zone, temperature and salinity, as well as fetch and sea current values, a GIS model was used to visualise the results; a map indicates the two areas which are considered to be biologically the most valuable (Puck Bay and the stony shallows of the central coast.

  13. The accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

  14. Chernobyl, fifteen years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has been constituted around four questions: the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor, and the sarcophagus around it; the health consequences of the accident on the persons that have worked on the damaged reactor and on the population in the countries the most exposed to fallout,; the situation of contaminated territories around the power plant and their management today; the last question concerns especially the France with the consequences of the radioactive cloud and what we know about the health risks induced by this event. (N.C.)

  15. Chernobyl' 94. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains materials of the 4th International Scientific and Technical Conference devoted to the results of 8-years work on Chernobyl accident consequences mitigation. Main results of research in radiation monitoring, applied radioecology, effect of radionuclides on biological objects in contaminated territories are presented. Information about waste management and medical consequences of the accident is given. Methodology and strategic of further research on radionuclides in environment and their influence on living organisms is determined. Large factual materials and its generalization may be usefull for scientists and practical workers in the field of radiation monitoring, radiology and medicine

  16. Chernobyl, an opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the circumstances of the Chernobyl accident, and given some indications of associated releases (iodine 131, caesium 134 and 137), the authors gives an overview of biological effects of radiations: generalities (doses, biological effects), results of epidemiological studies in terms of stochastic effects of radiations (for survivals of atomic explosions, in other epidemiological studies, in epidemiological studies related to thyroid), of relationship between dose and effect in the case of low doses (generalities, risk coefficients), and of extrapolation. In the next part, the authors discuss the health consequences of the accident in the former USSR and in the world: consequences noticed by the end of 2000 (non stochastic effects, stochastic effects like occurrence of thyroid cancers or of leukaemia, exposed populations, occurrence of other cancers), predictions of impacts and death on a long term due to stochastic effects (for thyroid cancers, leukaemia and other cancers), global assessment. Then, they discuss the impact of the Chernobyl accident: generalities, doses delivered to the whole body, thyroid cancers

  17. The international Chernobyl project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article summarizes the official report of the International Advisory Committee at the conference of the International Chernobyl Project held in Vienna, May 1991. More details will be found in the actual report, ''The International Chernobyl Project: An Overview'' (INI22:066284/5). Measurements and assessments carried out under the project provided general corroboration of the levels of surface cesium-137 contamination reported in the official maps. The project also concluded that the official procedures for estimating radiation doses to the population were scientifically sound, although they generally resulted in overestimates of two- to threefold. The project could find no marked increase in the incidence of leukemia or cancer, but reported absorbed thyroid doses in children might lead to a statistically detectable rise in the incidence of thyroid tumors. Significant non-radiation-related health disorders were found, and the accident had substantial psychological consequences in terms of anxiety and stress. The project concluded that the protective measures taken were too extreme, and that population relocation and foodstuff restrictions should have been less extensive

  18. Strontium-90 activity concentration in soil samples from the exclusion zone of the Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Kavasi, Norbert; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Tokonami, Shinji; Mietelski, Jerzy Wojciech; Łokas, Edyta; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The radioactive fission product (90)Sr has a long biological half-life (˜18 y) in the human body. Due to its chemical similarity to calcium it accumulates in bones and irradiates the bone marrow, causing its high radio-toxicity. Assessing (90)Sr is therefore extremely important in case of a nuclear disaster. In this work 16 soil samples were collected from the exclusion zone (nuclear power plant, to measure (90)Sr activity concentration using liquid scintillation counting. (137)Cs activity concentration was also measured with gamma-spectroscopy in order to investigate correlation with (90)Sr. The (90)Sr activity concentrations ranged from 3.0 ± 0.3 to 23.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg(-1) while the (137)Cs from 0.7 ± 0.1 to 110.8 ± 0.3 kBq kg(-1). The fact that radioactive contamination originated from the Fukushima nuclear accident was obvious due to the presence of (134)Cs. However, (90)Sr contamination was not confirmed in all samples although detectable amounts of (90)Sr can be expected in Japanese soils, as a background, stemming from global fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Correlation analysis between (90)Sr and (137)Cs activity concentrations provides a potentially powerful tool to discriminate background (90)Sr level from its Fukushima contribution.

  19. Strontium-90 activity concentration in soil samples from the exclusion zone of the Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Kavasi, Norbert; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Tokonami, Shinji; Mietelski, Jerzy Wojciech; Łokas, Edyta; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The radioactive fission product 90Sr has a long biological half-life (˜18 y) in the human body. Due to its chemical similarity to calcium it accumulates in bones and irradiates the bone marrow, causing its high radio-toxicity. Assessing 90Sr is therefore extremely important in case of a nuclear disaster. In this work 16 soil samples were collected from the exclusion zone (Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, to measure 90Sr activity concentration using liquid scintillation counting. 137Cs activity concentration was also measured with gamma-spectroscopy in order to investigate correlation with 90Sr. The 90Sr activity concentrations ranged from 3.0 ± 0.3 to 23.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg-1 while the 137Cs from 0.7 ± 0.1 to 110.8 ± 0.3 kBq kg-1. The fact that radioactive contamination originated from the Fukushima nuclear accident was obvious due to the presence of 134Cs. However, 90Sr contamination was not confirmed in all samples although detectable amounts of 90Sr can be expected in Japanese soils, as a background, stemming from global fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Correlation analysis between 90Sr and 137Cs activity concentrations provides a potentially powerful tool to discriminate background 90Sr level from its Fukushima contribution.

  20. Age, maturation, and population structure of the Humboldt squid Dosidicus gigas off the Peruvian Exclusive Economic Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bilin; Chen, Xinjun; Chen, Yong; Tian, Siquan; Li, Jianhua; Fang, Zhou; Yang, Mingxia

    2013-01-01

    Age, maturation and population structure of the Humboldt squid Dosidicus gigas were studied based on random sampling of the Chinese jigging fishery off the Peruvian Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) during 2008-2010. Estimated ages ranged from 144 to 633 days, confirming that the squid is a short-lived species with longevity no longer than 2 years. Occurrence of mature females and hatching in each month indicated that Humboldt squid spawned year-round. Back-calculated hatching dates for the samples were from January 22nd, 2008 to April 22nd, 2010 with a peak between January and March. Two size-based and two hatching date-based populations could be defined from mantle length (ML) at maturity and back-calculated hatching dates, respectively. Females matured at a larger size than males, and there was a significant difference in ML at maturity between the two hatching groups ( P <0.05). The waters adjacent to 11°S off the Peruvian EEZ may be a potential spawning ground. This study shows the complexity of the population structure and large variability in key life history parameters in the Humboldt squid off the Peruvian EEZ, which should be considered in the assessment and management of this important resource.

  1. Using decision trees to predict benthic communities within and near the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Roland; Pehlke, Hendrik; Jerosch, Kerstin; Schröder, Winfried; Schlüter, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In this article a concept is described in order to predict and map the occurrence of benthic communities within and near the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea. The approach consists of two work steps: (1) geostatistical analysis of abiotic measurement data and (2) calculation of benthic provinces by means of Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and GIS-techniques. From bottom water measurements on salinity, temperature, silicate and nutrients as well as from punctual data on grain size ranges (0-20, 20-63, 63-2,000 mu) raster maps were calculated by use of geostatistical methods. At first the autocorrelation structure was examined and modelled with help of variogram analysis. The resulting variogram models were then used to calculate raster maps by applying ordinary kriging procedures. After intersecting these raster maps with punctual data on eight benthic communities a decision tree was derived to predict the occurrence of these communities within the study area. Since such a CART tree corresponds to a hierarchically ordered set of decision rules it was applied to the geostatistically estimated raster data to predict benthic habitats within and near the EEZ. PMID:17680336

  2. Age, maturation, and population structure of the Humboldt squid Dosidicus gigas off the Peruvian Exclusive Economic Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bilin; CHEN Xinjun; CHEN Yong; TIAN Siquan; LI Jianhua; FANG Zhou; YANG Mingxia

    2013-01-01

    Age,maturation and population structure of the Humboldt squid Dosidicus gigas were studied based on random sampling of the Chinese jigging fishery off the Peruvian Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) during 2008-2010.Estimated ages ranged from 144 to 633 days,confirming that the squid is a short-lived species with longevity no longer than 2 years.Occurrence of mature females and hatching in each month indicated that Humboldt squid spawned year-round.Back-calculated hatching dates for the samples were from January 22nd,2008 to April 22nd,2010 with a peak between January and March.Two size-based and two hatching date-based populations could be defined from mantle length (ML) at maturity and back-calculated hatching dates,respectively.Females matured at a larger size than males,and there was a significant difference in ML at maturity between the two hatching groups (P<0.05).The waters adjacent to 11°S off the Peruvian EEZ may be a potential spawning ground.This study shows the complexity of the population structure and large variability in key life history parameters in the Humboldt squid off the Peruvian EEZ,which should be considered in the assessment and management of this important resource.

  3. The Case for Tetrahedral Oxy-subhydride (TOSH Structures in the Exclusion Zones of Anchored Polar Solvents Including Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Oehr

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize a mechanistic model of how negatively-charged exclusion zones (EZs are created. While the growth of EZs is known to be associated with the absorption of ambient photonic energy, the molecular dynamics giving rise to this process need greater elucidation. We believe they arise due to the formation of oxy-subhydride structures (OH−(H2O4 with a tetrahedral (sp3 (OH−(H2O3 core. Five experimental data sets derived by previous researchers were assessed in this regard: (1 water-derived EZ light absorbance at specific infrared wavelengths, (2 EZ negative potential in water and ethanol, (3 maximum EZ light absorbance at 270 nm ultraviolet wavelength, (4 ability of dimethyl sulphoxide but not ether to form an EZ, and (5 transitory nature of melting ice derived EZs. The proposed tetrahedral oxy-subhydride structures (TOSH appear to adequately account for all of the experimental evidence derived from water or other polar solvents.

  4. Inhalation of radionuclides during agricultural work in areas contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide concentrations have been determined inside and outside the cabs of tractors operated on soils that are typical of the 30 km exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. It was found that when the total plutonium deposit exceeded 3.7 kBq m-2 and the 137Cs deposit exceeded 7.4 MBq m-2, the levels of these radionuclides in the operator's cabin could exceed the maximum permissible air concentrations. However, due to the seasonal nature of work, the quantities of these radionuclides inhaled would not exceed the annual limit on intake. Dose to the lungs caused by the inhalation of hot particles has been addressed by either including or neglecting spatial dose distribution. The levels of risk of carcinogenic changes in cells of lung tissue calculated according to each of the two approaches have been shown to be of the same order of magnitude. (author)

  5. Chernobyl. Answers to your questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, this document takes stock on the existing information and enhance the elements which can be set with certainty. The accident is recalled and the environmental and biological effects are presented. (A.L.B.)

  6. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  7. Environmental radioactivity from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broadly based programme of environmental measurements following the Chernobyl accident is summarised and discussed. Levels of radionuclides in air and atmospheric deposition were increased substantially for a period of some weeks following the accident. The quantity of 137Cs in surface soils was doubled in some regions of the North and West of the UK. Observations of the rates of deposition and resuspension, and weathering from grass, a river catchment and buildings, provided confirmation of several aspects of the environmental behaviour of 137Cs, and extended understanding of these processes. Levels of 137Cs in imported crops and in individuals in S. England, and the brief increase in external radiation, were generally low, confirming that the dose to the regional population was small. (author)

  8. Post-processing activities after Chernobyl accident in Ukraine and lesson learned to the response Fukushima Dai-ichi accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the accident of Chernobyl NPP no.4 1986, various activities including the construction of the shelter, prevention of the release of radioactive dust and liquid from the shelter, monitoring the condition of the damaged core, and disposal of radioactive waste have been implemented in the Chernobyl site for mitigating the nuclear and radioactive risks of damaged nuclear facilities, and the reducing radiation dose of working personnel. The construction of new shelter started for the decommissioning of the damaged unit no.4. facility. For reducing the radiation dose to the inhabitants from the contaminated land and feedstuff, the countermeasures including the set of the exclusive zone and permissible level of radionuclide in the foodstuff have been conducted for the countrywide. These activities include many valuable information about how to recover the condition of the site and maintain the social activities after the severe accident of NPP, and it would be important to learn the above activities in conducting the post-processing activities on the Fukushima-Daiichi accident successfully. (author)

  9. Differences and similarities between behavior of Fukushima-derived and Chernobyl-derived radiocesium in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoplev, Alexei; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi; Golosov, Valentin; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Takase, Tsugiko; Yoschenko, Vasyl; Zheleznyak, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The mobility and bioavailability of radiocesium (r-Cs) of accidental origin is governed by the ratio of its chemical forms in fallout and site-specific environmental characteristics determining the rates of leaching, fixation-remobilization, as well as sorption-desorption of the mobile fraction (its solid-liquid distribution). R-Cs in the environment is strongly bound to soil and sediment particles containing micaceous clay minerals (illite, vermiculite, etc.). This is associated with two basic processes - high selective reversible sorption and fixation. Climate and geographical conditions for Fukushima Prefecture of Japan and Chernobyl zone differ. For example, the catchments of the Chernobyl zone are flat and characterized by low slopes, while Fukushima's watersheds are hilly with steep slopes. Annual precipitation also differs substantially, with annual average for Fukushima about 3 times higher than at Chernobyl. The soils on the north-east coast of the Honshu island that were primarily affected by the radioactive contamination from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident differ significantly from the Chernobyl zone soils. The proportion of clays such as illite, vermiculite etc. is 20-30% at Fukushima, which is higher than in the sandy loam soils of the Chernobyl zone. In addition to the landscape differences, the speciation of r-Cs in fallout was also different between Fukushima and Chernobyl. It is a challenge to compare r-Cs behavior in FDNPP and Chernobyl zones. Comparative analysis has been carried out for r-Cs wash-off parameters and the distribution coefficient Kd in rivers and surface runoff on Fukushima and Chernobyl contaminated areas for the first years after the accidents. The r-Cs distribution coefficient in Fukushima rivers was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than correspondent values for rivers and surface runoff of the Chernobyl zone. This suggests higher ability of Fukushima soils and sediments to bind r-Cs. The normalized

  10. Pseuchoneurotic disorders associated with the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This survey relied largely on random selection. As a rule, the attention of the specialists was directed to people with certain specific complaints. Psychogenic disorders observed in the area of the accident at the Chernobyl plant were followed and studied by a team of specialists from the USSR Ministry of Health, beginning on 29 April 1986. According to the nature of the observed stress effects and of the resultant psychic disorders, it was possible to delineate three periods: first the acute period of the disaster from the time of the accident, lasting about 10 days until completion of the evacuation of the population from the danger zone (5 May); second the intermediate delayed period, the period of comparatively early consequences (from 6 May to October 1986); and third, the period of remote consequences. In the course of the year, 1,572 people were examined. The data available indicate that the psychogenic disorders observed after the Chernobyl accident can be regarded as the consequence of a single process, the dynamics of which are determined on the one hand by the characteristics of the emergency situation and on the other by the traits and the degree of preparedness of the people involved. The special nature of the stress situation in all three periods - the threat to health - gave rise to certain characteristic clinical observations, primarily a high degree of somatization and hypochondria. An understanding of the psychological disorders affecting those who lived through the Chernobyl accident, and of their effects on the work capability and pattern of life of people at various stages after the accident, has made it possible to develop and implement a complex and refined system of prophylactic and medical measures. (author)

  11. Risk of thyroid cancer among Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: While the increased risk of thyroid cancer is well demonstrated in people exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated areas around the Chernobyl power plant, following the accident which took place on 26 April 1986, the effect of exposure on adults remains unclear. A collaborative case-control study of thyroid cancer was set-up, nested within cohorts of Belarus, Russian and Baltic countries liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, to evaluate the radiation-induced risk of this disease among liquidators, and to assess the roles of screening and of radiation exposures in the observed increased thyroid cancer incidence among liquidators. The study population consisted of the cohorts of approximately 66,000 Belarus, 65,000 Russian and 15,000 Baltic countries liquidators who took part in the clean-up activities on the reactor site and in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 1987. The liquidators were mainly exposed to external radiation, although substantial dose to the thyroid from iodine isotopes may have been received by liquidators who worked in May-June 1986 and by those who resided in the most contaminated territories of Belarus. Information was collected on study subjects by use of a standardized questionnaire that was administrated during a face-to-face interview with the study subject and/or a proxy (a relative or a colleague). The interview included questions on demographic factors, time, place and conditions of work as a liquidator and on potential risk and confounding factors for thyroid cancer. A method of analytical dose reconstruction, entitled RADRUE (Realistic Analytical Dose Reconstruction with Uncertainty Estimation) was developed within the study and applied to estimate individual doses to the thyroid from external radiation and related uncertainties for each subject. Approaches to derive individual thyroid dose estimates from inhaled and

  12. Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we present the design review done to date in Canada by AECL. From the Canadian point of view it covers: 1) relevant information on the Chernobyl design and the accident, both as presented by the Soviets at the Post-Accident Review Meeting (PARM) held in Vienna from August 25-29, 1986, and as deduced from publicly available Soviet documentation; and 2) details of AECL's technical review of the CANDU PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) against the background of the Chernobyl accident, and implications of the Chernobyl accident. Reviews of operational aspects are underway by the Canadian electrical utilities and a review by the Canadian regulatory agency (the Atomic Energy Control Board) is near completion

  13. Post-Chernobyl emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the result of a study ordered by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the National Swedish Institute of Radiation Protection to evaluate the measurements taken in Sweden in response to the Chernobyl accident. The enquiry was also given the task of suggesting improvements of the nuclear accidents emergency planning and other activities relevant to nuclear accidents. Detailed accounts are given of the course of events in Sweden at the Chernobyl accident and the steps taken by central or local authorities are discussed. Several alterations of the emergency planning are proposed and a better coordination of the affected organizations is suggested. (L.E.)

  14. The Chernobyl accident ten years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986 at 1:23 AM a fire and explosion occurred at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Complex, located in the Ukraine, that resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and most of the building in which it was housed. Several environmental impacts resulting from the accident will be discussed in this paper, which will include the effects on plant and wild life, radioactive waste generated and stored or disposed of, effects of evacuations relating to residents within the subsequently established 10km and 30km control zones, impacts of the emergency containment structure (sarcophagus), and potential effects on world opinion and future development of nuclear power. As an immediate result of the fire, 31 people died (2 from the fire ampersand smoke, and 29 from excessive radiation); 237 cases of acute radiation sickness occurred; the total fatalities based upon induced chronic diseases as a result of the accident is unknown: more than 100,000 people were evacuated from within the subsequently established 30 km control zone; in excess of 50 million curies of radionuclides that included finely dispersed nuclear fuel, fragments of graphite, concrete and other building materials were released from the reactor into the environment; an estimated one million cubic meters of radioactive waste were generated (LLW, ILW, HLW); more than 5000 tons of materials (sand, boron, dolomite, cement, and lead) were used to put the fire out by helicopter; shutdown of the adjacent power plants were performed; and other environmental impacts occurred. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit No 4 is an RBMK-1000. It initiated operations in 1983, it was a 1000 MWe with a power output of 3200 MW(th), the reactor core contained 190 MT of fuel, with 1659 assemblies (plus 211 control rods), the average burnup rate was 10.3 MWd/kg, and the reactor operated on a continuous basis with maintenance and fuel reload performed during operations

  15. Environmental problems associated with decommissioning the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, B Ya; Bondarkov, M D; Gaschak, S P; Maksymenko, A M; Maksymenko, V M; Martynenko, V I; Farfán, E B; Jannik, G T; Marra, J C

    2010-11-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities associated with residual radioactive contamination of their territories is an imperative issue. Significant problems may result from decommissioning of cooling ponds with residual radioactive contamination. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond is one of the largest self-contained water reservoirs in the Chernobyl region and Ukrainian and Belorussian Polesye region. The 1986 ChNPP Reactor Unit Number Four significantly contaminated the ChNPP Cooling Pond. The total radionuclide inventory in the ChNPP Cooling Pond bottom deposits are as follows: ¹³⁷Cs: 16.28 ± 2.59 TBq; ⁹⁰Sr: 2.4 ± 0.48 TBq; and ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu: 0.00518 ± 0.00148 TBq. The ChNPP Cooling Pond is inhabited by over 500 algae species and subspecies, over 200 invertebrate species, and 36 fish species. The total mass of the living organisms in the ChNPP Cooling Pond is estimated to range from about 60,000 to 100,000 tons. The territory adjacent to the ChNPP Cooling Pond attracts many birds and mammals (178 bird species and 47 mammal species were recorded in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone). This article describes several options for the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning and environmental problems associated with its decommissioning. The article also provides assessments of the existing and potential exposure doses for the shoreline biota. For the 2008 conditions, the estimated total dose rate values were 11.4 40 μGy h⁻¹ for amphibians, 6.3 μGy h⁻¹ for birds, 15.1 μGy h⁻¹ for mammals, and 10.3 μGy h⁻¹ for reptiles, with the recommended maximum dose rate being equal to 40 μGy h⁻¹. However, drying the ChNPP Cooling Pond may increase the exposure doses to 94.5 μGy h⁻¹ for amphibians, 95.2 μGy h⁻¹ for birds, 284.0 μGy h⁻¹ for mammals, and 847.0 μGy h⁻¹ for reptiles. All of these anticipated dose rates exceed the recommended values. PMID:20938234

  16. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  17. 我国专属经济区刑事管辖权研究%Study on the Criminal Jurisdiction over Exclusive Economic Zone of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辰远

    2013-01-01

    People can see the defects in terms of the legislation and law en-forcement in the criminal jurisdiction over exclusive economic zone (hereafter referred to EEZ) of China from the event that “Chinese fisherman attacks on the South Korea coast guard”. Therefore, it’s necessary to improve the crimi-nal jurisdiction enforcement of China in EEZ. On the one hand, it is good to strike the offense to the law of sea of China in EEZ; on the other hand, it can provide legal basis to the future delimitation of China EEZ.

  18. Information density of hemato-immune system parameters for integral estimate of insulating properties of protection equipment for upper respiratory tract of exclusion zone workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possibility of integral estimation of insulating properties of protection equipment (based on Petryanov cloth) for upper respiratory tract in conditions of its application in 30-km Exclusion Zone ('Ukryttia' Object and State Specialized Plant 'Complex') through hemato-immune system parameters are discussed. As a result of researches, the attributes of adaptive potential decrease,especially for the workers of Ukrytie Activity Suppression Shop and SSP Complex' Equipment and Vehicles Decontamination Department, are detected. They indicate to a high risk of radionuclide inhalations,throw discredit upon sufficient reliability of protective properties of applicable respirators,and enforce checking the correctness of this conclusion for adequate model systems

  19. Miners take stock after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia's uranium producers, already facing a tough market have been plunged further into the unknown following the accident at Chernobyl. The production of uranium in Australia is reviewed with emphasis on the three uranium miners -Queensland Mines, Energy Resources of Australia and Western Mining Corporation

  20. Chernobyl its effect on Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the results of the measurements made during the first six months after the Chernobyl accident to determine the extent of the resultant environmental contamination. Estimates are presented of the individual and collective doses received by the public during the first six months and the first year after the accident

  1. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

  2. Distribution and abundance of carangidae (Teleostei, Perciformes associated with oceanographic factors along the northeast brazilian exclusive economic zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Sampaio de Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the distribution and abundance of the Carangidae larvae and to analyze the influence of the hydrological (temperature and salinity and biological factors (phytoplanktonic biomass and zooplanktonic biomass, on the space and temporal distribution of the larvae. Ichthyoplankton was collected during four expeditions from the Northeast Exclusive Economic Zone. Six species (Trachurus lathami, Decapterus punctatus, Chloroscombrus chrysurus, Selene setapinnis, Selene vomer and Elagatis bipinnulata and Caranx- Carangoides complex were identified. D. punctatus was the species most abundant (52% of the total, with higher abundance during the Period 3, while the Period 2 was the period of low abundance. C. chrysurus was the second species in abundance representing 30% of the total of carangid. This species had higher abundance during the Period 2 and the Period 1. However, in Period 3 abundance were lesser. The third species in abundance was T. lathami that corresponded 8% of the total of carangid larvae. S. setapinnis, S. vomer and E. bipinnulata were the species less abundant, representing together 2% of the total identified larvae. The larvae of Caranx- Carangoides complex represented 9% of the carangid total.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a distribuição e abundância das larvas de Carangidae, foi analisada também a influência de fatores hidrológicos (temperatura e salinidade e biológicos (biomassa fitoplanctônica e biomassa zooplanctônica, sobre a distribuição espacial e temporal dessas larvas. O ictioplâncton foi coletado durante quatro expedições: Período 1 (Agosto Outubro 1995, Período 2 (Janeiro Abril 1997, Período 3 (Abril Julho 1998 e Período 4 (Setembro Dezembro 2000, realizadas na Zona Econômica Exclusiva do nordeste. Em um total de 313 larvas foram identificadas 6 espécies (Trachurus lathami, Decapterus punctatus, Chloroscombrus chrysurus, Selene setapinnis, Selene vomer e

  3. Health consequences of Chernobyl. 25 years after the reactor catastrophy; Gesundheitliche Folgen von Tschernobyl. 25 Jahre nach der Reaktorkatastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflugbeil, Sebastian; Schmitz-Feuerhake, Inge [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenschutz e.V., Berlin (Germany); Paulitz, Henrik; Claussen, Angelika [Internationale Aerzte fuer die Verhuetung des Atomkrieges, Aerzte in sozialer Verantwortung e.V. (IPPNW), Berlin (Germany). Deutsche Sektion

    2011-04-15

    The report is an evaluation of studies indicating health effects as a consequence of the reactor catastrophe in Chernobyl. The most exposed population include the cleaning personnel (liquidators), the population evacuated from the 30 km zone, the populations in highly contaminated regions in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, the European population in lass contaminated regions. The following issues are discussed: the liquidators, infant mortality, genetic and teratogenic damages, thyroid carcinoma and other thyroid diseases, carcinogenic diseases and leukemia, other diseases following the Chernobyl catastrophe.

  4. Studies of Cancer Risk among Chernobyl liquidators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesminiene, A.; Cardis, E.; Tenet, V.; Chekin, S.; Ivanov, V. K.; Kurtinaitis, J.; Malakhova, I.; Polyakov, S.; Stengrevics, A.; Tekkel, M.

    2004-07-01

    Two cae-control studies among Chernobyl liquidators- one of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), the other of thyroid cancer risk were carried out in Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia. These studies were coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The specific objective of these studies was to estimate the radiation induced risk of these diseases among liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, and, in particular, to study the effect of exposure protraction and radiation type on the risk of radiation induced cancer in the low to medium (0-500 mSv) radiation dose range. The study population consisted of the approximately 15.000 Baltic countries, 66 000 Balarus and 65 000 Russian liquidators who worked in the 30 km zone in 1986-1987, and who were registered in the Chernobyl registry of these countries. The studies included cases diagnosed in 1993-1998 for all countries but Belarus, where the study period was extended until 2000. for controls were selected in each country from the national cohort for each case, mateched on age, gender and region of residence. Information on study subjects was obtained through face-to-face interview using a standardised questionnaire with questions on demographic factors, time place and conditions of work as a liquidator and potential risk and confoundinf factors for the tumours of interest. Ocerall 126 cases of leukaemia and NHL, 119 cases of thyroid cancer and 1060 controls were interviewed. Individual estimates of kerma in air and of dose to the bone marrow and related uncertainties were derived for each subject in the leukaemia and NHL study, using a method of analytical dose reconstruction developed whiting the study. Estimates of individual doses to the thyroid from external exposures, I-131 and long-lived isotopes were derived for all subjects in the thyroid case-control study. Dose-response analyses have been carried out. Resulting risk estimates will be presented and compared to risk estimates

  5. Studies of Cancer Risk among Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cae-control studies among Chernobyl liquidators- one of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), the other of thyroid cancer risk were carried out in Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia. These studies were coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The specific objective of these studies was to estimate the radiation induced risk of these diseases among liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, and, in particular, to study the effect of exposure protraction and radiation type on the risk of radiation induced cancer in the low to medium (0-500 mSv) radiation dose range. The study population consisted of the approximately 15.000 Baltic countries, 66 000 Balarus and 65 000 Russian liquidators who worked in the 30 km zone in 1986-1987, and who were registered in the Chernobyl registry of these countries. The studies included cases diagnosed in 1993-1998 for all countries but Belarus, where the study period was extended until 2000. for controls were selected in each country from the national cohort for each case, mateched on age, gender and region of residence. Information on study subjects was obtained through face-to-face interview using a standardised questionnaire with questions on demographic factors, time place and conditions of work as a liquidator and potential risk and confoundinf factors for the tumours of interest. Ocerall 126 cases of leukaemia and NHL, 119 cases of thyroid cancer and 1060 controls were interviewed. Individual estimates of kerma in air and of dose to the bone marrow and related uncertainties were derived for each subject in the leukaemia and NHL study, using a method of analytical dose reconstruction developed whiting the study. Estimates of individual doses to the thyroid from external exposures, I-131 and long-lived isotopes were derived for all subjects in the thyroid case-control study. Dose-response analyses have been carried out. Resulting risk estimates will be presented and compared to risk estimates

  6. Chernobyl, 14 years later; Tchernobyl, 14 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) International cooperation, (7) More information about Chernobyl and (8) Glossary.

  7. 76 FR 52147 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment 88

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... combination of CQ and limited access fishing that were based on a combination of cooperative contract... published in the Federal Register on July 28, 2011 (76 FR 45217) with comments invited through September 26... exercise their exclusive harvest privileges when they join a rockfish cooperative. The Rockfish...

  8. Chernobyl victims: realistic evaluation of medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective assessment of early and delayed medical consequence of the Chernobyl accident is presented. Mortality of people due to acute radiation disease, burns and mechanical injuries are attributed to the early effects. Oncological and genetic diseases are considered as the delayed effects. Delayed radiation effects on the residents of contaminated territories were estimated by epidemiologic examination taking into account the dose due to radioactive fallout. Certain regions of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine were mostly exposed to contamination. Contamination density by 137Cs is considered and radiation doses due to natural sources and Chernobyl accident are compared. Disease incidence is analysed for carcinoma and genetic diseases. Health hazard caused by non-radiation accidental factors (psychological stress, victim psychology thrusting, groundless evacuation) is assessed

  9. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubina, Nataliia E.; Zarubin, Oleg L. [Institute for Nuclear Research of National Academy of Sciense, 03680, pr-t Nauki, 47, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident ({sup 131}I, {sup 140}Ba /{sup 140}La, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs). They accumulate the long-living {sup 90}Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than {sup 137}Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of {sup 137}Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more {sup 137}Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of {sup 137}Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination

  10. The zone of alienation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years after the nuclear disaster, people still live and die in Chernobyl. Thousands of people continue to live and work there. Roughly 500 have moved back into their old homes inside the alienation zone. Fewer than half still alive. Medical researchers in the area insist that immune systems are weakened by doses of radiation far lower than previously thought. However, an European Union sponsored study concluded that Chernobyl's toll has been exaggerated. Thus, while 760 children in the contaminated area have developed thyroid cancer, only three have died as a result. Yet in and around Chernobyl, people carry on their lives and the Ukrainian Government says it can't afford to close the plant without billions of dollars in Western aid. ills

  11. Monstrosities - an outcome of Chernobyl?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the western parts of Turkey, which have been particularly hard hidden by the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident, an extremely high number of malformations in newborns have been recorded. There is reason to attribute this to the high radioactivity level measured in this region after the accident. But most radiation experts refuse to accept any connection between the miscarriages or malformation and the reactor accident. (orig./HP)

  12. Chernobyl reactor transient simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the Chernobyl nuclear power station transient simulation study. The Chernobyl (RBMK) reactor is a graphite moderated pressure tube type reactor. It is cooled by circulating light water that boils in the upper parts of vertical pressure tubes to produce steam. At equilibrium fuel irradiation, the RBMK reactor has a positive void reactivity coefficient. However, the fuel temperature coefficient is negative and the net effect of a power change depends upon the power level. Under normal operating conditions the net effect (power coefficient) is negative at full power and becomes positive under certain transient conditions. A series of dynamic performance transient analysis for RBMK reactor, pressurized water reactor (PWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) have been performed using digital simulator codes, the purpose of this transient study is to show that an accident of Chernobyl's severity does not occur in PWR or FBR nuclear power reactors. This appears from the study of the inherent, stability of RBMK, PWR and FBR under certain transient conditions. This inherent stability is related to the effect of the feed back reactivity. The power distribution stability in the graphite RBMK reactor is difficult to maintain throughout its entire life, so the reactor has an inherent instability. PWR has larger negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, therefore, the PWR by itself has a large amount of natural stability, so PWR is inherently safe. FBR has positive sodium expansion coefficient, therefore it has insufficient stability it has been concluded that PWR has safe operation than FBR and RBMK reactors

  13. Strontium and caesium transport in unsaturated soil from Chernobyl Pilot Site under steady flow conditions; Transfert de radioelements en zone non saturee. Etude experimentale et modelisation appliquees au Site Pilote de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szenknect, St

    2003-10-15

    This work is devoted to the quantification and the identification of the predominant processes involved in strontium and caesium transport in unsaturated soil from Chernobyl Pilot Site under steady flow conditions. The transport and fate of radionuclides in the subsurface is affected by various physical and chemical processes including advective and diffusive transport as well as chemical and biological transformations. Laboratory experiments and the use of a multiple tracer approach allow to isolate the contributions of each elementary process and to control the physico-chemical conditions in the system. To be more representative of the field conditions, we decided to perform column miscible displacement experiments. We perform batch and flow-through reactor experiments to characterize the radionuclides sorption mechanisms. Miscible displacement experiments within homogeneous columns and modeling allow to characterize the hydrodynamic properties of the soil and to describe the radionuclides behaviour under dynamic conditions at different water contents. We show that the water content of porous media affect the transport behaviour of inert and strongly sorbing radionuclides. Our results demonstrate that a parametrized transport model that was calibrated under completely saturated conditions was not able to describe the advective-dispersive transport of reactive solutes under unsaturated steady state conditions. Under our experimental conditions, there is no effect of a decrease of the mean water content on the sorption model parameters, but the transport parameters are modified. We established for the studied soil the relation between hydrodynamic dispersion and water content and the relation between pore water velocity and water content. (author)

  14. 76 FR 3044 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sculpins, Sharks, Squid, and Octopus in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sculpins, Sharks, Squid, and Octopus in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National... octopus in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011...

  15. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... of the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and an apportionment from the non-specified reserve of groundfish (76 FR 17360, March 29, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(2), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine...

  16. 75 FR 81921 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... published in the Federal Register on December 13, 2010 (75 FR 77535), to implement Steller sea lion... corrections revise coordinates for Steller sea lion sites, revise footnotes, add degree symbols, add lines... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  17. 78 FR 24362 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... the final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  18. 78 FR 76245 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013). In accordance... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... for Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management...

  19. 76 FR 71269 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011). The harvest specification for the 2011 Greenland turbot... 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011). In... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  20. 78 FR 54591 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... under Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on May 1, 2013 (78 FR 24361, April 25, 2013). NMFS has determined that as... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...

  1. 78 FR 24361 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013). In accordance... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... for Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management...

  2. 75 FR 38940 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  3. 75 FR 38430 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (75 FR 11788, March 12, 2010). In... specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11788, March 12, 2010). The harvest specification for the 2010... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea of the Bering Sea and...

  4. 75 FR 61639 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Skate Management in the Groundfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... considered decision. The action should be disapproved in favor of the status quo. Response: This action must... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Skate Management in the Groundfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Groundfish Annual Catch Limits for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area and...

  5. 77 FR 59852 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... at final action and that the policy change would destabilize status quo management of groundfish... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Amendment 97 ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NMFS publishes regulations to implement Amendment 97 to the Fishery Management Plan...

  6. 78 FR 63951 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Amendment 99 AGENCY: National... to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area... older vessels with newer and more efficient vessels that are able to meet modern vessel safety...

  7. 76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... sharks in the BSAI has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t.), September...

  8. 76 FR 53840 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Other Rockfish, Other Flatfish, Sharks, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Other Rockfish, Other Flatfish, Sharks, and Skates in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... rockfish, other flatfish, sharks, and skates in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI... Aleutian Islands (AI) other rockfish, BSAI other flatfish, BSAI sharks, and BSAI skates was established...

  9. 78 FR 57097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... sharks in the BSAI has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t.), September...

  10. 76 FR 2027 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... INFORMATION: An interim final rule was published in the Federal Register on December 13, 2010 (75 FR 77535... regulatory tables was published in the Federal Register on December 29, 2010 (75 FR 53272). The public... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  11. 78 FR 69591 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Halibut and Crab Prohibited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013) are revised as follows in Tables 10, 12, and 14: Table 10--Final 2013... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Halibut and Crab Prohibited Species Catch Allowances in the.... SUMMARY: NMFS is reallocating the projected unused amounts of the 2013 halibut and crab prohibited...

  12. 76 FR 17088 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR 10174), and are located at 50 CFR part 680. Regulations implementing the... 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications (75 FR 76352, December 8, 2010), NMFS will publish the final... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY:...

  13. 75 FR 7205 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... final rule implementing the Crab Rationalization Program (Program) was published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR... fishery would be caused in the time it would take to follow standard rulemaking procedures (62 FR 44421... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Emergency...

  14. 78 FR 17341 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... regulations implementing the Crab Rationalization Program (CR Program) in 2005 (70 FR 10174, March 2, 2005... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY: National... to the Fishery Management Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP)....

  15. 76 FR 49423 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... the arbitration system is found in the preambles to the proposed rule (September 1, 2004; 69 FR 53397) and final rule (March 2, 2005; 70 FR 10174) that implemented the CR Program, as well as in the final... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY:...

  16. 78 FR 18896 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 feet (18.3 meters) Length Overall... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters (m)) length overall (LOA... cod for catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 m) LOA using jig or hook-and-line gear in the...

  17. Patterns of cetacean sighting distribution in the Pacific exclusive economic zone of Costa Rica based on data collected from 1979-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Collado, Laura; Gerrodette, Tim; Calambokidis, John; Rasmussen, Kristin; Sereg, Irena

    2005-01-01

    Nineteen species of cetaceans (families Balaenopteridae, Kogiidae, Physeteridae, Ziphiidae and Delphinidae) occur in the Costa Rican Pacific Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Based on data recorded from the EEZ by the Southwest Fisheries Service Center, Cascadia Research Collective, and CIMAR between 1979-2001, we mapped the distribution of 18 cetacean species. Our results suggest that the majority of the cetacean species use primarily oceanic waters, particularly those species within the families Balaenopteridae, Kogiidae. Physeteridae and Ziphiidae. Members of the family Delphinidae showed a wide variety of distribution patterns: seven species are widespread throughout the EEZ, four appear to be exclusively pelagic, and two are primarily coastal. Overall, three cetacean species appear to have populations concentrated in coastal waters: Stenella attenuata graffmani. Tursiops truncatus, and Megaptera novaeangliae. These three may be more susceptible to human activities due to the overlap of their ranges with fishery areas (tuna and artisanal fisheries), and an uncontrolled increase of touristic whale watching activities in several parts of their range. The distribution maps represent the first comprehensive representation of cetacean species that inhabit Costa Rican Pacific waters. They provide essential base-line information that may be used to initiate conservation and management efforts of the habitats where these animals reproduce and forage. PMID:17354438

  18. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  19. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit trademark) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report

  20. Cohort formation for epidemiological study of medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belarus State Registry of the Chernobyl-affected population contains information about 276 000 residents of the Republic of Belarus exposed due to the Chernobyl NPP accident. Evidently, the population who lived in the evacuation zone was exposed mostly to radiation and also people participating in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences (emergency workers) within this zone in early post accident period of the catastrophe. Taking into account this criterion, we singled out the group out of all data files including all people who stayed in the evacuation zone not later than on May 31, 1986. The total number of the group made up 39 548 people including 4251 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. By preliminary estimation the number of person-years taking into account the deceased and left out of observation made up at the beginning of 2007- 735 600. During the period since 1986 there was detected 2671 cases of malignant tumors in the cohort and among people who were children and adolescents in 1986 there was registered 106 cases of malignant tumors (82% -thyroid cancer). Among 7483 of the deceased, malignant tumors is the cause of death at 1260 people. At present the real number of alive and remained subjects under observation makes up 25359 people including 2321 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. This group will form the base for further prospective research aiming at assessment of medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. (author)

  1. Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children's health ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children's population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ''Children of Chernobyl''. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ''clean'' regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  2. Chernobyl, 12 years later; Tchernobyl, douze ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3) Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) The Franco-German cooperation, and (7) Glossary.

  3. Chernobyl fallout in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl deposition in the UK was sampled in May and October 1986 and in June of 1987. The sampling concentrated on grassy vegetation but in October 1986 other vegetation, soils and wildlife were included. Deposition patterns have been established and a greater degree of retention and recycling indicated for the organic soils of upland Britain. For wild animals concentration factors varied not only between species but with sex and age. Highest tissue concentrations were recorded in species feeding on heather (Blue hares and Grouse) and the lowest in rabbits feeding on grass over mineral soils. Radiocaesium was found in a carnivore (the fox) at the top of the food chain. (author)

  4. 10th anniversary of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every issue has its defining event. There is no doubt that the single word which now embodies that difficult-to express unease felt by many people about nuclear power is Chernobyl. In this sense, April 26 1996 will be far more than an anniversary, just as Chernobyl was far more than a very serious accident which was nonetheless largely localised in its effects. It will be used by those who wish to the industry - the professional campaigners in the Green movement - and those who see an opportunity to sell newspapers or TV programmes - the professional exaggerators - to spread that unease as far as possible. The British Nuclear Industry Forum, which consists of seventy member companies at the heart of nuclear power in the UK, has convened a Task Force, with an international membership, in an attempt to make sure that we are ready for the anniversary, and to respond to the tactics of the opposition in as effective a way as possible. This paper outlines the general principles which have so far emerged from our discussions. There are two guiding principles to our approach. The first is that no matter how good a story is about Chernobyl, it is still a bad story. But secondly, this anniversary will be big news whether we like it or not, so we must make the best of it. In this sense the event brings with it opportunities to remind people of positive messages, on fuel diversity, on environment, and on Western efforts to help to improve the safety standards of the nuclear industry in the region, and the health of the people near Chernobyl. This leads to a position for the campaign which might appear paradoxical. We must be proactive but low-profile. We simply cannot afford to keep quiet and let the wildest claims about the effects of Chernobyl be spouted unchallenged. This does not simply mean generating responses to stories once they have been published. It means analysing press coverage of previous anniversaries to understand how the media are likely to treat it; it means

  5. Natural and man-made radioactivity: Chernobyl soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Flowers, Alan

    2014-05-01

    In 1986 a reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant suffered a large explosion. The result had wide-ranging impacts. 31 severely exposed emergency workers died from acute radiation syndrome and 19 more later died from different causes. The perhaps controversial prediction by some authors is that around 4,000 will eventually die as a result of the increased cancer risk. A 19-mile restriction zone exists around the former reactor, but during the past 25 years radiation levels have fallen and it is now possible to take part in conducted tours of the deserted city of Pripyat, and the Chernobyl reactor site. Soil levels, however, remain highly radioactive, particularly in the restricted area. Kingston University holds:- • Soil profile sets from 3 locations in Belarus, with repeats at same location 1996 and 2000. • Lake sediment core samples. • Soil profiles at forestry sites. • Surface samples in a region suspected to have actinide content at 200km from Chernobyl. In addition to the above the impact of naturally occurring radon on human health around Chernobyl should not be ignored. About 23 per cent of homes in Ukraine are estimated to have radon levels above 100 Bq m-3, whilst concentrations of 10,000 Bq m-3 or more are known to exist in public water supplies. Some researchers have also suggested that mean annual doses of irradiation of the population caused by radon and it's progeny in air in buildings exceeds the doses received now by inhabitants of settlements located in the territories polluted by Chernobyl-derived nuclides in the Mogilev and Gomel regions in Belarus. This project incorporates a temporal comparison of transport results in undisturbed soils variously over a number of years, demonstrating relative measurements using both the original and new samples. This project will also focus on lake sediments from Southern Belarus and is a 'work in progress'. However, what we can say at this stage is that it is notable that the long lived isotopes of Cs-137

  6. Study of 137Cs and 90Sr content in surface and subterranean waters in water catchment areas of polluted territories of near and distant zones of the chernobyl trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, the radioecological situation is characterized by the decrease of pollution densities of higher lying water catchment areas and by wash-out of radionuclides to lowlands, bottom lands and deep into the ground. On this account, increase of surface pollution density takes place in lowlands and flood lands. Comparison of the data on ground water from the weels of constant observation in the near zone shows that the content of 137Cs and 90Sr in ground water is lower than that in surface water by 2...15 and 3...90 times, respectively, in observation sites of the near zone it depends on time and place of sampling

  7. Chernobyl: Anatomy of the explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Friday, 26 April 1986, it was planned to shut down the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station, U.S.S.R., for periodic maintenance. The procedure supplied the opportunity to perform a further experiment; operation of the turbine in free rotation regime, which occurs when the steam is cut down while the turbine is still running. It so happened that carrying out this experiment turned out to be the worst accident in the history of nuclear power industry. The first part of the article proceeds to a second by second detailed analysis of the causes of the catastrophe. The analysis uses official data and reports. The author covers the sequence of events, which led up to two explosions in the second hour of that tragic morning. In the second part of the article, the author provides hints and suggestions, so that 'the tragedy of Chernobyl does not become a useless lesson'. With regard to what, so far, has been published, the novelty of the article may be a diagram showing the excessive changes that affected the main parameters (power, water flow through circulating pumps, steam pressure in separators, and length of the immersed part of control rods) in the fourth unit during the last seconds before the explosion. If may be noteworthy to mention that the curves supplied here are based on data stored in the computer 'SCALA'. 2 figs

  8. Geochemical influence of waste trench no. 22T at Chernobyl Pilot Site at the aquifer: Long-term trends, governing processes, and implications for radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses and analyzes data for geochemical monitoring of groundwater, collected in 1998–2008 at the international experimental radioecological study site (Chernobyl Pilot Site) located in the Red Forest radioactive waste dump site in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Groundwater in the zone of influence of the studied waste trench no. 22T was characterized by a specific geochemistry. Along with a high content of 90Sr (of an order of n × 1000–n × 10,000 Bq/L) groundwater showed elevated concentrations of Ca, K, NO3-, SO42- and of some trace elements (in particular stable Sr), and had more acidic pH values compared to “background” aquifer conditions. The observed water quality changes are apparently related to degradation of organic matter (pine forest remnants, litter, humus containing topsoil layer) buried inside trench no. 22T, which have lead to acidification of groundwater and leaching of cations adsorbed on the exchange complex of soils buried inside the trench. Regime monitoring data for the project period of 1998–2008 shows a progressive decrease of concentrations of the leached ions accompanied by an increase of pH in the chemical plume emerging from the trench. This can be explained by a combined effect of a gradual decrease of the inventory, humification of the original organic matter inside the trench, and of nutrient element uptake by roots of the newly planted pine forest on top of the trench. The identified trends of evolution of geochemical regime favor attenuation of subsurface migration of 90Sr from Red Forest waste dumps due to an increase of the 90Sr distribution coefficients, and stabilization of plumes of contaminated groundwater.

  9. Chernobyl - state of the art; Chernobyl - o estado da arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Borges, Jessica F.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Souza, Carla D.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Benega, Marcos A.G.; Souza, Anderson S. de; Silva, Thais H. da, E-mail: dcsouza@ipen.br, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.br, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.br, E-mail: rtiezzi@ipen.br, E-mail: carladdsouza@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marcosagbenega@ipen.br, E-mail: bteigarodrigues@gmail.com, E-mail: thaishunk@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to analyze what has been done so far in relation to damage caused by the accident and the state of art in Chernobyl, as well as the impact on radiation protection applied safety nuclear power plants. In the first part of the work a data survey was done through a bibliographic review and the in the second part data was collected during a visit, in June 2013 at the crash site, when was observed dose values in the affected areas and the works of repairs that have been made in the sarcophagus and surroundings as well as in official reports available through active international bodies. The main results indicate significant improvements in radiation protection systems.

  10. 论专属经济区刑事管辖权的行使%Research on Authority of Criminal Jurisdiction over the Exclusive Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童伟华

    2012-01-01

    对专属经济区行使刑事管辖权是保护主权权利和法理维权的需要,我国一直疏于行使该项权利。《联合国海洋法公约》对沿海国行使刑事管辖权既予以肯定又予以限制,我国应在该《公约》规定的范围内积极行使刑事立法管辖权和刑事司法管辖权,在附属刑法中对外国人侵犯我国主权权利及其附属权利的犯罪行为规定刑罚罚则,避免刑事立法空洞化。同时我国应对权属无争议专属经济区依法行使刑事管辖权,对权属重叠或争议的专属经济区根据对等原则行使刑事管辖权.并严格遵照《公约》规定保障当事国、当事船舶、当事人的权利。%Exercising the authority of criminal jurisdiction over the exclusive economic zone is the need of pro- tecting sovereign rights and maintaining legal rights, which is neglected by our country all the time. The affirmed and restricted reaction could be seen from The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on exercising crimi- nal jurisdiction by the coastal states , our country should be active in exercising criminal legislation and criminal ju- risdiction within the scope of the provisions of the Convention, as to the invasion of our sovereign rights and ancil- lary rights by aliens, the accessory criminal law should regulate provisions penalties in order to avoid the hollowing of criminal legislation. At the same time, China should exercise criminal jurisdiction over the exclusive economic zone with ownership without controversy, and the one with controversy or overlap, however, the latter should be ex- ercised according to the principle of reciprocity and in strict accordance with the provisions of the Convention to guarantee the rights of state party, party flag, and the parties.

  11. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Exploited Groundfish Species Assemblages Faced to Environmental and Fishing Forcings: Insights from the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saïkou Oumar Kidé

    Full Text Available Environmental changes and human activities can have strong impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. This study investigates how, from a quantitative point of view, simultaneously both environmental and anthropogenic factors affect species composition and abundance of exploited groundfish assemblages (i.e. target and non-target species at large spatio-temporal scales. We aim to investigate (1 the spatial and annual stability of groundfish assemblages, (2 relationships between these assemblages and structuring factors in order to better explain the dynamic of the assemblages' structure. The Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone (MEEZ is of particular interest as it embeds a productive ecosystem due to upwelling, producing abundant and diverse resources which constitute an attractive socio-economic development. We applied the multi-variate and multi-table STATICO method on a data set consisting of 854 hauls collected during 14-years (1997-2010 from scientific trawl surveys (species abundance, logbooks of industrial fishery (fishing effort, sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a concentration as environmental variables. Our results showed that abiotic factors drove four main persistent fish assemblages. Overall, chlorophyll a concentration and sea surface temperature mainly influenced the structure of assemblages of coastal soft bottoms and those of the offshore near rocky bottoms where upwellings held. While highest levels of fishing effort were located in the northern permanent upwelling zone, effects of this variable on species composition and abundances of assemblages were relatively low, even if not negligible in some years and areas. The temporal trajectories between environmental and fishing conditions and assemblages did not match for all the entire time series analyzed in the MEEZ, but interestingly for some specific years and areas. The quantitative approach used in this work may provide to stakeholders, scientists and fishers a

  13. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Exploited Groundfish Species Assemblages Faced to Environmental and Fishing Forcings: Insights from the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidé, Saïkou Oumar; Manté, Claude; Dubroca, Laurent; Demarcq, Hervé; Mérigot, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    Environmental changes and human activities can have strong impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. This study investigates how, from a quantitative point of view, simultaneously both environmental and anthropogenic factors affect species composition and abundance of exploited groundfish assemblages (i.e. target and non-target species) at large spatio-temporal scales. We aim to investigate (1) the spatial and annual stability of groundfish assemblages, (2) relationships between these assemblages and structuring factors in order to better explain the dynamic of the assemblages' structure. The Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone (MEEZ) is of particular interest as it embeds a productive ecosystem due to upwelling, producing abundant and diverse resources which constitute an attractive socio-economic development. We applied the multi-variate and multi-table STATICO method on a data set consisting of 854 hauls collected during 14-years (1997-2010) from scientific trawl surveys (species abundance), logbooks of industrial fishery (fishing effort), sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a concentration as environmental variables. Our results showed that abiotic factors drove four main persistent fish assemblages. Overall, chlorophyll a concentration and sea surface temperature mainly influenced the structure of assemblages of coastal soft bottoms and those of the offshore near rocky bottoms where upwellings held. While highest levels of fishing effort were located in the northern permanent upwelling zone, effects of this variable on species composition and abundances of assemblages were relatively low, even if not negligible in some years and areas. The temporal trajectories between environmental and fishing conditions and assemblages did not match for all the entire time series analyzed in the MEEZ, but interestingly for some specific years and areas. The quantitative approach used in this work may provide to stakeholders, scientists and fishers a useful

  14. Chernobyl operators: criminals or victims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munipov, V M

    1992-10-01

    The blame for the 1986 Chernobyl disaster has been variously attributed to the operating personnel, the plant management, the design of the reactor, and the lack of adequate safety information in the Soviet nuclear industry. This paper considers a number of design faults, operational shortcomings and human errors that combined in the accident. It examines the sequence of events leading up to the accident, design problems in the reactor and cooling rods, and the course of the accident itself. It considers the ergonomics aspects, and expresses the view that the main cause of the accident was inadequate human-machine interaction. Finally, it stresses the continuing inadequacies of the Soviet nuclear system, and emphasizes that unless the ergonomics lessons are fully learned, a similar disaster could still occur.

  15. Dynamics of biological accessibility of 137Cs in the soil-plant system after the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess they dynamics of 137Cs transformation in soil and its accessibility to plants, measurements were conducted in 1986 in the contaminated zone at various distances from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, within a radius of 50 km. Two zones were differentiated: the near zone in which the fuel component of precipitation prevailed (2-15 km from the power plant) and the far zone where the precipitations was mostly in the form of water soluble aerosols. The findings indicate that after 5 years, the accumulation of 137Cs by plants from the soil in the zone of the Chernobyl disaster stabilizes, indicating the end of the period of quasi-imbalanced intensification of 137Cs sorption by the solid phase of the soil. 3 refs., 1 fig, 1 tab

  16. Chernobyl reactor accident: medical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrome, producing extensive mucous in the oropharynx, was first seen in Chernobyl. The patients were treated with saline wash of the mouth. The patients who had radioactive contamination due to radioactive iodine were given stable iodine, following wash with soap, water and monitored. Fourteen survivors died subsequently due to other causes. Late health effects seen so far include excess of thyroid cancer in the children and psychological disorders due to stress. No excess leukemia has been reported so

  17. Studies of cancer risk among Chernobyl liquidators: materials and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current paper presents the methods and design of two case-control studies among Chernobyl liquidators - one of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the other of thyroid cancer risk - carried out in Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia. The specific objective of these studies is to estimate the radiation induced risk of these diseases among liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, and, in particular, to study the effect of exposure protraction and radiation type on the risk of radiation induced cancer in the low-to-medium- (0-500 mSv) radiation dose range. The study population consists of the approximately 10,000 Baltic, 40,000 Belarus and 51,000 Russian liquidators who worked in the 30 km zone in 1986-1987, and who were registered in the Chernobyl registry of these countries. The studies included cases diagnosed in 1993-1998 for all countries but Belarus, where the study period was extended until 2000. Four controls were selected in each country from the national cohort for each case, matched on age, gender and region of residence. Information on study subjects was obtained through face-to-face interview using a standardised questionnaire with questions on demographic factors, time, place and conditions of work as a liquidator and potential risk and confounding factors for the tumours of interest. Overall, 136 cases and 595 controls after receiving their consent were included in the studies. A method of analytical dose reconstruction has been developed, validated and applied to the estimation of doses and related uncertainties for all the subjects in the study. Dose-response analyses are underway and results are likely to have important implications to assess the adequacy of existing protection standards, which are based on risk estimates derived from analyses of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors and other high dose studies. (author)

  18. Spatial distributions of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu in surface seawater within the Exclusive Economic Zone of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Zaharudin, E-mail: zahar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.m [Radiochemistry and Environmental Group, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Mei-Wo, Yii; Abu Bakar, Ahmad Sanadi; Shahar, Hidayah [Radiochemistry and Environmental Group, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)

    2010-09-15

    The studies of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu distributions in surface seawater at South China Sea within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Peninsular Malaysia were carried out in June 2008. The analysis results will serve as additional information to the expanded baseline data for Malaysia's marine environment. Thirty locations from extended study area were identified in the EEZ from which large volumes of surface seawater samples were collected. Different co-precipitation techniques were employed to concentrate cesium and plutonium separately. A known amount of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 242}Pu tracers were used as yield determinant. The precipitate slurry was collected and oven dried at 60 {sup o}C for 1-2 days. Cesium precipitate was fine-ground and counted using gamma-ray spectrometry system at 661.62 keV, while plutonium was separated from other radionuclides using anion exchange, electrodeposited and counted using alpha spectrometry. The activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu were in the range of 3.40-5.89 Bq/m{sup 3} and 2.3-7.9 mBq/m{sup 3}, respectively. The {sup 239+240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs ratios indicate that there are no new inputs of these radionuclides into the area.

  19. Marine mineral resources of Pacific Islands - a review of the Exclusive Economic Zones of islands of U.S. affiliation, excluding the State of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; McIntyre, Brandie R.; Piper, David Z.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was established in 1983 and comprises all marine areas within 200 nautical miles (370 kilometers) of the nearest U.S. land. This vast area of 3.38 million square nautical miles (11.6 million square kilometers) is about 20 percent greater than the entire land area of the United States. The resource potential of the vast mineral deposits that occur within the U.S. EEZ is unknown, despite field studies that have taken place during the past 25 years. Since about 1975, information on marine mineral deposits has been obtained by numerous research cruises to the Pacific Ocean by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), equivalent government agencies in Germany, Canada, France, Russia, Japan, China, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand, and by academic researchers from all of these nations. Although most of the cruises by other nations explored areas outside the U.S. EEZ, information gained from those studies can aid in the evaluation of the mineral potential in the U.S. EEZ. However, the global effort remains inadequate to allow for the quantitative evaluation of mineral resources contained within the EEZ of nations or within international regions of the oceans.

  20. Spatial distributions of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu in surface seawater within the Exclusive Economic Zone of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zaharudin; Mei-Wo, Yii; Abu Bakar, Ahmad Sanadi; Shahar, Hidayah

    2010-09-01

    The studies of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu distributions in surface seawater at South China Sea within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Peninsular Malaysia were carried out in June 2008. The analysis results will serve as additional information to the expanded baseline data for Malaysia's marine environment. Thirty locations from extended study area were identified in the EEZ from which large volumes of surface seawater samples were collected. Different co-precipitation techniques were employed to concentrate cesium and plutonium separately. A known amount of (134)Cs and (242)Pu tracers were used as yield determinant. The precipitate slurry was collected and oven dried at 60(o)C for 1-2 days. Cesium precipitate was fine-ground and counted using gamma-ray spectrometry system at 661.62keV, while plutonium was separated from other radionuclides using anion exchange, electrodeposited and counted using alpha spectrometry. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu were in the range of 3.40-5.89Bq/m(3) and 2.3-7.9mBq/m(3), respectively. The (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs ratios indicate that there are no new inputs of these radionuclides into the area. PMID:20430636

  1. Plutonium, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in selected invertebrates from some areas around Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.p [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Maksimova, Svetlana, E-mail: soilzool@biobel.bas-net.b [Institute of Zoology, National Academy of Sciences, Akademicheskaya 27, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Szwalko, Przemyslaw [Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Slawkowska 17, 31-016 Krakow (Poland); Wnuk, Katarzyna [Holycross Cancer Center, Department on Nuclear Medicine, Artwinskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Zagrodzki, Pawel [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Department of Food Chemistry and Nutrition, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, Medyczna 9, 30-688 Krakow (Poland); Blazej, Sylwia; Gaca, Pawel; Tomankiewicz, Ewa [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Orlov, Olexandr, E-mail: station@zt.ukrpack.ne [Poleskiy Branch of Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Forestry and Agro-Forest-Amelioration, Prospect Mira 38, Zhytomyr 10004 (Ukraine)

    2010-06-15

    Results are presented for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and plutonium activity concentrations in more than 20 samples of terrestrial invertebrates, including species of beetles, ants, spiders and millipedes, collected in the highly contaminated area of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The majority of samples were collected in Belarus, with some also collected in the Ukraine. Three other samples were collected in an area of lower contamination. Results show that seven samples exceed an activity concentration of 100 kBq/kg (ash weight - a.w.) for {sup 137}Cs. The maximum activity concentration for this isotope was 1.52 +- 0.08 MBq/kg (a.w.) determined in ants (Formica cynerea). Seven results for {sup 90}Sr exceeded 100 kBq/kg (a.w.), mostly for millipedes. Relatively high plutonium activity concentrations were found in some ants and earth-boring dung beetles. Analyses of activity ratios showed differences in transfer of radionuclides between species. To reveal the correlation structure of the multivariate data set, the Partial Least-Squares method (PLS) was used. Results of the PLS model suggest that high radiocesium activity concentrations in animal bodies can be expected mainly for relatively small creatures living on the litter surface. In contrast, high strontium activity concentrations can be expected for creatures which conduct their lives within litter, having mixed trophic habits and a moderate lifespan. No clear conclusions could be made for plutonium.

  2. Resuspension and atmospheric transport of radionuclides due to wildfires near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 2015: An impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, N.; Zibtsev, S.; Myroniuk, V.; Zhurba, M.; Hamburger, T.; Stohl, A.; Balkanski, Y.; Paugam, R.; Mousseau, T. A.; Møller, A. P.; Kireev, S. I.

    2016-05-01

    In April and August 2015, two major fires in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) caused concerns about the secondary radioactive contamination that might have spread over Europe. The present paper assessed, for the first time, the impact of these fires over Europe. About 10.9 TBq of 137Cs, 1.5 TBq of 90Sr, 7.8 GBq of 238Pu, 6.3 GBq of 239Pu, 9.4 GBq of 240Pu and 29.7 GBq of 241Am were released from both fire events corresponding to a serious event. The more labile elements escaped easier from the CEZ, whereas the larger refractory particles were removed more efficiently from the atmosphere mainly affecting the CEZ and its vicinity. During the spring 2015 fires, about 93% of the labile and 97% of the refractory particles ended in Eastern European countries. Similarly, during the summer 2015 fires, about 75% of the labile and 59% of the refractory radionuclides were exported from the CEZ with the majority depositing in Belarus and Russia. Effective doses were above 1 mSv y‑1 in the CEZ, but much lower in the rest of Europe contributing an additional dose to the Eastern European population, which is far below a dose from a medical X-ray.

  3. [Contamination of agricultural production with 90Sr in Ukraine at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The specific activity of 90Sr in milk and vegetables for the last 15 years does not exceed the permissible level in Ukraine outside the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Exceeding the acceptable level of 90Sr is registered only in food grain. Specific activity of 90Sr in grain, which is produced in the high contaminated areas of the Kiev region, nowadays may reach 60-70 Bq/kg, which exceeds the permissible level of 20 Bq/kg for bread-grain. The part of 90Sr activity in the biologically available form has reached its maximum values for the post-accidental period due to the fuel particle dissolution. Contamination of grain with this radionuclide has slowly decreased in recent years. Values of concentration ratios and aggregated transfer factors of 90Sr from soil to rye, oat and winter wheat grain are inversely proportional to the exchangeable calcium content in soil. The transfer factors and dependences are in good accordance with those that have been obtained in our previous works and with generalized data of the IAEA for sandy soils. Application in Ukraine of such countermeasures as liming, fertilizing and manuring makes it possible nowadays to produce grain that meets the requirements of hygienic regulations on the 90Sr content in bread-grain. PMID:25508879

  4. Radiation damage to the thyroid and metabolic changes in cattle in the initial and remote period after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial period after the Chernobyl accident was the most dangerous for animals kept in the zone of radioactive contamination. Dose burdens from I-isotopes on the thyroid gland of cattle in the initial period after the accident contributed significantly into the alteration of the hormonal status, physiological state and productive, qualities of cattle on farms of the Gomel area of Belarus

  5. Chernobyl catastrophe: Information for people living in the contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive blow-outs after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant catastrophe reached many states. The largest amount of them (according to experts' estimations - 70%) fell out on the Belarus territory. The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. More than 14 years have passed since the Chernobyl NPP accident but some of the problems caused by the catastrophe have not been solved. This is bound up, first of all, with a high collective dosage absorbed by the population, with difficulties in forecasting and prophylactics of remote radiological effects, with ecological and economic crisis. The consequences of the disaster greatly affect all the aspects of vital activities of the affected regions and the state as a whole. Destructive tendencies have been revealed in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population inhabiting the contaminated territory and resettled as well, require considerable optimisation. Negative factors of the Chernobyl catastrophe, which are significant for human health can be divided into two groups as follows: radiation-based, directly related to influence of ionising radiation and non radiation based, related to changes in habitat and prolonged psychological stress. The specific peculiarities of psychogenic disorders caused by the catastrophe are determined by the following reasons: insufficient knowledge of radiation effects; constant apprehension for the health and well-being of themselves and their families, especially children; unexpected change of the life stereotype (forced resettlement, the break of the former life, changing the place and the character of work, etc.); the necessity of constant keeping precaution measures and prophylactic

  6. Chernobyl from the point of view of disaster sociology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some social aspects of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus are considered. The information system of publications on this theme is analyzed. The influence of various factors of the Chernobyl accident on social changes in the areas of radioactive contamination is investigated. The Chernobyl subculture formation process in the contaminated areas is considered. Practical recommendations of sociologists on the elimination of the Chernobyl catastrophe effects are given. 12 refs

  7. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1996, the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power plant led to the release into the atmosphere of considerable quantities of radionuclides. Most contaminated regions were in the southern Belarus, northern Ukraine and Bryansk and Kaluga regions of Russia. Main population groups exposed to the radioactivity released during the accident were the personnel at the Chernobyl plant and the rescue teams present on-site during the first hours, the cleanup workers (numbering about 600000) who participated in the decontamination and cleaning operations in the 30 km zone around the site, the residents of the same zone who were evacuated (numbering about 115000) and the inhabitants of contaminated zones (≥1 Ci/km2). Dose and dose rate levels as well as exposure pathways differ from one population group to another. A review of scientific articles published in the international literature till 1998 has been carried out. Apart the 28 deaths due to acute radiation sickness which occurred in the personnel of the plant and rescue teams within several days or weeks after the accident, two main public health consequences of the Chernobyl accident have been observed. First an unprecedented epidemic of thyroid cancers was detected in children first in 1992 in Belarus then in the Ukraine and to a lesser extent in Bryansk region. The spontaneous incidence of these tumours was multiplied by 100 in most contaminated regions. Although the role of the accident in this epidemic is now recognised, questions are raised regarding the respective role of radioactive agents and other environmental or genetic factors, and its evolution in the future. Regarding other kinds of solid cancers and leukemia, no excess has been clearly demonstrated in the residents of contaminated areas nor in liquidators. Second, results of available epidemiological investigations show an increased risk of psychological distress in residents of highly contaminated areas

  8. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations

  9. Chernobyl after five years and over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26th 1986 the catastrophe occurred at the nuclear electric power generation system. The first inkling of the accident was known through the Swedish monitoring station about the radioactive fallout. It was also in 1986 that the USSR gave an idea of an earlier accident which happened in 1957. The Chernobyl reactor has pressure tubes and is a pressure vessel reactor. Graphite is used as an industrial material. In western reactors in USA with the increase in heat, power generation comes down. The international AEC discussed the Chernobyl comprehensively and came out with conclusion of deficiency in design which was accepted by the Soviet side without any demur. In 1970, in UK an accident has been reported with pressurized reactor. In 1987, Chernobyl was discussed under the chair of Eugene Volkov by USSR. In 1989, another conference was arranged at Sicily. The first annual nuclear safety met at Minsk in 1990 (June); USSR/USA meet on Chernobyl was also held at Solchin in 1989. A future meeting on Chernobyl was held at Paris in July 1991. In all these meetings, it is emphasized that more training and safety culture establishment was necessary by the international nuclear safety advisory group on safety. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab

  10. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T. (eds.); Antipkin, Yu.G. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L.P. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D.A. [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)] (and others)

    2006-04-15

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

  11. A comparison of fishery biology of jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas outside three Exclusive Economic Zones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bilin; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian

    2013-05-01

    Although many studies on the fishery biology of jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas, have been conducted in the coastal areas within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of various countries due to its commercial and ecological importance, limited biological information is available from waters outside these EEZs. In this paper, we examined D. gigas fishery biology from waters outside Chilean, Peruvian and Costa Rican EEZs, based on the fishery data collected by Chinese jigging vessels during 2006 to 2010. The dominant mantle lengths of D. gigas were 350-450 mm, 250-400 mm and 250-350 mm outside Chilean, Peruvian and Costa Rican EEZs, respectively. Size structure analysis show that a medium-sized group existed mostly in the waters outside the Chilean and Peruvian EEZs, whereas a small-sized group occurred mainly in the waters outside the Costa Rican EEZ. The longevity of the squid outside the Costa Rican EEZ was less than 10 months, while most of those outside Chilean and Peruvian EEZs were about 1-1.5 years and very few large individuals were 1.5-2 years old. A higher percentage of mature individuals existed outside Costa Rican EEZ implying the region as a potential spawning ground, while lower proportions of mature squid outside the Peruvian and Chilean EEZs indicated that spawning may be occurring outside our study area. Spatial differences in sizes at maturity of the squid are thought to be result from different environmental factors especially different temperature and nutrition among the three areas. Stomach-content analysis showed that cannibalism was important in the diet of D. gigas. Stress generated by jigging may increase the incidence of cannibalism.

  12. A comparison of fishery biology of jumbo flying squid,Dosidicus gigas outside three Exclusive Economic Zones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bilin; CHEN Xinjun; YI Qian

    2013-01-01

    Although many studies on the fishery biology of jumbo flying squid,Dosidicus gigas,have been conducted in the coastal areas within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of various countries due to its commercial and ecological importance,limited biological information is available from waters outside these EEZs.In this paper,we examined D.gigas fishery biology from waters outside Chilean,Peruvian and Costa Rican EEZs,based on the fishery data collected by Chinese jigging vessels during 2006 to 2010.The dominant mantle lengths of D.gigas were 350-450 mm,250-400 mm and 250-350 mm outside Chilean,Peruvian and Costa Rican EEZs,respectively.Size structure analysis show that a medium-sized group existed mostly in the waters outside the Chilean and Peruvian EEZs,whereas a small-sized group occurred mainly in the waters outside the Costa Rican EEZ.The longevity of the squid outside the Costa Rican EEZ was less than 10 months,while most of those outside Chilean and Peruvian EEZs were about 1-1.5 years and very few large individuals were 1.5-2 years old.A higher percentage of mature individuals existed outside Costa Rican EEZ implying the region as a potential spawning ground,while lower proportions of mature squid outside the Peruvian and Chilean EEZs indicated that spawning may be occurring outside our study area.Spatial differences in sizes at maturity of the squid are thought to be result from different environmental factors especially different temperature and nutrition among the three areas.Stomach-content analysis showed that cannibalism was important in the diet of D.gigas.Stress generated by jigging may increase the incidence of cannibalism.

  13. OVERVIEW OF THE COOPERATION BETWEEN THE CHERNOBYL CENTER'S INTERNATIONAL RADIOECOLOGY LABORATORY IN SLAVUTYCH, UKRAINE AND U.S. RESEARCH CENTERS BETWEEN 2000-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    The International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL) located in Slavutych, Ukraine was created in 1999 under the initiative of the United States Government and the Government of Ukraine in the framework of international cooperation on evaluation and minimization of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP) accident. Since the time the IRL was founded, it has participated in a large number of projects, including the following: (1) study of radionuclide accumulation, distribution, and migration in components of various ecological systems of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ); (2) radiation dose assessments; (3) study of the effects of radiation influence on biological systems; (4) expert analysis of isotopic and quantitative composition of radioactive contaminants; (5) development of new methods and technologies intended for radioecological research; (6) evaluation of future developments and pathways for potential remediation of the ChEZ areas; (7) assistance in provision of physical protection systems for ionizing irradiation sources at Ukrainian enterprises; (8) reviews of open Russian language publications on issues associated with consequences of the ChNPP accident, radioactive waste management, radioecological monitoring, and ChNPP decommissioning; (9) conduct of training courses on problems of radioecology, radiation safety, radioecological characterization of test sites and environmental media, and on research methods; (10) conduct of on-site scientific conferences and workshops on the ChEZ and radioecology problems; participation in off-site scientific conferences and meetings; and (11) preparation of scientific and popular science publications, and interactions with mass media representatives. This article provides a brief overview of the major achievements resulting from this cooperation between the IRL and U.S. research centers.

  14. Chernobyl. Disaster and its legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundreds of thousands of people have been helping to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident, but there still are many areas in which many people have to live with the risks induced by elevated environmental radioactivity. The authors of the book have been participating in the measuring programme of the Federal Republic of Germany, intended to measure and map the radiation exposure of the population and the environment in the states of the former Soviet Union affected by the disaster. Due to their participation in biophysical and medical measuring programmes, the authors are familiar with the situation on site. Their report is intended to give the general reader a picture of the causes and progress of the reactor accident of April 1986, and of its longlasting effects on human health and the food chain. The information presented is based on authentic material and data and reveals the biologic, medical and social consequences as well as the related scientific and ecologic problems. (orig./HP)

  15. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  16. Territory contamination with the radionuclides representing the fuel component of Chernobyl fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashparov, V A; Lundin, S M; Zvarych, S I; Yoshchenko, V I; Levchuk, S E; Khomutinin, Y V; Maloshtan, I M; Protsak, V P

    2003-12-30

    The data obtained through a series of experiments were used to specify the correlation of activities of the fuel component radionuclides of Chernobyl fallout and to create the maps of the 30-km Chernobyl zone terrestrial density of contamination with 154Eu, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am (on 01.01.2000). In the year 2000, total inventories of the fuel component radionuclides in the upper 30-cm soil layer of the 30-km Chernobyl zone in Ukraine (outside the ChNPP industrial site, excluding the activity located in the radioactive waste storages and in the cooling pond) were estimated as: 90Sr--7.7 x 10(14) Bq; 137Cs--2.8 x 10(15) Bq; 154Eu--1.4 x 10(13) Bq; 238Pu--7.2 x 10(12) Bq; 239+240Pu--1.5 x 10(13) Bq; 241Am--1.8 x 10(13) Bq. These values correspond to 0.4-0.5% of their amounts in the ChNPP unit 4 at the moment of the accident. The current estimate is 3 times lower than the previous widely-cited estimates. Inventories of the fuel component radionuclides were also estimated in other objects within the 30-km zone and outside it. This allowed more accurate data to be obtained on the magnitude of a relative release of radionuclides in the fuel particles (FP) matrix during the Chernobyl accident outside the ChNPP industrial site. It amounts to 1.5+/-0.5% of these radionuclides in the reactor, which is 2 times lower than the previous estimates. Two-thirds of the radionuclides release in the FP was deposited on the territory of Ukraine. PMID:14630415

  17. Territory contamination with the radionuclides representing the fuel component of Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data obtained through a series of experiments were used to specify the correlation of activities of the fuel component radionuclides of Chernobyl fallout and to create the maps of the 30-km Chernobyl zone terrestrial density of contamination with 154Eu, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am (on 01.01.2000). In the year 2000, total inventories of the fuel component radionuclides in the upper 30-cm soil layer of the 30-km Chernobyl zone in Ukraine (outside the ChNPP industrial site, excluding the activity located in the radioactive waste storages and in the cooling pond) were estimated as: 90Sr-7.7x1014 Bq; 137Cs-2.8x1015 Bq; 154Eu-1.4x1013 Bq; 238Pu-7.2x1012 Bq; 239+240Pu-1.5x1013 Bq; 241Am-1.8x1013 Bq. These values correspond to 0.4-0.5% of their amounts in the ChNPP unit 4 at the moment of the accident. The current estimate is 3 times lower than the previous widely-cited estimates. Inventories of the fuel component radionuclides were also estimated in other objects within the 30-km zone and outside it. This allowed more accurate data to be obtained on the magnitude of a relative release of radionuclides in the fuel particles (FP) matrix during the Chernobyl accident outside the ChNPP industrial site. It amounts to 1.5±0.5% of these radionuclides in the reactor, which is 2 times lower than the previous estimates. Two-thirds of the radionuclides release in the FP was deposited on the territory of Ukraine

  18. Real and mythical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes the public Unacceptance of Nuclear Power as a consequence of Chernobyl Accident, an accident which was a severest event in the history of the nuclear industry. It was a shock for everybody, who has been involved in nuclear power programs. But nobody could expect that it was also the end romantic page in the nuclear story. The scale of the detriment was a great, and it could be compared with other big technological man-made catastrophes. But immediately after an accident mass media and news agencies started to transmit an information with a great exaggerations of the consequences of the event. In a report on the Seminar The lessons of the Chernobyl - 1' in 1996 examples of such incorrect information, were cited. Particularly, in the mass media it was declared that consequences of the accident could be compared with a results of the second world war, the number of victims were more than hundred thousand people, more than million of children have the serious health detriments. Such and other cases of the misconstruction have been called as myths. The real consequences of Chernobyl disaster have been summed on the International Conference 'One decade after Chernobyl' - 2, in April 1996. A very important result of the Chernobyl accident was a dissemination of stable unacceptance of the everything connected with 'the atom'. A mystic horror from invisible mortal radiation has been inspired in the masses. And from such public attitude the Nuclear Power Programs in many countries have changed dramatically. A new more pragmatic and more careful atomic era started with a slogan: 'Kernkraftwerk ? Nein, danke'. No doubt, a Chernobyl accident was a serious technical catastrophe in atomic industry. The scale of detriment is connected with a number of involved peoples, not with a number of real victims. In comparison with Bhopal case, earthquakes, crashes of the airplanes, floods, traffic accidents and other risky events of our life - the Chernobyl is

  19. The Nordic Chernobyl data base project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl Data Base has been established with the purpose of collecting the large amount of data resulting from measurements made in several laboratories in the period following the Chernobyl accident. All information is stored in the C data base handling system developed especially for this kind of environmental data. The C base data handling system allows for easy input from a variety of sources and easy output to other computer programs for further data treatment. This paper describes the structures, codes and methods used and the present status of the project. (au)

  20. Chernobyl birds have smaller brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Pape Møller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage.

  1. 论专属经济区中的军事研究和测量活动%On Military Research and Military Survey in Exclusive Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周忠海; 张小奕

    2012-01-01

    For many years, the United States has never stopped the surveillance and intelligence - gathering activities in China's Exclusive Economic Zone. Its intention to contain China became clearer when joint military ex- ercises between U.S. and its allies have been frequently performed on the Asia - Pacific Region recently. The sur- veillance and intelligence - gathering activities, according to U. S. authorities, were carried out in the name of mil- itary research and survey. However, whatever they call them, these activities are in nature military activities, and have posed a threat to national security of the coastal state. Accordingly, these activities contradict one of the lead- ing guidelines of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea - The sea shall be reserved for peaceful pur- poses, and therefore, the coastal state not only has a legitimate right of jurisdiction, but also is obligated to curb these menacing behavior in order to protect the freedom and safety of navigation.%美军研究和测量船在我国专属经济区的监视和情报收集活动从未间断过,近期又频繁地在亚太地区进行联合军事演习,其"项庄舞剑"的意图昭然若揭。军事研究和测量活动应当被定性为军事活动,因而在专属经济区内的此类活动与《联合国海洋法公约》中"海洋应只用于和平目的"的宗旨相悖,已构成对沿海国安全的威胁,已经受到了诸多国家的质疑。沿海国对专属经济区内的军事活动进行管辖,并不妨碍航行自由,而是履行国际义务、维护航行自由与航道安全畅通的举措。

  2. Sociological and medical aspects of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sociological survey data, the results of the state of health service in some districts of Gomel and Mogilev regions as well as of the completeness of the fulfillment of state resolutions concerning the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident after effects are given

  3. Chernobyl: the actual facts and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a first part, a Power Point presentation explains the technical reasons of the Chernobyl accident and recalls the environmental and health consequences on a short, middle and long term. In a second part, the author analyses the treatment by the media in France and shows how the population has been manipulated by nuclear opponents with the active complicity of some media

  4. Meteorological data related to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a detailed technical description of the JRC-Ispra comprehensive collection of meteorological information related to the Chernobyl accident and attempts an analysis of the data in order to perform an initial checking of their quality and facilitate a suitable and compact way of display

  5. Radiocesium distributions and fluxes in the forest ecosystems of Chernobyl and Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoschenko, Vasyl; Nanba, Kenji; Konoplev, Alexei; Takase, Tsugiko; Kashparov, Valery; Zheleznyak, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Institute of Environmental Radioactivity (IER) of Fukushima University and Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR) of NUBiP of Ukraine have started the long-term monitoring programs for characterization of the radiocesium distributions and fluxes in the typical forest ecosystems of the Fukushima and Chernobyl zones, respectively. Realization of the programs will enable identification of the key processes governing the radionuclides cycling in the forest ecosystems at the intermediate (Fukushima) and late (Chernobyl) stages of the two accidents and will provide the empirical data needed for modelling the radionuclide long-term behavior in the Fukushima and Chernobyl forests. At the present stage in the Chernobyl zone root uptake of radionuclides plays the main role in the forest biomass contamination with 137Cs. In the typical Scots pine forests its inventories in the aboveground biomass and litter may reach several percents of the total radionuclide activity in the ecosystem. The radionuclides biogenic fluxes (root uptake and return to soil with litterfall and throughfall) in the Chernobyl forests are comparable or exceed their geochemical migration fluxes in the root-inhabited soil layer, which leads to stabilization of the radionuclide distributions in the soil profile and to the gradual decrease of the apparent vertical migration rates. For example, the main part (about 80%) of the radiocesium activity in soil is still localized in the 0-5 cm topsoil layer; the radiocesium uptake flux may reach 0.n % year-1 of its total activity in the ecosystem, while the geochemical migration flux from the root-inhabited layer is estimated as 0.1 % year-1. In the studied typical forest ecosystem at the territory contaminated as a result of the Fukushima accident (Sugi forest) about 20% of the total radiocesium activity in the soil profile is localized in the forest litter, and similarly to the Chernobyl forest, major part of the activity, about 70% of the total in

  6. The Chernobyl catastrophe consequences in the Republic of Belarus. National report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time

  7. Transfer of Chernobyl radionuclides in the aquatic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The data on radioecology of the rivers of Belarus, which catchments area is completely or partly situated in Russia and the Ukraine (the Soph, the I put, the Besed, the Braginka) are given. The radioactive contamination of lakes are represented. The article demonstrates, that nowadays Chernobyl radionuclides content in surface water depends on wash-off from contaminated territories, groundwater leakage, and composition of bottom sediments. Wash out by rain and melted water is considered to be the most permanent and hazardous. The accumulation of radioactive sediments before dams, in stagnant zones of rivers and reservoirs creates moving local cites of increased concentration. Today and for forthcoming decades the main input into water contamination will be 137Cs 90Sr and for the nearest Chernobyl PP zone - isotopes of plutonium as well as 241Am. The migration of radionuclides on the experimental watershed of the Iput river was investigated. With the example of the Iput river, studies are performed and based on them an analysis is made of the formation of contamination of elements of a river system by radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. It has been revealed that before the years 1990 - 1994 the contamination of the river system was mainly formed by the primary fallout of radionuclides on the water surface of the river but after the year 2000 it will be determined only by the ingress of radioactive contaminants with surface flow from a water catchment. The studies have shown that the contamination of the Iput river in the territory of Belarus was influenced by the transboundary transfer of radionuclides from the territory of Russia during first years after Chernobyl accident. According to our estimates, at the end of 1986, this contribution amounted to 30% for 137Cs and 96% for 90Sr; as of- now, it is 86% and 65% for 137Cs and 90Sr, respectively. The analysis of formation and migration of radioactive

  8. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov G.V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

  9. Medical Cooperative Projects: from Nagasaki to Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk

    OpenAIRE

    Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2005-01-01

    For many years, Nagasaki University, particularly the Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, has been engaged in research regarding the late health effects of radiation exposure in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Since 1991, we have participated in several Chernobyl projects including the Chernobyl Sasakawa Medical Cooperation Project which demonstrated a marked increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer around Chernobyl, especially in the Gomel region, Belarus. Furthermore, we have perfor...

  10. Behavior of accidentally released radiocesium in soil-water environment: Looking at Fukushima from a Chernobyl perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoplev, A; Golosov, V; Laptev, G; Nanba, K; Onda, Y; Takase, T; Wakiyama, Y; Yoshimura, K

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative characteristics of dissolved and particulate radiocesium wash-off from contaminated watersheds after the FDNPP accident are calculated based on published monitoring data. Comparative analysis is provided for radiocesium wash-off parameters and distribution coefficients, Kd, between suspended matter and water in rivers and surface runoff on Fukushima and Chernobyl contaminated areas for the first years after the accidents. It was found that radiocesium distribution coefficient in Fukushima rivers is essentially higher (1-2 orders of magnitude) than corresponding values for rivers and surface runoff within the Chernobyl zone. This can be associated with two factors: first, the high fraction of clays in the predominant soils and sediments of the Fukushima area and accordingly a higher value of the radiocesium Interception Potential, RIP, in general, and secondly the presence of water insoluble glassy particles containing radiocesium in the accidental fallout at Fukushima. It was found also that normalized dissolved wash-off coefficients for Fukushima catchments are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than corresponding values for the Chernobyl zone. Normalized particulate wash-off coefficients are comparable for Fukushima and Chernobyl. Results of the investigation of radiocesium's ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) vertical distribution in soils of the close-in area of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP - Okuma town and floodplain of the Niida river are presented. The radiocesium migration in undisturbed forest and grassland soils at Fukushima contaminated area has been shown to be faster as compared to the Chernobyl 30-km zone during the first three years after the accidents. This may be associated with higher annual precipitation (by about 2.5 times) in Fukushima as compared to the Chernobyl zone, as well as the differences in the soil characteristics and temperature regime throughout a year. Investigation and analysis of Fukushima's radiocesium distribution in soils of Niida

  11. Behavior of accidentally released radiocesium in soil-water environment: Looking at Fukushima from a Chernobyl perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoplev, A; Golosov, V; Laptev, G; Nanba, K; Onda, Y; Takase, T; Wakiyama, Y; Yoshimura, K

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative characteristics of dissolved and particulate radiocesium wash-off from contaminated watersheds after the FDNPP accident are calculated based on published monitoring data. Comparative analysis is provided for radiocesium wash-off parameters and distribution coefficients, Kd, between suspended matter and water in rivers and surface runoff on Fukushima and Chernobyl contaminated areas for the first years after the accidents. It was found that radiocesium distribution coefficient in Fukushima rivers is essentially higher (1-2 orders of magnitude) than corresponding values for rivers and surface runoff within the Chernobyl zone. This can be associated with two factors: first, the high fraction of clays in the predominant soils and sediments of the Fukushima area and accordingly a higher value of the radiocesium Interception Potential, RIP, in general, and secondly the presence of water insoluble glassy particles containing radiocesium in the accidental fallout at Fukushima. It was found also that normalized dissolved wash-off coefficients for Fukushima catchments are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than corresponding values for the Chernobyl zone. Normalized particulate wash-off coefficients are comparable for Fukushima and Chernobyl. Results of the investigation of radiocesium's ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) vertical distribution in soils of the close-in area of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP - Okuma town and floodplain of the Niida river are presented. The radiocesium migration in undisturbed forest and grassland soils at Fukushima contaminated area has been shown to be faster as compared to the Chernobyl 30-km zone during the first three years after the accidents. This may be associated with higher annual precipitation (by about 2.5 times) in Fukushima as compared to the Chernobyl zone, as well as the differences in the soil characteristics and temperature regime throughout a year. Investigation and analysis of Fukushima's radiocesium distribution in soils of Niida

  12. The lesson of the Chernobyl disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milhaud, G. (Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 Paris (FR))

    1991-01-01

    On april 26, 1986 a major nuclear disaster took place at 1 h 24 min local time, destroying the fourth reactor of the Chernobyl plant. Five years later the consequences of the disaster are still not fully known. Nevertheless the long term future of nuclear energy in the world is uncertain. Questions need to be answered by observing hard facts if emotional attitudes are not to prevail over reality. The reactor and its core were destroyed by an explosion, causing two radioactive jet emissions of iodine 131, followed by caesium 137. Both elements are mainly incorporated in the body via food. The Chernobyl disaster was a consequence of inadequate safety regulations and human error. Enforcement of strict regulations are likely to be highly effective in preventing a further catastrophe. However, governments should consider another possibility. What would be the consequences for public health if a terroristic act deliberately destroyed a nuclear power station.

  13. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  14. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Dept. Nucleaire Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  15. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  16. Radiobiological problems concerning grazing animals following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl accident took place on April 26 1986, which was the beginning of the grazing season, when there was not enough fodder on the farms and the cattle was grazed on the open territory. Therefore grazing animal-breeding was the most radioactively affected branch. The consumption of contaminated fodder and surface contamination with radioactive precipitation caused the accumulation of considerable ingested doses in the organisms of animals (up to 1 GY). Radioactive damage caused to the thyroid by the selective accumulation of radioiodine (mainly 131I) is of particular attention. Cumulative doses of thyroid irradiation in mammals were much higher than for the other organs. Thus, in cows during their grazing on the contaminated pastures outside 30-km zone the ratio of ingested doses of the thyroid and whole body was 130:1 and more, therefore, radiation effects could have a certain negative effect, concerning the agricultural animals in the zone of accidental release influence. Accumulated ingested doses in the thyroid of cows on the contaminated territory in a number of cases caused the complete destruction of the thyroid (doses above 600 Gy), which provided the loss of milk productivity and reproductive qualities of the animals. Lower doses caused the functional disturbances, which in most cases have been levelled during the years after the accident

  17. Peculiarities of soil mycobiota composition in Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil mycobiota in zones of strong radiation control (Lyutizh region), nine stationaries in 30 km Chernobyl NPP zone and one in the vicinity of Kiev has been investigated. 180 species of 70 genera of micromycetes has been isolated and identified. The species of genera Penicillium, Mortierella, Trichoderma, Cladosporium dominated in all soils studied, and the species of genera Acremonium, Paecilomyces, Oidiodendron etc. were frequent. The comparison of the generic composition of micromycetes in localities studied has revealed their similarity. The characteristic feature for the mycobiota was regular revealing and specific variability of melanin-containing fungi. Many of them compose the reserve group of micromycetes. There was found new and rare species Acrodontium crateriforme (v.Beyma) de Hoog, Botryosporium longibrachiatum Oud., Chuppia sarcinifera Deighton, Harzia acremonioides Harz etc., with were not registered in these soils before the accident. The structure of the micromycete complexes presented as a correlation Pleiades has been established. Discovered Pleiades were formed mainly by melanin-containing fungi. According to the preliminary results the micro-mycetes complexes, taking into account their occurrence, can be used as indicators of unfavourable ecological soil state. To our mind, a search for such complexes may be conducted among of melanin-containing species as well as numerous species of genus Penecillium and related Paecilomyces

  18. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 106 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 107 person-rem (2 x 105 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

  19. Chernobyl -- the fallout and the farmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl accident an increase in the levels of airborne radioactivity was first detected in Ireland during the period 2nd-4th May, 1986. Heavy rainfall resulted in significant ground deposition of this activity, and the environmental monitoring programme set up by the Nuclear Energy Board ( now the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland) has determined the distribution and level of radionuclides in the major food items consumed by the Irish population

  20. CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: RATIONALE AND REALIZATION OF DECISIONS ON PROTECTION OF THE POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. O. Konstantinov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of decision making on protection of the public from radiation exposure caused by the Chernobyl accident is retrospectively reviewed. Decisions on prime countermeasures such as evacuation of population from 30 km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant were taken on the ground of a priori developed criteria. The next years, elaboration of a set of regulating documents was needed for implementation of countermeasures corresponding to real conditions of unprecedented scale and levels of radioactive contamination of large territory. Within several years the temporary permissible levels of radiation exposure and content of radionuclides in foodstuff were adopted for current operative decisions. The subsequent decisions made under a pressure of sociopolitical circumstances resulted in a compromise between radiation protection principles and inadequate public perception of radiological risk. Now a decision is needed to solve a problem of the return of radioactively contaminated territories to normal life. The analysis of experience gained in overcoming of consequences of the Chernobyl accident is of great importance for perfection of readiness for management of radiological emergencies.

  1. THE EVALUATION OF VORONEZH REGION RADIATION CONTAMINATION IMPACT OVER THIRTY YEARS’ PERIOD FOLLOWING THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Stepkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at radiation contamination impact assessment due to the 1986 Chernobyl accident in Voronezh Region territory more than 600 kilometers away from the ground zero. The major Chernobyl accident impact assessment indicators were the characteristics of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides’ soil surface contamination (Ci/km2 as well as the average annual effective dose of critical population group ( mSv/year over 1986–2014. The Population oncological morbidity indicators were analyzed (all malignant neoplasms, including those in thyroid gland, lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue in the territories contrastingly differing on the levels of radiation factor impact. The study covered the period of 2010–2014.It was established that for Voronezh Region territories referred to as the post- Chernobyl radioactively contaminated zone over 29 years period the maximum soil surface contamination by 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides reduced by 1.90 and 1.91 times (from 3,15 Ci/km2 to 1,66 Ci/km2 and from 0,063 Ci/km2 to 0,0033 Ci/km2, respectively.Currently the relationship was not found between the radioactive contamination density in Voronezh Region and the levels of malignant neoplasms for the local residents.The present situation related to radiation factor impact on Voronezh Region territories remains stable and safe. Mindful of the indicators results the assessment of ionizing sources impact did not identify any exceeding the normative values.

  2. Use of remote sensing and GIS for ecological monitoring in the Chernobyl area. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the project a monitoring technology based on remote sensing, GIS and geosystem modelling had been developed for the Chernobyl area. For getting information about environmental parameters air- and spaceborne remote sensing data were used. Doing this dependencies between the spectral signature of vegetation in the red and near infra-red bands of multispectral data (Spot, Landsat TM, MK-4) and the 137Cs soil contamination were established for the first time. In addition remote sensing data were used for mapping of places of temporary radioactive waste storage, of the spring floods of Pripyat river and of potential zones of surface contamination penetration into lower lying groundwater horizons. This hydrologically relevant information had been used as boundary conditions for an experimental geosystem model of the Chernobyl region, from which information about contamination of into lower lying groundwater horizons could be obtained. For methodological validation of the dependencies between the spectral signature of vegetation and the radioactive soil contamination as well as for testing the developed monitoring technology at other areas influenced by the Chernobyl disaster further investigations are necessary. (orig.)

  3. Chernobyl case study increases confidence level in radionuclide transport assessments in the geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from the ongoing international study (i.e., Chernobyl pilot site project) on characterization and modeling of fallout nuclear fuel particles dissolution behavior and subsequent radionuclide transport from the near-surface waste disposal site in Chernobyl zone to the geo-environment. The reported experimental work includes: - characterization of radionuclide physico-chemical speciation inside the waste site (trench); - evaluation of infiltration recharge regime through the trench body; and determination of waste soil matrix sorption parameters. In order to describe radionuclide releases from the waste, the multi-component source term model accounting for several types of fuel particles (UO2, UO2+X, and U-Zr-O matrix) was developed. Application of the source-term model to the Pilot Site data has given satisfactory and encouraging results. The modeling approach has proved to be capable of rather accurately reproducing independent field characterization and monitoring data relevant to 90Sr speciation inside the trench and radionuclide releases from the trench to the aquifer. The developed parameter database and modeling approach are of general value for radiological assessments of Chernobyl contaminated areas, and for possible similar accidental situations in future. Thus, acquired knowledge and data serve to increase the confidence level in radionuclide transport assessments from nuclear fuel source term to soils and geo-sphere. (orig.)

  4. 30 years life with Chernobyl, 5 years life with Fukushima. Health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IPPNW report on health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima covers the following issues: Part.: 30 years life with Chernobyl: Summarized consequences of Chernobyl, the accident progression, basic data of the catastrophe, estimation of health hazards as a consequence of the severe accident of Chernobyl, health consequences for the liquidators, health consequences for the contaminated population, mutagenic and teratogenic effects. Part B: 5 years life with Fukushima: The start of the nuclear catastrophe, emissions and contamination, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on human health, thyroid surveys in the prefecture Fukushima, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on the ecosystem, outlook.

  5. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

  6. Health consequences [of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Health Organisation Conference on the Health Consequences of the Chernobyl and Other Radiological Accidents, held in Geneva last November, is reported. The lack of representation from the civil nuclear industry led often to one-sided debates instigated by the anti-nuclear lobbies present. Thyroid cancer in children as a result of the Chernobyl accident received particular attention. In Belarus, 400 cases have been noted, 220 in Ukraine and 60 in the Russian Federation. All have been treated with a high degree of success. The incidence of this cancer would be expected to follow the fallout path as the main exposure route was ingestion of contaminated foods and milk products. It was noted that the only way to confirm causality was if those children born since the accident failed to show the same increased incidence. Explanations were offered for the particular susceptibility of children to thyroid cancer following exposure to radiation. Another significant cause of concern was the health consequences to clean-up workers in radiological accidents. The main factor is psychological problems from the stress of knowing that they have received high radiation doses. A dramatic increase in psychological disorders has occurred in the Ukraine over the past ten years and this is attributed to stress generated by the Chernobyl accident, compounded by the inadequacy of the public advice offered at the time and the socio-economic uncertainties accompanying the breakup of the former USSR. (UK)

  7. The Cuban Chernobyl program. realities and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In April of 1990 started the 'Cuban Chernobyl Program'. This program was designed to offers specialised medical attention and to develop a rehabilitation plan with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. Up to the moment more than 21 500 children and adults had been assisted in the program, with a significant set of medical procedures done. Dosimetric, biomedical and psychological research had been also carried out as part of the program. The more significant medical attention activities include the treatment of 289 children with haematological disorders, including 6 bone marrow transplantation, more than 100 important surgical interventions, and the treatment of 117 children with solid tumors. The dosimetric results on more than 7000 children are including in a database with information on internal Cs 137 contamination, internal, external and total doses, children living location, and its contamination by Cs 137, and other significant information for radiological impact evaluation. The behaviour of all the medical information of the program in relation to the contamination of the land and the internal contamination of the children was analysed using this database. The program has accumulated an experience of interest for physicians, psychologists and in general persons interested in Chernobyl consequences

  8. Trauma management: Chernobyl in Belarus and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Ekatherina

    2016-06-01

    Although the Chernobyl nuclear disaster happened in the Soviet Union in 1986, we still do not know how the most affected states - Ukraine and Belarus - have managed this tragedy since independence. Drawing on the concept of cultural trauma, this article compares Chernobyl narratives in Belarus and Ukraine over the past 28 years. It shows that national narratives of Chernobyl differ, representing the varying ways in which the state overcomes trauma. Our understanding of post-communist transformations can be improved by analysing trauma management narratives and their importance for new national identity construction. These narratives also bring new insights to our vision of cultural trauma by linking it to ontological insecurity. The article demonstrates how the state can become an arena of trauma process as it commands material and symbolic resources to deal with trauma. In general, it contributes to a better understanding of how the same traumatic event can become a source of solidarity in one community, but a source of hostility in another. PMID:27191056

  9. Microorganisms of radionuclides-contaminated soils of Chernobyl: in depth analysis of diversity and study of uranium-bacteria interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we explored the microbial diversity of Bacteria and Archaea evolving since 25 years in a radioactive-waste repository trench located in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. To assess the effect of long-term RNs exposure on diversity, microbial assemblages of soil samples highly contaminated with radionuclides (RNs) such as 137Cs and uranium were compared with nearby controls using high throughput pyro-sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The analysis of 690,023 sequences evidenced high diversity in all samples with 34 bacterial and 2 archaeal phylum represented. Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were the most consistently detected phyla, representing 90% of all sequences.This result demonstrates that a long term exposure did not lead to the decrease of microbial diversity. Furthermore, principal component analysis of pyro-sequencing data showed that microbial communities of RNs contaminated samples differed significantly from that of controls, suggesting the presence of RNs adapted species in the contaminated samples. Several heterotrophic aerobic bacteria have been cultured from the contaminated samples. Among them, the strain Microbacterium sp. A9 exhibited high uranium tolerance. The interaction between this strain and uranium was investigated by a combination of spectroscopic (FTIR and TRLFS) and microscopic (TEM/EDX) approaches. Comparison of data obtained at 4 and 25 deg. C evidenced active and passive mechanisms of uranium uptake and release. We demonstrated that after a first step of uranium and phosphate release via an active efflux mechanism, Microbacterium sp. A9 accumulates U(VI) as intracellular needle-like structures composed of autunite. The functional groups involved in the interactions with uranium were identified. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  10. PECULIARITIES OF CURRENT DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR CHILDREN LIVING IN THE TERRITORIES RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gromov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines peculiarities of current dose assessment for the children living in the territories radioactively contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident. The results of annual exposure dose assessment for the children of various age groups and adult population of three subject territories of the Russian Federation referred to the zones of radioactive contamination are presented. A comparison of obtained estimations is done.

  11. Thyroid consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, F; Vorontsova, T; Molinaro, E; Shavrova, E; Agate, L; Kuchinskaya, E; Elisei, R; Demidchik, E P; Pinchera, A

    1999-12-01

    It is well recognized that the use of external irradiation of the head and neck to treat patients with various non-thyroid disorders increases their risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma years after radiation exposure. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has also been reported in survivors of the atomic bombs in Japan, as well as in Marshall Island residents exposed to radiation during the testing of hydrogen bombs. More recently, exposure to radioactive fallout as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has clearly caused an enormous increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus, Ukraine, and, to a lesser extent, in the Russian Federation, starting in 1990. When clinical and epidemiological features of thyroid carcinomas diagnosed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident are compared with those of naturally occurring thyroid carcinomas in patients of the same age group in Italy and France, it becomes apparent that the post-Chernobyl thyroid carcinomas were much less influenced by gender, virtually always papillary (solid and follicular variants), more aggressive at presentation and more frequently associated with thyroid autoimmunity. Gene mutations involving the RET proto-oncogene, and less frequently TRK, have been shown to be causative events specific for papillary cancer. RET activation was found in nearly 70% of the patients who developed papillary thyroid carcinomas following the Chernobyl accident. In addition to thyroid cancer, radiation-induced thyroid diseases include benign thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, with or without thyroid insufficiency, as observed in populations after environmental exposure to radioisotopes of iodine and in the survivors of atomic bomb explosions. On this basis, the authors evaluated thyroid autoimmune phenomena in normal children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident. The results demonstrated an increased prevalence of circulating thyroid

  12. The fungous infection of human organs by resistant melanin-synthesizing species is one of pathogenic factor and one of valid consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of melanin-containing components and sources of their appearance in bronchoalveolar washout by the accident liquidators at the Chernobyl NPP is studied. The appearance of mutant melanin containing fungal forms in the zones with increased radioactive contamination is conditioned by their adaptation to changed conditions of their existence. the conclusion is made that fungal infection of the mans organs through radio- and chemi-resistant melanin-synthesizing species at the background of radiation-induced weakening of immune reaction of the man's body is one of the most dangerous and real effects of the Chernobyl NPP accident

  13. Reporting on Radiation: A Content Analysis of Chernobyl Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sharon M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Evaluates how well the media guided readers and viewers through the Chernobyl disaster. Concludes that the press and television did not provide enough radiation and risk information in their coverage of the Chernobyl accident, but what was provided was appropriate, even-handed, and conservative. (NKA)

  14. Agricultural soils decontamination techniques: methods and results of tests realized near Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a major nuclear accident, decontamination of agricultural soils would be necessary in order to reclaim the land. Specific techniques were studied in the framework of the European program for Rehabilitation of Soils and Surfaces after an Accident (RESSAC). Different ways to remove the top layer of soils are described, and especially the use of Decontaminating Vegetal Network (D.V.N.) combined with spraying of organic polymers. Real scale tests in the 30 km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant showed that it is possible to achieve an excellent decontamination of agricultural fields (decontamination factor greater than 95%. (author)

  15. Proceeding of the 2-nd International Conference 'Long-term Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Disaster'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the second International conference 'Long-term health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster' in 1-6 June 1998 Kiev (Ukraine) the following problems were discussed: 1.Epidemiological aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 2.Clinical and biological effects of ionizing radiation; 3.Social and psychological aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster; 4.Rehabilitation of the Chernobyl disaster survivors

  16. Chernobyl plume: commentary about a discharge; Nuage de Chernobyl: commentaires sur un non-lieu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-07-15

    The Paris appeal court has dismissed the charges against P. Pellerin who was the head of the SCIRP (service of protection against the ionizing radiations) at the time of the Chernobyl accident. The appeal court confirms that P.Pellerin never said that the Chernobyl plume stopped at the French border but instead he said that the Chernobyl plume entered the French territory but the radioactivity level was so low that it was unnecessary to take sanitary steps. P.Pellerin based his decision on the results of 6500 controls performed by the SCIRP in May and June 1986. Seven other European countries recommended not to take sanitary measures. The increase of thyroid cancers that has happened in all industrialized countries and that affect only adults, can not due to Chernobyl contamination because child's thyroid is far more sensitive than adult's. The increase of thyroid cancer is mainly due to a better detection of the tumors. (A.C.)

  17. Deposition of Chernobyl-derived transuranium nuclides and short- lived radon-222 progeny in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the atmospheric deposition of radionuclides was investigated from two different viewpoints. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986 caused a widely spread plume of radionuclides, including transuranium elements. The regional deposition of these elements in Finland was assessed based on lichen and peat samples. Unlike the deposition of transuranium elements from the weapons tests in the 1950's and 1960's, the deposition from the Chernobyl accident was very unevenly distributed in Finland. Also, the Chernobyl-derived deposition of 299,240Pu even in the most contaminated regions in Finland was still only some 10 per cent of the global fallout from weapons tests. On the other hand, the measured activity concentrations of 241Pu in the upper parts of lichen samples are comparable to those found in samples comparable during the heaviest weapons-test fallout in the early 1960's. The observed average 241Pu/239,240Pu activity ratio in the upper parts of lichen, 95, can be expected to lead at its maximum in the year 2059 to 241Am/239,240Pu activity ratio of 2.8 in the Chernobyl-derived deposition, exclusive of the 241Am present in the original deposition in 1986. The deposition pattern of transuranium elements observed in this work resembles that of refractory gamma-emitting nuclides such as 95Zr and 141Ce. The sampling area of this investigation does not cover the northern part of Finland. However, the fallout pattern of 95Zr would suggest that the deposition of transuranium nuclides north of the 65th latitude was very low. Biological half-lives of 730 d and 320 d for Pu and Am, respectively, were obtained in lichen in this study. The second part of this work is concerned with the factors affecting the wet deposition efficiency of the natural short-lived radon-222 progeny. This was studied with two methods: using recordings of external gamma radiation in central Finland, and using an automatic precipitation gamma analyser in northern Finland

  18. Research activities about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl NPS accident and social activities to assist the sufferers by the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 12th anniversary is coming soon of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the former USSR on April 26, 1986. Many issues are, however, still unresolved about the radiological impacts on the environment and people due to the Chernobyl accident. This report contains the results of an international collaborative project about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, carried out from November 1995 to October 1997 under the research grant of the Toyota foundation. Collaborative works were promoted along with the following 5 sub-themes: 1) General description of research activities in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine concerning the radiological consequences of the accident. 2) Investigation of the current situation of epidemiological studies about Chernobyl in each affected country. 3) Investigation of acute radiation syndrome among inhabitants evacuated soon after the accident from the 30 km zone around the Chernobyl NPS. 4) Overview of social activities to assist the sufferers by the accident in each affected country. 5) Preparation of special reports of interesting studies being carried out in each affected country. The 27 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  19. Chernobyl lesson and the nuclear power prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At sixteen years from the disaster which made the commercial power reactor nr. 4 of the Chernobyl NPP known worldwide, the radiation effects and the consequences are still vivid. A basic statement is to be underlined, namely, the Chernobyl event was not an accident in a nuclear power plant being in an industrial, commercial state of operation but an accident following an experiment done on the reactor. Lack of professionalism, of nuclear safety culture, the outrageous violation of basic rules and regulations, established for the unit operation, represent some of the causes originating the Chernobyl disaster. One of the most unfair consequences enhanced by an incorrect mass media information and political manipulation was the ensuing antinuclear media campaign. The paper quotes recent monographs and United Nations Documents showing how the facts were distorted to render arguments and support for various political, economical or humanistic goals. Thus, over more than 15 years due to the hard controversies and irrational campaigns on a global scale the nuclear power was discredited. Practically, all the nuclear power plant constructions were either delayed or cancelled. Moreover, some governments have sustained even closing the existing nuclear stations. The author asks himself rhetorically whether somebody has considered and quantified the immense losses produced by such unmotivated policy or else the additional damage and abuse caused to our home planet by the additional burning of fossil fuels to replace the nuclear fuel burning in nuclear power plants. The paper ends by mentioning the environmental advantages and economic efficiency of that clean energy source which is the nuclear power

  20. ENC86: Under the shadow of Chernobyl?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined meeting of the European Nuclear Society, the American Nuclear Society and FORATOM in Geneva from 1-6 June had the distinction of being the first major meeting of the nuclear industry after Chernobyl. It was so close that all the papers had been written before the accident. Nothing, in the sense that Chernobyl was not a western reactor, so in detail very little technical information will emerge which will affect western procedures for reactor design or safety assessment given the reviews that have occurred since Three Mile Island. We will expect to learn a great deal about the handling of emergencies, institutional and organisational arrangements, and potentially could learn a great deal of scientific and radiological interest, but these are all matters of detail, not principle, so nothing has changed. Everything, in the sense that the public perception has changed dramatically for the worse. The public has been shocked by the far-reaching effects of the accident. Whether the change is sufficient to challenge the future development of nuclear power is not yet clear, but the matter is certainly open for debate, at least in some countries. This dual view was reflected throughout the conference. The major speakers in the plenary sessions dwelt principally on the effects of Chernobyl. The speakers in the technical and numerous poster sessions did not, in general, have to make any changes to their presentations or to the detailed scientific material. There was an anti-nuclear demonstration at the conference headquarters on the Sunday evening which prevented some participants reaching the opening reception. This was organised by an umbrella anti-nuclear organisation calling itself 'Contratom'. The first social event having been substantially disrupted, it was noticeable that none of the technical sessions of the conference throughout the rest of the week were affected in the slightest. The views of the major speakers can be grouped into three areas. Firstly

  1. Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

  3. Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The

  4. 论美军航母战斗群在我专属经济区活动的非法性%The Illegality of U.S.Aircraft Carrier Battle Groups Acting in Our Exclusive Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温聪

    2011-01-01

    近年来,美军航母战斗群在我国周边海域活动频繁,特别是去年下半年以来,先后有多个美军航母战斗群驶入我国周边海域进行军事活动,并扬言要进入我国专属经济区内进行活动,这对我国的国家安全利益造成了极大的威胁。本文主要以《联合国海洋法公约》为依据,论证了美航母战斗群在我专属经济区内进行军事活动的非法性,驳斥了美军所谓"国际海域军事行动合法"的错误主张。%In recent years,U.S.carrier battle groups came into the surrounding waters of China frequently.Especially since the second half of last year,there have been several U.S.carrier battle groups entering into the surrounding waters of our country for military activities,what's more,they even threatened to come into China's exclusive economic zone,which harmed the national security interests.Mainly based on United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea,this paper demonstrates the illegality of U.S.carrier battle groups acting in our exclusive economic zone for military purpose,meanwhile,refutes the wrong theory held by the U.S.military,in which it claims that "it is legal to take military actions in international waters".

  5. Atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resuspension can be an important secondary source of contamination after a release has stopped, as well as a source of contamination for people and areas not exposed to the original release. The inhalation of resuspended radionuclides contributes to the overall dose received by exposed individuals. Based on measurements collected after the Chernobyl accident, Scenario R was developed to provide an opportunity to test existing mathematical models of contamination resuspension. In particular, this scenario provided the opportunity to examine data and test models for atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides at several different locations from the release, to investigate resuspension processes on both local and regional scales, and to investigate the importance of seasonal variations of these processes. Participants in the test exercise were provided with information for three different types of locations: (1) within the 30-km zone, where local resuspension processes are expected to dominate; (2) a large urban location (Kiev) 120 km from the release site, where vehicular traffic is expected to be the dominant mechanism for resuspension; and (3) an agricultural area 40-60 km from the release site, where highly contaminated upwind 'hot spots' are expected to be important. Input information included characteristics of the ground contamination around specific sites, climatological data for the sites, characteristics of the terrain and topography, and locations of the sampling sites. Participants were requested to predict the average (quarterly and yearly) concentrations of 137 Cs in air at specified locations due to resuspension of Chernobyl fallout; predictions for 90 Sr and 239 + 240 Pu were also requested for one location and time point. Predictions for specified resuspension factors and rates were also requested. Most participants used empirical models for the resuspension factor as a function of time K(t), as opposed to process-based models. While many of these

  6. Radiation-epidemiological Study of Cerebrovascular Diseases in the Cohort of Russian Recovery Operation Workers of the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashcheev, V V; Chekin, S Yu; Maksioutov, M A; Tumanov, K A; Menyaylo, A N; Kochergina, E V; Kashcheeva, P V; Gorsky, A I; Shchukina, N V; Karpenko, S V; Ivanov, V K

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD) in the cohort of Russian workers involved in recovery tasks after the Chernobyl accident. The studied cohort consists of 53,772 recovery operation workers (liquidators) who arrived in the zone of the Chernobyl accident within the first year after this accident (26 April 1986-26 April 1987). The mean external whole body dose in the cohort was 0.161 Gy, while individual doses varied from 0.0001 Gy to 1.42 Gy. During the follow-up period 1986-2012, a total of 23,264 cases of CeVD were diagnosed as a result of annual health examinations. A Poisson regression model was applied for estimation of radiation risks and for an assessment of other risk factors of CeVD. The following factors were considered as risk factors for CeVD: the dose, duration of the liquidators' work in the Chernobyl zone, and the concomitant diseases (hypertension, ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, and diabetes). The baseline incidence of CeVD is statistically significantly (p diabetes mellitus statistically significantly (p = 0.002) increases the radiation risk of CeVD: for liquidators with diagnosed diabetes, ERR/Gy = 1.29. PMID:27356064

  7. The causes of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

  8. Chernobyl caesium distribution in two forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident on April 26, 1986, affected a considerable part of Europe, including the Romanian territory too. As part of the environment, the forests, covering up to 30 % area of Romania, were contaminated by the radionuclides resulting from Chernobyl nuclear accident. Being a source of radionuclides for intake and habitat for some critical groups and also a secondary source of contamination (resuspension, erosion), forest radioecology is an increasing research topic. The distribution of radiocaesium with depth was analysed in the brown-reddish forest type soil of two forests. The profile with depth and the specific activity of each layer permit the assessment of: total deposition, migration rate and diffusion coefficient for Cs-137 and also Cs-134. The total deposition of Cs-137 is about 47 kBq/m2 for Magurele area and about 14 kBq/m2 for Naipu forest. The migration rate is more than 10 times greater in Naipu forest as in Magurele forest. The diffusion coefficients are similar, about 0.2 cm2/an. (author)

  9. From Chernobyl to Fukushima: the effect of low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Power Point presentation describes the Fukushima's reactors, recalls some data about the earthquake and tsunami, and indicates their consequences for the operation of the power station (notably the loss of cooling means). It identifies some design errors for the Chernobyl's and Fukushima's power stations, outlines differences between these two cases. It gives assessment of doses receives by external irradiation around Fukushima, of the dose rate evolution, of the sea contamination. It gives some data about the Chernobyl accident (radioactivity evolution). After some data about health consequences of Chernobyl, health risks and more particularly biological risks associated to low doses are described. Protection measures are evoked, as well as psycho-social impacts

  10. Investigation of the response of wood-rotting fungi to copper stress by size-exclusion chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis with ICP MS detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacchina, V.; Szpunar, J. [Group of Bio-inorganic Analytical Chemistry, CNRS UMR 5034, Pau (France); Baldrian, P.; Gabriel, J. [Laboratory of the Biochemistry of the Wood-Rotting Fungi, Institute of Microbiology ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2002-02-01

    A method based on the coupling of size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) was developed for screening the changes in the bioligand composition of wood-rotting fungi as a function of their exposure to copper stress. Strains of four different species of wood-rotting fungi: Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Schizophyllum commune, Daedalea quercina and Pleurotus ostreatus were examined. Only one, namely Ph. chrysosporium, showed any significant difference in terms of the fingerprint of Cu-binding ligands between control and exposed cells which suggest trapping of Cu(II) by cell walls as the only resistance mechanisms. In the case of Ph. chrysosporium the bioinduction of a new Cu-binding ligand was demonstrated. The presence of a new compound in the SE chromatographic fraction of interest was confirmed by CZE-ICP MS. Attempts to identify the new compound by electrospray MS/MS failed because of insufficient sensitivity. (orig.)

  11. Surveillance of congenital malformations in Belarus. Chernobyl aftermath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to study possible genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident in human population a comparative analysis of the prevalence at birth of congenital malformations (CM) was performed on region and area administrative levels basing on the data of Belarus registry of CM permanently functioning since 1979. An attempt was made to evaluate dose dependence of the effects under study. We analyzed time trends of the prevalence at birth of 9 so called 'mandatory registered' nosologic units of CM. These group of CM could be easily diagnosed within the neonatal period and were assigned for registration at creation of the registry. Over 12 thousand cases registered within the period of 1981 to 2004 in 4 regions as well as about 3 thousand cases found in 47 rayons highly contrasting by radiation exposure were scrutinized. No long-term impact of the Chernobyl release on prevalence rates of surveyed CM was shown. Since the middle 80-s a similar steady increasing trend was observed as in contaminated, as in control areas with a tendency to stabilization after middle 90-s. We fail to reveal a dose dependence for CM prevalence rates calculated for the whole post-accidental period. Nonetheless, during the first years after the accident situation in contaminated areas was notably different from those in the control. Within the period of 1987 to 1989 a significant access of CM prevalence was registered in the strict radiological control area (Cs 137 soil contamination over 555 kBq/m2) as compared to non-contaminated zone. Relative risk was estimated as RR1987-1989 = 1.57 with 95% confidence interval being 95%CI = [1.29; 1.89]. Before the accident no difference in prevalence rates was marked (RR1981-1986 = 0.93; 95%CI = [0.80; 1.09]); nor it was evident in the farther post-accidental period (RR1990-2004 = 0.99; 95%CI = [0.80; 1.09]). Anomalies with high contribution of dominant de novo mutations (polydactyly, reduction defects of limbs and multiple CM) played principal

  12. Assisting the Return to Normal Life in Chernobyl-Affected Regions: The International Chernobyl Research and Information Network (ICRIN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the International Chernobyl Research and Information Network (ICRIN) project, a programme designed to meet the priority information needs of communities in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine which were affected by the 1986 nuclear accident. Its aim is to empower Chernobyl affected communities through targeted delivery of the most recent scientific information on the accident’s impacts, translated into practical advice, including recommendations on healthy lifestyles. Supported by a United Nations General Assembly resolution, the project is part of a broader effort by all United Nations agencies to help local communities return to normal life, under the United Nations Action Plan on Chernobyl to 2016. (author)

  13. Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of

  14. Chernobyl: disinformation. 2000 dead in Chernobyl: they were made by journalists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having briefly recalled the scenario which resulted in the Chernobyl accident, the differences between the Chernobyl reactor and the French graphite-based reactors, and that some modifications have been introduced in the alarm system of the Bugey reactor, the author reviews the chronology of events and information after the accident. He recalls the Soviet way to deal with the information, states that the authorities did not immediately understand the severity of the accident. He notably outlines and comments a statement reporting that 2.000 people died just after the accident. Thus, it appears that both sides could be criticized, the Russian side for its slow reaction, and the Western side for disinformation. He also denounces a fake documentary report made by a French journalist (images pretended to have been taken in Chernobyl had been in fact shot in an Italian factory). He also evokes the reactions of people in front of this kind information about risks of exposure. He analyses the content of an article written by a French journalist who denounced some kinds of plots elaborated by oil companies, by the USSR, by anti-nuclear activists

  15. Chernobyl: four years later: attitudes, risk management and communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Pligt; C.H.J. Midden

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the impact that the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl has had on risk management and risk communication in relation to risk perception; decisions and coping with uncertainty; and public opinion, personal attitudes, and public policy.

  16. Marine dispersion of caesium 137 released from Sellafield and Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandle, D.; Beechey, J.

    1991-09-01

    This modelling study examines the dispersion within the shelf seas surrounding the UK, of 137Cs discharged from Sellafield between 1969 and 1988 together with the atmospheric deposition following Chernobyl (April 1986). The close agreement obtained between computed and observed distributions lends confidence to estimates of flushing times-fundamental parameters in determining pollutant concentrations. Moreover, this study confirms, to first-order, the estimates of Chernobyl fall-out provided by atmospheric dispersion models.

  17. Chernobyl as viewed from the 90's [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is admitted in this film that after the Chernobyl accident there was a lot of unnecessary secrecy which created a great deal of confusion among the public. The film shows the investigations within the reactor and the efforts undertaken to put the remnants of the reactor into a safe state, including the construction of the sarcophagus which was built around it. The film also presents the radiological environmental monitoring, as well as the health aspects of Chernobyl

  18. Chernobyl and the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the possible bearing of the Chernobyl accident on the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries. It discusses analyses of the accident performed in several countries as well as improvements to the safety of RBMK reactors announced by the USSR. Several remaining questions are identified. The report compares RBMK safety features with those of commercial reactors in OECD countries and evaluates a number of issues raised by the Chernobyl accident

  19. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later; Propos sur Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M

    2006-07-01

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  20. After the Chernobyl reactor accident: Just got away?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feeling of depression and insecurity experienced immediately after the Chernobyl reactor accident has gone by, and people go out for a walk again, and drink their milk. Are we happily aware we got away with it this time, or is it rather a feeling of resignation that makes us return to normal life? The Chernobyl disaster will only after some time be really assessed in its novel, global dimension. (orig.)

  1. The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the decay of the iodine isotopes the measuring campaigns, in addition to the measuring of soil pollution and pollution of products, concentrated on the way of the cesium isotopes through the food chain, especially in crops, milk, meat and mother's milk. A special programme was developed for the analysis of foreign basic substances for teas, essences and tinctures. In connection with the incorporation measurements in the university hospital Eppendorf the measurement campaigns provided the data material in order to calculate with the aid of the computer program ECOSYS of the GSF the effective dose equivalent which the inhabitants of Hamburg additionally take up due to the accident of Chernobyl. Consequences with regard to measuring methods and social consequences are mentioned. (DG)

  2. Challenger and Chernobyl: lessons and reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary cause of the Challenger accident was the failure of O-ring seals in the solid rocket booster, a subcomponent which had been known to be faulty for some time. When Hans Mark was the most senior engineering member of the NASA management executive team, he had asked for a complete review of these subcomponents; this was not done. The accident to the Chernobyl atomic reactor has not been publicly analyzed to the same extent as the Challenger explosion, and hence there must remain some speculation as to the detailed sequence of events. The lessons from both accidents are clear: faulty human understanding the the equipment and the lack of education, training and discipline were critical. The authors conclude that the Shuttle will fly again soon, and that political problems in the Soviet Union may be great and may force some changes. (author)

  3. Spa treatment of Chernobyl liquidators in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the first experience gained in the use of the unique climate and spa of the Dead Sea for the treatment and rehabilitation of the Chernobyl liquidators at clinic near the city of Arad. Ninety-six patients were treated in Israel, in 40 of these radiation was the etiological factor of the disease: consequences of acute and chronic radiation disease, the astheno-neurotic syndrome, discirculatory encephalopathy, subatrophic laryngopharyngitis, and obstructive bronchitis. Eighty-eight patients had direct indications for treatment at the Dad Sea; locomotory, respiratory, and skin diseases. The course of treatment included the Dad Sea baths, mud applications, sun baths, climatotherapy, physiotherapy, massage, bioenergy therapy, inhalations, moisturizing creams, etc. An appreciable improvement with resolution of the principal symptoms was attained in 82% of patients, in 13% improvement with a significant abatement of the symptoms was achieved, whereas in 5% no apparent results were seen

  4. Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident for the Department of the Environment was started in June 1986 which involved taking on an opportunistic basis, samples of air, rain, grass and soil in the UK. This study was integrated into a programme of other investigations funded by the Departments of Health and Social Security and of Energy including measurements on people, in air, deposition and soil overseas, on deposition to buildings and the derivation where possible of parameters of interest in accident assessment. This report is a comprehensive account of all these initial investigations and presented in fulfilment of the Preliminary Study under DoE contract PECD 7/9/359. (author)

  5. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine has deeply affected the living conditions of millions of people. Especially the health consequences have been of public concern up to the present and also been the subject of sometimes absurd claims. The current knowledge on the radiological consequences of the accident is reviewed. Though an increased hazard for some risk groups with high radiation exposure, e.g., liquidators, still cannot be totally excluded for the future, the majority of the population shows no statistically significant indication of radiation-induced illnesses. The contribution of the Research Center Juelich to the assessment of the post-accidental situation and psychological relief of the population is reported. The population groups still requiring special attention include, in particular, children growing up in highly contaminated regions and the liquidators of the years 1986 and 1987 deployed immediately after the accident. (author)

  6. Health protection measures after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes the nutritional measures introduced to protect health after the Chernobyl accident, and the associated costs. The toal value of the reindeer meat, mutton, lamb and goat meat saved as a result of such measures in 1987 amounted to approx. NOK 250 million. The measures cost approx. NOK 60 million. The resulting reduction in the radiation dose level to which the population was exposed was 450 manSv. In 1988, mutton/lamb and goat meat valued at approx. NOK 310 million was saved from contamination by similar measures, which cost approx. NOK 50 million. The resulting dose level reduction was approx. 200 manSv. The relationship (cost/benefit ratio) between the overall cost of the measures taken to reduce radioactivity levels in food and the dose level reduction achieved was acceptable. 11 refs

  7. The enduring lessons of Chernobyl. International conference of the Chernobyl Forum, 6 September 2005, Vienna, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a defining moment in the history of nuclear energy. The lessons of this tragedy are interwoven with a recurrent theme: namely, the importance of international cooperation. With its recently released document - entitled 'Chernobyl's Legacy' - the Chernobyl Forum has solidly reinforced that theme. The major impacts of Chernobyl fall into three categories: the physical impacts, in terms of health and environmental effects; the psychological and social impacts on the affected populations; and the influence of the accident on the nuclear industry worldwide. The physical impacts mark Chernobyl as the site of the most serious nuclear accident in history. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core released a cloud of radionuclides that contaminated large areas of Europe and, in particular, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Hundreds of thousands of people were exposed to substantial radiation doses, including workers from all three of these countries who participated in efforts to mitigate the consequences of the accident. The definitive numbers compiled in the Chernobyl Forum report are sobering: the 50 emergency rescue workers who died from acute radiation syndrome and related illnesses; the 4000 children and adolescents who contracted thyroid cancer - 9 of whom also died; and the hundreds of thousands of hectares of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres that were contaminated by environmental fallout. But as severe as these impacts were, the situation was made even worse by conflicting information and vast exaggerations - in press coverage and pseudo-scientific accounts of the accident - reporting, for example, fatalities in the tens or hundreds of thousands. The psychological and social impacts were also devastating. Over 100 000 people were immediately evacuated, and the total number of evacuees from contaminated areas eventually reached 350 000. While some of these

  8. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  9. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  10. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  11. Epidemiologic studies based on the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, G. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There are great opportunities in the post-Chernobyl experience for significant epidemiologic research, perhaps even more in the area of disaster research than in the area of the human health effects of ionizing radiation. But the potential opportunity for learning the effects of radioiodine on the thyroid is very great and has aroused widespread national and international investigative interest. The opportunities for significant epidemiologic research are, however, severely limited currently by the worsening economic situation in Belarus and Ukraine, where the greatest exposure occurred, and by the lack of personnel trained in appropriate methods of study, the lack of modern equipment, the lack of supplies, the poor communication facilities, and the difficulties of accurate dose estimation. the disadvantages may or may not outweigh the obvious advantages of large numbers, the extensive direct thyroidal measurements made shortly after the accident in 1986, the magnitude of the releases of radioiodine, and the retention of the former Soviet system of universal medical care. Both the European Commission (EC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have been working actively to strengthen the infrastructure of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. New scientific knowledge has yet to emerge from the extensive epidemiologic work but information of considerable public health significance has begun to accumulate. The bulk of the thyroid cancer has been shown to be valid by international pathology review; both EC and WHO representatives have declared the increase in thyroid cancer among children to have been caused in large part by Chernobyl. No increase in leukemia has been seen in the general population. The WHO pilot studies have shown no evidence of an increase in psychologic or neurologic complications among those exposed in utero. Ongoing epidemiologic work can be described by review of the inventory that the WHO has begun to maintain and publish. 20 refs., 7 tabs.

  12. Chernobyl caesium distribution in two forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident on April 26, 1986 affected a considerable part of Europe, including the Romanian territory too. The soil acts as an integrator and the main part of the received radionuclides remains here. However, due to diffusion, leaching and runoff, activity of living organisms in soil, human activity and different other factors, the deposited radionuclides on the soil surface can be removed from the original deposition areas. Mainly, the transport of Cs-137 from soil to other environmental factors is intensively studied having in view the natural resource exploitation in radioactive contaminated areas, this radionuclide being one of the most important radioisotopes released by earlier nuclear weapon tests and nuclear accidents. Generally, migration rates of radionuclides in soil are evaluated by column and percolation experiments, in controlled conditions and using well-defined concentrations of the radionuclide. As part of the environment, the forests have been contaminated up to a depth of 30 cm by the radionuclides resulting from Chernobyl nuclear accident. As the forest is a source of radionuclides for intake and habitat for some critical groups and also a secondary source of contamination (resuspension, erosion), its radioecology became an increasing research topic. The depth distribution of radiocaesium was analysed in the brown-reddish forest type soil of two forests. The depth profile and the specific activity of each layer permit the assessment of total deposition, migration rate and diffusion coefficient for Cs-137 and Cs-134. The total deposition of Cs-137 is about 47 kBq/m2 for Magurele area and about 14 kBq/m2 for Naipu forest. The migration rate is more than 10 times higher in Naipu forest as compared to Magurele forest. The diffusion coefficients are similar, namely about 0.2 cm2/year. (authors)

  13. Exclusive Dealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fumagalli, Chiara; Motta, Massimo; Rønde, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies a model whereby exclusive dealing (ED) can both promote investment and foreclose a more efficient supplier. Since ED promotes the incumbent seller's investment, the seller and the buyer realize a greater surplus from bilateral trade under exclusivity. Hence, the parties involved...

  14. Rehabilitation of living conditions in the post-Chernobyl context: Implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system in the Bragin district in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just after the Chernobyl accident, in the mid nineties, a radiation monitoring system was introduced to allow the Belarusian authorities to manage the situation but it failed to involve the general population. This resulted in the fact that a significant fraction of people living in contaminated areas continued to receive exposures that could have been avoided or reduced, if authorities had better taken into account the individual behaviours. Face to this situation, the goal of this project is to contribute to the development of a sustainable system of radiological monitoring handled by the local professionals and the population. It was launched in 2004 in the Bragin district (Belarus) in the framework of the CORE Programme (Cooperation for Rehabilitation) whose general objective is to improve the living conditions of the inhabitants of the territories affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe. The Bragin district is adjacent to the 30-kilometre exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Beginning in April 2004, existing infrastructure and means of measurement in the Bragin district were significantly modernised and completed. Today, the monitoring system relies on measurements of contamination of the body and measurements of the radiological quality of food stuffs (measurements of the caesium-137 concentration). In particular, whole-body scan measurement campaigns are carried out every six months in the schools in the district. On the basis of the results of measurements, the most severely contaminated children are systematically identified. Local health professionals and specialists of measurements work, with their families, to determine causes of the contamination and identify the scope for practical reduction of the intake of caesium. In a general manner, they periodically diffuse the results of measurements in the villages of the district via brochures or articles in newspapers. They also constitute a solid network that provides people with reliable

  15. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.

    2003-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

  16. Chernobyl: what are the consequences for France?; Tchernobyl: quelles consequences pour la France?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Service Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-06-15

    This article sheds light on the controversy of the impact in France of the Chernobyl accident. It is shown that the increase in the number of thyroid cancers can not be attributed to the radioactive fallout of Chernobyl because this increase began in 1975 and has been continuing till now at the same pace. This increase is due to the development of the echography technique that allows the detection of very small tumors that do not usually evolve into cancers and then passed unnoticed before. The Astral program launched in 1997 and based on the numerous measurements made in 1986 concerning food contamination has led to the drawing of a reliable assessment of the spatial distribution of mean efficient dose over the French territory. It appears that in the most contaminated zone, this dose reached 0.4 10{sup -3} Sievert in 1986 (iodine + cesium) while the natural radioactivity varies from 2.5 to 5 10{sup -3} Sievert over the French territory. (A.C.)

  17. VERTICAL MIGRATION OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE VICINITY OF THE CHERNOBYL CONFINEMENT SHELTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Marra, J.

    2011-10-01

    Studies on vertical migration of Chernobyl-origin radionuclides in the 5-km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the area of the Red Forest experimental site were completed. Measurements were made by gamma spectrometric methods using high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors with beryllium windows. Alpha-emitting isotopes of plutonium were determined by the measurement of the x-rays from their uranium progeny. The presence of {sup 60}Co, {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 154,155}Eu, and {sup 241}Am in all soil layers down to a depth of 30 cm was observed. The presence of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am were noted in the area containing automorphous soils to a depth of 60 cm. In addition, the upper soil layers at the test site were found to contain {sup 243}Am and {sup 243}Cm. Over the past ten years, the {sup 241}Am/{sup 137}Cs ratio in soil at the experimental site has increased by a factor of 3.4, nearly twice as much as would be predicted based solely on radioactive decay. This may be due to 'fresh' fallout emanating from the ChNPP Confinement Shelter.

  18. Economic damage and state policy on the overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe consequences. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident for the Republic of Belarus are given. The damage, taking into account the 30-years period needed for its overcoming, is estimated to be 235 billion US$ that is equal to 32 annual budgets of the republic of 1985. The losses connected with the deterioration of population health, damage incurred in industry and social sphere, agriculture, building complex, transport and communication, housing, with contamination of raw, mineral, land, water, forest and other resources are shown. The main directions of the state and legislative bodies activity on overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences are directed on realization of complex of measures on maximum decreasing the radiation exposure dose; providing safety of people's health at the expense of medical preventive measures, improvement of their health, social insurance and resettlement from the zones where the safe living criteria are not observed; providing safe living conditions in regions subjected to radioactive contamination; rise of population life quality in these regions; scientific research of the problems connected with radiation influence on ecosystem, etc. The medical care and social protection systems of the affected population are describe. 3 figs

  19. Legal aspects and conflicts in the context of offshore wind power plant licensing in the exclusive economic zone; Rechtliche Probleme der Zulassung von Windkraftanlagen in der ausschliesslichen Wirtschaftszone (AWZ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinski, S. [Rechtsanwaltskanzlei Schmidt-Wottrich, Jungnickel und Partner, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    The analysis presented discusses in depth the existing German laws, regulations and legal instruments, including constitutional case law, as well as European Directives and rulings of the European Court of Justice, which are to be observed in the context of planning and licensing of offshore wind power plants, in particular in the exclusive economic zone. The author elaborates on deficits in the system of applicable German law, incompatibility aspects with European law, and resulting problems. The conclusions to be considered by the German legislator are explained, and the author presents his recommendations in a list of ten items, addressing aspects of amendment and consolidation of existing German law, and harmonisation with European law. (orig./CB) [German] Diese Analyse untersucht alle nationalen und internationalen Rechtsgrundlagen und Instrumentarien, sowie Anforderungen und Bedingungen, die sich aus Gerichtsentscheidungen des Bundesverfassungsgerichts und des Europaeischen Gerichtshofes ergeben, die bei der Genehmigung von Windkraftanlagen in Kuestengewaessern und in der ausschliesslichen Wirtschaftszone (AWZ) beachtet werden muessen. Der rechtlich wichtigste Bereich ist die AWZ, der ausfuehrlich behandelt wird. Es werden Defizite im deutschen Recht aufgezeigt, Unvereinbarkeiten mit europaeischem Recht und daraus resultierende Probleme. In der Schlussfolgerung wird empfohlen, die deutschen rechtlichen Bestimmungen neu zu ordnen. Eine entsprechende Ausgestaltung wird anhand von 10 konkreten Ansatzpunkten erlaeutert. (orig./CB)

  20. Etude comparée de la pêche des thonidés mineurs par les chaluts doubles et les pirogues dans la zone économique exclusive (ZEE ivoirienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'Guessan, CD.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Survey Compared of the Fishing of Minor Tuna by the Double Dragnets and the Dugouts in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ of the Ivory Coast. The both units of peaches (double dragnets and dugouts that practice in Ivory Coast have captured 168,833.3 tons of minor tuna. Six species have been met in the landings of the dragnets pelagic and Scomberomorus tritor (79% was the dominant of all (Sarda sarda, Auxis thazard, Euthynnus alletteratus, Scomber japonicus and Acanthocybium solandri. On the other hand, the level of the dugouts, Auxis thazard (58% and Euthynnus alletteratus (40% were abounding. The big sizes have been captured by the contraptions netting nets, and the small sizes, by the dragnets pelagic. At the species it is the opposite that is observed itself. The Acanthocybium solandri effort of fishing was pronounced during the cold periods with elevated captures and many varieties of species, the catch per unit effort remained weak. During all the year, the species captured massively in cold season were Euthynnus alletteratus, Auxis thazard, Acanthocybium solandri, Scomber japonicus and Sarda sarda, exploited by the dugouts; while the one in hot season was Scomberomorus tritor captured by the double dragnets.

  1. Present and future environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident. Study monitored by an International Advisory Committee under the project management of the Institut de protection et de surete nucleaire (IPSN), France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of studies of the radiological and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The studies, carried out by experts from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine during the period 1986-1995, covered the current and likely radiological situation; the effects of the accident on human life in the contaminated regions; radiobiological consequences of the irradiation of flora and fauna in the exclusion zone; and remedial actions to reduce long term human exposure. The radiological data include recent estimates of the radionuclide releases in April-May 1986 from the damaged reactor and of soil contamination levels in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. It is shown that most of the long lived radionuclide activity is still concentrated in the upper (0-10 cm) soil layer. The report describes the dynamics of radionuclide concentration in surface water, in agricultural produce of vegetable and animal origin, in forest litter/soil and trees, and in mushrooms consumed by the local population. The results of reconstructions of the external and internal doses received by inhabitants of contaminated areas during the period 1986-1995 and dose forecasts for 1996-2056 are presented. For most of the population, external irradiation due to 137 Cs will be the main contributor to the total future, dose. The report discusses the social and economic impact of the Chernobyl accident on the well-being of the people in the affected countries caused by reduced collective and private production and by trade restrictions due to the radioactive contamination of produce. Increased morbidity has been reported, attributable especially to thyroid cancer in children. The psychological state of people is characterized by high anxiety; the demographic situation is worsening because of the departure of young families. Radiation protection, medical services and economic aid are being provided and the affected areas are being rehabilitated through State

  2. Chernobyl-Related Cancer: Re-Evaluation Needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei JARGIN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been no clearly demonstrated cancer incidence increase that can be attributed to radiation from Chernobyl accident, except for the thyroid carcinoma in the individuals exposed in childhood and adolescence. The drastic increase of thyroid cancer started 4 years after the accident. The solid/follicular subtype of papillary thyroid carcinoma predominated in the early period after the accident. Histopathological diagnosis of cancer in such cases, if no infiltrative growth is visible, is based mainly on the nuclear criteria of papillary carcinoma. Outdated equipment of histopathological laboratories in early 1990s and insufficient quality of histological sections hindered reliable assessment of the nuclear criteria. Access to foreign professional literature has been limited in the former Soviet Union. Appearance of advanced tumors shortly after the accident can be explained by the screening effect with detection of neglected cancers and by the fact that patients were brought from other regions of the former Soviet Union and registered as Chernobyl-related cases. Further evidence in favor of the overestimation of thyroid cancer incidence after Chernobyl accident is discussed. The concluding point is that immunohistochemical and molecular-genetic tests performed within the scope of international studies were partly based on an inadequately selected material, and that supposedly specific features of radiogenic post-Chernobyl cancers characterize, on average, a later stadium of tumor progression. Therefore, some published data on molecular-genetic and other characteristics of post-Chernobyl malignancies require re-evaluation.

  3. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accidents (IPHECA). Protocol for the pilot project ''Thyroid''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protocol document for the Thyroid Project of International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accidents (IPHECA) describes the main aims of the project, namely 1) to detect and describe selected diseases of the thyroid among children and adolescents in population centres assigned earlier as ''strictly controlled zones'' and, 2) to determine, if possible, the link between the prevalence of the diseases and radiation doses received by the thyroid. Population to be investigated, medical and laboratory examinations and advanced diagnostics for thyroid diseases to be undertaken are enlisted in the protocol

  4. Colloid-chemical approach to the solution of urgent ecological problems connected with mitigation of Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the comprehensive investigations carried out by the Dumansky Institute of Colloid and Water Chemistry focused on resolving the urgent ecological problems caused by Chernobyl,disaster summarized. The effective methods to control the solidification terms of hardening lead containing compounds as well as the technique of fastening soil upper layers considered. The penetration proofing materials (compositions) were developed for using in constructing the proofing shields protecting rivers, lakes and fields from pernicious influence of radionuclides and other poisoning pollutions. The decontaminating compositions of solutions reducing the radioactive pollution of porous building materials to sanitary levels of clean zone were proposed

  5. Laser-induced fluorescence of pine (needles) growing in the conditions of pollution with radionuclides of Chernobyl origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a long-term research of the spectra of laser-induced fluorescence (hereafter-SF) of pine (needles) growing in the conditions of Chernobyl origin radionuclides pollution are presented. A complex analysis of fluorescent, biometric and radiological biochemical parameters of pine needles has been performed. Changes in the impact of incorporated radionuclides '137Cs and 90Sr on certain zones of pine SF needles have been detected. It has been shown that the analysis of different-age pine SF needles can be used as a test-method for detection of pollution with 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides

  6. The Chernobyl active phase: why the ''official view'' is wrong [Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a new investigation into the active phase of the Chernobyl accident are summarised. This phase is defined as the period from the initial destruction of the core to the puzzling and very sharp drop in environmental radionuclide release about nine days later. The research was carried out at Chernobyl over 18 months in cooperation with scientists living there. Its objective was to examine the reliability of the official Soviet presentation at the IAEA post-accident review conference in August 1986. In order to reconstruct the events, four new spheres of information were brought together: a reappraisal of the effectiveness of the accident management actions taken to limit the consequences of the accident; a description of the remains of the reactor building and the solidified corium; results of radiochemical analyses of the melted fuel; and an analysis of radioisotope release dynamics. An alternative explanation for the bathtub shaped release curve has been arrived at and a rough release estimate made which confirms suspicions that the amount of radioactivity released into the environment was greater than that officially reported. (UK)

  7. Radiation exposure: Cytogenetic tests. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty test subjects who, either during or after the reactor accident of Chernobyl (26th April 1986), stayed at a building site at Shlobin 150 km away, were examined for spontaneously occurring as well as mitomycin C-induced Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE). The building site staff, who underwent a whole-body radionuclide count upon their return to Austria (June through September 1986), were used for the cytogenetic tests. The demonstration of the SCE was made from whole-blood cultures by the fluorescence/Giemse technique. At last 20 Metaphases of the 2nd mitotic cycle were evaluated per person. The radiation doses of the test subjects were calculated by adding the external exposure determined on the building site, the estimated thyroid dose through I-131, and the measured incorporation of Cs-134 and Cs-137. The subjects were divided into two groups for statistical analysis: One was a more exposed group (proven stay at Shlobin between 26th April and 31st May 1986, mostly working in the open air) and the other a less exposed group for comparison (staying at Shlobin from 1st Juni 1986 and working mainly indoors). (orig.)

  8. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Styria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results which document the contamination of Styria (Southern part of Austria) immediately after and in the years following the Chernobyl accident. The radioactivity and distribution of radionuclides in aerosols, rain water, soil, vegetation, animals and various samples of food are described in great detail. One of the key results is that the highest levels of contamination were found in two districts (Liezen, Deutschlandsberg), and the deposition rates for Cs-137 were determined to be in the range from 3 to about 80 kBq/m2. Of particular interest are studies concerning the migration and distribution of radionuclides in soil, the uptake of radiocesium by the aquatic vegetation and the existence of radionuclides in the natural ecosystem up to this day. Effective dose equivalents due to incorporated radiocesium was estimated to be 252.2 μSv for the adult population of Graz (capital of Styria) over the four years follwing the fallout. (authors) 17 papers are presented and are of INIS scope

  9. Human hair radioactivity in the Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of recent decades have shown that the elemental composition of human hair can be considered as an indicator of both internal and external human body status. However, there are only a few studies on human hair radioactivity. The Chernobyl accident necessitated the study of the hair of various groups of inhabitants of the contaminated area. Data on hair radioactivity and elemental composition allowed us to draw the following conclusions. (1) When account is taken of the simplicity of sampling and measurements of human hair activity in polluted areas can be used as a monitor for fast detection of the scale and area of pollution. (2) Measurement of hair α and β activity is useful for preliminary body burden determination while the whole body counter is inapplicable. (3) Study of activity along the hair strand allows dating of contamination with an accuracy of about 10 days and gives information about the removal of radioactivity from the body. (4) Determination of uranium could give additional information about the distance of nuclear fuel transport from the damaged reactor. (5) Elemental composition of hair and profiles along the strand reflect the influence of medical treatment and can be used to study post-accident health status. ((orig.))

  10. To the problem of concepts of measures for water protection against secondary radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basing on the analysis of experience in water protection measures in the zone of the Chernobyl' accident influence some conceptual approaches to solving the problems of secondary radioactive contamination of the Dnieper river water system are discussed. The scheme of the necessary information support for decision making in the field of water protection measures in zones subjected to accidental contamination by radioactive materials is suggested. It is shown that isolation of flooded source forming radionuclide washing-out from ground and surface waters is the most efficient method for decreasing water contamination level in the zone affected by contaminated spillways and river flood-plain basins. The objects for localization are the contaminated soils or leakages from radioactive waste storage places. 12 refs.; 1 tab

  11. Atmospheric transport of radionuclides emitted due to wildfires near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Zibtsev, Sergey; Myroniuk, Viktor; Zhurba, Marina; Hamburger, Thomas; Stohl, Andreas; Balkanski, Yves; Paugam, Ronan; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Møller, Anders P.; Kireev, Sergey I.

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, two major fires in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) have caused concerns about the secondary radioactive contamination that might have spread over Europe. The total active burned area was estimated to be about 15,000 hectares, of which 9000 hectares burned in April and 6000 hectares in August. The present paper aims to assess, for the first time, the transport and impact of these fires over Europe. For this reason, direct observations of the prevailing deposition levels of 137Cs and 90Sr, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am in the CEZ were processed together with burned area estimates. Based on literature reports, we made the conservative assumption that 20% of the deposited labile radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr, and 10% of the more refractory 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am, were resuspended by the fires. We estimate that about 10.9 TBq of 137Cs, 1.5 TBq of 90Sr, 7.8 GBq of 238Pu, 6.3 GBq of 239Pu, 9.4 GBq of 240Pu and 29.7 GBq of 241Am were released from both fire events. These releases could be classified as of "Level 3" on the relative INES (International Nuclear Events Scale) scale, which corresponds to a serious incident, in which non-lethal deterministic effects are expected from radiation. To simulate the dispersion of the resuspended radionuclides in the atmosphere and their deposition onto the terrestrial environment, we used a Lagrangian dispersion model. Spring fires redistributed radionuclides over the northern and eastern parts of Europe, while the summer fires also affected Central and Southern Europe. The more labile elements escaped more easily from the CEZ and then reached and deposited in areas far from the source, whereas the larger refractory particles were removed more efficiently from the atmosphere and thus did mainly affect the CEZ and its vicinity. For the spring 2015 fires, we estimate that about 80% of 137Cs and 90Sr and about 69% of 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am were deposited over areas outside the CEZ. 93% of the labile and 97% of

  12. Improvement of practical Countermeasures: Preventive medication. Post-Chernobyl action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred on 26 April 1986, presented major challenges to the European Community with respect to the practical and regulatory aspects of radiation protection, public information, trade, particularly in food, and international politics. The Chernobyl accident was also a major challenge to the international scientific community which had to evaluate rapidly the radiological consequences of the accident and advise on the introduction of any countermeasures. Prior to the accident at Chernobyl, countermeasures to reduce the consequences of radioactive contamination had been conceived largely in the context of relatively small accidental releases and for application over relatively small areas. Less consideration had been given to the practical implications of applying such measures in case of a large source term and a spread over a very large area

  13. Observations on the geology and geohydrology of the Chernobyl' nuclear accident site, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzko, J.R.; Percious, D.J.; Rachlin, J.; Marples, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    The most highly contaminated surface areas from cesium-137 fallout from the April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power station in Ukraine occur within the 30-km radius evacuation zone set up around the station, and an 80-km lobe extending to the west-southwest. Lower levels of contamination extend 300 km to the west of the power station. The geology, the presence of surface water, a shallow water table, and leaky aquifers at depth make this an unfavorable environment for the long-term containment and storage of the radioactive debris. An understanding of the general geology and hydrology of the area is important to assess the environmental impact of this unintended waste storage site, and to evaluate the potential for radionuclide migration through the soil and rock and into subsurface aquifers and nearby rivers. -from Authors

  14. International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

  15. RADIATION CONDITIONS IN KALUGA REGION 30 YEARS AFTER CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Ashitko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes radiation conditions in the Kaluga region 30 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The Chernobyl NPP accident caused radioactive contamination of nine Kaluga region territories: Duminichsky, Zhizdrinsky, Kuibyshevsky, Kirovsky, Kozelsky, Ludinovsky, Meshchovsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky districts. Radioactive fallout was the strongest in three southern districts: Zhizdrinsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky, over there cesium-137 contamination density is from 1 to 15Ci/km. According to the Russian Federation Government Order in 2015 there are 300 settlements (S in the radioactive contamination zone, including 14 settlements with caesium-137 soil contamination density from 5 to 15 Ci/ km2 and 286 settlements with the contamination density ranging from 1 to 5 Ci/km2. In the first years after the Chernobyl NPP accident in Kaluga region territories, contaminated with caesium-137, there were introduced restrictive land usage, were carried out agrochemical activities (ploughing, mineral fertilizer dressing, there was toughened laboratory radiation control over the main doze-forming foodstuff. All these measures facilitated considerable decrease of caesium-137 content in local agricultural produce. Proceeding from the achieved result, in 2002 there took place the transition to more tough requirements SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01. Analysis of investigated samples from Zhizdrinsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky districts demonstrated that since 2005 meat samples didn’t exceed the standard values, same for milk samples since 2007. Till the present time, the use of wild-growing mushrooms, berries and wild animals meat involves radiation issues. It was demonstrated that average specific activity of caesium-137 in milk samples keeps decreasing year after year. Long after the Chernobyl NPP accident, the main products forming internal irradiation doses in population are the wild-growing mushrooms and berries. Population average annual

  16. Cesium fallout in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of country-wide measurements of 137Cs and 134 Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. The results clearly demonstrates that municipalities in the central part of southern Norway, Troendelag and the southern part of Nordland, have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fallout of 137Cs and 134Cs from the Chernobyl accident in Norway is estimated to 2300 TBq and 1200 TBq, respectively. This is approximately 6% of the cesium activity released from the reactor

  17. Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Experience of soil rehabilitation in the scenario of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl post-accident scenario became nowadays a natural radioecology laboratory, where a wide range of decontamination methods can be applied, validated or developed. This paper presents the application of a soil rehabilitation technique, the removal of vegetation and associated soil, in the experimental fields of Bourakovka and Chistogalovka surrounding the Chernobyl NPP. The results obtained have shown soil decontamination factors higher than 90% for caesium and strontium. This technique involves the removal of deposited hot particles released at the accident, and the experience allowed a detailed study of one of them corresponding to a nuclear fuel fragment, probably generated at the beginning of the breakdown. 16 refs. (Author)

  19. Environmental behaviour of radioactivity from Chernobyl: Brothers Water study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out to examine the short term behaviour of Chernobyl derived radionuclides together with the longer term patterns of transport of weapons fallout derived 137Cs first studied on the Brothers Water catchment in the English Lake District in the 1970's. Chernobyl derived radiocaesium is observable in the soils and lake sediments of the catchment. 210Pb dating and diatom analysis were used to confirm that the lake sediments sampled were undisturbed. A simple box model is used to estimate radionuclide inventories in Brothers Water Lake sediments. Estimates derived using this model are reasonably consistent with estimates obtained from a variety of other sources. (author)

  20. Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

  1. Chernobyl, 16 years later; Tchernobyl, 16 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

  2. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty years of peaceful utilization of nuclear power were interrupted by the reactor accident in unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in Ukraine in 1986, a disruptive event whose consequences profoundly affected the way of life of millions of people, and which has moved the public to this day. Releases of radioactive materials contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Early damage in the form of radiation syndrome was suffered by a group of rescue workers and members of the reactor operating crew, in some cases with fatal consequences, while the population does not, until now, show a statistically significant increase in the rate of late damage due to ionizing radiation expect for thyroid diseases in children. In particular, no increases in the rates of solid tumors, leukaemia, genetic defects, and congenital defects were detected. For some risk groups exposed to high radiation doses (such as liquidators) the hazard may still be greater, but the large majority of the population need not live in fear of serious impacts on health. Nevertheless, the accident shows major negative social and psychological consequences reinforced by the breakdown of the Soviet Union. This may be one reason for the observed higher incidence of other diseases whose association with the effects of radiation as a cause has not so far been proven. The measurement campaign conducted by the federal government in 1991-1993 addressed these very concerns of the public in an effort to provide unbiased information about exposures detected, on the one hand, in order to alleviate the fears of the public and reduce stress and, on the other hand, to contribute to the scientific evaluation of the radiological situation in the regions most highly exposed. The groups of the population requiring special attention in the future include especially children growing up in highly contaminated regions, and the liquidators of 1986 and 1987 employed in the period immediately

  3. Neutronic static analysis of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present analysis, estimates were made of the positive reactivity introduced through the growth of the coolant void fraction in a Graphite-water steam-generating reactor both at the average value of burnup given by the Soviets and at the maximum value. Using Monte Carlo models, various possible axial distribution of burnup, displacer models, conditions in the control channels and positions of the control rods were considered in calculating the insertion of positive reactivity with the fall of the manual and emergency control rods; that is the positive scram. The possibility of positive reactivity insertion due to the creation of a mixture of fuel, water and cladding in a number of central fuel channels has been examined. This situation corresponds to the explosion of these channels, and is considered in the present work as the cause of the second reactivity peak. At the level of the data presented in this study, vaporization of cooling water in the fuel channels can be considered as the cause of the Chernobyl accident. The accident began in the region of the channels close to the axis of the reactor and spread to its periphery. The positive reactivity due to insertion of the manual and emergency control rods - positive scram -played a marginal role in the development of the accident. Fracture of the fuel followed by bursting of the channels around the axis of the reactor, due to contact between the hot UO2 particles and the cooling water at th end of the first peak, could have started a mechanism capable of producing a second peak in reactivity, in the case of fuel damage extended to a sufficiently large portion of the core

  4. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Working draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared by three WHO expert committees convened under auspices of the Chernobyl Forum's Expert Group 'Health' (EGH), and by WHO staff. It provides an updated assessment of the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and follows a detailed report on this topic published by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation in 2000 (UNSCEAR, 2000). The accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in northern Ukraine on April 26, 1986 and released large amounts of radioactivity, primarily radioactive isotopes of caesium and iodine. These releases contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine and other countries to a lesser extent, These releases exposed sizable populations to internal and external radiation doses. The Chernobyl accident caused the deaths of 30 power plant employees and firemen within a few days or weeks (including 28 deaths that were due to radiation exposure). In addition, about 240,000 recovery operation workers (also called 'liquidators' or 'clean-up workers') were called upon in 1986 and 1987 to take part in major mitigation activities at the reactor and within the 30-km zone surrounding the reactor. Residual mitigation activities continued on a relatively large scale until 1990. All together, about 600,000 persons (civilian and military) have received special certificates confirming their status as liquidators, according to laws promulgated in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine (UNSCEAR, 2000). In addition, massive releases of radioactive materials into the atmosphere brought about the evacuation of about 116,000 people from areas surrounding the reactor during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of about 220,000 people from what are at this time three independent republics of the former Soviet Union: Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Vast territories of those three republics were contaminated to a substantial level. The population of

  5. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiriger, J.M.; Failor, R.A.; Marsh, K.V.; Shaw, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes the detection of fallout in the United States from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. As part of its environmental surveillance program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintained detectors for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Following the reactor accident, additional air filters were set out. Several uncommon isotopes were detected at the time the plume passed into the US. (TEM)

  6. Chernobyl radionuclides in a Black Sea sediment trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesseler, K O; Livingston, H D; Honjo, S; Hay, B J; Manganini, S J; Degens, E; Ittekkot, V; Izdar, E; Konuk, T

    The Chernobyl nuclear power station accident released large quantities of vaporized radionuclides, and, to a lesser extent, mechanically released small (less than 1-10 micron) aerosol particles. The total release of radioactivity is estimated to be out of the order of 1-2 x 10(18) Bq (3-5 x 10(7) Ci) not allowing for releases of the xenon and krypton gases. The 137Cs releases of 3.8 x 10(16) Bq from Chernobyl can be compared to 1.3 x 10(18) Bq 137Cs released due to atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Chernobyl-derived radionuclides can be used as transient tracers to study physical and biogeochemical processes. Initial measurements of fallout Chernobyl radionuclides from a time-series sediment trap at 1,071 m during June-September 1986 in the southern Black Sea are presented. The specific activities of 137Cs, 144Ce and 106Ru in the trap samples (0.5-2, 4-12 and 6-13 Bq g-1) are independent of the particle flux while their relative activities reflect their rates of scavenging in the order Ce greater than Ru greater than Cs. PMID:3670387

  7. Airborne Gamma-ray Measurements in the Chernobyl Plume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grasty, R. L.; Hovgaard, Jens; Multala, J.

    1997-01-01

    On 29 April 1986, the Geological Survey of Finland (GSF) survey aircraft with a gamma ray spectrometer flew through a radioactive plume from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The aircraft became contaminated and the gamma spectrometer measured radioactivity in the plume as well as radioactivity on ...

  8. Chernobyl accident and health: end of first tenth anniversary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials on medical and social-psychological aspects, caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident are presented. Comparative evaluation of the morbidity cases, frequency of tumor formation, mortality among the accident liquidators and the public of various age in the Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation is given

  9. Medical preparedness: Chernobyl as a model for southeastern Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Detroit Chapter of Physicians for Social Responsibility developed a project to evaluate the potential response of the local medical community to a small nuclear disaster involving radiation injuries. The model was patterned after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster of April 26, 1986. They surveyed the potential response to a hypothetical disaster at the Enrico Fermi II nuclear reactor located south of Detroit

  10. On protecting the inexperienced reader from Chernobyl myths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident continue to attract the attention of experts, decision-makers and the general public, and now these consequences have been given added relevance by the similar accident in 2011 at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant (NPP) in Japan. Expert analysis of radiation levels and effects has been conducted by international bodies—UNSCEAR in 2008 and the Chernobyl Forum during 2003–5. At the same time, three Russian and Belarusian scientists, Yablokov, Nesterenko and Nesterenko (2009 Chernobyl. Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences)) published both in Russian and English a substantial review of the consequences of Chernobyl based mostly on Russian-language papers. In this book, they suggested a departure from analytical epidemiological studies in favour of ecological ones. This erroneous approach resulted in the overestimation of the number of accident victims by more than 800 000 deaths during 1987–2004. This paper investigates the mistakes in methodology made by Yablokov et al and concludes that these errors led to a clear exaggeration of radiation-induced health effects. Should similar mistakes be made following the 2011 accident at Fukushima-1 NPP this could lead quite unnecessarily to a panic reaction by the public about possible health effects and to erroneous decisions by the authorities in Japan. (opinion)

  11. Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouts, H.

    1986-09-24

    This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

  12. How mobile robots have helped at Chernobyl and other accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meieran, H.B.

    1988-04-01

    The use of mobile robots at several recent accidents including Chernobyl is described. The robots assumed, with varying degrees of success, many of the tasks and missions that are normally conducted by the emergency response team. Lessons learned from the experiences, together with operational and performance problems are discussed. (U.K.).

  13. Acute and long-term effects of irradiation on pine (Pinus silvestris) strands post-Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, N P; Kuchma, N D; Askbrant, S; Pasternak, P S; Musica, V V

    1994-12-11

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the viability of pine stands after the fallout from the damaged nuclear energy plant at Chernobyl (ChNPP) was shown within the territory of the 10-km zone. During the period 1986-1991, irradiated and damaged forest stands, so-called 'red forest', located in this area were systematically classified by observation. Mortality rate, re-establishment, development of tree canopies, reproduction anomalies and stand viability were shown to be dependent on absorbed irradiation dose, on the age of the stand and on forest composition. For pine stands in the acutely affected zone, doses of more than 60 Gy resulted in a massive mortality and no regeneration of pine trees since 1987. The injured trees had burned or had dried-up. The drying process was accelerated by a massive production of pathogenic insects invading the dying trees. Specifically, irradiation doses of 10-60 Gy, 1-10 Gy and 0.1-1 Gy caused high, medium and low injury to the forest stands, respectively. Doses of less than 0.1 Gy did not cause any visible damage to the trees. In 1987, repair processes were displayed by the tree canopies and practically the entire viability of the forest stands had recovered except for trees in the acute and highly affected zones. The young forest was reestablished in the same place as the perished trees and new pine saplings were planted on the reclaimed areas.

  14. Acute and long-term effects of irradiation on pine (Pinus silvestris) stands post-Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkhipov, N.P.; Kuchma, N.D. (Department of Radiology and Land Restoration, Pripyat Research and Industrial Association, Chernobyl (Ukraine)); Askbrant, S. (National Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)); Pasternak, P.S.; Musica, V.V. (Lyes Research and Industrial Association, Kharykov (Ukraine))

    1994-10-14

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the viability of pine stands after the fallout from the damaged nuclear energy plant at Chernobyl (ChNPP) was shown within the territory of the 10-km zone. During the period 1986-1991, irradiated and damaged forest stands, so-called 'red forest', located in this area were systematically classified by observation. Mortality rate, re-establishment, development of tree canopies, reproduction anomalies and stand viability were shown to be dependent on absorbed irradiation dose, on the age of the stand and on forest composition. For pine stands in the acutely affected zone, doses of more than 60 Gy resulted in a massive mortality and no regeneration of pine trees since 1987. The injured trees had burned or had dried-up. The drying process was accelerated by a massive production of pathogenic insects invading the dying trees. Specifically, irradiation doses of 10-60 Gy, 1-10 Gy and 0.1-1 Gy caused high, medium and low injury to the forest stands, respectively. Doses of less than 0.1 Gy did not cause any visible damage to the trees. In 1987, repair processes were displayed by the tree canopies and practically the entire viability of the forest stands had recovered except for trees in the acute and highly affected zones. The young forest was reestablished in the same place as the perished trees and new pine saplings were planted on the reclaimed areas.

  15. Contribution of Chernobyl accident to human contamination with strontium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Romanian surveys performed after the Chernobyl accident pointed out the environmental and diet contamination with 90 Sr at levels of one-two orders of magnitude higher than prior to the accident. Given the 90 Sr osteo-tropism we have been interested in its accumulation in the human teeth and bone. The search on 90 Sr accumulation in human teeth evidenced concentrations of 10.8 - 330 mBq/g Ca in milk teeth of young children born during 1986 - 1987 subsequent to Chernobyl. These values were 10-600 times higher than those obtained for permanent or deciduous teeth of all the other age groups or of the same age group born before Chernobyl. There was more 90 Sr activity concentration in ribs than in femur. The highest values of 90 Sr content (mBq/g Ca) were of 75-122 in ribs and 74-120 in femur for 7-10 years old group. These individuals were 0-3 years old during the period of greatest deposition. This age is by far the most critical years due to the heaviest uptake. Smaller concentration values were recorded for the age group older than 55, respectively of 3-20 in ribs and 3.3-10.2 in femur. Our data suggest that the Chernobyl accident did not lead to the increase of 90 Sr accumulation in adults. From the collective equivalent doses of 1500 manSv for bone surfaces and 680 manSv for active red marrow, a potential number of 4 radiation-induced fatal cancers in the studied population (5,2 mil.inh) has been estimated as attributable to Chernobyl accident

  16. Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

  17. Regional distribution of Chernobyl-derived plutonium deposition in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986 caused a widely spread plume of radionuclides containing, amongst other materials, plutonium isotopes. The regional deposition of these nuclides in Finland has been assessed, based on samples of lichen, peat, precipitation, surface soil and grass. Unlike the deposition of transuranium elements from the weapons tests in the 1950's and the 1960's, the deposition in Finland from the Chernobyl accident was very unevenly distributed. Even then, the Chernobyl-derived deposition of 239,240Pu in the most contaminated regions of Finland was only around 10% of the global fallout from weapons tests. The total amount of 239,240Pu deposited in Finland was 1 x 1011 Bq (∼25 g), i.e., approximately half of a percent of the activity deposited in the 1950's and the 1960's. In addition to the alpha-emitting Pu isotopes, the Chernobyl plume also contained a significant amount of the beta-emitting 241Pu, which is the precursor of the long-lived alpha-emitter 241Am. The highest plutonium deposition values were found in a relatively narrow swath from the southwestern coast of Finland northeastwards across the country. This is related to the calculated route of the air parcel trajectory associated with the initial explosion of the Chernobyl reactor. The high deposition values found in the northeastern part of the plume route over Finland can be attributed to the simultaneous occurrence of precipitation. The relatively high plutonium deposition in the southwestern part of Finland occurred, however, without concurrent precipitation. This indicates that the plutonium was at least partly associated with relatively large particles having a substantial deposition velocity due to gravitational setting. (author)

  18. Ecological lessons from the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J N B; Shaw, G

    2005-08-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 not only caused serious ecological problems in both the Ukraine and Belarus, which continue to the present day, but also contaminated a large part of the higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere. In this paper an overview is given of the latter problems in upland UK, where ecological problems still remain some 17 years after initial contamination. Following deposition of radiocaesium and radioiodine in May 1986, measurements of radioactivity in grass and soil indicated a rapidly declining problem as the radioiodine decayed and the radiocaesium became immobilised by attachment to clay particles. However, these studies, as well as the advice received by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, were based on lowland agricultural soils, with high clay and low organic matter contents. The behaviour of radiocaesium in upland UK turned out to be dominated by high and persistent levels of mobility and bioavailability. This resulted in the free passage of radiocaesium through the food chain and into sheep. Consequently the Ministry banned the sale and movement of sheep over large areas of upland Britain, with bans remaining on some farms to the present day. Present day predictions suggest that these bans will continue in some cases for some years to come. The causes of radiocaesium mobility in upland areas have subsequently been the subject of intense investigation centred around vegetation and, in particular, soil characteristics. Soil types were identified which were particularly vulnerable in this respect and, where these coincided with high levels of deposition, sheep bans tended to be imposed. While much of the earlier work suggested that a low clay content was the main reason for continuing mobility, a very high organic matter content is now also believed to play a major role, this being a characteristic of wet and acidic upland UK soils. The overall message from this affair is the importance of a fundamental

  19. Primary disability and its structure at liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences in post-Chernobyl period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary disability in persons participated in Chernobyl catastrophe liquidation was studied for 1986-1987, for 1988 and for 1994-2000. The structure of the disease caused the primary disability of those persons was analyzed. The primary invalidity indices were determined to increase for certain nosologic forms such as for the blood circulation disease, malignant neoplasms, eye pathology (authors)

  20. Use of remote sensing and GIS for ecological monitoring in the Chernobyl area. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyalko, V.; Wolfson, L.; Hodorovsky, A.; Sakhatsky, A.; Djary, V.; Shportjuk, Z.; Sibirceva, O.; Kobets, N.; Marek, K.H.; Oppitz, S.; Weigelt, A.; Gruber, G.

    1996-12-31

    Within the project a monitoring technology based on remote sensing, GIS and geosystem modelling had been developed for the Chernobyl area. For getting information about environmental parameters air- and spaceborne remote sensing data were used. Doing this dependencies between the spectral signature of vegetation in the red and near infra-red bands of multispectral data (Spot, Landsat TM, MK-4) and the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination were established for the first time. In addition remote sensing data were used for mapping of places of temporary radioactive waste storage, of the spring floods of Pripyat river and of potential zones of surface contamination penetration into lower lying groundwater horizons. This hydrologically relevant information had been used as boundary conditions for an experimental geosystem model of the Chernobyl region, from which information about contamination of into lower lying groundwater horizons could be obtained. For methodological validation of the dependencies between the spectral signature of vegetation and the radioactive soil contamination as well as for testing the developed monitoring technology at other areas influenced by the Chernobyl disaster further investigations are necessary. (orig.) [Deutsch] Innerhalb des Vorhabens wurde die Rahmentechnologie fuer ein oekologisches Monitoring des Tschernobyl-Gebietes auf der Basis von Fernerkundung, GIS und der Modellierung von Geosystemprozessen entwickelt. Fuer die Informationsgewinnung zu Umweltparametern erfolgte der Einsatz von flugzeug- bzw. weltraumgestuetzten Fernerkundungsdaten. Hierbei wurden erstmals Abhaengigkeiten zwischen den Remissionswerten der Vegetation im roten und nahen infraroten Spektralbereich von Multispektralaufnahmen (Spot, Landsat TM, MK-4) und der radioaktiven Bodenkontamination mit {sup 137}Cs nachgewiesen. Weiterhin wurden Fernerkundungsdaten zur Kartierung von vorlaeufigen Deponien radioaktiven Materials, der Fruehjahrshochwaesser des Pripjat und von

  1. CONSEQUENCES FOR HEALTH AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: MAIN RESULTS AND UNSOLVED PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Gus’kova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Data of researches of the consequences for health after the Chernobyl accident of 1986 are generalized. All these years all over the world and especially in our country the basic parameters were studied describing type and the reason of the accident, doses levels for various groups of persons and a condition of their physical and sincere health. Accumulation of the extensive information allows returning to the initial concepts which have arisen directly after the accident, to estimate critically reliability accepted at that time criteria and adequacy of measures for overcoming and minimization of the consequences of the accident for health. In a basis of an assessment of the exposure levels and possible consequences for health in early timeframes have been put the information on the capacity of doses scale-radiation on various distances from the damaged reactor both total activity and structure of emission of radioactive substances. Three basic groups of the persons involved in the emergency with a various combination of risk factors for their health are allocated: the personnel of emergency changes, participants of liquidation of the accident consequences, the population of emergency emission zones. Consequences for health for these groups and principles of the further supervision over them are estimated. The increase of leukemia among the reasons for death (5 of 21 attracts attention. The group of patients transferred acute radiation syndrome in connection with the Chernobyl accident differs for the reasons for death in the remote timeframes from participants of other radiating accidents. By retrospective consideration there is a question on a possibility of the insufficient account of toxic influences accompanying the exposure. Comparison of urgent decisions and the retrospective analysis of assessments during the early period of accident allow considering these early decisions adequate to volume of the information available during this

  2. The Chernobyl experience in the context of current radiation protection problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recommendations for the further improvement of radiation protection in connection with large scale radiation accidents are made on the basis of the experience gained in dealing with the consequences of the accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, particularly in its early stages. Arrangements which had earlier been developed in the USSR for radiation protection of the population in the event of an accident at an atomic reactor - including radiological criteria for the adoption of measures to protect the population and a number of regulatory documents and guides made it possible to take timely decisions regarding evacuation of the population from Pripyat' and the whole 30 km zone, the application of iodine prophylaxis, the introduction of stringent restrictions and radiation monitoring in the most contaminated areas, a ban on the consumption of whole milk, restrictions on grazing of dairy cattle, the introduction of regular monitoring of foodstuffs for radioactive contamination as well as quality controls on food products, their reprocessing and utilization, the removal of children and pregnant women from towns and villages close to the Chernobyl plant for summer holidays in 1986 and 1987, etc. The problems which arose during large scale monitoring of the population and the environment are examined as well as the methods used to solve them (the use for monitoring purposes of all available radiation monitoring instruments; stringent standardization of their use, taking into account possible areas of application, and calibration allowing for the characteristics of the radiation recorded; improvement of methods for retrospective evaluation of internal and external exposure doses; use of methods based on 'dosimetry without dosimeters'; development of temporary regulations for quality inspection of food products, contaminated beyond permissible levels; radiation monitoring of roads, buildings, transport and everyday articles). 10 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  3. 15. Consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe for public health and the environment 23 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablokov, Alexey V; Nesterenko, Vassily B; Nesterenko, Alexey V

    2009-11-01

    More than 50% of Chernobyl's radionuclides were dispersed outside of Belarus, Ukraine, and European Russia and caused fallout as far away as North America. In 1986 nearly 400 million people lived in areas radioactively contaminated at a level higher than 4 kBq/m(2) and nearly 5 million individuals are still being exposed to dangerous contamination. The increase in morbidity, premature aging, and mutations is seen in all the contaminated territories that have been studied. The increase in the rates of total mortality for the first 17 years in European Russia was up to 3.75% and in Ukraine it was up to 4.0%. Levels of internal irradiation are increasing owing to plants absorbing and recycling Cs-137, Sr-90, Pu, and Am. During recent years, where internal levels of Cs-137 have exceeded 1 mSv/year, which is considered "safe," it must be lowered to 50 Bq/kg in children and to 75 Bq/kg in adults. Useful practices to accomplish this include applying mineral fertilizers on agricultural lands, K and organosoluble lignin on forestlands, and regular individual consumption of natural pectin enterosorbents. Extensive international help is needed to provide radiation protection for children, especially in Belarus, where over the next 25 to 30 years radionuclides will continue to contaminate plants through the root layers in the soil. Irradiated populations of plants and animals exhibit a variety of morphological deformities and have significantly higher levels of mutations that were rare prior to 1986. The Chernobyl zone is a "black hole": some species may persist there only via immigration from uncontaminated areas. PMID:20002059

  4. International conference. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the International Conference on the mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects was introduced.The questions connected with: 1. Mental health disorders biological basis after ionizing radiation influence; 2. Psychiatric aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 3. Social stress following contradictory information: ways for its overcoming; 4. Rehabilitation and prophylactic measures for mental and nervous disorders. Psycho social rehabilitation of survivors; 5. Psychosomatic effects and somato-neurological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster; 6. Psychosomatic health of children and adolescents survivors of the Chernobyl disaster; 7. Brain damage as result of prenatal irradiation

  5. Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

  6. Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?; Tchernobyl: quelles consequences sanitaires?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Assistance Publique, Hopitaux de Parix (AP-HP), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-11-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  7. Reports of the Chernobyl accident consequences in Brazilian newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public perception of the risks associated with nuclear power plants was profoundly influenced by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl Power Plants which also served to exacerbate in the last decades the growing mistrust on the 'nuclear industry'. Part of the mistrust had its origin in the arrogance of nuclear spokesmen and in the secretiveness of nuclear programs. However, press agencies have an important role in shaping and upsizing the public awareness against nuclear energy. In this paper we present the results of a survey in reports of some Brazilian popular newspapers on Chernobyl consequences, as measured by the total death toll of the accident, to show the up and down dance of large numbers without any serious judgment. (author)

  8. Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs from Burgenland after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 500 samples of foodstuffs, drinking water and grass from Burgenland (an eastern province of Austria) were measured by the author's institution in May to August 1986. Burgenland and generally the east of Austria had, with respect to the Chernobyl fallout, an advantage against other parts of Austria, due to low rainfall and favorable winds in the days after the Chernobyl accident. The activities were generally below the legal limits for drinking water and higher than these in few cases in foodstuffs and grass. The legal limits for activity concentrations in foodstuffs and drinking water for the elements iodine 131, cesium 134, cesium 137 and strontium 90 are listed in an appendix. 2 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Chernobyl: the true, the possible and the false

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. It also highlights the misunderstanding associated with the use by the media of different radioactivity measurement units. It comments some figures about casualties, and the fact that some much higher figures are often stated. It evokes the issue of thyroid cancer in children of the region, discusses other possible public health consequences, the issue of congenital anomalies, the opinion of French physicists on the increase of thyroid cancers in France, and the question of the discrimination between spontaneous and radio-induced cancers. A second part discusses the risk of cancer and its perception in France: validity of the soil contamination assessment, possibility of an accident like Chernobyl and Fukushima in France

  10. The Chernobyl accident: bibliography of the science literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information about the scientific publications in 1986-1995 on the problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident is presented in the book. A significant, unique actual material about results of radiation influence on men, animals, vegetative world and other components of an environment is collected to the present of time. Radiation dozes are determined and combined influence of the both radiation and chemical factors is investigated, clinical epidemiological and genetic estimation of a condition of health of the population is given. Agriculture technologies for conditions of radioactive contamination are developed and used. Normative base for both decontamination works and radioactive wastes storage is created. These and other problems are reflected in the publications described in the collection. The following sections are available: Radiobiology and radioecology (1445 refs.); Radiation medicine (703 refs.); Agriculture radiology (194 refs.); Decontamination and radioactive wastes storage (86 refs.); Economic consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident (36 refs.); Social and psychological problems (39 refs.)

  11. 15 years after Chernobyl. Nuclear power and climate change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2001-04-01

    Fifteen years after two massive explosions and a subsequent fire released a giant radioactive cloud into the atmosphere over the Chernobyl nuclear power plant located in what used to be the USSR, 388 farms with 230,000 sheep in Wales, England and Scotland are still subject to restriction orders. The contamination levels stand at several hundred Becquerels of cesium per kilogram of meat, too much to be consumed by human beings. The sheep have to be moved for some time to low or non-contaminated pastures in order to allow the bodies to loose some of their radioactivity before they can be slaughtered. For many countries the 1986 Chernobyl catastrophe came a public turning point for the future of nuclear energy. (author)

  12. Immediate medical consequences of nuclear accidents: lessons from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immediate medical response to the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station involved containment of the radioactivity and evacuation of the nearby population. The next step consisted of assessment of the radiation dose received by individuals, based on biological dosimetry, and treatment of those exposed. Medical care involved treatment of skin burns; measures to support bone marrow failure, gastrointestinal tract injury, and other organ damage (i.e., infection prophylaxis and transfusions) for those with lower radiation dose exposure; and bone marrow transplantation for those exposed to a high dose of radiation. At Chernobyl, two victims died immediately and 29 died of radiation or thermal injuries in the next three months. The remaining victims of the accident are currently well. A nuclear accident anywhere is a nuclear accident everywhere. Prevention and cooperation in response to these accidents are essential goals

  13. The Chernobyl cloud would have stopped at the borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author proposes a retrospective overview and analysis of information published either by involved agencies or by media after the Chernobyl accident about the presence or absence of radioactive fallouts in France. While defending Professor Pellerin, the author acknowledges some mistakes made by authorities in their communication, but also outlines that some realistic and clear information published by the SCPRI or the CIPR have been quickly forgotten by the media. The author analyses the different publications and communiques made by authorities, agencies and media over different periods: from April to May 1986, in 1999 when Professor Pellerin filed a defamation lawsuit against authors of a book, and when an ecologist politician was also sentenced. The author then proposes a discussion of health consequences of Chernobyl in France, and analyses the controversy on this issue during the 1997-2006 period. He comments the content of a report published in March 2006 by the IRSN scientific committee

  14. Chernobyl tenth anniversary: strategy for response, organisation, examples and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each anniversary of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine, in April 1986, is accompanied by considerable activity on the part of the press and the anti-nuclear industry. In the course of such activity, many distortions of the true situation in the area are promulgated. It was clear to the nuclear industry that the tenth anniversary would be especially difficult. Hence the international nuclear community, under the leadership of the British Nuclear Industry Forum, constituted a Task Force to consider responses to the anniversary. This paper describes the essential steps in setting up the Task Force; discusses the main elements of the strategy which emerged, including the Chernobyl Fact Sheets, the identification of credible third parties who could explain key issues with the media, and the secondment of a British press officer to the plant to coordinate international visits; and evaluate press response to the anniversary in comparison with previous anniversaries. (author)

  15. Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. An overview of the report is provided. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general

  16. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

  17. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

  18. The psychological effects of Chernobyl on the victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Social and psychological post-effects of Chernobyl disaster have turned out one of the most unpredicted unexpectedness by scale and extent in the post-catastrophe period. Mass socio-psychological interviewing of all categories of the victims has been conducted by questionnaire. Survey method is the interview. There has been fixed the ''psychological tiredness'' due to permanent stress situation. Methods of mass and socio-psychological rehabilitation are limited effectiveness, without improving political and economical situation in the country

  19. Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Brownridge, James D

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

  20. 'Chernobyl feeling'. Psychic sequels of the ecological crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In scientific debate on the devastation of the environment, the predominant aspects so far have been natural-scientific and economy-scientific ones. But the ecological crisis with the Chernobyl accident as its symbol is not an incident of nature: It is man-made. It has its preconditions in social phenomena such as economy, politics, and the subjective condition of individuals. This contribution studies psychological 'surveying' of environmental hazards, risk perception, and risk digestion by man. (DG)