WorldWideScience

Sample records for chernobyl accident exposures

  1. Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.; Bouville, A.; Hall, P.; Savkin, M.; Storm, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting

  2. Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar'yakhtar, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    The monograph contains the catastrophe's events chronology, the efficiency assessed of those measures assumed for their localization as well as their environmental and socio-economic impact. Among materials of the monograph the results are presented of research on the radioactive contamination field forming as well as those concerning the investigation of biogeochemical properties of Chernobyl radionuclides and their migration process in the environment of the Ukraine. The data dealing with biological effects of the continued combined internal and external radioactive influence on plants, animals and human health under the circumstances of Chernobyl accident are of the special interest. In order to provide the scientific generalizing information on the medical aspects of Chernobyl catastrophe, the great part of the monograph is allotted to appraise those factors affecting the health of different population groups as well as to depict clinic aspects of Chernobyl events and medico-sanitarian help system. The National Programme of Ukraine for the accident consequences elimination and population social protection assuring for the years 1986-1993 and this Programme concept for the period up to the year 2000 with a special regard of the world community participation there

  3. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  4. Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capra, D.; Facchini, U.; Gianelle, V.; Ravasini, G.; Bacci, P.

    1988-01-01

    The radioactive cloud released during the Chernobyl accident reached the Padana plain and Lombardy in the night of April 30th 1986; the cloud remained in the northern Italian skies for a few days and then disappeared either dispersed by winds and washed by rains. The evidence in atmosphere of radionuclides as Tellurium, Iodine, Cesium, was promptly observed. The intense rain, in first week of may, washed the radioactivity and fall-out contamined the land, soil, grass. The present work concerns the overall contamination of the Northern Italy territory and in particular the radioactive fall-out in the Lakes region. Samples of soil have been measured at the gamma spectroscope; a correlation is found between the radionuclides concentration in soil samples and the rain intensity, when appropriate deposition models are considered. A number of measurements has been done on the Como'lake ecosystem: sediments, plankton, fishes and the overall fall-out in the area has been investigated

  5. Antenatal exposure following the Chernobyl accident: neuropsychiatric aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igumnov, S.A.; Drozdovitch, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and a control group of 250 persons from non- and slightly contaminated regions has been conducted. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age of 6-7, 0-12, and 15-16 years. Mean antenatal external dose among persons of exposed group is 10 ± 13 mGy, maximal dose - 91 mGy. No statistically significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the age of 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years

  6. Cancer effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardis, E.

    2005-01-01

    The WHO Expert Groups on Health reviewed a UNSCEAR 2000 report, more recent peer-reviewed scientific literature and scientific meeting presentations, reports and statistics prepared by National authorities. The outcome of this study are scientific consensus on health impact from radiation to date and identification of research gaps. Recommendations for health care programmes 20 years after: No clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers (other than thyroid) that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers have been reported, but no association with radiation dose much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators above 100 mGy and an increase in the incidence of pre-menopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. These need to be further investigated

  7. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassow, J.

    1986-01-01

    The documentation aims at giving a clearly arranged account of facts, interrelations and comparative evaluations of general interest. It deals with the course of events, atmospheric dispersion and fallout of the substances released and discusses the basic principles of the metering of radioactive radiation, the calculation of body doses and comparative evaluations with the radioactive exposure and risks involved by other sources. The author intends to contribute to an objective discussion about the Chernobyl reactor accident and nuclear energy as such. (DG) [de

  8. Thyroid doses from external gamma-exposure following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tretyakevich, Sergey; Kukhta, Tatyana; Minenko, Victor; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Gavrilin, Yury; Khrouch, Valeri; Shinkarev, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    Full text: An increase of thyroid cancer incidence among children in Belarus has been observed after the Chernobyl accident. The main contributor to the thyroid dose was caused by 131 I intake with fresh milk in 1986. Other contributions to the thyroid dose (external gamma-exposure, short-lived iodine isotopes, internal radiocesium) were small in comparison to the dose from 131 I intakes soon after the accident. However, exposures to external radiation continued for a number of years after the accident. Thyroid doses from external gamma-exposure following the Chernobyl accident were mainly caused by gamma-exposure to 24 nuclides: 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 99 Mo, 99 mTc, 103 Ru, 103m Rh, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 125m Te, 131m Te, 131 I, 132 Te, 132 I, 133 I, 135 I, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 140 La, 141 Ce, 144 Ce, 144 Pr, 239 Np. Data of personal interview were used to take into account the personal residence history for the time elapsed from the Chernobyl accident until the interview (10 to 15 years later). Cumulative thyroid doses caused by external gamma-exposure during the passage of the radioactive cloud and from the ground contamination following the Chernobyl accident have been reconstructed. The median thyroid dose from external gamma-exposure to ∼11,770 cohort members of an epidemiological study was estimated to be ∼6 mGy. There are ∼3,400 persons with external dose estimates that exceed 20 mGy. Exposure from radionuclides deposited on the ground was the main source of external dose. The contribution from the passing radioactive cloud to external dose was found to be negligible. (author)

  9. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  10. Contribution of internal exposures to the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonov, M I; Anspaugh, L R; Bouville, A; Likhtarev, I A

    2007-01-01

    The main pathways leading to exposure of members of the general public due to the Chernobyl accident were external exposure from radionuclides deposited on the ground and ingestion of contaminated terrestrial food products. The collective dose to the thyroid was nearly 1.5 million man Gy in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine with nearly half received by children and adolescents. The collective effective dose received in 1986-2005 by approximately five million residents living in the affected areas of the three countries was approximately 50,000 man Sv with approximately 40% from ingestion. That contribution might have been larger if countermeasures had not been applied. The main radionuclide contributing to both external and internal effective dose is 137Cs with smaller contributions of 134Cs and 90Sr and negligible contribution of transuranic elements. The major demonstrated radiation-caused health effect of the Chernobyl accident has been an elevated incidence of thyroid cancer in children.

  11. Distribution of external exposures in the Russian population after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.; Golikov, V.Yu.; Erkin, V.G.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    The data of the monitoring of external exposure in the population of the Chernobyl accident area in Russia during seven years are presented. The deterministic model has been developed for estimation of the average dose of external exposure for different groups of urban and rural populations. The model has been verified with the results of over 10 thousand measurements of individual doses in inhabitants by means of thermoluminescent dosimeters. The stochastic model is being developed by forming the dose of external exposure in the population of a contaminated area, which allows to predict the dose distribution in critical groups of a population for the purposes of radiation protection. (author)

  12. Re-evaluation of internal exposure from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malatova, I.; Skrkal, J.

    2006-01-01

    Doses from internal and external exposure due to the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were estimated early in 1986. Later on, with more experimental results, doses from internal exposure were calculated more precisely. The initial predictions were rather conservative leading thus to higher doses than it appeared one year later. Monitoring of the environment, food chain and monitoring of internal contamination has been performed on the whole territory of the country since 1986 up to present time and has thus enabled reevaluation of the original estimates and also prediction of doses in future. This paper is focused mainly on evaluation of in vivo measurements of people. Use of the sophisticate software I.M.B.A. Professional Plus led to new estimation of committed effective doses and calculated inhalation intakes of radionuclides lead to estimation of content of radionuclides in the air. Ingestion intakes were also evaluated and compared with estimates from the results of measurements of food chain. Generally, the doses from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were low; however, as a few radionuclides have been measurable in environment, food chain and human body (137 Cs up to present), it is a unique chance for studying behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere. Experience and conclusions which follow from the monitoring of the Chernobyl accident are unique for running and development of monitoring networks. Re evaluation of internal doses to the Czech population from the Chernobyl accident, using alternative approach, gave generally smaller doses than original estimation; still, the difference was not significant. It was shown that the doses from inhalation of 131 I and 137 Cs were greater than originally estimated, whereas doses from ingestion intake were lower than the originally estimated ones. (authors)

  13. Radiation Exposure and Thyroid Cancer Risk After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Comparison with the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, S; Takamura, N; Ohtsuru, A; Suzuki, S

    2016-09-01

    The actual implementation of the epidemiological study on human health risk from low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposure and the comprehensive long-term radiation health effects survey are important especially after radiological and nuclear accidents because of public fear and concern about the long-term health effects of low-dose radiation exposure have increased considerably. Since the Great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan, Fukushima Prefecture has started the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project for the purpose of long-term health care administration and medical early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Especially on a basis of the lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident, both thyroid examination and mental health care are critically important irrespective of the level of radiation exposure. There are considerable differences between Chernobyl and Fukushima regarding radiation dose to the public, and it is very difficult to estimate retrospectively internal exposure dose from the short-lived radioactive iodines. Therefore, the necessity of thyroid ultrasound examination in Fukushima and the intermediate results of this survey targeting children will be reviewed and discussed in order to avoid any misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the high detection rate of childhood thyroid cancer. © World Health Organisation 2016. All rights reserved. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  14. Radiation Exposure and Thyroid Cancer Risk After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Comparison with the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, S.; Takamura, N.; Ohtsuru, A.; Suzuki, S.

    2016-01-01

    The actual implementation of the epidemiological study on human health risk from low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposure and the comprehensive long-term radiation health effects survey are important especially after radiological and nuclear accidents because of public fear and concern about the long-term health effects of low-dose radiation exposure have increased considerably. Since the Great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan, Fukushima Prefecture has started the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project for the purpose of long-term health care administration and medical early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Especially on a basis of the lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident, both thyroid examination and mental health care are critically important irrespective of the level of radiation exposure. There are considerable differences between Chernobyl and Fukushima regarding radiation dose to the public, and it is very difficult to estimate retrospectively internal exposure dose from the short-lived radioactive iodines. Therefore, the necessity of thyroid ultrasound examination in Fukushima and the intermediate results of this survey targeting children will be reviewed and discussed in order to avoid any misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the high detection rate of childhood thyroid cancer. (authors)

  15. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  16. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  17. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Russia: search for effects of radiation exposure in utero using psychometric tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabukhin, Yu.S.; Ryabukhin, V.Yu.

    2001-01-01

    Psychometric indicators for mental development of children in towns distinguished by radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are studied. Using some radiological information obtained after the Chernobyl accident, values of expected intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction have been assessed as a result of brain exposure in utero due to various components of dose. Comparing the results of examinations in Novozybkov, Klintsy and Obninsk, no confident evidence has been obtained that radiation exposure of the developing brain exerts influence on indicators for mental development [ru

  18. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  19. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.O.; Christensen, G.; Lingjaerde, R.; Smidt Olsen, H.; Wethe, P.I.

    1986-10-01

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  20. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP) [de

  1. Comparative analysis of the countermeasures taken to mitigate exposure of the public to radioiodine following the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents: lessons from both accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyba, Vladimir; Samoylov, Alexander; Shinkarev, Sergey

    2018-04-01

    In the case of a severe radiation accident at a nuclear power station, the most important radiation hazard for the public is internal exposure of the thyroid to radioiodine. The purposes of this paper were (i) to compare countermeasures conducted (following the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents) aimed at mitigation of exposure to the thyroid for the public, (ii) to present comparative estimates of doses to the thyroid and (iii) to derive lessons from the two accidents. The scale and time of countermeasures applied in the early phase of the accidents (sheltering, evacuation, and intake of stable iodine to block the thyroid) and at a later time (control of 131I concentration in foodstuffs) have been described. After the Chernobyl accident, the estimation of the thyroid doses for the public was mainly based on direct thyroid measurements of ~400 000 residents carried out within the first 2 months. The highest estimates of thyroid doses to children reached 50 Gy. After the Fukushima accident, the estimation of thyroid doses was based on radioecological models due to a lack of direct thyroid measurements (only slightly more than 1000 residents were measured). The highest estimates of thyroid doses to children were a few hundred mGy. Following the Chernobyl accident, ingestion of 131I through cows' milk was the dominant pathway. Following the Fukushima accident, it appears that inhalation of contaminated air was the dominant pathway. Some lessons learned following the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents have been presented in this paper.

  2. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. The event at the accident site, the release and dispersal of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and over Europe, is described. A discussion of the Danish organisation for nuclear emergencies, how it was activated and adapted to the actual situation, is given. A comprehensive description of the radiological contamination in Denmark following the accident and the estimated health effects, is presented. The situation in other European countries is mentioned. (author)

  3. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Buchanan, J.R.; Lorenz, R.A.; Yamashita, T.

    1986-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  4. Pathways, levels and trends of population exposure after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.; Jacob, P.; Likhtarev, D.; Minenko, V.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper main regularities of the long-term exposure of the population of former USSR after the Chernobyl accident are described. Influence of some natural, human and social factors on the forming of external and internal dose in the rural and urban population was studied in the most contaminated regions of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine during 1986-1994. Radioecological processes of I, Cs and Sr nuclides migration in biosphere influencing the processes of population dose formation are considered. The model of their intake in human body was developed and validated by large-scaled measurements of the human body content. The model of external exposure of different population groups was developed and confirmed by the series of individual external dose measurements with thermoluminescent dosemeters. General dosimetric characteristics of the population exposure are given along with some samples of accumulated external and internal effective doses in inhabitants of contaminated areas in 1986-1995. Forecast of the external and internal population effective dose is given for the period of 70 years after the accident

  5. The accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed [fr

  6. Radiation exposure in the West Germany as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident in comparison with the natural and the anthropogenic radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberhausen, E

    1986-01-01

    Taking the natural radiation exposure in West Germany to be between 1 mSv (100 mrem) and 6 mSv (600 mrem), the radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl reactor accident is assessed to be in the range of 10% of natural exposure in the first year after the accident. The dose commitment assessed for the 50-year post-accident period is about 1% of natural exposure. There are no epidemiological studies available that could give information on a possible or probable increase of the individual risk to develop late damage such as cancer or genetic observations due to these very low radiation doses. (orig./HSCH).

  7. Rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident: Radiation exposure and remediation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P., E-mail: Jacob@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Fesenko, S. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Bogdevitch, I. [Scientific Research State Enterprise ' Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry' , Minsk (Belarus); Kashparov, V. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, Chabany (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Grebenshikova, N. [Institute of Radiology, Gomel (Belarus); Isamov, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Lazarev, N. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, Chabany (Ukraine); Panov, A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Ulanovsky, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Zhuchenko, Y. [Institute of Radiology, Gomel (Belarus); Zhurba, M. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, Chabany (Ukraine)

    2009-12-15

    inhabitants in Belarusian and Russian settlements with annual doses exceeding 1 mSv remains large. Compared to international values for the cost-effectiveness of actions to reduce occupational exposures, the recommended remediation strategies for rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident are quite cost-effective (about 20 k Euro /person-Sv).

  8. A longitudinal study of health effects of in utero radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dardynskaya, I.; Hryhorczuk, D.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Khrouch, V.T.; Gavrilin, Y.I.; Shinkarev, S.M.; Dardynskiy, O.

    2002-01-01

    bias, standard interviewing principles and techniques, and survey logistics. Preliminary estimation of the thyroid dose to the fetus was calculated using the model developed by Johnson. This model presents thyroid-dose calculations per unit intake of radioiodine by the mother as a function of fetal age. The dosimetry calculations include the age dependence of the uptake and retention of iodine in the fetal thyroid. Future work. Although I 131 intake was responsible for most of thyroid doses in the majority of children exposed in utero after the Chernobyl accident, exposures from other radionuclides also contributed. These exposures are internal exposure from intake of short-lived radioiodine and of Te 132; internal exposure from the intake of long-lived Cs 137; external exposure from radionuclides deposited on the ground. Short-lived radionuclides from Chernobyl fallout can possibly affect the induction of thyroid cancer and other thyroid abnormalities among children exposed to radiation in utero. Due to this fact, we plan to perform an in utero thyroid-dose reconstruction from short-lived radioiodine for those children whose mothers during pregnancy were exposed through inhalation within one week following the accident. A dose reconstruction will also be performed for all children from Study Groups 1 and 2. At the conclusion of these tasks, the epidemiological data obtained during examination of in utero exposed children will be analyzed in relation with reconstructed individual thyroid doses (authors)

  9. Antenatal Exposure of Persons from Belarus Following the Chernobyl Accidents: Neuropsychiatric Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igumnov, S.; Drozdovitch, V.

    2004-01-01

    Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident has been conducted. Exposed cohort was compared with a control group of 250 persons in the same age from non and slightly contaminated regions. For each study subject, individual antenatal doses were reconstructed for the following pathways of exposure: (1) internal doses to thyroid gland arising from the intake of ''131 I via inhalation or ingestion; and (2) external doses from radionuclides deposited on the ground. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years. At the age of 6-7 years the persons in the exposed group had a mean full-scale intelligent quotient (IQ) lower than the control group. At the age of 10-12 and 15-16 years there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Positive dynamics of intellectual development in persons of both groups has been observed up to age of 15-16 years. No statiscally significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the different ages. In both groups we notice a positive moderate correlation between IQ of persons and the educational level of their parents. We conclude that probably a significant role in the genesis of borderline intellectual functioning and emotional disorders in the exposed group of persons was played by unfavorable factors such as a low educational level of parents, the break of micro social contacts and adaptation difficulties, which appear following the evacuation and relocation from the contaminated areas. (Author) 10 refs-

  10. Measurements after the Chernobyl accident in relation to the exposure of an urban population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.

    2000-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in-situ gammaspectrometric measurements have been performed in Munich and in smaller towns in Southern Bavaria. At the measurement sites about two thirds of the total contamination was deposited by rain. For grassland, the attenuation of the radiation from 131 I, 103 Ru, 134 Cs, and 140 Ba due to the initial migration of the radionuclides in the ground and due to the surface roughness was found to be similar. However, large variations between the retention of the various elements on smooth surfaces have been observed. The absorbed dose-rate inside houses due to Chernobyl radionuclides was the range of one tenth to one hundredth of the absorbed dose-rate over open grassland, depending on the type of house and the location in the house, especially on the angle of view from the detector position to outside locations. The absorbed dose-rate in air due to caesium, isotopes was measured over a period of 1 month to 8 years after the accident. To facilitate a use in models on radiation doses in urban environments, the time dependence of the results were approximated by analytical functions. (author)

  11. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in southern Bavaria after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Since April 30, 1986, comprehensive nuclide-specific measurements have been carried out in air, precipitations, soil, grass, and food in order to determine the fission product activity as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The increase in the gamma dose rate induced by the fission product fallout has been measured primarily in Bavaria. Some important results of the measurements so far are listed in the report. Based on these data, a preliminary assessment is made of the longterm radiation dose to the population in the region of southern Bavaria. The assessment takes into account the dose commitment emanating from external beta and gamma radiation, from intake with food, and by inhalation of fission products. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Real and mythical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmachkin, V.S.

    1999-01-01

    not a most hazardous ones. Such psychological effects of the Chernobyl accident resulted from the lack of public information, the stress of relocation and the fear that any radiation exposures are damaging. Those affected people are believing that illnesses of all kinds are due to radiation. The spreading of such mistaken did influence on general public disapproval of Nuclear Power. This presentation includes also the data of real consequences for the health of concerned population

  13. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.

    1990-10-01

    A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

  14. Standby after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

  15. Health consequences [of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramoutar, S.

    1996-01-01

    The World Health Organisation Conference on the Health Consequences of the Chernobyl and Other Radiological Accidents, held in Geneva last November, is reported. The lack of representation from the civil nuclear industry led often to one-sided debates instigated by the anti-nuclear lobbies present. Thyroid cancer in children as a result of the Chernobyl accident received particular attention. In Belarus, 400 cases have been noted, 220 in Ukraine and 60 in the Russian Federation. All have been treated with a high degree of success. The incidence of this cancer would be expected to follow the fallout path as the main exposure route was ingestion of contaminated foods and milk products. It was noted that the only way to confirm causality was if those children born since the accident failed to show the same increased incidence. Explanations were offered for the particular susceptibility of children to thyroid cancer following exposure to radiation. Another significant cause of concern was the health consequences to clean-up workers in radiological accidents. The main factor is psychological problems from the stress of knowing that they have received high radiation doses. A dramatic increase in psychological disorders has occurred in the Ukraine over the past ten years and this is attributed to stress generated by the Chernobyl accident, compounded by the inadequacy of the public advice offered at the time and the socio-economic uncertainties accompanying the breakup of the former USSR. (UK)

  16. Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.; Vasil'chenko, V.N.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Prister, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

  17. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  18. Contamination and radiation exposure in Germany following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettenhuber, E.; Winkelmann, I.; Ruehle, H.R.; Bayer, A.; Wirth, E.; Haubelt, R.; Koenig, K.

    1997-01-01

    The radioactive substances released following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant were distributed by atmospheric transport over large parts of Europe. Due to dry and wet deposition processes, soil and Plants were contaminated. The ''radioactive cloud'' was first monitored on the 29th of April by near surface measurement stations; by the 30th of April the whole of southern Germany was affected. The contaminated air then spread out in both westerly and northerly directions, resulting in increased airborne radioactivity over the entire country within the following days. Airborne radionuclides were deposited on soil and plants in dry form as well as by precipitation. Locally varying deposits resulted from different activity concentrations in aerosols and very large differences in the intensity of precipitation during the passage of contaminated air masses. Rain fails were particularly heavy in Germany during the time the cloud was passing, especially south of the Danube where on average 2,000 to 50,000 Bq of Cs-137 was deposited per square meter on soil, and in some cases even as much as 100,000 Bq per square meter

  19. Contamination and radiation exposure in Germany following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettenhuber, E; Winkelmann, I; Ruehle, H R [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany); Bayer, A; Wirth, E; Haubelt, R; Koenig, K [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Muenchen (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    The radioactive substances released following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant were distributed by atmospheric transport over large parts of Europe. Due to dry and wet deposition processes, soil and Plants were contaminated. The ``radioactive cloud`` was first monitored on the 29th of April by near surface measurement stations; by the 30th of April the whole of southern Germany was affected. The contaminated air then spread out in both westerly and northerly directions, resulting in increased airborne radioactivity over the entire country within the following days. Airborne radionuclides were deposited on soil and plants in dry form as well as by precipitation. Locally varying deposits resulted from different activity concentrations in aerosols and very large differences in the intensity of precipitation during the passage of contaminated air masses. Rain fails were particularly heavy in Germany during the time the cloud was passing, especially south of the Danube where on average 2,000 to 50,000 Bq of Cs-137 was deposited per square meter on soil, and in some cases even as much as 100,000 Bq per square meter. 2 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  20. Three years after the Chernobyl reactor accident: How high was the radiation exposure really?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.

    1989-01-01

    The author is an expert in radiological protection and radiation hygiene and on the basis of the current state of the art briefly answers some of the most frequently raised questions in connection with the reactor accident: (1) Which were the sources of the radiation exposure of the population? (2) How high are the resulting radiation doses? (3) Which radionuclides have entered the food chains, and how high is their contribution to the radiation exposure? (4) What is the long-term dose to children and adults due to the contamination of food? (5) What is the resulting radiation hazard? (MG) [de

  1. The reactor accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, L.A.; Schuettelkopf, H.; Erat, S.; Fessler, H.; Hempelmann, S.; Maurer, K.; Pimpl, M.; Radziwill, A.

    1986-08-01

    The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.) [de

  2. Chernobyl accident: Assessing the data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, B

    1986-01-01

    Data presented in the official Soviet report to the IAEA on the Chernobyl reactor accident are critically assessed. Special attention is given to the derivation of release fractions from fallout measurements, a procedure which is demonstrated to involve large elements of uncertainty. Further comments relate to estimates of plume rise and deposition velocity. A comparison is made with the predictions of previously published theoretical reactor safety studies.

  3. The Chernobyl accident - five years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.

    1991-06-01

    At the fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident the initial situation at that time, the control of the consequences to Austria in the present light, as well as the knowledge gained from the accident and its consequences are described. A final estimate and appraisal of the total population dose by the accident alloted according to the individual exposure pathways and the dose reductions due to countermeasures by the authorities are given. The dose reduction in the following years is described. Five years later the external exposure was reduced to about 6 % of the values of the first year, the ingestion dose to about 5 % of the first-year-values. Finally, the current radiation situation is described and the dose contribution by foodstuff with elevated activity concentration is estimated. Also the consequences from the experience and knowledge obtained by the accident are described. (author)

  4. The Chernobyl accident and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenko, V; Ivanov, V; Tsyb, A; Bogdanova, T; Tronko, M; Demidchik, Yu; Yamashita, S

    2011-05-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst industrial accident of the last century that involved radiation. The unprecedented release of multiple different radioisotopes led to radioactive contamination of large areas surrounding the accident site. The exposure of the residents of these areas was varied and therefore the consequences for health and radioecology could not be reliably estimated quickly. Even though some studies have now been ongoing for 25 years and have provided a better understanding of the situation, these are yet neither complete nor comprehensive enough to determine the long-term risk. A true assessment can only be provided after following the observed population for their natural lifespan. Here we review the technical aspects of the accident and provide relevant information on radioactive releases that resulted in exposure of this large population to radiation. A number of different groups of people were exposed to radiation: workers involved in the initial clean-up response, and members of the general population who were either evacuated from the settlements in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant vicinity shortly after the accident, or continued to live in the affected territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Through domestic efforts and extensive international co-operation, essential information on radiation dose and health status for this population has been collected. This has permitted the identification of high-risk groups and the use of more specialised means of collecting information, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Because radiation-associated thyroid cancer is one of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, a particular emphasis is placed on this malignancy. The initial epidemiological studies are reviewed, as are the most significant studies and/or aid programmes in the three affected countries. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Dose estimates from protracted external exposure of inhabitants living in contaminated area of Russia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, H.; Sahoo, S.K.; Kurotaki, K.; Uchiyama, M.; Ramzaev, V.P.; Barishkov, N.; Mishin, A.; Barkovski, A.

    2000-01-01

    With respect to the radiation risk assessment, it is important to estimate the accurate doses of inhabitants, due to protracted exposure after the Chernobyl accident as well as the high doses just after the accident. We used a model for estimation of the dose with a long-term temporal change using information of dose rate on the ground and profile of the activity depth distribution in soil. A value C t [μSv h -1 /(MBq m -2 )], which is dose rate in air corresponding to the initial deposition of 137 Cs on the ground just after the accident, was analyzed using the results of the measurements of dose rate in air and activity in soil samples in the contaminated area of Bryansk region in Russia. From the analysis, the value, C 12 at 12 years after the accident can be predicted by categorizing usage of the land. The values obtained from the results of the actual measurement were 1.5 for forest, 1.0 for pasture, 0.6 for yard, and 0.45 for arable or kitchen garden. Temporal change of C t was estimated with a vertical migration model of activity in soil developed by Golikov et al. Annual dose due to 137 Cs and 134 Cs contamination in the period from 1987 to 1999 in farmers, and forest workers were estimated by the model using above values. The results were in good agreement with those obtained by using the personal dose monitoring. The cumulative doses of the inhabitants estimated by the model range from 10 to 60 mSv. (author)

  6. Reactor accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokalski, A.; Kowalski, A.

    1990-11-01

    The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

  7. Response of neutrophils in peripheral blood of participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP accident consequences to an additional radiation exposure in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timoshevskij, A.A.; Grebenyuk, A.N.; Kalinina, N.A.

    2001-01-01

    Specific effect of radiation exposure in vitro on morphobiochemical characteristics of leukocytes in peripheral blood of the participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP consequences are investigated. Samples of peripheral blood taken from 49 participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP consequences were irradiated in vitro in doses 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 Gy. Cytochemical analysis of neutrophils was used for estimating the contents of lipids and cationic proteins, and also the activity of alkaline phosphatase and myeloperoxidase. The irradiation of samples of peripheral blood taken from the participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP consequences has the same effects on functional and metabolic somatic status but with no history of exposure to the complex of radiation accident factors [ru

  8. Clinical observation of cerebrovascular diseases current in Chernobyl accident liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovchenko, Yu.Yi.; Usatenko, O.G.; Romanenko, N.Yi.

    1999-01-01

    The results of the clinical follow up study (1993-1997) of cerebrovascular diseases development in the Chernobyl accident liquidators are presented. The syndrome of autonomous nervous system dysfunction following to an exposure to the Chernobyl accident consequences factors promotes to fast development of atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension. On the base of an analysis of the data obtained it was established that the primary diencephalic structures damage resulted in severe changes of different metabolic system, particularly in the cerebrovascular disorders development

  9. The Chernobyl accidents: Causes and Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chihab-Eddine, A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this communication is to discuss the causes and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. To facilitate the understanding of the events that led to the accident, the author gave a simplified introduction to the important physics that goes on in a nuclear reactor and he presented a brief description and features of chernobyl reactor. The accident scenario and consequences have been presented. The common contribution factors that led to both Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been pointed out.(author)

  10. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Hille, R.

    2003-01-01

    The reactor accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine has deeply affected the living conditions of millions of people. Especially the health consequences have been of public concern up to the present and also been the subject of sometimes absurd claims. The current knowledge on the radiological consequences of the accident is reviewed. Though an increased hazard for some risk groups with high radiation exposure, e.g., liquidators, still cannot be totally excluded for the future, the majority of the population shows no statistically significant indication of radiation-induced illnesses. The contribution of the Research Center Juelich to the assessment of the post-accidental situation and psychological relief of the population is reported. The population groups still requiring special attention include, in particular, children growing up in highly contaminated regions and the liquidators of the years 1986 and 1987 deployed immediately after the accident. (author)

  11. Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenigsberg, Jacov

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The

  12. The Chernobyl accident — an epidemiological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardis, E.; Hatch, M.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since radioactive releases from the Chernobyl nuclear accident led to exposure of millions of people in Europe. Studies of affected populations have provided important new data on the links between radiation and cancer – particularly the risk of thyroid tumours from exposure to iodine isotopes - that are important not only for a fuller scientific understanding of radiation effects, but also for radiation protection. It is now well-documented that children and adolescents exposed to radioiodines from Chernobyl fallout have a sizeable dose-related increase in thyroid cancer, with risk greatest in those youngest at exposure and with a suggestion that deficiency in stable iodine may increase the risk. Data on thyroid cancer risks to other age groups are somewhat less definitive. In addition, there have been reported increases in incidence and mortality from non-thyroid cancers and non-cancer endpoints. Although some studies are difficult to interpret because of methodological limitations, recent investigations of Chernobyl clean-up workers (“liquidators”) have provided evidence of increased risks of leukaemia and other hematological malignancies and of cataracts, and suggestions of an increase in risk of cardiovascular diseases, following low doses and low dose rates of radiation. Further careful follow-up of these populations, including establishment and long-term support of life-span study cohorts, could provide additional important information for the quantification of radiation risks and the protection of persons exposed to low doses of radiation. PMID:21396807

  13. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  14. The consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Chioșilă

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available These days marks 30 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, followed by massive radioactive contamination of the environment and human in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, and resulted in many deaths among people who intervened to decrease the effects of the nuclear disaster. The 26 April 1986 nuclear accident contaminated all European countries, but at a much lower level, without highlighted consequences on human health. In special laboratories, the main radionuclides (I-131, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Sr-90 were also analyzed in Romania from environmental samples, food, even human subjects. These radionuclides caused the population to receive a low dose of about 1 mSv in 1986 that is half of the dose of the natural background radiation (2.4 mSv per year. As in all European countries (excluding Ukraine, Belarus and Russia this dose of about 1 mSv fell rapidly by 1990, reaching levels close to ones before the accident at the nuclear tests.

  15. Twenty Two Years after Chernobyl Accident Medical Aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabon, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chernobyl accident is the most serious nuclear catastrophe in the recent era. About 600.000 victims intervene in this disaster. The most fatality was about one month after the accident 31 victims. The main cause was Acute Radiation Syndrome. After few weeks 115.000 persons evacuated from the contaminated areas with exposure dose from 0.07 to 2 Gy. The main Isotope exposure was iodine 131 and Cesium 137 with average exposure dose 7 and 10 mGy respectively

  16. Chernobyl reactor accident: medical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    Chernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrome, producing extensive mucous in the oropharynx, was first seen in Chernobyl. The patients were treated with saline wash of the mouth. The patients who had radioactive contamination due to radioactive iodine were given stable iodine, following wash with soap, water and monitored. Fourteen survivors died subsequently due to other causes. Late health effects seen so far include excess of thyroid cancer in the children and psychological disorders due to stress. No excess leukemia has been reported so

  17. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph.

    1997-01-01

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 μSv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  18. Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Røed, K.H.; Jacobsen, M.

    1995-01-01

    Chromosome analyses were carried out on peripheral blood lymphocytes of semi-domestic reindeer in Norway which had been exposed to varying amounts of radiocesium emanating from the Chernobyl accident. The sampling was done in the period 1987-1990. The material included 192 reindeer, originating from four herds in central Norway, an area considerably affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and from three herds in northern Norway which was unaffected by fallout from the accident. Significant heterogeneity in the distribution of chromosome aberrations between herds was observed. The pattern of chromosome aberration frequencies between herds was not related to the variation in radiocesium exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Other factors than the Chernobyl accident appear therefore to be of importance for the distribution of aberration frequencies found among present herds. Within the most contaminated area the reindeer born in 1986 showed significantly more chromosome aberrations than those born both before and after 1986. This could suggest that the Chernobyl accident fallout created an effect particularly among calves, during the immediate post-accident period in the most exposed areas

  19. The Chernobyl accident: The consequences in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmonds, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The accidental release of radioactive material from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR led to widespread contamination over Europe. The pattern of the contamination was determined by the weather conditions which occurred during the days when the release was continuing. Actual levels depended on a number of factors including the distance and direction from Chernobyl, rainfall during the passage of the radioactive cloud and local conditions such as topography. The highest levels of radioactivity have been found in parts of Scandanavia, which was affected by the early stages of the release, and in areas where it rained during the passage of the plume e.g. in parts of Italy, Greece and West Germany. Following the release of radionuclides to atmosphere people will be irradiated by a number of different routes. While the cloud is overhead people will be exposed to external irradiation from material in the cloud and internal irradiation following inhalation of the material. Radionuclides are removed from the cloud during transit and deposited on the ground. People are then exposed by other routes, notably external irradiation from the deposited material and the transfer of material through the terrestrial environment to foods consumed by people. These four exposure pathways are the most important in estimating the radiation doses received by the European population due to the Chernobyl accident. Environmental data are required to estimate the radiation doses. Such data are collected in all European countries by national authorities following the Chernobyl accident. In East Europe measurement data supplied by the national authorities were supplemented by information obtained by using the British embassies. The Embassies were supplied with instruments to measure external γ dose rates and they also collected food samples for analysis at NRPB. Various countermeasures were introduced in different countries to reduce exposure. These measures included restrictions on

  20. Radioiodine dosimetry and prediction of consequences of thyroid exposure of the Russian population following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonova, I.A.; Balonov, M.I.

    1993-01-01

    In the early period after the Chernobyl accident, analysis of patterns of 131 I exposure of the human thyroid showed that contaminated milk was the basic source of 131 I intake among the inhabitants of Russia. The equipment and techniques used for measurement of the 131 I content in the thyroids of these individuals are described in this work. A model of the 131 I intake, taking into account protective actions, and a method of thyroid dose calculation are discussed. The mean thyroid dose and frequency distributions of the thyroid doses to inhabitants of towns and villages of the Bryansk, Tula and Orel regions of Russia are presented. The mean dose to the thyroids of children living in the villages was 2 to 5 times higher than the dose to adult thyroids; for children living in the towns, the mean dose was 1.5 to 12 times higher. The mean thyroid mass in adult inhabitants of the Bryansk region was 27 g, which exceeded the value for a standard man (20 g) and was taken into account in the dosimetric calculations. The technique for reconstructing the mean and individual thyroid doses was based on the correlation between thyroid dose and several parameters: Surface 137 Cs activity in soil, dose rate in air in May of 1986, 131 I content in local milk, milk consumption rate, and 134 Cs + 137 Cs content in the body. The collective thyroid dose to inhabitants of the most contaminated regions of Russia is estimated and a thyroid cancer rate prognosis is derived. The need for intensified medical care for the critical group - children of preschool age during 1986 - is based on a significant increase in the number of projected thyroid cancers and adenomas. 32 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs

  1. Assessment of population radiation exposure after a nuclear reactor accident. Field studies in Russia and Sweden after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallstroem, E.

    1998-10-01

    Since May 1986 a number of studies connecting to the Chernobyl accident have been performed in Western Sweden and in the Brjansk region in Russia. The total deposition of 137 Cs in the investigated area in Sweden was 0.001 - 0.002 MBq/m 2 , mainly deposited as wet deposition on May 8, and in the Brjansk region 0.9 - 2.7 MBq/m 2 . In Sweden, studies of the transfer of 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 131 I in soil, grass, cow's milk, cow and man are presented for 1986-1987. Whole-body measurements of 134 Cs and 137 Cs in 1986-1989 as well as measurements of 131 I in thyroids have been made with stationary whole-body counters. External exposure of persons in villages in the Brjansk region are given for the years 1990 - 1994. The method of estimating the body burden of 137 Cs from individual urine samples taken in the Brjansk region 1991-1997 has been investigated from samples and whole-body measurements performed by 'lap-geometry'. In the investigated farms in Western Sweden the transfer values of 131 l and 134 Cs, 137 Cs from grass to cow's milk in 1986 were similar to values found in the period of deposition from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the 1960s. In 1987 the values of transfer of 134 Cs and 137 Cs were more similar to studies with artificially added cesium in the form of e.g. CsCI. Whole-body measurements in Goeteborg and Malmoe showed an increase of the whole-body content of 134 Cs and 137 Cs up to one year after the accident followed by a slow decrease. Maximum mean value of 137 Cs was 400 - 450 Bq or around 6 Bq/kg in adults. The content of 131 I in the thyroids showed already before the wet main deposition measurable values which decreased fast. The internal contamination of 131 I was due to inhalation, but also to ingestion. The total effective dose was estimated, based on calculations and measurements, to be 37 μSv to 13 μSv year one to four after the accident. The external exposure in villages in the Brjansk region was estimated by measurements of

  2. Progress summary of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iddekinge, F.W. van

    1986-01-01

    Based on two IAEA documents (the report of the USSR State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy named 'The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its consequences' prepared for the IAEA Experts Meeting held in Vienna on 25-29 August, 1986 and the INSAG (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) summary report on the Post-accident review meeting on the Chernobyl accident, drawn up in Vienna from August 30 until September 5, 1986, this publication tries to present a logic relation between the special features of the RMBK-1000 LWGR, the cause of the accident, and the technical countermeasures. (Auth.)

  3. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.A.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Carr, F. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit trademark) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report

  4. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  5. Response to the Chernobyl accident in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The worst nuclear accident in history happened at No.4 unit of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station in USSR. Since the Chernobyl accident, a number of measures have been introduced in many countries, including the reconsideration of programs for construction and operation of nuclear power plants. In Japan, the press and television first reported the accident on April 29. The next day, all the relevant governmental agencies began to collect and analyze information in order to prepare possible countermeasures. The Nuclear Safety Commission issued a statement covering three points: 1) the radioactive substances released by the accident will have virtually no influence on the health of people in Japan, 2) a Special Committee on the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station Accident will be established, and 3) the Soviet government must provide all detailed information about the accident as soon as it is available. On April 30, the Committee on Radioactivity decided to increase radioactivity observations by the Science and Technology Agency, the Defence Agency, and the Meteorological Agency. On the same day, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry set up a survey committee for the Chernobyl accident with the responsibility of collecting and analyzing information about the accident. A review is also made in this article as to how the Japanese media reported the accident and how people reacted on reading the newspapers and watching TV on the accident. (Nogami, K.)

  6. The Chernobyl accident: Thyroid exposure among the population due to radioiodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilin, Yu I; Shinkarev, S M [Biophysics Inst., Russian Federation State Science Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stepanenko, V F [Medical Radiological Research Centre, Academy of Medical Sciences, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Domaratskij, V P; Moroz, G L [Scientific Research Inst. for Industrial and Marine Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Hrushtch, V T [State Scientific Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    Different aspects of internal and external exposure to thyroid of inhabitants from the contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine are discussed in the paper. In the case of consumption of contaminated foods contribution to total absorbed dose from internal radioiodine exposure was more than 90%, otherwise (in the case of only inhalation radioiodine intake), not lesser than 85%. {sup 131}I exposure to thyroid was the main contribution to internal exposure, and exposure to thyroid from short-lived radioiodines was significant only for the inhabitants who did not consume contaminated foods. Peculiarities of formation of ``measured`` doses are considered. Semiempirical model of relationships between the average internal thyroid dose received by people in the rural settlements and the ground-deposition density of radionuclides in these settlements is presented. It has been indicated the necessity of intensification of {sup 129}I measurements in soil. Practical efficiency of used countermeasures for majority people to reduce radioiodine intake is estimated as high as approximately 2 times and caused mainly by removing people from contaminated areas. 11 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  7. Radiation risks and the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, B

    1986-01-01

    A review is given of the basic of radiation protection, including nomenclature and units and principles for protection at accidents. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union and in Sweden is described, and the recommendations and protection measures applied in Sweden are presented. In particular, the radiation levels and restrictions concerning food are discussed. (L.E.).

  8. Long-term development of the radionuclide exposure of murine rodent populations in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabokon, N I; Smolich, I I; Kudryashov, V P; Goncharova, R I

    2005-12-01

    As a determinant of the associated health risks, the behavior of radionuclides in natural ecosystems needs to be better understood. Therefore, the activity concentration of various long-lived radionuclides released due to the Chernobyl accident, and the corresponding contributions to the whole-body dose rate, was studied as a function of time in mammalian indicator species inhabiting the natural forest ecosystems of Belarus, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) and the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollus). The activity concentrations of 137Cs, 134Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Pu and 241Am in soil and in animals were measured at five monitoring sites with different ground deposition of radionuclides at different distances from the destroyed reactor. The observed temporal pattern of the radionuclide activity concentration in the studied animal populations reflects the changes in biological availability of these isotopes for biota, mostly due to fuel particle destruction and appearance of dissolved and exchangeable forms of radionuclides. The time course of 134+137Cs activity concentrations in animal populations appeared as a sequence of increase, peak and decrease. Maximal levels of radiocesium occurred 1-2 years after deposition, followed by an exponential decrease. Concentrations of incorporated 90Sr increased up to the tenth year after deposition. The activity concentrations of transuranic elements (238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Pu and 241Am) were much lower than those of the other radionuclides, in the studied animals. A considerable activity of 241Am in animals from areas with high levels of contamination was firstly detected 5 years after deposition, it increased up to the tenth year and is expected to increase further in the future. Maximal values of the whole-body absorbed dose rates occurred during the year of deposition, followed by a decrease in the subsequent period. Generally, this decrease was monotonic, mainly determined by the decrease of the

  9. Public relations and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Hille, R.; Paschke, M.; Schneider, K.; Uray, I.

    1998-01-01

    In 1991-1993, a large-scale measuring programme was carried out in Germany to assess the radiation burden of the population in regions polluted due to the Chernobyl accident. The primary goal was to objectively inform the population about their actual radiation exposure, to reduce unjustified fears, and to enable countermeasures to be taken where appropriate. A comprehensive overview of the radiation situation was thus also obtained in the regions examined. Channels were sought and found in order to communicate with the more than 250 000 individuals involved in the programme as well as with scientific institutions and the public. Direct communication of the results to the persons examined by means of a certificate including a short explanation proved to be essential to create an atmosphere of trust. (P.A.)

  10. Immediate medical consequences of nuclear accidents: lessons from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    The immediate medical response to the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station involved containment of the radioactivity and evacuation of the nearby population. The next step consisted of assessment of the radiation dose received by individuals, based on biological dosimetry, and treatment of those exposed. Medical care involved treatment of skin burns; measures to support bone marrow failure, gastrointestinal tract injury, and other organ damage (i.e., infection prophylaxis and transfusions) for those with lower radiation dose exposure; and bone marrow transplantation for those exposed to a high dose of radiation. At Chernobyl, two victims died immediately and 29 died of radiation or thermal injuries in the next three months. The remaining victims of the accident are currently well. A nuclear accident anywhere is a nuclear accident everywhere. Prevention and cooperation in response to these accidents are essential goals

  11. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident: thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu; Ashizawa, Kiyoto

    1997-01-01

    An International Conference entitled 'One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident' was held at the Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996. The aim of conference was to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. It was concluded that a highly significant increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among those persons in the affected areas who were children in 1986 is the only clear evidence to data of a public health impact of radiation exposure as a result of the Chernobyl accident and both temporal and geographical distributions clearly indicate a relationship of the increase in incidence to radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident. To clarify the relationship between thyroid cancer and radioactive fallout more clearly, a long term prospective study (case-control/cohort) should be conducted in the highly risk groups and the analysis of accurate estimation of exposure dose to external and/or internal radiation is needed. (author)

  12. Chernobyl - system accident or human error?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stang, E.

    1996-01-01

    Did human error cause the Chernobyl disaster? The standard point of view is that operator error was the root cause of the disaster. This was also the view of the Soviet Accident Commission. The paper analyses the operator errors at Chernobyl in a system context. The reactor operators committed errors that depended upon a lot of other failures that made up a complex accident scenario. The analysis is based on Charles Perrow's analysis of technological disasters. Failure possibility is an inherent property of high-risk industrial installations. The Chernobyl accident consisted of a chain of events that were both extremely improbable and difficult to predict. It is not reasonable to put the blame for the disaster on the operators. (author)

  13. Thyroid exposure, cancer incidence and excess risk in Belarus and Ukraine in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Kaiser, J.C.; Kenigsberg, J.E.; Vavilov, S.E.; Tronko, M.D.; Shinkarev, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of excess thyroid cancer risks are performed based on data for 469 settlements in Belarus and for 719 settlements in Ukraine in which more than 10 measurements of the 1 31I activity in the human thyroid were performed during the first seven weeks after the Chernobyl accident. Methods were developed to derive from the whole set of measurements representative age and gender dependencies of thyroid doses in cities and in rural areas as well as scaling factors for each of the settlements with which estimates of age and gender specific doses for each of the settlements could be derived. The risk analyses is performed with population data for the year 1986 and with all thyroid cancer cases among the birth cohort 1968 to 1985 from the 1188 settlements that were operated in the period 1986 to 2001. In a second study, simulation calculations are performed in order to explore the ecological bias in studies as they are performed with settlement specific data in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident. Based on methods, that were developed by Lubin for exploring the ecologic bias due to smoking in indoor radon studies of lung cancer, the possible influence of enhanced medical surveillance of the thyroid (screening effects) was investigated. Calculations were performed by simulating thyroid doses of 366,397 children in a total of 743 settlements and assuming a linear dependence of the risk on dose and various scenarios of the screening. The ecologic bias was estimated for each of the scenarios. Two analytical equations allow the exact numerical computation of the bias which is determined by the screening factor, the number of screened individuals, and some covariance terms in the input data

  14. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident (IPHECA). 'Epidemiological registry' Pilot project. Reconstruction of absorbed doses from external exposure of the population living in areas of Russia contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkevic, V.A.; Duba, V.V.; Ivanov, V.K.; Tsyb, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    In order to carry out epidemiological research on the influence of radiation factors on the health of people living in centres of population areas contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident, a knowledge of the amount of external and internal exposure to the thyroid gland and the whole body is crucial. After seven years of the Chernobyl accident, an attempt was made to reconstruct the complete dynamic picture of radioactive contamination of Russian territory, taking into consideration current data on the temporal behavior of the source of accidental radionuclide emissions from the reactor where the accident occurred, meteorological conditions at the time, detailed measurements of cesium 137 fall-out density on CIS territory, air exposure dose rate measurements. Such an approach will enable to determine absorbed doses in centers of population, where radiation parameters were not measured at all. 17 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs, 1 map

  15. Editorial: Thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.

    1996-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl power station nearly 10 years ago was unprecedented in the exposure of a very large population to high levels of fallout including high levels of isotopes of iodine, predominantly 131 I. An increase in incidence of childhood thyroid cancer was first observed in 1990 in Belarus and in the Ukraine, and the first reports in the Western literature were published in 1992. At a symposium in Nagasaki in June 1994, the numbers of cases that had occurred between 1990 and 1993 in Belarus, a country with a population of just over 10 million, was reported to be 233, and in the heavily contaminated northern parts of the Ukraine, with a population of about 7 million, 36 cases occurred in the same period. To put these figures into perspective, the number of childhood thyroid cancers registered in England and Wales over a 30-year period was 154, an average of 5 cases per yr in a population of 50 million people, with about 10 million children under 15 yr of age. The initial reports of such a great increase in childhood thyroid cancers in the areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl were at first greeted in the West with some skepticism. The latent period between exposure and development of thyroid cancer was surprisingly short, based on experience with thyroid carcinomas developing after external radiation to the neck. The reliability of the figures based on the pathological diagnosis was questioned because the cases had not been confirmed by Western pathologists, and because the known high frequency of papillary microcarcinoms in adults raised the possibility that the reported incidence was resulted form increased ascertainment and not a true increase in incidence. 14 refs

  16. Reactor accidents. Chernobyl and Three Miles Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, G.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the facilities at Chernobyl and TMI, as well as of the course of the accidents is given. Supplementary information relates to the quantities and types of radionuclides released and to the size of the group of persons concerned. (DG) [de

  17. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    It summarizes the consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident, describes the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, the measurement strategies, the activity levels and doses and countermeasures and action levels used. Past and remaining problems are discussed and the major investigations and improvements are given. (author)

  18. Meteorological data related to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziani, G.; Zarimpas, N.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a detailed technical description of the JRC-Ispra comprehensive collection of meteorological information related to the Chernobyl accident and attempts an analysis of the data in order to perform an initial checking of their quality and facilitate a suitable and compact way of display

  19. Sociological and medical aspects of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlyarov, I.V.; Terebov, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    The sociological survey data, the results of the state of health service in some districts of Gomel and Mogilev regions as well as of the completeness of the fulfillment of state resolutions concerning the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident after effects are given

  20. Consequences in Guatemala of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Sabino, J.F.; Ayala Jimenez, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the long distance between Guatemala and Chernobyl, the country did not undergo direct consequences of radioactive contamination in the short term. However, the accident repercussions were evident in the medium and long-term, mainly in two sectors, the economic-political and the environmental sectors

  1. The Chernobyl accident, a catastrophe or an eye-opener?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baarli, J.

    1989-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident is reviewed as to its cause, the way it was handled locally and the consequenses from released radioactivity. It is emphasized that the exposure from the released radioactivity, as to the effective dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent is small and comparable with the dose equivalent from natural ionizing radiation near the accident, and only a few per cent of this value at more remote distances. It is concluded that the accident probably has been one of the greatest psychological catastrophes that we so far has experienced, but not so when referring to early deaths or radiation damage directly to individuals

  2. Epidemiologic studies based on the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.

    1996-01-01

    There are great opportunities in the post-Chernobyl experience for significant epidemiologic research, perhaps even more in the area of disaster research than in the area of the human health effects of ionizing radiation. But the potential opportunity for learning the effects of radioiodine on the thyroid is very great and has aroused widespread national and international investigative interest. The opportunities for significant epidemiologic research are, however, severely limited currently by the worsening economic situation in Belarus and Ukraine, where the greatest exposure occurred, and by the lack of personnel trained in appropriate methods of study, the lack of modern equipment, the lack of supplies, the poor communication facilities, and the difficulties of accurate dose estimation. the disadvantages may or may not outweigh the obvious advantages of large numbers, the extensive direct thyroidal measurements made shortly after the accident in 1986, the magnitude of the releases of radioiodine, and the retention of the former Soviet system of universal medical care. Both the European Commission (EC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have been working actively to strengthen the infrastructure of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. New scientific knowledge has yet to emerge from the extensive epidemiologic work but information of considerable public health significance has begun to accumulate. The bulk of the thyroid cancer has been shown to be valid by international pathology review; both EC and WHO representatives have declared the increase in thyroid cancer among children to have been caused in large part by Chernobyl. No increase in leukemia has been seen in the general population. The WHO pilot studies have shown no evidence of an increase in psychologic or neurologic complications among those exposed in utero. Ongoing epidemiologic work can be described by review of the inventory that the WHO has begun to maintain and publish. 20 refs., 7 tabs

  3. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Hille, R.

    2002-01-01

    Fifty years of peaceful utilization of nuclear power were interrupted by the reactor accident in unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in Ukraine in 1986, a disruptive event whose consequences profoundly affected the way of life of millions of people, and which has moved the public to this day. Releases of radioactive materials contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Early damage in the form of radiation syndrome was suffered by a group of rescue workers and members of the reactor operating crew, in some cases with fatal consequences, while the population does not, until now, show a statistically significant increase in the rate of late damage due to ionizing radiation expect for thyroid diseases in children. In particular, no increases in the rates of solid tumors, leukaemia, genetic defects, and congenital defects were detected. For some risk groups exposed to high radiation doses (such as liquidators) the hazard may still be greater, but the large majority of the population need not live in fear of serious impacts on health. Nevertheless, the accident shows major negative social and psychological consequences reinforced by the breakdown of the Soviet Union. This may be one reason for the observed higher incidence of other diseases whose association with the effects of radiation as a cause has not so far been proven. The measurement campaign conducted by the federal government in 1991-1993 addressed these very concerns of the public in an effort to provide unbiased information about exposures detected, on the one hand, in order to alleviate the fears of the public and reduce stress and, on the other hand, to contribute to the scientific evaluation of the radiological situation in the regions most highly exposed. The groups of the population requiring special attention in the future include especially children growing up in highly contaminated regions, and the liquidators of 1986 and 1987 employed in the period immediately

  4. Lessons from Chernobyl post-accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.

    2012-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has shown that the long-term management of its consequences is not straightforward. The management of the consequences has revealed the complexity of the situation to deal with. The long-term contamination of the environment has affected all the dimensions of the daily life of the inhabitants living in affected territories: health, environment, social life, education, work, distribution of foodstuffs and commodities... The experience from the Chernobyl accident shows 4 key issues that may be beneficial for the populations living in territories affected by the Fukushima accident: 1) the direct involvement of the inhabitants in their own protection, 2) the radiation monitoring system and health surveillance at the local level, 3) to develop a practical radiation protection culture among the population, and 4) the setting up of economic measures to favour the local development. (A.C.)

  5. Structural aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; Cummings, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    On April 26, 1986 the world's worst nuclear power plant accident occurred at the Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the USSR. This paper presents a discussion of the design of the Chernobyl Power Plant, the sequence of events that led to the accident and the damage caused by the resulting explosion. The structural design features that contributed to the accident and resulting damage will be highlighted. Photographs and sketches obtained from various worldwide news agencies will be shown to try and gain a perspective of the extent of the damage. The aftermath, clean-up, and current situation will be discussed and the important lessons learned for the structural engineer will be presented. 15 refs., 10 figs

  6. Lessons taught by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    On nuclear development, it is natural that safety is the most important condition. However, when occurring an accident in spite of earnest efforts on safety pursuit, it is essential for a technical developer to absorb some lessons from its contents as much as possible and show an attitude to use thereafter. The Chernobyl accident brought extraordinarily large damage in the history of nuclear technology development. Therefore, the edition group of the Japan Society of Atomic Energy introduced opinions of three groups of the Society (that is, groups on reactor physics, nuclear power generation, and human-machine system research) with some description on cause analysis of the accident and its result and effect. And, here was also shown four basic difference on design between RMBK type reactor in Chernobyl and LWR type reactor supplied in Japan. (G.K.)

  7. Generic implications of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sege, G.

    1989-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff's assessment of the generic implications of the Chernobyl accident led to the conclusion that no immediate changes in the NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors are needed. However, further consideration of certain issues was recommended. This paper discusses those issues and the studies being addressed to them. Although 24 tasks relating to light water reactor issues are identified in the Chernobyl follow-up research program, only four are new initiatives originating from Chernobyl implications. The remainder are limited modifications of ongoing programs designed to ensure that those programs duly reflect any lessons that may be drawn from the Chernobyl experience. The four new study tasks discussed include a study of reactivity transients, to reconfirm or bring into question the adequacy of potential reactivity accident sequences hitherto selected as a basis for design approvals; analysis of risk at low power and shutdown; a study of procedure violations; and a review of current NRC testing requirements for balance of benefits and risks. Also discussed, briefly, are adjustments to ongoing studies in the areas of operational controls, design, containment, emergency planning, and severe accident phenomena

  8. Reactor Physics Behind the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisch, F.

    1999-01-01

    There are some fourteen Chernobyl type of power reactors (1000 MWe) in operation at five different sites in Eastern Europe. In Russia; in St. Petersburg (4). in Smolensk (3). and in Kursk (4) in the Ukraine in Chernobyl (l) and in Lithuania in Ignalina (2). The oldest one is west of St. Petersburg and the most powerful one is in Ignalina. The reactors at St. Petersburg and in Lithuania are near to the Baltic sea. An intricate reactor construction was the most important cause of the accident. There were other reasons too: human error. politics and economics

  9. The role of mushrooms and berries in the formation of internal exposure doses to the population of Russia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutov, V.N.; Bruk, G.Ya.; Basalaeva, L.N.; Vasilevitskiy, V.A.; Ivanova, N.P.; Kaplun, I.S.

    1996-01-01

    The present work is devoted to an analysis of the data on the dynamics of 137 Cs transfer factors in the current most critical (for the population of Russia) links of food chain: 'soil mushrooms' and 'soil berries'. Data were obtained during 1986-1994 in the most contaminated region of Russia - the Bryansk region -and then were used for assessing the contribution of forest products consumed by the population of contaminated territories to internal exposure doses. It was shown in contrast to agricultural food products (where natural decontamination took place quickly) that radioactive decontamination of mushrooms and berries during the eight years after the Chernobyl accident was very slow. Use is made of aggregated radioecological data together with broad assumptions about the consumption of forest products to predict the doses that might arise from consumption of such foodstuffs. These predictions are then compared with values derived from whole-body measurements. (Author)

  10. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

  11. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, A.; Nedvecktaite, T.; Filistovic, V.

    1997-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

  12. Impact of long-term radiation exposure on aquatic biota within the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 30 years after accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkov, D.I.; Pomortseva, N.A.; Shevtsova, N.L.; Dzyubenko, E.V.; Nazarov, A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Self-purification of closed water bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (EZ) is an extremely slow process. Therefore, ecosystems of the majority of lakes, dead channels and crawls possess high levels of radionuclide contamination of all components. Along with natural decontamination processes in aquatic ecosystems such as physical decay of radionuclides and their water transport outside the EZ, there is a change of physical and chemical forms of radioactive substances in soils of catchment areas, their transformation and transition in the mobile and bioavailable state, washout to the closed aquatic ecosystems and accumulation by hydrobionts. This essentially deteriorates the radiation situation in closed aquatic ecosystems, which are some kind of 'storage system' of radioactive substances in the EZ and results in increase of radiation dose to aquatic species and manifests in a variety of radiation effects at different levels of biological systems. We established dose-related effects in hydrobionts of lakes within the EZ which indicates a damage of biological systems at subcellular, cellular, tissue, organ, organism and population levels as a result of chronic exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. The rate of chromosomal aberrations in cells of aquatic species, many-a-times exceeds the level of spontaneous mutagenesis level to aquatic biota. Increased levels of chromosome damages may be a manifestation of radiation-induced genetic instability, which is one of the main mechanisms for the protection of living organisms from exposure to stressors with subsequent implementation at higher levels of organization of biological systems. (author)

  13. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences. 3. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The report presents a comprehensive survey of measured data explaining the radiation exposure in the Land Hessen, and a chronological survey of the decisions and measures taken by the Hessian regional government in response to the Chernobyl reactor accident. The measures for instance included selection of appropriate measuring methods and sites, checking of various environmental material, waste disposal surveillance, and dose assessments, and a range of monitoring programmes. (PW) [de

  14. Early measurements in urban areas after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhtarev, I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarises the experience on the radioactive monitoring of the environment and population dose assessment provided in urban areas, mainly in Kiev, after the Chernobyl accident. It emphasises the need of several radiological teams, of the support from several institutions and of preparedness for a consistent database, dose assessment and criteria for decision making. Main results of measurements of gamma exposure rates, air, grass and food radioactive contamination are presented. (author)

  15. Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.; Grosche, B.; Schoetzau, A.

    1997-01-01

    In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Determination of leukemia-associated gene rearrangements and ultrastructural changes in Chernobyl accident liquidators blood leukocytes long term after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butenko, Z.A.; Smirnova, I.A.; Yanok, E.A.; Kishinskaya, E.G.; Zak, K.P.; Afanas'eva, V.V.; Mikhajlovskaya, Eh.V.

    1997-01-01

    The results of ultrastructural and molecular-genetic investigations of blood cells from 120 liquidators 7-10 years after Chernobyl accident with the total exposure radiation doses ranging from 5.1 to 75.0 cGy are presented. Electron microscopic studies revealed marked changes in ultrastructure of neutrophils nuclei - hyper segmentation, whimsical prominences, loops, swelling and destruction of cytoplasmic granules. There was an increase in the number of 'aberrant' forms of lymphocytes with disturbed structure of chromatin, additional nuclei and changed membrane contour. Structural polymorphism of the leukemia associated bcr and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes were studied using Southern blot hybridization. Allelic polymorphism of bcr gene with characteristic for chronic myeloid leukemia allele distribution and rearrangements of eRNA genes were detected in 11.5% of accident liquidators. This data point out to structure-functional leucocyte changes and possibility of arising leukemia associated gene rearrangements in blood cells of some liquidators many years after the exposure to radiation and serve for determination of group at risk of oncohematological diseases

  17. Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, P.; Dubreuil, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

  18. Measured radioecological parameters after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonka, H.

    1989-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident the radioactivity in the environment in Aachen was measured in detail. The change of the different radionuclies in the eco-system made it possible to obtain radioecological parameters especially for iodine and caesium. The most important data obtained like deposition velocity, washout coefficient, retention factor, removal rate constant, and transfer factor food-milk, food-beef, and soil-grass are reported. (orig.)

  19. Legal aspects of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuck, R.

    1986-01-01

    The brief article presents questions arising after the Chernobyl reactor accident, primarily those of compensation for damage and the relationship between citizens and the state. As existing laws do not offer suitable instruments for reacting to such a disaster, the author outlines ways and means that should be created on an international level in order to be able to react more efficiently in future. (HSCH) [de

  20. Safety regulation - twenty years after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksashin, P.P.; Bukrinskij, A.M.; Gordon, B.G.

    2006-01-01

    Main stages of development, successes, achievements and shortcomings of activity of supervision body after the Chernobyl NPP accident are analysed. The estimation of the realized variations of the functions of the state supervision department is carried out. Results of the twenty year period of improvement of the supervision body are summed up. The measures for increasing the efficiency of the supervision body operation are outlined [ru

  1. Results of in vivo monitoring of the witnesses of the Chernobyl accident (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutkov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    About 1500 people were involved in emergency operations on 26-27 April 1986 at the site of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. They worked in different working conditions and were exposed to aerosols of different characteristics. The Chernobyl accident was the first accident in which, when the reactor core was destroyed, aerosol of the dispersed spent nuclear fuel became a significant source of internal and external exposure for a large group of people. Detailed information on the properties of the Chernobyl aerosol for the first post-accident period is absent. Therefore, results of in vivo monitoring of the witnesses of the Chernobyl accident can be an important source of information for assessing the radiological properties of the Chernobyl aerosol. (author)

  2. Thyroid Cancer Induction: Nitrates as Independent Risk Factors or Risk Modulators after Radiation Exposure, with a Focus on the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Valentina M; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    In recent decades, differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) incidence has been increasing worldwide. The important contributions to this phenomenon of "overdiagnosis" driven by wider use of improved ultrasound systems are amply documented, notwithstanding the "real" carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, e.g., from the Chernobyl accident or health care interventions. Less well understood is the role of nitrates - as environmental pollutants, in diet, and in medication - in thyroid carcinogenesis. Increasing exposure to nitrates is associated with rising incidence of esophageal, stomach, bladder, and colon cancers. Recent data suggest that in agricultural areas with higher mean nitrate levels in groundwater, DTC risk is also elevated. Our work in Belarus after Chernobyl has shown that children in districts with high nitrate concentrations in drinking water had significantly higher thyroid cancer incidence after irradiation than did their counterparts in areas with lower nitrate concentrations. Notwithstanding thyroid shielding, increasing use of computed tomography and dental X-rays heightens radiation exposure of the salivary glands in the general population, especially in children and adolescents. When nitrate intake is increased, salivary gland irradiation may potentially result in carcinogenic elevations in plasma nitric oxide concentrations. In conclusion, excess nitrate intake seems to be an independent risk factor for DTC. Additionally, we hypothesize from our data that high nitrate levels modulate the carcinogenic effect of radiation on the thyroid. Cohort studies, case-control studies, or both, are needed to quantify the effects of nitrates on DTC risk in the presence or absence of radiation exposure, e.g., that associated with diagnostic or therapeutic health care interventions.

  3. Characteristics of young adults of Belarus with post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinoma: a long-term follow-up of patients with early exposure to radiation at the 30th anniversary of the accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Mikhail; Lam, Alfred King-Yin; Krasko, Olga

    2016-12-01

    Studies of thyroid cancer related to the Chernobyl accident have focused on children as they are the most vulnerable group with the highest risk of developing radiation-associated cancer. In contrast, our research aimed to look at the clinical and pathological features of patients with post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinoma that were 2 years old or less at the time of the Chernobyl accident. The study subjects were patients (n = 359) aged 0 to 2 at the time of the Chernobyl accident and aged ≥19 years at presentation/surgery who were treated in Belarus for papillary thyroid carcinoma during the period 2003-2013. In conventional or oncocytic variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, the prevalence of extra-thyroidal extension, nodal disease, infiltrative growth or lymphatic vessel invasion was above 50%. These features were less pronounced when compared to tall cell or diffuse sclerosing variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The highest frequency of central lymph node metastases was found in patients aged 1-2 years at exposure (P = 0·004). Subjects exposed in utero were characterized by absent/insignificant lymphocytic infiltration around the carcinoma (P = 0·025), predominance of conventional papillary architecture and an association with lymphocytic thyroiditis. A number of features were associated with this group of patients that were very young at the time of radiation exposure. In addition, the incidence and basic characteristics of adult papillary thyroid carcinoma varied depending on the types of exposure conditions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourad, R.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The results two parts. The first part was performed during the first 2 months following the accident and dealt with the evaluation of the source term and an estimate of individual doses in the European countries outside the Soviet Union. The second part was performed after August 25-29, 1986 when the Soviets presented in a IAEA Conference in Vienna detailed information about the accident, including source term and radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. The second part of the study reconfirms the source term evaluated in the first part and in addition deals with the radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. Source term and individual doses are calculated from measured post-accident data, reported by the Soviet Union and European countries, microcomputer program PEAR (Public Exposure from Accident Releases). 22 refs

  5. Chernobyl NPP accident: a year later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmolov, V.G.; Borovoj, A.A.; Demin, V.F.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is being given to measures on liquidation of Chernobyl accident aftereffects, conducted since August, 1986. One of the most important measures lay in construction of the ''shelter'', which must provide long-term conservation of accidental unit. Works on decontamination of reactor area and contaminated populated regions were continued. Measures on providing safety of population and its health protection were performed. An attention was paid to long-term investigations on studying delayed aftereffects of the accident, monitoring of invironment, development and introduction of measures on improving NPP safety. Prospects of further development of nuclear power engeneering and possibilities of improving its safety are considered

  6. Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

  8. ARAC response to the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarizes the assessments provided by ARAC during the first two weeks after the Chernobyl reactor accident began. Results of this work and measurements made by European countries during that same period show that no major short-term acute health effects would be expected in Europe as a result of this accident. Statistical long-term health effects were not addressed in these studies. Both measured and calculated I-131 concentrations in milk in the US were over an order of magnitude below the USDA guideline of 15,000 pCi/l

  9. Implications of the Chernobyl accident for Protective Action Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Charles W.; Pepper, Andrea J.

    1989-01-01

    The accident that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on April 26, 1986, was the worst accident in the history of nuclear power. Thirty-one workers and emergency personnel died and more than 200 site personnel were hospitalized as a result of this event Approximately 135,000 persons within 30 km around the reactor were evacuated, and radioactive debris was spread throughout the Northern Hemisphere. There was much public concern generated around the world, and an increased risk of fatal cancel in the world's population is possible as a result of exposure to Chernobyl fallout (USNRC, 1987a). Since the time the Chernobyl accident occurred, many authoritative studies have been published, e.g. USNRC, 1987a. In these studies, differences in design between commercial U.S. reactors and the RBMK pressure-tube reactor at Chernobyl have been emphasized, e.g. USNRC, 1987b. While significant differences in design do exist between these reactors, we believe there are still significant lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident for U.S. reactors. The purpose of this paper is to summarize some of the major lessons to be learned related to protective action guidance. The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS) has identified three areas related to protective action guidance for food and water where implications can be drawn from Chernobyl for the U.S.: (1) uniformity of Protective Action Guides (PAGs), (2) incompleteness of U.S. PAGs, and (3) international communications. Following the Chernobyl accident, a variety of protective actions were undertaken by various nations. Furthermore, these actions were initiated, modified, and terminated at different times in different places and, in some instances, were applied on a local or regional basis rather than a national basis (Goldman et al., 1987). One result of this differing application of PAGs was the generation of considerable confusion among decision

  10. Soviet medical response to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl was the worst in the history of nuclear power. It tested the organized medical response to mass radiation casualties. This article reviews the Soviet response as reported at the 1986 postaccident review meeting in Vienna and as determined from interviews. The Soviets used three levels of care: rescue and first aid at the plant site; emergency treatment at regional hospitals; and definitive evaluation and treatment in Moscow. Diagnosis, triage, patient disposition, attendant exposure, and preventive actions are detailed. The United States would be well advised to organize its resources definitively to cope with future nonmilitary nuclear accidents

  11. Karyopathological traits of thyrocytes and exposure to radioiodines in Belarusian children and adolescents following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadyrov, Eldar; Rozhko, Alexander; Nikonovich, Sergey; Kravtsov, Viacheslav; Aleksanin, Sergey; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Hatch, Maureen; Nakamura, Nori

    2012-01-01

    The Belarus-American (BelAm) thyroid study cohort consists of persons who were 0-18 years of age at the time of exposure to radioactive iodine fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and who have undergone serial thyroid screenings with referral for fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) using standardized criteria. We investigated thyrocyte nuclear abnormalities in cytological samples from FNABs in 75 BelAm subjects with single and multiple thyroid nodules and 47 nodular goiter patients from Leningrad, Russia, unexposed to Chernobyl fallout. Nuclear abnormalities examined included internuclear chromosome bridges and derivative nuclei with broken bridges (i.e., ''tailed'' nuclei), which are formed from dicentric and ring chromosomes and thus may be cellular markers of radiation exposure. Among subjects with single-nodular goiter, thyrocytes with bridges were present in 86.8% of the exposed BelAm cohort compared with 27.0% of unexposed controls. The average frequency of thyrocytes with bridges and with tailed nuclei was also significantly higher in the BelAm subjects than in controls. Among subjects with multinodular goiters, thyrocytes with bridges were present in 75.7% of exposed BelAm patients compared with 16.7% of unexposed controls; thyrocytes with tailed nuclei were observed in all of the BelAm subjects but in only 40% of controls, and the mean frequencies of bridges and tailed nuclei were significantly higher in the exposed group. Unusually, long bridges were detected in 29% of BelAm patients with single-nodular goiters and 35% of those with multinodular goiters, while no such abnormalities were observed among patients from the Leningrad region. In the exposed subjects from BelAm, we also found positive correlations between their estimated dose of Iodine-131 from Chernobyl fallout and the frequency of tailed nuclei (p = 0.008) and bridges (p = 0.09). Further study is needed to confirm that these phenomena represent consequences of

  12. Karyopathological traits of thyrocytes and exposure to radioiodines in Belarusian children and adolescents following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadyrov, Eldar; Rozhko, Alexander; Nikonovich, Sergey [Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, Gomel (Belarus); Kravtsov, Viacheslav; Aleksanin, Sergey [EMERCOM of Russia, Nikiforov Russian Centre of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Hatch, Maureen [National Cancer Institute, Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Rockville, MD (United States); Nakamura, Nori [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    The Belarus-American (BelAm) thyroid study cohort consists of persons who were 0-18 years of age at the time of exposure to radioactive iodine fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and who have undergone serial thyroid screenings with referral for fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) using standardized criteria. We investigated thyrocyte nuclear abnormalities in cytological samples from FNABs in 75 BelAm subjects with single and multiple thyroid nodules and 47 nodular goiter patients from Leningrad, Russia, unexposed to Chernobyl fallout. Nuclear abnormalities examined included internuclear chromosome bridges and derivative nuclei with broken bridges (i.e., ''tailed'' nuclei), which are formed from dicentric and ring chromosomes and thus may be cellular markers of radiation exposure. Among subjects with single-nodular goiter, thyrocytes with bridges were present in 86.8% of the exposed BelAm cohort compared with 27.0% of unexposed controls. The average frequency of thyrocytes with bridges and with tailed nuclei was also significantly higher in the BelAm subjects than in controls. Among subjects with multinodular goiters, thyrocytes with bridges were present in 75.7% of exposed BelAm patients compared with 16.7% of unexposed controls; thyrocytes with tailed nuclei were observed in all of the BelAm subjects but in only 40% of controls, and the mean frequencies of bridges and tailed nuclei were significantly higher in the exposed group. Unusually, long bridges were detected in 29% of BelAm patients with single-nodular goiters and 35% of those with multinodular goiters, while no such abnormalities were observed among patients from the Leningrad region. In the exposed subjects from BelAm, we also found positive correlations between their estimated dose of Iodine-131 from Chernobyl fallout and the frequency of tailed nuclei (p = 0.008) and bridges (p = 0.09). Further study is needed to confirm that these phenomena represent

  13. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131 I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131 I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10 6 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10 7 person-rem (2 x 10 5 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

  14. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph.

    1997-11-01

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m -2 ), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at present the dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 μSv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before

  15. Chernobyl accident: Causes, consequences and problems of radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortov, V.; Ustyantsev, Yu.

    2013-01-01

    General description of Chernobyl accident is given in the review. The accident causes are briefly described. Special attention is paid to radiation situation after the accident and radiation measurements problems. Some data on Chernobyl disaster are compared with the corresponding data on Fukushima accident. It is noted that Chernobyl and Fukushima lessons should be taken into account while developing further measures on raising nuclear industry safety. -- Highlights: ► The short comparative analysis of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima is given. ► We note the great effect of β-radiation on the radiation situation at Chernobyl. ► We discuss the problems of radiation measurements under these conditions. ► The impact of shelter on the radiation situation near Chernobyl NPS is described

  16. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by 137 Cesium ( 137 Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as 132 Te- 132 I, 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h −1 per initial 137 Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m −2 , whereas it was 100 μGy h −1 around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m −2 for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums ( 134 Cs + 137 Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively

  17. Radiation exposure and breast cancer: lessons from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodnik, Aleksandra; Hudon, Tyler W; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2013-04-01

    The lessons learned from the Chernobyl disaster have become increasingly important after the second anniversary of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear accident. Historically, data from the Chernobyl reactor accident 27 years ago demonstrated a strong correlation with thyroid cancer, but data on the radiation effects of Chernobyl on breast cancer incidence have remained inconclusive. We reviewed the published literature on the effects of the Chernobyl disaster on breast cancer incidence, using Medline and Scopus from the time of the accident to December of 2010. Our findings indicate limited data and statistical flaws. Other confounding factors, such as discrepancies in data collection, make interpretation of the results from the published literature difficult. Re-analyzing the data reveals that the incidence of breast cancer in Chernobyl-disaster-exposed women could be higher than previously thought. We have learned little of the consequences of radiation exposure at Chernobyl except for its effects on thyroid cancer incidence. Marking the 27th year after the Chernobyl event, this report sheds light on a specific, crucial and understudied aspect of the results of radiation from a gruesome nuclear power plant disaster.

  18. Thyroid diseases after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is released at every atomic-bomb testings and nuclear plants accidents and radioactive iodine is taken up by thyroid glands (internal radiation). In addition to the internal radiation, radioactive fallout causes the external radiation and thyroid glands are known to be sensitive to the external radiation. Furthermore, patients with radiation-induced thyroid disease can survive for a long time regardless of the treatment. The survey of thyroid diseases, therefore, is very sensitive and reliable ways to investigate the effects of radiation caused by atomic bomb explosion, testing and various types of nuclear plants' accidents. Our group from Nagasaki University was asked to investigate the thyroid diseases and jointed to the Sasakawa Project. In order to investigate the effects of radiation on thyroid disease, it is essential 1) to make a correct diagnosis in each subject, 2) to calculate a correct radiation dose in each subject and finally, 3) to find out the correlation between the radiation dose and thyroid diseases including age-, sex- and area-matched controls. We have established 5 centers (1 in Russia, 2 in Belarus, 2 in Ukraine) and supplied the most valuable ultrasonography instruments, commercial kits for the determination of serum free T 4 and TSH level and for the autoantibodies, instrument for urinary iodine measurements, syringers, tubes, refrigerators, etc. We visit each center often and asked people at centers to come to Japan for training. Protocol of investigation is essentially the same as that in Nagasaki, and we are planning to investigate more than 50,000 children within 5 years. We are hoping to show a definite conclusion in the near future. Recent articles are also discussed. (author)

  19. The causes of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frot, J.

    2001-01-01

    For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

  20. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegg, Conny.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation doses to man in Sweden due to the Chernobyl accident originate mainly from external irradiation from deposited radionuclides and internal irradiation from consumption of radioactively contaminated food stuffs. Inhalation and external irradiation from the passing cloud give only a minor contribution to the total dose. As an average for the Swedish population the individual radiation dose during the first year amounts to about 0.1 mSv, i.e. 10% of the natural background radiation. In the most contaminated areas, however, the individual dose may become 30 times higher than the average dose. The dose committed over 50 years has estimated to be about six times as high as the first year dose. The collective dose for the Swedish population has been estimated to about 1300 manSv the first year after the accident and the corresponding dose over 50 years to 5000 to 7000 manSv. This could lead to 100 to 200 extra fatal cancers. Furthermore, no damages on man that can be related to Chernobyl fallout, e.g. pre-natal effects, have so far been observed in Sweden. Shortly after the accident, several research projects were initiated in Sweden in order to follow the distribution of radionuclides in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. The results which in many cases are preliminary, shows that the recovery of the ecosystem will take several decades. (author)

  1. Radiological consequence of Chernobyl nuclear power accident in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Masafumi; Nakamura, Yuji; Kankura, Takako; Iwasaki, Tamiko; Fujimoto, Kenzo; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi.

    1988-03-01

    Two years have elapsed since the accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station shocked those concerned with nuclear power generation. The effect that this accident exerted on human environment has still continued directly and indirectly, and the reports on the effect have been made in various countries and by international organizations. In Japan, about the exposure dose of Japanese people due to this accident, the Nuclear Safety Commission and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute issued the reports. In this report, the available data concerning the envrionmental radioactivity level in Japan due to the Chernobyl accident are collected, and the evaluation of exposure dose which seems most appropriate from the present day scientific viewpoint was attempted by the detailed analysis in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The enormous number of the data observed in various parts of Japan were different in sampling, locality, time and measuring method, so difficulty arose frequently. The maximum concentration of I-131 in floating dust was 2.5 Bq/m 3 observed in Fukui, and the same kinds of radioactive nuclides as those in Europe were detected. (Kako, I.)

  2. Some problems connected with the Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar'yakhtar, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    The description of the eruption of radionuclides caused by the Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 Accident, including the effective time of the accident, quality and quantity of radio waste, is presented. A particular attention is given to the spotty structure of Chernobyl's contamination. The assumption that the spots distribution may be a consequence of the turbulent processes in the atmosphere is made

  3. The Chernobyl accident has changed our life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambaroff, M.; Mies, M.; Stopczyk, A.; Werlhof, C. v.

    1986-01-01

    The book presents news paper articles and other contribution written by female authors, showing openly their determination to fight for their conception of life, and to put up opposition against the arguments and attitudes of men who so far have dominated events and developments in science, technology, and politics. The fear and worries of the women and mothers after the Chernobyl accident are discussed in great detail, explaining their view in contrast to the male world believing in science and technology, and showing the reasons why women have started to take a new turn, fighting for recognition of their conception life. (DG) [de

  4. Learned from Chernobyl accident-intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    It is considered that health and social damage as seen in the Chernobyl accident could be avoided by establishing a clear framework for intervention against contamination. The framework must be easy to understand to be accepted by all the people concerned. This study presented a process of decision-making on countermeasures against a regional-scale soil contamination. This process put an emphasis on 1) Clarification of responsibility and intervention principles, 2) Application of probabilistic techniques into individual dose estimation, 3) Reduction of social burden. Examples of decision-making were also presented for a simulated ground surface contamination. (author)

  5. Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of

  6. Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambray, R.S.; Cawse, P.A.; Garland, J.A.; Gibson, J.A.B.; Johnson, P.; Lewis, G.N.J.; Newton, D.; Salmon, L.; Wade, B.O.

    1987-02-01

    A preliminary study of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident for the Department of the Environment was started in June 1986 which involved taking on an opportunistic basis, samples of air, rain, grass and soil in the UK. This study was integrated into a programme of other investigations funded by the Departments of Health and Social Security and of Energy including measurements on people, in air, deposition and soil overseas, on deposition to buildings and the derivation where possible of parameters of interest in accident assessment. This report is a comprehensive account of all these initial investigations and presented in fulfilment of the Preliminary Study under DoE contract PECD 7/9/359. (author)

  7. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P; Meckbach, R; Ulanovski, A; Schotola, C; Proehl, G [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Kenigsberg, J; Buglova, E; Kruk, J [Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Likhtarev, I; Kovgan, L; Vavilov, S; Chepurniy, M [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Inst., Kyiv (Ukraine); Tronko, M; Bogdanova, T [Institute of Endocrinolgoy and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Shinkarev, S; Gavrilin, Y [All-Russian Public Organization of Invalids ' Chernobylets' , Scientific Center ' FENIX' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Demidchik, Y [Thyroid Cancer Center, Minsk (Belarus)

    2005-07-01

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  8. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.; Ulanovski, A.; Schotola, C.; Proehl, G.; Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Kruk, J.; Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Vavilov, S.; Chepurniy, M.; Tronko, M.; Bogdanova, T.; Shinkarev, S.; Gavrilin, Y.; Demidchik, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the 131 I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the 131 I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  9. Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardis, Elisabeth; Howe, Geoffrey; Ron, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (review)

  10. Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, Elisabeth [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon CEDEX 08 (France); Howe, Geoffrey [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th Street, Room 1104, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Ron, Elaine [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Building EPS, MS 7238, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)] (and others)

    2006-06-15

    26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (rev0009i.

  11. Hygienic evaluation of radiation consequences after the Chernobyl accident in highly populated areas of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachev, I.I.; Tkachenko, N.V.; Markelova, L.K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses radiation exposure to the people in the Ukraine as a result of the Chernobyl accident. As a result of this accident all Ukrainian regions have been heavily contaminated, even though the contamination density obtained in different regions are considerably different. Soils have become contaminated and plants grown in the soils transfer radionuclides to people

  12. External dose assessment in the Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Remi Jordan Lesartre

    While the physiological effects of radiation exposure have been well characterized in general, it remains unclear what the relationship is between large-scale radiological events and psychosocial behavior outcomes in individuals or populations. To investigate this, the National Science Foundation funded a research project in 2008 at the University of Colorado in collaboration with Colorado State University to expand the knowledge of complex interactions between radiation exposure, perception of risk, and psychosocial behavior outcomes by modeling outcomes for a representative sample of the population of the Ukraine which had been exposed to radiocontaminant materials released by the reactor accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986. In service of this project, a methodology (based substantially on previously published models specific to the Chernobyl disaster and the Ukrainian population) was developed for daily cumulative effective external dose and dose rate assessment for individuals in the Ukraine for as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. A software platform was designed and produced to estimate effective external dose and dose rate for individuals based on their age, occupation, and location of residence on each day between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009. A methodology was developed to transform published 137Cs soil deposition contour maps from the Comprehensive Atlas of Caesium Deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl Accident into a geospatial database to access these data as a radiological source term. Cumulative effective external dose and dose rate were computed for each individual in a 703-member cohort of Ukrainians randomly selected to be representative of the population of the country as a whole. Error was estimated for the resulting individual dose and dose rate values with Monte Carlo simulations. Distributions of input parameters for the dose assessment methodology were compared to computed dose and dose rate estimates to determine which

  13. Health hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Considering the long-term importance of radiocaesium a decision was made to examine carefully the following aspects of this radionuclide in Europe: rate of deposition; environmental pathways through soil, flora and fauna to humans; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans; estimated doses resulting from these exposures; and some consideration of the possible adverse health effects. This is a report from a working group studying the health implications of radiocaesium. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Radiological effects of the Chernobyl accident on West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    According to a preliminary estimate of the additional radiation exposure of West Germany's population due to the Chernobyl reactor accident, an effective dose of 150-200 mrem over the next 50 years is given as an average commitment throughout the country (accumulated natural radiation dose estimated for the same period of time is between 7 500 and 20 000 mrem). There are, however, strong regional variations. The Strahlenschutzkommission gives the calculated maximum dose to the adult population via the food chain to be 70 mrem in 1986, and 90 mrem to infants; the commission expects that real values will be about one fifth of the assessed values.

  15. Remediation strategies for contaminated territories resulting from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Sanzharova, N.; Alexakhin, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Directorate General for Environment of the European Commission has supported two projects on the issue of remediation strategies for contaminated territories resulting from the Chernobyl accident. The first one aimed at identifying and costing a set of additional countermeasures that would enable the reduction of the annual exposure of the inhabitants down to 1 mSv. The second one (still running) is developing a new rehabilitation approach based on the involvement of the local population in the decision taking process concerning the type of countermeasures to be applied (the ETHOS approach). (author)

  16. The Chernobyl accident: Causes and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Two explosions, one immediately following the other, in Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union signaled the worst disaster ever to befall the commercial nuclear power production industry. This accident, which occurred at 1:24 a.m. on April 26, 1986, resulted from an almost incredible series of operational errors associated, ironically, with an attempt to enhance the capability of the reactor to safely accommodate station blackout accidents (i.e., accidents arising from a loss of station electrical power). Disruption of the core, due to a prompt criticality excursion, resulted in the destruction of the core vault and reactor building and the sudden dispersal of about 3% of the fuel from the core region into the environment. Lesser but significant releases of radioactivity continued through May 6, 1986, before attempts to certain the radioactivity and cool the remnants of the core were successful. The amount and composition of material released in the course of the accident remain somewhat uncertain, and inconsistencies in the release estimates are evident. The Soviet estimates, in addition to the dispersal of about 3% of the fuel, include complete release of the noble gas core inventory, 20% of the fission product iodine inventory, 15% of the tellurium inventory, and 10 to 13% of the fission product cesium inventory. The iodine and cesium release estimates are not consistent with the noble gas values, and are as much as a factor of two less than some estimates made by experts outside the Soviet Union

  17. Retrospective dosimetry of populations exposed to reactor accident: Chernobyl example, lesson for Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, Vadim V.

    2013-01-01

    Follow-up of the Chernobyl accident had included a good deal of retrospective dosimetry and dose reconstruction. Comparison of Chernobyl and Fukushima shows that despite some differences in course and scale of the two accidents, main elements are present in both situations and Chernobyl experience could be quite educative for better understanding and more optimal handling of Fukushima Dai-ichi accident consequences. This paper contains review of dose reconstruction efforts done to date and extensively published in scientific journals and reports. Specifically the following cases are considered: (i) evaluation of individual doses to evacuees; (ii) validation of ecological dosimetric models and ruling out unconfirmed dose rate measurements; dosimetric support of (iii) case–control study of leukemia among Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators), and (iv) cohort study of cataracts among liquidators. Due to limited size of this paper the given application cases are rather outlined while more detailed descriptions could be found in relevant publications. Each considered Chernobyl case is commented with respect to possible application to Fukushima Dai-ichi situation. The presented methodological findings and approaches could be used for retrospective assessment of human exposures in Fukushima. -- Highlights: ► Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for evaluation of individual doses to evacuees. ► Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for validation of ecological dosimetric models, rejection dubious dose rate records. ► Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for risk assessment of leukemia among Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators). ► Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for study of cataracts among liquidators. ► Experience of dose reconstruction in Chernobyl could be used for retrospective assessment of exposures in Fukushima

  18. Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 3. Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterenko, V.B.

    1992-01-01

    Expert conclusion is presented on the Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus. Problems of ground and food contamination, medical and biological radiation effects on the population are considered. Attention is paid to the radiation monitoring and radiometric gages. Scale of the damage for forestry and agriculture is described and recommendations on the agriculture is described and recommendations on the agricultural production and forest utilization at contaminated areas are given. 24 refs.; 4 figs.; 24 tabs

  19. Medical experience: Chernobyl and other accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densow, D.; Kindler, H.; Fliedner, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    A radiation accident can be defined as an involuntary relevant exposure of man to ionising radiation or radioactive material. Provided one of the ensuing criteria is met with at least one person involved in an excursion of ionising radiation and or radioactive material, the respective incident can be considered a radiation accident in accordance with ICRP, NCRP (US), and WHO: ≥0.25 Sv total body irradiation with lesions of the rapidly dividing tissues; ≥6 Sv cutaneous and local irradiation; ≥0.4 Sv local irradiation of other organ systems through external sources; incorporation equal to or in excess of more than half of the maximum permissible organ burden; and medical accidents meeting one of the above criteria. Several actions have been taken to categorise radiation accidents in order to learn from previous accidents in terms of both managerial and medical experience. For this presentation three approaches will be discussed concerning their relevance to the individual treatment and risk management. This will be obtained by applying three classification schemes to all known radiation accidents: 1. classification with respect to the accident mechanism, 2. classification concerning the radiation injury, and 3. classification concerning the extent of the accident. In a fourth chapter the efficacy of bone marrow transplantation will briefly be commented on based on the accumulated experience of about 400 radiation accidents world-wide. (author)

  20. Public acceptance and assessment of countermeasures after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, E.I.; Archangelskaya, G.V.; Zykova, I.A.

    1997-01-01

    General Background. Previous studies confirmed that the main reason of the psychological stress after Chernobyl was a worry about radiation influence on personal health and health of children. This ''Chernobyl stress'' is typical ''information'' or emotional stress resulting from mass media information on radioactive contamination and exposure but not from direct personal visual or auditory and other impression for 5 million population. The population was not able to define the radiation danger by direct sensual perception without measuring equipment but was obliged to change their life-style and diet as a remedial action and to follow the radiation protection requirements and advices. Therefore the anxiety was related not only to information about the accident but also to implemental countermeasures, which changed the everyday life. The countermeasures became the first real sign of the accident. Methods. In 1988-1994 studies based on population interview of about 5 thousand residents and questionnaires were carried out on contaminated (15 - 40 Ci/km2) territories, adjacent and distant areas. The following information was used: population knowledge of protective measures; sources of information about radiation and level of trust; assessment of the effectiveness and reasons of non-satisfaction of the protection measures; compliance and involvement of population in countermeasures including effects of life-style changes and behavior; public opinion on priority for financial expenditure for mitigation of accident consequences

  1. Accident at Chernobyl and the medical response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    The author was in the Soviet Union in early June 1986, leading a medical lecture tour under an exchange program sponsored by Physicians for Social Responsibility. This provided an opportunity for extensive discussions with the Soviet physicians in charge of the medical response to Chernobyl, for a visit to Moscow Hospital number 6, the center of care for those acutely injured for observation of seven acutely irradiated patients and reviews of their clinical courses, and for discussion with the medical teams providing the acute care and planning the necessary long term epidemiologic and environmental investigations. This report is based on information provided by these sources and on data released in Moscow by Robert P. Gale, MD, the American physician from UCLA who, with his associates, flew to the Soviet Union within days to join the team already caring for irradiated victims of the accident

  2. Health protection measures after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Reitan, J.B.; Harbitz, O.; Brynhildsen, L.

    1990-01-01

    The article describes the nutritional measures introduced to protect health after the Chernobyl accident, and the associated costs. The toal value of the reindeer meat, mutton, lamb and goat meat saved as a result of such measures in 1987 amounted to approx. NOK 250 million. The measures cost approx. NOK 60 million. The resulting reduction in the radiation dose level to which the population was exposed was 450 manSv. In 1988, mutton/lamb and goat meat valued at approx. NOK 310 million was saved from contamination by similar measures, which cost approx. NOK 50 million. The resulting dose level reduction was approx. 200 manSv. The relationship (cost/benefit ratio) between the overall cost of the measures taken to reduce radioactivity levels in food and the dose level reduction achieved was acceptable. 11 refs

  3. Radiant smiles everywhere - before the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The business reports presented by the Federal German electric utilities for 1985 are almost all simply brillant. Electricity consumption has been going up, some of the utilities even can boast about rates kept constant over the year. But before the printed business reports could be presented to the meetings of shareholders, a nasty cloud threw a dark shadow over all the brilliant results. The Chernobyl accident made some of the hymns over the nuclear electricity increases and nuclear power in general sound rather queer. Could we do without this energy source. Substituting nuclear power would yearly require: 28 million t of oil, or 41 million t of hard coal, or 142 million t of browncoal, or 38 thousand million cubic metres of natural gas. Extrapolating current conditions and assuming best achievements, renewable energy sources might be able to meet 6 p.c. of the primary energy demands by the year 2000. (orig./HP) [de

  4. The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoechel, A.

    1988-01-01

    After the decay of the iodine isotopes the measuring campaigns, in addition to the measuring of soil pollution and pollution of products, concentrated on the way of the cesium isotopes through the food chain, especially in crops, milk, meat and mother's milk. A special programme was developed for the analysis of foreign basic substances for teas, essences and tinctures. In connection with the incorporation measurements in the university hospital Eppendorf the measurement campaigns provided the data material in order to calculate with the aid of the computer program ECOSYS of the GSF the effective dose equivalent which the inhabitants of Hamburg additionally take up due to the accident of Chernobyl. Consequences with regard to measuring methods and social consequences are mentioned. (DG) [de

  5. Exposure levels for persons involved in recovery operations following the Chernobyl accident in 1986-1987 and dosimetric data verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'in, L.A.; Kkyuchkov, V.P.; Osanov, D.P.; Pavlov, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is considered the organization of individual dosimetric monitoring (IDM) within 30-km zone around Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) in 1986 for different contingents of recovery workers: the CNPP personnel, Management for Construction 605 (MC-605), military recovery workers, persons assigned to 30-km zone. It is concluded that the quality of IDM had decreased in the following series: the MC-605 personnel, the CNPP personnel, the assigned persons, and military units. The method of dosimetric data verification for recovery workers in 1986 is presented. The results obtained by this method correspond to the results of the experts' estimation. Using the theory of hybrid lognormal distribution it was obtained, in our opinion, real external dose distribution for all the recovery workers. It was estimated that 7% of recovery workers received doses more than 0.25 Gy. Also, the data on values of mean and collective doses for different contingents, as well as for all persons involved in recovery operations is presented. 14 refs., 18 figs

  6. Reviewing ecosystems affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident with respect to the resulting population exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielitz, U.

    1999-01-01

    The research project is intended to yield information on the current radiological situation resulting from the Chernobyl fallout. Environmental materials of particular interest are game, mushrooms, berries, and forest stands in the most heavily affected forest ecosystem of the Bavarian forest area called Bayerischer Wald. This area has been intensively monitored in the period from 1988 until 1994, so that the development up to the current radiological situation can be analysed. Activities under the research project will encompass: Measurement of the radioactive contamination of specimens of the game population in the Bodenmais forest area of 7 500 hectares. Measurement of seasonal variations of the radiocesium activity in various indicator plants of the food chain of the game population. Soil sampling and radioactivity measurement at 2 cm depth intervals. The measuring work will be carried out in two areas which have been earmarked for monitoring over the last eight years (B1 and B2). The measured results will be compared with earlier data, and long-term space and time-dependent information on the transfer of radiocesium in the forest ecosystem under review will be derived. (orig./CB) [de

  7. Estimate of radiation detriment long period after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation: Chromosomal aberrations in liquidators 6-10 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, A.M.; Slozina, N.M.; Neronova, E.G.; Kharchenko, T.V.; Drygina, L.B.; Strukov, E.L.

    1997-01-01

    The group of 297 liquidators was cytogenetically investigated 6 - 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. The significantly increased level of chromosomal and chromatid types exchange aberrations was shown. For all subjects questionnaires that provide consideration of known and suspected confounding variables were filled in. The participation in recovery works at the Chernobyl nuclear power station was the only reason for dicentrics and rings rise in liquidators. An investigation of the tumor-specific markers (CEA, AFP, CA19-9, PSA, NSE) was carried out in 56 liquidators simultaneously with chromosomal analysis. The increased level of NSE was found in liquidators bearing the chromosomal aberrations of exchange type. The results of this work let us to consider the liquidators who underwent to low doses of ionizing radiation 6-10 years ago as a detrimental group that needs special scientific and medical attention. (author)

  8. Environmental radioactivity and dose evaluation in Taiwan after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    A substantial increase in fission product activity was observed in various environmental samples taken in Taiwan after the Chernobyl accident. The concentration of long-lived fission products in air above ground, precipitation, grass, vegetation and milk were monitored in the next 7 wk. The individual effective dose equivalent committed by the first year of exposure and intake following the accident were evaluated. Average individual doses for the population in Taiwan are estimated at 0.9 microSv due to global fallout from the Chernobyl accident. This value is lower than that reported in neighboring countries in the Far East and poses no increased health impact to the public in Taiwan

  9. The Chernobyl reactor accident - a non-accidential accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zischka, A.

    1987-01-01

    Freedom and independence are reserved but for countries constantly succeeding in maintaining their energy supplies without the help of others. Due to the fact that the political decision makers of the Soviet Union, too, are aware of this truth there is more to the Chernobyl reactor accident than the mere effects of the fallout. The real consequences of the reactor accident had already been anticipated beforehand by the media of the Western world. With the voters already rattled the nuclear phaseout is constantly talked about in all political parties. Once again the law of action passes over to politicians instead of to technology and its responsible experts. Zischka proves this phenomenon in the behaviour towards Soviet reactions having been existed before and shows it to be going back to an old tradition: Already in the reign of the czar the Western neighbours were induced to react in an inadequate manner and thus excert a decisive influence on world politics. The emotional effect of Chernobyl dominates. Unless reason will gain the upper hand the dangers of this emotional effect may turn out to be uncontrollable. (orig./HP) [de

  10. 137Cs uptake with cafeteria food after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1992-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the activity concentrations of radiocesium were measured in both the meals served at the cafeteria of a research center and in the employees eating there. The time-dependent means of monthly 137Cs activities in meals and people show a similar distribution pattern with highest values between March and July 1987, i.e., only 1 y after the accident. In meals, the highest activities were found when the menu consisted of pork, milk, or milk products. The 50-y cumulative effective dose calculated from the whole-body measurements is 0.21 mSv for male and 0.15 mSv for female employees. Cafeteria food contributed only a small share to this exposure

  11. Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

    1996-07-01

    Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

  12. Comparisons of the emissions in the Windscale and Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.C.

    1987-02-01

    The contents are summarized under the following headings: 1) Windscale accident summary 2) Emission of 137 Cs from Windscale 3) Emission of other fission products from Windscale 4) Environmental effects - iodine 5) Environmental effects - caesium. A bibliography is attached and where figures are available, comparisons are made with the Chernobyl fallout, including thyroid iodine burdens for U.K. students who were in Russia at the time of the Chernobyl accident, and milk measurements of Caesium 137 in the U.K. (UK)

  13. Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielitz, U.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1988, within the scope of several research projects, in 7,000 samples of soil, plants, mushrooms and game from forest ecosystems, the 137 Cs activity concentration was measured, in order to investigate the dynamics of the nuclide. The investigation sites are a spruce mountain forest near the village Bodenmais (Bavaria) and an oak forest close to Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony). In both forests, unfavourable location conditions cause a relativ high transfer of 137 Cs into plants and game. Typifying for the 3 forest sites was the high intra- and interspecies variablilty of the 137 Cs activity concentration. Even 14 years after the Chernobyl-fallout at the 3 investigation sites, the average 137 Cs inventory, contained in the top 10 cm of soil was 56% and 93% in the top 20 cm. From 1987 till 1994, in the leaves of the investigated plant species the 137 Cs activity concentration decreased significant, during the following years there was little change. The effective half life of 137 Cs varies between -3 years for raspberry and -24 years for the fern Pteridium aquillinum, whereas most of the plant species show half lifes of about -5 years. In 2000, as usual mushrooms from the Bodenmais investigation site showed the highest 137 Cs contaminations. The aggregated transfer factors (T agg ) for soil → plant and soil → flesh varied with several orders of magnitude. T agg values for Soil → autotroph plant species reached from 0,0001 m 2 .kg -1 to 0,41 m 2 .kg -1 . While at the permanent study plots in Bodenmais and Fuhrberg the T agg values were of comparable quantity, at Goettingen, they were lower than two orders of magnitude. For example T agg for Cs-137 in wild boar from Bodenmais was 392 times higher than for wild boar from Goettingen. From 1987 till 2000, the 137 Cs activity in roe-deer from Bodenmais varied according to the seasons, with highest values in autumn, and lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of the 137 Cs activity concentration in

  14. Ten years after the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, E.; Moberg, L.; Brasch, A.; Bengtsson, Aa.; Johansson, J.Aa.; Holmgren, S.

    1996-01-01

    About 5 percent of the total amount of cesium released from the Chernobyl reactor accident deposited in Sweden. The middle part of Sweden received the highest fallout. During the first period after the accident, cows in these areas were not allowed to graze. Due to the time of the year there were very few problems with cultivated crops, even during the first summer. Game, reindeer, fresh water fish, wild berries and mushrooms, however, were contaminated to a great extent and still after 10 years high concentrations of 137 Cs can be found in these animals and in mushrooms, but to a lesser extent in wild berries. Intensive controls of the Cs content are still being carried out in reindeer at the time of slaughtering. During the last few years, hand instruments for estimation of the Cs content of live animals (reindeer mostly) has been available. This makes it possible to slaughter only animals estimated to have levels of Cs below the limit value. When offered for sale, the limit value for 137 Cs is 300 Bq/kg for the 'basic foodstuffs' and for meat from game, reindeer, fresh water fish, nuts, wild berries and mushrooms 1500 Bq/kg. High levels of 137 Cs will be found in reindeer and fresh water fish from some areas for many years in the future. 8 refs, 11 figs

  15. 25 years since Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiosila, Ion; Gheorghe, Raluca; Simion, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Environmental and food radioactivity surveillance in Romania, begun since the early 60's, with 47 laboratories from National Environment Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) in the framework of Ministry of Environmental and the network of 21 Radiation Hygiene Laboratories (RHL) from centers and institutes of the Ministry of Public Health. The surveillance was conducted by global beta and alpha measurements, necessary to make some quick decisions as well as gamma spectrometry to detect high and low resolution profile accident. Thus the two networks together and some departmental labs recorded from the first moments (since April 30, 1986) the presence of the contaminated radioactive cloud originated from Ukraine, after the nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl NPP, on the Romanian territory. NERSN followed up the radioactive contamination of air (gamma dose rate, atmospheric aerosols and total deposition), surface water, uncultivated soil, and spontaneous vegetation while the RHL monitored the drinking water and food. Early notification of this event allowed local and central authorities to take protective measures like: administration of stable iodine, advertisements in media on avoiding consumption of heavily contaminated food, prohibition of certain events that took place outdoors, interdiction of drinking milk and eating milk products for one month long. Most radionuclides, fission and activation products (22 radionuclides), released during the accident, have been determined in the environmental factors. A special attention was paid to radionuclides like Sr-90, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137, especially in aerosol samples, where the maximum values were recorded on Toaca Peak (Ceahlau Mountain) on May, the first, 1986: 103 Bq/m 3 , I-131, 63 Bq/m 3 , Cs-137. The highest value of I-131 in drinking water, 21 Bq/l, was achieved on May, the third, 1986 in Bucharest and in cow milk exceeded the value of 3000 Bq/l. For sheep milk some sporadic values exceeding

  16. Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielitz, U.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with investigations about the behaviour of radiocaesium, carried out in two selected forest ecosystems. In 1997 and 1998 samples from soil, plants, trees and roe deer from forest areas, located near Bodenmais (Bavaria) and Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony) were measured on the 137 Cs activity. In this areas intensive studies about the behaviour of radiocaesium were already carried out from 1987 until 1994, so that long term data are available. Investigations on vertical distribution of 137 Cs in soil were leaded through on permanent 100 x 100 m study plots. Even 11 years after the Chernobyl-fallout, the activity is highest in humic horizonts, only vestiges were found deeper than 20 cm in soil profile. The majority of total activity is still present in the upper 10 cm of soil. At the permant study plot B1 in Bodenmais in 1997 there were found about 78% of the 137 Cs activity concentration (100%=100830 Bq x m -2 ) in this layer, of what 27% were located in the 4 cm thick humic layer. Comparisons of the vertical distribution in 1998, 1992 and 1997 show, that the velocity of radiocesium migration takes down with time. From 1987 until 1998 the 137 Cs activity in leaves of different plant species decreased significant. The effective half life of 137 Cs varies between 5 years for raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and 33 years for fern (Pteridium aquillinum), whereby most of the plant species show half lifes of about 10 years. The 137 Cs activity-decline slowed down from 1994 until 1998. There were considerable differences in 137 Cs activity between various plant species. 1998 for example, the concentration of 137 Cs in samples, taken at the same time from the permanent study plot B1, ranged from 380 Bq x kg -1 (dry weight) in raspberry to 16800 Bq x kg -1 in fern (Dryopteris carthusiana). In muscle flesh of roe-deer of Bodenmais from 1987 until 1998 the 137 Cs activity varied according to the seasons, the highest values were found in autumn, the lowest values in spring. In

  17. Psychometric testing of children prenatally irradiated during the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajrakova, A.; Vasilev, G.; Khristova, M. N.; Chobanova, N.; Tsenova, T.; Jordanova, M.; Lalova, J.; Vasileva, F.; Mikhajlova, Z.; Trifonova, S.

    1993-01-01

    The investigation involved 50 children aged median 6 years and 6 months. The group was selected in view of the critical period for occurrence of radiation-related deviations in mental development (8-15 gestation weeks) and the period of maximum irradiation during the Chernobyl accident. Assessment of the individual exposure and analysis of possible impacts from non-radiation risk factors were based on guided parental history reports. The dose of accidental irradiation was determined using the radiological data for the country. A Bulgarian standardization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was used. The procedure includes 5 verbal and 5 nonverbal subtests. Results were compared with those from a countrywide control group of children (including a large city, a small town, a village). The analysis indicated higher mean IQ scores in the investigated children. The children were additionally studied by original tests for attention and gnosis-praxis functions using tactile and visual modalities. The tests included intra- and transmodal versions, bilateral simultaneous presentation of stimuli with verbal and nonverbal characteristics in applying analytical and global strategies. Comparisons were made with results for children in the same age range, who had been studied prior to the Chernobyl accident. The evidence surprisingly varied, taking into account the small size of the investigation group. A longitudinal follow-up of this population thus appears to be appropriate. (author)

  18. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, H.M.; Reis, E.

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional harm and confusion

  19. Impact of Uncertainties in Exposure Assessment on Thyroid Cancer Risk among Persons in Belarus Exposed as Children or Adolescents Due to the Chernobyl Accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Little

    Full Text Available The excess incidence of thyroid cancer in Ukraine and Belarus observed a few years after the Chernobyl accident is considered to be largely the result of 131I released from the reactor. Although the Belarus thyroid cancer prevalence data has been previously analyzed, no account was taken of dose measurement error.We examined dose-response patterns in a thyroid screening prevalence cohort of 11,732 persons aged under 18 at the time of the accident, diagnosed during 1996-2004, who had direct thyroid 131I activity measurement, and were resident in the most radio-actively contaminated regions of Belarus. Three methods of dose-error correction (regression calibration, Monte Carlo maximum likelihood, Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo were applied.There was a statistically significant (p0.2.In summary, the relatively small contribution of unshared classical dose error in the current study results in comparatively modest effects on the regression parameters.

  20. Fallout from the Chernobyl accident and overall cancer incidence in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurttio, Päivi; Seppä, Karri; Pasanen, Kari; Patama, Toni; Auvinen, Anssi; Pukkala, Eero; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Arvela, Hannu; Hakulinen, Timo

    2013-10-01

    We studied whether incidence of all cancer sites combined was associated with the radiation exposure due to fallout from the Chernobyl accident in Finland. An emphasis was on the first decade after the accident to assess the suggested "promotion effect". The segment of Finnish population with a stable residence in the first post-Chernobyl year (2 million people) was studied. The analyses were based on a 250m × 250m grid squares covering all of Finland and all cancer cases except cancers of the breast, prostate and lung. Cancer incidence in four exposure areas (based on first-year dose due to external exposure Chernobyl accident (1981-1985) and after it (1988-2007) taking into account cancer incidence trends for a longer period prior to the accident (since 1966). There were no systematic differences in the cancer incidence in relation to radiation exposure in any calendar period, or any subgroup by sex or age at accident. The current large and comprehensive cohort analysis of the relatively low levels of the Chernobyl fallout in Finland did not observe a cancer promotion effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radioactive release during nuclear accidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Ain Sulaiman, Siti; Mohamed, Faizal; Rahim, Ahmad Nabil Ab

    2018-01-01

    Nuclear accidents that occurred in Chernobyl and Fukushima have initiated many research interests to understand the cause and mechanism of radioactive release within reactor compound and to the environment. Common types of radionuclide release are the fission products from the irradiated fuel rod itself. In case of nuclear accident, the focus of monitoring will be mostly on the release of noble gases, I-131 and Cs-137. As these are the only accidents have been rated within International Nuclear Events Scale (INES) Level 7, the radioactive release to the environment was one of the critical insights to be monitored. It was estimated that the release of radioactive material to the atmosphere due to Fukushima accident was approximately 10% of the Chernobyl accident. By referring to the previous reports using computational code systems to model the release rate, the release activity of I-131 and Cs-137 in Chernobyl was significantly higher compare to Fukushima. The simulation code also showed that Chernobyl had higher release rate of both radionuclides on the day of accident. Other factors affecting the radioactive release for Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents such as the current reactor technology and safety measures are also compared for discussion.

  2. Important factors governing exposure of the population and countermeasure application in rural settlements of the Russian Federation in the long term after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Jacob, P.; Alexakhin, R.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Panov, A.; Fesenko, G.; Cecille, L.

    2001-01-01

    Rural settlements located in areas of the Russian Federation contaminated after the Chernobyl accident and exceeding an annual dose of 1 mSv a -1 have been classified according to 137 Cs contamination density, internal dose and the neighbourhood of forests. It has been shown that, with the exception of the most contaminated areas, the internal doses decreased in accordance with a decline in 137 Cs availability for plant root uptake. An inverse tendency was observed in areas with 137 Cs contamination above 555 kBq m -2 which can be explained by a reduction or even termination of countermeasure application and by an increasing consumption of forest products in areas where restrictive countermeasures are still implemented. Twenty-seven settlements have been studied to estimate the effectiveness of countermeasures applied previously and to identify the most important factors governing the radiation exposure to the population and its change with time. It has been shown that the effectiveness of countermeasures which resulted in a decrease of up to 40% of doses has a tendency to decline in the long term. The need for continuation of remediation in rural settlements was evaluated both for selected settlements and extrapolated to the whole contaminated area and it has been shown that the application of countermeasures will be of importance at least up to the year 2045. Rather high effectiveness in terms of internal dose reduction (factor of 2-2.5) of radical improvement (disking, ploughing and reseeding) and administration of Cs binders to animals (Ferrocyn) was demonstrated for the selected settlements. It could be demonstrated that for forest-remote settlements there is a linear dependence between internal dose normalised to the density of contamination and the proportion of peat soils around settlements. For near-forest settlements, this dependence was less pronounced which can be explained by the high contribution of forest food products to the internal dose. Milk is

  3. Gestations and parturitions after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeltz, J.; Hoeltz, A.; Potthoff, P.; Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.; Hinz, G.; Kaul, A.; Martignoni, K.; Roedler, H.D.; Schwarz, E.; Tsavachidis, C.

    1991-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating courses of gestation and parturitions in the light of the Chernobyl reactor accident and at comparing the results obtained with those from a study carried out in 1981/82 on factors assumed to have a role in pre-term deliveries. In this connection, attempts were made to find out whether regional increases in radiation caused by the accident and the general uneasiness arising from this fact could be linked to higher rates of infants being born prematurely. A three-step procedure was followed for the survey, in which Step One hat the purpose of compiling basic data on the gestations and parturitions examined using information from patient records. In Step Two a biogramme was established on the basis of questionnaires filled in by pregnant women. Step Three was included for a post-partum ascertainment of material risk factors and data of paturition in women participating in the Step Two investigations. The information obtained from patient records pointed to no differences in the percentage shares of premature deliveries between the individual exposure regions examined, nor could any such discrepancies be revealed on the basis of the biogramme and post-partum survey. In areas showing elevated levels of radioactivity as a result of the Chernobyl fallout the proportion of women claiming to have fears about ecological afflictions invariably was 4 to 9% larger than that determined for areas, where radiation exposure remained within the range generally accepted as normal. Statistically significant increases in the percentage shares of premature deliveries could, however, be proven for groups of women showing additional risk factors other than radiation exposure. (orig./MG) [de

  4. ReSCA: decision support tool for remediation planning after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanovsky, A; Jacob, P; Fesenko, S; Bogdevitch, I; Kashparov, V; Sanzharova, N

    2011-03-01

    Radioactive contamination of the environment following the Chernobyl accident still provide a substantial impact on the population of affected territories in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. Reduction of population exposure can be achieved by performing remediation activities in these areas. Resulting from the IAEA Technical Co-operation Projects with these countries, the program ReSCA (Remediation Strategies after the Chernobyl Accident) has been developed to provide assistance to decision makers and to facilitate a selection of an optimized remediation strategy in rural settlements. The paper provides in-depth description of the program, its algorithm, and structure. © Springer-Verlag 2010

  5. Chernobyl - what can natural scientists or physicians say to that accident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The public discussion meeting was intended to offer to the general public a platform for discussion of questions evoked by the Chernobyl reactor accident, and scientific information on what has happened there. The brief lectures therefore deal with the accident scenario as far as assessable at the time, and with the consequences to be expected for the Federal Republic of Germany, with the fallout situation in the Mainz area, and the atmospheric dispersion and transfer of air masses from Chernobyl to the FRG. The medical experts presented information on the radiation exposure of the population and the possible genetic risk. (DG) [de

  6. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  7. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S V; Alexakhin, R M; Balonov, M I; Bogdevich, I M; Howard, B J; Kashparov, V A; Sanzharova, N I; Panov, A V; Voigt, G; Zhuchenka, Yu M

    2006-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  8. Questions about the reactor accident with Chernobyl-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijboer, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The author presents an inventory of existing information about the Chernobyl-4 accident. Several possible scenarios are described and a comparison is drawn with the Three Mile Island-2 accident. The author concludes that the event is connected to an inherent instability of the RBMK-1000 reactor type. (G.J.P.)

  9. Radioactive contamination from Chernobyl accident over Alexandria city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, E.A.; El-Khatib, A.M.; Wahba, A.G.; Elraey, M.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of radioactive contamination in air resulting from the Chernobyl accident has been followed up. A sudden and sharp increase was detected seven days after the start of the accident. This increase amounted to about 650 times the normal air-borne activity. (author)

  10. Reasons for the RBMK reactor accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, I.I.; Kruzhilin, G.N.; Anan'ev, E.P.

    1995-01-01

    This analysis of the reasons for the Chernobyl Reactor accident in 1986 places the blame firmly with the reactor operators, who, it is argued, made a number of dramatic mistakes while controlling the reactor. The report also included an additional analysis of the causes of the accident. (UK)

  11. Chernobyl and the problem of international obligations regarding nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper analyses the way nuclear law was put to the test by the Chernobyl accident - in particular international nuclear law - so as to propose a train of thought which might contribute to adopting and revising the legal system presently in force or even new orientations. It deals only with that part of nuclear law which concerns accidents and their consequences (NEA) [fr

  12. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiriger, J.M.; Failor, R.A.; Marsh, K.V.; Shaw, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes the detection of fallout in the United States from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. As part of its environmental surveillance program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintained detectors for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Following the reactor accident, additional air filters were set out. Several uncommon isotopes were detected at the time the plume passed into the US

  13. Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

  14. Validity of thyroid cancer incidence data following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2011-12-01

    The only clearly demonstrated cancer incidence increase that can be attributed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident is thyroid carcinoma in patients exposed during childhood or adolescence. Significant increases in thyroid disease were observed as soon as 4 y after the accident. The solid/follicular subtype of papillary carcinoma predominated in the early period after the accident. Morphological diagnosis of cancer in such cases, if no infiltrative growth is clearly visible, depends mainly on the nuclear criteria. Outdated equipment and insufficient quality of histological specimens impeded reliable evaluation of the nuclear criteria. Access to foreign professional literature has always been limited in the former Soviet Union. The great number of advanced tumors observed shortly after the accident can be explained by the screening effect (detection of previously neglected cancers) and by the fact that many patients were brought from non-contaminated areas and registered as Chernobyl victims. It is also worth noting that exaggeration of the Chernobyl cancer statistics facilitated the writing of dissertations, financing of research, and assistance from outside the former Soviet Union. "Chernobyl hysteria" impeded nuclear energy production in some countries, thus contributing to higher prices for fossil fuel. The concluding point is that since post-Chernobyl cancers tend on average to be in a later stage of tumor progression, some published data on molecular or immunohistochemical characteristics of Chernobyl-related cancers require reevaluation.

  15. Chernobyl accident: the crisis of the international radiation community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malko, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The information given in the present report about the Chernobyl accident and its radiological consequences indicates a serious crisis of the international radiation community. The following signs of this crises can be discerned: The international radiation community did not recognize the real reasons of the accident for a long time. It could not make a correct assessment of the damage to the thyroid of the affected populations of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. Up to present time it rejects the reliable data on hereditary malformations. It is not able to accept reliable data on the increase in the incidence in all categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident. The international radiation community supported the Soviet authorities in their attempts to play down the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for a long time. (author)

  16. Chernobyl accident. The crisis of the international radiation community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malko, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    The information given in the present report about the Chernobyl accident and its radiological consequences indicates a serious crisis of the international radiation community. The following signs of this crises can be discerned: The international radiation community did not recognize the real reasons of the accident for a long time. It could not make a correct assessment of the damage to the thyroid of the affected populations of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. Up to present time it rejects the reliable data on hereditary malformations. It is not able to accept reliable data on the increase in the incidence in all categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident. The international radiation community supported the Soviet authorities in their attempts to play down the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for a long time. (author)

  17. Chernobyl dose for population of areas radiocontaminated after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    The parameters and consequences of the Chernobyl accident that took place on 26 April 1986 are of special interest, because it was an extremely serious accident of an operating power nuclear reactor, one of over four hundred in the world. The basic specific feature of this accident determining the complex character of radiation impact on man was the explosive destruction and subsequent high-temperature burning of the reactor, which caused not only the release of inert radioactive gases and radioisotopes of volatile elements (iodine, cesium, tellurium, etc.), but also the evaporation of refractory fission products (barium, strontium, etc.), and the dispersion of fuel particles. Another important feature of the radioactive contamination of the area as compared with that of the global fallout from nuclear weapons testing is a single or short-term deposition which nevertheless leads to long-term exposure of man by long-lived radionuclides. The third specific feature is the combined and strong influence of natural soil and climate factors, on the one hand, and of anthropogenic factors, basically, of wide-scale countermeasures. on the other hand, on the level of exposure of man. 20 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs

  18. Analysis of the results of environmental monitoring in Spain after the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luque Heredia, S.; Salas Collantes, R.; Rey del castillo, C.; Marugar tovar, I.; Sterling carmona, A.; Ramos Salvador, L.; Lorente Lorente, P.

    2013-01-01

    As a result of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear power plants, CSN launched special surveillance devices to monitor radioactive contamination through the values provided by the various networks and environmental monitoring programs. The aim of this study is to compare and analyze the results corresponding to the exposure pathways and matrices in which contamination is detected. (Author)

  19. Dose estimates in Japan following the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, Orihiko; Homma, Toshimitsu; Iijima, Toshinori; Midorikawa, Yuji.

    1988-02-01

    Estimates have been made of the maximum individual doses and the collective doses in Japan following the Chernobyl reactor accident. Based on the measured data of ground deposition and radionuclide concentrations in air, raw milk, milk on sale and leafy vegetables, the doses from some significant radionuclides were calculated for 5 typical exposure pathways; cloudshine, groundshine, inhalation, ingestion of milk and leafy vegetables. The maximum effective dose equivalents for hypothetical individuals were calculated to be 1.8 mrem for adults, 3.7 mrem for children and 6.0 mrem for infants. The collective effective dose equivalent in Japan was estimated to be 5.8 x 10 4 man · rem; 0.50 mrem of the average dose per capita. (author)

  20. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the prostate of coalminers of Donbas--liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-12-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in prostate of Donbas's coalminer-non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a prostatic gland changes.

  1. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the testis of coal miners of Donbas-liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-01-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in testis of Donbas's coalminer - non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident, which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a testis changes.

  2. After the Chernobyl reactor accident: Just got away

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, D

    1986-01-01

    The feeling of depression and insecurity experienced immediately after the Chernobyl reactor accident has gone by, and people go out for a walk again, and drink their milk. Are we happily aware we got away with it this time, or is it rather a feeling of resignation that makes us return to normal life. The Chernobyl disaster will only after some time be really assessed in its novel, global dimension.

  3. After the Chernobyl reactor accident: Just got away?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, D.

    1986-01-01

    The feeling of depression and insecurity experienced immediately after the Chernobyl reactor accident has gone by, and people go out for a walk again, and drink their milk. Are we happily aware we got away with it this time, or is it rather a feeling of resignation that makes us return to normal life? The Chernobyl disaster will only after some time be really assessed in its novel, global dimension. (orig.) [de

  4. Transuranium elements in macroalgae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Ballestra, S.; Lopez, J.J.; Barci-Funel, G.; Ardisson, G.

    1991-01-01

    The atmospheric deposition and transfer of transuranium elements (TU) to macroalgae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident has been studied. The deposition of TU was small compared to most fission products: 239+240 Pu and 241 Am could not be detected in water or algae, 242 Cm was the dominant α emitter detected in Chernobyl fallout. Concentration factors of TU for the macroalgae are estimated

  5. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  6. Ecological lessons from the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J N B; Shaw, G

    2005-08-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 not only caused serious ecological problems in both the Ukraine and Belarus, which continue to the present day, but also contaminated a large part of the higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere. In this paper an overview is given of the latter problems in upland UK, where ecological problems still remain some 17 years after initial contamination. Following deposition of radiocaesium and radioiodine in May 1986, measurements of radioactivity in grass and soil indicated a rapidly declining problem as the radioiodine decayed and the radiocaesium became immobilised by attachment to clay particles. However, these studies, as well as the advice received by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, were based on lowland agricultural soils, with high clay and low organic matter contents. The behaviour of radiocaesium in upland UK turned out to be dominated by high and persistent levels of mobility and bioavailability. This resulted in the free passage of radiocaesium through the food chain and into sheep. Consequently the Ministry banned the sale and movement of sheep over large areas of upland Britain, with bans remaining on some farms to the present day. Present day predictions suggest that these bans will continue in some cases for some years to come. The causes of radiocaesium mobility in upland areas have subsequently been the subject of intense investigation centred around vegetation and, in particular, soil characteristics. Soil types were identified which were particularly vulnerable in this respect and, where these coincided with high levels of deposition, sheep bans tended to be imposed. While much of the earlier work suggested that a low clay content was the main reason for continuing mobility, a very high organic matter content is now also believed to play a major role, this being a characteristic of wet and acidic upland UK soils. The overall message from this affair is the importance of a fundamental

  7. RADIATION HYGIENIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NPP AND THE TASKS OF THEIR MINIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the role and results of activities of Rospotrebnadzor bodies and institutions in the field of ensuring population radiation protection during various periods since accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Radiation hygienic characterization of territories affected by radioactive contamination from the accident, population exposure dose range, issues of ensuring radiological well-being of population and ways of their solution are being presented in the paper.

  8. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation after the Chernobyl accident: Possible contribution of historic dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar-Nazir, Laila; Shi, Xiaopei; Moller, Anders; Mousseau, Timothy; Byun, Soohyun; Hancock, Samuel; Seymour, Colin; Mothersill, Carmel

    2018-08-01

    The impact of the Chernobyl NPP accident on the environment is documented to be greater than expected, with higher mutation rates than expected at the current, chronic low dose rate. In this paper we suggest that the historic acute exposure and resulting non-targeted effects (NTE) such as delayed mutations and genomic instability could account at least in part for currently measured mutation rates and provide an initial test of this concept. Data from Møller and Mousseau on the phenotypic mutation rates of Chernobyl birds 9-11 generations post the Chernobyl accident were used and the reconstructed dose response for mutations was compared with delayed reproductive death dose responses (as a measure of genomic instability) in cell cultures exposed to a similar range of doses. The dose to birds present during the Chernobyl NPP accident was reconstructed through the external pathway due to Cs-137 with an estimate of the uncertainty associated with such reconstruction. The percentage of Chernobyl birds several generations after the accident without mutations followed the general shape of the clonogenic survival percentage of the progeny of irradiated cells, and it plateaued at low doses. This is the expected result if NTE of radiation are involved. We suggest therefore, that NTE induced by the historic dose may play a role in generating mutations in progeny many generations following the initial disaster. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. RADIOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Bebeshko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From the position of a 25-years’ experience to overcome the health effects of Chernobyl the dynamics of the radiation environment, the first summarizing at the international level (1988, the results of completed research and practical monitoring are analyzed. Cohort of acute radiation syndrome (ARS survivors under medical observation at the S.I. "Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" is the largest. Within the 25 years the functional state of the major organs and body systems, and metabolic homeostasis for this category of persons were studied, a comprehensive assessment of their health, mental and physical performance were given, and risk factors and peculiarities of stochastic and non-stochastic pathology courses were identified, as well as a system of rehabilitation patients after ARS was developed. ARS survivors are suffering from chronic diseases of internal organs and systems (from 5-7 to 10-12 diagnoses at the same time. A correlation between acute radiation effects and specific HLA phenotypes were revealed. The dynamics of the immune system recovery after irradiation was studied. The role and prognostic value of telomere length and programmed cell death of lymphocytes in the formation of the cellular effects of ionizing radiation were determined for the first time. Differences between spontaneous and radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemias were found. Dose-dependent neuropsychiatric, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and neuroimaging deviations were identified after irradiation at doses above 0.3 Sv. It was shown that the lymphocytes of Chernobyl clean-up workers with doses 350 – 690 mGy can induce "the bystander effect" in the non-irradiated cells even after 19 years after exposure. The rates of cancer incidence and mortality of victims, the lessons and key problems to be solved in the third decade after the Chernobyl accident are considered.

  10. The 1986 Chernobyl accident; Der Unfall von Tschernobyl 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, Alexander; Stueck, Reinhard; Weiss, Frank-Peter [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching bei Muenchen, Koeln (Germany). Bereich Reaktorsicherheitsanalysen; Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    April 26, 2011 marks the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the worst incident in the history of the peaceful utilization of nuclear power. While investigations of the course of events and the causes of the accident largely present a uniform picture, descriptions still vary widely when it comes to the impact on the population and the environment. This treatment of the Chernobyl accident constitutes a summary of facts about the initiation of the accident and the sequence of events that followed. In addition, measures are described which were taken to exclude any repetition of a disaster of this kind. The health consequences and the socio-economic impact of the accident are not discussed in any detail. The first section contains an introduction and an overview of the Soviet RBMK (Chernobyl) reactor line. In section 2, fundamental characteristics of this special type of reactor, which was exclusively built in the former Soviet Union, are discussed. This information is necessary to understand the sequence of accident events and provides an answer to the frequent question whether that accident could be transferred to reactors in this country. The third section outlines the history of the accident caused ultimately by a commissioning test never performed before. The section is completed by a brief description of radiological releases and the state of the plant after the accident when entombed in the ''sarcophagus.'' The different causes are then summarized and the modifications afterwards made to RBMK reactors are outlined. (orig.)

  11. Incidence Probability of Delayed Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghani, A.H.; El-Naggar, A.M.; El-Kadi, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    During the first international Conference on the long -term consequences of the Chernobyl disaster in 1995 at Kiev, and also during the 1996 International Conference at Vienna, Summing up the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the data regarding the delayed health consequences were mainly related to thyroid cancer, hereditary disorders, general morbidity, mortality and psychological disturbances. Contrary to expectations, the incidences of Leukemia and Soft Tissue tumors were similar to the spontaneous incident. The expected delayed effects, however, among the accident survivors, the liquidators and populations resident in contaminated areas would show higher incidence probability to Leukemia. These population groups have been continuously exposed to low level radiation both externally and internally. Application of the new ICRP concept of radiation-induced Detriment, and the Nominal Probability Coefficient for Cancer and hereditary effects for both workers and populations are used as the rationale to calculate the incidence probability of occurrence of delayed health effects of the Chernobyl accidents

  12. Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinner, F.; Andreev, I.; Andreeva, I.; Fritsche, F.; Hofer, P.; Lettner, E.; Seidelberger, E.; Kromp-Kolb, H.; Kromp, W.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

  13. Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odlind, V.; Ericson, A.

    1991-01-01

    The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

  14. Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. An overview of the report is provided. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general

  15. Cesium fallout in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, S.; Bjerke, H.; Rudjord, A.L.; Ugletveit, F.

    1986-01-01

    Results of country-wide measurements of 137 Cs and 134 Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. The results clearly demonstrates that municipalities in the central part of southern Norway, Troendelag and the southern part of Nordland, have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fallout of 137 Cs and 134 Cs from the Chernobyl accident in Norway is estimated to 2300 TBq and 1200 TBq, respectively. This is approximately 6% of the cesium activity released from the reactor

  16. Radioactive waste management after NPP accident: Post-Chernobyl experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalevich, A.; Grebenkov, A.

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident a very large amount of so-called 'Chernobyl waste' were generated in the territory of Belarus, which was contaminated much more than all other countries. These wastes relate mainly to two following categories: low-level waste (LLW) and new one 'Conventionally Radioactive Waste' (CRW). Neither regulations nor technology and equipment were sufficiently developed for such an amount and kind of waste before the accident. It required proper decisions in respect of regulations, treatment, transportation, disposal of waste, etc. (author)

  17. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.; Repacholi, M.; Carr, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty years have passed since the worst nuclear reactor accident in the world occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The radioactive contamination which resulted from the explosion and fire in the first few days spread over large areas of neighbouring Belarus and the Russian Federation, with most of the fallout in Belarus. While national and local authorities did not immediately disclose the scale of the accident, the mitigation measures, such as distribution of potassium iodine pills, food restriction, and mass evacuation from areas where the radioactive contamination was greatest, undoubtedly reduced the health impact of the radiation exposure and saved many lives. The accident caused severe social and economic disruption and had significant environmental and health impact. This was aggravated by the political and economical changes in the three affected states related to the break-down of the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the accident the international scientific and medical community collaborated closely with national experts dealing with health effects of the accident in the affected countries. There is a substantial body of international collaborative projects on the situation, which should lead to advancement in radiation sciences. However, considerable speculation and disinformation remains about the possible health impact of the accident for the millions of affected people. To address the health, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the United Nations in 2003 launched an Inter-Agency initiative, the Chernobyl Forum. The Forum's Secretariat, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and several other international organizations collaborated with the governments of the affected countries. The purpose of the Chernobyl Forum was to review the consequences of the accident, issue technical reports and, based

  18. The bioavailability of Chernobyl accident products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujaniene, G.; Lujans, V.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Following the Chernobyl NPP accident a great quantity of radionuclides was emitted to the atmosphere. A diverse fallout of radioactive pollutants to the earth's surface was conditioned by various factors. And this is testified by the distinctions in radionuclide composition and physicochemical forms of their carriers were measured in different regions. The study of physicochemical properties of radionuclides is necessary for the evaluation of their biological availability and for understanding and predicting their behavior in the environment. The physicochemical forms of radioactive nuclide carriers collected on April 28-20 and May 9-10 were investigated. In those samples the water soluble fractions of 137 Cs and 90 Sr carriers were 9 and 30%, respectively. The main part of these nuclides was bound to the exchangeable fraction of the carriers. For 137 Cs marked concentrations were provided by the from bound to organic (13%) and acid-soluble (12%) substances and for 90 Sr a considerable amount consisted of the organic (14%) and the fixed in crystal lattice (13%) forms. The investigation of the state of water soluble 137 Cs and 90 Sr shows that nuclides completely were of the cationic form. The dialysable fractions of both nuclides were about 90%. The bioavailability of 137 Cs and 90 Sr was about 60-70%. The fraction of water-soluble increased after the breakdown reactor was covered by an inert material. The radionuclide carrier properties greatly depend on the type of source and under the influence of various factors the radionuclide physicochemical forms are able to change and at the same time their biological availability changes as well. The influence of the source nature is confirmed by the analysis of aerosol samples brought to Lithuania following dust storms in Ukraine, where 94% of 134,137 Cs was observed in the residue, i. e. nuclide was bound to particles with penetration into crystal lattice. And also, following forest and peat-bog fires in

  19. Three years after the accident at Chernobyl - how much did the radioactivity released really enhance the radiation exposure of the population in the FRG?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.

    1989-01-01

    The article presents and summarizes examples taken as a basis for assessing the radiation dose taken up via the three pathways inhalation, environmental exposure, ingestion. The author discusses the issue of the full lifetime dose to children and adults due to ingestion of food contaminated by the reactor accident, and explains the radiation hazard to the population emanating from contaminated food. (DG) [de

  20. Radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, Boris Y; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zinkevich, Lubov I; Proskura, Nikolai I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program.

  1. Bone marrow transplantation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, A.; Gale, R.P.; Guskova, A.

    1989-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union exposed about 200 people to large doses of total-body radiation. Thirteen persons exposed to estimated total-body doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy received bone marrow transplants. Two transplant recipients, who received estimated doses of radiation of 5.6 and 8.7 Gy, are alive more than three years after the accident. The others died of various causes, including burns (the cause of death in five), interstitial pneumonitis (three), graft-versus-host disease (two), and acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome (one). There was hematopoietic (granulocytic) recovery in nine transplant recipients who could be evaluated, six of whom had transient partial engraftment before the recovery of their own marrow. Graft-versus-host disease was diagnosed clinically in four persons and suspected in two others. Although the recovery of endogenous hematopoiesis may occur after exposure to radiation doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy, we do not know whether it is more likely after the transient engraftment of transplanted stem cells. Because large doses of radiation affect multiple systems, bone marrow recovery does not necessarily ensure survival. Furthermore, the risk of graft-versus-host disease must be considered when the benefits of this treatment are being weighed

  2. About the causes and circumstances of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shteynberg, N.

    1992-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident is the product of unsatisfactory solutions to scientific-technical, socio-economic and human problems. The documentarily recorded power excursion of the reactor and its rise velocity as well as the quick pressure rise in the separator drum admit the conclusion that the cause of the accident was the rapid power excursion of the reactor and not some external influence. (DG) [de

  3. Ten years after: the legacy of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1996-01-01

    In order to take the emotional edge out of debates about the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident, it is opportune to confront the sometimes completely exaggerated figures published by the mass media with the mere facts available to date. Recent, reliable information and data have confirmed that, put into relation with the psychologic, social and economic problems arising in the wake of the breakup of the Soviet Union, the radiological consequences of the reactor accident appear relatively mild. (orig.) [de

  4. Lessons for PHWRs learned from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddington, J.G.; Molloy, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada examined its criteria for licensing nuclear power plants following the accident to the Chernobyl reactor in 1986. The causes of the accident were studied to ascertain whether they revealed any deficiencies in the safety of CANDU PHWRs. A report published in 1987 contained nine recommendations, and this paper revisits these to indicate how they were dealt with by plant owners and the regulatory authority. (author)

  5. Lessons for PHWRs learned from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddington, J.G.; Molloy, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada examined its criteria for licensing nuclear power plants following the accident to the Chernobyl reactor in 1986. The causes of the accident were studied to ascertain whether they revealed any deficiencies in the safety of CANDU PHWRs. A report published in 1987 contained nine recommendations, and this paper revisits these to indicate how they were dealt with the plant owners and the regulatory authority

  6. Interview-survey of farmers. Experiences after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlen, G.

    1994-01-01

    71 farm households in contaminated areas of Sweden were interviewed at visits to farms, where measurements of the contamination of pastures and fields had been made. The aim of the survey was to find out what remedial actions had been taken by the farmers, what their appreciation of the information from authorities was, how the Chernobyl accident had affected their situation, and if they were prepared to take similar actions in case of a new accident. 15 refs

  7. The post-accidents exploitation of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    Problems facing the Chernobyl NPP personnel since its commissioning and during its post-accident operation are considered. The accomplished measures on improving the power units safety, normalization of the radiation situation as well as the impact of psychological factor at the safety culture level are discussed

  8. Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouts, H.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

  9. Legal consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The author considers that the Chernobyl accident was a challenge to lawmakers and lawyers. This paper reviews the different aspects under which it has tested the legal system governing the peaceful use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. In particular, regulations protecting the public from the dangers of ionizing radiation proved to be inadequate and had to be amended (NEA) [fr

  10. The Chernobyl accident - did it affect pregnancy outcomes in Norway?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjeldestad, F.E.; Munch, J.S.; Madland, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The outcome of pregnancies in the county of Soer-Troendelag in Norway, during the 27 months preceding and 21 months after the Chernobyl accident has been analysed on the basis of time of conception. The analysis showed a significant decrease in the number of conceptions during the three months immediately after the accident (April - June 1986). This finding can be interpreted to mean fewer ''planned'' conceptions. The Chernobyl accident did not seem to have had any impact on the proportion of conceptions ending as spontaneous abortions or ectopic pregnancies. There was a significant drop in the proportion of pregnancies ending as induced abortions during the year after the accident compared with the year before. However, due to some variation during this year, it is difficult to draw any definite conclusions concerning the impact of the accident on induced abortions in this county. The proportion of pregnancies ending as births increased significantly during the year after the Chernobyl accident compared with the year before. 22 refs., 1 tab

  11. Current radiological situation in areas of Ukraine contaminated by the Chernobyl accident: Part 1. Human dietary exposure to Caesium-137 and possible mitigation measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labunska, I; Kashparov, V; Levchuk, S; Santillo, D; Johnston, P; Polishchuk, S; Lazarev, N; Khomutinin, Y

    2018-08-01

    This study reports for the first time temporal trends for the period of 2011-2016 in 137 Cs content in cow's milk originating from private farms and households of 14 settlements located in the territories of the Rivne region, Ukraine. These areas are still radioactively contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in 1986. In 2016, the average 137 Cs activity concentration in milk exceeded the Ukrainian Permissible Level (PL) for adults of 100 Bq/l in samples from 6 settlements and the PL for children of 40 Bq/l in 8 settlements, reaching activity concentration of around 500 Bq/l in some samples. Estimated annual effective doses calculated utilizing two different methodologies were in the range of 1.4-2.6 mSv/year and 1.2-1.8 mSv/year, respectively. The estimated effective period of milk semi-purification (T 1/2 _ eff ) from 137 Cs in these settlements was in the range from 8 to 17 years. The estimated ecological period of milk semi-purification (T 1/2 _ eco ) from 137 Cs was in the range from 11 to 36 years. The optimization of the remedial actions strategy for investigated settlements exposed to an effective dose above 1 mSv/year (as estimated in 2016) has shown that a diversity of measures can decrease effective dose for a representative person to below 1 mSv/year. Such measures include application of Ferrocyn to cows, mineral fertilization of potato fields, information campaigns on consumption of wild mushrooms and other forestry products, and feeding pigs with uncontaminated fodder. The total costs of such measures are estimated to be about 71,000 Euro per year for the combined population (8336 inhabitants) of the six villages investigated in this study that showed the highest median residual 137 Cs activity concentrations in milk, with a subsequent decrease in cost in the future. This would result in an averted collective dose of 11 man-Sv, at an average cost of 6.5 kEuro/man-Sv averted. In the

  12. The radiological situation in south Bavaria after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, E; Leising, C [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Federal Health Office, Neuherberg (Germany)

    1986-07-01

    After the reactor accident at Chernobyl a radioactive cloud reached Bavaria on April 30th 1986 inducing activities in the air of 52 Bq iodine 131/m{sup 3} and 10 Bq cesium 137/m{sup 3} (measured in Munich on April 30th between 10am and 2pm). Further on, significant amounts of ruthenium 103, tellurium 132, iodine 132, iodine 133 and cesium 134 were found. Especially in the southern region of Bavaria the majority of the radioactivity in the air was washed out by heavy thundershowers and deposited on the ground. The local deposition was closely linked with the local precipitation rate between April 30th and May 2nd. The deposition of cesium 137 in Bavaria varied from less than 6000 to more than 40000 Bq/m{sup 2}. This radioactive contamination of the environment adds a further radioactive exposure to man. The three major exposure pathways, direct radiation, inhalation, and ingestion, will be considered in this paper.

  13. Root causes of the Chernobyl accident: hindsight through years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopchinskij, G.A.; Shtejnberg, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the article was not to evaluate the status of nuclear safety in this country. We wished to raise another question analysing the Chernobyl accident occurred in April 1986 is not the end in itself and the analysis must not be retrospective. The objective is to draw the normal for nuclear safety nowadays and in the future in order to prevent the very possibility of another accident entailing severe radiological consequences. In our opinion, discussions on any details of physical and thermohydraulic processes occurred in April 1986 can and even must be the matter of due consideration. There are all the reasons to state that no due conclusions were drawn in Ukraine further to the analysis of the Chernobyl accident causes

  14. Thyroid cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident: Incidence, prognosis of progress, risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buglova, E.; Kenigsberg, J.; Golovneva, A.; Demidchik, E.

    1997-01-01

    Starting from 1990, an increasing number of persons, suffering from thyroid cancer was diagnosed in Belarus. These persons were exposed to radiation in 1986 due to the Chernobyl Accident and were children and adolescents at the time of the accident. This paper gives an overview of the total number of thyroid cancer cases observed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident among the persons exposed to radiation under 18 years of age. Duration of the latent period and background incidence rate are under discussion. Based on the most reliable data about thyroid doses and incidence rate among the persons exposed to radiation under 6 years of age, the estimation of risk coefficient for radiation induced thyroid cancer was carried out. For childhood exposure from I-131, the excess absolute risk per 10,0000 PYGy was 4.5 (author)

  15. Procedure on reconstruction of external dose to evacuees at Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, T.; Likhtariov, I.; Repin, V.S.

    1992-01-01

    An external dose estimation on the Chernobyl accident was carried out using sugar left in two houses at Pripyat-city from before the accident. The external dose to the people evacuated from Pripyat-city after the Chernobyl accident has been estimated using both a data from the sugar-electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimeter and information on the type of buildings and the exposure rates there. In this work, the procedure of the dose estimation for the evacuees in Pripyat-city be reported. Furthermore, the sugar-ESR method will be discussed. The present result good agree with one reported from USSR to IAEA. It has been certified that small crystalline sugar such as granulated sugar is one of the most useful dosimeter in the emergency for the public. (author)

  16. Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.

    1994-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  17. The radioecological consequences of Chernobyl accident for fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabov, I.N.

    1997-01-01

    The estimate of dynamics of radionuclides concentration in muscles of some game-fish from Kiev reservoir and likes in Bryansk region for period after Chernobyl accident was carried out. The concentration of 137 Cs in fish has not exceeded the admissible concentration (600 Bq/kg ww) since 1993. The exceptions are the cooling-pond of Chernobyl NPP and Kozlanovskoe Lake where the concentration of 137 Cs in fish's muscles exceeded the admissible level more than 5-6 times even in 1995. It was concluded that chronic irradiation of game-fish in water bodies outside 30-km zone would not affect the volume of fishing

  18. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l`accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph; Beaugelin, K; Maubert, H; Ledenvic, Ph

    1998-12-31

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 {mu}Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  19. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l`accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph

    1997-12-31

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 {mu}Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  20. The compensation of damage in Germany following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eich, W.

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the workshop on the indemnification of damage in the event of a nuclear accident, this paper presents the proceeding of the the discussion on the compensation of damage in Germany following the Chernobyl accident. This paper presents also the national experiences and opinions, a documentation of the Federal Office of Administration on the topic, the example of Tokai-mura accident third party liability and compensation and the third party liability in the field of nuclear law in Ireland. (A.L.B.)

  1. Contribution of Chernobyl accident to human contamination with strontium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botezatu, Elena; Iacob, Olga

    1998-01-01

    The Romanian surveys performed after the Chernobyl accident pointed out the environmental and diet contamination with 90 Sr at levels of one-two orders of magnitude higher than prior to the accident. Given the 90 Sr osteo-tropism we have been interested in its accumulation in the human teeth and bone. The search on 90 Sr accumulation in human teeth evidenced concentrations of 10.8 - 330 mBq/g Ca in milk teeth of young children born during 1986 - 1987 subsequent to Chernobyl. These values were 10-600 times higher than those obtained for permanent or deciduous teeth of all the other age groups or of the same age group born before Chernobyl. There was more 90 Sr activity concentration in ribs than in femur. The highest values of 90 Sr content (mBq/g Ca) were of 75-122 in ribs and 74-120 in femur for 7-10 years old group. These individuals were 0-3 years old during the period of greatest deposition. This age is by far the most critical years due to the heaviest uptake. Smaller concentration values were recorded for the age group older than 55, respectively of 3-20 in ribs and 3.3-10.2 in femur. Our data suggest that the Chernobyl accident did not lead to the increase of 90 Sr accumulation in adults. From the collective equivalent doses of 1500 manSv for bone surfaces and 680 manSv for active red marrow, a potential number of 4 radiation-induced fatal cancers in the studied population (5,2 mil.inh) has been estimated as attributable to Chernobyl accident

  2. Radiological effects of Chernobyl reactor accident on the lakes of Southern Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laschka, D.; Hermann, H.; Huebel, K.; Luensmann, W.

    1988-03-01

    In order to detect the radiological effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident to the large lakes of Southern Bavaria and to assess the radiation exposure of man on the different aquatic pathways, the radioactive contamination of the surface water, the sediments and the fishes was investigated. The dependence of time of the activity concentrations in the tested medias is shown and an outlook is made on the expected further evolution. The radiation exposure of man by swimming, boating and fish consumption in the fast year after the reactor accident is calculated [fr

  3. Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E.F.; Rolevich, I.V.

    1998-12-01

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic and scientific methodical ways of it fulfilling; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences, search

  4. First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  5. Radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems (1986-1990) is considered on the basis of observational data in the near and distant zones of the Chernobyl fallout (the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) cooling pond, the Pripyat River, the Dnieper reservoirs, and the Kopor inlet of the Gulf of Finland). Radionuclide accumulation in aquatic biota is analyzed. The results obtained indicate that the radioecological conditions in the water bodies under investigation were in a state of non-equilibrium over a long period of time following the Chernobyl accident. Reduction in the 137 Cs concentration proceeded slowly in most of the aquatic ecosystems. The effect of trophic levels which consisted of increased accumulation of radiocaesium by predatory fish was observed in various parts of the contaminated area. (author)

  6. Protective measures adopted in OECD member countries in response to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    1988-01-01

    The report outlines the measures for exposure prevention taken in West European countries following the Chernobyl power plant accident. In particular, the radioactivity regulation levels for foods (derived intervention levels) adopted in these countries are described in detail, citing from the reports of the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health of OECD/NEA (The Radiological Impact of the Chernobyl Accident in OECD Countries) and an scientific seminar held by EC (International Scientific Seminar on Foodstuffs Intervention Levels Following a Nuclear Accident). It is pointed out that these countries rather largely vary in measures taken and the derived intervention levels adopted although the principles for radiation protection which provide the basis for emergency protection measures must be nearly the same in all of the countries. It is necessary to establish consistent standards in each country in consideration of an accident, like the one at Chernobyl, that may have global effects. The ICRP recommendations and IAEA safety guidelines so far are centered on ''near-field'' measures to be taken in areas near an accident site. Thus, studies should be made to establish measures to be taken in areas far from the site. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

    2012-09-01

    Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination.

  8. Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and

  9. Radiation risk in Republics Belarus after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltanova, I.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radiation pollution of the territory of the Republic of Belarus has been considered for a long time as a basic ecological danger source. Since the disaster at Chernobyl, a considerable number of the inhabited areas turned out to be situated on the territory contaminated with the radioactive substances. A risk value of the radiation-inducible affections is used in order to appraise the damage to the health of the population, residing in such regions, in other words - of the long term (stochastic) effects probability, among which malignant neoplasm represents the most serious danger. In many countries the systems of radiological protection and safety criteria are based on ecocentric approaches. Nevertheless the post-Chernobyl situation in the Republic of Belarus is continually producing a wide spectrum of hard questions of human health and social activity on contaminated territories. That is why present work is completely produced in the frameworks of anthropocentric approach. The radiation risk has been evaluated for a number of regions of Gomel areas and Mogilev region in accordance with the linear non-threshold model 'Dose-Effect'. A lifelong risk coefficient of the radiation-inducible cancers of 5% / Zv, offered by the ICRP, is used in the evaluations. The doses, used for the risk assessment, are taken from the Doses Catalogue-1992 of the Ministry of Health, Republic of Belarus, which contains the doses, referring to the years 1991-1992. Correspondingly, our evaluations determine potential cancers, conditioned by the radiation exposure during this period of time. Obtained evaluations do not take into account either the radiation-inducible cancers of the thyroid gland, or the leukemia cases, observed in the liquidators as a result of the radiation exposure in the year 1986. The work also contains an evaluation of the component, specific for the Chernobyl radiation risk, conditioned by the radiation dose, accumulated in the population of the regions

  10. The Chernobyl reactor accident and the aquatic environment of the UK: a fisheries viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.T.; Camplin, W.C.; Leonard, D.R.P.

    1986-01-01

    The monitoring programme undertaken by the Directorate throughout the UK following the Chernobyl reactor accident is described. The results of sampling and analysis of fish, shellfish, seaweed and other materials are discussed. Chernobyl fallout was readily detected in all sectors of the aquatic environment, particularly during May when the highest concentrations were observed. An assessment of the radiological impact of the fallout shows that freshwater fish were the most important source of individual (critical group) exposure though, based on cautious assumptions, the effective dose equivalent is around 1 mSv in a year. The collective effective dose equivalent commitment from Chernobyl due to aquatic ingestion pathways, predominantly marine fish, is estimated to be 30 man Sv. (author)

  11. Radiocaesium fallout in Ireland from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAulay, I.R.; Moran, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a radiocaesium deposition pattern over Ireland resulting from the Chernobyl accident. Contaminated grassland soils from over 110 sites were analysed using gamma ray spectrometry. 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 40 K were measured in all samples. The Chernobyl 137 Cs was identified using an initial Chernobyl fallout 137 Cs to 134 Cs ratio of 1.90. The results show a mean deposition level of 3.2 kBq m -2 of 137 Cs due to Chernobyl. The range of deposition was from 0.3 to 14.2 kBq m -2 . The distribution pattern is presented both on a National grid sub-zone basis and a higher resolution shaded map. A similarly shaded map shows the rainfall levels responsible for most of the washout. It is pointed out that some areas on both east and west coasts with maximum rainfall did not have maximum caesium deposition. In other areas a better correlation between rainfall and caesium deposition exists. A mean figure for the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs in surface soil is provided. (author)

  12. [Comparative analysis of the radionuclide composition in fallout after the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenko, K V; Shinkarev, S M; Abramov, Iu V; Granovskaia, E O; Iatsenko, V N; Gavrilin, Iu I; Margulis, U Ia; Garetskaia, O S; Imanaka, T; Khoshi, M

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear accident occurred at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) (March 11, 2011) similarly to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (April 26, 1986) is related to the level 7 of the INES. It is of interest to make an analysis of the radionuclide composition of the fallout following the both accidents. The results of the spectrometric measurements were used in that comparative analysis. Two areas following the Chernobyl accident were considered: (1) the near zone of the fallout - the Belarusian part of the central spot extended up to 60 km around the Chernobyl NPS and (2) the far zone of the fallout--the "Gomel-Mogilev" spot centered 200 km to the north-northeast of the damaged reactor. In the case of Fukushima accident the near zone up to about 60 km considered. The comparative analysis has been done with respect to refractory radionuclides (95Zr, 95Nb, 141Ce, 144Ce), as well as to the intermediate and volatile radionuclides 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140La, 140Ba and the results of such a comparison have been discussed. With respect to exposure to the public the most important radionuclides are 131I and 137Cs. For the both accidents the ratios of 131I/137Cs in the considered soil samples are in the similar ranges: (3-50) for the Chernobyl samples and (5-70) for the Fukushima samples. Similarly to the Chernobyl accident a clear tendency that the ratio of 131I/137Cs in the fallout decreases with the increase of the ground deposition density of 137Cs within the trace related to a radioactive cloud has been identified for the Fukushima accident. It looks like this is a universal tendency for the ratio of 131I/137Cs versus the 137Cs ground deposition density in the fallout along the trace of a radioactive cloud as a result of a heavy accident at the NPP with radionuclides releases into the environment. This tendency is important for an objective reconstruction of 131I fallout based on the results of 137Cs measurements of soil samples carried out at

  13. Reports of the Chernobyl accident consequences in Brazilian newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, Roberto; Oliveira, Rosana Lagua de

    2009-01-01

    The public perception of the risks associated with nuclear power plants was profoundly influenced by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl Power Plants which also served to exacerbate in the last decades the growing mistrust on the 'nuclear industry'. Part of the mistrust had its origin in the arrogance of nuclear spokesmen and in the secretiveness of nuclear programs. However, press agencies have an important role in shaping and upsizing the public awareness against nuclear energy. In this paper we present the results of a survey in reports of some Brazilian popular newspapers on Chernobyl consequences, as measured by the total death toll of the accident, to show the up and down dance of large numbers without any serious judgment. (author)

  14. International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

  15. Medical features of the radiological accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.R. de

    1987-01-01

    The main medical features concerning the recent nuclear accident occurred in Chernobyl power station is summarized. The first measures taken by the Soviet medical authorities to minimize the effects of ionizing radiation on the victims are briefly commented on. The specialized laboratory analyses and therapeutic procedures adopted by the physicians during the course of the acute phase of the major syndromes are also discussed. (author) [pt

  16. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

  17. Experience from the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. [Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    On 27 May 1986, the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present first part of the committee's report describes how the discharges spread from the reactor to Scandinavia and the situation as regards contamination in different parts of Norway. The report also deals with the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, and countermeasures and action levels used.

  18. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

  19. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korol, N.; Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    1998-01-01

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  20. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korol, N. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    1998-12-01

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  1. Aquatic environment impacts of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Washout of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the contaminated area around the Chernobyl power plant occurs mainly during intense rainfalls and snow-melts when up to 900 km 2 of highly contaminated soils can be flooded, like in 1988 and 1991, contributing to the contamination of Pripyat river. Flood barriers were built on the left bank and their efficiency was proven during the 1993, 1994 and 1999 floods. Flood barriers were also built on the right bank between 1999 and 2002 but the works have never been completed so far. Downstream, the Dnieper river flow is regulated by a series of dams the management of which has been optimized to limit the transfer of radionuclides to the Black Sea

  2. Forest and Chernobyl: forest ecosystems after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident: 1986-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipatyev, V.; Bulavik, I.; Baginsky, V.; Goncharenko, G.; Dvornik, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports basic features of radionuclide migration and the prediction of the radionuclide redistribution and accumulation by forest phytocoenoses after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident. The current ecological condition of forest ecosystems is evaluated and scientific aspects of forest management in the conditions of the large-scale radioactive contamination are discussed. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Application of the SPEEDI system to the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chino, Masamichi; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1986-10-01

    The SPEEDI system is a computational code system to predict the radiological dose due to the plume released in a nuclear accident in Japan. This paper describes the SPEEDI's application to the Chernobyl reactor accident for the estimation of the movement of plume and the release rate of radioactive nuclides into the environment. The predicted results on the movement of plume agreed well with the monitoring data in Europe. The estimated results on the release rate showed that half of the noble gas inventory, about 5 % of the iodine inventory and about 3 % of the cesium inventory are released into the environment within 24 hours. (author)

  4. Hygienic training of population being victims of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, A.V.; Mozgovaya, A.V.; Polesskij, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Study results on the role of social factors in formation of attitude to own health and its self-evaluation by the population of the regions, subjected to impact of the Chernobyl NPP accident. An extremely important component block is determined in the programs on hygienic training of the population being victims of the accident, namely, adequate information of the public on dose-effect dependencies, on radionuclide behaviour in the environmental objects, on possible measures for reduction of undesirable effects. Necessity is noted of transfer from universal programs of hygienic training to differential ones up to individual training

  5. Belorussian population health state following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Environmental radioactivity peculiarities at the Belarussian territory resulted from the Chernobyl accident are analysed. Main risk systems for human health and trends of potential pathology formation are determined. Growth in the disease incidence in adults and especially in children is marked. It covers thyroid cancer (due to 131 I intake in the early period of the accident), chronic neoplasms in hematopoietic and lymphatic systems, immune system, digestive system, cardiovascular and neuromental diseases. Attention is paid to the genetic radiation effects, pregnancy and delivery pathology. 2 tabs

  6. Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

  7. Oncological aspects of the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluzman, D.; Chekhun, V.; Guslitser, L.

    1998-01-01

    The data on cancer and leukemia incidence in adult and childhood population of Ukraine within 11 years after Chernobyl accident have been presented. A sharp increase in thyroid cancer incidence in children living in the areas contaminated by radionuclides has been notable. Nevertheless up to present there is no unequivocal evidence of significant increase of any other malignancies. Further long-term studies are required since the peak incidence of the majority of the forms of cancer may occur within more than 10-20 years after the accident

  8. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France. Thematic sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document proposes a set of commented maps, graphs and drawings which illustrate and describe various consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, such as air contamination (scattering of radioactive particles emitted by the reactor explosion by the wind over thousands of kilometres, evolution of air contamination between April 30 and May 5 1986), ground deposits (influence of rain, heterogeneity of these deposits), contamination of farm products (relationship between the accident date and the deposit characteristics, variable decrease rate of contamination, faster decrease of farm product contamination that caesium radioactive decay since 1987, particular cases of some more sensitive products), health effects (low doses received by the French population, concerns about thyroid cancers)

  9. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhauser, Georg, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@colostate.edu; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340–800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. - Highlights: • The environmental effects of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. • Releases of radionuclides from Chernobyl exceeded Fukushima by an order of magnitude. • Chernobyl caused more severe radiation-related health effects. • Overall, Chernobyl was a much more severe nuclear accident than Fukushima. • Psychological effects are neglected but important consequences of nuclear accidents.

  10. Genetic aftermath of the Chernobyl accident in the populations of Byelorus zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazjuk, G.I.; Kirillova, I.A.; Nilolaev, D.L.; Khmel, R.D.; Sato, Yukio.

    1993-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, various long-term surveys have been made on congenital malformations, abnormal embryos and fetuses, multiple congenital malformations and others in Byelorus zones. This report introduces the outcome of these surveys. Legal abortuses at the gestation of 5-12 weeks and newborns were reviewed for teratogenetic and mutagenic analyses. Approximately 50 kinds of abnormal diseases were observed in legal abortuses; urogenital system disease was the most common, followed by gastrointestinal and neurological diseases. There was no significant difference in malformation frequency in legal abortuses in Minsk and Gomel before and after the Chernobyul accident. There was neither specific teratogenetic effect nor fetus growth that was thought to be attributed to radiation exposure directly due to the Chernobyl accident. However, the incidence (per 1000 deliveries) of children born with obligatory registered malformations was increased in all Byelorus zones. This tendency was noticeable especially in the newborn born in the zone of cesium-137 of 15 Ci/km 2 (555 kBq/m 2 ), which was much more than that expected by the ICRP. The correlation between some congenital malformations and ionizing radiation has been shown only indirectly by an increase in dominant hereditary abnormality in the contaminated areas. Further collection of materials, registration and statistical analysis will provide more reliable information to evaluate genetic aftermath of the Chernobyl accident objectively. (N.K.)

  11. Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. Each organization has independently accepted responsibility for one or more chapters. The specific responsibility of each organization is indicated. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general. The task of evaluating the information obtained in these various areas and the assessment of the potential implications has been left to each organization to pursue according to the relevance of the subject to their organization. Those findings will be issued separately by the cognizant organizations. The basic purpose of this report is to provide the information upon which such assessments can be made

  12. First days of the Chernobyl accident. Private experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpan, Nikolay

    2013-01-01

    Ex-deputy chief engineer of Chernobyl NPP described the time-series personal experience of the fourth unit accident on 26 April, 1986. He was informed the accident at home at 4 o'clock. He came to the plant at 7 o'clock. He and other newcomers were no informed about what happened at the plant and about details of the accident from top manager of the plant. He gathered important information about the accident from people that were eyewitness of the accident and recorded their evidences. He reported to head engineer and his deputy that solution of boron acid could be brought into reactor for suppression of the chain reaction. Director of NPP asked authorities to bring boron acid to the plant, but the boron acid was not received before the chain reaction. The critical state began approximately 20 in the evening. After 4 hours of the critical state exposition dose rate of gamma radiation was ten times from 20 R/h in the morning and middle of day to 200 R/h. He consider as the first fault of the Governmental Commission was the absence of efforts for bringing boron to gorges of fuel and to shaft of reactor. The second fault was that protective countermeasures for city population protection were not undertaken. The authorities of Chernobyl began to wait for decisions of higher authorities. This means that responsibility was moved to them. (N.T)

  13. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This leaflet has been prepared by the Central Electricity Generating Board. Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union people are concerned about the safety of the UK's nuclear power stations. This leaflet explains that Chernobyl is unlike any nuclear station operating or planned in the UK and under the CEGB's stringent safety rules it could not have been built in the UK. The leaflet explains what happened at Chernobyl and compares the RBMK design and British reactors. The bodies concerned with reactor safety are noted. The containment of radioactivity and emergency procedures are explained. The PWR design for Sizewell-B is stated to be much safer than the RBMK Chernobyl design. (UK)

  14. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Two years ago the World Health Assembly approved the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The Programme, set up under the auspices of WHO, provides support to the health authorities in Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine in dealing with the aftermath of the accident, and is intended to serve as a unifying framework for all international health-related activities arising from the accident carried out in the three countries. This document outlines the Programme's objectives, structure, accomplishments and future plans. As a background, it also provides a brief overview of the accident and of its current and potential impact on health in the three countries. 5 figs, 1 tab

  15. On the sequence and consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennies, H H

    1986-01-01

    A serious reactor accident occurred on April 26, 1986 at Chernobyl near Kiev (Soviet Union) where, after melting of the core, there was a considerable release of radioactivity to the environment and to the atmosphere. The radioactivity release caused irradiation of the operating staff, which led to 24 deaths by June 1986. Hardly anything is known about the irradiation of the environment of the reactor plant, but the population within a radius of 30 km was evacuated. The radioactivity released into the atmosphere spread all over Europe, and Germany was affected a few days after the accident. The article gives a short description of the plant which suffered the accident, one tries to describe the course of the accident and to discuss the applicability to German plants.

  16. Radiation hazard to children as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoer, G; Maul, F D; Buell, U; Kriegel, H; Manegold, K H

    1986-01-01

    A flight in a modern jet across the Atlantic Ocean brings about a whole-body radiation dose of 2-5 mrem (Hall, Niklas). The average exposure of the population in West Germany as a result of the Chernobyl accident corresponds therefore to 100 trans-Atlantic flights. The article in hand is not intended to minimize the hazards emanating from radiation accidents - or nuclear weapons tests - but rather as a means of reducing fear that results from not knowing the real facts. Doctors seeking unbiased information will find a number of references and citations that will help them to pass on this information to patients. (orig./HSCH).

  17. The radiation hazard to children as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoer, G.; Maul, F.D.; Buell, U.; Kriegel, H.; Manegold, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    A flight in a modern jet across the Atlantic Ocean brings about a whole-body radiation dose of 2-5 mrem (Hall, Niklas). The average exposure of the population in West Germany as a result of the Chernobyl accident corresponds therefore to 100 trans-Atlantic flights. The article in hand is not intended to minimize the hazards emanating from radiation accidents - or nuclear weapons tests - but rather as a means of reducing fear that results from not knowing the real facts. Doctors seeking unbiased information will find a number of references and citations that will help them to pass on this information to patients. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. Aftermath of the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Atsushi

    1992-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency organized the International Advisory Committee in April 1990 with the purpose of starting the international Chernobyl project. Twelve Japanese investigators participated in this project. This article introduces changes in hematopoietic findings in inhabitants as of August 1991. The subjects enrolled in the present project were 853 inhabitants living in 7 contaminated villages exposed to 15 Ci/km 2 or more (the contaminated group) and 803 inhabitants living in 6 villages exposed to 1 Ci/km 2 or less (the not contaminated group). According to age, the subjects were divided into 6 groups. Hematopoietic findings were analyzed on the international basis. Regarding hemoglobin levels, there was no significant difference between the contaminated and not contaminated groups. Nor was there significant difference in red blood cell counts, size and mean corpuscular volume between the groups. In none of the other hematopoietic findings, including whight blood cell counts, the ratio of neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and monocytes, lymphocyte counts, and blood platelet counts, was there significant difference between the two groups. (N.K.)

  19. Chernobyl radiological data for accident consequence assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottino, A.; Sacripanti, A.

    1989-01-01

    In this draft is presented the results of a first effort to summarize information related to the radionuclides behaviour in rural areas, in order to estimate pathway parameters to assess accident consequences. This topic encloses relevant aspects concerning contamination of rural environment, the most important being: 1) dry deposition velocities; 2) washout coefficient; 3) accumulation in lakes; 4) migration in soil; 5) winter conditions; 6) filtering effects of forests

  20. Radiocaesium in Swedish reindeer after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahman, B.

    1999-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl nuclear accident considerable efforts have been made in Sweden to reduce radiocaesium intake via food by the general population. Countermeasures have been used especially in reindeer husbandry. In this investigation intake of radiocaesium via reindeer meat was estimated, and the corresponding collective radiation dose to humans was calculated for the first 10 years following the Chernobyl fallout. The transfer of radiocaesium and the collective dose were compared with the potential transfer and corresponding human dose, that would have occurred in the absence of radioactivity limits and countermeasures. According to the estimates, the collective dose for the first year after the Chernobyl accident (May 1986 to April 1987) was reduced from 193 man Sv (potential dose) to below 3 man Sv (actual dose). The cost for this was 117 million SEK. Because of the relatively rapid reduction of radiocaesium in reindeer pasture, both the potential and the actual dose decreased with time. For the reindeer slaughter period from July 1995 to June 1996, the potential dose was estimated to 18 man Sv and the actual dose to 7 man Sv. The total expenditure on control and countermeasures for that year was 17 million SEK

  1. Radioactive contamination of food, sampled in regions of the USSR affected by the Chernobyl accident, and of radioactive exposure in these regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruig, de W.G.; Struijs, van der T.D.B.

    1991-01-01

    From 21.10.1990 to 01.11.1990 a Netherlands humanitarian fact finding mission on aid to people affected by the Chernobyl disaster visited the USSR. The Netherlands Government reacted positively to a request from the USSR for such aid and the aim of the mission was to gather facts for a useful aid

  2. Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Takeyoshi

    1999-01-01

    1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

  3. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: a review of the environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5,300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340-800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. © 2013.

  4. Radioactivity in mushrooms in northeast Italy following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battiston, G.A.; Degetto, S.; Gerbasi, R.; Sbrignadello, G.

    1989-01-01

    Radionuclide activities in common edible mushrooms, collected in northeast Italy following the Chernobyl accident, are reported. The highest levels were found in Clitocybe infundibuliformis, Cantharellus lutescens and Boletus cavipes. In addition, a large number of soil samples was collected in the same area. From the 137 Cs/ 134 Cs ratios, its was possible to differentiate the radiocesium contribution from pre-Chernobyl fallout in both fungi and soil. The contour maps for 137 Cs and 134 Cs distributions are reported. The radioactivity detected in the mushrooms is not related in a simple manner to the contamination level of the corresponding soil. Some species tend to concentrate cesium and silver nuclides, whilst others show little affinity for these and other nuclides. Explanations for the different behavioral characteristics of the species are suggested. (author)

  5. Acute effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on Irish mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwright, S.; Daly, L.

    1989-01-01

    This report examines the claim that Irish mortality in the second quarter (April-June) of 1986 increased due to the cloud of radioactive material released by the damaged reactor in Chernobyl. Over the period 1971-1987, based on date of registration, the death rates in the second quarter showed marked year to year variation often exceeding that expected on the basis of chance alone. In 1986 the percentage of annual deaths occurring between April and June, and the death rate itself, were both significantly higher than in most other years between 1981 and 1987. The 1986 figures were not however, significantly higher than those observed in years prior to 1981. Since the distribution of mortality by cause was not consistent with the hypothesis relating low level radiation to immediate mortality, and since causality cannot be inferred from temporal association per se, the Chernobyl accident cannot be implicated in the excess mortality observed in the second quarter of 1986. (author)

  6. Genital endometriosis rate dynamics before and after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shbul', I.; Suprun, L.Ya.

    2000-01-01

    The necessity of endometriosis dynamics evaluation is caused by worse ecological situation on the area of Belarus. Genital endometriosis frequency was studied considering the outcomes of surgeries fulfilled in hospitals of Gomel, Mogilev and Vitebsk in 1981-1995. At this time 1254 women underwent an operation and 19% of patients (235 persons) were operated before the Chernobyl accident. In the first 5 years after the accident endometriosis frequency increased nearly 2 times. The next 5 years (1991-1995) the number of operated patients was 565, i.e. 45% from the whole number. Uterus was extirpated or amputated in 898 patients, ovaries at both sides were removed in 36 ones. As the analysis showed the endometriosis frequency grew in 2,5 times for last 15 years, the most significant increase of this pathology was observed during the first five years after the accident

  7. The biotic sample bank of Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yu; Min Rui; Cai Jianming

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To built a simple and easy biologic sample bank from irradiated people in nuclear accident, for the long time research of biological effect of low dose ionization radiation on people. Methods: The blood sample is fixed on a piece of filter paper rand sealed up in plastic bottle for keeping, blood sample scribble on glass lice, fixed and dyed as routine clinic examination, and still, reserve a slice of hair of the examined people. Results: Having built a biologic sample bank which from 1162 human body. The samples are come from 958 liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear accident, 46 people in other nuclear accident and 158 people as control groups. It is also having much information details. Conclusions: If the biologic sample bank is combined with the modern bimolecular technique, maybe have much meaningful for the theory and practice of radiobiology. (authors)

  8. Evolution of regulation related to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimova, L.I.; Belyaev, S.T.; Demin, V.F.; Kutkov, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    The 'classical' pattern of radiological protection considers mostly the radiation factor. The choice of protective measures is governed by effective doses, both received and projected, also established and adopted intervention levels, respectively. The effectiveness of the countermeasures is measured by the value of an averted dose. The lessons learned from Chernobyl show that the above single-factor pattern of radiological protection is appropriate only at an acute post-accident phase. In that period (days and weeks after an accident) the radiation factor prevails and bas countermeasures are proceeded from prearranged intervention levels. At the next long-term phase (months, years after the accident) there is enough time for a human factor to come fully into force. This factor implies the psychological and social acceptance, by the public, of the countermeasures to be implemented. It implies the response of the public to their implementation, the reflection of the situation by mass media, the reaction of Legislative and Administrative Bodies too

  9. Remediation strategies for rural territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Fesenko, S.; Firsakova, S.K.; Likhtarev, I.A.; Schotola, C.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Zhuchenko, Y.M.; Kovgan, L.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Ageyets, V.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to derive remediation strategies for rural settlements contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in which annual doses to a critical group still exceed 1 mSv. Extensive radioecological data have been collected for 70 contaminated settlements. A dose model based on these data resulted in estimates that are on average close to and a bit less than the official dose estimates ('catalogue doses') published by the responsible Ministries of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. For eight remedial actions that can be applied on a large scale, effectiveness and costs have been assessed in light of their dependence on soil type, contamination level and on the degree of previous application of remedial actions. Remediation strategies were derived for each of the 70 settlements by choosing remedial actions with lowest costs per averted dose and with highest degree of acceptability among the farmers and local authorities until annual doses are assessed to fall below 1 mSv. The results were generalised to 11 contamination/internal-dose categories. The total numbers of rural inhabitants and privately owned cows in the three countries distributed over the categories were determined and predicted until the year 2015. Based on these data, costs and averted doses were derived for the whole affected population. The main results are (i) about 2000 Sv can be averted at relatively low costs, (ii) the emphasis on reducing external exposures should be increased, (iii) radical improvement of hay-land and meadows and application of Prussian blue to cows should be performed on a large scale if annual doses of 1 mSv are an aim to be achieved, (iv) additional remedial actions of importance are fertilising of potato fields, distribution of food monitors and restriction of mushroom consumption, and (v) for inhabitants of some settlements (in total about 8600) annual doses cannot be reduced below 1 mSv by the remedial actions considered

  10. 10 years after Chernobyl, radiation exposure, health effects, safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.

    1996-11-01

    This report sums up the various conferences and symposia which were prompted by the tenth anniversary of the accident in the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl. It was shown that by the accident up to now 31 casualties among the emergency and rescue personal at the site. Offsite no increased number of casualties caused by the accident was observed up to now. In the countries with the highest impact Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, however, an increased number of infant thyroid cancer is observed which is substantially higher than after the nuclear detonations over Japanese cities. Contrary to often published media reports, however, up to now no increases in leukemia or other malignant deceases were observed, neither in the population of the concerned regions nor among the liquidators. The high 137 Cs activity concentration in the environment close to the power plant result in exclusion zone even today. The deposition values in Kiev, however, amount to only 30 kBq/m 2 , in large areas of Ukraine they are below the average values in Austria of 22 kBq/m 2 . For these areas as well as those outside the former Soviet Union the average doses were less than 1 mSv in the first year, a value which is less than one third of natural annual radiation exposure. Since the reactor accident the activity concentration has significally decreased resulting in an exposure as consequence of the reactor accident of less than 0,8 % of the exposure in the first year. In Austria the exposure in 1996 amounts to less than 0,3 % of natural radiation exposure. (author)

  11. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaare, E.; Jonsson, B.; Skogland, T.

    1991-04-01

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

  12. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubina, Nataliia E.; Zarubin, Oleg L. [Institute for Nuclear Research of National Academy of Sciense, 03680, pr-t Nauki, 47, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident ({sup 131}I, {sup 140}Ba /{sup 140}La, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs). They accumulate the long-living {sup 90}Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than {sup 137}Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of {sup 137}Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more {sup 137}Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of {sup 137}Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination

  13. Some results of liquidation of accident effects at the Chernobyl' NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.; Komarov, V.I.; Zverkov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    The results of works dealing with liquidation of accident effects at the Chernobyl' NPP are generalized. Some measures realized are estimated. Suggestions directed to efficiency increase when eliminating such accident effects are formulated

  14. Radionuclides in macro algae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Ballestra, S.; Lopez, J.J.; Bulos, A.; Whitehead, N.E.; Barci-Funel, G.; Ardisson, G.

    1994-01-01

    Samples of macro algae, Codmium tomentosum (green), Corallina mediterranea (red), Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (red) and Dictyota dichotoma (brown), were collected off Monaco during 1984 and 1988 and analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and transuranium elements. Due to the Chernobyl accident, increased radioactivity in the atmosphere at Monaco was recorded on 30 April 1986 with maximal activity concentrations on 2-3 May. The maximal activity concentrations in sea water occurred on 5-6 May and in the algae on 11 May. The decrease of activity concentrations can be described after May 11 as a single exponential relationship, where elimination rates for different radionuclides and different species specific to the environment can be calculated. The elimination rates thus observed correspond to mean residence times between 70 and 370 days corrected for physical decay. The concentration factors were also estimated and the highest values were found for 131 I, 129 Te m , and 110 Ag m and lowest for radiocesium and 140 Ba. The red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifoius showed generally higher concentration factors than green and brown algae. Regarding transuranium elements, a theoretical contribution from the Chernobyl accident can be made but only 242 Cm was detected in the algae above previous levels before the accident, due to the relatively small fallout of transuranics. (author) 23 refs.; 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  15. Speciation of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, M.; Rybacek, K.; Wilhemova, L.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to verify the hypothesis that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in the fallout after the accident could depend on the transport conditions, including the distance of a sampling location from Chernobyl. From the results it is obvious that the prevailing form in all samples taken in the period of direct contamination was water-soluble radiocesium. It can be concluded from the presented results that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol and fallout after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl as well as particulate size distribution can depend on the distance or the conditions of transport from a contamination source to a sampling location. The influence of the conditions of radiocesium transport could result in observed differences in the 137 Cs penetration into soil profile in different locations and also in the found dependence on the resuspension factor for 137 Cs on the level of its fallout in the period of NPP accident for different locations in Europe. (J.K.) 1 tab

  16. Study on the social economic estimation of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagara, Aya; Fujimoto, Noboru; Morita, Koji; Fukuda, Kenji

    2000-01-01

    In order to estimate the external economic effect for the risk of the nuclear power plants, the document research has been carried out, which mainly deals with the economic influence of the Chernobyl accident that occurred on the 26th of April 1986. As a result, the direct and indirect total economic loss between 1986 and 1995 is about $ 80 billion in Belarus, $ 115 billion in Ukraine and 1.15 trillion in Russia. This value, however, is considered as an overestimation, since the environmental contamination with radioactive material and thyroid cancer in Russia is very much the same as in Belarus and Ukraine. Also, the total economic loss is about a billion dollars in west European countries. The total economic loss for the Chernobyl accident is estimated more than about $ 300 billion. On the other hand, the chance occurrence of this kind of major accident of the nuclear power plant is very small in terms of probabilities, and the product of economic loss and frequency is smaller than the cost benefit for the measure of global warming and the energy security in Japan. This kind of problem should be treated as a social problem and study on various external economic effect is necessary. (author)

  17. Monitoring of congenital malformations in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazjuk, G.I.; Kirillova, I.A.; Nikolaev, D.L.; Novikova, I.V.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of over 21,000 embryos and fetuses from medically-induced abortions was conducted from 1980 through 1991 in the Republic of Belarus. More than half of the abortions studied were carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, including 1176 from districts with 137 Cs soil contamination levels over 0.6 TBq/km 2 (15 Ci/km 2 ). Congenital malformations (CM's) in 7325 newborn children also were analyzed. The data on these children were obtained from a genetic monitoring program. It was shown that in the 5 years after the Chernobyl accident the frequency of abnormal developments in aborted fetuses from contaminated areas was significantly higher than in aborted fetuses from Minsk, which was relatively uncontaminated. Additionally, the CM incidence in newborn children increased in Belarus compared to the CM incidences before the accident; the increase was most significant in the heavily contaminated areas. The increases were attributed primarily to CMS characterized by dominant mutations. These increases could have been partially caused by factors unrelated to radiation dose, including defective nourishment, chemical contaminants, and psychological stresses. A correlation between CM increase and the parents' dose has not been established. 17 refs., 6 tabs

  18. On the main causes and circumstances of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shteinberg, N.

    1992-01-01

    The main causes are described of the Chernobyl accident, the discussion of which seems to be finished. It is shown that important actual parameters of the reactor differed adversely from the project; this fact had not been taken into account in operational instructions and therefore it could not be known to the operators. Further, the general causes of the Chernobyl accident are pointed out. A major cause is the still non-existing fundamental law and, consequently, lack of definition of responsibilities (it will, above all, be necessary to set out indivisible responsibility of the plant operator for nuclear safety). At present all participants in nuclear power engineering share responsibility. Another cause of the accident can be seen in insufficient quality assurance resulting from the fact that the Soviet regulatory body has not all the necessary powers and the independence. Closely connected with this is the fact that the role of the human factor is overemphasized and operational experience is not included in design modifications. In general, insufficient safety culture as defined by INSAG can be stated. 6 figs., 4 refs

  19. Speciation of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasek, M; Rybacek, K; Wilhemova, L [Academy Science of the Czech Republic, 18086 Prague (Czech Republic). Nuclear Physics Inst., Dept. of Radiation Dosimetry

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this analysis was to verify the hypothesis that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in the fallout after the accident could depend on the transport conditions, including the distance of a sampling location from Chernobyl. From the results it is obvious that the prevailing form in all samples taken in the period of direct contamination was water-soluble radiocesium. It can be concluded from the presented results that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol and fallout after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl as well as particulate size distribution can depend on the distance or the conditions of transport from a contamination source to a sampling location. The influence of the conditions of radiocesium transport could result in observed differences in the {sup 137}Cs penetration into soil profile in different locations and also in the found dependence on the resuspension factor for {sup 137}Cs on the level of its fallout in the period of NPP accident for different locations in Europe. (J.K.) 1 tab.

  20. The impact of the Chernobyl accident on Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    As the fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests gradually decreased during the 1970s, the national preparedness and analytical capacity in Norway gradually disintegrated as well. The Chernobyl accident was therefore met without any overall contingency preparedness plan. The affected governmental bodies and other institutions had to improvise their first steps, including information to the public, until necessary coordination had been established. A complicating factor was the change of government during the first days of May 1986, the reasons for this had however nothing to do with the reactor accident. A great deal of uncertainty prevailed about the accident and its consequences especially during the first days after the accident. The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs and the Ministry of the Environment in May 1986 both appointed committees to report on the accident and its impacts and on a future preparedness system, although their terms of reference were not identical. A third committee was appointed in June by the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs to report on the information crises in connection with the accident

  1. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten years strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. In 2003-2004, two groups of experts from twelve countries, including Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations have assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005, the group Environment, Coordinated by the IAEA, and the group Health, coordinated by the WHO, have presented their reports for Forum consideration. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to consider he approved reports - as a common position of the Forum members, i.e., of the eight United Nations organizations and the three more affected countries, regarding environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, as well as recommended future actions, i.e., as a consensus within the United Nations system. Tis report presents the findings and recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum concerning Environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident. The Forum's report considering health effects is in process of publication under WHO responsibility. The environmental group of experts was chaired by Dr. Lynn Anspaugh from the University of Utah, USA; the scientific secretary of this group and of the whole Chernobyl Forum activity was Dr. Mikhail Balonov of the Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. In all cases the scientists from the UN organisations, the international community, and the three more affected countries have been able to reach consensus in the preparation of their respective documents. After

  2. Accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Getting over the consequences and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.; Vasil'chenko, V.N.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Prister, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    The book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of the accident on the 4th Power Unit of the Chernobyl NPP. The power plant construction history, accident reasons, its consequences, the measures on its liquidation are represented. The current state of activity on the Chernobyl power unit decommission, the 'Shelter' object conversion into the ecologically safe system is described. The future of the Chernobyl NPP site and disposal zone is discussed

  3. Pathohistologic characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa in liquidators of Chernobyl accident with peptic duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degtyar'ova, L.V.

    2000-01-01

    Pathomorphological characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa associated with the dose of ionizing radiation at peptic duodenal ulcer in participants of the Chernobyl accident clean-up was determined. Our findings suggest that the doses of external irradiation exceeding 25 cGy (together with the other harmful effects of the Chernobyl accident) represent a danger of helicobacter infection development

  4. XENON-133 IN CALIFORNIA, NEVADA, AND UTAH FROM THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR introduced numerous radioactive nuclides into the atmosphere, including the noble gas xenon-133. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV, detected xenon-133 from the Chernobyl accident in air sampl...

  5. Determination of radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, I.; Haabrekke, H.

    1986-09-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, a coarse-meshed all-over picture of the radioactive ground deposition on Norway's land area was obtained by radiometric scanning from car. The measurements were carried out by the Geological Survey of Norway in the period 5 May - 6 June, 1986. High-concentration areas in the central part of the country were in addition surveyed by aerial scanning. By combining the scanning results with in situ background measurements, it was possible to calculate the distribution of some dominant radionuclides on the ground. The measured data are presented on contamination maps

  6. The Republic of Belarus: 9 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of a situation in a 9 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident is given. In accordance with the republic programme of overcoming of the catastrophe consequences the main attention is given to a wide scales medical and preventive work, increase of a quality of the medical aid, creation of conditions for normal activity on the contaminated territory, maintenance of all groups of the population by an objective information about radioecological condition and radiation protection. Scientific researches in the field of radiation medicine and agricultural radiology are executed. Development of means and methods of decontamination, both social psychological and social economical rehabilitation are carried out. 1 fig

  7. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiriger, J.M.; Failor, R.A.; Marsh, K.V.; Shaw, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Following the accident at the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986, we performed a variety of measurements to determine the level of the radioactive fallout on the western United States. We used gamma-spectroscopy to analyze air filters from the areas around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California, and Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska. Milk from California and imported vegetables were also analyzed. The levels of the various fission products detected were far below the maximum permissible concentration levels

  8. Environmental radioactivity measurements at BNL following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.; Woollam, P.B.

    1986-06-01

    Measurements are reported of the concentrations at Berkeley in Gloucestershire of radioactivity in the air, rainwater, tap water, soil, herbage and fresh vegetables for the period 29 April 1986 to 15 May 1986, following the Chernobyl Power Station accident. Data for up to 18 gamma emitting isotopes are reported, together with some limited actinide-in-air measurements. Deposition velocities are calculated and an assessment is presented of the sensitivity of the techniques employed. Some data are also included on the gaseous composition of the cloud and the isotope dependent dose rate from deposition. (author)

  9. Primary disability of the Chernobyl Accident consequences liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubritskij, M.K.; Plakhotya, L.P.; Kalinina, T.V.; Zhilinskaya, E.I.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of courses of the primary invalidism of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators is studies. The main reasons of the loss of a capacity for work are blood circulation diseases (41.9%), neoplasms (19.9%), diseases of the nervous system and sense organs (9.7%), mental disorders (5.9%) and endocrine diseases (5.5%). The invalids distribution in the different regions and in different age groups according to the disease forms is analysed. The average durations of the diseases resulting in the primary invalidism are about 2.8 years. In average the illnesses began in the 3.1 years. 6 refs

  10. Economic and social aspects of the Chernobyl accident in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, L.; Mustonen, R.; Paakkola, O.

    1991-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident at no stage did the radiation situation in Finland require actual protective action, such as taking shelter indoors or in civil defence shelters. Civil defence plans for emergency situations include a warning level at 200 μSv/h (population has to stay indoors) and an alarm level at 2000 μSv/h (populaiton has to seek shelter immediately). Both levels are 'at the latest' levels, given as guidance in case regional or local authorities have to make the decision. The highest confirmed gamma radiation reading in Finland was 5 μSv/h. During the first days of the Chernobyl fail-out it also became evident that no large scale restrictions for use of foodstuffs were needed in the Nordic countries. Various mitigating actions were adopted in the days and weeks following Chernobyl, but mostly in the form of recommendations. The situation in Finland can serve to explain the various types of mitigating actions considered, how they were adopted, and to some extent give information on how efficient and how expensive the mitigating actions were

  11. Evironmental health policy in ukraine after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, G.W.; Bobyleva, O.A.; Naboka, M.V.

    1995-01-01

    The 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine produced severe environmental health problems. This paper reports on the environmental health conditions in Ukraine after the accident and the health policy approaches employed to respond to the environmental conditions and health problems. Crisis conditions and a period of rapid change in Ukraine contributed to the difficulties of developing and implementing policy to address serious environmental health problems. Despite these difficulties, Ukraine is taking effective action. The paper describes the primary environmental health problem areas and the efforts taken to solve them. The effect of intense public fear of radiation on policymaking is described. The paper discusses the ability of public fear to distort health policy towards certain problems, leaving problems of greater importance with fewer resources. 35 refs., 1 fig

  12. Accidental internal exposure of all groups of Chernobyl nuclear power plant employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goussev, I.A.; Moissev, A.A.; Evtichiev, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    Accidental internal exposure of Chernobyl NPP employees has started from April, 1986 and it was found to be decreased to pre-accident level at the end of 1987. Significant number of people from all groups of staff and temporary employees were measured using whole body counters situated in Clinical Department of the Institute of Biophysics, which has represented the main body for medical assistance and expertise in these people including those, who suffered from acute radiation syndrome as well as the people engaged in all kinds of works at Chernobyl NPP site. Technical characteristics of the equipment and techniques used to assess the internal exposure are given. (author)

  13. Development of information resources package for the Chernobyl accident and its consequences by INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negeri, B.; Tolstenkov, A.; Rieder, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident was a global catastrophe that captured global attention and as such literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains about 21000 bibliographic records and 9000 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to August 2006. Based on these extensive resources INIS released a DVD that contained bibliographic references and full text documents as well a bibliometric study of the Chernobyl references on the occasion of the International Conference entitled 'Chernobyl: Looking Back to Go Forwards' held in Vienna on 6 and 7 September 2005. Subsequently, INIS decided to release Revision 1 of the DVD in August 2006 for the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident with additional value added information sources. This paper briefly discusses the bibliometric parameters of the references, the contents of DVD and the activities undertaken to produce the Chernobyl information resources package

  14. Down's syndrome clusters in Germany in close temporal relationship to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche, B.; Schoetzau, A.; Burkart, W.

    1997-01-01

    In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down's syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meioses, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination for one month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, also, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down's syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. (author)

  15. Hematopoietic cell infusion for the treatment of nuclear disaster victims: new data from the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymenko, Sergiy V; Belyi, David A; Ross, Joel R; Owzar, Kouros; Jiang, Chen; Li, Zhiguo; N Minchenko, Janna; N Kovalenko, Aleksandr; Bebeshko, Volodymyr G; J Chao, Nelson

    2011-08-01

    To present previously unavailable data on the use of stem cell administration to aid recovery of victims of the Chernobyl disaster. On 26 April 1986, an accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant took place during the planned test of one of the safety systems. The diagnosis of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was confirmed in 134 individuals exposed to high levels of radiation. There were nine patients heretofore unreported in the scientific literature who underwent intraosseous injections of allogeneic bone marrow cells in Kyiv. Transplantation was associated with significantly shortened time to recovery of granulocyte and platelet counts in these patients. While current guidelines would certainly include the use of cytokines, these data provide an indication of the effectiveness of stem cell transplant to treat victims of radiation exposure.

  16. Radioactive contamination characteristics in China following Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zuoyuan

    1987-01-01

    In the aftermath of Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, the Environmental Radiation Surveillance Network of Ministry of Public Health of China has done monitoring on environmental samples to determine the contamination levels of radioactivity. Radionuclides, such as I-131, I-132, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Te-132, were found on surface of airplanes, which flew in domestic airlines between May 1-3, that means the radionuclides from Chernobyl accident already reached high altitude atmosphere over China, but the concentration was much lower than that in Europe. During the period of May 2-15, in most stations, radionuclides were found in different environmental samples, such as air, milk, vegetables, rain water, river and lake water, and sheep thyroid. Radioactivity levels of samples were higher in north part of China than in south. The amounts of radionuclides in all samples were well below the derived air concentrations and derived intake concentrations specified in the National Basic Health Standards for Radiological Protection. Thus, the public need not to take any precautions for the purpose of radiation protection

  17. ILK statement on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Taking stock after twenty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident was the consequence of a reactor design which was not inherently safe, and of a lack of 'safety culture'. The RBMK-type reactor (a Russian graphite-moderated light water reactor design: reaktor bolshoi moshnosty kanalny=high-power channel reactor) had not been designed to a satisfactory safety level, and the operating staff were not informed on the weak spots in plant design. The combination of these factors caused the worst nuclear accident, completely destroying the reactor. The consequences may be seen as the product of two severe accidents superimposed upon each other: the explosion of the reactor, and core melt-down associated with an intense, persistent fire of the graphite moderator. The Statement contains analyses of these points: Release, Propagation and Deposition of Radioactive Materials; Protective Measures; Impact on the Environment and Agriculture; Assessment of Radiation Exposure; Health Impact; Psychological and Societal Impacts; Potential Residual Risks. (orig.)

  18. Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Takeyoshi [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

  19. A preliminary assessment of the consequences for inhabitants of the UK of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, K.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident resulted in the release of substantial quantities of radioactive material and subsequent increases in environmental radioactivity in many countries. This paper considers the U.K. situation, and from preliminary monitoring measurements, major routes of population exposure are identified and quantified. U.K. exposures are mostly within variations in natural background radiation levels to be found in Europe, except for the thyroid dose likely to have been received by young people in the north of the U.K. From reported measurements of 131 I in milk, it is predicted that thyroid doses up to 10-20 times the annual doses received from 'normal' natural background radiation might have affected young children drinking fresh cows' milk. Ways in which this exposure component could have been reduced and criteria governing decisions as to whether or not to implement counter-measures are discussed. The importance of 131 I in milk as a population exposure route is a common feature with Chernobyl and the 1957 Windscale accident and underlines the importance of milk-producing regions in relation to reactor-siting policy. (UK)

  20. Radiation exposure of the population around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botsch, W.; Beltz, D.; Handl, J.; Michel, R.

    1999-01-01

    Although the population in large parts of northern Ukraine, the region around Chernobyl, was resettled, these people are now returning to their accustomed agricultural environment - illegally, but tolerated. In order for evacuated villages to be cleared for resettlement, the dose commitment due to continuous external and internal exposures of the persons returning must be determined. Examination concentrates on the fallout of reactor nuclides, the path of radionuclides through the food chain to people, and on present and post exposures. Special attention in this respect is paid to the deposition density of cesium. On the basis of the data collected so far, the village inhabitants considered in 1998/99 suffer an average external exposure of 0.7±0.2 mSv/a in addition to the natural external exposure of 0.8 mSv/a and, with a conversion factor of 0.038 mSv/a per kBq of 137 Cs whole body activity [8], 0.5±0.2 mSv/a (excluding inhabitants 17 and 18) of additional internal exposure, mainly as a function of mushroom intake. The ban on consumption of mushrooms and fruit growing in the forests, and education of the public about the reasons for it, could help to reduce the additional internal exposure further to approx. 0.1 mSv/a. (orig.) [de

  1. Delayed and late impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Greek environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritidis, P.; Papanicolaou, E. (National Centre for Scientific Research ' Democritos' , Athens (Greece)); Florou, H. (National Centre for Marine Research, Athens (Greece))

    1990-01-01

    The impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the Greek environment during and after the winter 1986-87 and the estimated long-term doses to the population are discussed. This includes the delayed peak of caesium concentrations observed in animal products, the contamination of pastry and bread, the additional external exposure in areas of peak caesium deposition, the soil-to-plant transfer of caesium, the contamination of marine and lake fish and the residual contamination in air, deposition and surface waters. (author).

  2. Delayed and late impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Greek environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritidis, P.; Papanicolaou, E.; Florou, H.

    1990-01-01

    The impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the Greek environment during and after the winter 1986-87 and the estimated long-term doses to the population are discussed. This includes the delayed peak of caesium concentrations observed in animal products, the contamination of pastry and bread, the additional external exposure in areas of peak caesium deposition, the soil-to-plant transfer of caesium, the contamination of marine and lake fish and the residual contamination in air, deposition and surface waters. (author)

  3. Peculiarities of psychological status of liquidators of Chernobyl accident after-effects having psychosomatic pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnevskaya, V.P.

    2006-01-01

    Eight hundred and ninety two men aged 25-55 yrs including five hundred and eighty three persons taking part in the Chernobyl accident after-effects liquidation and three hundred and nine persons having similar psychosomatic pathologies but lacking radiation 'anamnesis'. The radiation risk understanding was shown to effect negatively on the disease run and the remission period duration. The psychic process after the radiation exposure was determined to be caused by a radiation effect on the central nervous system as well. The outcomes of the clinical and psychological study evidenced that the psychosomatic pathology including the discirculating encephalopathy developed in the persons exposed to irradiation in the early age. (authors)

  4. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its impact on Austrian agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, O.

    1986-09-01

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident the environmental radioactivity in Austria increased far above the level recorded before. Radionuclides can enter into the foodchains by the contamination of agricultural products. Determining for the contamination is the behaviour of radionuclides in plants and soils, the development of vegetative plant mass at the moment of the accident and regional differences in fallout intensity. Contamination of plants is caused mainly by cesium-137 and cesium-134. Cs is taken up easily by plant foliage. Its mobility in the plant is high, even to fruits and seeds growing after the accident. Higher contaminations are recorded generally in winter cercals, rape, and fruits, while spring cercals, sugar beets and maize are nearly free from Cs-activity. Heavy contaminations with Cs appear in grassland vegetation as a result of combined uptake via leaves, plant base, and roots. The entry of caesium into the milk is one of the most serious consequences of the reactor accident. Transfer coefficients derived from prevailing experiments can be used for estimating the activity concentration in milk. Accordingly the threshold value of 5 nCi 137 Cs per liter milk should be reached when the daily intake by feeding is about 700 nCi. During the grazing season the Cs-availability for cattle is distinctly lower. (Author)

  5. Radioactive Waste Management In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - 25 Years Since The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  6. Negative trends for in utero Chernobyl exposure and early childhood leukaemia in Western Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.; Steiner, M.; Grosche, B.; Kaletsch, U.; Michaelis, J.

    1997-01-01

    A recent report in Nature linked increased incidence of early infant leukaemia in Greece with 137 Cs fallout density, attributing the effect to an increased in utero exposure to ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl accident. As a validation exercise in a similarly affected region, we performed an analysis based on the data of the Childhood Cancer Registry for Western Germany. Using the same definitions as Petridou et al. we also observed an increased incidence of infant leukaemia in a cohort of children who were born after the Chernobyl accident. More detailed analyses of embryonic/foetal doses regarding areas of different contamination levels and dose rate gradients with time since the accident showed non-significant negative trends with exposure. Therefore, we conclude that the observed effect was not caused by exposure to ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl accident. Dosimetric considerations per se, based on careful assessment of in utero doses in three different exposure categories, show doses much too small relative to natural radiation exposures to account for a significant effect on leukaemia rates. (author)

  7. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirmarche, M.; Kellerer, A.M.; Bazyka, D.

    2006-01-01

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a

  8. Living conditions in the contaminated territories of Bielorussia 8 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Girard, P.

    1997-01-01

    Living conditions in the contaminated territories of Bielorussia after the Chernobyl accident: evaluation of the situation in the district of Chetchersk in Bielorussia. This article presents an analysis of the social and economic aspects of radiological protection in the territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. It is based on the results of two surveys performed in 1994 on the living conditions of the inhabitants of a territorial community located in Bielorussia, 180 km north of Chernobyl. The first part presents the radiological post-accident situation of the district, together with an analysis of this situation's demographic impact since 1986. The second part presents a description of the modes of exposure of the inhabitants of the contaminated territories and an assessment of he various countermeasures programmes initiated by the authorities in the legislative framework of 1991. The last part addresses the economic aspects of the Chetchersk district and an evaluation of the consequences of the radiological situation on the economic, and above all agricultural, activities of the district.The conclusion highlights the difficulties that face the Byelorussian authorities today. The now definitive presence of inhabitants in a durably contaminated environment poses a new category of problems. The objectives of radiological protection have to be reshaped within a set of constraints of different types, notably social and economic. The development of radiological safety cannot be dissociated from a return to quality living in these territories. This necessarily entails re-establishing a climate of social confidence. The initial legislative plan for post-accident management must be adapted to give greater autonomy to local participants in the reconstruction of satisfactory living conditions. (authors)

  9. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings - to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident, as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas in which further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. Over a two year period, two groups of experts from 12 countries, including Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations, assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005 the Expert Group 'Environment', coordinated by the IAEA, and the Expert Group 'Health', coordinated by the WHO, presented their reports for the consideration of the Chernobyl Forum. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to consider the approved reports... as a common position of the Forum members, i.e., of the eight United Nations organizations and the three most affected countries, regarding the environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, as well as recommended future actions, i.e., as a consensus within the United Nations system.' This report presents the findings and recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum concerning the environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident. The Forum's report considering the health effects of the Chernobyl accident is being published by the WHO

  10. Database of meteorological and radiation measurements made in Belarus during the first three months following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Zhukova, Olga; Germenchuk, Maria; Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Kukhta, Tatiana; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Minenko, Victor; Podgaiskaya, Marina; Savkin, Mikhail; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Voillequé, Paul; Bouville, André

    2013-01-01

    Results of all available meteorological and radiation measurements that were performed in Belarus during the first three months after the Chernobyl accident were collected from various sources and incorporated into a single database. Meteorological information such as precipitation, wind speed and direction, and temperature in localities were obtained from meteorological station facilities. Radiation measurements include gamma-exposure rate in air, daily fallout, concentration of different radionuclides in soil, grass, cow's milk and water as well as total beta-activity in cow's milk. Considerable efforts were made to evaluate the reliability of the measurements that were collected. The electronic database can be searched according to type of measurement, date, and location. The main purpose of the database is to provide reliable data that can be used in the reconstruction of thyroid doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. - Highlights: ► Meteorological and radiation measurements done after the Chernobyl accident in Belarus were collected. ► Data were verified and incorporated into a single database. ► Results of this study is being used to improve the thyroid dose estimates after the Chernobyl accident.

  11. Molecular alterations in childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident and low-dose radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2012-01-01

    The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of radiation carcinogenesis has been used for evaluating the risk from radiation exposure. While the epidemiological studies have supported the LNT model at doses above 100 mGy, more uncertainties are still existed in the LNT model at low doses below 100 mGy. Thus, it is urged to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying radiation carcinogenesis. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, significant amount of childhood thyroid cancer has emerged in the children living in the contaminated area. As the incidence of sporadic childhood thyroid cancer is very low, it is quite evident that those cancer cases have been induced by radiation exposure caused mainly by the intake of contaminated foods, such as milk. Because genetic alterations in childhood thyroid cancers have extensively been studied, it should provide a unique chance to understand the molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. In a current review, molecular signatures obtained from the molecular studies of childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident have been overviewed, and new roles of radiation exposure in thyroid carcinogenesis will be discussed. (author)

  12. The results of selective cytogenetic monitoring of Chernobyl accident victims in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilinskaya, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Selective cytogenetic monitoring of the highest priority groups of Chernobyl disaster victims has been carried out since 1987. In 1992-1993, 125 liquidators (irradiated mainly in 1986) and 42 persons recovering from acute radiation sickness of the second and third degrees of severity were examined. Cytogenetic effects (an elevated level of unstable as well as stable markers of radiation exposure) were found in all groups, which showed a positive correlation with the initial degree of irradiation severity even 6-7 y after the accident. Comparative scoring of conventional staining vs. G-banding in 10 liquidators showed the identical rate of unstable aberrations. At the same time, the yield of stable aberrations for G-banded slides exceeded the frequency for conventional staining. In order to study possible mutagenic activity of chronic low levels of irradiation, the cytogenetic monitoring of some critical groups of the population (especially children and occupational groups-tractor drivers and foresters) living in areas of the Ukraine contaminated by radionuclides was carried out. In all the examined groups, a significant increase in the frequency of aberrant metaphases, chromosome aberrations (both unstable and stable), an chromatid aberrations was observed. Data gathered from groups of children reflect the intensity of mutagenic impact on the studied populations and demonstrate a positive correlation with the duration of exposure. Results of cytogenetic examination of adults confirmed the importance of considering the contribution of occupational radiation exposure to genetic effects of Chernobyl accident factors on the population of contaminated areas. 17 refs., 3 tabs

  13. Thyroid cancer and nuclear accident: where do we stand 30 years after Chernobyl, and 5 years after Fukushima?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdillon, Francois; Repussard, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    This editorial presents the content of a publication which addresses the issue of thyroid cancer within the context of the 30. anniversary of the Chernobyl accident, and which proposes an overview of epidemiological knowledge on the evolution of the incidence of this pathology during these 30 years, and on the associated public health issues. The authors notice that this cancer was relatively rare 25 or 30 years ago, and has notably increased everywhere in the world. This increase is due to diagnosis practices but also to the exposure to ionizing radiations during childhood. They also notice that the regional distribution of thyroid cancers in France seems to invalidate an actual influence of the Chernobyl accident. When considering territories directly concerned by the accident (Belarus, Russia and Ukraine), studies clearly demonstrated the role of iodine 131. In France, due to a very low annual incidence, it is not possible to draw any conclusion from statistical data. The case of Japan after the Fukushima accident is also addressed as a systematic thyroidal screening has been implemented for 300.000 children living in the Fukushima region. It also appeared that the exposure to iodine 131 has been notably lower than in Chernobyl. However the incidence of thyroid cancer in the Fukushima region is several times higher than in other Japanese regions. Issues related to the occurrence of an accident in Europe are finally addressed, particularly for the definition of a strategy of intervention: radiological measurements, screening, diagnosis, monitoring on the long term

  14. Study of needle morphometric indices in Scots pine in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarenko, E.S.; Geras'kin, S.A.; Oudalova, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Biological effects in Scots pine populations experiencing chronic radiation exposure at doses up to 130 mGy per year as a result of the Chernobyl accident were studied in 2011 and 2013, using needle indices as endpoints. No relationships between the length, the mass of needles and the asymmetry in weight of paired needles and radiation exposure were revealed. The frequency of necrotic needles increases with the level of radiation exposure; however, the significance of these effects in different years was different. The index of fluctuating asymmetry in needle length significantly increases at annual doses of 90 and 130 mGy and correlates with the absorbed dose as well as 137 Cs and 90 Sr radionuclide activities in soils and cones at the study sites. The findings obtained are consistent with an international recommendation to consider radiation exposure of 100 mGy.y -1 as a margin for biota safety in chronic irradiation. (authors)

  15. The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of non malignant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonenberg, A.; Leoniak, M.; Zarzycki, W.

    2006-01-01

    The early medical complications of Chernobyl accident include post radiation disease, which were diagnosed in 134 subjects affected by ionizing radiation. 28 persons died during the first 100 days after the event. The increase occurrence of coronary heart disease, endocrine, haematological, dermatological and other diseases were observed after disaster in the contaminated territories. We also discussed the impact of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl accident on pregnancy and congenital defects occurrence. Changes following the Chernobyl accident, as the inhabitants migration from contaminated regions, political and economic conversions, led to depression, anxiety, and even to '' epidemic '' of mental diseases. Increased suicide rate, car accidents, alcohol and drug abuse have been observed in this population. Nowadays vegetative neurosis is more often diagnosed in Ukrainian children. Epidemiological studies were conducted on the ionising radiation effect on the health and on the dose of received radiation after Chernobyl accident face numerous problems as the absence of reliable data regarding diseases in the contaminated territories.(authors)

  16. Problems of softening the Chernobyl accident consequences. Proceedings of the International seminar. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Proceedings of the International seminar on the Problems to soften the Chernobyl accident consequences held by the International Association of Dissemination of Knowledge and the Russian branch of the Society on the Dissemination of Knowledge in Bryansk in 1993. The proceedings of the seminar deal with the study of scientific and practical activity linked with the elimination of the Chernobyl accident effects. Main theoretical concepts used as the basis of the elaborated regulations are presented, as well; ways and techniques to soften the consequences of the Chernobyl accident to decontaminate the affected territories and to protect the population health are discussed

  17. Airborne radioactivity in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.; Aaltonen, H.; Mustonen, R.; Taipale, T.K.; Juutilainen, J.

    1987-06-01

    In the air surveillance programme of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground. Airborne dust is collected continuously on a class fibre filter by a high-volume air sampler at Nurmijaervi, 40 km north of Helsinki, and the concentrations of radionuclides are evaluated. Extensive studies on radionuclide composition in air and spatial distribution were performed in Finland after the Chernobyl accident. The fallout situation was followed by temporary air sampling in Helsinki and Rovaniemi, with short sampling periods and also with air dust samples from the upper atmosphere. In Nurmijaervi, air samples were also taken on an activated carbon bed. All samples were measured by gammaspectrometry, but some radiochemical analyses were also performed. Fallout from Chernobyl arrived in Finland on Sunday, April 27. The maximum concentrations in air were measured on Monday evening, April 28, and ranged from a few microbecquerels to two hundred becquerels per cubic metre. At an altitude of about 1500 m the concentrations of radionuclides were even two decades higher. The radionuclide concentrations in air decreased rapidly being under one hundredth part of their maximum values after few days

  18. Radiation protection research and studies after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madelmont, C.; Coulon, R.; Legrand, B.; Manesse, D.; Rzepka, J.P.

    1989-04-01

    The effects on the environment of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident, which happened in the reactors unit 4, are analyzed. The aim of the study is to show the main fields of research and development to be considered, in order to improve the knowledge on public or local radiation protection. The following aspects of the problem are discussed: the long range atmospheric transfer, the environment monitoring, the problems related to the food chain transfers, the environment recovery and the estimation of the sanitary effects. The Chernobyl disaster confirms: the priority of special plans of action to protect the surrounding population; that the special plans of action must be followed by after-disaster actions, which take into account methods for the environment recovery; that the conventional systematic approach can not be satisfactorily applied to manage such a critical situation, and a new one must be developed. Moreover, the identification of the most exposed (population) groups, far from the nearby affected area, are to be considered [fr

  19. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Åhman, G.; Rydberg, A.; Åhman, B.

    1990-01-01

    Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption

  20. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

  1. Analysis of the source term in the Chernobyl-4 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Lopez Montero, J.V.; Pinedo Garrido, P.

    1990-01-01

    The report presents the analysis of the Chernobyl accident and of the phenomena with major influence on the source term, including the chemical effects of materials dumped over the reactor, carried out by the Chair of Nuclear Technology at Madrid University under a contract with the CEC. It also includes the comparison of the ratio (Cs-137/Cs-134) between measurements performed by Soviet authorities and countries belonging to the Community and OECD area. Chapter II contains a summary of both isotope measurements (Cs-134 and Cs-137), and their ratios, in samples of air, water, soil and agricultural and animal products collected by the Soviets in their report presented in Vienna (1986). Chapter III reports on the inventories of cesium isotopes in the core, while Chapter IV analyses the transient, especially the fuel temperature reached, as a way to deduce the mechanisms which took place in the cesium escape. The cesium source term is analyzed in Chapter V. Normal conditions have been considered, as well as the transient and the post-accidental period, including the effects of deposited materials. The conclusion of this study is that Chernobyl accidental sequence is specific of the RBMK type of reactors, and that in the Western world, basic research on fuel behaviour for reactivity transients has already been carried out

  2. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on public perceptions of nuclear plant accident risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Perry, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Assessments of public perceptions of the characteristics of a nuclear power plant accident and affective responses to its likelihood were conducted 5 months before and 1 month after the Chernobyl accident. Analyses of data from 69 residents of southwestern Washington showed significant test-retest correlations for only 10 of 18 variables--accident likelihood, three measures of impact characteristics, three measures of affective reactions, and hazard knowledge by governmental sources. Of these variables, only two had significant changes in mean ratings; frequency of thought and frequency of discussion about a nearby nuclear power plant both increased. While there were significant changes only for two personal consequences (expectations of cancer and genetic effects), both of these decreased. The results of this study indicate that more attention should be given to assessing the stability of risk perceptions over time. Moreover, the data demonstrate that experience with a major accident can actually decrease rather than increase perceptions of threat

  3. Thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl. Expert panel report on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.; Karaoglou, A.; Chadwick, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    In January 1992, the Radiation Protection Research Action formed a panel of thyroid experts in order to evaluate the current situation concerning reported increased rates of thyroid cancer in children living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl, where the reactor accident occurred on April 26 1986 and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination over large areas of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine. Studies of the Atom Bomb survivors in Japan have revealed that the incidence of leukemia starts to increase some five years after exposure. For Chernobyl accident health consequences are now becoming evident. Thyroid cancer has already been observed in children. Iodine 131 was seen to pose a specific hazard because it is taken up by the body and concentrated in the thyroid gland. At a dose of 5 Gy to the childhood thyroid about 4000 thyroid cancers per 100000 children exposed can be anticipated. An essential component of the verification of this observation is the study of the pathology of the lesions, which derived from four cell types: follicular cells, C cells, lymphoid cells and connective tumor cells. All distant metastases are lung metastases. Measures to be considered for the prevention of the development of thyroid cancer in a radiation-exposed population include correction of iodine deficiency by iodine prophylaxis and suppression of TSH. There are three methods of diagnosis: ultrasound imaging, thyroid scanning, fine needle aspiration performed by skilled personnel. For the therapy total or near-total thyroidectomy is regarded as the treatment of choice. Radioactive iodine can be used to treat lymph node and distant metastases which take up iodine after a total thyroidectomy. Thyroid hormone replacement should be carried out with TSH suppressive doses of L-Thyroxine. 45 refs., 1 annexe

  4. The observed and predicted health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Due to poor design, operator error and the absence of an established {sup S}afety Culture{sup ,} the worst accident in the history of nuclear power involving the Unit 4 RMBK reactor occurred at Chernobyl in the Ukraine in the early morning of 26 April 1986. This accident led to the contamination of large tracts of forest and agricultural land (in the former Soviet Union) and the evacuation of a large number of people. Thirty-one people died at the time of the accident or shortly afterwards, and 203 people were treated for the Acute Radiation Syndrome. From about 1990 a significant increase in the number of childhood thyroid cancers has been noted in Belarus and Ukraine. Because of the social, political and economic situation in the Soviet Union soon after the accident, the anxiety and stress induced in the general population has been enhanced to the point where it may well be the single most important indirect health effect of the accident. Contamination outside the former Soviet Union was largely confined to Europe, where it was extremely patchy and variable. Contamination in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere was insignificant. The health effects in the General Population in the Contaminated Regions in the former USSR and Europe, are predicted to be low and not discernible. However, there may be subgroups within, for example, the Liquidators, which if they can be identified and followed, may show adverse health effects. Health effects in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere will be inconsequential. (author) 38 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  5. The observed and predicted health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    Due to poor design, operator error and the absence of an established S afety Culture , the worst accident in the history of nuclear power involving the Unit 4 RMBK reactor occurred at Chernobyl in the Ukraine in the early morning of 26 April 1986. This accident led to the contamination of large tracts of forest and agricultural land (in the former Soviet Union) and the evacuation of a large number of people. Thirty-one people died at the time of the accident or shortly afterwards, and 203 people were treated for the Acute Radiation Syndrome. From about 1990 a significant increase in the number of childhood thyroid cancers has been noted in Belarus and Ukraine. Because of the social, political and economic situation in the Soviet Union soon after the accident, the anxiety and stress induced in the general population has been enhanced to the point where it may well be the single most important indirect health effect of the accident. Contamination outside the former Soviet Union was largely confined to Europe, where it was extremely patchy and variable. Contamination in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere was insignificant. The health effects in the General Population in the Contaminated Regions in the former USSR and Europe, are predicted to be low and not discernible. However, there may be subgroups within, for example, the Liquidators, which if they can be identified and followed, may show adverse health effects. Health effects in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere will be inconsequential. (author) 38 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  6. Health effects of the Chernobyl accidents on the children around the vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Yoshisada

    2011-01-01

    The title subject is described for correctly understanding the child health risk in Fukushima under the Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. Pediatric examination conducted by Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Corporation Project gave the most large-scaled, precise results among studies of those similar projects. The examination after Chernobyl Accident (1986) was performed in May, 1991-Apr., 1996 for children around its vicinity born during the period Apr. 26, 1976-Apr. 26, 1986 by 5 medical facilities located in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, using the same protocol and similar equipments and reagents. Total number of examinations was 160 thousands and results in 120 thousands subject children were published. In relation to iodine metabolism and possibly to Cs-137, the high incidence (34.66%) of goiter was found and highest incidence of thyroidal node (1.74%) and cancer (0.20%) was found in children in Homyel City in Belarus, particularly of the age 0-5 y. Further detailed studies by authors in the Project revealed that the effect of I-131 exposure on thyroid cancer morbidity was significant with odds ratio 5.5-8.4/Gy. As for leukemia, reported were no strong evidence for the relation between in utero exposure and its incidence, and no supporting data of its relationship with exposure, etc. For non-cancerous diseases, the increased cataract may be related with exposure in children and in the accident-dealing workers, and mental problems may exist in children. Following facts should be taken in consideration when discussing about Fukushima, that 4 kBq of K-40 is contained in human body; it is only pediatric thyroid cancer that increased after the Accident in 270 and 500 thousands residents living in the region with Cs-137 >555 and >37 kBq/m 2 ground, respectively; and internal exposure exceeded 50 Bq/kg in 22% of children examined in the Project. (T.T.)

  7. Immunological status of different categories of population after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, A.A.; Bazyka, D.A.; Minchenko, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    Investigation of immune status of the victims of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident irradiated in different doses was performed. Acute postradiation immunodeficiency in heavily exposed persons was changed in 6-24 months to the 5-7 year period of restitution and the latter was succeeded by normalization of CD3+, CD+, CD11+ cell count and serum IgG and IgA content in certain patients, while the others revealed immunologic deficiency of the mixed type. HLA-antigenic combinations connected to the increased radiosensitivity were found out. Elaboration of in vitro tests for surface antigens expression in response to thymic peptides allowed to make adequate immunocorrection if needed. (author)

  8. Samplings of airborne particulates for granulometric determinations following Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroni, G.; Calamosca, M.; Zaiacomo, T. de; Gragnani, R.; Michetti, I.; Testa, L.

    1988-01-01

    Particle size distributions and concentrations of the radioactive aerosol that arose from the Chernobyl accident were determined in Bologna and Rome. The activity Median Aerodynamic Diameters (AMAD) of Ru-103, Te-132, Cs-134 and Cs-137, determined by means of impactors, were in the range 0.8 - 1.4 μm with Geometric Standard Deviations (Sg) in the range 1.6 - 3.7. Lower AMAD and higher Sg values were found for I-131 compared to those for the other radioisotopes. The gaseous fraction of I-131 was 60-70% of the total aerosuspended activity of this isotope. A comparison between direct measurement data concerning internal contamination on volunteers and values derived from air contamination data shows that in Bologna, during May 1986, almost all the contamination was due to inhalation. The data are unable to distinguish between different inhalation models

  9. The Chernobyl reactor accident and how it changed the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelt, K.

    1986-01-01

    After expressing his sympathy for the Chernobyl victims the author points out that in particular the Germans are tending to show emotions of a preponderantly negative character, that is emotions hampering a logical way of thinking and nourishing ideologies. He adds that the majority of the Western German population has not succeeded in seizing the real implications of radioactivity. Their ignorance results in a growing disbelief in the competent experts. Politicians therefore cannot but act as go-betweens between expert knowledge and the population. The reactor accident has made nuclear power a central topical subject of discussion in the election campaign. The author expresses his view on the need of giving a new direction to the safety debate by elucidating and illustrating the economic and ecological advantages as well as the safety of nuclear energy. (HSCH) [de

  10. Social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanovic, S; Pavlovic, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1997-09-01

    A day before the accident in Chernobyl, Yugoslavia was the country with nuclear energy programme, one nuclear power plant and strong affiliation towards nuclear fuel cycle. Public relation programs did not existed. The majority of information were classified and public trust was almost undisturbed. It was almost possible to say that the public attitude was indifferent. A month later everything was quite different. The public has been awaken from sleepy unconscious. The public reaction moved from surprise, interest and hunger for information to chronic suspicion. In years later phobic and radiophonic reaction become common place. The final consequence today is huge magnifying lens of public eye, watching carefully everything connected with radiation, even trivial matters, and thus forming strong pressure to decision makers. 2 refs.

  11. Lichens as biomonitors for radiocaesium following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloof, J.E.; Wolterbeek, B.Th.

    1992-01-01

    Caesium-137 resulting from the Chernobyl accident was monitored in lichens in The Netherlands. Caesium-137 activity in Parmelia sulcata ranged from 550 to 6100 (average 2500) Bq kg -1 dry weight. The similarity between the lichen data (geographical 137 Cs activity gradients and radioactivity values) and data of wet and dry deposition, indicate the validity of lichen monitoring of atmospheric 137 Cs. The ratio between the 137 Cs activity per unit lichen dry weight (kg) of Parmelia sulcata and the 137 Cs activity deposited per unit surface area (m 2 ) was approximately one. Measurements of 137 Cs accumulation in Xanthoria parietina show that the activity concentration could be expressed both on a dry weight and on a contour surface area basis. The determination of the biological half-life of 137 Cs in lichens was shown to be subject to sources of error such as growth and non-atmospheric/indirect 137 Cs influxes. (Author)

  12. Social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanovic, S.; Pavlovic, S.

    1997-01-01

    A day before the accident in Chernobyl, Yugoslavia was the country with nuclear energy programme, one nuclear power plant and strong affiliation towards nuclear fuel cycle. Public relation programs did not existed. The majority of information were classified and public trust was almost undisturbed. It was almost possible to say that the public attitude was indifferent. A month later everything was quite different. The public has been awaken from sleepy unconscious. The public reaction moved from surprise, interest and hunger for information to chronic suspicion. In years later phobic and radiophonic reaction become common place. The final consequence today is huge magnifying lens of public eye, watching carefully everything connected with radiation, even trivial matters, and thus forming strong pressure to decision makers

  13. Radioecological impact of the Chernobyl accident on continental aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulquier, L.; Baudin-Jaulent, Y.

    1989-09-01

    The pooling of knowledge on water, sediments, aquatic plants and fish allowed an evaluation report to be drawn up on the impact of Chernobyl accident and to extract data on the mechanisms in the transfer of certain radionuclides in rivers and lakes. The radioactivity is related to the level of deposits, essentially, in wet form. Differences in radioactivity levels are noted owing to the distance from Chernobyl, the atmospheric streams and pluviometric conditions. The most commonly detected radionuclides are: 131 I, 132 Te, 134+137 Cs, 103+106 Ru, 110m Ag and, to a lesser degree, 89 Sr and 90 Sr. Very quickly, 137 Cs becomes dominant. The peak of radioactivity in rivers occurred very soon after the accident. It was of short duration and the decrease in radioactivity was very quick due to dilution. In lakes, this decay was much slower. In sediment, the radioactivity varied in time owing either to new deposits or to the migration of those deposits downstream in the river basins. The radionuclides present in fallout can be quickly detected using aquatic plant. In certain areas, the concentration of 137 Cs increased 200-fold in a few hours. In fish, the presence of 134+137 Cs, 103+106 Ru, 110m Ag and 90 Sr are noted. The only radionuclide of which fixing dynamics can be followed is 137 Cs. River fish was only subjected to water and food with a high radioactivity for a very short time and their 137 Cs concentration remained constantly low. The effective half-life of 137 Cs observed in situ for fish is from 100 to 200 days. For lacustrine fish, we observe differences in radiocontamination, according to the regions (from 48,000 Bq.kg -1 w.w., in Sweden, to 110 in the North of Corsica or the Netherlands), in lakes (in Northern Italy, 137 Cs concentrations in fish are higher in small lakes), and species

  14. Chernobyl'-88. Reports of the 1. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 7. Part 1. Localization of accident consequences at the 4th power unit, operating site of the Chernobyl NPP and adjoining territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    The next data on the accident consequence elimination are presented: temperature monitoring results, gamma radiation exposure dose rates, neutron and gamma fields, aerosol disperse composition. The information system for scientific researches FINISH and automatic subsystems for radiation control and the Ukrytie object diagnostics are described. Decontamination of the Chernobyl' NPP territory, equipment and rooms is described too

  15. Chernobyl'-88. Reports of the 1. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 7. Part 2. Localization of accident consequences at the 4th power unit, operating site of the Chernobyl' NPP and adjoining territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    The next data on the accident consequence elimination are presented: temperature monitoring results, gamma radiation exposure dose rates, neutron and gamma fields, aerosol disperse composition. The information system for scientific researches FINISH and automatic subsystems for radiation control and the Ukrytie object diagnostics are described. Decontamination of the Chernobyl' NPP territory, equipment and rooms is described too

  16. Childhood Leukaemia Incidence in Hungary, 1973-2002. Interpolation Model for Analysing the Possible Effects of the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toeroek, Szabolcs; Borgulya, Gabor; Lobmayer, Peter; Jakab, Zsuzsanna; Schuler, Dezsoe; Fekete, Gyoergy

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of childhood leukaemia in Hungary has yet to be reported, although data are available since the early 70s. The Hungarian data therefore cover the time before and after the Chernobyl nuclear accident (1986). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the Chernobyl accident on childhood leukaemia incidence in Hungary. A population-based study was carried out using data of the National Paediatric Cancer Registry of Hungary from 1973 to 2002. The total number of cases was 2204. To test the effect of the Chernobyl accident the authors applied a new approach called 'Hypothesized Impact Period Interpolation'-model, which takes into account the increasing trend of childhood leukaemia incidence and the hypothesized exposure and latency times. The incidence of leukaemia in the age group 0-14 varied between 33.2 and 39.4 per million person-years along the observed 30 year period, and the incidence of childhood leukaemia showed a moderate increase of 0.71% annually (p=0.0105). In the period of the hypothesized impact of the Chernobyl accident the incidence rate was elevated by 2.5% (95% CI: -8.1%; +14.3%), but this change was not statistically significant (p=0.663). The age standardised incidence, the age distribution, the gender ratio, and the magnitude of increasing trend of childhood leukaemia incidence in Hungary were similar to other European countries. Applying the presented interpolation method the authors did not find a statistically significant increase in the leukaemia incidence in the period of the hypothesized impact of the Chernobyl accident

  17. The Chernobyl reactor accident source term: development of a consensus view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devell, L.; Guntay, S.; Powers, D.A.

    1995-11-01

    Ten years after the reactor accident at Chernobyl, a great deal more data is available concerning the events, phenomena, and processes that took place. The purpose of this document is to examine what is known about the radioactive materials released during the accident, a task that is substantially more difficult than it might first appear to be. The Chernobyl station, like other nuclear power plants, was not instrumented to characterize a disastrous accident. The accident was peculiar in the sense that radioactive materials were released, at least initially, in an exceptionally energetic plume and were transported far from the reactor site. Release of radioactivity from the plant continued for several days. Characterization of the contamination caused by the releases of radioactivity has had a much lower priority than remediation of the contamination. Consequently, an assessment of the Chernobyl accident source term must rely to a significant extent on inferential evidence. The assessment presented here begins with an examination of the core inventories of radioactive materials. In subsequent sections of the report, the magnitude and timing of the releases of radioactivity are described. Then, the composition, chemical forms, and physical forms of the releases are discussed. A number of more recent publications and results from scientists in Russia and elsewhere have significantly improved the understanding of the Chernobyl source term. Because of the special features of the reactor design and the peculiarities of the Chernobyl accident, the source term for the Chernobyl accident is of limited applicability to the safety analysis of other types of reactors

  18. Thirty years after the Chernobyl accident: What lessons have we learnt?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Fesenko, S.; Konoplev, A.; Skuterud, L.; Smith, J.T.; Voigt, G.

    2016-01-01

    April 2016 sees the 30 th anniversary of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. As a consequence of the accident populations were relocated in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine and remedial measures were put in place to reduce the entry of contaminants (primarily 134+137 Cs) into the human food chain in a number of countries throughout Europe. Remedial measures are still today in place in a number of countries, and areas of the former Soviet Union remain abandoned. The Chernobyl accident led to a large resurgence in radioecological studies both to aid remediation and to be able to make future predictions on the post-accident situation, but, also in recognition that more knowledge was required to cope with future accidents. In this paper we discuss, what in the authors' opinions, were the advances made in radioecology as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The areas we identified as being significantly advanced following Chernobyl were: the importance of semi-natural ecosystems in human dose formation; the characterisation and environmental behaviour of ‘hot particles'; the development and application of countermeasures; the “fixation” and long term bioavailability of radiocaesium and; the effects of radiation on plants and animals. - Highlights: • A review of 30 years of radioecological studies following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. • Key contributions to radioecology from post-Chernobyl research are discussed.

  19. 'Rogue' cells observed in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevan'kaev, A.V.; Tsyb, A.F.; Zhloba, A.A.; Moiseenko, V.V.; Skrjabin, A.M.; Climov, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    Eight 'rogue' lymphocyte metaphases containing a large number of aberrant chromosomes were noted during a survey of chromosomal damage in 328 Belarussian children. The study population comprised children of families living in territory contaminated by radiation from the Chernobyl accident. The majority of the sample had been evacuated within 1 week from very heavily polluted territory to areas that had received much less fallout. Two hundred cells were scored per subject and one rogue cell was found in a child exposed in utero; one in a child conceived after the accident and six in the postnatally exposed group. The possibility that the damage was due to exposure to radio-iodine concentrated in the thyroid gland, or to radiation from incorporated hot particles' of an alpha or beta/gamma emitter is discussed. It is concluded that the damage to these cells is unlikely to have been caused by radiation. (Author)

  20. Radiation signatures in childhood thyroid cancers after the Chernobyl accident: Possible roles of radiation in carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Saenko, Vladimir; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure has been deeply concerning. The linear no-threshold model is applied for the purpose of radiation protection, but it is a model based on the concept that ionizing radiation induces stochastic oncogenic alterations in the target cells. As the elucidation of the mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is indispensable to justify the concept, studies aimed at the determination of molecular changes associated with thyroid cancers among children who suffered effects from the Chernobyl nuclear accident will be overviewed. We intend to discuss whether any radiation signatures are associated with radiation-induced childhood thyroid cancers. PMID:25483826

  1. Results of experimental radiobiological studies made within ten-kilometer zone of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelevina, I.I.; Ryabov, I.N.; Ryabtsev, I.A.; Gulev, B.F.; Gotlib, V.Ya.; Afanas'ev, G.G.; Vasilenko, S.N.; Gumenyuk, M.L.; AN SSSR, Moscow; AN SSSR, Moscow; Institut Biofiziki, Moscow; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Obninsk

    1991-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of high radioactive contamination on the animal organism (C57BL/6 mice) and Hela cell culture within the ten-kilometer zone of the Chernobyl A.P.S. accident. The total radiation dose, as calculated by γ-component, was 0.09 to 2 Gy. A long-term exposure of mice within the zone (cumulative dose of 1.18 to 2 Gy) caused a significant decrease in bone marrow stem potencies and changes in the brain vascular system; subsequent acute exposure of animals increased interferon titres in the serum to a much greater extent than a single acute exposure did. As to Hela cells, irradiation there of with doses of 0.09 to 0.4 Gy during 15-20 postirradiation generations caused a decrease in the proliferative activity, an emergence of cells with micronuclei and of giant cells

  2. The Chernobyl accident, the male to female ratio at birth and birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The male:female ratio at birth (male births divided by total live births - M/T) has been shown to increase in response to ionizing radiation due to gender-biased fetal loss, with excess female loss. M/T rose sharply in 1987 in central-eastern European countries following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study analyses M/T and births for the former Soviet Republics and for the countries most contaminated by the event. Annual birth data was obtained from the World Health Organisation. The countries with the highest exposure levels (by ¹³⁷Cs) were identified from an official publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. All of the former Soviet states were also analysed and the periods before and after 1986 were compared. Except for the Baltic States, all regions in the former USSR showed a significant rise in M/T from 1986. There were significant rises in M/T in the three most exposed (Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation). The birth deficit in the post-Soviet states for the ten years following Chernobyl was estimated at 2,072,666, of which 1,087,924 are accounted by Belarus and Ukraine alone. Chernobyl has resulted in the loss of millions of births, a process that has involved female even more than male fetuses. This is another and oft neglected consequence of widespread population radiation contamination.

  3. THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT, THE MALE TO FEMALE RATIO AT BIRTH AND BIRTH RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Grech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The male:female ratio at birth (male births divided by total live births – M/T has been shown to increase in response to ionizing radiation due to gender-biased fetal loss, with excess female loss. M/T rose sharply in 1987 in central-eastern European countries following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study analyses M/T and births for the former Soviet Republics and for the countries most contaminated by the event. Methods: Annual birth data was obtained from the World Health Organisation. The countries with the highest exposure levels (by 137Cs were identified from an official publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. All of the former Soviet states were also analysed and the periods before and after 1986 were compared. Results: Except for the Baltic States, all regions in the former USSR showed a significant rise in M/T from 1986. There were significant rises in M/T in the three most exposed (Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation. The birth deficit in the post-Soviet states for the ten years following Chernobyl was estimated at 2,072,666, of which 1,087,924 are accounted by Belarus and Ukraine alone. Discussion: Chernobyl has resulted in the loss of millions of births, a process that has involved female even more than male fetuses. This is another and oft neglected consequence of widespread population radiation contamination.

  4. The experience gives the Cuban program with children gives territories affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, O.; Llanes, R.

    1998-01-01

    From 1990 it works in Cuba a program destined to offer medical attention you specialize and to develop a plan sanatoria gives rehabilitation with children provided the different areas affected by the contamination radioactive resultant to the Chernobyl accident

  5. Distribution of Thyroid Cancer in the Eastern Part of Turkey 27 Years After the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Serap Baydur; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Gucer, Hasan; Pergel, Ahmet; Bedir, Recep; Aydin, Ibrahim; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Sahin, Osman Zikrullah

    2013-12-01

    The Chernobyl accident caused widespread effects across Europe and huge areas where radiocontaminated. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on thyroid cancer have been investigated in most European countries. According to the data of the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, the eastern part of the Black Sea region was the most radiocontaminated area in Turkey at the time of Chernobyl accident. We therefore aimed to examine the data of thyroid cancers at our center, Rize city which is located in the eastern Black Sea region. This retrospective study included the patients with histologically proven thyroid cancer at our center between January 2008 and May 2012. Pathologic examinations of thyroidectomy materials were reviewed. We evaluated patients' age, gender, size of the primary tumor (all sizes, Chernobyl accident.

  6. Health of the population having suffered after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stozharov, A.N.; Zubovich, V.K.; Lazyuk, G.I.; Stel'makh, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1996 on the following directions: study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of the people; development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases at various categories of victims; development and introduction in practice of effective methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of both mother and child in conditions of influence of the Chernobyl accident consequences; study of genetic consequences caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident and development of effectual measures of their prevention; creation of effective preventive means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; optimization of system of measures for health saving of the having suffered population and development of ways of increase of its efficiency

  7. A compendium of the measurements related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deworm, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Results of radiation measurements performed in Belgium after the Chernobyl accident are presented. Contamination of air, soil, milk, grass, fruit, vegetables and water is studied. The committed effective dose equivalents for the population are estimated. (MCB)

  8. Chernobyl'-90. Reports of the 1. International conference on biological and radioecological aspects of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effects. V. 2, part 2. Radiation sanitary. Radiobiology. Agricultural radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, E.V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of works done in 1988-1990 within the ecology part of the complex program dealing with elimination of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effect in regions of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, as well as the data of foreign specialists on the Chernobyl' radioactive fallout effects in many countries are analyzed. Comparative analysis of the methods, means and results of acitivities dealing with accident effect eliminations on South Urals and at the Chernobyl' NPP is given

  9. Chernobyl'-90. Reports of the 1. International conference on biological and radioecological aspects of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effects. V. 2, part 1. Radiation sanitary. Radiobiology. Agricultural radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, E.V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of works done in 1988-1990 within the ecology part of the complex program dealing with elimination of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effects in regions of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, as well as the data of foreign specialists on the Chernobyl' radioactive fallout effects in many countries are analyzed. Comparative analysis of the methods, means and results of activities dealing with accident effect eliminations on South Urals and at the Chernobyl' NPP is given

  10. Changes of radiological situation of Polish environment in 10 years period after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagielak, J.; Biernacka, M.; Grabowski, D.; Henschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    The content of natural and artificial radioisotopes in environment in Poland before and after Chernobyl accident was analyzed. The methods used in radiation monitoring in Poland and results of these measurements in the period 1986-1996 were presented. Since the Chernobyl accident changes of contamination of soils, southern Baltic sea water, other surface waters, deposits in Baltic sea, rivers and lakes in Poland were observed. Also concentration of radioisotopes in foodstuffs: mushrooms, fruits, meat, milk, eggs was described

  11. The international conference ''one decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An International Conference entitled ''One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident'' was held at the Austria Center Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996, the aim being to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Conference was attended by 845 participants and observers from 71 countries and 20 organizations and covered by 208 journalists from 31 countries and two organizations

  12. Prevalence of bronchopulmonary pathology in the participants of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, N.S.; Yakushin, S.P.; Stulova, O.Yu.; Zajtseva, O.Yu.; Stroev, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiologic examination of the participants of the Chernobyl accident response is performed. Fact of acute effect of the Chernobyl aerosol inhalation on respiratory organs is found. Prevalence of bronchopulmonary diseases in participants of accident response is almost 2 times higher than that in reference group. Further program of investigations includes the hospital stage and the preventive measures at prehospital stage under ambulatory conditions. Assessments of the efficiency of performed treatment - prophylactic measures and their economic benefit are made [ru

  13. Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjerve, Eystein [Dept. of Food Hygiene, Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine (Norway)

    1986-07-01

    During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected.

  14. Radiobiological problems concerning grazing animals following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.; Lazarev, N.M.; Romanov, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Chernobyl accident took place on April 26 1986, which was the beginning of the grazing season, when there was not enough fodder on the farms and the cattle was grazed on the open territory. Therefore grazing animal-breeding was the most radioactively affected branch. The consumption of contaminated fodder and surface contamination with radioactive precipitation caused the accumulation of considerable ingested doses in the organisms of animals (up to 1 GY). Radioactive damage caused to the thyroid by the selective accumulation of radioiodine (mainly 131 I) is of particular attention. Cumulative doses of thyroid irradiation in mammals were much higher than for the other organs. Thus, in cows during their grazing on the contaminated pastures outside 30-km zone the ratio of ingested doses of the thyroid and whole body was 130:1 and more, therefore, radiation effects could have a certain negative effect, concerning the agricultural animals in the zone of accidental release influence. Accumulated ingested doses in the thyroid of cows on the contaminated territory in a number of cases caused the complete destruction of the thyroid (doses above 600 Gy), which provided the loss of milk productivity and reproductive qualities of the animals. Lower doses caused the functional disturbances, which in most cases have been levelled during the years after the accident

  15. Long term health effects in Sweden from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, R; Mellander, H; Moberg, L; Edvardson, K; Nyblom, L [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-09-01

    The morning of 28 April 1986 was the beginning of an intensive period of radiation protection work in Sweden. During that morning the Chernobyl accident became known in the western world through the detection of radioactive contamination in Sweden and at the Forsmark nuclear power plant in particular. The environmental consequences of the fallout have been studied in various research projects. The effects on agriculture in Sweden was mainly limited to the first year after the accident. The long term effects are instead seen in products from the semi-natural ecosystems: in moose, roedeer, reindeer, mushrooms and fish from lakes in areas with a high deposition of radioactive caesium. High concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in reindeer meat in combination with an estimated effective ecological half-life of about 4 years, will cause problems for reindeer husbandry in the most contaminated parts for many years to come. In moose, roedeer and mushrooms, the ecological half-lives are very long and in some compartments seem to approach the physical half-life of {sup 137}Cs. 22 refs, 3 figs.

  16. Long term health effects in Sweden from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, R.; Mellander, H.; Moberg, L.; Edvardson, K.; Nyblom, L.

    1997-01-01

    The morning of 28 April 1986 was the beginning of an intensive period of radiation protection work in Sweden. During that morning the Chernobyl accident became known in the western world through the detection of radioactive contamination in Sweden and at the Forsmark nuclear power plant in particular. The environmental consequences of the fallout have been studied in various research projects. The effects on agriculture in Sweden was mainly limited to the first year after the accident. The long term effects are instead seen in products from the semi-natural ecosystems: in moose, roedeer, reindeer, mushrooms and fish from lakes in areas with a high deposition of radioactive caesium. High concentrations of 137 Cs in reindeer meat in combination with an estimated effective ecological half-life of about 4 years, will cause problems for reindeer husbandry in the most contaminated parts for many years to come. In moose, roedeer and mushrooms, the ecological half-lives are very long and in some compartments seem to approach the physical half-life of 137 Cs. 22 refs, 3 figs

  17. Fallout and radiation doses in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, T.

    1987-08-01

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. The total fallout of the cesium isotopes was approximately 2300 TBq (Cs-137) and 1200 TBq (Cs-134). The average for the country was 11 kBq/m 2 with a variation from 1.5 to 40 kBq/m 2 for the 19 different counties of the country. The fallout resulted in contamination of food products from some areas, mainly meat from reindeer and sheep, as well as freshwater fish. A small fraction of the food produced in 1986 was not sold due to the regulations enforced. The average radiation dose to the Norwegian population during the first year after the accident was approximately 0.3 mSv (0.1 mSv from external radiation and about 0.2 mSv from foodstuff). This first year extra dose is approximately 5% of the average normal background dose in Norway

  18. Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerve, Eystein

    1986-01-01

    During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected

  19. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident (1986-1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronko, N.; Bogdanova, T.; Komissarenko, I.; Bolshova, E.; Oleynik, V.; Tereshchenko, V.; Epshtein, Y.; Chebotarev, V.

    1996-01-01

    The increase in the incidence of thyroid cancers in children and adolescents in Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident made it necessary to compile a clinical morphological register of respective cancers. In 1986-1994 there were 339 cases registered in children and adolescents, of them 211 children (who were operated at the age under 15 years) and 128 adolescents (who were operated at the age of 15-18 years). Before the Chernobyl accident (1981-1985) in Ukraine 59 cases of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents were reported: 25 cases in children and 34 cases in adolescents. This increase has been observed since 1990. In 1981-1985 the incidence rate (number of thyroid cancers per 100000 children population) ranged 0.04 - 0.06. In 1990 this estimate was 0.23 and in 1992-1994 0.36 - 0.43, thus a 7-10 fold increase exceeding the pre-Chernobyl level. In the 5 most contaminated northern regions of Ukraine (Kiev, Chernigov, Zhitomir, Cherkassy, Rovno regions) and the city of Kiev the incidence rate was much higher. For example, in 1984 it was 3.8 in Chernigov region, 1.6 in Zhitomir region. The total 'contribution' of the above-mentioned regions to the incidence of thyroid cancer in children after the Chernobyl accident makes more than 60%. It has been noted that in 1990-1994 there was an increase in the number of children operated at the age under 10, it means that these children were under 6 years at the time of the accident and were most sensitive to radioiodine exposure. As for the sex ratio, there has been a shift to males: in 1981-1985 F/M = 1.8/1, in 1990-1994 F/M = 1.4/1. Morphologically, 93.4% of 196 carcinomas resected from children and adolescents at the Institute of Endocrinology from 1986 to August 1st, 1995 were papillary carcinomas. They manifested high invasive and infiltrative growth, signs of intraglandular spread. Regional lymph node metastases were found in 59% of cases, distal lung metastases observed at various periods after surgery were noted

  20. Radiation situation on the territories of the Leningrad Region affected by the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ya. Bruk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the largest nuclear accident in the world. It led to radioactive contamination of 14 regions of the Russian Federation. In 1991, 4540 settlements were attributable to areas with levels of soil contamination by 137Cs of more than 1.0 Ci/km2. As of 2016, 3855 settlements with the population of more than 1,5 million people are carried to a zone of radioactive contamination according to the Government Directive No 1074 dated October 8, 2015 «On Approval of the List of settlements located within the boundaries of the zones of radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl disaster». In accordance with this Directive, in the Leningrad region 29 settlements were classified as zones of radioactive contamination. This article describes the dynamics of changes in the radiation situation and its current state in the territories of the Leningrad Region affected by the Chernobyl accident. The paper presents the dynamics of 137Cs and 90Sr contents in food products of local origin, the results of calculations of the current average annual effective doses used for the purposes of settlements’ zoning, and the average annual effective radiation doses actually received by the population, dating back to 1986. According to the results of laboratory studies, since 1987, there have been no exceedances of the permissible levels for 137Cs s in agricultural products and food raw materials of local origin. However in the wild products (mushrooms excesses of the permissible levels for 137Cs have been periodically detected. The cases of exceeding the permissible levels for the content of strontium-90 in food, drinking water and water from open water bodies were not recorded for the entire observation period; the determined activity was at the level of tens and hundreds of times less than the permissible levels. In 2016, conservatively estimated average annual effective doses of exposure used for the purposes of

  1. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of (137)Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of (137)Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of (137)Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of (137)Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the

  2. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of "1"3"7Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of "1"3"7Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of "1"3"7Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of "1"3"7Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the lowest

  3. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert [Uppsala University, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of {sup 137}Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of {sup 137}Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of {sup 137}Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with

  4. RADIATION CONDITIONS IN KALUGA REGION 30 YEARS AFTER CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Ashitko

    2016-01-01

    effective doses, caused90by Chernobyl fallouts, do not exceed 1 mSv/year. In 2014 AAEDmaximum calculated value for adultpopulation of 0,91 mSv was established in the following settlements:, Martynki village(Ulyanovsky district and Lovatyanka village (Hvastovichsky district. The doses, accumulated in the period after the accident, are generally not high. According to calculations numerical value of forecasted accumulated doses varies from 0,23 to 21 mSv. Maximum calculated values of 21 mSv are established in Hvastovichsky district (Lovatyanka village and Ulyanovsky district (Martynki village. Between 1986 and 2005, the effective irradiation doses did not exceed 29 mSv. Hence, in 70 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident standard value of 70 mSv will not be exceeded in the Kaluga region settlements. After 30 years, the main cause of population internal exposure is consumption of products from private subsidiary farms and especially of wild-growing products. There was conducted radiation monitoring of local agricultural foodstuff produce and of products from the forest. It demonstrated that caesium-137 average specific activity in samples of milk from private subsidiary farms in settlements of Zhizdrinsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky districts decreased several-fold. It is between 20,0 Bq/l in 2007 and 1,7 Bq/l in 2015. In 2015, maximum levels of caesium-137 contamination in milk was 3,1% of the standard value, in potatoes - 4,7%, in meat - 4,4%.Average specific activity of caesium-137 in forest mushrooms samples from Zhizdrinsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky districts doesn’t decline. Peaks of average caesium-137 activity were observed in 2012, 2013 and 2014; they depend on mushrooms abundance, species, dry summer weather and locations of sampling in the forest. In 2015 in three southern districts, the maximum content of caesium-137 in mushrooms exceeded the permissible level (500 Bq/kg 4,5-fold; about 2% of the samples do not correspond to it. The maximum contamination of

  5. Neonatal outcomes following exposure in utero to fallout from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Maureen; Little, Mark P; Brenner, Alina V; Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Tereshchenko, Valery; Chaikovska, Ludmyla; Pasteur, Igor; Likhtarov, Ilya; Bouville, Andre; Shpak, Victor; Bolshova, Olena; Zamotayeva, Galyna; Grantz, Katherine; Sun, Liping; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Albert, Paul; Tronko, Mykola

    2017-12-01

    Iodine 131 (I-131), the principal component of nuclear fallout from the Chernobyl accident, concentrates in the thyroid gland and may pose risks to fetal development. To evaluate this, neonatal outcomes following the accident in April of 1986 were investigated in a cohort of 2582 in utero-exposed individuals from northern Ukraine for whom estimates of fetal thyroid I-131 dose were available. We carried out a retrospective review of cohort members' prenatal, delivery and newborn records. The relationships of dose with neonatal anthropometrics and gestational length were modeled via linear regression with adjustment for potentially confounding variables. We found similar, statistically significant dose-dependent reductions in both head circumference (-1.0 cm/Gy, P = 0.005) and chest circumference (-0.9 cm/Gy, P = 0.023), as well as a similar but non-significant reduction in neonatal length (-0.6 cm/Gy, P = 0.169). Gestational length was significantly increased with increasing fetal dose (0.5 wks/Gy, P = 0.007). There was no significant (P > 0.1) effect of fetal dose on birth weight. The observed associations of radioiodine exposure with decreased head and chest circumference are consistent with those observed in the Japanese in utero-exposed atomic bomb survivors.

  6. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Radiological Protection and Human Health Div. (DRPH), Radiobiology and Epidemiology Dept., 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Kellerer, A.M. [Munchen Univ., Strahlenbiologisches Institut (Germany); Bazyka, D. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a

  7. Lessons learned and evaluation of the impact from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, A.

    1990-07-01

    The impact on society of the Chernobyl accident is assessed. The situation prior to Chernobyl with respect to regulations of radiation protection against the consequences of a major accident is considered. The development of the recommendations and regulations issued by the CEC for the Maximum Permitted Levels of different reactions to the accident are examined and some data on the average individual effective dose equivalents estimated in a number of countries are reported. Finally some main problems concerning the information of the public and the preparedness for possible future accidents are also summarized. (author)

  8. Lessons learned and evaluation of the impact from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cigna, A [ENEA - Area Energia, Ambiente e Salute, Centro Ricerche Energia, Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy)

    1990-07-15

    The impact on society of the Chernobyl accident is assessed. The situation prior to Chernobyl with respect to regulations of radiation protection against the consequences of a major accident is considered. The development of the recommendations and regulations issued by the CEC for the Maximum Permitted Levels of different reactions to the accident are examined and some data on the average individual effective dose equivalents estimated in a number of countries are reported. Finally some main problems concerning the information of the public and the preparedness for possible future accidents are also summarized. (author)

  9. Lessons learned and evaluation of the impact from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The impact on society of the Chernobyl accidents is assessed. The situation prior to Chernobyl with respect to regulations of radiation protection against the consequences of a major accident is considered. The development of the recommendations and regulations issued by the Commission of the European Communities for the Maximum Permitted Levels of different groups of radionuclides in foodstuffs is reviewed. The different reactions to the accident are examined and some data on the average individual effective dose equivalents estimated in a number of countries are also reported. Finally some main problems concerning the information of the public and the preparedness for possible future accidents are also summarized

  10. Psychological consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation. Lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havenaar, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    From the results of a survey among the population in areas of the former Soviet Union (Gomel region) which were affected by the nuclear reactor accident of Chernobyl it appears that fear for radiation can have a negative impact on the public health. The results of the survey can help governments to deal with the psychological effects of disasters. 3 refs

  11. Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazjuk, G.; Nikolaev, D.; Novikova, I.; Satow, Yukio

    1998-01-01

    various uncertainties. Only direct methods, which count the final effect, with all their drawbacks, can provide accurate information on genetic losses. We have estimated possible genetic consequences for the residents of Belarus Republic due to the Chernobyl accident by studying malformations found in legal medical abortuses and by counting congenital anomalies in fetuses and newborns. (J.P.N.)

  12. Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazjuk, G.; Nikolaev, D.; Novikova, I. [Belarus Institute for Hereditary Diseases, Minsk (Belarus); Satow, Yukio

    1998-03-01

    various uncertainties. Only direct methods, which count the final effect, with all their drawbacks, can provide accurate information on genetic losses. We have estimated possible genetic consequences for the residents of Belarus Republic due to the Chernobyl accident by studying malformations found in legal medical abortuses and by counting congenital anomalies in fetuses and newborns. (J.P.N.)

  13. North Wales Group report on the effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    A report is presented by the North Wales Group concerning the sequence of events affecting North Wales and the identification of the residual problems following contamination from the Chernobyl accident. The first part of the report attempts to establish a time scale for radiation restrictions applicable in North Wales and the size of the areas which are involved. Part two deals with national arrangements to handle incidents like Chernobyl and examines the wider field of international arrangements. A review is given of events as seen by the affected community following the Chernobyl accident. (U.K.)

  14. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on

  15. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on

  16. Tolerance to physical load in victims of Chernobyl accident with hypertension disease (the data 15 year after the accident)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomazyuk, Yi.M.; Koval'ov, O.S.; Sidorenko, G.V.

    2003-01-01

    The study involved 210 participants of Chernobyl accident clean-up. Fifteen years after the accident, threshold power (Wt) and total volume of the work (TVW) reached the proper values for the given age and body mass in 70% of cases. More significant limitation of TPL was observed in stage II hypertension

  17. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    This documentary report tries to give an answer, beyond the current reporting during the last months - including the VDI Nachrichten - how to judge somewhat surely the reasons of the accident and its procession according to the report of the USSR and the international discussion. Subjects: Sequence of events and causes leading to the accident in the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl; dimension and consequences of the radioactive precipitations in West-Germany; foundations of nuclear fission; structure and security systems of Sovjet reactor lines and comparisons with German nuclear power plants; licensing procedure and continual control of the German plants; moral responsibility of the peaceful use of nuclear energy; nuclear phase out and its consequences, and at last data and facts about the use of renewable sources of energy. (orig./GL) [de

  18. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The article summarizes the current controversial discussions in the public about the utilisation of nuclear energy in the F.R.G., which has gained so much emotional impetus after the Chernobyl reactor accident. The accident scenario and the causes of the disaster are outlined in order to show the difference between facts and conditions there, and design and conditions in our country, especially with regard to the LWRs. The main reason launching the disaster, it is said, lies in non-observance of orders and operating instructions; the article underlines the system of design features and instructions that has been established, and multiply checked, for reactor stations in the F.R.G., in order to prevent undue interference with the design-based safety equipment. Due to the high safety standard of the nuclear power plants in the F.R.G., Chernobyl cannot be used as an argument against further utilisation of nuclear energy in the F.R.G. (HSCH) [de

  19. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, G.; Recknagel, E.

    1988-01-01

    The reactor accident in Chernobyl also had a memorable 1986 Spring for the region of Lake Constance. Salad had to be ploughed up in the vegetable fields, the feeding of cows with fresh grass was forbidden, and becquerel values played a decisive role in food purchases. Along with the measurement of radioactivity in rainwater, the authors began to take food and soil samples; hundreds of samples were tested in the laboratories of the University of Constance. They provided, in cooperation with public authorities, for the protection of the population against radiation, and explained, in numerous lectures, the significance of this incident to everyday life. Besides, they recorded recent scientific findings about the behaviour of radioactive substances in the environment. The book gives a summary of the findings. It also includes, besides a description of the events of May 1986 at Lake Constance, a presentation of the results of scientific investigations into Chernobyl's radioactivity. This is thus the first detailed account of the diverse effects of the reactor accident with respect to one particular region which, though more than 1500 km away, was surprisingly seriously affected, and which, owing to its special features - Lake Constance is Europe's most important drinking water reservoir -, is particularly endangered, in case of radioactive release. (orig./HP) With 2 separate tabs [de

  20. The Chernobyl reactor accident source term: Development of a consensus view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guntay, S.; Powers, D.A.; Devell, L.

    1997-01-01

    In August 1986, scientists from the former Soviet Union provided the nuclear safety community with an impressively detailed account of what was then known about the Chernobyl accident. This included assessments of the magnitudes, rates, and compositions of radionuclide releases during the ten days following initiation of the accident. A summary report based on the Soviet report, the oral presentations, and the discussions with scientists from various countries was issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency shortly thereafter. Ten years have elapsed since the reactor accident at Chernobyl. A great deal more data is now available concerning the events, phenomena, and processes that took place. The purpose of this document is to examine what is known about the radioactive materials released during the accident. The accident was peculiar in the sense that radioactive materials were released, at least initially, in an exceptionally energetic plume and were transported far from the reactor site. Release of radioactivity from the plant continued for about ten days. A number of more recent publications and results from scientists in Russia and elsewhere have significantly improved our understanding of the Chernobyl source term. Because of the special features of the reactor design and the pecularities of the Chernobyl accident, the source term for the Chernobyl accident is of limited applicability of the safety analysis of other types of reactors

  1. Some aspects of thyroid system status in persons exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheban, A.K.; Afanasyev, D.E.; Boyarskaya, O.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The thyroid system status estimation held in post-accidental period dynamics among 7868 children evacuated from the 30-km Chernobyl zone and resident now in Slavutich city (Cs-137 contaminated area), among contaminated regions permanent residents, among native kievites and evacuated from 30-km zone. The thyroid pathology incidence dependence on residence place during Chernobyl Accident and after that was revealed. The immune-inflammatory thyroid disorders are characteristic for 30-km zone migrants, goitre different forms - for the radionuclides contaminated territories residents. No thyroid function abnormalities frequency confidential increase was registered during the research activities run. The total serum cholesterol level application unavailability is revealed in Chernobyl accident survivors thyroid hormones metabolic effects estimation. Data concerning Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) presented additionally. (author)

  2. A first assessment of the psychic and social effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard Dubreuil, G.

    1994-01-01

    A synthesis has been made of a series of surveys carried out in Ukraine in 1992 and 1993 on the psychic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident, within the framework of the ''Evaluation programme of the consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident'' of the Commission of the European communities. The main results demonstrate the strength of the post-accident dynamics of the accident, more than 7 years later. Some 3 millions people were directly affected in their everyday life by the post-accident management which resulted in many perverse effects on the social and psychic levels. Economically, each year, financing of the post-accident management system requires nearly 1/6 of the Ukraine budget. Politically speaking, Chernobyl is still a major stake for the various actors of the institutional transition process underway since the disappearance of the soviet system. The article shows the systemic complexity of the local situation and the many explanatory factors (physical, sanitary, political, cultural, historical) at the origin of the post-accident dynamics. A systemic modelling of the interactions between these factors is presented. It makes it possible to better define the contributions of both accident and post-accident stages to the process that has led to the present situation. It shows out the close connections between the different accident stages and the need, from the very beginning of an accident, to take into account the mid-and long-term consequences arising from the accident management. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs

  3. Psychological and social impacts of post-accident situations: lessons from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the main features, from the psychological and social points of view, of the post-accident situation in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl. This is based on a series of surveys performed in the concerned territories of the CIS republics. The high level of stress affecting a large segment of the population is related to the perception of the situation by those living in a durably contaminated environment but also to the side-effects of some of the countermeasures adopted to mitigate the radiological consequences or to compensate the affected population. The distinction between the accident and the post-accident phase is enlarged to take into account the various phases characterizing the dynamics of the social response. Although the size of the catastrophe as well as the economic and political conditions that were prevailing at the time and after the accident have resulted in a maximal intensity of the reactions of the population, many lessons can be drawn for the management of potential post-accident situations. (author)

  4. Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rissanen

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the corresponding amount of deposition in southern Finland. In 1986-87 the mean concentration of Cs-137 in lichens and in reindeer meat increased to about the same level as in 1972-73 or to about 30 per cent of the maximum levels found in 1964-65 after the nuclear weapons tests. The activity concentrations in reindeer tissues vary according to season. In winter, reindeer eat considerable amounts of lichens with high radiocesium concentrations. In summer, lichens are replaced by other forage such as leaves from trees, green plants, etc. The ratio of Cs-137 concentration in reindeer meat between summer and winter is about 0.2. The mean concentration of Cs-137 in meat for consumption from the slaughtering period 1986-87 was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight. After that time concentrations started decreasing since no new fallout was deposited.

  5. Supply air filters after the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonka, H.

    1989-01-01

    In the case of increased activity concentration in the air supply air filters are the facility compounds where enhanced activity is collected. Therefore, it was understandable that the people put questions about the doses caused by supply air filters after the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. When comparing the local dose rate at a distance of 1 m in front of filters with the outdoor local dose rate due to dry deposited radionuclides, nearly the same local dose rate results assuming an air flow rate of approx. 60 m 3 /h. Supposing a 10 hours stay at a distance of 1 m in front of filters and an air flow rate of approx. 5000 m 3 /h the same dose is obtained after a 10 days delay as the dose due to outdoor inhalation. At Aachen, the local dose rate near to filters increased up to approx. 10 μSv/h. After a suitable time delay of one month filters could be rejected like normal waste. A review is given on individual measured values

  6. Consequences of radioactive fallout - Experience acquired from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutzko Alexandre

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents considerations on the nature of protection measures which were taken following the Chernobyl accident. Six methods used in Belarus aiming at reducing the radionuclide concentration in soils are listed which resulted in a reduction by a factor of 1.5 to 2 of the contamination levels in different agricultural products after 1986. A table is given showing the continuous decrease between 1986 and 1991 in the amount of sold meat and milk on market having doses exceeding the admissible values. In 1994 an increase in the ratio of contaminated products is explained as being due to investment reduction and to augmentation of transfer coefficients produced by an extremely hot summer. In conclusion it is stressed that lifting and removing the superficial layers of contaminated soils proved to be an inefficient method of decontaminating vast areas. Certain lands will not be cultivated for long as no protective action can be conducted to get them returned to agriculture. If one forgives for an instant the natural decay it seems that never one can get rid of the radioactivity. An artificial reduction methods should be supported by an international experience in the field

  7. Inquiries from the public about the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    At the end of April, a few calls from members of public relating to the Chernobyl accident were starting to trickle through to the Board's headquarters at Chilton. On the 1st May, the travel trade gave out the Board's telephone number to its clients who wanted information and advice about travelling abroad, and the trickle suddenly became a flood. During the bank holiday weekend, reporting of the remnants of the radioactive release reaching Britain received considerable prominence in the media. By the 6th of May, the Board's 15 telephone lines had become clogged with requests for information, advice and/or reassurance and other lines had to be installed. By then, the media, companies, scientists from other organisations, local government officials and various other community representatives were all vying with members of the public to get through to the Board. The inquiries by telephone were answered by nominated Board staff: they ranged from requests for factual information about the levels of activity in air, milk, water, and so on, to simple requests for reassurance that all was well

  8. Simulation of atmospheric dispersion of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, R.; Sullivan, T.J.; Gudiksen, P.H.

    1989-07-01

    Measurements of airborne radioactivity over Europe, Japan, and the United States indicated that the release from the Chernobyl reactor accident in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986 contained a wide spectrum of fission up to heights of 7 km or more within a few days after the initial explosion. This high-altitude presence of radioactivity would in part be attributable to atmospheric dynamics factors other than the thermal energy released in the initial explosion. Indications were that two types of releases had taken place -- an initial powerful explosion followed by days of a less energetic reactor fire. The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) utilized three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models to determine the characteristics of the source term (release) and the evolution of the spatial distributions of the airborne radioactivity as it was transported over Europe and subsequently over the northern hemisphere. This paper describes the ARAC involvement and the results of the hemispheric model calculations which graphically depict the extensive dispersal of radioactivity. 1 fig

  9. Radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident in EEC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrousek, J.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of an evaluation of the impact of radioactive substances escaped during the Chernobyl accident, on the population in EEC countries. The results have been processed from data provided by all member countries and relate to the most dangerous radionuclides namely 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs. The population was divided into three groups: one-year olds, 10 year olds and adults. Assessed were external whole-body irradiation by the radioactive cloud and material deposited on the body surface, and internal irradiation with regard to the human food chain. The irradiation of the thyroid was assessed separately. As for 131 I, the most endangered group were the infants with the exception of Italy where 10 year olds were the most affected group. Values calculated for the individual countries are given of the effective dose equivalent for the first year, the dose equivalent for the thyroide, the dose commitment in the first year, the collective effective dose equivalent and the collective dose equivalent for the thyroid gland. Measures taken to reduce the irradiation of the population (restrictions on distribution and consumption of milk, dairy products and leafy vegetables, feeding cattle with preserved feeds, etc.) reduced the collective dose equivalent by a mere 5% and the collective dose equivalent for the thyroid by 26%. (E.S.). 3 tabs

  10. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph; Beaugelin, K; Maubert, H; Ledenvic, Ph [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1997-11-01

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m{sup -2}), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at presentthe dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 {mu}Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded

  11. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1997-11-01

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m{sup -2}), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at presentthe dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 {mu}Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded

  12. Reactions of Russians living in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumonier, S.; Allen, P.

    1993-01-01

    This article briefly describes how in July 1992 a pilot survey was conducted of the social and psychological factor affecting people living in a contaminated area of the Russian Federation following the Chernobyl accident. First hand experience was gained of the reactions of the people affected by the nuclear accident and the effects of the subsequent countermeasures. (UK)

  13. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arredondo, C.

    2006-01-01

    For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the

  14. Feasibility of studies on health effects in western Europe due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl and Recommendations for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckow, J.; Kellerer, A.M.; Knox, E.G.; Richardson, S.; Doll, R.; Boice, J.D.; Esteve, J.; Thiessen, J.W.; Silini, G.

    1990-01-01

    The report considers whether studies of health effects related to the radioactive contamination of western Europe caused by the releases from the Chernobyl reactor accident would be useful. The report evaluates the exposure patterns and the dose levels within the European Community, the different health effects that might be induced by such doses, and the likelihood that epidemiological studies could produce scientifically useful information. The report concludes that at the exposure levels experienced in the European Community the study of post-Chernobyl cancer rates in adults and the study of heritable genetic effects in the offspring of those exposed would be unproductive. It also concludes that even a study of childhood cancer following in utero exposure would be unlikely to demonstrate any attributable increase in risk. However, the report recommends that a small epidemiologic survey of childhood cancer be conducted within areas where selected cancer registration was in existence at the time of the Chernobyl accident to check the ability to predict risks from doses of the order received, to contribute to the understanding of the occurrence of childhood leukemia and to allay public anxiety

  15. The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences. Pt. 1. General material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The report contains a presentation of the Chernobyl' nuclear power station and of the RBMK-1000 reactor, including its principal physical characteristics, the safety systems and a description of the site and of the surrounding region. After a chronological account of the events which led to the accident and an analysis of the accident using a mathematical model it is concluded that the prime cause of the accident was an extremely improbable combination of violations of instructions and operating rules committed by the staff of the unit. Technical and organizational measures for improving the safety of nuclear power plants with RBMK reactors have been taken. A detailed description of the actions taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences is given and includes the fire fighting at the nuclear power station, the evaluation of the state of the fuel after the accident, the actions taken to limit the consequences of the accident in the core, the measures taken at units 1, 2 and 3 of the nuclear power station, the monitoring and diagnosis of the state of the damaged unit, the decontamination of the site and of the 30 km zone and the long-term entombment of the damaged unit. The measures taken for environmental radioactive contamination monitoring, starting by the assessment of the quantity, composition and dynamics of fission products release from the damaged reactor are described, including the main characteristics of the radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, the possible ecological consequences and data on the exposure of plant and emergency service personnel and of the population in the 30 km zone around the plant. The last part of the report presents some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety, including scientific, technical and organizational aspects and international measures. Finally, an overview of the development of nuclear power in the USSR is given

  16. Risks of insufficient information communication during the post-accident period of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joukovskaia, Olga V.; Rolevich, Igor V.

    2000-01-01

    The modified psychological climate and increased social-psychological pressure in the population, affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident, emerged partially because of insufficient information provided to the population with respect to the radiation and ecological conditions. Such situation resulted in development of chronic psychological stress in the majority of the population residing on the affected areas. The post-accidental stress, which appeared in many people, is characterized by its extraordinary stability. Up to 74% of the affected population were subjected to stress. In 1986 the depressing condition of anxiety was observed in 50% of those examined. By 1998 this number increased up to 76%. Aggravation of health condition still remains in the center of anxiety reasons for the majority of those examined, when in the areas contaminated greater the number of those anxious is much higher than in others. Besides, the urban population is more concerned in unsatisfactory solution of the problem of liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences, than village inhabitants (88,5 and 79,70/o accordingly). Noteworthy, that 43% of the urban population and only 25,20/6 of the village settlers is concerned in small efficiency of rehabilitation activities on the radioactive contaminated territories. Respondents-women 86,1%) are more anxious than men 84,2%). Besides, almost three quarters of the respondents 74,5%) for last three years became more anxious for their future and future of their children, which leads to greater worries. At the same time it is necessary to take into account, that 7 of the respondents expressed apathy and indifference to everything, and at 75% have the feeling of hopelessness. Another negative tendency exposed in the population, affected by the Chernobyl accident is the reduction of trust to the authorities and governmental bodies, reduction of satisfaction by the activity of local authorities. Only 60,6% of the interrogated

  17. Tumour markers in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late post-accident period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryguina, L.; Strukov, E.; Nikiforov, A.

    1997-01-01

    Tumour markers (TM) are base plasma proteins with a carbohydrate component, produced by various types of tumor cells. 84 male liquidators aged from 30 to 50 y.o. were examined in the clinic of All-Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine in September 1994-April 1995. External irradiation exposure amongst liquidators varied from 2 to 30 sGr. TM concentration in serum and plasma were determined by conventional ELISA methods (CEA. AFP, CA19-9. PSA, NSE). The first (control) group was composed of liquidators with no GI tract pathology. The second group consisted of 28 liquidators with irradiation - induced cytogenetical disturbances in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The third group consisted included 28 liquidators with chronic GI tract diseases. In control group, levels of CA 19-9, CEA and AFP amounted to 4.7± 0.4 U/ml, 2.4± 0.8mg/ml, 2.1± 0.2 IU/ml, correspondingly. The CA 19-9 level has been shown to increase statistically significantly in the second (14.5±1.5 U/ml) and in the third group (17.8± 1.2 U/ml). A simultaneous elevation of CA 19-9 and CEA was found in 7.1% of the liquidators of the third group, the CA 19-9 level changes ranging from 63 to 708 U/ml. The mean value of PSA in all three groups remained within the discrimination concentration limits and amounted to 2.5± 0.4 U/ml. Concentration of NSE was equal to 29.9± 7.2 mg/ml in all three groups. Based on the data on frequencies of the tumour marker elevation, a group of 6 was selected.This group required a detailed dynamic examination because of the problem of remote consequences of the effect of complex factors of the Chernobyl Atomic Station accident upon its victims. (author)

  18. An analysis of the print media in Europe following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.; Haastrup, P.

    1987-01-01

    The print media coverage of the Chernobyl accident was analysed in seven European countries. The goal was to identify common communications problems and to suggest how they might be resolved. Aside from difficulties with technical information on units of radiation exposure, contamination, and effects, the media did a reasonably good job of presenting to the public the information they were given by official sources. Some evidence of confusion was found, and it affected the credibility of communications, but the press seemed to be reflecting confusion existing within crisis management teams and the scientific community rather than creating it. Some of the more common problems are discussed and ideas for improving crisis management and the communication of information about risks are explored

  19. Action level for imported food in Japan after the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Takashi

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl in Apr. 1986 caused a widespread release of radionuclides to environment. As a result of food movement in international trade, it was necessary to decide action level of radionuclides for food imported in Japan. The action level was derived from the following basic principle: Dose equivalent should be less than one third of 0.5 rem/year for whole body exposure. Assuming that the composition of representative radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 134 Cs and 137 Cs) in imported food are equal to those of fallout in Japan and consumption of internal food products reduces total intake of radionuclides to 35 %, action level indicated by sum of 134 Cs and 137 Cs concentrations was estimated to be 370 Bq/kg. From Nov. 1986 to Sep. 1987, it was observed that twenty samples in imported food contained radioactivity exceeding the action level. (author)

  20. The hemopoiesis system in subjects exposed as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebeshko, V.G.; Klimenko, V.I.; Yukhimuk, L.N.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of cell and membrane factors in the realization of remote effects of exposure to ionizing radiation as a result of the Chernobyl power plant accident. Twenty-nine subjects exposed in doses of 0.3 to 3 Sv were examined. Seven of them has a history of acute radiation disease of the first degree, two that of the second degree, and one of the third degree. Under study were the morphology and function of blood and bone marrow elements, colony-forming activity of hemopoietic precursor cells in tissue culture in vivo, and the antioxidant function of blood plasma assessed by paramagnetic resonance from the levels of transferrin and ceruloplasmin. Refs. 9, figs. 1, tabs. 4

  1. The radioiodine problem following the Chernobyl accident: ecology, dosimetry and medical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonova, I.A.

    1991-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident radioisotopes of iodine constituted the main dose-forming factor among the people who stayed on in the radioactively contaminated areas, and in a number of places the effective doses to the thyroid gland were up to two orders of magnitude higher than the whole-body dose stemming from uniform internal and external irradiation. We consider the mechanisms involved in the radioiodine contribution to the doses in the human organism, depending on intake path, life style and social and ecological factors. We illustrate, by means of examples, thyroid gland dose distribution for various age groups in the population, and discuss the medical effects and predict the long-term risks for the population of exposure to radioisotopes of iodine. (author)

  2. Investigation of the possible effect of the Chernobyl accident on Irish mortality rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, M.J.; Reville, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident reached Ireland in May 1986 and caused serious concern with regard to its possible effects on health. Reports of a large scale American study claim an almost immediate effect of Chernobyl fallout in terms of increased mortality rates. A study of Irish mortality rates reported a substantial increase in numbers of deaths during the three months immediately post-Chernobyl. The present study investigates whether there is a statistically significant basis for the reported increase in mortality in Ireland. No discernible evidence was found for increased mortality rates in Ireland during 1986, following the Chernobyl accident. The initial report of increased mortality rates was based on provisional mortality registration statistics and not on actual day to day data. (author)

  3. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.G.; Davies, L.M.

    1986-09-01

    On April 26th 1986, the worst accident in the history of commercial nuclear power generation occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station some 60 miles north of Kiev in the Ukraine. This article describes the sequence of events that occurred and the consequences of the accident. There was extensive damage to the Unit 4 reactor and the building which housed it. Some 31 people have died as a result of the accident either directly or as a result of receiving lethal radiation doses. A significant release of fission products occurred, contaminating land around the station and requiring the evacuation of around 135,000 people from their homes. The radioactive cloud generated over many days was carried by winds to all parts of Europe where there was a varying degree of public concern. The contamination resulted in restrictions on the consumption of meat and vegetables. The latent health effects may not be statistically significant when viewed against the normal mortality rate over the next 40 years. (author)

  4. Health status and follow-up of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident liquidators in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curbakova, E.; Dzerve, B.; Eglite, M.; Frickausa, I.; Zvagule, T.

    1996-01-01

    The accident at the Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl create a new problem for health professionals in Latvia due to the fact that 6475 inhabitants (mainly healthy and men of reproductive age) of Latvia took part in clear-up works in Chernobyl within the period 1986-1991. Chernobyl clear-up workers were exposed γ-radiation and they also incorporated radionuclides. The doses documented for the clear-up workers are variable; they are estimated to be between 0.01-0.5 Gy although the specialists working on the precision of received doses think that they could be even 2 or 3 times higher. The aim of this work is to evaluate the health status of liquidators investigating them on a long-term basis: to create the correct system of health status evaluation of Chernobyl clear-up workers, to improve the register of Chernobyl clear-up workers and of their children, to analyze the data about the incidence of different diseases and mortality gained from follow-ups, to evaluate health status and clinical picture within the period of time, to work out and use adequate methods of treatment. Chernobyl clear-up workers more often than the control group suffer from diseases of the nervous, the endocrine and the metabolic and immune system. They also have higher rate of incidence for diseases of digestive and respiratory system and for diseases of bones, muscles and connective tissue higher rates of accidents and suicides. Now, ten years after the accident there are Chernobyl clear-up workers who are chronically ill and their health status is expected to be worse in the next few years. Regular follow-up and medical examination of Chernobyl clear-up workers and their children should be carried out every year. Regular rehabilitation of Chernobyl clear-up workers should be provided by the government

  5. Health status and follow-up of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident liquidators in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curbakova, E; Dzerve, B; Eglite, M; Frickausa, I; Zvagule, T [Centre of Occupational and Radiological Medicine of P. Stradins State clinical Hospital, Riga (Latvia)

    1996-07-01

    The accident at the Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl create a new problem for health professionals in Latvia due to the fact that 6475 inhabitants (mainly healthy and men of reproductive age) of Latvia took part in clear-up works in Chernobyl within the period 1986-1991. Chernobyl clear-up workers were exposed {gamma}-radiation and they also incorporated radionuclides. The doses documented for the clear-up workers are variable; they are estimated to be between 0.01-0.5 Gy although the specialists working on the precision of received doses think that they could be even 2 or 3 times higher. The aim of this work is to evaluate the health status of liquidators investigating them on a long-term basis: to create the correct system of health status evaluation of Chernobyl clear-up workers, to improve the register of Chernobyl clear-up workers and of their children, to analyze the data about the incidence of different diseases and mortality gained from follow-ups, to evaluate health status and clinical picture within the period of time, to work out and use adequate methods of treatment. Chernobyl clear-up workers more often than the control group suffer from diseases of the nervous, the endocrine and the metabolic and immune system. They also have higher rate of incidence for diseases of digestive and respiratory system and for diseases of bones, muscles and connective tissue higher rates of accidents and suicides. Now, ten years after the accident there are Chernobyl clear-up workers who are chronically ill and their health status is expected to be worse in the next few years. Regular follow-up and medical examination of Chernobyl clear-up workers and their children should be carried out every year. Regular rehabilitation of Chernobyl clear-up workers should be provided by the government.

  6. Influence of nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl' on the environmental radioactivity in Toyama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Miyuki; Shoji, Miki; Honda, Takashi; Sakanoue, Masanobu.

    1987-01-01

    The environmental radioactivity caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl' was investigated from May 7 to May 31 of 1986 in Toyama. Measurement of radioactivities in airborne particles, rain water, drinking water, milk, and mugwort are carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry (pure Ge detector; ORTEC GMX-23195). Ten different nuclides ( 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 131 I, 132 Te-I, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba-La) are identified from samples of airborne particles. In the air samples, a maximum radioactivity concentration of each nuclide is observed on 13th May 1986. The time of the reactor shut-down and the flux of thermal neutron at the reactor were calculated from 131 I/ 132 I and 137 Cs/ 134 Cs ratio. The exposure dose in Toyama by this accident is given as follows: internal exposure; [thyroid] adult-59 μSv, child-140 μSv, baby-130 μSv, [total body] adult-0.2 μSv, child, baby-0.4 μSv, external exposure; 7 μSv, effective dose equivalent; adult-9 μSv, child-12 Sv, baby-11 μSv. (author)

  7. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    This book brings together a comprehensive history of the first 18 months of the accident at Chernobyl and the complete pictorial record of the disaster, including many photographs never seen in the West. It also gives a unique record of subsequent events in the USSR involving the evacuation and re-housing of a population of 135,000, the building of the 400,000 tonne concrete sarcophagus over the damaged reactor and the decontamination of the environment which may take years to complete. The human dimension of radiation injuries is recreated in the cast histories and hospital photographs of the firemen who brought the blaze under control. The problems of contamination of the food chain for various countries is included, and recommendations for safe levels of activity in milk are described

  8. Radioactive contamination: atlas France and Europe. French soils contamination by Chernobyl accident fallouts - The lie evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, Andre; Castanier, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    This document deals with the Chernobyl nuclear accident impacts and the authorities transparency. The first part is a reference document constituted by the CRIIRAD and showing how the authorities strove for minimizing the real contamination of French soils by the Chernobyl fallouts. In the second part, an atlas provides the detailed maps of the radioactive contamination of soils based on more than 3000 measurements carried out by a geologist, Andre Paris, assisted by the CRIIRAD laboratory

  9. The Harwell fallout monitoring programme and its response to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambray, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Harwell laboratory operates a worldwide network of air and rain sampling stations for radioactivity in the atmosphere. In the months after the Chernobyl accident of 29 April 1986 the network was used to study the distribution and behaviour of radioactive debris from that source. An estimate of 5 x 10 16 Bq of caesium-137 has been deduced for the global distribution from Chernobyl

  10. Clinical aspects of the health disturbances in Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident clean-up workers (liquidators) from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglite, M E; Zvagule, T J; Rainsford, K D; Reste, J D; Curbakova, E V; Kurjane, N N

    2009-06-01

    The health status of some 6,000 workers from Latvia who went to clean-up the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) site following the explosion on 26 April 1986 has been analyzed. The data on these workers have been recorded in the Latvian State Register of Occupational disease patients and people exposed to ionizing radiation due to Chernobyl NPP accident (Latvian State Register) that was established in 1994. From these data, estimates have been made of external ionizing radiation to which these workers were exposed together with observations on the impact of exposure to heavy metals (especially lead and zinc) and radioactive isotopes released during the reactor 'meltdown'. These factors along with psycho-emotional and social-economic stresses account for a marked excess of mortality and morbidity in the group of CNPP accident clean-up workers compared with that of the non-exposed normal Latvian population adjusted for age and sex. The number of diseases or conditions in the CNPP accident clean-up workers has progressively risen from an average of 1.3 in 1986 to 10.9 in 2007. This exceeds for the Latvian population when adjusted for age and sex. The most serious conditions affect the nervous, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine (especially thyroid) and immunological systems. While the morbidity associated with diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems has decreased in recent years that in the other systems is increasing. In recent years, there has been an increased occurrence of cancers affecting the thyroid, prostate and stomach. Clinical and laboratory investigations suggest that surviving CNPP accident clean-up workers exhibit signs of immuno-inflammatory reactions causing premature aging with evidence of autoimmune diseases and immunological deficiencies or abnormalities. It is suggested that the CNPP accident clean-up workers may have a specific syndrome, the 'Chernobyl post-radiation neurosomatic polypathy', due to sustained oxidant

  11. Main lessons based on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident liquidation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'chenko, V.N.; Nosovskij, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The authors review the main lessons of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and the liquidation of its consequences in the area of the nuclear reactors safety operation, any major accident management, liquidation accident consequences criteria, emergency procedures, preventative measures and treatment irradiated victims, the monitoring methods etc. The special emphasis is put on the questions of the emergency response and the antiaccidental measures planning in frame of international cooperation program

  12. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece - Report No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    In this report a realistic estimate of the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some realistic estimations for the population doses and the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  13. Cesium in Arctic char lakes - effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammar, J.; Notter, M.; Neumann, G.

    1991-01-01

    Fallout radiocesium from the Chernobyl accident caused extensive contamination in a region of previously well studied alpine lake ecosystems in northern Sweden. Levels of Cs-137 in the barren catchment basins reached 20-50 kBq/m 2 during 1986. The distribution, pathways and major transport mechanisms of radiocesium through the lake ecosystems were studied during 1986-1990. Levels of Cs-137, Cs-134 and K-40 in water, surface sediment, detritus (sediment traps) and different trophic levels of the food chains of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) were monitored in a series of lakes forming a matrix of 4 natural lakes and 3 lake reservoirs, with or without the introduced new fish food organism, Mysis relicta. The reservoirs were found to act as sinks for radiocesium with extensive accumulation recorded in water, detritus, sediment, invertebrates and salmonids. Whereas concentrations in water and biota have declined from the extreme peak levels in 1986-1987, the levels in surface sediment increased extensively until fall of 1988. The concentration of Cs-137 in fish populations feeding on benthic invertebrates, i.e. mysids and amphipods, were significantly higher than in planktivorous fish. During the three first winters a significant increase in levels of Cs-137 in winter active Arctic char were recorded, whereas the levels declined during the succeeding summers. The introduced Mysis relicta were found to enhance the transport of Cs-137 from zooplankton and settling particles to Arctic char and brown trout. The results suggest a successive change in transport of radiocesium from water via zooplankton to planktivorous fish during the early summer of 1986 to post-depositional mobilization via benthic organisms to benthic fish in successive years. (213 refs.) (au)

  14. Concentration of radiocaesium in grain following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanyar, B.; Czegledi, P.; Kerekes, A.; Kovacs, L.; Sohar, J.; Sztanyik, L.B.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements and dose assessments in Hungary after the Chernobyl accident have shown that the consumption of baker's ware contributes significantly to the internal dose of man. Flour and bread have been contaminated mainly due to radiocaesium deposition onto the of cereals at the end of April and beginning of May, 1986. Because of the different seasonal and growing conditions of biomass, the interception fraction of the standing winter wheat became higher than that of the summer wheat. Therefore, the contribution of grain to the internal dose was relatively high in Hungary where near to 90 per cent of flour and bread is produced from winter wheat in comparison with other countries. The average concentration of 137 Cs in winter grain harvested in summer 1986 was 32 Bq/kg with a range of 11-140 Bq/kg. The bran contained almost half of the total radiocaesium of the grain with about 20 per cent of the weight. The 40 K concentration of grain was 149 Bq/kg. The 137 Cs concentration in white bread commonly used in Hungary was 22 Bq/kg in average. The concentrations found in bread samples from the whole country showed a high variation due to the uneven deposition of radioactive substances. The 137 Cs concentration in winter grain was 0.0075±0.0017 Bq/kg normalized to 1 Bq/m 2 deposition density. The 137 Cs concentration in grain harvested in 1987 or later became less than 1 Bq/kg. It suggests that the root uptake of radiocaesium by cereals must be very small. The per caput committed effective dose equivalent due to consumption of baker's ware was estimated as 50 micro-Sv. (author)

  15. Vertical soil migration of radionuclide fallout from the Chernobyl' accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silant'ev, A.N.; Shkuratova, I.G.; Bobovnikova, T.I.

    1989-01-01

    The most suitable model for describing the behavior of radionuclide fallout on a soil surface is quasidiffusion transfer with directional transfer taken into account. The parameter values for this have been determined previously and are supplemented by the results of this work. To investigate the initial radionuclide distribution along the soil profile, monolithic soil samples 5 cm thick were taken in June-September 1986 in areas which had been subjected to contamination due to the Chernobyl' accident. The samples taken were cut up into layers. The first layer, 0.5 cm thick, was cut off from the surface of the soil monolith together with the grass. The next layer cut off was also 0.5 cm thick. Then two layers, each 1 cm in thickness, were cut off. The thickness of the last layer was 2 cm. The vertical distribution of radionuclides along the soil profile which was examined may be called the initial distribution, which will then change due to nonimmediate migration of radionuclides in the soil. Based on the research which has been performed, the following conclusions may be drawn. One portion of the radionuclides resulting from fallout is trapped by plant cover, while the other enters immediately into the soil. For a thick plant covering, about 80% of the radionuclide fallout is sorbed by the grass; for sparse cover, about 40%. The radionuclides entering the soil along with rainwater penetrate into the soil depths, producing contamination which falls off exponentially with depth. The exponent index is close to 1 cm -1 . In a forest, the main amount of radionuclide fallout is trapped by litter. Approximately 10% of the contamination fallout penetrates beneath the litter

  16. Chernobyl post-accident management: the ETHOS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, G H; Lochard, J; Girard, P; Guyonnet, J F; Le Cardinal, G; Lepicard, S; Livolsi, P; Monroy, M; Ollagnon, H; Pena-Vega, A; Pupin, V; Rigby, J; Rolevitch, I; Schneider, T

    1999-10-01

    ETHOS is a pilot research project supported by the radiation protection research program of the European Commission (DG XII). The project provides an alternative approach to the rehabilitation of living conditions in the contaminated territories of the CIS in the post-accident context of Chernobyl. Initiated at the beginning of 1996, this 3-y project is currently being implemented in the Republic of Belarus. The ETHOS project involves an interdisciplinary team of European researchers from the following institutions: the Centre d'etude sur l'Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire CEPN (radiological protection, economics), the Institute National d'Agronomie de Paris-Grignon INAPG (agronomy, nature & life management), the Compiegne University of Technology (technological and industrial safety, social trust), and the Mutadis Research Group (sociology, social risk management), which is in charge of the scientific co-ordination of the project. The Belarussian partners in the ETHOS project include the Ministry of Emergencies of Belarus as well as the various local authorities involved with the implementation site. The ETHOS project relies on a strong involvement of the local population in the rehabilitation process. Its main goal is to create conditions for the inhabitants of the contaminated territories to reconstruct their overall quality of life. This reconstruction deals with all the day-to-day aspects that have been affected or threatened by the contamination. The project aims at creating a dynamic process whereby acceptable living conditions can be rebuilt. Radiological security is developed in the ETHOS project as part of a general improvement in the quality of life. The approach does not dissociate the social and the technical dimensions of post-accident management. This is so as to avoid radiological risk assessment and management being reduced purely to a problem for scientific experts, from which local people are excluded, and to take into

  17. The reactor accident at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R. Radiation measurements in Denmark. 3. report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In continuation of the reporting of 4 May and 11 May 1986 this report summarizes the radioactivity measurements made during the third and fourth week after the accident at Chernobyl. The data have been collated by the Inspectorate of Nuclear Installations from measurements made by Risoe National Laboratory and the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene. The radioactivity remaining in the air after the first two weeks shows daily variations at low levels without significant contribution to the fall out levels on the ground surfaces. The ground contamination shows a decreasing trend according to radioactive decay and for the plants also according to natural cleaning mechanisms. The radioactive data from the third and fourth week after the accident confirm the previous estimate that the total radiation impact on the Danish area from the accident, including future radiation exposures from the contamination experienced up to now, corresponds at most to approximately one month of natural background radiation. For the time to come the measuring programme and data reporting arrangements will be reorganized with a view to the future long term follow-up of the situation. Thus, this report is expected to be the last in the series of ad hoc reports for prompt dissemination of data on the Danish radioactivity measurements. (author)

  18. Nuclear Security Summit and Workshop 2015: Preventing, Understanding and Recovering from Nuclear Accidents lessons learned from Chernobyl and Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Workshop 2015 "Preventing, Understanding and Recovering from Nuclear Accidents"--lessons learned from Chernobyl and Fukushima Distribution Statement...by the factor to get the U.S. customary unit. “Preventing, Understanding and Recovering from Nuclear Accidents” – lessons learned from Chernobyl ...and Fukushima NUCLEAR SECURITY SUMMIT & WORKSHOP 2015 2 Background The 1986 Chernobyl and the 2011 Fukushima accidents provoked world-wide concern

  19. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    countries were also affected as a result of the atmospheric transfer of radioactive material. These countries also encountered problems in the radiation protection of their populations, but to a lesser extent than the three most affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings - to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident, as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas in which further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. Over a two year period, two groups of experts from 12 countries, including Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations, assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005 the Expert Group 'Environment', coordinated by the IAEA, and the Expert Group 'Health', coordinated by the WHO, presented their reports for the consideration of the Chernobyl Forum. Both reports were considered and approved by

  20. Cohort formation for epidemiological study of medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhko, A.V.; Masyakin, V.B.; Vlasova, N.G.

    2008-01-01

    Belarus State Registry of the Chernobyl-affected population contains information about 276 000 residents of the Republic of Belarus exposed due to the Chernobyl NPP accident. Evidently, the population who lived in the evacuation zone was exposed mostly to radiation and also people participating in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences (emergency workers) within this zone in early post accident period of the catastrophe. Taking into account this criterion, we singled out the group out of all data files including all people who stayed in the evacuation zone not later than on May 31, 1986. The total number of the group made up 39 548 people including 4251 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. By preliminary estimation the number of person-years taking into account the deceased and left out of observation made up at the beginning of 2007- 735 600. During the period since 1986 there was detected 2671 cases of malignant tumors in the cohort and among people who were children and adolescents in 1986 there was registered 106 cases of malignant tumors (82% -thyroid cancer). Among 7483 of the deceased, malignant tumors is the cause of death at 1260 people. At present the real number of alive and remained subjects under observation makes up 25359 people including 2321 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. This group will form the base for further prospective research aiming at assessment of medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. (author)

  1. Thirty years after the Chernobyl accident: What lessons have we learnt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, N A; Fesenko, S; Konoplev, A; Skuterud, L; Smith, J T; Voigt, G

    2016-06-01

    April 2016 sees the 30(th) anniversary of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. As a consequence of the accident populations were relocated in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine and remedial measures were put in place to reduce the entry of contaminants (primarily (134+137)Cs) into the human food chain in a number of countries throughout Europe. Remedial measures are still today in place in a number of countries, and areas of the former Soviet Union remain abandoned. The Chernobyl accident led to a large resurgence in radioecological studies both to aid remediation and to be able to make future predictions on the post-accident situation, but, also in recognition that more knowledge was required to cope with future accidents. In this paper we discuss, what in the authors' opinions, were the advances made in radioecology as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The areas we identified as being significantly advanced following Chernobyl were: the importance of semi-natural ecosystems in human dose formation; the characterisation and environmental behaviour of 'hot particles'; the development and application of countermeasures; the "fixation" and long term bioavailability of radiocaesium and; the effects of radiation on plants and animals. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Thyroid neoplasia risk is increased nearly 30 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronko, Mykola; Brenner, Alina V; Bogdanova, Tetiana; Shpak, Victor; Oliynyk, Valeriy; Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Little, Mark P; Tereshchenko, Valeriy; Zamotayeva, Galyna; Terekhova, Galyna; Zurnadzhi, Lyudmila; Hatch, Maureen; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2017-10-15

    To evaluate risk of thyroid neoplasia nearly 30 years following exposure to radioactive iodine (I-131) from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident, we conducted a fifth cycle of thyroid screening of the Ukrainian-American cohort during 2012-2015, following four previous screening cycles started in 1998. We identified 47 thyroid cancers (TC) and 33 follicular adenomas (FA) among 10,073 individuals who were <18 years at the time of the accident and had a mean I-131 dose of 0.62 Gy. We found a significant I-131 dose response for both TC and FA, with an excess odd ratio per Gy of 1.36 (95% CI: 0.39-4.15) and 2.03 (95% CI: 0.55-6.69), respectively. The excess risk of malignant and benign thyroid neoplasia persists nearly three decades after exposure and underscores the importance of continued follow-up of this cohort to characterize long-term pattern of I-131 risk. © 2017 UICC.

  3. Tracing of the radioactive cloud in Krakow after the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florkowski, T.; Grabczak, J.; Kuc, T.; Rozanski, K.

    1987-01-01

    Results of radioactivity measurements in Cracow after the Chernobyl accident are reported. Methods of sampling air particulates and aerosols, gases (Kr, Xe, CO 2 ) and results of total beta activity measurements by liquid scintillation counting are presented. Drinking water and dairy milk were also controlled. Several samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry for identification of radionuclides. An attempt to determine alpha emitters did not provide positive results. The influence of Chernobyl accident on the levels of natural tritium in precipitation and atmospheric radiocarbon is also shown. 13 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  4. Clinical peculiarities of the brain damage in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zozulya, Y A; Vinnitsky, A R; Stepanenko, I V [Institute of Neurosurgery, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-09-01

    Investigation into the features of the brain damage by the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident has become an urgent issue of today due to a number of circumstances. According to the classical concept dominating radiobiology until recently, the brain being composed of highly - differentiated nerve cells, present a radioresistant structure responsive to radiation injury induced by high and very high radiation doses (10000 rem and higher) only. The results of clinical examinations given to the Chernobyl accident recovery workers at Kiev Institute of Neurosurgery, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, show that even the so - called ``small - dose`` radiation, when consumed continuously, produces neurological sings of brain damage. 6 figs.

  5. Psychological studies of children affected by the Chernobyl accident made during their stay in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo Ruiz, A; Perez Lovelle, R; Perez Ibarruri, B; Vasileva Anguelova, M; Becquer Gordon, L [Hospital Pediatrico Tarara, La Habana (Cuba); Amargos Gonzalez, G [Hospital Psiquiatrico de La Habana, La Habana (Cuba)

    1997-09-01

    This study evaluates the psychological, medical and social effects of the Chernobyl accident on children who live in the Chernobyl area. 404 children were studied in the age group of 11 to 17 years who spent the holidays in Cuba. The special objective of the study was to estimate in the light of the accident their personal characteristics, their mental health and their psychosocial adaptation. Different psychological tests were performed and the data were evaluated and compared with similar research carried out by other research groups. 12 refs.

  6. Psychological studies of children affected by the Chernobyl accident made during their stay in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzo Ruiz, A.; Perez Lovelle, R.; Perez Ibarruri, B.; Vasileva Anguelova, M.; Becquer Gordon, L.; Amargos Gonzalez, G.

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluates the psychological, medical and social effects of the Chernobyl accident on children who live in the Chernobyl area. 404 children were studied in the age group of 11 to 17 years who spent the holidays in Cuba. The special objective of the study was to estimate in the light of the accident their personal characteristics, their mental health and their psychosocial adaptation. Different psychological tests were performed and the data were evaluated and compared with similar research carried out by other research groups. 12 refs

  7. Clinical peculiarities of the brain damage in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zozulya, Y.A.; Vinnitsky, A.R.; Stepanenko, I.V.

    1997-01-01

    Investigation into the features of the brain damage by the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident has become an urgent issue of today due to a number of circumstances. According to the classical concept dominating radiobiology until recently, the brain being composed of highly - differentiated nerve cells, present a radioresistant structure responsive to radiation injury induced by high and very high radiation doses (10000 rem and higher) only. The results of clinical examinations given to the Chernobyl accident recovery workers at Kiev Institute of Neurosurgery, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, show that even the so - called ''small - dose'' radiation, when consumed continuously, produces neurological sings of brain damage. 6 figs

  8. Metabolism in tooth enamel and reliability of retrospective EPR dosimetry connected with Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brik, A.; Radchuk, V.; Scherbina, O.; Matyash, M.; Gaver, O.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that the results of retrospective EPR dosimetry by tooth enamel are essentially determined by the fact that tooth enamel is the mineral of biological origin. The structure of tooth enamel, properties of radiation defects and the role of metabolism in tooth enamel are discussed. It is shown that at deep metamorphic modifications tooth enamel don't save information about its radiation history. The reliability and accuracy of retrospective EPR dosimetry are discussed. Because after Chernobyl accident have passed 10 years the application of tooth enamel for reconstruction of doses which are connected with Chernobyl accident need care and additional investigations

  9. Health examination of residents and its task after the Chernobyl Nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    Described is the outline of health effects after the Chernobyl Accident (CA, Apr. 26, 1986) and of health examination/its future task, for learning to make use of means for the recent Fukushima Accident (FA). Total released radioactivity of the Level 7 CA is estimated to amount to 5.20 million TBq, 6-10 times as high as the same level of FA. Different from the Fukushima, no rapid means were taken by old Soviet Union to restrict the distribution and ingestion of contaminated foods, which was the major cause of internal radioiodine exposure. Afterward, in 1990s, WHO, European and other countries began to investigate CA, and markedly increased incidence of thyroid cancer was shown by health examination of 160 thousands children by a project of Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation. In 2006, WHO and IAEA evaluated published literatures to summarize health effects related directly or possibly unrelated to CA: as for thyroid cancer, its prevalence tended to move in adolescence or older, and surgery and therapy for metastasis with radioiodine were significantly effective to improve their prognosis; however, their long term follow-up and treatment are continuously needed. Not observed was the increased incidence of leukemia, which is different from A-bomb survivors, and other cancers as well as benign diseases, but resident's concern about their health and effects on the next generation is increasing. Currently, systems of self-monitoring of foods are being established by residents around Chernobyl. Instructions and means learned from CA and A-bomb experiences are applied to this FA, but assurance of health of all these concerned people should be a future task against its fading with time. (T.T.)

  10. The Chernobyl reactor accident. Pt. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The report first summarizes the available information on the various incidents of the whole accident scenario, and combines the information to present a first general outline and a basis for appraisal. The most significant incidents reported, namely power excursion, core meltdown, and fire, are discussed with a view to the reactor design and safety of reactors installed in the FRG. The main differences and advantages of German reactor designs are shown, as e.g.: Power excursions are mastered by inherent physical conditions; far better redundancy of engineered safety systems; enclosure of the complete reactor cooling system in a pressure-retaining steel containment; reactor buildings being made of reinforced concrete. The second part of the report deals with the radiological effects to be expected for our country. Data are given on the varying radiological exposure of the different regions. The fate and uptake of radioactivity in the human body are discussed. The conclusion drawn from the data presented is that the individual exposure due to the reactor accident will remain within the variations and limits of natural radioactivity and effects. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Thyroid dosimetry in the western trace of the Chernobyl accident plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedveckaite, T.; Filistovic, V.; Mastauskas, A.; Thiessen, K.

    2004-01-01

    According to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO/SDE/PHE/99.6), the reference level for consideration in stable iodine prophylaxis is based on the inhalation exposure pathway. In the western trace of the Chernobyl accident, the measurement of airborne 131 I fractions (aerosol-associated, gaseous reactive and gaseous organic) indicates that airborne gaseous reactive and, especially, organic 131 I fractions were the major contributors to thyroid exposure due to inhalation. The contribution of inhaled short-lived radio-iodines was negligible. To attain more precise thyroid exposure evaluation, 131 I dose factors were determined as a function of age and prevalence of stable iodine deficiency. The results demonstrate that children with a stable iodine deficiency experienced at least two times higher thyroid doses than did children with a dietary iodine sufficiency. The results of these investigations demonstrate that in thyroid dosimetry it is important to know the stable iodine status as well as to have a standardised method for airborne radioiodine measurements, especially for consideration of stable iodine prophylaxis based on the inhalation exposure pathway. (authors)

  12. Radioecological monitoring of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulebakina, L.G.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    A monitoring programme was drawn up to study the radioecological situation of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident, with studies being carried out from May 1986 onwards to determine the levels of radioactive contamination in various parts of the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Aegean Sea, including the estuaries of major rivers (Dnieper, Danube, Dniester and Don) and shelf areas of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The work focused on long-lived radionuclides ( 90 Sr and 137 Cs), with the migration dynamics of these radionuclides in the aquatic environment, bed sediments and aquatic biota (including plants, molluscs, crustacea and fish) being studied. We compared the behaviour of radionuclides in the aquatic environment of the Dnieper reservoirs following the Chernobyl accident (our data) with the behaviour of radionuclides in lakes in the Urals following the Kyshtym accident (published data). As in the case of the lakes in the Urals, the Dnieper waters contain substantial concentrations of 90 Sr as a result of the Chernobyl accident, and 90 Sr therefore enters the Black Sea with the Dnieper waters. The paper compares the contribution of the Chernobyl accident to radioactive contamination of the Black Sea with that of global fallout. (author)

  13. Assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl Reactor accident on the Biota of Swedish Streams and Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, R C; Landner, L; Blanck, H

    1986-01-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident resulted in elevated levels of radionuclides in the air space above Sweden, which were then washed into Swedish lakes and streams. Before suspended particles stripped the water column, the concentration of /sup 137/Cs in small Swedish lakes was in the order of 10-40 Bq/l. This level of radioactivity should result in a negligible increase in the external exposure rate. However, by August 1986 increased levels of radioactivity were found at all trophic levels of freshwater ecosystems from algae to top carnivore, and from the available data the levels of radioactivity are still increasing. The calculated dose rate for the aquatic biota caused by the two cesium isotopes, /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs, is about 25 times higher than natural levels. While acute effectrs of the Chernobyl fallout on freshwater biota are unlikely, the long term ecological effects bear watching.

  14. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in Potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.; Marovic, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the paper are summarized the results of systematic investigations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs activity concentrations in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) for the post-Chernobyl period in the Republic of Croatia. Potatoes are very important foodstuff in Croatia, the average annual consumption being about 40 kg per person. Due to a comparatively high contribution of the ingestion doses to the total dose received by population after the exposure to nuclear fallout, a reliable prognosis of the expected ingestion doses is of utmost importance. The ingestion dose strongly depends on the consumption of various types of foodstuffs, and related activity concentrations of respective radionuclides in those foodstuffs, which themselves usually depend upon the transfer from fallout. In addition, a reliable prediction of the expected ingestion dose received by consumption of a particular foodstuff requires the detailed knowledge of decreasing behaviour of activity concentrations in the environment and respective foodstuffs. The correlation between 137 Cs activity concentrations in fallout and potatoes, has been found to be very good, the correlation coefficient being r2=0.88 with P(t) < 0.001 for 17 degrees of freedom. As the radiocaesium levels in potatoes decreased exponentially, the mean residence time of 137 Cs in potatoes was estimated by fitting the measured activity concentrations to the exponential curve. The mean residence time was found to be 6.3 ± 0.8 years, the standard deviation being estimated by the Monte Carlo simulations. The initial observed 134 Cs:137 Cs activity ratio in potatoes has been found to be quite variable, but slightly lesser than theoretically predicted value of 0.5, calculated by applying the known inventory of these radionuclides in the Chernobyl reactor to the equation for the differential radioactive decay. This can be explained by presence of the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs in soil that originated from nuclear fallout. As in other environmental samples, 134

  15. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verger, P.; Champion, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Joly, J.; Renaud, Ph.; Tirmarche, M.; Vidal, M.; Cherie-Challine, L.; Boutou, O.; Isnard, H.; Jouan, M.; Pirard, Ph.

    2000-12-01

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  16. The Chernobyl accident as a source of new radiological knowledge: implications for Fukushima rehabilitation and research programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine in 1986 caused a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. During large scale activities focused on overcoming of its negative consequences for public health, various research programmes in radioecology, dosimetry and radiation medicine were conducted. New knowledge was applied internationally in substantial updating of radiation protection systems for emergency and existing situations of human exposure, for improvement of emergency preparedness and response. Radioecological and dosimetry models were significantly improved and validated with numerous measurement data, guidance on environmental countermeasures and monitoring elaborated and tested. New radiological knowledge can be of use in the planning and implementation of rehabilitation programmes in Japan following the Fukushima nuclear accident. In particular, the following activity areas would benefit from application of the Chernobyl experience: strategy of rehabilitation, and technology of settlement decontamination and of countermeasures applied in agriculture and forestry. The Chernobyl experience could be very helpful in planning research activities initiated by the Fukushima radionuclide fallout, i.e. environmental transfer of radionuclides, effectiveness of site-specific countermeasures, nationwide dose assessment, health effect studies, etc. (paper)

  17. Research and managing institutions in Ukraine concerning the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasvit, O.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents temporal changes of the national organizations in managing the Chernobyl accident and its activities. The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine started its activity from the first days after the accident. In 1990 a special executive body, the State committee of Chernobyl Affairs was established in Ukraine to manage the whole activity to overcome the Chernobyl problems. In 1991 it was rearranged into the Ministry of Chernobyl Affairs. In 1996 a new Ministry of Ukraine on Emergences and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chernobyl Catastrophe(MEA) was founded on the basis of the Min. Chernobyl and Headquarters Staff of Civil Defence. The National Commission on Radiological Protection of Ukraine (NCRPU) belongs to the Parliament structure. NCRPU is responsible for approval of radiological safety standards and derived regulations. Very often the regulation approved are stricter than the international recommendations. There is an essential lack of attention within the Parliament to the activity of NCRPU. Ministry of Health is responsible for all kinds of medical care for the people suffering from the Chernobyl Catastrophe. In order to provide permanent medical service, a nation-wide scheme has been worked out. Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine is the leading scientific institute of the Academy of Medical Sciences. The State scientific Center of Environmental Radio geochemistry was created in 1996 on the basis of the two departments of the Institute of Geochemistry. The Center was created in order to improve coordination and managing of scientific researches on the behavior of artificial and natural radionuclides and chemical substances in the environment etc.. The Chernobyl Scientific-Technical center for International Research was created in March,1996. The Ukrainian Scientific Hygienic Center of Ministry of Health was created in 1989 and included two institutions. The subjects, the direction of research works

  18. Management, administrative and operational causes of the accident: Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastas, G.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Chernobyl accident, which occurred in April 1986, was the result of management, administrative, operational, technical and design flaws. The accident released millions of curies of mixed fission products (including 70-100 P Bq of 137 Cs). The results of this study strongly suggest that the cultural, political, managerial and operational attributes of the Soviet 'system' performed in a synergistic manner to significantly contribute to the initiation of the accident. At the time of the accident, science, engineering and safety in the former Soviet Union were dominated by an atmosphere of politics, group think and 'dingoes tending the sheep'

  19. The international cooperation using the example of the reactor accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molitor, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The explosion of the reactor unit 4 of the NPP Chernobyl and the subsequent fire was up to now the most severe accident in the civil nuclear industry. The consequences of the accident far outside the Ukraine and the former Soviet Union demonstrated that nuclear safety is a trans-border challenge. The mitigation of the accident consequences and the recovery of safety for the public, the workers and the environment required outstanding efforts and the international cooperation was of significant importance. The contribution discusses experiences and practical aspects of the international cooperation and implications for future cooperation options for the long-term removal of accident consequences.

  20. Management, administrative and operational causes of the accident: Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastas, G.

    1996-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred in April 1986, was the result of management, administrative, operational, technical and design flaws. The accident released millions of curies of mixed fission products including 70-100 PBq of 137 Cs. At the time of the accident, science, engineering and safety in the former Soviet Union were dominated by an atmosphere of politics, group think and 'dingoes tending the sheep'. This corrupted safety culture exacerbated the poor design of the reactor. The results of this study strongly suggest that the cultural, political, managerial and operational attributes of the Soviet 'system' performed in a synergistic manner to significantly contribute to the initiation of the accident. (authors)

  1. Social, economic, institutional and political impact of the Chernobyl accident in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandru, Petrica

    1997-01-01

    Romania is among the countries which was socially, economically, institutionally and politically affected by the Chernobyl accident. The entire Romanian society had been profoundly impressed by the Chernobyl accident because of the values of radioactive contamination on the territory of Romania which exceeded considerably the local radioactive background, due to the inherent proximity of accident place and to elliptical and over-estimated official statements broadcast through radio and TV. At institutional level, changes have occurred constantly after 1989 regarding both legislation and administration. All the platforms of the relevant political parties have provisions that are favorable to nuclear field. There are stated diverse preoccupations and objectives for the protection and the safety of the industrial installations that have associated risk of accident. Radiation protection issues and nuclear safety culture have reached a satisfactory level in our society and thereby the political speeches do not annoy anyone when they are proposing poll taxes for activities of decommissioning and transport of radioactive waste. (author)

  2. One decade after Chernobyl. Summing up the consequences of the accident. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. Refs, figs, tabs

  3. Dynamics of natural rehabilitation of Cs 137 soil contamination at the late stage due to the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germenchuk, M.G.; Zhukova, O.M.; Tretyakevich, S.S.; Koreniak, A.P.

    2006-01-01

    As a result of Chernobyl NPP accident, the greatest quantity of radionuclides has fallen on the territory of Belarus, therefore 23% of the territory have been contaminated with Cs 137 with a level exceeding 37 kBq/m 2 on the total area of 46.45 thousand km 2 that has led to the exclusion from an agricultural rotation 2,64 thousand km 2 of farmland. Now, external gamma-radiation on the territory of Belarus is formed due to 'Chernobyl' and 'global' (caused by tests of the nuclear weapon) radioactive losses. A contribution is also done by natural radioactivity. To-date, due to natural radionuclides decay a radiation conditions in zones of Chernobyl contamination has been stabilized and main dose formation radionuclide is Cs 137. In conformity with clause 4 of the Law 'On legal regime of territories, exposed to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident' the territory of the Republic of Belarus is divided into zones depending on radioactive contamination of soil by radionuclides and sizes of a mean-annual effective dose. The estimation of a dose of external irradiation demands establishment of interrelation between the level of soil contamination with radionuclides and created by them exposure dose power (EDP). As a quantitative size of this link, a normalized on density of contamination of soil Cs 137 EDP at 1 m height is most used which is formed by all radionuclides and is called the transition coefficient 'density of contamination of soil Cs 137 - EDP'. In the given work, empirical values of factor of transition on items of supervision of a network of the radiation monitoring, registered in National System of Environment Monitoring (NSEM) Republic of Belarus have been determined. The carried out data analysis for 1993-2003 showed, that: Value of transition factor within 10 years have changed from 0,054 μR/h/kBq·m 2 to 0,041 μR/h/kBq·m 2 (with 2,0 μR/h/Ci·km 2 to 1,5 μR/h/Ci·km 2 ). Decrease of EDP from 'Chernobyl' radioactive

  4. Telomere length in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late period after the disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reste, Jelena; Zvigule, Gunda; Zvagule, Tija; Kurjane, Natalja; Eglite, Maija; Gabruseva, Natalija; Berzina, Dace; Plonis, Juris; Miklasevics, Edvins

    2014-11-01

    The outcome of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) accident was that a huge number of people were exposed to ionizing radiation. Previous studies of CNPP clean-up workers from Latvia revealed a high occurrence of age-associated degenerative diseases and cancer in young adults, as well as a high mortality as a result of cardiovascular disorders at age 45-54 years. DNA tandem repeats that cap chromosome ends, known as telomeres, are sensitive to oxidative damage and exposure to ionizing radiation. Telomeres are important in aging processes and carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of protracted ionizing radiation exposure on telomere length in CNPP clean-up workers. Relative telomere length (RTL) was measured in peripheral blood leukocytes of 595 CNPP clean-up workers and 236 gender- and age-matched controls using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Close attention was paid to participation year and tasks performed during the worker's stay in Chernobyl, health status, and RTL differences between subgroups. Telomere shortening was not found in CNPP clean-up workers; on the contrary, their RTL was slightly greater than in controls (P = 0.001). Longer telomeres were found in people who worked during 1986, in those undertaking 'dirty' tasks (digging and deactivation), and in people with cancer. Shorter telomeres appeared frequently in those with cataract, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, or coronary heart disease. We conclude that the longer telomeres revealed in people more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation probably indicate activation of telomerase as a chromosome healing mechanism following damage, and reflect defects in telomerase regulation that could potentiate carcinogenesis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  5. Telomere length in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late period after the disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reste, Jelena; Zvagule, Tija; Kurjane, Natalja; Eglite, Maija; Zvigule, Gunda; Berzina, Dace; Plonis, Juris; Miklasevics, Edvins; Gabruseva, Natalija

    2014-01-01

    The outcome of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) accident was that a huge number of people were exposed to ionizing radiation. Previous studies of CNPP clean-up workers from Latvia revealed a high occurrence of age-associated degenerative diseases and cancer in young adults, as well as a high mortality as a result of cardiovascular disorders at age 45–54 years. DNA tandem repeats that cap chromosome ends, known as telomeres, are sensitive to oxidative damage and exposure to ionizing radiation. Telomeres are important in aging processes and carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of protracted ionizing radiation exposure on telomere length in CNPP clean-up workers. Relative telomere length (RTL) was measured in peripheral blood leukocytes of 595 CNPP clean-up workers and 236 gender- and age-matched controls using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Close attention was paid to participation year and tasks performed during the worker's stay in Chernobyl, health status, and RTL differences between subgroups. Telomere shortening was not found in CNPP clean-up workers; on the contrary, their RTL was slightly greater than in controls (P = 0.001). Longer telomeres were found in people who worked during 1986, in those undertaking 'dirty' tasks (digging and deactivation), and in people with cancer. Shorter telomeres appeared frequently in those with cataract, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, or coronary heart disease. We conclude that the longer telomeres revealed in people more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation probably indicate activation of telomerase as a chromosome healing mechanism following damage, and reflect defects in telomerase regulation that could potentiate carcinogenesis. (author)

  6. Worst accident in the world. Chernobyl: the end of the nuclear dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, N; Lean, G; Leigh, D; McKie, R; Pringle, P; Wilson, A

    1986-01-01

    This is the full story of Chernobyl, before, during and after the reactor accident in April 1986. The scene is set at Chernobyl in the Ukraine. The nature of radioactivity, the risks and the health hazards posed by radioactivity and the world-wide nuclear energy scene are then discussed, followed by the particular nuclear situation in Russia. This includes the background to the nuclear power industry in Russia - its history, personnel and management, and ultimately the building of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The accident itself is then explained, minute by minute. The consequences, both short-term and long-term, on the immediate area and the rest of Europe are discussed. These are the medical effects on humans, the effects on the environment and the effect on the nuclear policies of the whole world.

  7. Health effect predictions from the Chernobyl accident for the Bulgarian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, G.

    1992-01-01

    Contamination of Bulgaria's territory from atmospheric transfer of radioactive products released by the disrupted Chernobylsk reactor is discussed. The mean effective doses derived are given. To predict health implications for the population use was made of the risk coefficients and approaches proposed in ICRP Publication 60 (1990). As regards stochastic effects, estimations indicated: 1) cancer with fatal outcome: a total of 363 cases occurring over 50 to 70 years (the lifetime of a generation); 2) nonfatal (curable) cancer: a total of 107 cases; 3) serious heritable effects: a total of 80 cases. Calculations of radiation doses involved two major assumptions: at the time of the accident people were continuously staying at their permanent place of residence; they were mostly consuming food of local origin. The predicted health consequences are of a probabilistic nature and serve to make comparative evaluations with other sources of radiation exposure, and as guides for epidemiologic studies. It is such studies that will enable to evaluate the harm actually incurred at the time of Chernobyl accident. (author)

  8. Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning up participants in Ukraine -health status epidemiologic study main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzunov, V.; Omelyanetz, N.; Strapko, N.; Ledoschuck, B.; Krasnikova, L.; Kartushin, G.

    1996-01-01

    The Epidemiologic Studies System for Chernobyl NPP Accident consequences cleaning up participants (CNPP ACCP) health status was worked out and than improving in Ukraine after the CNPP Accident. The State Register of Ukraine both with several other Registers are the organizational, methodological and informational basis here. The ACCP health status worsening ,-was registered in dynamics through the post-accidental period i.e. the nervous system, digestive system, blood circulation system, respiratory system, bone-muscular system, endocrine and genitourinary systems chronic non-tumoral pathology both with mental disorders amount increase. In cohort study the differences of morbidity formation were fixed among emergency workers with different radiation exposure doses. The dependence of leukemia morbidity on presence in 30-km zone duration was noticed, it's access manifested 5 years after the participance in ACC. The ACCP disablement increase with main reason of general somatic diseases, and annual mortality growth are registered. But that doesn't exceed the mortality rate among population of working age in Ukraine

  9. Thyroid cancer incidence in the Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident: comparison with spontaneous incidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, B.; Kairo, I.; Likhtarev, I.; Heidenreich, W.F.; Jacob, P.; Goulko, G.

    1997-01-01

    The thyroid cancer incidence in the Ukraine among those born in the period 1968-1986 was analyzed with the aim to identify the enhancement due to the Chernobyl accident. Since any Ukrainian data referring to the time period before the accident are scarce and the variation of spontaneous incidences in other countries is immense, the Ukrainian incidences in the period 1986-1989 were used to estimate the baseline risk. Following 1990, the incidence in the southern part of the Ukraine increased by about 30%, independent of age. In the other parts the increase of the incidence depended on age at exposure. In the age group of 9-year-old children, the incidences in three regions defined as the 'high-dose area', the northern, and the middle oblasts, increased by factors of 50, 20, and 6, respectively. These rates (1991-1995) are well above spontaneous rates in other countries. In the age group of 17-year-old juveniles, the incidence increased by a factor of 6 for the 'high dose area' and in the three northern oblasts, whereas in the nine 'middle' oblasts it was similar to the incidence of the 'southern' Ukraine. These rates are within the range found in other countries. (orig.)

  10. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on radioactivity in Swedish reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahman, B.; Aahman, G.

    1995-01-01

    Fallout radiocesium is effectively transferred to reindeer and the transfer is highly dependent on the season. The reduction of radiocesium from the soil-pasture-reindeer ecosystem has occurred with a higher rate after the Chernobyl fallout than after the nuclear weapons tests. Effective countermeasures have helped to prevent contamination of reindeer meat intended for human consumption. Nevertheless, the fallout from Chernobyl will probably remain a problem for reindeer husbandry in the contaminated parts of Sweden for a least 20 more years. 6 refs., 2 figs

  11. Long term radiocesium contamination of fruit trees following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonopoulos-Domis, M.; Clouvas, A.; Gagianas, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radiocesium contamination form the Chernobyl accident of fruits and leaves from various fruit trees was systematically studied form 1990-1995 on two agricultural experimentation farms in Northern Greece. The results are discussed in the framework of a previously published model describing the long-term radiocesium contamination mechanism of deciduous fruit trees after a nuclear accident. The results of the present work qualitatively verify the model predictions. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. Long term radiocesium contamination of fruit trees following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos-Domis, M; Clouvas, A; Gagianas, A

    1996-12-01

    Radiocesium contamination from the Chernobyl accident of fruits and leaves from various fruit trees was systematically studied from 1990 to 1995 on two agricultural experimentation farms in Northern Greece. The results are discussed in the framework of a previously published model describing the long-term radiocesium contamination mechanism of deciduous fruit trees after a nuclear accident. The results of the present work qualitatively verify the model predictions.

  13. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its impact on the aquatic environment (marine and freshwater)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident of 1986 on the freshwater and marine environment of the British Isles is discussed. Particular reference is made to the monitoring of radionuclide concentrations in foodstuffs such as shellfish, molluscs, trout, watercress and laverbread and the possible restrictions on their consumption by the public. Attention is drawn to the effects of the accident on the marine environment in a wider context. (U.K.)

  14. Recalculation of thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident in a iodine deficient area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olko, P.; Niewiadomski, T.; Budzanowski, M.; Szybinski, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The thyroid doses were estimated in Poland shortly after the Chernobyl accident with assumption of stable iodine consumption for the reference man and areas with ''standard'' stable iodine consumption. These estimates are not representative for southern part of Poland which is known as the iodine deficient area. Therefore the thyroid doses were recalculated based on the real and differentiated stable iodine intakes for people groups of different age without and with thyroid blockade after the accident. (author). 11 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Recalculation of thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident in a iodine deficient area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olko, P; Niewiadomski, T; Budzanowski, M [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Szybinski, Z [Jagiellonian Univ., Cracow (Poland). Dept. of Endocrinology

    1996-08-01

    The thyroid doses were estimated in Poland shortly after the Chernobyl accident with assumption of stable iodine consumption for the reference man and areas with ``standard`` stable iodine consumption. These estimates are not representative for southern part of Poland which is known as the iodine deficient area. Therefore the thyroid doses were recalculated based on the real and differentiated stable iodine intakes for people groups of different age without and with thyroid blockade after the accident. (author). 11 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs.

  16. Health effects of Chernobyl accident. A WHO·IPHECA pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Tamiko

    1996-01-01

    IPHECA (International Programme on Health Effects of Chernobyl Accident) made in 1991 includes the projects for thyroid, hematology, fetal exposure, registration for epidemiological examination and oral hygiene in Belarus. Following conclusions have been obtained by the Programme. One of serious health effects was the increase of registered diseases independent on radiation. This was mainly derived from socio-psychological effects, which were conceivably independent on direct radiation exposure. Rapid increase of thyroid cancer of children was observed in the contaminated areas, especially in Belarus. The total number of the patients in 3 countries was 565 by 1994. No significant increase of leukemia and other hematological diseases was seen. There were some data suggesting that fetal exposure resulted in mental or behavior abnormalities of newborns, which could not be fully understood because of lack of the radiological data. No difference was observed in oral diseases in Belarus and other regions. These findings can help to make the guidelines for planning and developing the future investigations and examinations. (H.O.)

  17. Metrological data and risk assessment in France during the Chernobyl accident (26 april 1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.; Paulin, R.; Coursaget, J.

    2005-01-01

    Three world famous radio biologists have presented in june 2003 a communication entitled ' metrological data and risk assessment in France during the Chernobyl accident. Historical statement'. This text is published at the tome 326, fsc. 8, page 699-715 at the 'Comptes Rendus de Biologie de l'Academie'. The digest is presented here. (N.C.)

  18. Identification and assay of radionuclides in the environmental samples following Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, S.

    1987-01-01

    In India radioactivity was detected from 2 May 1986 onwards. A variety of samples were assayed for radionuclides in the environmental samples originating from the Chernobyl reactor accident. These are: Cotton swipe samples from aircrafts, air filters, milk, goat thyroids, grass, vegetables and tap waters. The results are presented in the paper

  19. Pathology of the reproductive system and thyroid of women liquidators of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babkin, A.A.; Merkulova, I.P.

    2014-01-01

    Data of the annual health follow up of the 100 women-liquidators of the Chernobyl accident performed by Republic centre of medical rehabilitation and balneotherapy have been analyzed. The high frequency of thyroid disease as well as the reproductive system pathology revealed: they were detected in 96% and 87% patients correspondingly. Oncological diseases were detected in 25% of studied cohort. (authors)

  20. Physical working ability in Chernobyl accident liquidators with arterial hypertension accompanied by thyroid pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amyirazyan, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    The study involved 100 participants of the Chernobyl accident clean-up (men, aged 27 - 49) whose documented dose of irradiation was not more than 30 cGy. The controls were the liquidators with normal arterial pressure without thyroid pathology

  1. Measured transfer factors in milk and meat after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonka, H.; Kueppers, J.; Maqua, M.

    1988-01-01

    After the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl the radioactivity in the environment in Aachen was measured in detail at the Lehrgebiet Strahlenschutz in der Kerntechnik. The change of the different radionuclides in the eco-system made it possible to obtain radioecological parameters especially for iodine and caesium. The knowledge about the transport of iodine into cow's milk could be very much improved

  2. Some considerations about the effects of population irradiation after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, P.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis carried out with the help of CEA documents and statistical, historical and experimental studies intended to answer to some questions raised by the Chernobyl accident, concerning: risks induced by the reactor explosion in USSR and the neighbouring countries; possibility of similar catastrophe in France and countermeasures used by the authorities [fr

  3. Investigations of radioactivity level variations in Armenia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalbandyan, A.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution of biosphere has been acquiring a special topicality after nuclear weapon testing and NPP-induced accidents that have already brought to global pollution of the Earth with radioactive substances. One of visual examples of regional radioactive pollution is dispersion of emissions all over the territory of Central Europe after the Chernobyl accident, which aftermaths impacted Armenia, as well. Monitoring investigations in the Ararat Valley showed a precise peak of gross radioactivity of atmospheric fallout in 1986 - the year of Chernobyl accident. Gross mean annual radioactivity was established 1783 10 7 Bq/KXm 2 yr. Later, a sharp fall in the activity was observed. Mostly, radioactive fallout consisted of short-lived radionuclides. Measurements for 1986-1987 showed that gross β-radioactivity level in soils amounted to 977-1022 Bq/KXg, repeated measurements in 1991 allowed establishing 640-656 Bq/KXg. A precise indicator of radioactive emissions that reached Armenia after the Chernobyl accident was a short-lived radionuclide 134 Cs (T 1 /2=2.07 yr) identified in soils. Measurements made 2 years later showed half as much decay of 134 Cs, and in some points established were its traces only. 137 Cs/134 Cs ratio in varied 1.4 to 1.8 in atmospheric fallout and 2.1 to 33.4 in soils. Thus, monitoring investigations evidence a regional character of Chernobyl emission dispersion, this being proved by investigations of radioactivity level variations in Armenia, too

  4. The information psychological periodization of the Chernoby'l NPP accident information in the mass media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugrim, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    The activity of mass media reflecting the Chernobyl' accident in 1986-1991 has been surveilled. The information (radio, television, press conferences) given at this period was devided into seven classification periods. The analysis of the information and its assessment in each period was demonstrated. 6 refs

  5. Pathmorphological investigation of pulmonary infections complications in persons dying from acute radiation sickness after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, P.A.; Kvacheva, Yu.E.

    1993-01-01

    Lungs of 27 persons who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident and died from acute radiation sickness were studied histologically. Pulmonary infections were found, including invasion of viral, bacterial and fungal agents. Being depended on hematopoietic function the inflammatory reactions were areactive during postirradiation aplasia and became typical within the recovery beginning

  6. The short life radionuclides in meat after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smelcerovic, M.; Popovic, D.; Djuric, G.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents the results of identification and short life radionuclides (I-131, Te (I)-132, Cs-136, Ce-141, 144, Ru-103, 106, Ba(La)-140, Zr-95, Nb-95, Mo-99, Sb-125) mass activities evaluation in meat (lamb, rabbit, game) after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl in 1986. (author)

  7. Ground deposition of long-lived gamma emitters in Poland from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolas, K.; Kubala, M.; Sciezor, T.

    1986-12-01

    Activity composition was measured for the soil contaminated with the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Soil samples were collected at various areas of Poland. A map showing the 137 Cs deposit distribution was drawn for the most contaminated southern part of Poland. 9 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  8. Mastered horror. Life in the Ukraine ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, S.

    1996-01-01

    The book, written in a journalistic style, reports on the visit of the author on her visit to the Ukraine 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. It is based on interviews with the affected population, with scientists (doctors, veterinarians, biologists, psychologists, ecologists), parliamentarians and representatives of the state administration. figs., refs

  9. Results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident and regional analysis of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the results concerning the monitoring of the environmental radioactivity in France following Chernobyl accident. Atmospheric dusts, milk and milk products, vegetables, water and various beverages are analyzed. More than 1500 additional food samples are presented. Regional analysis of radioactivity and human gamma-spectrometric investigations are included [fr

  10. The Chernobyl-4 Reactor and the possible causes of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motte, F.

    1986-01-01

    A description and information about the Chernobyl nuclear reactor is given. Some comparison elements between the RBMK reactor type and GCR, CANDU, SGHWR and Hanford N reactor types are presented. A scenario of the possible causes of the accident is discussed. (A.F.)

  11. State of reproductive system glands in males participated in the Chernobyl accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evdokimov, V.V.; Erasova, V.I.; Demin, A.I.; Dubinina, E.B.; Lyubchenko, P.N.

    1993-01-01

    State of reproductive system glands in males participated in the Chernobyl accident response and exposed to external irradiation at the dose up to 25 cGy was studied. 164 men at the age of 22-50 y.o. were examinated. Percentages of the various reproductive disorders were presented

  12. Level of health of cleaners taking part in the Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margine, L.; Vicol, C.

    2009-01-01

    During the period of 1986-1988 about 3,000 Moldova citizens took part in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences elimination. In this article the level of morbidity, disability and mortality among Chernobyl accident consequences liquidation participants is analyzed. As a result of analysis of medical documentation and statistical data was revealed that the sickness rate among disaster fighters 2,3 times higher than general sickness rate of the population in Moldova. Disability in this category is at average of 73 per cent as opposed to the overall index for the population of Moldova - 4,4%, this means it is 17 times higher. Mortality among the participants of the accident at Chernobyl NPP is 6 times higher of general data. The participants of the breakdown elimination of Chernobyl accident consequences are equal in their right with the participants and invalids of war and with the disabled workers. Medical and social security of this group is regulated by the legislation of the Republic of Moldova

  13. After Chernobyl more important than ever: Radiation exposure and radioactivity. Recommendations for the (dental) practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnabend, E.

    1986-01-01

    Comparisons between the doses to which the skin surface and gonads are generally exposed for X-ray pictures of the teeth and jaws and the elevated environmentl levels of radioactivity measured after the Chernobyl reactor accident have led to the conclusion that during such X-ray procedures relatively high local doses of radioactivity are inevitably applied to the skin surface. The exposure of the gonads, by contrast, can be described as being minimal during X-ray imaging of the teeth and jaws, if the recommended protective measures are taken. (DG) [de

  14. Through the looking glass [investigating the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sich, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    The first Westerner to live and work with the scientists of the Chernobyl 30 km zone recounts his experience. He found research in the Zone to be poorly organised, encumbered with ideology, hampered by layer upon layer of bureaucracy and conducted in an atmosphere of conflict and mutual suspicion. (Author)

  15. The Chernobyl accident is the greatest social ecological and technological catastrophe in a human history. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babosov, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    The lessons of the Chernobyl tragedy for mankind are shown. Ecological consequences of the accident are described. It is given the analysis of social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident - change of a mode of life of the people on the contaminated territories, a development post-catastrophe processes, a migration moods of the population, an aggravation of a demographic situation. Problems of an administrative activity on the contaminated territories are discussed and measures for decrease of the Chernobyl accident consequences are offered. 51 refs., 7 tabs

  16. Long term effects of Minks of the radiation factors from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar, A.Y.; Zamostian, V.P.; Riasenko, V.I.

    1997-01-01

    The study of small radiation dose influence on human and animal reproductive functions becomes more and more topical after Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident. In the number of cases, animals that reside in continues internal, as well as external exposure zone, have pregnancy interruption in its early stages (up to 30 days). This, without any doubts testifies for reproductive process disorder as a whole (hypophysis-ovary-uterus system) and also, as its separate links. The important thing is that a break in any one of those links leads to pregnancy interruption. Hence, in order to determine any disorders in reproductive system functional state, profound and detailed morphofunctional study of the system links (accounting for radiation exposure factors) needs to be done. Because research in this field has just started, we were unable to find any material on this topic. There are, however, some references for morphofunctional changes of endocrine glands, hypophysis in particular and sex glands, refereed to small radiation doses

  17. The rehabilitation strategies in agriculture in the long term after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    The experience gained in the aftermath of the severe radiation accidents shows that in the case of large-scaled radionuclide contamination the limitation of internal radiation doses to people by means of restoration of agricultural lands is more realistic than reduction of levels of external irradiation. Therefore, the problems connected with the optimal restoration strategies of agricultural land subjected to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident are of crucial importance. The justification of the approach for the estimation of the effectiveness of countermeasure strategies in the long term after the Chernobyl accident, based on the classification of farms by contamination density and risk of the exceeding of radiological standards, restricting the use of agricultural products, is presented. For each class of the farms the ranking of rehabilitation options and the time periods when their application would be of importance are given. Comparative analysis of the rehabilitation strategies, which are different in their effectiveness and cost, is provided. (author)

  18. Levels of endogenous regulatory factors in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liasko, L.I.; Souchkevitch, G.N.; Tsyb, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamics of endogenous regulatory factor levels was studied in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident (mean age - 42 years). Irradiation dose for 90% of examined individuals was within 100 mSv range. We observed a decreased level of synthesis of intracellular processes regulators (cAMP, cGMP) and biased ratio of arachidonic acid metabolites (TxB2, 6-Keto-PGF1α) in persons worked in the zone of accident at different time during the period of 1986-1988. The parameters measured were preserved even 4 years later and the changes apparently did not depend on the individual's age and work conditions. However they were most pronounced in liquidators of 1986 and in those who stayed in the Chernobyl accident zone for a long time. There was no evident connection between the dose and extent of the parameter alterations. (author)

  19. Statistical processing of natality data for the Czech Republic before and after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepetkova, Hana; Thinova, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    All available data regarding natality in Czechoslovakia (or the Czech Republic) before and after the Chernobyl accident are summarized. Data from the databases of the Czech Statistical Office and of the State Office for Nuclear Safety were used to analyze natality and mortality of children in the Czech Republic and to evaluate the relationship between the level of contamination and the change in the sex ratio at time of birth that was observed in some areas in November of 1986. Although the change in the ratio of newborn boys-to-girls ratio was statistically significant, no direct relationship between that ratio and the level of contamination was found. Statistically significant changes in the sex ratio also occurred in Czechoslovakia (or in the Czech Republic) in the past, both before and after the accident. Furthermore, no statistically significant changes in the rate of stillbirths and multiple pregnancies were observed after the Chernobyl accident

  20. Malignant neoplasms on the territories of Russia damaged owing to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remennik, L.V.; Starinsky, V.V.; Mokina, V.D.; Chissov, V.I.; Scheplyagina, L.A.; Petrova, G.V.; Rubtsova, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    The work presents the results of descriptive analysis of development of onco epidemiological situation in six of the most polluted regions owing to the Chernobyl accident in 1981-1994. The growth of malignancies incidence is marked in all territories as well as in the Russian Federation as a whole. The most adverse tendencies have been revealed in the Bryansk, Orel, Ryazan regions. It is marked that the formation of a structure, levels and trends of the malignancies incidence has been occurring under influence of a complex of factors usual up to the accident. The analysis of the data from the specialized cancer-register evidences that the incidence of thyroid malignancies is actively growing in the population of the Bryansk region. The probability of connection of growth of the thyroid cancer incidence in children of the Bryansk region with the Chernobyl accident is reasonably high, but should be confirmed through the application of methods of analytical epidemiology

  1. 10 years from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident: consequences and lesson learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Published jointly by the Czech State Office for Nuclear Safety and the Czech National Radiation Protection Institute, the publication gives a succinct account of the cause of the Chernobyl accident and its impact on the former Soviet Union, and concentrates on the effects of the accident on the Czech Republic. The topics dealt with in this respect include, among others: radionuclide contents of foods with particular emphasis on milk products for babies, assessment of surface contamination of the Czech Republic due to the accident, internal contamination of the population as determined by whole-body measurements, assessment of the effective dose equivalents from external irradiation and effective dose equivalent commitments from internal irradiation, cesium radioisotopes in natural ecosystems, and the use of post-Chernobyl monitoring to test radionuclide migration models within the IAEA VAMP programme. (P.A.). 12 tabs., 30 figs., 64 refs

  2. Assessment of radiation risks as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.K.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: the Government of the former USSR had made decision on establishing common registry of exposed persons in several months after the Chernobyl accident. The registry had served in Medical Radiological Research Centre of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Obninsk City till 1992 (the time of dissolution of the USSR). Individual medical and dosimetric information on 659292 persons, including 284907 emergency accident workers (liquidators) had been collected for the period between 1986 and 1991. As of 01.01.1998, National Chernobyl Registry of the Russian Federation has kept individual data on 508236 persons including 167726 liquidators. As it is known, long-term epidemiological study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors resulted in statistically significant assessments of radiation risks for induction of cancer at the dose level above 0.5 Gy. Radiation doses after the Chernobyl accident do not exceed 0.3-0.5 Gy. That is why assessment of radiation risks at low radiation doses is a problem of great importance. As a result of the epidemiological studies performed on the basis of the Russian Chernobyl registry we pioneered the assessment of statistically significant radiation risks for induction of cancer at low radiation dose. (author)

  3. A review on contamination and emergency response actions in USSR, European countries and Japan in the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, Jun; Ohhata, Tsutomu

    1987-01-01

    The accident occurred in the Chernobyl No.4 reactor on April 26, 1986 became the largest accident of nuclear reactors so far as the quantity of release of radioactive substances was very much, and the wide area contamination over the whole Northern Hemisphere was brought about. Consequently, the revision over wide ranges, such as the desigh and operation of nuclear reactors and the response at the time of emergency, was to be urgently demanded. As to this accident, many reports have been already made. In this report, the contamination and the response carried out at the time of emergency including the state in Japan are mainly described. The contents of this report are based on the data sent from the international organizations, the results of measurement by the organizations in respective countries, the publication by USSR at the IAEA expert conference in August, 1986, and the data published in respective countries by research institutes. The state in respective countries after the accident, the radioactivity contamination due to the accident in USSR, European countries and Japan, the diffusion and move of radioactive substances, the countermeasures to the accident such as the estimation of exposure dose, scientific investigation, the evacuation of people and so on are reported. (Kako, I.)

  4. Analysis of radioactive contaminations and radiological hazard in Poland after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnowiecki, K.

    1988-01-01

    It is a report on radiological impact in Poland following the Chernobyl reactor accident prepared in the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The results of measurement and its analysis are presented. Isotopic composition of the contamined air and the concentration of radionuclides are determined. The trajectories of the airborne radioactive material movement from Chernobyl to Poland at the last days of April 1986 are presented. Assessment of the radiological risk of the population is done. 38 refs., 20 figs., 11 tabs. (M.F.W.)

  5. Environmental and agricultural impacts of the Chernobyl NPP accident on the countries of the northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuexian

    1990-12-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on April 26, 1986 resulted in large quantities of radioactive materials being released into the atmosphere. The environmental contaminations and agricultural impacts of the accident on the countries of the northern hemisphere were reviewed. Radiological consequences of the accident were briefly assessed. The data were presented on the results of radioactivity monitoring for air, ground and water, average individual effective dose commitment for each county, and levels of contamination on plant cover, milk, meat in live animals, food, aquatic, and other agricultural products etc. The transfer coefficients of radionuclides in grass-(cow)-milk were listed. Finally, problems on radioecology were discussed

  6. What one should know about radiation. Comparison of radiation burden from the Chernobyl accident and the atomic weapons test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtscher, A

    1986-01-01

    The natural radiation burden, that due to the Chernobyl accident and the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in Austria are compared. The overall Chernobyl burden is estimated at 50-70% of the annual natural burden and thus less than the burden from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. (G.Q.).

  7. Dosimetry problems when evaluating radiation effects on the personnel, restoration work participants, and human population due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, Yu.V.; Osanov, D.P.; Gimadova, T.I.; Gus'kov, V.M.; Kruchkov, V.P.; Pavlov, D.A.; Shaks, A.I.

    1993-01-01

    System of radiation monitoring operations of the Chernobyl NPP personnel is described for the period from the date of accident up to present time as well as of persons worked in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, servicemen, and human population. Unsatisfactory organization of radiation on monitoring is marked and causes of this fact are considered. 8 refs.; 3 figs

  8. World after Chernobyl. What does the nuclear accident mean to us. Vaerlden efter Tjernobyl. Vad betyder kaernkraftsolyckan foer oss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoequist, E; Eckered, T

    1986-01-01

    The reactor accident in Chernobyl on April 26 1986 is described, and in particular, the dissemination of information about the accident in Sweden and abroad. The authors also discuss the health impact to people in Sweden from the reactor accident, and the implications for the future of nuclear power.

  9. Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: what has changed in the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamrane, Y.; Wybo, J.-L.; Armand, P.

    2013-01-01

    The threat of a major accidental or deliberate event that would lead to hazardous materials emission in the atmosphere is a great cause of concern to societies. This is due to the potential large scale of casualties and damages that could result from the release of explosive, flammable or toxic gases from industrial plants or transport accidents, radioactive material from nuclear power plants (NPPs), and chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) terrorist attacks. In order to respond efficiently to such events, emergency services and authorities resort to appropriate planning and organizational patterns. This paper focuses on the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling (ADM) as a support tool for emergency planning and response, to assess the propagation of the hazardous cloud and thereby, take adequate counter measures. This paper intends to illustrate the noticeable evolution in the operational use of ADM tools over 25 y and especially in emergency situations. This study is based on data available in scientific publications and exemplified using the two most severe nuclear accidents: Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). It appears that during the Chernobyl accident, ADM were used few days after the beginning of the accident mainly in a diagnosis approach trying to reconstruct what happened, whereas 25 y later, ADM was also used during the first days and weeks of the Fukushima accident to anticipate the potentially threatened areas. We argue that the recent developments in ADM tools play an increasing role in emergencies and crises management, by supporting stakeholders in anticipating, monitoring and assessing post-event damages. However, despite technological evolutions, its prognostic and diagnostic use in emergency situations still arise many issues. -- Highlights: • Study of atmospheric dispersion modeling use during nuclear accidents. • ADM tools were mainly used in a diagnosis approach during Chernobyl accident. • ADM tools were also used

  10. Chernobyl'-88. Reports of the 1. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 1. Radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    Information on the contamination levels within the 30 km area and in the adjacent area after the Chernobyl'-4 reactor accident is presented. There are some data on reper isotope ratio which add some knowledge about the processes taking place in the reactor core after the reactor accident. The time-dependent background radiation variations for the first two years after the accident are demonstrated

  11. THE DYNAMICS OF FOOD RATIONS OF BRYANSK REGION POPULATION LIVING IN THE TERRITORIESCONTAMINATED AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Travnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the years passed after the Chernobyl accident we are carrying out monitoring of the radiation situation in the Sough-Western territories of the Bryansk region, contaminated with the long-living radionuclides which includes 137Сs concentration measurements in agricultural and natural foodstuffs, surveys of local populations on the structure and composition of the diet accompanied with 137Сs content measurements in the human body. In the article the obtained data is systematized on the food rations of the adult population of theBryansk region, on food rations dynamics in the first and following years after the accident, which is necessary for the correct estimation of internal exposure doses of the population living on the contaminated territories.

  12. The post-accident protective measures in the region of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasechnikov, A.

    1993-01-01

    The strategy of protective measures and the system of intervention levels are considered. It makes it possible to limit the region where post-accident measures must be taken. The concept of 'safe living' for life and surface contamination concept are discussed. The measurement results of a surface contamination are pointed out in the maps for series settlements of the 30 km zone. The features of severe accidents to nuclear power plants are that damage is caused not only by destruction and downtime of power installations, but also by radioactive contamination of the environment. Therefore, the term 'severe accident' is accepted to mean an accident with an off-site impact, which requires to perform large-scale and expensive work on elimination of the consequences of the accident. The whole off-site damage due to the Chernobyl accident is caused exclusively by contamination, as no destruction was observed beyond the site. As a result of the Chernobyl accident the greatest short-term releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere occurred from a single source. Four elements from all the materials released from the core have determined the short-term and long-term radiological situation in the affected areas. These are iodine, cesium, strontium and plutonium. Moreover, in the releases there were highly - radioactive fragments of fuel (hot particles). 7 figs

  13. Study of needles morphometric indexes in Scots pine trees in 25 years after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarenko, E.S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Russia, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation); Oudalova, A.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Russia, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation); Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 249032, Obninsk, Russia, Studgorodok, 1 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Long-term observations of coniferous tree populations within areas contaminated after radiation accidents provide unique information on biological consequences in plant populations from chronic radiation exposure. Many studies have been performed in a near zone of the Chernobyl NPP where in the primary period after the accident non-human biota was exposed to high doses, and dose rates essentially exceed natural radiation background up to now. Of special interest, however, are biological effects in plant and animal populations inhabiting territories with less pronounced exposure levels. Pine is especially important species for investigation in the field of environment radiation protection since it is included in the ICRP reference plants and animals list as one of the most radiosensitive plant species. The aim of this work was to estimate biological effects of chronic radiation impact for pine trees using needle indexes as test-functions. Study-sites are situated in the Bryansk Region of Russia contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. Scots pine populations under study have been growing in the radioactively contaminated areas over 20 years. In 2011 and 2013 samples of 2-years old needle were collected at 6 study-sites. {sup 137}Cs activities in soils at the time of sampling were from 1.57 to 96.9 kBq/kg. Estimated annual doses to pine tree crowns were calculated in a range of 7-130 mGy. Length and weight of the needles were measured, and necrosis rank was determined. Developmental disturbances were estimated via indexes of fluctuating asymmetry calculation for length (FA{sub L}) and weight (FA{sub W}) characteristics. Needle length of the Scots pine from study-sites ranged from 64.8 to 80.2 mm. Needle weight ranged from 18.2 to 30.5 mg, and was higher at radioactively contaminated sites in comparison to reference populations. Correlation of morphometric parameters and radiation impact was, however, statistically insignificant. Normal needle appeared with frequency

  14. Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children's health ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukyanova, E.M.; Antipkine, Y.G.; Omelchenko, L.I.; Chernyshov, V.P.; Apuhovskaya, L.I.; Ossinskaya, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children's population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ''Children of Chernobyl''. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ''clean'' regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  15. Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children`s health ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukyanova, E M; Antipkine, Y G; Omelchenko, L I; Chernyshov, V P; Apuhovskaya, L I; Ossinskaya, L F [Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-09-01

    These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children`s population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ``Children of Chernobyl``. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ``clean`` regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  16. Demographic situation in the Kaluga region for 1976-1992. Possible consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omel'chenko, V.N.; Kurochkina, O.I.; Kostina, M.A.; Sidenko, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper studies the demographic situation in different areas of the Kaluga region contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident, during 1976-1992. The following indices received the particular attention: the composition of population, size of population, birth rate, mortality, child mortality. It is shown that during the investigated period no variations of the size of population, of the mortality and of the increment of population resulted from the Chernobyl accident were detected

  17. Status of the organs of the digestive system in employees of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant engaged in recovery work after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaimenko, L.; Moroz, G.Z.; Sobchuk, Y.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work deals with the status of the digestive system in employees of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant engaged in recovery work after the accident. Morphological and functional changes suffered by the digestive organs on exposure to ionizing radiation in doses leading to the development of acute radiation sickness are described. The effect of small doses ionizing radiation on the human body is indicated too. (O.L.). 15 refs., 1 tab

  18. Pregnancy outcome in Finland after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harjulehto, T.; Saxen, L.; Rahola, T.; Suomela, M.; Arvela, H.

    1991-01-01

    The explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant caused radioactive fallout in Finland in April-May 1986. The fallout was unevenly distributed geographically, and accordingly, the country was divided into 3 fallout zones. Whole-body radioactivity measurements of randomly chosen persons showed that the regional differences prevailed throughout the following 2 years. Data for legal abortions, registered congenital malformations as well as preterm births and stillbirths of malformed children were collected. The corresponding expected figures were obtained from statistics for 1984 and 1985. No differences in the expected/observed rates of the above parameters were detected

  19. Investigation on the health effects and radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu; Yokoyama, Naokata

    1996-01-01

    In the screening of the thyroid diseases in the radiation cohort, it is essential to make correct diagnosis, to measure radiation dose in every subjects and to analyze the dose response relationship by the most appropriate statistical method. Based on experiences of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki, children around Chernobyl area were examined. In the Chernobyl accident, various investigations were supported by many international organizations and groups in the world. More than 80,000 children were screened in 5 diagnostic centers; Klincy in Russia, Mogilev and Gomel in Beralus and Kiev and Korosten in Ukraine. Children with thyroid cancer confirmed by histology were 2 in Mogilev. 19 in Gomel, 6 in Kiev, 5 in Korosten and 4 in Klincy until the end of 1994. The prevalence of thyroid cancer was remarkably high (lowest 100 and highest 1,000/million children), compared to the other parts of the world (0.2 to 5/millions/year). However, there was no dose response relationship between the prevalence of thyroid diseases and whole body 137 Cs radioactivity or the soil 137 Cs radio contaminated levels. Although a significant correlation between thyroid cancer and reconstructed thyroid 131 I dose was presented, there are no previous reports to prove that 131 I produces thyroid cancer in human. It is concluded about childhood thyroid cancer around Chernobyl that; it is confirmed that there are many children with thyroid cancer in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia and its diagnosis is correct. The increases of the incidence of thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl accident is probable confirmed. It is suspected but no confirmed that cause of thyroid cancer is the radioactive fallout of Chernobyl accident. Investigation on internal radiation and short lived isotopes along with 131 I may be important to elucidate the cause of thyroid cancer. (K.H.)

  20. The accident at Chernobyl and its implications for the safety of CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    In August 1986, a delegation of Canadians, including two members of the staff of the AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board), attended a post-accident review meeting in Vienna, at which Soviet representatives described the accident and its causes and consequences. On the basis of the information presented at that meeting, AECB staff conducted a study of the accident to ascertain its implications for the safety of CANDU nuclear reactors and for the regulatory process in Canada. The conclusion of this review is that the accident at Chernobyl has not revealed any important new information which would have an effect on the safety requirements for CANDU reactors as presently applied by the AECB. All important aspects of the accident and its causes have been considered by the AECB in the licensing process for currently licensed reactors. However a number of recommendations are made with respect to aspects of reactor safety which should be re-examined in order to reinforce this conclusion