WorldWideScience

Sample records for cherenkov based detector

  1. TORCH - a Cherenkov-based time-of-flight detector

    CERN Document Server

    van Dijk, M W U; Cowie, E N; Cussans, D; D' Ambrosio, C; Forty, R; Frei, C; Gys, T; Piedigrossi, D; Castillo Garcia, L; Fopma, J; Gao, R; Harnew, N; Keri, T

    2014-01-01

    TORCH is an innovative high-precision time-of-flight system to provide particle identification in the difficult intermediate momentum region up to 10 GeV/c. It is also suitable for large-area applications. The detector provides a time-of-flight measurement from the imaging of Cherenkov photons emitted in a 1 cm thick quartz radiator. The photons propagate by total internal reflection to the edge of the quartz plate, where they are focused onto an array of photon detectors at the periphery. A time-of-flight resolution of about 10–15 ps per incident charged particle needs to be achieved for a three sigma kaon–pion separation up to 10 GeV/c momentum for the TORCH located 9.5 m from the interaction point. Given ∼ 30 detected photons per incident charged particle, this requires measuring the time-of-arrival of individual photons to about 70 ps. This paper will describe the design of a TORCH prototype involving a number of ground-breaking and challenging techniques.

  2. LUCID A Cherenkov Tube Based Detector for Monitoring the ATLAS Experiment Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Sbrizzi, A

    2007-01-01

    The LUCID (LUminosity Cherenkov Integrating Detector) apparatus is composed by two symmetric arms deployed at about 17 m from the ATLAS interaction point. The purpose of this detector, which will be installed in january 2008, is to monitor the luminosity delivered by the LHC machine to the ATLAS experiment. An absolute luminosity calibration is needed and it will be provided by a Roman Pot type detector with the two arms placed at about 240 m from the interaction point. Each arm of the LUCID detector is based on an aluminum vessel containing 20 Cherenkov tubes, 15 mm diameter and 1500 mm length, filled with C4F10 radiator gas at 1.5 bar. The Cherenkov light generated by charged particles above the threshold is collected by photomultiplier tubes (PMT) directly placed at the tubes end. The challenging aspect of this detector is its readout in an environment characterized by the high dose of radiation (about 0.7 Mrad/year at 10^33cm^2 s^-1) it must withstand. In order to fulfill these radiation hardness requirem...

  3. Geant4 based simulation of the Water Cherenkov Detectors of the LAGO Project

    CERN Document Server

    Calderón, R; Núñez, L A

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the signals registered by the different types of water Cherenkov detectors (WCD) used by the Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO) Project, it is necessary to develop detailed simulations of the detector response to the flux of secondary particles at the detector level. These particles are originated during the interaction of cosmic rays with the atmosphere. In this context, the LAGO project aims to study the high energy component of gamma rays bursts (GRBs) and space weather phenomena by looking for the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). Focus in this, a complete and complex chain of simulations is being developed that account for geomagnetic effects, atmospheric reaction and detector response at each LAGO site. In this work we shown the first steps of a GEANT4 based simulation for the LAGO WCD, with emphasis on the induced effects of the detector internal diffusive coating.

  4. The BRAHMS ring imaging Cherenkov detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbe, R.; Jørgensen, C. E.; Olness, J.; Yin, Z.

    2007-01-01

    A Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector built for the BRAHMS experiment at the Brookhaven RHIC is described. This detector has a high index of refraction gas radiator. Cherenkov light is focused on a photo-multiplier based photon detector with a large spherical mirror. The combination of momentum and ring radius measurement provides particle identification from 2.5 to 35 GeV/ c for pions and kaons and well above 40 GeV/ c for protons during runs that had the radiator index of refraction set at n-1=1700×10-6.

  5. Gadolinium study for a water Cherenkov detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kibayashi, Atsuko

    2009-01-01

    Modification of large water Cherenkov detectors by addition of gadolinium has been proposed. The large cross section for neutron capture on Gd will greatly improve the sensitivity to antielectron neutrinos from supernovae and reactors. A five-year project to build and develop a prototype detector based on Super-Kamiokande (SK) has started. We are performing various studies, including a material soak test in Gd solution, light attenuation length measurements, purification system development, and neutron tagging efficiency measurements using SK data and a Geant4-based simulation. We present an overview of the project and the recent R&D results.

  6. CHERENCUBE: Concept definition and implementation challenges of a Cherenkov-based detector block for PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somlai-Schweiger, I., E-mail: ian.somlai@tum.de; Ziegler, S. I. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Strasse 22, München 81675 (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: A new concept for a depth-of-interaction (DOI) capable time-of-flight (TOF) PET detector is defined, based only on the detection of Cherenkov photons. The proposed “CHERENCUBE” consists of a cubic Cherenkov radiator with position-sensitive photodetectors covering each crystal face. By means of the spatial distribution of the detected photons and their time of arrival, the point of interaction of the gamma-ray in the crystal can be determined. This study analyzes through theoretical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations the potential advantages of the concept toward reaching a Cherenkov-only detector for TOF-PET with DOI capability. Furthermore, an algorithm for the DOI estimation is presented and the requirements for a practical implementation of the proposed concept are defined. Methods: The Monte Carlo simulations consisted of a cubic crystal with one photodetector coupled to each one of the faces of the cube. The sensitive area of the detector matched exactly the crystal size, which was varied in 1 mm steps between 1 × 1 × 1 mm{sup 3} and 10 × 10 × 10 mm{sup 3}. For each size, five independent simulations of ten thousand 511 keV gamma-rays were triggered at a fixed distance of 10 mm. The crystal chosen was PbWO{sub 4}. Its scintillation properties were simulated, but only Cherenkov photons were analyzed. Photodetectors were simulated having perfect photodetection efficiency and infinite time resolution. For every generated particle, the analysis considered its creation process, parent and daughter particles, energy, origin coordinates, trajectory, and time and position of detection. The DOI determination is based on the distribution of the emission time of all photons per event. These values are calculated as a function of the coordinates of detection and origin for every photon. The common origin is estimated by finding the distribution with the most similar emission time-points. Results: Detection efficiency increases with crystal size from

  7. LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov detector mirrors

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    In a large dark room, men in white move around an immense structure some 7 m high, 10 m wide and nearly 2.5 m deep. Apparently effortlessly, they are installing the two large high-precision spherical mirrors. These mirrors will focus Cherenkov light, created by the charged particles that will traverse this detector, onto the photon detectors.

  8. Identification of 90Sr/40K Based on Cherenkov Detector for Recovery from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Han, Soorim; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Kaneko, Naomi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Tabata, Makoto

    Although five years have passed since the Fukushima nuclear accident of 2011, the local fisheries have yet to recover from its effects. One reason for this situation is the difficulty of measuring the radioactivity owing to 90Sr in seafood. After the accident, the radioactivity due to Cs isotopes in samples was measured with precision, which facilitated the enforcement of the maximum concentration of Cs radioisotopes in food at 100 Bq/kg, as defined by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan. However, 90Sr is more dangerous than Cs isotopes because it has an effective half-life of 18 years and accumulates in the bone. The radioactivity owing to 90Sr in a sample is difficult to measure because the beta rays from 137Cs or 40K also contribute to the signal. When measured based on the endpoint pulse height as determined by a conventional survey meter, the beta ray signal from 90Y (daughter of 90Sr) cannot be differentiated from the beta rays from other sources. To overcome this difficulty, in this study, we develop a Cherenkov detector based on a silica aerogel with a refractive index of 1.034 that can identify beta rays from 90Y within a background of beta rays from 137Cs and 40K. This instrument involves a detector that is sensitive to beta rays from 90Sr but less sensitive to radiation from other sources. This detector comprises a trigger counter that uses scintillating fibers, an aerogel Cherenkov counter with wavelength-shifting fibers, and a veto counter to suppress cosmic rays. We characterize the detector using a 90Sr source, 137Cs source, and pure potassium chloride reagent of 16.6 Bq/g, where the radioactivity of natural 40K is estimated to be 31.7 Bq/g. The following results are obtained: the absolute detection efficiency for 90Sr, 137Cs, and 40K is [2.24 ± 0.01 (stat) ± 0.44 (sys)] × 10-3 Bq-1 s-1, [1.27 ± 0.08 (stat) ± 0.25 (sys)] × 10-6 Bq-1 s-1, and [5.05 ± 2.40 (stat) ± 0.15 (sys)] × 10-5 Bq-1 s-1, respectively. To aid in the

  9. Particle Identification in Cherenkov Detectors using Convolutional Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Theodore, Tomalty

    2016-01-01

    Cherenkov detectors are used for charged particle identification. When a charged particle moves through a medium faster than light can propagate in that medium, Cherenkov radiation is released in the shape of a cone in the direction of movement. The interior of the Cherenkov detector is instrumented with PMTs to detect this Cherenkov light. Particles, then, can be identified by the shapes of the images on the detector walls.

  10. Large acceptance forward Cherenkov detector for the BRAHMS experiment at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budick, B.; Beavis, D.; Chasman, C.

    2010-09-01

    A multi-element detector based on Cherenkov radiation in plastic and on photomultiplier tubes has been constructed that is particularly useful in collider experiments. The detector covers the pseudorapidity interval 3.23BRAHMS.

  11. HAWC - The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepe, Andreas; HAWC Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    The high altitude water Cherenkov observatory (HAWC) is an instrument for the detection of high energy cosmic gamma-rays. Its predecessor Milagro has successfully proven that the water Cherenkov technology for gamma-ray astronomy is a useful technique. HAWC is currently under construction at Sierra Negra in Mexico at an altitude of 4100 m and will include several improvements compared to Milagro. Two complementary DAQ systems of the HAWC detector allow for the observation of a large fraction of the sky with a very high duty cycle and independent of environmental conditions. HAWC will observe the gamma-ray sky from about 100 GeV up to 100 TeV. Also the cosmic ray flux anisotropy on different angular length scales is object of HAWC science. Because of HAWC's large effective area and field of view, we describe its prospects to observe gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as an example for transient sources.

  12. Background radiation measurement with water Cherenkov detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertou, X., E-mail: bertou@cab.cnea.gov.a [CONICET/CNEA, Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina); Observatorio Pierre Auger, Av. San Martin Norte 304, 5613 Malarguee (Argentina)

    2011-05-21

    Water Cherenkov Detectors have the nice property of being mostly calorimeters for cosmic ray induced electrons and photons, while providing a clear signal for muons. At large energy deposited in the detector, they observe small extended air showers. This makes them interesting detectors to study the background of cosmic ray secondaries. Using low threshold scaler counters, one can follow the flux of cosmic rays on top of the atmosphere, and/or study atmospheric effects on the cosmic ray shower development. In this paper, background data from the Pierre Auger Observatory are presented. These data are searched for short time-scale variation (one second scale, as expected from Gamma Ray Bursts), and larger time-scale variations, showing modulation effects due to Solar activity (Forbush decreases). Rapid changes in the background flux are also observed during the crossing of storms over the 3000 km{sup 2} of the ground array.

  13. The Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detectors for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Papanestis, Antonis

    2005-01-01

    The success of the LHCb experiment depends heavily on particle identification over the momentum 2-100 GeV/c. To meet this challenge, LHCb uses a Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) system composed of two detectors with three radiators. RICH1 has both aerogel and gas (C$_4$F$_{10}$) radiators, while RICH2 has only a gas (CF$_4$) radiator. The design of RICH1 is almost complete, whereas RICH2 has been constructed and installed (Nov 2005). Novel Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs) have been developed in collaboration with industry to detect the Cherenkov photons. A silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a readout chip is encapsulated in a vacuum tube. A bi-alkali photocathode is deposited on the inside of the quartz entrance window to convert photons in the range 200-600 nm. The pixel chip is manufactured in 0.25 $\\mu$m deep-submicron radiation-tolerant technology and consists of 1024 logical pixels, each pixel having an area of 0.5 mm x 05. Mm. Photo-electrons are accelerated by a 20kV potential, resulting in a signal of ...

  14. Performance test of wavelength-shifting acrylic plastic Cherenkov detector

    CERN Document Server

    Beckford, B; de la Puente, A; Fuji, Y; Futatsukawa, K; Hashimoto, O; Kaneta, M; Kanda, H; Koike, T; Maeda, K; Matsumura, A; Nakamura, S N; Okayasu, Y; Perez, N; Reinhold, J; Shirotori, K; Tamura, H; Tang, L; Tsukada, K

    2010-01-01

    The collection efficiency for Cherenkov light incident on a wavelength shifting plate (WLS) has been determined during a beam test at the Proton Synchrotron facility located in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), Tsukuba, Japan. The experiment was conducted in order to determine the detector's response to photoelectrons converted from photons produced by a fused silica radiator; this allows for an approximation of the detector's quality. The yield of the photoelectrons was measured as a function of the momentum of the incident hadron beam. The yield is proportional to sin2{\\theta}c, where {\\theta}c is the opening angle of the Cherenkov light created. Based on estimations and results from similarly conducted tests, where the collection efficiency was roughly 39%, the experimental result was expected to be around 40% for internally produced light from the WLS. The results of the experiment determined the photon collection response efficiency of the WLS to be roughly 62% for photons created in...

  15. Design of the TORCH detector: A Cherenkov based Time-of-Flight system for particle identification

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078663; Rademacker, Jonas

    The LHCb detector at the LHC collider has been very successfully operated over the past years, providing new and profound insights into the Standard Model, in particular through study of $b$-hadrons to achieve a better understanding of CP violation. One of the key components of LHCb is its particle identification system, comprised of two RICH detectors, which allow for high precision separation of particle species over a large momentum range. In order to retain and improve the performance of the particle identification system in light of the LHCb upgrade, the TORCH detector has been proposed to supplement the RICH system at low momentum (2-10 GeV/c). The TORCH detector provides (charged) particle identification through precision timing of particles passing through it. Assuming a known momentum from the tracking, it is possible to derive the species of a particle from the time of flight from its primary vertex. This measurement is achieved by timing and combining photons generated in a solid radiator. The geom...

  16. GPU-based low-level trigger system for the standalone reconstruction of the ring-shaped hit patterns in the RICH Cherenkov detector of NA62 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cretaro, P.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Piccini, M.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2017-03-01

    This project aims to exploit the parallel computing power of a commercial Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to implement fast pattern matching in the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector for the level 0 (L0) trigger of the NA62 experiment. In this approach, the ring-fitting algorithm is seedless, being fed with raw RICH data, with no previous information on the ring position from other detectors. Moreover, since the L0 trigger is provided with a more elaborated information than a simple multiplicity number, it results in a higher selection power. Two methods have been studied in order to reduce the data transfer latency from the readout boards of the detector to the GPU, i.e., the use of a dedicated NIC device driver with very low latency and a direct data transfer protocol from a custom FPGA-based NIC to the GPU. The performance of the system, developed through the FPGA approach, for multi-ring Cherenkov online reconstruction obtained during the NA62 physics runs is presented.

  17. First observation of Cherenkov ring images using hybrid photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, E.; Wilkinson, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Div. Particle Physics Experiments; Barber, G.; Duane, A.; John, M.; Miller, D.G.; Websdale, D. [Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bibby, J.H.; Giles, R.; Harnew, N.; Smale, N. [University of Oxford, Department of Nuclear Physics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Brook, N.H.; Halley, A.W.; O`Shea, V. [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); French, M. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gibson, V.; Wotton, S.A. [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Schomaker, R. [Delft Electronic Products BV, 9300 AB Roden (Netherlands)

    1998-07-11

    A ring-imaging Cherenkov detector, equipped with hybrid photon detectors, has been operated in a charged-particle beam. Focussed ring images from various particle types were detected using silica aerogel, air and C{sub 4}F{sub 10} gas radiators. The detector, a prototype for the CERN LHC-B experiment, is described and first observations are reported. (orig.)

  18. Application of Geiger-mode photosensors in Cherenkov detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamal, Ahmed, E-mail: gamal.ahmed@assoc.oeaw.ac.a [Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Al-Azhar University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Cairo (Egypt); Paul, Buehler; Michael, Cargnelli [Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Roland, Hohler [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Johann, Marton [Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Herbert, Orth [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Ken, Suzuki [Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-05-21

    Silicon-based photosensors (SiPMs) working in the Geiger-mode represent an elegant solution for the readout of particle detectors working at low-light levels like Cherenkov detectors. Especially the insensitivity to magnetic fields makes this kind of sensors suitable for modern detector systems in subatomic physics which are usually employing magnets for momentum resolution. We are characterizing SiPMs of different manufacturers for selecting sensors and finding optimum operating conditions for given applications. Recently we designed and built a light concentrator prototype with 8x8 cells to increase the active photon detection area of an 8x8 SiPM (Hamamatsu MPPC S10931-100P) array. Monte Carlo studies, measurements of the collection efficiency, and tests with the MPPC were carried out. The status of these developments are presented.

  19. Application of Geiger-mode photo sensors in Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Gamal; Cargnelli, Michael; Hohler, Roland; Marton, Johann; Orth, Herbert; Suzuki, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Silicon-based photosensors (SiPMs) working in the Geiger-mode represent an elegant solution for the readout of particle detectors working at low-light levels like Cherenkov detectors. Especially the insensitivity to magnetic fields makes this kind of sensors suitable for modern detector systems in subatomic physics which are usually employing magnets for momentum resolution. In our institute we are characterizing SiPMs of different manufacturers for selecting sensors and finding optimum operating conditions for given applications. Recently we designed and built a light concentrator prototype with 8x8 cells to increase the active photon detection area of an 8x8 SiPM (Hamamatsu MPPC S10931-100P) array. Monte Carlo studies, measurements of the collection efficiency, and tests with the MPPC were carried out. The status of these developments are presented.

  20. Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ullaland, O

    2011-01-01

    Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors in 'Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '3.3 Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.3 Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors 3.3.1 Introduction 3.3.2 Time of Flight Measurements 3.3.2.1 Scintillator hodoscopes 3.3.2.2 Parallel plate ToF detectors 3.3.3 Cherenkov Radiation 3.3.3.1 ...

  1. Research and Development for a Gadolinium Doped Water Cherenkov Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Renshaw, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The proposed introduction of a soluble gadolinium (Gd) compound into water Cherenkov detectors can result in a high efficiency for the detection of free neutrons capturing on the Gd. The delayed 8 MeV gamma cascades produced by these captures, in coincidence with a prompt positron signal, serve to uniquely identify electron antineutrinos interacting via inverse beta decay. Such coincidence detection can reduce backgrounds, allowing a large Gd-enhanced water Cherenkov detector to make the first observation of supernova relic neutrinos and high precision measurements of Japan's reactor antineutrino flux, while still allowing for all current physics studies to be continued. Now, a dedicated Gd test facility is operating in the Kamioka Mine. This new facility houses everything needed to successfully operate a Gd doped water Cherenkov detector. Successful running of this facility will demonstrate that adding Gd salt to SK is both safe for the detector and is capable of delivering the expected physics benefits.

  2. Light-weight spherical mirrors for Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cisbani, E; Colilli, S; Crateri, R; Cusanno, F; De Leo, R; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Giuliani, F; Gricia, M; Iodice, M; Iommi, R; Lagamba, L; Lucentini, M; Mostarda, A; Nappi, E; Pierangeli, L; Santavenere, F; Urciuoli, G M; Vernin, P

    2003-01-01

    Light-weight spherical mirrors have been appositely designed and built for the gas threshold Cherenkov detectors of the two Hall A spectrometers. The mirrors are made of a 1 mm thick aluminized plexiglass sheet, reinforced by a rigid backing consisting of a phenolic honeycomb sandwiched between two carbon fiber mats epoxy glued. The produced mirrors have a thickness equivalent to 0.55% of radiation length, and an optical slope error of about 5.5 mrad. These characteristics make these mirrors suitable for the implementation in Cherenkov threshold detectors. Ways to improve the mirror features are also discussed in view of their possible employment in RICH detectors.

  3. Cherenkov angle and charge reconstruction with the RICH detector of the AMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barão, F; Borges, J; Gonçalves, P; Pimenta, M; Pérez, I

    2003-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment to be installed on the International Space Station will be equipped with a proximity focusing Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector, for measurements of particle electric charge and velocity. In this note, two possible methods for reconstructing the Cherenkov angle and the electric charge with the RICH are discussed. A Likelihood method for the Cherenkov angle reconstruction was applied leading to a velocity determination for protons with a resolution of around 0.1%. The existence of a large fraction of background photons which can vary from event to event implied a charge reconstruction method based on an overall efficiency estimation on an event-by-event basis.

  4. Features and performance of a large gas Cherenkov detector with threshold regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Alvarez-Taviel, J.; Asenjo, L.; Colino, N.; Diez-Hedo. F.; Duran, I.; Gonzalez, J.; Hernandez, J.J.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Marquina, M.A.

    1988-01-15

    We present here the development, main features and calibration procedures for a new type of gas Cherenkov detector, based upon the ability to control its threshold by regulating the temperature of the gas used as radiator. We also include the performance of this detector in particle identification.

  5. Long term biological developments in water Cherenkov detector media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, M. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Filevich, A., E-mail: filevich@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pizarro, R.; Ibanez, J. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bauleo, P. [Fort Collins, CO (United States); Rodriguez Martino, J. [Pierre Auger Observatory, Malarguee, Mendoza (Argentina)

    2011-12-11

    Fourteen years ago, studies on bacteria growing in clean water were made in order to assess the hazard imposed by a possible expansion of bacteria population in the water tanks of the Pierre Auger Observatory Cherenkov detectors. In 1999 TANGO Array, a reduced-size unitary cell, composed of four water Cherenkov detectors, was constructed at the TANDAR campus of the Atomic Energy Commission, in Buenos Aires, to be used as a working model of the proposed surface array. TANGO Array ran for one year observing energy, intensity, and arrival directions of cosmic rays at sea level. Nine years after it was decommissioned, the water tanks configuring the Cherenkov detectors are still kept closed. In May 2009 water and liner samples from these tanks were collected to determine eventual long term bacteria growth in the internal detector environment, which is very similar to those of the detectors installed in the Malarguee Site. In the present note we report the results of the bacteriological study performed on the samples obtained from the TANGO Array detector tanks. Cultivable, long time surviving, bacterial species were identified, both in the water mass and on the liner surface, and the light transmission in water at the relevant Cherenkov wavelength was studied. An upper limit of possible interferences caused by bacteria is estimated.

  6. The Ring Imaging CHerenkov Detectors of the LHCb Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Perego, Davide Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Particle identification is a fundamental requirement of the LHCb experiment to fulfill its physics programme. Positive hadron identification is performed by two Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detectors. This system covers the full angular acceptance of the experiment and is equipped with three Cherenkov radiators to identify particles in a wide momentum range from1 GeV/ c up to 100 GeV/ c . The Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs) located outside the detector acceptance provide the photon detection with 500,000 channels. Specific read–out electronics has been developed to readout and process data from the HPDs including data transmission and power distribution. The operation and performanceoftheRICHsystemare ensuredbythe constant controland monitoringoflowandhighvoltage systems,of thegas qualityandenvironmental parameters,ofthe mirror alignment,and finallyofthe detector safety. The description of the LHCb RICH is given. The experience in operating the detector at the Large Hadron Collider is presented and discusse...

  7. Development of a gaseous photon detector for Cherenkov imaging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rocco, Elena; Dalla Torre, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the R&D activity aiming at a novel micro pattern gaseous photon detector based on the THick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM). The goal application of the novel photon detector is the detection of single photon in Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) counters. The THGEM principle is derived from the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) one, even if the material, the production technology and the size scale are different: a THGEM is a Circuit Printed Board (PCB) coated with thin copper layers on both faces, with holes obtained by drilling. Part of the THGEM features are similar to those of the GEMs, but a number of characteristics aspects result substantially different: in fact, if the geometrical parameters can be scaled from the GEM ones, the parameters related to the electrons multiplication, which is a microscopic physical phenomenon, do not. This is why, before starting the photon detector development, we have performed a systematic study of the THGEM multiplier. A photon detector is forme...

  8. A Cherenkov Radiation Detector with High Density Aerogels

    CERN Document Server

    Cremaldi, Lucien; Sonnek, Peter; Summers, Donald J; Reidy, Jim

    2009-01-01

    We have designed a threshold Cherenkov detector at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory to identify muons with momenta between 230 and 350 MeV/c. We investigated the properties of three aerogels for the design. The nominal indexes of refraction were n = 1.03, 1.07, 1.12, respectively. Two of the samples are of high density aerogel not commonly used for Cherenkov light detection. We present results of an examination of some optical properties of the aerogel samples and present basic test beam results.

  9. Cherenkov Detector for Beam Quality Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Orfanelli, Stella

    2015-01-01

    A new detector to measure the machine induced background at larger radiihas been developed and installed in the CMS experiment at LHC. Itconsists of 40 modules, each comprising a quartz bar read out by aphotomultiplier. Since Cerenkov radiation is emitted in a forward conearound the charged particle trajectory, these detectors can distinguishthe directions of the machine induced background.The back-end consists of a microTCA readout with excellent time resolution.The performance of the detector modules measured in several test-beamcampaigns will be reported. The installation in CMS will be described, andfirst results about operating the detector during data taking will begiven.

  10. Spectrum of energy depositions in the Auger Water Cherenkov Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Humberto

    1999-08-01

    The measured spectrum of energy depositions in a Water Cherenkov Detector (WCD) prototype for the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented. A WCD (area 10 m2 )is located in the Puebla University campus at a depth of 800 g/cm2 (2200 m above sea level). Differential and integral spectra in a wide energy deposition range (0.5 - 150 of vertical equivalent muons) are presented. The problem of the WCD "self calibration" procedure (by rate of the muon events) is discussed. The characteristic change of the slopes of the differential spectrum at the transition from single muon signals to EAS signals is also discussed. The measured energy deposition spectrum at extreme signals is used to estimate the linearity of the response of the WCD PMTs. Key words: Auger array, water Cherenkov detector, extensive air showers

  11. Calibration of pressure gauge for Cherenkov detector

    CERN Document Server

    Saponjic, Nevena

    2013-01-01

    Solartron/Hamilton pressure gauges are used to monitor the gas pressure in the particle beam detectors installed in the experimental areas. Here is description of the test bench for the calibration of these gauges in Labview.

  12. Data analysis for solar neutrinos observed by water Cherenkov detectors{sup *}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshio, Yusuke [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    A method of analyzing solar neutrino measurements using water-based Cherenkov detectors is presented. The basic detection principle is that the Cherenkov photons produced by charged particles via neutrino interaction are observed by photomultiplier tubes. A large amount of light or heavy water is used as a medium. The first detector to successfully measure solar neutrinos was Kamiokande in the 1980's. The next-generation detectors, i.e., Super-Kamiokande and the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO), commenced operation from the mid-1990's. These detectors have been playing the critical role of solving the solar neutrino problem and determining the neutrino oscillation parameters over the last decades. The future prospects of solar neutrino analysis using this technique are also described. (orig.)

  13. The Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector (RICH) of the AMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barão, F; Alcaraz, J; Arruda, L; Barrau, A; Barreira, G; Belmont, E; Berdugo, J; Brinet, M; Buénerd, M; Casadei, D; Casaus, J; Cortina, E; Delgado, C; Díaz, C; Derome, L; Eraud, L; Garcia-Lopez, R J; Gallin-Martel, L; Giovacchini, F; Gonçalves, P; Lanciotti, E; Laurenti, G; Malinine, A; Maña, C; Marin, J; Martínez, G; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Molla, M; Palomares, C; Panniello, M; Pereira, R; Pimenta, M; Protasov, K; Sánchez, E; Seo, E S; Sevilla, N; Torrento, A; Vargas-Trevino, M; Veziant, O

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) experiment to be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) will be equipped with a proximity focusing Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector for measuring the electric charge and velocity of the charged cosmic particles. A RICH prototype consisting of 96 photomultiplier units, including a piece of the conical reflector, was built and its performance evaluated with ion beam data. Preliminary results of the in-beam tests performed with ion fragments resulting from collisions of a 158 GeV/c/nuc primary beam of Indium ions (CERN SPS) on a Pb target are reported. The collected data included tests to the final front-end electronics and to different aerogel radiators. Cherenkov rings for a large range of charged nuclei and with reflected photons were observed. The data analysis confirms the design goals. Charge separation up to Fe and velocity resolution of the order of 0.1% for singly charged particles are obtained.

  14. The HERMES dual-radiator ring imaging Cherenkov detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopov, N.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Bailey, K.; Bernreuther, S.; Bianchi, N.; Capitani, G. P.; Carter, P.; Cisbani, E.; De Leo, R.; De Sanctis, E.; De Schepper, D.; Djordjadze, V.; Filippone, B. W.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Hansen, J.-O.; Hommez, B.; Iodice, M.; Jackson, H. E.; Jung, P.; Kaiser, R.; Kanesaka, J.; Kowalczyk, R.; Lagamba, L.; Maas, A.; Muccifora, V.; Nappi, E.; Negodaeva, K.; Nowak, W.-D.; O'Connor, T.; O'Neill, T. G.; Potterveld, D. H.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sakemi, Y.; Sato, F.; Schwind, A.; Shibata, T.-A.; Suetsugu, K.; Thomas, E.; Tytgat, M.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Van de Kerckhove, K.; Van de Vyver, R.; Yoneyama, S.; Zohrabian, H.; Zhang, L. F.

    2002-03-01

    The construction and use of a dual radiator Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector is described. This instrument was developed for the HERMES experiment at DESY which emphasises measurements of semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering. It provides particle identification for pions, kaons, and protons in the momentum range from 2 to 15 GeV, which is essential to these studies. The instrument uses two radiators, C 4F 10, a heavy fluorocarbon gas, and a wall of silica aerogel tiles. The use of aerogel in a RICH detector has only recently become possible with the development of clear, large, homogeneous and hydrophobic aerogel. A lightweight mirror was constructed using a newly perfected technique to make resin-coated carbon-fiber surfaces of optical quality. The photon detector consists of 1934 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) for each detector half, held in a soft steel matrix to provide shielding against the residual field of the main spectrometer magnet.

  15. The HERMES dual-radiator ring imaging Cherenkov detector

    CERN Document Server

    Akopov, N; Bailey, K; Bernreuther, S; Bianchi, N; Capitani, G P; Carter, P; Cisbani, E; De Leo, R; De Sanctis, E; De Schepper, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; Filippone, B W; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Hansen, J O; Hommez, B; Iodice, M; Jackson, H E; Jung, P; Kaiser, R; Kanesaka, J; Kowalczyk, R; Lagamba, L; Maas, A; Muccifora, V; Nappi, E; Negodaeva, K; Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; O'Connor, T; O'Neill, T G; Potterveld, D H; Ryckbosch, D; Sakemi, Y; Sato, F; Schwind, A; Shibata, T A; Suetsugu, K; Thomas, E; Tytgat, M; Urciuoli, G M; Van De Kerckhove, K; Van De Vyver, R; Yoneyama, S; Zhang, L F; Zohrabyan, H G

    2002-01-01

    The construction and use of a dual radiator Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector is described. This instrument was developed for the HERMES experiment at DESY which emphasises measurements of semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering. It provides particle identification for pions, kaons, and protons in the momentum range from 2 to 15 GeV, which is essential to these studies. The instrument uses two radiators, C sub 4 F sub 1 sub 0 , a heavy fluorocarbon gas, and a wall of silica aerogel tiles. The use of aerogel in a RICH detector has only recently become possible with the development of clear, large, homogeneous and hydrophobic aerogel. A lightweight mirror was constructed using a newly perfected technique to make resin-coated carbon-fiber surfaces of optical quality. The photon detector consists of 1934 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) for each detector half, held in a soft steel matrix to provide shielding against the residual field of the main spectrometer magnet.

  16. The Cherenkov Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billoir, Pierre, E-mail: billoir@lpnhe.in2p3.fr [LPNHE, CNRS/IN2P3 and Univ. P. and M. Curie and Univ. D. Diderot, 4 place Jussieu 75272 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Observatorio Pierre Auger, av. San Martín Norte, 304 5613, Malargüe (Argentina)

    2014-12-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory detects the atmospheric showers induced by cosmic rays of ultra-high energy (UHE). It is the first one to use the hybrid technique. A set of telescopes observes the fluorescence of the nitrogen molecules on clear moonless nights, giving access to the longitudinal profile of the shower. These telescopes surround a giant array of 1600 water Cherenkov tanks (covering more than 3000 km{sup 2}), which works continuously and samples the particles reaching the ground (mainly muons, photons and electrons/positrons); the light produced within the water is recorded into FADC (Fast Analog to Digital Convertes) traces. A subsample of hybrid events provides a cross calibration of the two components. We describe the structure of the Cherenkov detectors, their sensitivity to different particles and the information they can give on the direction of origin, the energy and the nature of the primary UHE object; we discuss also their discrimination power for rare events (UHE photons or neutrinos). To cope with the variability of weather conditions and the limitations of the communication system, the procedures for trigger and real time calibration have been shared between local processors and a central acquisition system. The overall system has been working almost continuously for 10 years, while being progressively completed and increased by the creation of a dense “infill” subarray. - Highlights: • The water Cherenkov technique is used in the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. • Cross-calibrated with the Fluorescence Detector, it provides a measurement of the primary energy. • The spectrum of the UHE cosmic rays exhibits clearly an “ankle” and a cutoff. • The muon observed muon content of the atmospheric showers is larger than expected from the models. • Stringent limits on the flux of UHE neutrinos and photons are obtained.

  17. Reconstructing the direction of reactor antineutrinos via electron scattering in Gd-doped water Cherenkov detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellfeld, D.; Bernstein, A.; Dazeley, S.; Marianno, C.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of elastic antineutrino-electron scattering in a Gd-doped water Cherenkov detector to determine the direction of a nuclear reactor antineutrino flux was investigated using the recently proposed WATCHMAN antineutrino experiment as a baseline model. The expected scattering rate was determined assuming a 13-km standoff from a 3.758-GWt light water nuclear reactor and the detector response was modeled using a Geant4-based simulation package. Background was estimated via independent simulations and by scaling published measurements from similar detectors. Background contributions were estimated for solar neutrinos, misidentified reactor-based inverse beta decay interactions, cosmogenic radionuclides, water-borne radon, and gamma rays from the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), detector walls, and surrounding rock. We show that with the use of low background PMTs and sufficient fiducialization, water-borne radon and cosmogenic radionuclides pose the largest threats to sensitivity. Directional sensitivity was then analyzed as a function of radon contamination, detector depth, and detector size. The results provide a list of experimental conditions that, if satisfied in practice, would enable antineutrino directional reconstruction at 3σ significance in large Gd-doped water Cherenkov detectors with greater than 10-km standoff from a nuclear reactor.

  18. Reconstructing the direction of reactor antineutrinos via electron scattering in Gd-doped water Cherenkov detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellfeld, D. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Dazeley, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marianno, C. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-11-25

    The potential of elastic antineutrino-electron scattering (ν¯e + e → ν¯e + e) in a Gd-doped water Cherenkov detector to determine the direction of a nuclear reactor antineutrino flux was investigated using the recently proposed WATCHMAN antineutrino experiment as a baseline model. The expected scattering rate was determined assuming a 13 km standoff from a 3.758 GWt light water nuclear reactor. Background was estimated via independent simulations and by appropriately scaling published measurements from similar detectors. Many potential backgrounds were considered, including solar neutrinos, misidentified reactor-based inverse beta decay interactions, cosmogenic radionuclide and water-borne radon decays, and gamma rays from the photomultiplier tubes, detector walls, and surrounding rock. The detector response was modeled using a GEANT4-based simulation package. The results indicate that with the use of low radioactivity PMTs and sufficient fiducialization, water-borne radon and cosmogenic radionuclides pose the largest threats to sensitivity. The directional sensitivity was then analyzed as a function of radon contamination, detector depth, and detector size. Lastly, the results provide a list of theoretical conditions that, if satisfied in practice, would enable nuclear reactor antineutrino directionality in a Gd-doped water Cherenkov detector approximately 10 km from a large power reactor.

  19. Signal Temporal Profile of a Water Cherenkov Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, H.; Martinez, O.; Cotzomi, J.; Moreno, E.; Villaseñor, L.

    2003-07-01

    The suggested existence of temporal structure in the signals of extensive air showers (EAS) for energies greater than 1017 eV at core distances of about 500 m, and its correlation with important parameters of EASs has stimulated us to study this structure for showers with lower energies in an Auger water Cherenkov detector(WCD). Preliminary analysis of experimental data on the widths of signals in a WCD and their correlation with other parameters of the signal are presented. The detector was triggered by the EAS-BUAP array which operates in the region of 1014 - 1016 eV. The distance of the WCD to the EAS core is larger than 30 m.

  20. Development of ring imaging Cherenkov detectors for the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    John, M J J

    2001-01-01

    This thesis reports on work done as part of the development of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors of the LHCb experiment. The context of this work is set out in Chapter 1, which includes an overview of the physics of CP violation, followed by a discussion of other experiments that study B physics. LHCb itself is then described, with particular emphasis on its RICH detectors, and the photon detectors to be used therein. The work done by the author to ensure an adequate shielding of the photon detectors in the two RICH detectors from the magnetic fields produced by the LHCb dipole is then presented. A candidate photodetector for the RICH is the Pixel HPD. The author's contribution to the upgrade of the HPD test system to operate at the LHC bunch-crossing rate of 40MHz is the subject of the following section. This system was used to investigate and optimise a method of minimising the threshold distribution of the Pixel HPD's encapsulated readout chip. The final chapter of the thesis concerns the aerogel...

  1. Optical properties of water for the Yangbajing water cherenkov detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shang-qi; Sun, Zhi-bin; Jiang, Yuan-da; Wang, Chao; Du, Ke-ming

    2011-08-01

    Cherenkov radiation is used to study the production of particles during collisions, cosmic rays detections and distinguishing between different types of neutrinos and electrons. The optical properties of water are very important to the research of Cherenkov Effect. Lambert-beer law is a method to study the attenuation of light through medium. In this paper, optical properties of water are investigated by use of a water attenuation performance test system. The system is composed of the light-emitting diode (LED) light source and the photon receiver models. The LED light source model provides a pulse light signal which frequency is 1 kHz and width is 100ns. In photon receiver model, a high sensitivity photomultiplier tube (PMT) is used to detect the photons across the water. Because the output voltage amplitude of PMT is weak which is from 80mv to 120mV, a low noise pre-amplifier is used to improve the detector precise. An effective detector maximum time window of PMT is 100ns for a long lifetime, so a peak holder circuit is used to hold the maximum peak amplitude of PMT for the induced photons signal before the digitalization. In order to reduce the noise of peak holder, a multi-pulse integration is used before the sampling of analog to digital converter. At last, the detector of photons from the light source to the PMT across the water is synchronized to the pulse width of the LED. In order to calculate the attenuation coefficient and attenuation length of water precisely, the attenuation properties of air-to-water boundary is considered in the calculation.

  2. WIMP search and a Cherenkov detector prototype for ILC polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Christoph

    2011-10-15

    The planned International Linear Collider (ILC) will be an essential experiment to precisely determine the properties and structure of physics at the TeV scale. An important feature of the ILC is the possibility to use polarized electrons and positrons. In part 1 of this thesis, a model independent search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) at ILC is presented. The signal channel under study is direct WIMP pair production with associated Initial State Radiation (ISR), e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {chi}{chi}{gamma}, where the WIMPs leave the detector without any further interaction, and only the emitted photon is detected. From the energy spectrum of the detected photons the coupling structure, cross sections, masses and the quantum number of the dominant partial wave in the production process can be inferred. The analysis includes the dominant SM, as well as machine-induced backgrounds, and is performed using a full simulation of the ILD detector concept. For an integrated luminosity of L=500 fb{sup -1}, the signal cross sections can be measured to a precision of 3%, dominated by systematic uncertainties on the polarization measurement of the initial electrons and positrons. Masses can be measured to a precision of up to 2% by a comparison of the data photon spectrum to parametrized template spectra. In part 2 of this thesis, a Cherenkov detector prototype for Compton polarimetry at ILC is presented. For the polarization measurement a systematic uncertainty of {delta} P/P = 0.25% or better is envisioned. To achieve this goal, the Cherenkov detector has to be precisely aligned with the fan of Compton scattered electrons and its signal response needs to be highly linear. For the detector prototype data driven alignment strategies have been developed by comparing data recorded at the Elsa accelerator in Bonn, Germany, with detailed Geant4 simulations. With the use of multi-anode photomultipliers, data driven alignment strategies promise to provide the

  3. Trends in the development of large area photon detectors for Cherenkov light imaging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nappi, E

    2003-01-01

    Since the successful operations of hi-tech devices at OMEGA, DELPHI and SLD, the technique of Cherenkov light imaging has gone through an impressive and fruitful evolution driven by the conception of novel large area photon detectors. The well-assessed potentialities of thin CsI films, employed as reflective photoconverters in gas counters operated at atmospheric pressure, will be compared with the promising features of hybrid and multianode vacuum photomultipliers. Recently proposed single-photon gaseous detectors based on GEMs will also be reviewed.

  4. Large acceptance forward Cherenkov detector for the BRAHMS experiment at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budick, B., E-mail: bb2@nyu.ed [New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Beavis, D., E-mail: beavis@bnl.go [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Chasman, C., E-mail: chasman@bnl.go [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2010-09-21

    A multi-element detector based on Cherenkov radiation in plastic and on photomultiplier tubes has been constructed that is particularly useful in collider experiments. The detector covers the pseudorapidity interval 3.23<{eta}<5.25 with large acceptance for the products of proton-proton and heavy ion collisions. The detector's primary purposes are determining the vertex of the interaction, providing a minimum bias trigger, finding the start time for time of flight (and other timing applications), and monitoring the luminosity. Monte Carlo simulations describe the pulse height response of the detector well, as does an analytic expression that has been developed. The detector performed well in the RHIC experiment BRAHMS.

  5. Towards a network of atmospheric Cherenkov detectors 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Weekes, T.C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Mori, M. [Tokyo Univ., Institute for Cosmic Ray Research (Japan); Mariotti, M. [Padova Univ., INFN (Italy); Hofmann, W.; Aharonian, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Sinitsyna, V. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Smith, D. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, 33 - Gradignan (France); Marleau, P. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States); Sinnis, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Volk, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Kernphysik (Germany); Jager, O. de [South Africa Univ., North-West (South Africa); Harding, A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (United States); Coppi, P. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Dermer, C. [Naval Research Laboratory (United States); Goldwurm, A.; Paul, J. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee, 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); Puhlhofer, G. [Landessternwarte Heidelberg (Germany); Bernardini, E. [DESy-Zeuthen (Germany); Swordy, S. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States); Yoshikoshi, T. [Tokyo Univ., Tanashi (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; Teshima, M. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Punch, M. [Astrophysique et Cosmologie (APC), College de France, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    This document gathers the papers and transparencies presented at the conference. The main part of the conference was organized into 6 sessions: 1) the review of present experiments (Veritas, Cangaroo-3, Magic, Hess-1, Shalon, Cactus, Cygnus-X-3...), 2) calibration and analysis techniques in VHE (very high energy) astrophysics, 3) multi-wavelength observations and phenomenology of sources, 4) the future of ground-based VHE astronomy, 5) developments in instrumentation for Cherenkov telescopes, and 6) the evolution of the field and its link with mainstream astrophysics.

  6. Tagging Spallation Backgrounds with Showers in Water-Cherenkov Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shirley Weishi

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic-ray muons and especially their secondaries break apart nuclei ("spallation") and produce fast neutrons and beta-decay isotopes, which are backgrounds for low-energy experiments. In Super-Kamiokande, these beta decays are the dominant background in 6--18 MeV, relevant for solar neutrinos and the diffuse supernova neutrino background. In a previous paper, we showed that these spallation isotopes are produced primarily in showers, instead of in isolation. This explains an empirical spatial correlation between a peak in the muon Cherenkov light profile and the spallation decay, which Super-Kamiokande used to develop a new spallation cut. However, the muon light profiles that Super-Kamiokande measured are grossly inconsistent with shower physics. We show how to resolve this discrepancy and how to reconstruct accurate profiles of muons and their showers from their Cherenkov light. We propose a new spallation cut based on these improved profiles and quantify its effects. Our results can significantly benefit ...

  7. TORCH - Cherenkov and Time-of-Flight PID Detector for the LHCb Upgrade at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föhl, K.; Brook, N.; Castillo García, L.; Conneely, T.; Cussans, D.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gao, R.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Milnes, J.; Piedigrossi, D.; Rademacker, J.; Ros Garcì a, A.; van Dijk, M.

    2016-05-01

    TORCH is a large-area precision time-of-flight detector, based on Cherenkov light production and propagation in a quartz radiator plate, which is read out at its edges. TORCH is proposed for the LHCb experiment at CERN to provide positive particle identification for kaons, and is currently in the Research-and-Development phase. A brief overview of the micro-channel plate photon sensor development, the custom-made electronics, and an introduction to the current test beam activities is given. Optical readout solutions are presented for the potential use of BaBar DIRC bar boxes as part of the TORCH configuration in LHCb.

  8. Development of Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detectors for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Bellunato, T; Matteuzzi, C

    2003-01-01

    The work described in this thesis has been carried out in the framework of the development program of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors of the LHCb experiment. LHCb will operate at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and it will perform a wide range of measurements in the b-hadrons realm. The extensive study of CP violation and rare decays in the b-hadron system are the main goals of the experiment. An introduction to CP violation in hadronic interactions is given in chapter 1. The high b-b bar production cross section at the LHC energy will provide an unprecedented amount of data which will give LHCb a unique opportunity for precision tests on a large set of physics channels as well as a promising discovery potential for sources of CP violation arising from physics beyond the Standard Model. The experiment is designed in such a way to optimally match the kinematic structure of events where a pair of b quarks is produced in the collision between to 7 GeV protons. Chapter 2 is devoted to an overview o...

  9. Cherenkov detectors for spatial imaging applications using discrete-energy photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paul B.; Erickson, Anna S.

    2016-08-01

    Cherenkov detectors can offer a significant advantage in spatial imaging applications when excellent timing response, low noise and cross talk, large area coverage, and the ability to operate in magnetic fields are required. We show that an array of Cherenkov detectors with crude energy resolution coupled with monochromatic photons resulting from a low-energy nuclear reaction can be used to produce a sharp image of material while providing large and inexpensive detector coverage. The analysis of the detector response to relative transmission of photons with various energies allows for reconstruction of material's effective atomic number further aiding in high-Z material identification.

  10. Tests of innovative photon detectors and integrated electronics for the large-area CLAS12 ring-imaging Cherenkov detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contalbrigo, Marco [INFN, Ferrara, Italy

    2015-07-01

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Lab. Its aim is to study the 3D nucleon structure in the yet poorly explored valence region by deep-inelastic scattering, and to perform precision measurements in hadron spectroscopy. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on an aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and a densely packed and highly segmented photon detector. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). Extensive tests have been performed on Hamamatsu H8500 and novel flat multi-anode photomultipliers under development and on various types of silicon photomultipliers. A large scale prototype based on 28 H8500 MA-PMTs has been realized and tested with few GeV/c hadron beams at the T9 test-beam facility of CERN. In addition a small prototype was used to study the response of customized SiPM matrices within a temperature interval ranging from 25 down to –25 °C. The preliminary results of the individual photon detector tests and of the prototype performance at the test-beams are here reported.

  11. Tests of innovative photon detectors and integrated electronics for the large-area CLAS12 ring-imaging Cherenkov detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contalbrigo, M., E-mail: contalbrigo@fe.infn.it

    2015-07-01

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Lab. Its aim is to study the 3D nucleon structure in the yet poorly explored valence region by deep-inelastic scattering, and to perform precision measurements in hadron spectroscopy. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on an aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and a densely packed and highly segmented photon detector. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). Extensive tests have been performed on Hamamatsu H8500 and novel flat multi-anode photomultipliers under development and on various types of silicon photomultipliers. A large scale prototype based on 28 H8500 MA-PMTs has been realized and tested with few GeV/c hadron beams at the T9 test-beam facility of CERN. In addition a small prototype was used to study the response of customized SiPM matrices within a temperature interval ranging from 25 down to −25 °C. The preliminary results of the individual photon detector tests and of the prototype performance at the test-beams are here reported.

  12. A Quartz Cherenkov Detector for Compton-Polarimetry at Future e+e- Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    List, Jenny; Vormwald, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    Precision polarimetry is essential for future e+ e- colliders and requires Compton polarimeters designed for negligible statistical uncertainties. In this paper, we discuss the design and construction of a quartz Cherenkov detector for such Compton polarimeters. The detector concept has been developed with regard to the main systematic uncertainties of the polarisation measurements, namely the linearity of the detector response and detector alignment. Simulation studies presented here imply that the light yield reachable by using quartz as Cherenkov medium allows to resolve in the Cherenkov photon spectra individual peaks corresponding to different numbers of Compton electrons. The benefits of the application of a detector with such single-peak resolution to the polarisation measurement are shown for the example of the upstream polarimeters foreseen at the International Linear Collider. Results of a first testbeam campaign with a four-channel prototype confirming simulation predictions for single electrons ar...

  13. Proposal for the geometrical distribution of the air cherenkov detectors for CHARM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Reyes, A. R.; Martínez Bravo, O. M.

    2011-04-01

    In this work we propose the geometrical distribution of the air Cherenkov detectors array (ACD), who will be part of the Cosmic High Altitude Radiation Monitor Observatory (CHARM) located at Pico de Orizaba Volcano at 4300 m.a.s.l.. The proposal is based on a library of events built with photons, protons and iron nuclei as primary particles by montecarlo simulations with energies from 1014 eV to 1017 eV. The goal of this detectors will be to determinate the nature of primary cosmic radiation, through measuring the height at which the secondary particles generated reach his maximum number or Xmax, this quantity is related with the effective cross section and finally with the atomic number A of the primary particles. In addition to this we proposed an energy estimator based on the study of the lateral distribution function of the generated events.

  14. Proposal for the geometrical distribution of the air Cherenkov detectors for CHARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Morales A R; Bravo Martinez O M, E-mail: hkanzaki@hotmail.com, E-mail: omartin@fcfm.buap.mx [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico)

    2011-04-01

    In this work we propose the geometrical distribution of the air Cherenkov detectors array (ACD), who will be part of the Cosmic High Altitude Radiation Monitor Observatory (CHARM) located at Pico de Orizaba Volcano at 4300 m.a.s.l.. The proposal is based on a library of events built with photons, protons and iron nuclei as primary particles by Monte Carlo simulations with energies from 10{sup 14} eV to 10{sup 17} eV. The goal of this detectors will be to determinate the nature of primary cosmic radiation, through measuring the height at which the secondary particles generated reach his maximum number or X{sub max}, this quantity is related with the effective cross section and finally with the atomic number A of the primary particles. In addition to this we proposed an energy estimator based on the study of the lateral distribution function of the generated events.

  15. Electrostatic design of the barrel CRID (Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector) and associated measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Suekane, F.; Yuta, H. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics); Antilogus, P.; Aston, D.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Dunwoodie, W.; Hallewell, G.; Kawahara, H.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Pavel, T.; Ratcliff, B.; Rensing, P.; Schultz, D.; Shapiro, S.; Simopoulos, C.; Solodov, E.; Toge, N.; Va' Vra, J. Williams, H. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (US

    1990-04-01

    We report on the electrostatic design and related measurements of the barrel Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector for the Stanford Large Detector experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Linear Collider. We include test results of photon feedback in TMAE-laden gas, distortion measurements in the drift boxes and corona measurements. 13 refs., 21 figs.

  16. CHerenkov detectors In mine PitS (CHIPS) Letter of Intent to FNAL

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, P; Davies, G S; Evans, J J; Guzowski, P; Habig, A; Hartnell, J; Holin, A; Huang, J; Kreymer, A; Kordosky, M; Lang, K; Marshak, M L; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J; Miller, W; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Nichol, R J; Patterson, R B; Perch, A; Pfutzner, M; Proga, M; Radovic, A; Sanchez, M C; Schreiner, S; Soldner-Rembold, S; Sousa, A; Thomas, J; Vahle, P; Wendt, C; Whitehead, L H; Wojcicki, S

    2013-01-01

    This Letter of Intent outlines a proposal to build a large, yet cost-effective, 100 kton fiducial mass water Cherenkov detector that will initially run in the NuMI beam line. The CHIPS detector (CHerenkov detector In Mine PitS) will be deployed in a flooded mine pit, removing the necessity and expense of a substantial external structure capable of supporting a large detector mass. There are a number of mine pits in northern Minnesota along the NuMI beam that could be used to deploy such a detector. In particular, the Wentworth Pit 2W is at the ideal off-axis angle to contribute to the measurement of the CP violating phase. The detector is designed so that it can be moved to a mine pit in the LBNE beam line once that becomes operational.

  17. CHerenkov detectors In mine PitS (CHIPS) Letter of Intent to FNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Austin, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Cao, S. V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Coelho, J. A. B. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Davies, G. S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Evans, J. J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Guzowski, P. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Habig, A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Huang, J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Johnson, R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); St. John, J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kreymer, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kordosky, M. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Lang, K. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Marshak, M. L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Mehdiyev, R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Meier, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Miller, W. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Naples, D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nichol, R. J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Patterson, R. B. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paolone, V. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pawloski, G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Perch, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Pfutzner, M. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Proga, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Radovic, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Schreiner, S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Soldner-Rembold, S. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Sousa, A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Thomas, J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Vahle, P. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Wendt, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Whitehead, L. H. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Wojcicki, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-12-30

    This Letter of Intent outlines a proposal to build a large, yet cost-effective, 100 kton fiducial mass water Cherenkov detector that will initially run in the NuMI beam line. The CHIPS detector (CHerenkov detector In Mine PitS) will be deployed in a flooded mine pit, removing the necessity and expense of a substantial external structure capable of supporting a large detector mass. There are a number of mine pits in northern Minnesota along the NuMI beam that could be used to deploy such a detector. In particular, the Wentworth Pit 2W is at the ideal off-axis angle to contribute to the measurement of the CP violating phase. The detector is designed so that it can be moved to a mine pit in the LBNE beam line once that becomes operational.

  18. Performance of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon Pixel readout for Cherenkov ring detection

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Bibby, J H; Campbell, M; Duane, A; Easo, S; Gys, Thierry; Halley, A W; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Simmons, B; Snoeys, W; Websdale, David M; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, Ken H

    1999-01-01

    We report on the first test beam performance of a hybrid photon detector prototype, using binary readout electronics, intended for use in the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The detector has been installed in a quarter-scale prototype vessel of the LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov system. Focussed ring images produced by 120 GeV/c negative pions traversing an air radiator have been recorded. The observed light yield and Cherenkov angle resolution are discussed.

  19. Performance of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout for Cherenkov ring detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alemi, M.; Barber, G.; Bibby, J.; Campbell, M.; Duane, A.; Easo, S.; Gys, T.; Halley, A.; Piedigrossi, D.; Puertolas, D.; Rosso, E.; Simmons, B.; Snoeys, W.; Websdale, D.; Wotton, S.; Wyllie, K

    1999-08-01

    We report on the first test beam performance of a hybrid photon detector prototype, using binary readout electronics, intended for use in the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The detector has been installed in a quarter-scale prototype vessel of the LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov system. Focussed ring images produced by 120 GeV/c negative pions traversing an air radiator have been recorded. The observed light yield and Cherenkov angle resolution are discussed.

  20. Measuring the Attenuation Length of Water in the CHIPS-M Water Cherenkov Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Amat, F; Bryant, J; Carroll, T J; Germani, S; Joyce, T; Kreisten, B; Marshak, M; Meier, J; Nelson, J; Perch, A; Pfuzner, M; De Rijck, S; Salazar, R; Thomas, J; Trokan-Tenorio, J; Vahle, P; Wade, R; Whitehead, L; Whitney, M

    2016-01-01

    The water at the proposed site of the CHIPS water Cherenkov detector has been studied to measure its attenuation length for Cherenkov light as a function of filtering time. A scaled model of the CHIPS detector filled with water from the Wentworth 2W pit, proposed site of the CHIPS deployment, in conjunction with a 3.2\\unit{m} vertical column filled with this water, was used to study the transmission of 405nm laser light. Results consistent with attenuation lengths of up to 100m were observed for this wavelength with filtration and UV sterilization alone.

  1. Measuring the attenuation length of water in the CHIPS-M water Cherenkov detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, F.; Bizouard, P.; Bryant, J.; Carroll, T. J.; Rijck, S. De; Germani, S.; Joyce, T.; Kriesten, B.; Marshak, M.; Meier, J.; Nelson, J. K.; Perch, A. J.; Pfützner, M. M.; Salazar, R.; Thomas, J.; Trokan-Tenorio, J.; Vahle, P.; Wade, R.; Wendt, C.; Whitehead, L. H.; Whitney, M.

    2017-02-01

    The water at the proposed site of the CHIPS water Cherenkov detector has been studied to measure its attenuation length for Cherenkov light as a function of filtering time. A scaled model of the CHIPS detector filled with water from the Wentworth 2W pit, proposed site of the CHIPS deployment, in conjunction with a 3.2 m vertical column filled with this water, was used to study the transmission of 405 nm laser light. Results consistent with attenuation lengths of up to 100 m were observed for this wavelength with filtration and UV sterilization alone.

  2. Development of a diagnostic technique based on Cherenkov effect for measurements of fast electrons in fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plyusnin, V. V.; Duarte, P.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C. [Association Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Jakubowski, L.; Zebrowski, J.; Malinowski, K.; Rabinski, M.; Sadowski, M. J. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), 7 Andrzeja Soltana Str., 05-400 Otwock (Poland)

    2012-08-15

    A diagnostic technique based on the Cherenkov effect is proposed for detection and characterization of fast (super-thermal and runaway) electrons in fusion devices. The detectors of Cherenkov radiation have been specially designed for measurements in the ISTTOK tokamak. Properties of several materials have been studied to determine the most appropriate one to be used as a radiator of Cherenkov emission in the detector. This technique has enabled the detection of energetic electrons (70 keV and higher) and the determination of their spatial and temporal variations in the ISTTOK discharges. Measurement of hard x-ray emission has also been carried out in experiments for validation of the measuring capabilities of the Cherenkov-type detector and a high correlation was found between the data of both diagnostics. A reasonable agreement was found between experimental data and the results of numerical modeling of the runaway electron generation in ISTTOK.

  3. The performance of a prototype array of water Cherenkov detectors for the LHAASO project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Q. [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Bai, Y.X.; Bi, X.J.; Cao, Z. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chang, J.F. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, G.; Chen, M.J. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, S.M. [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, S.Z. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, T.L. [University of Tibet, Lhasa 851600 (China); Chen, X. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Y.T. [University of Yunnan, Kunming 650091 (China); Cui, S.W. [Normal University of Hebei, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Dai, B.Z. [University of Yunnan, Kunming 650091 (China); Du, Q. [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Danzengluobu [University of Tibet, Lhasa 851600 (China); Feng, C.F. [University of Shandong, Jinan 250100 (China); Feng, S.H.; Gao, B. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, S.Q. [National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); and others

    2013-10-01

    A large high-altitude air-shower observatory (LHAASO) is to be built at Shangri-La, Yunnan Province, China. This observatory is intended to conduct sub-TeV gamma astronomy, and as an important component of the LHAASO project, a water Cherenkov detector array (WCDA) is proposed. To investigate engineering issues and fully understand the water Cherenkov technique for detecting air showers, a prototype array at 1% scale of the LHAASO-WCDA has been built at Yang-Ba-Jing, Tibet, China. This paper introduces the prototype array setup and studies its performance by counting rate of each photomultiplier tube (PMT), trigger rates at different PMT multiplicities, and responses to air showers. Finally, the reconstructed shower directions and angular resolutions of the detected showers for the prototype array are given. -- Highlights: • The technique of the water Cherenkov array is studied. • Engineering issues of the water Cherenkov array are investigated. • The PMTs and electronics of the water Cherenkov array are tested. • Some key parameters of the water Cherenkov array are measured.

  4. The STACEE-32 Ground Based Gamma-ray Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hanna, D S; Boone, L M; Chantell, M C; Conner, Z; Covault, C E; Dragovan, M; Fortin, P; Gregorich, D T; Hinton, J A; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Oser, S; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Schütte, D R; Theoret, C G; Tümer, T O; Williams, D A; Zweerink, J A

    2002-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment detector in its initial configuration (STACEE-32). STACEE is a new ground-based gamma ray detector using the atmospheric Cherenkov technique. In STACEE, the heliostats of a solar energy research array are used to collect and focus the Cherenkov photons produced in gamma-ray induced air showers. The large Cherenkov photon collection area of STACEE results in a gamma-ray energy threshold below that of previous detectors.

  5. Use of water-Cherenkov detectors to detect Gamma Ray Bursts at the Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, D. [APC, CNRS et Universite Paris 7 (France); Allekotte, I. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina); Alvarez, C. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Asorey, H. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina); Barros, H. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Bertou, X. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina)], E-mail: bertou@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Burgoa, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Gomez Berisso, M. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina); Martinez, O. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Miranda Loza, P. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Murrieta, T.; Perez, G. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Rivera, H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Rovero, A. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (Argentina); Saavedra, O. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale and INFN, Torino (Italy); Salazar, H. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Tello, J.C. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Ticona Peralda, R.; Velarde, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Villasenor, L. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad de Michoacan (Mexico)

    2008-09-21

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) project aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique in ground-based water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on detector calibration and operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 4 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

  6. Cherenkov light-based beam profiling for ultrarelativistic electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adli, E., E-mail: Erik.Adli@fys.uio.no [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Gessner, S.J.; Corde, S.; Hogan, M.J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Bjerke, H.H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2015-05-21

    We describe a beam profile monitor design based on Cherenkov light emitted from a charged particle beam in an air gap. The main components of the profile monitor are silicon wafers used to reflect Cherenkov light onto a camera lens system. The design allows for measuring large beam sizes, with large photon yield per beam charge and excellent signal linearity with beam charge. The profile monitor signal is independent of the particle energy for ultrarelativistic particles. Different design and parameter considerations are discussed. A Cherenkov light-based profile monitor has been installed at the FACET User Facility at SLAC. We report on the measured performance of this profile monitor.

  7. R&D project for Gd-doped water Cherenkov detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takaaki; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2013-02-01

    A dedicated test facility for a proposed Gadolinium doped water Cherenkov detector is being constructed in the Kamioka mine near the Super Kamiokande detector. Anti-electron neutrinos (bar ve) from inverse beta decay can be identified with high efficiency by taking advantage of Gd's large cross section on thermal neutron capture and by taking coincidence of a prompt positron and the delayed 8 MeV gamma cascades.

  8. Development of a 13-in. Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector (HAPD) for a next generation water Cherenkov detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)]. E-mail: nakkan@hep.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Kusaka, A. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kakuno, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Abe, T. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Iwasaki, M. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shiozawa, M. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida city, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Tanaka, M. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kyushima, H. [Electron Tube Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 314-5 Simokanzo, Iwata City 438-0193, Shizuoka (Japan); Suyama, M. [Electron Tube Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 314-5 Simokanzo, Iwata City 438-0193, Shizuoka (Japan); Kawai, Y. [Electron Tube Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 314-5 Simokanzo, Iwata City 438-0193, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a 13-in. Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector (HAPD) for photosensors in next generation water Cherenkov type detectors. We study the performance of the HAPD and the results show good time resolution better than {sigma}=1ns, good sensitivity for single photon detection, wide dynamic range, and good uniformity on the photocathode. The HAPD is also expected to be less expensive than large PMTs because of its simpler structure without dynodes.

  9. Study of timing performance of Silicon Photomultiplier and application for a Cherenkov detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, G S M; Marton, J; Suzuki, K

    2010-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers are very versatile photo detectors due to their high photon detection efficiency, fast response, single photon counting capability, high amplification, and their insensitivity to magnetic fields. At our institute we are studying the performance of these photo detectors at various operating conditions. On the basis of the experience in the laboratory we built a prototype of a timing Cherenkov detector consisting of a quartz radiator with two $3\\times 3$ mm$^2$ MPPCs S10362-33-100C from Hamamatsu Photonics as photodetectors. The MPPC sensors were operated with Peltier cooling to minimize thermal noise and to avoid gain drifts. The test measurements at the DA$\\Phi$NE Beam-Test Facility (BTF) at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) with pulsed 490 MeV electrons and the results on timing performance with Cherenkov photons are presented.

  10. Distributed beam loss monitor based on the Cherenkov effect in an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, Yu; Emanov, F. A.; Petrenko, A. V.; Prisekin, V. G.

    2015-05-01

    This review discusses a distributed beam loss monitor which is based on the Cherenkov effect in an optical fiber and which has been installed at the VEPP-5 Injection Complex at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. The principle of the device operation consists in detecting the Cherenkov radiation generated in an optical fiber by relativistic charged particles that are produced in an electromagnetic shower when highly relativistic beam particles (electrons or positrons) hit the accelerator vacuum chamber wall. Our experiments used a photomultiplier tube (PMT) to detect the Cherenkov light. Knowing when the PMT signal arrives tells us where the beam loss occurs. Using a 20-m-long optical fiber allowed a detector spatial resolution of 3 m. The way to improve the resolution is to optimize the monitor working conditions and optical fiber and PMT parameters, potentially leading to a resolution of as fine as 0.5 m according to our estimates.

  11. Gamma Ray Measurements at OMEGA with the Newest Gas Cherenkov Detector “GCD-3”

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, A. M.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y.; Zylstra, A. B.; Young, C. S.; Fatherley, V. E.; Lopez, F. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Sedillo, T. J.; Archuleta, T. N.; Aragonez, R. J.; Malone, R. M.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.; Gales, S.; Leatherland, A.; Stoeffl, W.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Shmayda, W. T.; Batha, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    Initial results from the newest Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD-3) are reported demonstrating improved performance over previous GCD iterations. Increased shielding and lengthening of the Cherenkov photon optical path have resulted in a diminished precursor signal with increased temporal separation between the precursor and the primary DT Cherenkov signal. Design changes resulted in a measured GCD-3 sensitivity comparable to GCD-1 at identical 100 psia CO2 operation. All metal gasket seals and pressure vessel certification to 400 psia operation allow for a GCD-3 lower Cherenkov threshold of 1.8 MeV using the fluorinated gas C2F6 as compared to the 6.3 MeV lower limit of GCD-1 and GCD-2. Calibration data will be used to benchmark GEANT4 and ACCEPT detector models. The GCD-3 acts as a prototype for the Super GCD being fielded at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as part of the National Diagnostics Plan and will be installed at NIF in early 2016.

  12. SiPM detectors for the ASTRI project in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billotta, Sergio; Marano, Davide; Bonanno, Giovanni; Belluso, Massimiliano; Grillo, Alessandro; Garozzo, Salvatore; Romeo, Giuseppe; Timpanaro, Maria Cristina; Maccarone, Maria Concetta C.; Catalano, Osvaldo; La Rosa, Giovanni; Sottile, Giuseppe; Impiombato, Domenico; Gargano, Carmelo; Giarrusso, Salavtore

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a worldwide new generation project aimed at realizing an array of a hundred ground based gamma-ray telescopes. ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is the Italian project whose primary target is the development of an end-to-end prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, of the CTA small size class of telescopes devoted to investigation of the highest energy region, from 1 to 100 TeV. Next target is the implementation of an ASTRI/CTA mini-array based on seven identical telescopes. Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are the semiconductor photosensor devices designated to constitute the camera detection system at the focal plane of the ASTRI telescopes. SiPM photosensors are suitable for the detection of the Cherenkov flashes, since they are very fast and sensitive to the light in the 300-700nm wavelength spectrum. Their drawbacks compared to the traditional photomultiplier tubes are high dark count rates, after-pulsing and optical cross-talk contributions, and intrinsic gains strongly dependent on temperature. Nonetheless, for a single pixel, the dark count rate is well below the Night Sky Background, the effects of cross-talk and afterpulses are typically lower than 20%, and the gain can be kept stable against temperature variations by means of adequate bias voltage compensation strategies. This work presents and discusses some experimental results from a large set of measurements performed on the SiPM sensors to be used for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype camera and on recently developed detectors demonstrating outstanding performance for the future evolution of the project in the ASTRI/CTA mini-array.

  13. Calibration of Cherenkov detectors for monoenergetic photon imaging in active interrogation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Active interrogation of cargo containers using monoenergetic photons offers a rapid and low-dose approach to search for shielded special nuclear materials. Cherenkov detectors can be used for imaging of the cargo provided that gamma ray energies used in interrogation are well resolved, as the case in 11B(d,n-γ)12C reaction resulting in 4.4 MeV and 15.1 MeV photons. While an array of Cherenkov threshold detectors reduces low energy background from scatter while providing the ability of high contrast transmission imaging, thus confirming the presence of high-Z materials, these detectors require a special approach to energy calibration due to the lack of resolution. In this paper, we discuss the utility of Cherenkov detectors for active interrogation with monoenergetic photons as well as the results of computational and experimental studies of their energy calibration. The results of the studies with sources emitting monoenergetic photons as well as complex gamma ray spectrum sources, for example 232Th, show that calibration is possible as long as the energies of photons of interest are distinct.

  14. Ring imaging Cherenkov detector of PHENIX experiment at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Akiba, Y; Burward-Hoy, J; Chappell, R; Crook, D; Ebisu, K; Emery, M S; Ferriera, J; Frawley, A D; Hamagaki, H; Hara, H; Hayano, R S; Hemmick, T K; Hibino, M; Hutter, R; Kennedy, M; Kikuchi, J; Matsumoto, T; Moscone, C G; Nagasaka, Y; Nishimura, S; Oyama, K; Sakaguchi, T; Salomone, S; Shigaki, K; Tanaka, Y; Walker, J W; Wintenberg, A L; Young, G R

    1999-01-01

    The RICH detector of the PHENIX experiment at RHIC is currently under construction. Its main function is to identity electron tracks in a very high particle density, about 1000 charged particles per unit rapidity, expected in the most violent collisions at RHIC. The design and construction status of the detector and its expected performance are described.

  15. The CLEO-III Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mountain, R J; Artuso, M; Ayad, R; Azfar, F; Coan, T E; Efimov, A; Fadeev, V; Kopp, S E; Kubota, Y; Lipeles, E; Majumder, G; Schuh, S; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A; Staeck, J; Stone, S; Viehhauser, G; Volobuev, I P

    1999-01-01

    The CLEO-III Detector upgrade for charged particle identification is discussed. The RICH design uses solid LiF crystal radiators coupled with multi-wire chamber photon detectors, using TEA as the photosensor, and low-noise Viking readout electronics. Results from our beam test at Fermilab are presented.

  16. ``Super'' Gas Cherenkov Detector for Gamma Ray Measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Hans W.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Lopez, F. E.; Griego, J. R.; Fatherley, V. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Batha, S. H.; Stoeffl, W.; Church, J. A.; Carpenter, A.; Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J.; Gales, S.; Leatherland, A.; Hilsabeck, T.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Malone, R. M.; Shmayda, W. T.

    2015-11-01

    New requirements to improve reaction history and ablator areal density measurements at the NIF necessitate improvements in sensitivity, temporal and spectral response relative to the existing Gamma Reaction History diagnostic (GRH-6m) located 6 meters from target chamber center (TCC). A new DIM-based ``Super'' Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) will ultimately provide ~ 200x more sensitivity to DT fusion gamma rays, reduce the effective temporal resolution from ~ 100 to ~ 10 ps and lower the energy threshold from 2.9 to 1.8 MeV, relative to GRH-6m. The first phase is to insert the existing coaxial GCD-3 detector into a reentrant well on the NIF chamber which will put it within 4 meters of TCC. This diagnostic platform will allow assessment of the x-ray radiation background environment within the well which will be fed into the shielding design for the follow-on ``Super'' GCD. It will also enable use of a pulse-dilation PMT which has the potential to improve the effective measurement bandwidth by ~ 10x relative to current PMT technology. GCD-3 has been thoroughly tested at the OMEGA Laser Facility and characterized at the High Intensity Gamma Ray Source (HIgS).

  17. The aerogel threshold Cherenkov detector for the High Momentum Spectrometer in Hall C at Jefferson Lab

    CERN Document Server

    Asaturyan, R; Fenker, H; Gaskell, D; Huber, G M; Jones, M; Mack, D; Mkrtchyan, H G; Metzger, B; Novikoff, N; Tadevosyan, V; Vulcan, W; Wood, S

    2004-01-01

    We describe a new aerogel threshold Cherenkov detector installed in the HMS spectrometer in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. The Hall C experimental program in 2003 required an improved particle identification system for better identification of pi/K/P, which was achieved by installing an additional threshold Cherenkov counter. Two types of aerogel with n=1.03 and n=1.015 allow one to reach 10^{-3} proton and 10^{-2} kaon rejection in the 1-5 GeV/c momentum range with pion detection efficiency better than 99% (97%). The detector response shows no significant position dependence due to a diffuse light collection technique. The diffusion box was equipped with 16 Photonis XP4572 PMT's. The mean number of photoelectrons in saturation was ~16 and ~8, respectively. Moderate particle identification is feasible near threshold.

  18. Study of wavelength-shifting chemicals for use in large-scale water Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sweany, M; Dazeley, S; Dunmore, J; Felde, J; Svoboda, R; Tripathi, M

    2011-01-01

    Cherenkov detectors employ various methods to maximize light collection at the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). These generally involve the use of highly reflective materials lining the interior of the detector, reflective materials around the PMTs, or wavelength-shifting sheets around the PMTs. Recently, the use of water-soluble wavelength-shifters has been explored to increase the measurable light yield of Cherenkov radiation in water. These wave-shifting chemicals are capable of absorbing light in the ultravoilet and re-emitting the light in a range detectable by PMTs. Using a 250 L water Cherenkov detector, we have characterized the increase in light yield from three compounds in water: 4-Methylumbelliferone, Carbostyril-124, and Amino-G Salt. We report the gain in PMT response at a concentration of 1 ppm as: 1.88 $\\pm$ 0.02 for 4-Methylumbelliferone, stable to within 0.5% over 50 days, 1.37 $\\pm$ 0.03 for Carbostyril-124, and 1.20 $\\pm$ 0.02 for Amino-G Salt. The response of 4-Methylumbelliferone was modele...

  19. An Intermediate Water Cherenkov Detector at J-PARC

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    Recent neutrino oscillation results have shown that the existing long baseline experiments have some sensitivity to the effects of CP violation in the neutrino sector. This sensitivity is currently statistically limited, but the next generation of experiments, DUNE and Hyper-K, will provide an order of magnitude more events. To reach the full potential of these datasets we must achieve a commensurate improvement in our understanding of the systematic uncertainties that beset them. This talk describes two proposed intermediate detectors for the current and future long baseline oscillation experiments in Japan, TITUS and NuPRISM. These detectors are discussed in the context of the current T2K oscillation analysis, highlighting the ways in which they could reduce the systematic uncertainty on this measurement. The talk also describes the short baseline oscillation sensitivity of NuPRISM along with the neutrino scattering measurements the detector makes possible.

  20. A quartz Cherenkov detector for Compton-polarimetry at future e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    List, Jenny [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Vauth, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    2015-02-15

    Precision polarimetry is essential for future e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders and requires Compton polarimeters designed for negligible statistical uncertainties. In this paper, we discuss the design and construction of a quartz Cherenkov detector for such Compton polarimeters. The detector concept has been developed with regard to the main systematic uncertainties of the polarisation measurements, namely the linearity of the detector response and detector alignment. Simulation studies presented here imply that the light yield reachable by using quartz as Cherenkov medium allows to resolve in the Cherenkov photon spectra individual peaks corresponding to different numbers of Compton electrons. The benefits of the application of a detector with such single-peak resolution to the polarisation measurement are shown for the example of the upstream polarimeters foreseen at the International Linear Collider. Results of a first testbeam campaign with a four-channel prototype confirming simulation predictions for single electrons are presented.

  1. Detection of D-^3He Fusion γ-Rays using Gas Cherenkov Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Herrmann, H. W.; Mack, J. M.; Young, C. S.; Hale, G. M.; Evans, S. C.; Sedillo, T. J.; Cahill, A.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Grafil, E.; Stoeffl, W.; Waugh, C.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Miller, E. Kirk

    2012-10-01

    The high-energy γ-ray from ^3He(d,γ)^5Li reactions has drawn the attention of the nuclear physics and fusion community as a diagnostic signature to study the ^5Li nuclear structure and the D-^3He fusion reaction. In the past, the D-^3He γ-rays have been measured via accelerator-based beam-target experiments and recently in tokamak-based fusion reactors. In this work, we report the detection of D-^3He fusion γ-rays generated from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions at the OMEGA laser facility. The γ-ray signal observed using Gas Cherenkov Detectors (GCD) is proportional to the independently measured 14.7-MeV fusion proton yield and provides a high-bandwidth alternative to fusion protons for D-^3He burn-history measurements. By comparing γ-rays from D-^3He and D-T implosions, we were able to examine (1) similarities in the γ-ray spectra of D-^3He and D-T and (2) disparities in the γ-to-particle branching ratios of D-^3He and D-T. This experimental work motivates further theoretical investigation of the multichannel ^5Li- and ^5He-system.

  2. Design and fabrication of a window for the gas Cherenkov detector 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatherley, V. E.; Bingham, D. A.; Cartelli, M. D.; DiDomizio, R. A.; Griego, J. R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Lopez, F. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Pollack, M. J.

    2016-11-01

    The gas Cherenkov detector 3 was designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in inertial confinement fusion experiments at both the Omega Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility. This instrument uses a low-Z gamma-to-electron convertor plate and high pressure gas to convert MeV gammas into UV/visible Cherenkov photons for fast optical detection. This is a follow-on diagnostic from previous versions, with two notable differences: the pressure of the gas is four times higher, and it allows the use of fluorinated gas, requiring metal seals. These changes force significant changes in the window component, having a unique set of requirements and footprint limitations. The selected solution for this component, a sapphire window brazed into a stainless steel flange housing, is described.

  3. Performance of the Two Aerogel Cherenkov Detectors of the JLab Hall A Hadron Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Marrone, S; Acha, A; Cisbani, E; Coman, M; Cusanno, F; De Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Higinbotham, D W; Iodice, M; LeRose, J J; Macchia, D; Markowitz, P; Nappia, E; Palmisano, F; Urciuoli, G M; van der Werf, I; Xiang, H; Zhu, L Y

    2008-01-01

    We report on the design and commissioning of two silica aerogel Cherenkov detectors with different refractive indices. In particular, extraordinary performance in terms of the number of detected photoelectrons was achieved through an appropriate choice of PMT type and reflector, along with some design considerations. After four years of operation, the number of detected photoelectrons was found to be noticeably reduced in both detectors as a result of contamination, yellowing, of the aerogel material. Along with the details of the set-up, we illustrate the characteristics of the detectors during different time periods and the probable causes of the contamination. In particular we show that the replacement of the contaminated aerogel and parts of the reflecting material has almost restored the initial performance of the detectors.

  4. Probing supernova shock waves and neutrino flavor transitions in next-generation water-Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Fogli, G L; Mirizzi, A; Montanino, D

    2004-01-01

    Several current projects aim at building a large water-Cherenkov detector, with a fiducial volume about 20 times larger than in the current Super-Kamiokande experiment. These projects include the Underground nucleon decay and Neutrino Observatory (UNO) in the Henderson Mine (Colorado), the Hyper-Kamiokande (HK) detector in the Tochibora Mine (Japan), and the MEgaton class PHYSics (MEMPHYS) detector in the Frejus site (Europe). We study the physics potential of a reference next-generation detector (0.4 Mton of fiducial mass) in providing information on supernova neutrino flavor transitions with unprecedented statistics. After discussing the ingredients of our calculations, we compute neutrino event rates from inverse beta decay ($\\bar\

  5. An attempt to identify the muonic and electromagnetic components of extensive showers in water Cherenkov detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Marcio Aparecido; Chinellato, Jose Augusto [Universidade de Campinas (IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2011-07-01

    Full text: One of the purposes of the Pierre Auger Collaboration is to study the mass composition of primary cosmic rays. When a cosmic ray collides in the upper atmosphere, depending on the mass composition, we have different numbers of mesons being produced and therefore different amounts of muons at detector level. For example, showers initiated by proton have less muons than showers initiated by iron nucleus. If we can select the muon signal in Cherenkov tanks, we might be able to infer primary composition. To achieve this goal, we will use the so-called 'Muon Jump Method', which aims to discriminate muons from the electromagnetic component, based on the time structure of their FADC signal. Muons produces on average more signal than electrons or gammas and they induce spiky signals whereas the electromagnetic component produce a continuum of small peaks in the FADC traces. Using this information, we estimate the number of particles for each component, by setting filters the time distribution of the shower front. Therefore, we can infer the primary mass composition. Another important point of this study is to compare the predictions of the hadronic interaction models for each component of the shower front. We present an introduction to the main aspects of the 'Muon Jump Method' as well as some preliminary results we achieved by simulating air showers, reconstructing their main features and filtering the signals of each component. (author)

  6. Gas Cherenkov Detectors For Gamma Ray Measurements At The National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Hans W.; Kim, Y. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Lopez, F. E.; Griego, J.; Fatherley, V. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Batha, S. H.; Carpenter, A.; Khater, H.; Hernandez, J. E.; Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J.; Gales, S.; Leatherland, A.; Hilsabeck, T.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Malone, R. M.; Hares, J. D.; Milnes, J.; Shmayda, W. T.

    2016-10-01

    New requirements to improve reaction history and ablator areal density measurements at the NIF necessitate diagnostic capability improvements in sensitivity, temporal and spectral response relative to the existing Gamma Reaction History diagnostic (GRH-6m) located 6 meters from target chamber center (TCC). Relative to GRH-6m, a new DIM-based ``Super'' Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) will ultimately provide 200x more sensitivity to DT fusion gamma rays, reduce the effective temporal resolution from 100 to 10 ps and lower the energy threshold from 2.9 to 1.8 MeV. Initially, the existing GCD-3 will be placed into a reentrant well, putting it within 4 meters of TCC. This diagnostic platform will allow assessment of the x-ray radiation background environment within the well which will be fed into the shielding design for the follow-on ``Super'' GCD. It will also enable use of a pulse-dilation PMT (PD-PMT) which has the potential to improve the effective measurement bandwidth by 10x relative to current PMT technology. Initial measurements of both GCD-3 on NIF and a PD-PMT prototype on ORION will be discussed.

  7. Aerogel Cherenkov detector for characterizing the intense flash x-ray source, Cygnus, spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Herrmann, H. W.; McEvoy, A. M.; Young, C. S.; Hamilton, C.; Schwellenbach, D. D.; Malone, R. M.; Kaufman, M. I.; Smith, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    An aerogel Cherenkov detector is proposed to measure the X-ray energy spectrum from the Cygnus—intense flash X-ray source operated at the Nevada National Security Site. An array of aerogels set at a variety of thresholds between 1 and 3 MeV will be adequate to map out the bremsstrahlung X-ray production of the Cygnus, where the maximum energy of the spectrum is normally around 2.5 MeV. In addition to the Cherenkov radiation from aerogels, one possible competing light-production mechanism is optical transition radiation (OTR), which may be significant in aerogels due to the large number of transitions from SiO2 clusters to vacuum voids. To examine whether OTR is a problem, four aerogel samples were tested using a mono-energetic electron beam (varied in the range of 1-3 MeV) at NSTec Los Alamos Operations. It was demonstrated that aerogels can be used as a Cherenkov medium, where the rate of the light production is about two orders magnitude higher when the electron beam energy is above threshold.

  8. Mass Composition Sensitivity of an Array of Water Cherenkov and Scintillation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Javier G; Roth, Markus

    2011-01-01

    We consider a hybrid array composed of scintillation and water Cherenkov detectors designed to measure the cosmic ray primary mass composition at energies of about 1 EeV. We have developed a simulation and reconstruction chain to study the theoretical performance of such an array. In this work we investigate the sensitivity of mass composition observables in relation to the geometry of the array. The detectors are arranged in a triangular grid with fixed 750 m spacing and the configuration of the scintillator detectors is optimized for mass composition sensitivity. We show that the performance for composition determination can be compared favorably to that of Xmax measurements after the difference in duty cycles is considered.

  9. Study of solar activity by measuring cosmic rays with a water Cherenkov detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahena Bias, Angelica [Facultad de ciencias FIsico-Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Avenida Francisco J. Mujica S/N Ciudad Universitaria C.P. 58030 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Villasenor, Luis, E-mail: anbahena@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: villasen@ifm.umich.mx [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Avenida Francisco J. Mujica S/N Ciudad Universitaria C.P. 58030 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2011-04-01

    We report on an indirect study of solar activity by using the Forbush effect which consists on the anti-correlation between the intensity of solar activity and the intensity of secondary cosmic radiation detected at ground level at the Earth. We have used a cylindrical water Cherenkov detector to measure the rate of arrival of secondary cosmic rays in Morelia Mich., Mexico, at 1950 m.a.s.l. We describe the analysis required to unfold the effect of atmospheric pressure and the search for Forbush decreases in our data, the latter correspond to more than one year of continuous data collection.

  10. Solar panels as air Cherenkov detectors for extremely high energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Cecchini, S; Esposti, L D; Giacomelli, G; Guerra, M; Lax, I; Mandrioli, G; Parretta, A; Sarno, A; Schioppo, R; Sorel, M; Spurio, M

    2000-01-01

    Increasing interest towards the observation of the highest energy cosmic rayshas motivated the development of new detection techniques. The properties ofthe Cherenkov photon pulse emitted in the atmosphere by these very rareparticles indicate low-cost semiconductor detectors as good candidates fortheir optical read-out. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the viability of solar panels for thispurpose. The experimental framework resulting from measurements performed withsuitably-designed solar cells and large conventional photovoltaic areas ispresented. A discussion on the obtained and achievable sensitivities follows.

  11. Experimental study of the atmospheric neutrino backgrounds for proton decay to positron and neutral pion searches in water Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mine, S; Andringa, S; Aoki, S; Argyriades, J; Asakura, K; Ashie, R; Berghaus, F; Berns, H; Bhang, H; Blondel, A; Borghi, S; Bouchez, J; Burguet-Castell, J; Casper, D; Catala, J; Cavata, C; Cervera-Villanueva, Anselmo; Chen, S M; Cho, K O; Choi, J H; Dore, U; Espinal, X; Fechner, M; Fernández, E; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Gomez-Cadenas, J; Gran, R; Hara, T; Hasegawa, M; Hasegawa, T; Hayato, Y; Helmer, R L; Hiraide, K; Hosaka, J; Ichikawa, A K; Iinuma, M; Ikeda, A; Ishida, T; Ishihara, K; Ishii, T; Ishitsuka, M; Itow, Y; Iwashita, T; Jang, H I; Jeon, E J; Jeong, I S; Joo, K K; Jover, G; Jung, C K; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Kaneyuki, K; Kato, I; Kearns, E; Kim, C O; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kim, J Y; Kim, S B; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, K; Kobayashi, T; Konaka, A; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W; Kudenko, Yu; Kuno, Y; Kurimoto, Y; Kutter, T; Learned, J; Likhoded, S; Lim, I T; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Maesaka, H; Mallet, J; Mariani, C; Matsuno, S; Matveev, V; McConnel, K; McGrew, C; Mikheyev, S; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mitsuda, C; Miura, M; Moriguchi, Y; Moriyama, S; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Nakaya, T; Nakayama, S; Namba, T; Nambu, R; Nawang, S; Nishikawa, K; Nitta, K; Nova, F; Novella, P; Obayashi, Y; Okada, A; Okumura, K; Oser, S M; Oyama, Y; Pac, M Y; Pierre, F; Rodríguez, A; Saji, C; Sakuda, M; Sánchez, F; Scholberg, K; Schroeter, R; Sekiguchi, M; Shiozawa, M; Shiraishi, K; Sitjes, G; Smy, M; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Stone, J; Sulak, L; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, Y; Tada, M; Takahashi, T; Takenaga, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Taki, K; Takubo, Y; Tamura, N; Tanaka, M; Terri, R; T'Jampens, S; Tornero-Lopez, A; Totsuka, Y; Vagins, M; Whitehead, L; Walter, C W; Wang, W; Wilkes, R J; Yamada, S; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, S; Yanagisawa, C; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, H; Yokoyama, M; Yoo, J; Yoshida, M; Zalipska, J

    2008-01-01

    The atmospheric neutrino background for proton decay to positron and neutral pion in ring imaging water Cherenkov detectors is studied with an artificial accelerator neutrino beam for the first time. In total, about 314,000 neutrino events corresponding to about 10 megaton-years of atmospheric neutrino interactions were collected by a 1,000 ton water Cherenkov detector (KT). The KT charged-current single neutral pion production data are well reproduced by simulation programs of neutrino and secondary hadronic interactions used in the Super-Kamiokande (SK) proton decay search. The obtained proton to positron and neutral pion background rate by the KT data for SK from the atmospheric neutrinos whose energies are below 3 GeV is about two per megaton-year. This result is also relevant to possible future, megaton-scale water Cherenkov detectors.

  12. Selective Filtration of Gadolinium Trichloride for Use in Neutron Detection in Large Water Cherenkov Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagins, Mark R.

    2013-04-10

    Water Cherenkov detectors have been used for many years as inexpensive, effective detectors for neutrino interactions and nucleon decay searches. While many important measurements have been made with these detectors a major drawback has been their inability to detect the absorption of thermal neutrons. We believe an inexpensive, effective technique could be developed to overcome this situation via the addition to water of a solute with a large neutron cross section and energetic gamma daughters which would make neutrons detectable. Gadolinium seems an excellent candidate especially since in recent years it has become very inexpensive, now less than $8 per kilogram in the form of commercially-available gadolinium trichloride, GdCl{sub 3}. This non-toxic, non-reactive substance is highly soluble in water. Neutron capture on gadolinium yields a gamma cascade which would be easily seen in detectors like Super-Kamiokande. We have been investigating the use of GdCl{sub 3} as a possible upgrade for the Super-Kamiokande detector with a view toward improving its performance as a detector for atmospheric neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, wrong-sign solar neutrinos, reactor neutrinos, proton decay, and also as a target for the coming T2K long-baseline neutrino experiment. This focused study of selective water filtration and GdCl{sub 3} extraction techniques, conducted at UC Irvine, followed up on highly promising benchtop-scale and kiloton-scale work previously carried out with the assistance of 2003 and 2005 Advanced Detector Research Program grants.

  13. Layered water Cherenkov detector for the study of ultra high energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Letessier-Selvon, Antoine; Blanco, Miguel; Maris, Ioana C; Settimo, Mariangela

    2014-01-01

    We present a new design for the water Cherenkov detectors that are in use in various cosmic ray observatories. This novel design can provide a significant improvement in the independent measurement of the muonic and electromagnetic component of extensive air showers. From such multi-component data an event by event classification of the primary cosmic ray mass becomes possible. According to popular hadronic interaction models, such as EPOS-LHC or QGSJetII-04, the discriminating power between iron and hydrogen primaries reaches Fisher values of $\\sim$ 2 or above for energies in excess of $10^{19}$ eV with a detector array layout similar to that of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  14. Operating Water Cherenkov Detectors in high altitude sites for the Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Allard, D; Asorey, H; Barros, H; Bertou, X; Castillo, M; Chirinos, J M; De Castro, A; Flores, S; González, J; Berisso, M Gomez; Grajales, J; Guada, C; Day, W R Guevara; Ishitsuka, J; López, J A; Martínez, O; Melfo, A; Meza, E; Loza, P Miranda; Barbosa, E Moreno; Murrugarra, C; Núñez, L A; Ormachea, L J Otiniano; Pérez, G; Perez, Y; Ponce, E; Quispe, J; Quintero, C; Rivera, H; Rosales, M; Rovero, A C; Saavedra, O; Salazar, H; Tello, J C; Peralda, R Ticona; Varela, E; Velarde, A; Villaseñor, L; Wahl, D; Zamalloa, M A

    2009-01-01

    Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) are efficient detectors for detecting GRBs in the 10 GeV - 1 TeV energy range using the single particle technique, given their sensitivity to low energy secondary photons produced by high energy photons when cascading in the atmosphere. The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) operates arrays of WCD in high altitude sites (above 4500 m a.s.l.) in Bolivia, Mexico and Venezuela, with planned extension to Peru. Details on the operation and stability of these WCD in remote sites with high background rates of particles will be detailed, and compared to simulations. Specific issues due to operation at high altitude, atmospheric effects and solar activity, as well as possible hardware enhancements will also be presented.

  15. Understanding fast neutrons utilizing a water Cherenkov detector and a gas-filled detector at the soudan underground laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Chiranjibi

    Many experiments are currently searching for Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs), a well-motivated class of hypothetical dark matter candidates. These direct dark matter detection experiments are located in deep underground to shield from cosmic-ray muons and the fast neutrons they produce. Fast neutrons are particularly dangerous to WIMP detectors because they can penetrate a WIMP-search experiment's neutron shielding. Once inside, these fast neutrons can interact with high-Z material near the WIMP detector, producing slower neutrons capable of mimicking the expected WIMP signal. My research uses two detectors located in Soudan Underground Laboratory to understand fast neutron production by muons in an underground environment: a water-Cherenkov detector sensitive to fast neutrons; and a gas-filled detector sensitive to charged particles like muons. The different kinds of selection criterion and their efficiencies are reported in this thesis. This thesis estimate the number of high energy neutron-like candidates associated with a nearby muon by using data from both detector systems.

  16. The water Cherenkov detector array for studies of cosmic rays at the University of Puebla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotzomi, J.; Moreno, E.; Murrieta, T.; Palma, B.; Pérez, E.; Salazar, H.; Villaseñor, L.

    2005-11-01

    We describe the design and performance of a hybrid extensive air shower detector array built on the Campus of the University of Puebla ( 19∘N, 90∘W, 800 g/cm2) to measure the energy, arrival direction and composition of primary cosmic rays with energies around 1 PeV, i.e., around the knee of the cosmic ray spectrum. The array consists of 3 water Cherenkov detectors of 1.86 m2 cross-section and 12 liquid scintillator detectors of 1 m2 distributed in a square grid with a detector spacing of 20 m over an area of 4000 m2. We discuss the calibration and stability of the array for both sets of detectors and report on preliminary measurements and reconstruction of the lateral distributions for the electromagnetic (EM) and muonic components of extensive air showers. We also discuss how the hybrid character of the array can be used to measure mass composition of the primary cosmic rays by estimating the relative contents of muons with respect to the EM component of extensive air showers. This facility is also used to train students interested in the field of cosmic rays.

  17. Prospects for CHIPS (R&D of Water Cherenkov Detectors in Mine Pits)

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Karol

    2015-01-01

    CHIPS is an R&D program focused on designing and constructing a cost-effective large water Cherenkov detector (WCD) to study neutrino oscillations using accelerator beams. Traditional WCD's with a low energy threshold have been built in special large underground caverns. Civil construction of such facilities is costly and the excavation phase significantly delays the detector installation although, in the end, it offers a well-shielded apparatus with versatile physics program. Using concepts developed for the LBNE WCD (arXiv:1204.2295), we propose to submerge a detector in a deep water reservoir, which avoids the excavation and exploits the directionality of an accelerator neutrino beam for optimizing the detector. Following the LOI (arXiv:1307.5918), we have submerged a small test detector in a mine pit in Minnesota, 7 mrad off the NuMI axis. By adopting some technical ideas and solutions from IceCube and KM3NeT experiments, we are now focusing on designing a large (10 - 20 kt) isolated water container t...

  18. QUEST: wide angle Cherenkov light measurements at EAS-TOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    EAS-Top Collaboration; Korosteleva, E. E.; Kuzmichev, L. A.; Prosin, V. V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.

    Wide angle Cherenkov light detectors based upon the QUASAR-370 photo-multipliers have been installed on five Cherenkov telescopes of the EAS-TOP array to study the energy spectrum and composition of primary cosmic rays around the knee . The energy threshold of quasars array was close to that of EAS-TOP electromagnetic detectors array. The first results of joint analysis of Cherenkov and electromagnetic data together with the adequate CORSIKA simulation results are discussed.

  19. Detection of atmospheric Cherenkov radiation using solar heliostat mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, R A

    1996-01-01

    The gamma-ray energy region between 20 and 250 GeV is largely unexplored. Ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov detectors offer a possible way to explore this region, but large Cherenkov photon collection areas are needed to achieve low energy thresholds. This paper discusses the development of a Cherenkov detector using the heliostat mirrors of a solar power plant as the primary collector. As part of this development, we built a prototype detector consisting of four heliostat mirrors and used it to record atmospheric Cherenkov radiation produced in extensive air showers created by cosmic ray particles.

  20. Note: Measurements of fast electrons in the TORE-SUPRA tokamak by means of modified Cherenkov-type diamond detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowski, L.; Sadowski, M. J.; Zebrowski, J.; Rabinski, M.; Jakubowski, M. J.; Malinowski, K.; Mirowski, R. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), 7 Andrzeja Soltana Str., 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Lotte, Ph.; Goniche, M.; Gunn, J.; Colledani, G.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Basiuk, V. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2013-01-15

    The Note reports on experimental studies of ripple born fast electrons within the TORE-SUPRA facility, which were performed by means of a modified measuring head equipped with diamond detectors designed especially for recording the electron-induced Cherenkov radiation. There are presented signals produced by fast electrons in the TORE-SUPRA machine, which were recorded during two experimental campaigns performed in 2010. Shapes of these electron-induced signals are considerably different from those observed during the first measurements carried out by the prototype Cherenkov probe in 2008. An explanation of the observed differences is given.

  1. Extended performance gas Cherenkov detector for gamma-ray detection in high-energy density experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, H. W., E-mail: herrmann@lanl.gov; Kim, Y. H.; Young, C. S.; Fatherley, V. E.; Lopez, F. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Batha, S. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Malone, R. M. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J. [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Stoeffl, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Zylstra, A. B. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Shmayda, W. T. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A new Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) with low-energy threshold and high sensitivity, currently known as Super GCD (or GCD-3 at OMEGA), is being developed for use at the OMEGA Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Super GCD is designed to be pressurized to ≤400 psi (absolute) and uses all metal seals to allow the use of fluorinated gases inside the target chamber. This will allow the gamma energy threshold to be run as low at 1.8 MeV with 400 psi (absolute) of C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, opening up a new portion of the gamma ray spectrum. Super GCD operating at 20 cm from TCC will be ∼400 × more efficient at detecting DT fusion gammas at 16.7 MeV than the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic at NIF (GRH-6m) when operated at their minimum thresholds.

  2. Extended performance gas Cherenkov detector for gamma-ray detection in high-energy density experimentsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Young, C. S.; Fatherley, V. E.; Lopez, F. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Malone, R. M.; Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J.; Stoeffl, W.; Zylstra, A. B.; Shmayda, W. T.; Batha, S. H.

    2014-11-01

    A new Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) with low-energy threshold and high sensitivity, currently known as Super GCD (or GCD-3 at OMEGA), is being developed for use at the OMEGA Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Super GCD is designed to be pressurized to ≤400 psi (absolute) and uses all metal seals to allow the use of fluorinated gases inside the target chamber. This will allow the gamma energy threshold to be run as low at 1.8 MeV with 400 psi (absolute) of C2F6, opening up a new portion of the gamma ray spectrum. Super GCD operating at 20 cm from TCC will be ˜400 × more efficient at detecting DT fusion gammas at 16.7 MeV than the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic at NIF (GRH-6m) when operated at their minimum thresholds.

  3. Measurement of DT fusion and neutron-induced gamma-rays using gas Cherenkov Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Herrmann, H. W.; Evans, S.; Sedillo, T.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; McEvoy, A.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.; Ali, Z.; Stoeffl, W.

    2010-08-01

    A secondary gamma experiment was carried out using a Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) at the OMEGA laser facility. The primary experimental objective was to simulate neutron-induced secondary gamma production (n-γ) from a NIF implosion capsule, hohlraum, and thermo-mechanical package. The high-band width of the GCD enabled us to detect time delayed and Doppler broadened n-γ signals from five different puck materials (Si, SiO2, Al, Al2O3, Cu) placed near target chamber center. These measurements were used for MCNP & ITS ACCEPT code validation purposes. By a simple change of the GCD CO2 gas pressure the system can effectively eliminate signals induced by n-γ reactions and thereby allow quality measurements of DT fusion γ-rays that are produced at NIF (National Ignition Facility).

  4. Detection of Shielded Special Nuclear Material With a Cherenkov-Based Transmission Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paul; Erickson, Anna; Mayer, Michael; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-10-01

    Detection of shielded special nuclear material, SSNM, while in transit, offers a unique challenge. Typical cargo imaging systems are Bremsstrahlung-based and cause an abundance of unnecessary signal in the detectors and doses to the cargo contents and surroundings. Active interrogation with dual monoenergetic photons can unveil the illicit material when coupled with a high-contrast imaging system while imparting significantly less dose to the contents. Cherenkov detectors offer speed, resilience, inherent energy threshold rejection, directionality and scalability beyond the capability of most scintillators. High energy resolution is not a priority when using two well separated gamma rays, 4.4 and 15.1 MeV, generated from low energy nuclear reactions such as 11B(d,n- γ)12C. These gamma rays offer a measure of the effective atomic number, Z, of the cargo by taking advantage of the large difference in photon interaction cross sections, Compton scattering and pair production. This imaging system will be coupled to neutron detectors to provide unique signature of SNM by monitoring delayed neutrons. Our experiments confirm that the Cherenkov imaging system can be used with the monoenergetic source to relate transmission and atomic number of the scanned material.

  5. Two-dimensional, single-photoelectron drift detector for Cherenkov ring imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrelet, E.; Seguinot, J.; Urban, M.; Ypsilantis, T. (Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France)); Ekeloef, T. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Lund-Jensen, B. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)); Tocqueville, J. (College de France, 75 - Paris)

    1982-09-15

    A detector capable of imaging single photoelectrons has been constructed and tested. UV photons (>=5.4 eV) are converted to electrons with high quantum efficiency by photoionization of a small admixture (approx. equal to 1 Torr) of an organic vapour TMAE in a predominantly methane drift and amplifying gas at atmospheric pressure. The produced photoelectrons drift in a uniform applied electric field to a picket fence of proportional wires where each electron is amplified, counted and timed. The two-dimensional source point of each photoelectron is uniquely determined by the hit wire address and the arrival time. The detector has been tested by measuring ionization electrons produced in the drift gas be relativistic charged particles. The limiting precision to which the electron source point can be determined has been measured to be 300 ..mu..m (r.m.s.) in the drift direction and 370 ..mu..m in the wire plane direction. Additional independent error sources due to electron diffusion in the drift gas have been measured to be proportional to the square root of the drift distance with a proportionality constant of 235 ..mu..m/cmsup(1/2) in both directions. Drift velocities of electrons in various predominantly methane gas mixtures have been measured as a function of the applied electric field. The utilization of such a two-dimensional single electron drift detector for Cherenkov ring imaging is presented with a discussion of the advantages and limitations of the drift method for imaging.

  6. The STACEE Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gingrich, D M; Bramel, D; Carson, J; Covault, C E; Fortin, P; Hanna, D S; Hinton, J A; Jarvis, A; Kildea, J; Lindner, T; Müller, C; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Theoret, C G; Williams, D A; Zweerink, J A

    2005-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) in its complete configuration. STACEE uses the heliostats of a solar energy research facility to collect and focus the Cherenkov photons produced in gamma-ray induced air showers. The light is concentrated onto an array of photomultiplier tubes located near the top of a tower. The large Cherenkov photon collection area of STACEE results in a gamma-ray energy threshold below that of previous ground-based detectors. STACEE is being used to observe pulsars, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts.

  7. The Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector of the AMS experiment: test beam results with a prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Arruda, Luísa; Goncalves, Patrícia; Pereira, Rui

    2008-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) to be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) will be equipped with a proximity Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector for measuring the velocity and electric charge of the charged cosmic particles. This detector will contribute to the high level of redundancy required for AMS as well as to the rejection of albedo particles. Charge separation up to iron and a velocity resolution of the order of 0.1% for singly charged particles are expected. A RICH protoptype consisting of a detection matrix with 96 photomultiplier units, a segment of a conical mirror and samples of the radiator materials was built and its performance was evaluated. Results from the last test beam performed with ion fragments resulting from the collision of a 158 GeV/c/nucleon primary beam of indium ions (CERN SPS) on a lead target are reported. The large amount of collected data allowed to test and characterize different aerogel samples and the sodium fluoride radiator. In addition, the reflec...

  8. Photon Detectors for the Ring Imaging Cherenkov Counters of the LHCb Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Plackett, R W R

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports on the author’s contribution to the development of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov(RICH) detectors in the LHCb experiment due to take data at the CERN Large Hadron Collider in 2007. The first chapter summarises the physics to be explored by the LHCb experiment; measurements of CP violating asymmetries and a study of rare B decay modes. A brief overview of other experiments studying B-physics is presented. The experiment itself is then described, focussing on the RICH system used for particle identification, with particular emphasis on the photondetectors. The thesis then reports on the work done by the author on the design of the RICH1 Magnetic Shield, that allows the photon detectors to operate in the fringe field of the LHCb dipole magnet, while fulfilling the conflicting requirement to provide additional magnetic bending power to aid the LHCb charged particle trigger. The design of all of the many sections of the shield are described in depth and the results of finite element simulations p...

  9. Attenuation study for Tibet Water Cherenkov Muon Detector Array-A

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, Quanbu; Liu, Cheng; Feng, Zhaoyang; Qian, Xiangli; Hou, Zhengtao

    2011-01-01

    The attenuation study of the long cable used in Tibet Water Cherenkov Muon Detector Array-A, called Tibet MD-A (one of 12 Tibet MD detectors), under the 37000 m2 Tibet air shower array, is reported. The cable frequency response is measured by using the sinusoidal signals, with which the influence of the cable on the pulse rise time is obtained. For the reason that the commercial 20 inch PMT (R3600_06) has a waterproof connection with the signal cable, one end of the signal cable is permanently connected to the PMT. Terminal reflection method is tested and used for measuring the signal attenuation. During the measurement, a practical way to eliminate the uncertainty caused by the baseline of the signal is achieved. To check the terminal reflection method, comparison measurement between it and QDC data taking method are carried out by using open-ended cables. The confirmed terminal reflection method is a fast and convenient method being suitable to online measure the signal attenuation for Tibet MD-A. The measu...

  10. Next generation gamma-ray Cherenkov detectors for the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Young, C. S.; Lopez, F. E.; Griego, J. R.; Fatherley, V. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Stoeffl, W.; Khater, H.; Hernandez, J. E.; Carpenter, A.; Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J.; Gales, S.; Leatherland, A.; Hilsabeck, T.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Malone, R. M.; Hares, J. D.; Milnes, J.; Shmayda, W. T.; Stoeckl, C.; Batha, S. H.

    2016-11-01

    The newest generation of Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD-3) employed in Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments at the Omega Laser Facility has provided improved performance over previous generations. Comparison of reaction histories measured using two different deuterium-tritium fusion products, namely gamma rays using GCD and neutrons using Neutron Temporal Diagnostic (NTD), have provided added credibility to both techniques. GCD-3 is now being brought to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to supplement the existing Gamma Reaction History (GRH-6m) located 6 m from target chamber center (TCC). Initially it will be located in a reentrant well located 3.9 m from TCC. Data from GCD-3 will inform the design of a heavily-shielded "Super" GCD to be located as close as 20 cm from TCC. It will also provide a test-bed for faster optical detectors, potentially lowering the temporal resolution from the current ˜100 ps state-of-the-art photomultiplier tubes (PMT) to ˜10 ps Pulse Dilation PMT technology currently under development.

  11. A CMOS Integrating Amplifier for the PHENIX Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintenberg, A.L.; Jones, J.P. Jr.; Young, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moscone, C.G. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-11-01

    A CMOS integrating amplifier has been developed for use in the PHENIX Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector. The amplifier, consisting of a charge-integrating amplifier followed by a variable gain amplifier (VGA), is an element of a photon measurement system comprising a photomultiplier tube, a wideband, gain of 10 amplifier, the integrating amplifier, and an analog memory followed by an ADC and double correlated sampling implemented in software. The integrating amplifier is designed for a nominal full scale input of 160 pC with a gain of 20 mV/pC and a dynamic range of 1000:1. The VGA is used for equalizing gains prior to forming analog sums for trigger purposes. The gain of the VGA is variable over a 3:1 range using a 5 bits digital control, and the risetime is held to approximately 20 ns using switched compensation in the VGA. Details of the design and results from several prototype devices fabricated in 1.2 {micro}m Orbit CMOS are presented. A complete noise analysis of the integrating amplifier and the correlated sampling process is included as well as a comparison of calculated, simulated and measured results.

  12. Investigating D-T Reaction Spectra with the Gas Cherenkov Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Michael A.; Kim, Yong Ho; McEvoy, Aaron; Young, Carlton S.; Mack, Joe M.; Herrmann, Hans W.; Horsfield, Colin J.

    2010-11-01

    In this study, a new analysis of the gamma ray spectra of the D-T fusion reaction using a Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) is presented. The D-T reaction is an essential process to understand for the future of fusion science. The reaction produces a He^5* nucleus that usually decays into a He^4 + n. It has been seen that this reaction produces a 16.75 MeV gamma ray .0025% of the time. The Gamma Ray History (GRH) group at Los Alamos proposes that there is an even less often occurrence where a gamma ray of around 12 MeV is produced. As the truth of this statement would affect the future potential yield of fusion reactors using D-T fuel, it is worth investigating. D-T spectra were obtained by detecting the produced gamma ray with the GCD at the University of Rochester OMEGA laser facility. A GCD response curve, calculated by the Monte Carlo modeling software ACCEPT, was used to forward convolve theoretical spectra into what the theoretical curves would have looked like in the GCD data. Results are presented.

  13. Status of the photomultiplier-based FlashCam camera for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pühlhofer, G.; Bauer, C.; Eisenkolb, F.; Florin, D.; Föhr, C.; Gadola, A.; Garrecht, F.; Hermann, G.; Jung, I.; Kalekin, O.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kasperek, J.; Kihm, T.; Koziol, J.; Lahmann, R.; Manalaysay, A.; Marszalek, A.; Rajda, P. J.; Reimer, O.; Romaszkan, W.; Rupinski, M.; Schanz, T.; Schwab, T.; Steiner, S.; Straumann, U.; Tenzer, C.; Vollhardt, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Winiarski, K.; Zietara, K.

    2014-07-01

    The FlashCam project is preparing a camera prototype around a fully digital FADC-based readout system, for the medium sized telescopes (MST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The FlashCam design is the first fully digital readout system for Cherenkov cameras, based on commercial FADCs and FPGAs as key components for digitization and triggering, and a high performance camera server as back end. It provides the option to easily implement different types of trigger algorithms as well as digitization and readout scenarios using identical hardware, by simply changing the firmware on the FPGAs. The readout of the front end modules into the camera server is Ethernet-based using standard Ethernet switches and a custom, raw Ethernet protocol. In the current implementation of the system, data transfer and back end processing rates of 3.8 GB/s and 2.4 GB/s have been achieved, respectively. Together with the dead-time-free front end event buffering on the FPGAs, this permits the cameras to operate at trigger rates of up to several ten kHz. In the horizontal architecture of FlashCam, the photon detector plane (PDP), consisting of photon detectors, preamplifiers, high voltage-, control-, and monitoring systems, is a self-contained unit, mechanically detached from the front end modules. It interfaces to the digital readout system via analogue signal transmission. The horizontal integration of FlashCam is expected not only to be more cost efficient, it also allows PDPs with different types of photon detectors to be adapted to the FlashCam readout system. By now, a 144-pixel mini-camera" setup, fully equipped with photomultipliers, PDP electronics, and digitization/ trigger electronics, has been realized and extensively tested. Preparations for a full-scale, 1764 pixel camera mechanics and a cooling system are ongoing. The paper describes the status of the project.

  14. Particle Identification with Cherenkov detectors in the 2011 CALICE Tungsten Analog Hadronic Calorimeter Test Beam at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Dannheim, D; Klempt, W; Lucaci Timoce, A; van der Kraaij, E

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 the CALICE Tungsten Analog Hadronic Calorimeter prototype (W-AHCAL) was exposed to mixed beams of electrons, pions, kaons and protons with momenta from 10 to 300 GeV in the CERN SPS H8 beam line. The selection of pion, kaon and proton samples is based on the information obtained from two Cherenkov threshold counters. This note presents the strategy for the particle identification, as well as the calibration, operation and analysis of the Cherenkov counters. Efficiency and sample-purity estimates are given for the data selected for the W-AHCAL data analysis.

  15. Design and Experimental Demonstration of Cherenkov Radiation Source Based on Metallic Photonic Crystal Slow Wave Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tao; Yang, Zi-Qiang; Ouyang, Zheng-Biao

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a kind of Cherenkov radiation source based on metallic photonic crystal (MPC) slow-wave structure (SWS) cavity. The Cherenkov source designed by linear theory works at 34.7 GHz when the cathode voltage is 550 kV. The three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of the SWS shows the operating frequency of 35.56 GHz with a single TM01 mode is basically consistent with the theoretically one under the same parameters. An experiment was implemented to testify the results of theory and PIC simulation. The experimental system includes a cathode emitting unit, the SWS, a magnetic system, an output antenna, and detectors. Experimental results show that the operating frequency through detecting the retarded time of wave propagation in waveguides is around 35.5 GHz with a single TM01 mode and an output power reaching 54 MW. It indicates that the MPC structure can reduce mode competition. The purpose of the paper is to show in theory and in preliminary experiment that a SWS with PBG can produce microwaves in TM01 mode. But it still provides a good experimental and theoretical foundation for designing high-power microwave devices.

  16. A Prototype Combination TPC Cherenkov Detector with GEM Readout for Tracking and Particle Identification and its Potential Use at an Electron Ion Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Woody, Craig; Majka, Richard; Phipps, Michael; Purschke, Martin; Smirnov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    A prototype detector is being developed which combines the functions of a Time Projection Chamber for charged particle tracking and a Cherenkov detector for particle identification. The TPC consists of a 10x10x10 cm3 drift volume where the charge is drifted to a 10x10 cm2 triple GEM detector. The charge is measured on a readout plane consisting of 2x10 mm2 chevron pads which provide a spatial resolution ~ 100 microns per point in the chevron direction along with dE/dx information. The Cherenkov portion of the detector consists of a second 10x10 cm2 triple GEM with a photosensitive CsI photocathode on the top layer. This detector measures Cherenkov light produced in the drift gas of the TPC by high velocity particles which are above threshold. CF4 or CF4 mixtures will be used as the drift gas which are highly transparent to UV light and can provide excellent efficiency for detecting Cherenkov photons. The drift gas is also used as the operating gas for both GEM detectors. The prototype detector has been constr...

  17. Wide field-of-view Cherenkov telescope for the detection of cosmic rays in coincidence with the surface detectors of the extensive air shower array

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, A A; Krasilnikov, A D; Petrov, Z E; Pravdin, M I; Sleptsov, I Ye; Timofeev, L V

    2014-01-01

    The Yakutsk array group is developing the wide FOV Cherenkov telescope to be operated in coincidence with the surface detectors of the extensive air shower array. Currently, the engineering prototype of the reflecting telescope with the front-end electronics is designed and assembled to demonstrate the feasibility of a conceived instrument. The status and specifications of the prototype telescope are presented, as well as the modernization program of the Cherenkov light detectors subset of the array measuring ultra-high energy cosmic rays.

  18. An Experiment to Demonstrate Cherenkov / Scintillation Signal Separation

    CERN Document Server

    Caravaca, J; Land, B J; Wallig, J; Yeh, M; Gann, G D Orebi

    2016-01-01

    The ability to separately identify the Cherenkov and scintillation light components produced in scintillating mediums holds the potential for a major breakthrough in neutrino detection technology, allowing development of a large, low-threshold, directional detector with a broad physics program. The CHESS (CHErenkov / Scintillation Separation) experiment employs an innovative detector design with an array of small, fast photomultiplier tubes and state-of-the-art electronics to demonstrate the reconstruction of a Cherenkov ring in a scintillating medium based on photon hit time and detected photoelectron density. This paper describes the physical properties and calibration of CHESS along with first results. The ability to reconstruct Cherenkov rings is demonstrated in a water target, and a time precision of 338 +/- 12 ps FWHM is achieved. Monte Carlo based predictions for the ring imaging sensitivity with a liquid scintillator target predict an efficiency for identifying Cherenkov hits of 94 +/- 1% and 81 +/- 1...

  19. Sensitivity of the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Detector to Sources of Multi-TeV Gamma Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Abeysekara, A U; Alvarez, C; Álvarez, J D; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Solares, H A Ayala; Barber, A S; Baughman, B M; Bautista-Elivar, N; Belmont, E; BenZvi, S Y; Berley, D; Rosales, M Bonilla; Braun, J; Caballero-Lopez, R A; Carramiñana, A; Castillo, M; Cotti, U; Cotzomi, J; de la Fuente, E; De León, C; DeYoung, T; Hernandez, R Diaz; Diaz-Velez, J C; Dingus, B L; DuVernois, M A; Ellsworth, R W; Fernandez, A; Fiorino, D W; Fraija, N; Galindo, A; Garcia-Luna, J L; Garcia-Torales, G; Garfias, F; González, L X; González, M M; Goodman, J A; Grabski, V; Gussert, M; Hampel-Arias, Z; Hui, C M; Hüntemeyer, P; Imran, A; Iriarte, A; Karn, P; Kieda, D; Kunde, G J; Lara, A; Lauer, R J; Lee, W H; Lennarz, D; Vargas, H León; Linares, E C; Linnemann, J T; Longo, M; Luna-Garc\\'\\ia, R; Marinelli, A; Martinez, O; Mart\\'\\inez-Castro, J; Matthews, J A J; Miranda-Romagnoli, P; Moreno, E; Mostafá, M; Nava, J; Nellen, L; Newbold, M; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Oceguera-Becerra, T; Patricelli, B; Pelayo, R; Pérez-Pérez, E G; Pretz, J; Rivière, C; Rosa-González, D; Salazar, H; Salesa, F; Sandoval, A; Santos, E; Schneider, M; Silich, S; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sparks, K; Springer, R W; Taboada, I; Toale, P A; Tollefson, K; Torres, I; Ukwatta, T N; Villaseñor, L; Weisgarber, T; Westerhoff, S; Wisher, I G; Wood, J; Yodh, G B; Younk, P W; Zaborov, D; Zepeda, A; Zhou, H

    2013-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is an array of large water Cherenkov detectors sensitive to gamma rays and hadronic cosmic rays in the energy band between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. The observatory will be used to measure high-energy protons and cosmic rays via detection of the energetic secondary particles reaching the ground when one of these particles interacts in the atmosphere above the detector. HAWC is under construction at a site 4100 meters above sea level on the northern slope of the volcano Sierra Negra, which is located in central Mexico at 19 degrees N latitude. It is scheduled for completion in 2014. In this paper we estimate the sensitivity of the HAWC instrument to point-like and extended sources of gamma rays. The source fluxes are modeled using both unbroken power laws and power laws with exponential cutoffs. HAWC, in one year, is sensitive to point sources with integral power-law spectra as low as 5x10^-13 cm^-2 sec^-1 above 2 TeV (approximately 50 mCrab) over 5 sr of the sky...

  20. A novel background reduction strategy for high level triggers and processing in gamma-ray Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cabras, G; De Lotto, B; De Maria, M M; De Sabata, F; Mansutti, O; Frailis, M; Persic, M; Bigongiari, C; Doro, M; Mariotti, M; Peruzzo, L; Saggion, A; Scalzotto, V; Paoletti, R; Scribano, A; Turini, N; Moralejo, A; Tescaro, D

    2008-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy is now at the leading edge for studies related both to fundamental physics and astrophysics. The sensitivity of gamma detectors is limited by the huge amount of background, constituted by hadronic cosmic rays (typically two to three orders of magnitude more than the signal) and by the accidental background in the detectors. By using the information on the temporal evolution of the Cherenkov light, the background can be reduced. We will present here the results obtained within the MAGIC experiment using a new technique for the reduction of the background. Particle showers produced by gamma rays show a different temporal distribution with respect to showers produced by hadrons; the background due to accidental counts shows no dependence on time. Such novel strategy can increase the sensitivity of present instruments.

  1. Underground Water Cherenkov Muon Detector Array with the Tibet Air Shower Array for Gamma-Ray Astronomy in the 100 TeV Region

    CERN Document Server

    Amenomori, M; Bi, X J; Chen, D; Cui, S W; Feng Zhao Yang; Danzengluobu; Ding, L K; Feng Cun Feng; Feng, Z; Feng, Z Y; Gao, X Y; Geng, Q X; Guo, H W; He, H H; He, M; Hibino, K; Hotta, N; Haibing, H; Hu, H B; Huang, J; Jia, H Y; Kajino, F; Kasahara, K; Katayose, Y; Kato, C; Kawata, K; Labaciren; Le, G M; Li, A F; Li, J Y; Lü, H; Lu, S L; Meng, X R; Mizutani, K; Mu, J; Munakata, K; Nagai, A; Nanj, H; Nishizawa, M; Ohnishi, M; Ohta, I; Onuma, H; Ouchi, T; Ozawa, S; Ren, J R; Saitô, T; Saito, T Y; Sakata, M; Sako, T K; Sasaki, T; Shibata, M; Shiomi, A; Shirai, T; Sugimoto, H; Takita, M; Tan, Y H; Tateyama, N; Tori, S; Wang, B; Tsuchiya, H; Udo, S; Wang, X; Wang, Y G; Wu, H R; Xue Liang; Yamamoto, Y; Yan, C T; Yang, X C; Yasue, S; Ye, Z H; Yu, G C; Yuan, A F; Yuda, T; Zhang, H M; Zhamg, N J; Zhamg, X, Y; Zhamg, Y; Zhamg, Yi; Zha Xisang Zhu; Zhou, X X; al, et

    2006-01-01

    We propose to build a large water-Cherenkov-type muon-detector array (Tibet MD array) around the 37,000 m$^{2}$ Tibet air shower array (Tibet AS array) already constructed at 4,300 m above sea level in Tibet, China. Each muon detector is a waterproof concrete pool, 6 m wide $\\times$ 6 m long $\\times$ 1.5 m deep in size, equipped with a 20 inch-in-diameter PMT. The Tibet MD array consists of 240 muon detectors set up 2.5 m underground. Its total effective area will be 8,640 m$^{2}$ for muon detection. The Tibet MD array will significantly improve gamma-ray sensitivity of the Tibet AS array in the 100 TeV region (10-1000 TeV) by means of gamma/hadron separation based on counting the number of muons accompanying an air shower. The Tibet AS+MD array will have the sensitivity to gamma rays in the 100 TeV region by an order of magnitude better than any other previous existing detectors in the world.

  2. Study of electron beams within ISTTOK tokamak by means of a multi-channel Cherenkov detector; their correlation with hard X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowski, L., E-mail: Lech.Jakubowski@ipj.gov.p [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M.J.; Zebrowski, J. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Plyusnin, V.V. [Association Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Rabinski, M. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Duarte, P. [Association Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Jakubowski, M.J. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2010-11-11

    The paper describes experimental studies of electron beams emitted from a plasma torus within the ISTTOK tokamak, which were performed by means of a new four-channel detector of the Cherenkov type. A range of electron energy was estimated. There were also measured hard X-rays, and their correlation with the fast run-away electron beams was investigated experimentally.

  3. Measuring extensive air showers with Cherenkov light detectors of the Yakutsk array: the energy spectrum of cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A A; Knurenko, S P; Sleptsov, I Ye [Shafer Institute for Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, Yakutsk 677980 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ivanov@ikfia.ysn.ru

    2009-06-15

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays in the range E{approx}10{sup 15} eV to 6x10{sup 19} eV is studied in this paper using air Cherenkov light detectors of the Yakutsk array. The total flux of photons produced by the relativistic electrons (including positrons as well, hereafter) of extensive air showers in the atmosphere is used as an energy estimator of the primary particle initiating a shower. The resultant differential flux of cosmic rays exhibits, in agreement with previous measurements, a knee and ankle feature at energies of 3x10{sup 15} and {approx}10{sup 19} eV, respectively. A comparison of observational data with simulations is made in the knee and ankle regions in order to choose the models of galactic and extragalactic components of cosmic rays that describe well the energy spectrum measured.

  4. A G-APD based Camera for Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderhub, H. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Backes, M. [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Biland, A.; Boller, A.; Braun, I. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Bretz, T. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Commichau, S.; Commichau, V.; Dorner, D.; Gendotti, A. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Grimm, O., E-mail: oliver.grimm@phys.ethz.c [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Gunten, H. von; Hildebrand, D.; Horisberger, U. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Koehne, J.-H. [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Kraehenbuehl, T.; Kranich, D.; Lorenz, E.; Lustermann, W. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Mannheim, K. [Universitaet Wuerzburg, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-02-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) for Gamma-ray astronomy are presently using photomultiplier tubes as photo sensors. Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APD) promise an improvement in sensitivity and, important for this application, ease of construction, operation and ruggedness. G-APDs have proven many of their features in the laboratory, but a qualified assessment of their performance in an IACT camera is best undertaken with a prototype. This paper describes the design and construction of a full-scale camera based on G-APDs realized within the FACT project (First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope).

  5. Solar tower atmospheric Cherenkov effect experiment (STACEE) for ground based gamma ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, D.; Chantell, M. C.; Coppi, P.; Covault, C. E.; Dragovan, M.; Gregorich, D. T.; Hanna, D. S.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R. A.; Oser, S.; Ragan, K.; Tümer, O. T.; Williams, D. A.

    1997-05-01

    The STACEE experiment is being developed to study very high energy astrophysical gamma rays between 50 and 500 GeV. During the last few years this previously unexplored region has received much attention due to the detection of sources up to about 10 GeV by the EGRET instrument on board the CGRO. However, the paucity of detected sources at ~1 TeV indicates that fundamental processes working within these sources and/or in the intergalactic space are responsible for the cutoff in the photon spectra of the EGRET sources. The cutoff or the spectral change of these sources can be observed with ground-based Cherenkov detectors with a very low threshold. The use of large arrays of mirrors at solar power facilities is a promising way of lowering the threshold. Using this concept a series of tests were conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) at Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM) with a full size prototype of the STACEE telescope system. The tests show that STACEE will be capable of meaningful exploration of the gamma-ray sky between 50 and 500 GeV with good sensitivity.

  6. Development of a 144-channel Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector for Belle II ring-imaging Cherenkov counter with an aerogel radiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, S., E-mail: shohei.nishida@kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Adachi, I. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Hamada, N. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Hara, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Iijima, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Iwata, S.; Kakuno, H. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Kawai, H. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Korpar, S.; Krizan, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ogawa, S. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Pestotnik, R.; Ŝantelj, L.; Seljak, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sumiyoshi, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Tabata, M. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Tahirovic, E. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Yoshida, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Yusa, Y. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    The Belle II detector, a follow up of the very successful Belle experiment, is under construction at the SuperKEKB electron–positron collider at KEK in Japan. For the PID system in the forward region of the spectrometer, a proximity-focusing ring-imaging Cherenkov counter with an aerogel radiator is being developed. For the position sensitive photon sensor, a 144-channel Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector has been developed with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. In this report, we describe the specification of the Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector and the status of the mass production.

  7. The Potential of Spaced-based High-Energy Neutrino Measurements via the Airshower Cherenkov Signal

    CERN Document Server

    Krizmanic, John F

    2011-01-01

    Future space-based experiments, such as OWL and JEM-EUSO, view large atmospheric and terrestrial neutrino targets. With energy thresholds slightly above 10^19 eV for observing airshowers via air fluorescence, the potential for observing the cosmogenic neutrino flux associated with the GZK effect is limited. However, the forward Cherenkov signal associated with the airshower can be observed at much lower energies. A simulation was developed to determine the Cherenkov signal strength and spatial extent at low-Earth orbit for upward-moving airshowers. A model of tau neutrino interactions in the Earth was employed to determine the event rate of interactions that yielded a tau lepton which would induce an upward-moving airshower observable by a space-based instrument. The effect of neutrino attenuation by the Earth forces the viewing of the Earth's limb to observe the nu_tau-induced Cherenkov airshower signal at above the OWL Cherenkov energy threshold of ~10^16.5 eV for limb-viewed events. Furthermore, the neutri...

  8. Measurements of Coherent Cherenkov Radiation in Rock Salt: Implications for GZK Neutrino Underground Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Milincic, R; Saltzberg, D; Field, R C; Guillian, G; Walz, D; Williams, D

    2005-01-01

    We report on further SLAC measurements of the Askaryan effect: coherent radio emission from charge asymmetry in electromagnetic cascades. We used synthetic rock salt as the dielectric medium, with cascades produced by GeV bremsstrahlung photons at the Final Focus Test Beam. We extend our prior discovery measurements to a wider range of parameter space and explore the effect in a dielectric medium of great potential interest to large scale ultra-high energy neutrino detectors: rock salt. We observed strong coherent pulsed radio emission over a frequency band from 0.2-15 GHz. A grid of embedded dual-polarization antennas was used to confirm the linear polarization and track the change of direction of the electric-field vector around the shower. Coherence was observed over 4 orders of magnitude of shower energy. The frequency dependence of the radiation was tested over two orders of magnitude of UHF and microwave frequencies. Based on these results we have performed a simulation of a realistic GZK neutrino teles...

  9. Cherenkov radiation and dielectric based accelerating structures: Wakefield generation, power extraction and energy transfer efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanareykin, Alexei

    2010-06-01

    We present here our recent results of the Euclid Techlabs LLC/Argonne National Laboratory/St.Petersburg Electrotechnical University "LETI" collaboration on wakefield high energy acceleration of electron bunches in dielectric based accelerating structures. This program concentrates primarily on Cherenkov radiation studies providing efficient high energy generation aimed at a future 1 TeV collider. We report here on recent experiments in high power Cherenkov radiation and corresponding dielectric material developments and characterizations. Progress in diamond, quartz and microwave low-loss ceramic structure development in GHz and THz frequency ranges is presented. Beam Breakup effects and transverse bunch stability are discussed as well. We e report on recent progress on tunable dielectric based structure development. A special subject of our paper is transformer ratio enhancement schemes providing energy transfer efficiency for the dielectric based wakefield acceleration.

  10. An aerogel Cherenkov detector for multi-GeV photon detection with low sensitivity to neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, Y; Masuda, T; Morii, H; Naito, D; Nakajima, Y; Nanjo, H; Nomura, T; Sasao, N; Seki, S; Shiomi, K; Sumida, T; Tajima, Y

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel photon detector which operates under an intense flux of neutrons. It is composed of lead-aerogel sandwich counter modules. Its salient features are high photon detection efficiency and blindness to neutrons. As a result of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, the efficiency for photons with the energy larger than 1 GeV is expected to be higher than 99.5% and that for 2 GeV/$c$ neutrons less than 1%. The performance on the photon detection under such a large flux of neutrons was measured for a part of the detector. It was confirmed that the efficiency to photons with the energy $>$1 GeV was consistent with the MC expectation within 8.2% uncertainty.

  11. The Potential of Spaced-based High-Energy Neutrino Measurements via the Airshower Cherenkov Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizmanic, John F.; Mitchell, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Future space-based experiments, such as (Orbiting Wide-angle Light Collectors (OWL) and JEM-EUSO, view large atmospheric and terrestrial neutrino targets. With energy thresholds slightly above 10(exp 19) eV for observing airshowers via air fluorescence, the potential for observing the cosmogenic neutrino flux associated with the GZK effect is limited. However, the forward Cherenkov signal associated with the airshower can be observed at much lower energies. A simulation was developed to determine the Cherenkov signal strength and spatial extent at low-Earth orbit for upward-moving airshowers. A model of tau neutrino interactions in the Earth was employed to determine the event rate of interactions that yielded a tau lepton which would induce an upward-moving airshower observable by a space-based instrument. The effect of neutrino attenuation by the Earth forces the viewing of the Earth's limb to observe the vT-induced Cherenkov airshower signal at above the OWL Cherenkov energy threshold of approximately 10(exp 16.5) eV for limb-viewed events. Furthermore, the neutrino attenuation limits the effective terrestrial neutrino target area to approximately 3 x 10(exp 5) square km at 10(exp 17) eV, for an orbit of 1000 km and an instrumental full Field-of-View of 45 deg. This translates into an observable cosmogenic neutrino event rate of approx. l/year based upon two different models of the cosmogenic neutrino flux, assuming neutrino oscillations and a 10% duty cycle for observation.

  12. Sensitivity of a proposed space-based Cherenkov astrophysical-neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neronov, Andrii; Semikoz, Dmitri V.; Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Adams, James H.; Olinto, Angela V.

    2017-01-01

    Neutrinos with energies in the PeV to EeV range produce upgoing extensive air showers when they interact underground close enough to the surface of the Earth. We study the possibility for detection of such showers with a system of very wide field-of-view imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, named CHANT (Cherenkov from astrophysical neutrinos telescope), pointing down to a strip below the Earth's horizon from space. We find that CHANT provides sufficient sensitivity for the study of the astrophysical neutrino flux in a wide energy range, from 10 PeV to 10 EeV. A space-based CHANT system can discover and study in detail the cosmogenic neutrino flux originating from interactions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays in the intergalactic medium.

  13. Sensitivity of the space-based CHerenkov from Astrophysical Neutrinos Telescope (CHANT)

    CERN Document Server

    Neronov, A; Anchordoqui, L A; Adams, J; Olinto, A V

    2016-01-01

    Neutrinos with energies in the PeV to EeV range produce upgoing extensive air showers when they interact underground close enough to the surface of the Earth. We study the possibility for detection of such showers with a system of very wide field-of-view imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, named CHANT for CHerenkov from Astrophysical Neutrinos Telescope, pointing down to a strip below the Earth's horizon from space. We find that CHANT provides sufficient sensitivity for the study of the astrophysical neutrino flux in a wide energy range, from 10~PeV to 10~EeV. A space-based CHANT system can discover and study in detail the cosmogenic neutrino flux originating from interactions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays in the intergalactic medium.

  14. The Aerogel Cherenkov Detector for the SHMS magnetic spectrometer in Hall C at Jefferson Lab

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, T; Ali, S; Asaturyan, A; Carmignotto, M A P; Dittmann, A; Dutta, D; Ent, R; Hlavin, N; Illieva, Y; Mkrtchyan, A; Nadel-Turonski, P; Pegg, I L; Ramos, A; Reinhold, J; Sapkota, I; Tadevosyan, V; Zhamkochyan, S; Wood, S A

    2016-01-01

    Hadronic reactions producing strange quarks such as exclusive or semi-inclusive kaon production, play an important role in studies of hadron structure and the dynamics that bind the most basic elements of nuclear physics. The small-angle capability of the new Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS) in Hall C, coupled with its high momentum reach - up to the anticipated 11-GeV beam energy in Hall C - and coincidence capability with the well-understood High Momentum Spectrometer, will allow for probes of such hadron structure involving strangeness down to the smallest distance scales to date. To cleanly select the kaons, a threshold aerogel Cerenkov detector has been constructed for the SHMS. The detector consists of an aerogel tray followed by a diffusion box. Four trays for aerogel of nominal refractive indices of n=1.030, 1.020, 1.015 and 1.011 were constructed. The tray combination will allow for identification of kaons from 1 GeV/c up to 7.2 GeV/c, reaching 10^-2 proton and 10^-3 pion rejection, with kaon ...

  15. Solar neutrino results (from radio-chemical and water Cherenkov detectors)

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Y

    2001-01-01

    Recent results on solar neutrino measurements are discussed. The results from radio-chemical experiments are briefly summarized. The new data from 1117 effective days of Super-Kamiokande shows that the spectrum shape agrees with that expected from the convoluted effect of the sup 8 B-neutrino spectrum, the recoil electron spectrum of neutrino electron scattering and the detector responses and that there is a 3.4% difference between the day- and night-time fluxes, but statistically not significant. There is no strong smoking gun evidence for oscillation yet, however those precise measurements of the spectrum shape and day/night fluxes have given a constraint on the oscillation parameters, indicating at 95% confidence level that the large mixing angles solutions (MSW LMA and LOW) are preferable.

  16. Proximity focusing RICH detector based on multilayer silica aerogel radiator

    CERN Document Server

    De Leo, R; Bellunato, T; Calvi, M; Cisbani, E; Cusanno, F; Garibaldi, F; Lagamba, L; Marra, M; Marrone, S; Matteuzzi, C; Musico, P; Nappi, E; Perego, D L; Torrioli, S; Vilardi, I

    2010-01-01

    The performance of a proximity focusing Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector equipped with a radiator of silica aerogel is presented. The aerogel tile used is a monolith with variable index of refraction. Cherenkov photons are detected with high granularity by eight Hamamatsu H9500 flat panel multi anode phototubes.

  17. Smart Analogue Sampler for the Optical Module of a Cherenkov Neutrino Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Caponetto, L; Russo, G V; Randazzo, N

    2009-01-01

    A transient waveform sampler/recorder IC has been developed and realized in AMS C35B4 technology. This chip has been designed to fit the needs of a proposal for a front-end architecture for the readout of the anode signal of the photomultipliers in an underwater neutrino telescope. The design is based around a 3 channels x 32 cells switched capacitor array unit sampling its voltage inputs at 200MHz external clock rate and transferring the stored analogue voltage samples to its single analogue output at 1/10th of the sampling rate. This unit is replicated inside the ASIC providing 4 independent analogue sampling queues for signal transients up to 32 x 5 ns and a fifth unit storing transients up to 128 x 5 ns. A micro-pipelined unit, based on Muller C-gates, controls the 5 independent samplers. This paper briefly summarizes the complete front-end architecture and discusses in more detail the internal structure of the ASIC and its first functional tests.

  18. DELPHI's Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The hundreds of mirrors around this Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber reflect cones of light created by fast moving particles to a detector. The velocity of a particle can be measured by the size of the ring produced on the detector. DELPHI, which ran from 1989 to 2000 on the LEP accelerator, was primarily concerned with particle identification.

  19. A GPU-based Calculation Method for Near Field Effects of Cherenkov Radiation Induced by Ultra High Energy Cosmic Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Chia-Yu; Chen, Pisin

    2010-01-01

    The radio approach for detecting the ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos has become a mature field. The Cherenkov signals in radio detection are originated from the charge excess of particle showers due to Askaryan effect. The conventional way of calculating the Cherenkov pulses by making Fraunhofer approximation fails when the sizes of the elongated showers become comparable with the detection distances. We present a calculation method of Cherenkov pulses based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and attain a satisfying effeciency via the GPU- acceleration. Our method provides a straightforward way of the near field calculation, which would be important for ultra high energy particle showers, especailly the electromagnetic showers induced by the high energy leptons produced in the neutrino charge current interactions.

  20. Gamma/hadron segregation for a ground based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope using machine learning methods: Random Forest leads

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Mradul; Koul, M K; Bose, S; Mitra, Abhas

    2014-01-01

    A detailed case study of $\\gamma$-hadron segregation for a ground based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope is presented. We have evaluated and compared various supervised machine learning methods such as the Random Forest method, Artificial Neural Network, Linear Discriminant method, Naive Bayes Classifiers,Support Vector Machines as well as the conventional dynamic supercut method by simulating triggering events with the Monte Carlo method and applied the results to a Cherenkov telescope. It is demonstrated that the Random Forest method is the most sensitive machine learning method for $\\gamma$-hadron segregation.

  1. Detection of atmospheric Cherenkov radiation using solar heliostat mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, R. A.; Bhattacharya, D.; Covault, C. E.; Dixon, D. D.; Gregorich, D. T.; Hanna, D. S.; Oser, S.; Québert, J.; Smith, D. A.; Tümer, O. T.; Zych, A. D.

    1996-10-01

    There is considerable interest world-wide in developing large area atmospheric Cherenkov detectors for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy. This interest stems, in large part, from the fact that the gamma-ray energy region between 20 and 250 GeV is unexplored by any experiment. Atmospheric Cherenkov detectors offer a possible way to explore this region, but large photon collection areas are needed to achieve low energy thresholds. We are developing an experiment using the heliostat mirrors of a solar power plant as the primary collecting element. As part of this development, we built a detector using four heliostat mirrors, a secondary Fresnel lens, and a fast photon detection system. In November 1994, we used this detector to record atmospheric Cherenkov radiation produced by cosmic ray particles showering in the atmosphere. The detected rate of cosmic ray events was consistent with an energy threshold near 1 TeV. The data presented here represent the first detection of atmospheric Cherenkov radiation using solar heliostats viewed from a central tower.

  2. Search for long-lived heavy charged particles using a ring imaging Cherenkov technique at LHCb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M. -O.; Van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. Campora; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casanova Mohr, R.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S. F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; CruzTorres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; ElRifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Faerber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Torreira, A. Gallas; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Pardinas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Goebel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Gandara, M. Grabalosa; Diaz, R. Graciani; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Grauges, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruenberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. P.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Maerki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Santos, D. Martinez; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; Mcnab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Morda, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, K.; Mueller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Altarelli, M. Pepe; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Olloqui, E. Picatoste; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilar, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Navarro, A. Puig; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Perez, P. Rodriguez; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M. H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Coutinho, R. Silva; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Garcia, M. Ubeda; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Gomez, R. Vazquez; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vazquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voss, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.

    2015-01-01

    A search is performed for heavy long-lived charged particles using 3.0 fb(-1) of proton-proton collisions collected at root s = 7 and 8 TeV with the LHCb detector. The search is mainly based on the response of the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors to distinguish the heavy, slow-moving particles from

  3. Results and prospects on registration of reflected Cherenkov light of EAS from cosmic particles above 10^{15} eV

    CERN Document Server

    Antonov, R A; Bonvech, E A; Chernov, D V; Dzhatdoev, T A; Finger, Mich; Finger, Mir; Galkin, V I; Podgrudkov, D A; Roganova, T M

    2015-01-01

    We give an overview of the SPHERE experiment based on detection of reflected Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation (Cherenkov light) from extensive air showers in the energy region E>10^{15} eV. A brief history of the reflected Cherenkov light technique is given; the observations carried out with the SPHERE-2 detector are summarized; the methods of the experimental datasample analysis are described. The first results on the primary cosmic ray all-nuclei energy spectrum and mass composition are presented. Finally, the prospects of the SPHERE experiment and the reflected Cherenkov light technique are given.

  4. Space-based detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sesana, A.; Weber, W. J.; Killow, C. J.;

    2014-01-01

    The parallel session C5 on Space-Based Detectors gave a broad overview over the planned space missions related to gravitational wave detection. Overviews of the revolutionary science to be expected from LISA was given by Alberto Sesana and Sasha Buchman. The launch of LISA Pathfinder (LPF...... bench of LPF was presented by Christian Killow and the performance of the LPF optical metrology system by Paul McNamara. While LPF will not yet be sensitive to gravitational waves, it may nevertheless be used to explore fundamental physics questions, which was discussed by Michele Armano. Some parts....... Using atom interferometry for gravitational wave detection has also been recently proposed, and it was critically reviewed by Peter Bender. In the nearer future, the launch of GRACE Follow-On (for Earth gravity observation) is scheduled for 2017, and it will include a Laser Ranging Interferometer...

  5. Flasher and muon-based calibration of the GCT telescopes proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Anthony M; Chadwick, Paula M; Daniel, Michael; White, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The GCT is a dual-mirror Small-Sized-Telescope prototype proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. Calibration of the GCT's camera is primarily achieved with LED-based flasher units capable of producing $\\sim4$ ns FWHM pulses of 400 nm light across a large dynamic range, from 0.1 up to 1000 photoelectrons. The flasher units are housed in the four corners of the camera's focal plane and illuminate it via reflection from the secondary mirror. These flasher units are adaptable to allow several calibration scenarios to be accomplished: camera flat-fielding, linearity measurements (up to and past saturation), and gain estimates from both single pe measurements and from the photon statistics at various high illumination levels. In these proceedings, the performance of the GCT flashers is described, together with ongoing simulation work to quantify the efficiency of using muon rings as an end-to-end calibration for the optical throughput of the GCT.

  6. Separation of Scintillation and Cherenkov Lights in Linear Alkyl Benzene

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Mohan; Yeh, Minfang; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shaomin

    2015-01-01

    To separate scintillation and Cherenkov lights in water-based liquid scintillator detectors is a desired feature for future neutrino and proton decay researches. Linear alkyl benzene (LAB) is one important ingredient of a water-based liquid scintillator being developed. In this paper we observed a good separation of scintillation and Cherenkov lights in an LAB sample. The rising and decay times of the scintillation light of the LAB were measured to be $(7.7\\pm3.0)\\ \\rm{ns}$ and $(36.6\\pm2.4)\\ \\rm{ns}$, respectively, while the full width [-3$\\sigma$, 3$\\sigma$] of the Cherenkov light was 12 ns dominated by the time resolution of our photomultiplier tubes. The light yield of the scintillation was measured to be $(1.01\\pm0.12)\\times10^3\\ \\rm{photons}/\\rm{MeV}$.

  7. Space-based detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesana, A.; Weber, W. J.; Killow, C. J.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Robertson, D. I.; Ward, H.; Fitzsimons, E. D.; Bryant, J.; Cruise, A. M.; Dixon, G.; Hoyland, D.; Smith, D.; Bogenstahl, J.; McNamara, P. W.; Gerndt, R.; Flatscher, R.; Hechenblaikner, G.; Hewitson, M.; Gerberding, O.; Barke, S.; Brause, N.; Bykov, I.; Danzmann, K.; Enggaard, A.; Gianolio, A.; Vendt Hansen, T.; Heinzel, G.; Hornstrup, A.; Jennrich, O.; Kullmann, J.; Møller-Pedersen, S.; Rasmussen, T.; Reiche, J.; Sodnik, Z.; Suess, M.; Armano, M.; Sumner, T.; Bender, P. L.; Akutsu, T.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    The parallel session C5 on Space-Based Detectors gave a broad overview over the planned space missions related to gravitational wave detection. Overviews of the revolutionary science to be expected from LISA was given by Alberto Sesana and Sasha Buchman. The launch of LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is planned for 2015. This mission and its payload "LISA Technology Package" will demonstrate key technologies for LISA. In this context, reference masses in free fall for LISA, and gravitational physics in general, was described by William Weber, laser interferometry at the pico-metre level and the optical bench of LPF was presented by Christian Killow and the performance of the LPF optical metrology system by Paul McNamara. While LPF will not yet be sensitive to gravitational waves, it may nevertheless be used to explore fundamental physics questions, which was discussed by Michele Armano. Some parts of the LISA technology that are not going to be demonstrated by LPF, but under intensive development at the moment, were presented by Oliver Jennrich and Oliver Gerberding. Looking into the future, Japan is studying the design of a mid-frequency detector called DECIGO, which was discussed by Tomotada Akutsu. Using atom interferometry for gravitational wave detection has also been recently proposed, and it was critically reviewed by Peter Bender. In the nearer future, the launch of GRACE Follow-On (for Earth gravity observation) is scheduled for 2017, and it will include a Laser Ranging Interferometer as technology demonstrator. This will be the first inter-spacecraft laser interferometer and has many aspects in common with the LISA long arm, as discussed by Andrew Sutton.

  8. Ultra-high resolution of radiocesium distribution detection based on Cherenkov light imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi, E-mail: s-yama@met.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Ogata, Yoshimune [Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Kawachi, Naoki; Suzui, Nobuo; Yin, Yong-Gen; Fujimaki, Shu [Radiotracer Imaging Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)

    2015-03-21

    After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, radiocesium contamination became a serious scientific concern and research of its effects on plants increased. In such plant studies, high resolution images of radiocesium are required without contacting the subjects. Cherenkov light imaging of beta radionuclides has inherently high resolution and is promising for plant research. Since {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs emit beta particles, Cherenkov light imaging will be useful for the imaging of radiocesium distribution. Consequently, we developed and tested a Cherenkov light imaging system. We used a high sensitivity cooled charge coupled device (CCD) camera (Hamamatsu Photonics, ORCA2-ER) for imaging Cherenkov light from {sup 137}Cs. A bright lens (Xenon, F-number: 0.95, lens diameter: 25 mm) was mounted on the camera and placed in a black box. With a 100-μm {sup 137}Cs point source, we obtained 220-μm spatial resolution in the Cherenkov light image. With a 1-mm diameter, 320-kBq {sup 137}Cs point source, the source was distinguished within 2-s. We successfully obtained Cherenkov light images of a plant whose root was dipped in a {sup 137}Cs solution, radiocesium-containing samples as well as line and character phantom images with our imaging system. Cherenkov light imaging is promising for the high resolution imaging of radiocesium distribution without contacting the subject.

  9. Fast, Large-Area, Wide-Bandgap UV Photodetector for Cherenkov Light Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Due to limited resources available for power and space for payloads, miniaturizing and integrating instrumentation is a high priority for addressing the challenges of manned and unmanned deep space missions to high Earth orbit (HEO), near Earth objects (NEOs), Lunar and Martian orbits and surfaces, and outer planetary systems, as well as improvements to high-altitude aircraft safety. New, robust, and compact detectors allow future instrumentation packages more options in satisfying specific mission goals. A solid-state ultraviolet (UV) detector was developed with a theoretical fast response time and large detection area intended for application to Cherenkov detectors. The detector is based on the wide-bandgap semiconductor zinc oxide (ZnO), which in a bridge circuit can detect small, fast pulses of UV light like those required for Cherenkov detectors. The goal is to replace the role of photomultiplier tubes in Cherenkov detectors with these solid-state devices, saving on size, weight, and required power. For improving detection geometry, a spherical detector to measure high atomic number and energy (HZE) ions from any direction has been patented as part of a larger space radiation detector system. The detector will require the development of solid-state UV photodetectors fast enough (2 ns response time or better) to detect the shockwave of Cherenkov light emitted as the ions pass through a quartz, sapphire, or acrylic ball. The detector must be small enough to fit in the detector system structure, but have an active area large enough to capture enough Cherenkov light from the sphere. The detector is fabricated on bulk single-crystal undoped ZnO. Inter - digitated finger electrodes and contact pads are patterned via photolithography, and formed by sputtered metal of silver, platinum, or other high-conductivity metal.

  10. Cherenkov radiation; La radiation Cerenkov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    When the radioactivity has been discovered, it was observed by researchers that different materials as mineral salts or solutions were emitting a weak light when submitted to radioactivity beams. At the beginning it has been thought that it was fluorescent light. In 1934, Cherenkov, a russian physicist, worked on the luminescence of uranyl salts solutions caused by gamma radiation and observed a very weak light was emitted by pure liquid. After further studies, he concluded that this phenomena was different from fluorescence. Since then, it has been called Cherenkov effect. This blue light emission is produced when charged particles are going through a transparent medium with an upper velocity than light velocity. This can happen only in medium with large refractive index as water or glass. It also presents its different properties discovered afterwards. The different applications of the Cherenkov radiation are discussed as counting techniques for radiation detectors or comic ray detectors. (M.P.)

  11. Status of non-destructive bunch length measurement based on coherent Cherenkov radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jianbing; Yu, Tiemin; Deng, Haixiao; Shkitov, Dmitry; Shevelev, Mikhail; Naumenko, Gennady; Potylitsyn, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    As a novel non-destructive bunch length diagnostic of the electron beam, an experimental observation of the coherent Cherenkov radiation generated from a dielectric caesium iodide crystal with large spectral dispersion was proposed for the 30MeV femtosecond linear accelerator at Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP). In this paper, the theoretical design, the experimental setup, the terahertz optics, the first angular distribution observations of the coherent Cherenkov radiation, and the future plans are presented.

  12. Measurement of the Muon Atmospheric Production Depth with the Water Cherenkov Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina Bueno, Laura [Univ. of Granada (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    out a thorough revision of the original analysis with the aim of understanding the different contributions to the total bias and resolution when building MPDs on an event-by-event basis. We focus on an alternative way to build MPDs by considering average MPDs for ensembles of air-showers, with the aim of enlarging the range of applicability of this kind of analysis. Finally, we analyze how different improvements in the Surface Detector electronics and its internal configuration affect the resolution of the MPD. We conclude by summarizing the main results and discussing potential ways to improve MPD-based mass composition studies.

  13. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, O. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Del Santo, M., E-mail: melania@ifc.inaf.it [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M.C. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Pareschi, G. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807, Merate (Italy)

    2016-01-21

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  14. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, O.; Del Santo, M.; Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M. C.; Pareschi, G.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  15. Criterion of applicable models for planar type Cherenkov laser based on quantum mechanical treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Minoru [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute of Science and Engineering Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Fares, Hesham, E-mail: fares_fares4@yahoo.com [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute of Science and Engineering Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt)

    2013-05-01

    A generalized theoretical analysis for amplification mechanism in the planar-type Cherenkov laser is given. An electron is represented to be a material wave having temporal and spatial varying phases with finite spreading length. Interaction between the electrons and the electromagnetic (EM) wave is analyzed by counting the quantum statistical properties. The interaction mechanism is classified into the Velocity and Density Modulation (VDM) model and the Energy Level Transition (ELT) model basing on the relation between the wavelength of the EM wave and the electron spreading length. The VDM model is applicable when the wavelength of the EM wave is longer than the electron spreading length as in the microwave region. The dynamic equation of the electron, which is popularly used in the classical Newtonian mechanics, has been derived from the quantum mechanical Schrödinger equation. The amplification of the EM wave can be explained basing on the bunching effect of the electron density in the electron beam. The amplification gain and whose dispersion relation with respect to the electron velocity is given in this paper. On the other hand, the ELT model is applicable for the case that the wavelength of the EM wave is shorter than the electron spreading length as in the optical region. The dynamics of the electron is explained to be caused by the electron transition between different energy levels. The amplification gain and whose dispersion relation with respect to the electron acceleration voltage was derived on the basis of the quantum mechanical density matrix.

  16. The laser calibration system for the STACEE ground-based gamma ray detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hanna, D

    2002-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of the laser system used for calibration monitoring of components of the STACEE detector. STACEE is a ground based gamma ray detector which uses the heliostats of a solar power facility to collect and focus Cherenkov light onto a system of secondary optics and photomultiplier tubes. To monitor the gain and check the linearity and timing properties of the phototubes and associated electronics, a system based on a dye laser, neutral density filters and optical fibres has been developed. In this paper we describe the system and present some results from initial tests made with it.

  17. A decade of dark matter searches with ground-based Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doro, Michele, E-mail: michele.doro@pd.infn.it [University and INFN Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Department of Physics and CERES, Campus Universitat Autonoma Barcelona, 08135 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    In the general scenario of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP), dark matter (DM) can be observed via astrophysical gamma-rays because photons are produced in various DM annihilation or decay processes, either as broad-band or line emission, or because of the secondary processes of charged particles in the final stages of the annihilations or the decays. The energy range of the former processes is accessible by current ground-based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs, like H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VERITAS). The strengths of this technique are (a) the expected DM gamma-ray spectra show peculiar features like bumps, spikes and cutoff that make them clearly distinguishable from the smoother astrophysical spectra and (b) the expected DM spectrum is universal and therefore by observing two or more DM targets with the same spectrum, a clear identification (besides detection) of DM would be enabled. The role of IACTs may gain more importance in the future as the results from the LHC may hint to a DM particle with mass at the TeV or above, where the IACTs sensitivity is unsurpassed by other experiments. In this contribution, a review of the search for DM with the current generation of IACT will be presented.

  18. Diagnostics of Electron Beams Based on Cherenkov Radiation in an Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukolov, A. V.; Novokshonov, A. I.; Potylitsyn, A. P.; Uglov, S. R.

    2017-02-01

    The use of an optical fiber in which Cherenkov radiation is generated instead of a metal wire for scanning a beam profile allows a compact and noise-proof device for diagnostics of charged particle beams in a wide energy range to be developed. Results of experimental investigation of the yield of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation generated in optical fibers with thickness in the range from 0.125 to 1 mm by electrons with energy of 5.7 MeV are presented.

  19. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Wayne

    2014-06-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a continuously operated, wide field of view detector based upon a water Cherenkov technology developed by the Milagro experiment. HAWC observes, at an elevation of 4100 m on Sierra Negra Mountain in Mexico, extensive air showers initiated by gamma and cosmic rays. The completed detector will consist of 300 closely spaced water tanks each instrumented with four photomultiplier tubes that provide timing and charge information used to reconstruct energy and arrival direction. HAWC has been optimized to observe transient and steady emission from point as well as diffuse sources of gamma rays in the energy range from several hundred GeV to several hundred TeV. Studies in solar physics as well as the properties of cosmic rays will also be performed. HAWC has been making observations at various stages of deployment since completion of 10% of the array in summer 2012. A discussion of the detector design, science capabilities, current construction/commissioning status, and first results will be presented...

  20. Photosensitive gas detectors for the ring-imaging Cherenkov (RICH) technique and the DELPHI barrel RICH prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, R.; Berst, J.D.; Christophel, E.; Guyonnet, J.L.; Baillon, P.; Bosteels, M.; Passardi, G.; Besch, H.J.; Seguinot, J.; Tocqueville, J.

    1986-12-01

    After a short introduction to the ring-imaging technique, the principal types of photosensitive gas detectors are discussed. In the second part, status and results of the DELPHI barrel RICH prototype are presented. A short description of a possible very fast RICH for future hadron colliders is given.

  1. A Cherenkov-based Beam Loss Scintillator system for beam, background and online luminosity monitoring at the LHCb experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F; Jacobsson, R

    2013-01-01

    The installation of a scintillator-based system in the LHCb cavern was initially proposed in order to observe injection problems around the LHCb interaction region. Thanks to the fact that LHCb had already developed a custom-made electronics board (BPIM) for the LHCb beam pickups and global LHCb timing monitoring, a complete, inexpensive but flexible and robust system was quickly developed and installed few cm from the beam pipe just in front of the LHCb VELO detector in time for the very first beams injected in the LHC. The current and final system – commonly referred to as Beam Loss Scintillator (BLS) system - ultimately played a central role in the fast beam, background and online luminosity monitoring at LHCb. In this paper, the features of the detectorbased on quartz radiator and Cherenkov light - are described, including the functionalities that the system acquired during the proton-proton physics programmes in 2009- 2013 thanks to its flexibility, reliability and sensitivity to beam hal...

  2. Measuring Cherenkov Backgrounds from Proportional Counters in SNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Stanley

    2006-04-01

    In the current phase of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, He-3 proportional counters have been deployed in the center of the detector to measure neutron production from neutral-current interactions between neutrinos and deuterons in the heavy water. Radioactive decays of Bi-214 and Tl-208 in the counters produce gammas of sufficient energy to photodisintegrate deuterons, which become a background to the neutral current measurement. We have measured the background rate in-situ using Cherenkov light detected with SNO's 9456 inward-looking photomultiplier tubes. A maximum likelihood method is used to separate backgrounds in the heavy water from backgrounds in the proportional counters based upon the spatial distribution of low energy Cherenkov event vertices. Uncertainties on the backgrounds have been estimated using calibration data taken with both a distributed Na-24 source, and a contained Th source deployed at various points in the detector.

  3. Exploration of a 100 TeV gamma-ray northern sky using the Tibet air-shower array combined with an underground water-Cherenkov muon-detector array

    CERN Document Server

    Sako, T K; Ohnishi, M; Shiomi, A; Takita, M; Tsuchiya, H

    2009-01-01

    Aiming to observe cosmic gamma rays in the 10 - 1000 TeV energy region, we propose a 10000 m^2 underground water-Cherenkov muon-detector (MD) array that operates in conjunction with the Tibet air-shower (AS) array. Significant improvement is expected in the sensitivity of the Tibet AS array towards celestial gamma-ray signals above 10 TeV by utilizing the fact that gamma-ray-induced air showers contain far fewer muons compared with cosmic-ray-induced ones. We carried out detailed Monte Carlo simulations to assess the attainable sensitivity of the Tibet AS+MD array towards celestial TeV gamma-ray signals. Based on the simulation results, the Tibet AS+MD array will be able to reject 99.99% of background events at 100 TeV, with 83% of gamma-ray events remaining. The sensitivity of the Tibet AS+MD array will be ~20 times better than that of the present Tibet AS array around 20 - 100 TeV. The Tibet AS+MD array will measure the directions of the celestial TeV gamma-ray sources and the cutoffs of their energy spectr...

  4. Wide-angle cherenkov telescope prototype preliminary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Lev; Anatoly, Ivanov

    2016-07-01

    This report presents an observation method of Cherenkov light from extensive air showers (EAS) generated by cosmic rays (CRs) above 10^16eV and preliminary observations. The interest in Cherenkov light differential detectors of EAS is caused by the possibility to measure the depth of cascade maximum, Xmax, and/or the shower age via angular and temporal distributions of the Cherenkov signal. In particular, it was shown using EAS model simulations that the pulse width measured at the periphery of the shower, r > 300 m, at sea level is pronouncedly connected with Xmax. Cherenkov detector is a wide-angle telescope working in coincidence with scintillation detectors, integral and differential Cherenkov detectors Yakutsk complex EAS.

  5. Photonic chip based optical frequency comb using soliton induced Cherenkov radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Brasch, Victor; Geiselmann, Michael; Lihachev, Grigoriy; Pfeiffer, Martin H P; Gorodetsky, Michael L; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2014-01-01

    By continuous wave pumping of a dispersion engineered, planar silicon nitride microresonator, continuously circulating, sub-30fs short temporal dissipative solitons are generated, that correspond to pulses of 6 optical cycles and constitute a coherent optical frequency comb in the spectral domain. Emission of soliton induced Cherenkov radiation caused by higher order dispersion broadens the spectral bandwidth to 2/3 of an octave, sufficient for self referencing, in excellent agreement with recent theoretical predictions and the broadest coherent microresonator frequency comb generated to date. The ability to preserve coherence over a broad spectral bandwidth using soliton induced Cherenkov radiation marks a critical milestone in the development of planar optical frequency combs, enabling on one hand application in e.g. coherent communications, broadband dual comb spectroscopy and Raman spectral imaging, while on the other hand significantly relaxing dispersion requirements for broadband microresonator frequen...

  6. Cherenkov radiation in a surface wave accelerator based on silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianhong; Khudik, Vladimir; Shvets, Gennady

    2016-10-01

    We report on our theoretical investigations of Cherenkov-type emission of surface phonon polaritons (SPPs) by relativistic electron bunches. The polaritons are confined by a planar waveguide comprised of two SiC slabs separated by an air gap. The SPPs are generated in the spectral range known as the reststrahlen band, where the dielectric permittivity of SiC is negative. Two surface modes of the radiation are analyzed: the longitudinal (accelerating) and the transverse (deflecting) ones. Both form Cherenkov cones that are different in the magnitude of the cone angle and the central frequency. However, both exhibits rapid spatial oscillations and beats behind the moving charge. Moreover, the longitudinal mode forms a reversed Cherenkov radiation cone due the negative group velocity for sufficiently small air gaps, but the transverse mode does not. The wakefield acceleration of electron beam inside the structure is also studied. Transverse instabilities and BBU effects can be suppressed by flat driver beam, meanwhile the longitudinal mode can support accelerating fields >1 GeV.

  7. Cherenkov luminescence measurements with digital silicon photomultipliers: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciarrocchi, Esther; Belcari, Nicola; Guerra, Alberto Del [Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); INFN, section of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Cherry, Simon R. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Lehnert, Adrienne; Hunter, William C. J.; McDougald, Wendy; Miyaoka, Robert S.; Kinahan, Paul E. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-11-16

    A feasibility study was done to assess the capability of digital silicon photomultipliers to measure the Cherenkov luminescence emitted by a β source. Cherenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is possible with a charge coupled device (CCD) based technology, but a stand-alone technique for quantitative activity measurements based on Cherenkov luminescence has not yet been developed. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are photon counting devices with a fast impulse response and can potentially be used to quantify β-emitting radiotracer distributions by CLI. In this study, a Philips digital photon counting (PDPC) silicon photomultiplier detector was evaluated for measuring Cherenkov luminescence. The PDPC detector is a matrix of avalanche photodiodes, which were read one at a time in a dark count map (DCM) measurement mode (much like a CCD). This reduces the device active area but allows the information from a single avalanche photodiode to be preserved, which is not possible with analog SiPMs. An algorithm to reject the noisiest photodiodes and to correct the measured count rate for the dark current was developed. The results show that, in DCM mode and at (10–13) °C, the PDPC has a dynamic response to different levels of Cherenkov luminescence emitted by a β source and transmitted through an opaque medium. This suggests the potential for this approach to provide quantitative activity measurements. Interestingly, the potential use of the PDPC in DCM mode for direct imaging of Cherenkov luminescence, as a opposed to a scalar measurement device, was also apparent. We showed that a PDPC tile in DCM mode is able to detect and image a β source through its Cherenkov radiation emission. The detector’s dynamic response to different levels of radiation suggests its potential quantitative capabilities, and the DCM mode allows imaging with a better spatial resolution than the conventional event-triggered mode. Finally, the same acquisition procedure and data processing could

  8. Particle identification by Cherenkov and transition radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, R.S.

    1980-09-01

    The Cherenkov counter has a role as a particle identifier for velocities which are too high for Time-of-Flight to be used, and too low for transition radiation detectors to give a useable signal. In beam lines the compensated differential counter is capable of giving the best resolution, but at high momenta the restriction on the spread of particle directions gives unacceptable limits on the beam acceptance. The transition radiation detectors being developed to identify hadrons at relatively low momentum do not have this restriction and might be used instead. For particles produced in an interaction, the ring imaging type of Cherenkov should give the best coverage for multiparticle events, but a threshold counter is much simpler, cheaper and faster where it can give adequate separation. Again at high values of ..gamma.. the resolution of Cherenkov counters will fail and some form of transition radiation detector will be necessary.

  9. NICHE: The Non-Imaging CHErenkov Array

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the Cosmic Ray (CR) nuclear composition around and above the Knee (~ 10^15.5 eV) has been difficult due to uncertainties inherent to the measurement techniques and/or dependence on hadronic Monte Carlo simulation models required to interpret the data. Measurement of the Cherenkov air shower signal, calibrated with air fluorescence measurements, offers a methodology to provide an accurate measurement of the nuclear composition evolution over a large energy range. NICHE will use an array of widely-spaced, non-imaging Cherenkov counters to measure the amplitude and time-spread of the air shower Cherenkov signal to extract CR nuclear composition measurements and to cross-calibrate the Cherenkov energy and composition measurements with TA/TALE fluorescence and surface detector measurements.

  10. Development of a SiPM Cherenkov camera demonstrator for the CTA observatory telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosio, Michelangelo; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Aramo, Carla; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Boiano, Alfonso; Bonavolontà, Carmela; Fiandrini, Emanuele; Giglietto, Nicola; Giordano, Francesco; Ionica, Maria; de Lisio, Corrado; Masone, Vincenzo; Paoletti, Riccardo; Postolache, Vasile; Rugliancich, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Consortium is developing the new generation of ground observatories for the detection of ultra-high energy gamma-rays. The Italian Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) is participating to the R&D of a possible solution for the Cherenkov photon cameras based on Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors sensitive to Near Ultraviolet (NUV) energies. The latest NUV-HD SiPM technology achieved by the collaboration of INFN with Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK) is bas...

  11. Recent AGN Observations by the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kildea, J.; Alabiso, A.; Bramel, D. A.; Carson, J.; Covault, C. E.; Driscoll, D.; Fortin, P.; Gingrich, D. M.; Hanna, D. S.; Jarvis, A.; Lindner, T.; Mukherjee, R.; Mueller, C.; Ong, R. A.; Ragan, K.; Scalzo, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Zweerink, J.

    2005-02-01

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is a ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for the detection of very high energy gamma rays from Galactic and extra-galactic sources. By utilizing the large collection area provided by the solar mirrors of the National Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico, STACEE achieves a low energy threshold, around 100 GeV, for the detection of gamma rays. We briefly describe the STACEE detector and detail recent observations of Active Galactic Nuclei.

  12. Design concepts for the Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA : An advanced facility for ground-based high-energy gamma-ray astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Actis et al., M.; Cazaux, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has had a major breakthrough with the impressive results obtained using systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has a huge potential in astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. CTA is an international initiative to b

  13. Design concepts for the Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA: an advanced facility for ground-based high-energy gamma-ray astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Actis, M.; Agnetta, G.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.; Aleksić, J.; Aliu, E.; Allan, D.; Allekotte, I.; Antico, F.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Aravantinos, A.; Arlen, T.; Arnaldi, H.; Artmann, S.; Asano, K.; Asorey, H.; Bähr, J.; Bais, A.; Baixeras, C.; Bajtlik, S.; Balis, D.; Bamba, A.; Barbier, C.; Barceló, M.; Barnacka, A.; Barnstedt, J.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Basso, S.; Bastieri, D.; Bauer, C.; Becerra, J.; Becherini, Y.; Bechtol, K.; Becker, J.; Beckmann, V.; Bednarek, W.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Belluso, M.; Benallou, M.; Benbow, W.; Berdugo, J.; Berger, K.; Bernardino, T.; Bernlöhr, K.; Biland, A.; Billotta, S.; Bird, T.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Blake, S.; Blanch, O.; Bobkov, A. A.; Bogacz, L.; Bogdan, M.; Boisson, C.; Boix, J.; Bolmont, J.; Bonanno, G.; Bonardi, A.; Bonev, T.; Borkowski, J.; Botner, O.; Bottani, A.; Bourgeat, M.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouvier, A.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Briggs, M. S.; Brun, P.; Brunetti, L.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Byrum, K.; Cailles, M.; Cameron, R.; Canestrari, R.; Cantu, S.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Casiraghi, M.; Castarede, H.; Catalano, O.; Cavazzani, S.; Cazaux, S.; Cerruti, B.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chiang, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cieślar, M.; Ciesielska, M.; Cillis, A.; Clerc, C.; Colin, P.; Colomé, J.; Compin, M.; Conconi, P.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Contreras, J. L.; Coppi, P.; Corlier, M.; Corona, P.; Corpace, O.; Corti, D.; Cortina, J.; Costantini, H.; Cotter, G.; Courty, B.; Couturier, S.; Covino, S.; Croston, J.; Cusumano, G.; Daniel, M. K.; Dazzi, F.; Angelis, A. De; de Cea Del Pozo, E.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; de Jager, O.; de La Calle Pérez, I.; de La Vega, G.; de Lotto, B.; de Naurois, M.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, B.; Deil, C.; Delagnes, E.; Deleglise, G.; Delgado, C.; Dettlaff, T.; di Paolo, A.; di Pierro, F.; Díaz, C.; Dick, J.; Dickinson, H.; Digel, S. W.; Dimitrov, D.; Disset, G.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Doert, M.; Domainko, W.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Dournaux, J.-L.; Dravins, D.; Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Dufour, C.; Durand, D.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edy, E.; Egberts, K.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elles, S.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Enomoto, R.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Errando, M.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcone, A. D.; Farakos, K.; Farnier, C.; Federici, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferenc, D.; Fillin-Martino, E.; Fink, D.; Finley, C.; Finley, J. P.; Firpo, R.; Florin, D.; Föhr, C.; Fokitis, E.; Font, Ll.; Fontaine, G.; Fontana, A.; Förster, A.; Fortson, L.; Fouque, N.; Fransson, C.; Fraser, G. W.; Fresnillo, L.; Fruck, C.; Fujita, Y.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Gäbele, W.; Gabici, S.; Gadola, A.; Galante, N.; Gallant, Y.; García, B.; García López, R. J.; Garrido, D.; Garrido, L.; Gascón, D.; Gasq, C.; Gaug, M.; Gaweda, J.; Geffroy, N.; Ghag, C.; Ghedina, A.; Ghigo, M.; Gianakaki, E.; Giarrusso, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Giro, E.; Giubilato, P.; Glanzman, T.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Gochna, M.; Golev, V.; Gómez Berisso, M.; González, A.; González, F.; Grañena, F.; Graciani, R.; Granot, J.; Gredig, R.; Green, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grimm, O.; Grube, J.; Grudzińska, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Guarino, V.; Guglielmi, L.; Guilloux, F.; Gunji, S.; Gyuk, G.; Hadasch, D.; Haefner, D.; Hagiwara, R.; Hahn, J.; Hallgren, A.; Hara, S.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Hassan, T.; Haubold, T.; Hauser, M.; Hayashida, M.; Heller, R.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Herrero, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, D.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Horns, D.; Hrupec, D.; Huan, H.; Huber, B.; Huet, J.-M.; Hughes, G.; Hultquist, K.; Humensky, T. B.; Huppert, J.-F.; Ibarra, A.; Illa, J. M.; Ingjald, J.; Inoue, Y.; Inoue, S.; Ioka, K.; Jablonski, C.; Jacholkowska, A.; Janiak, M.; Jean, P.; Jensen, H.; Jogler, T.; Jung, I.; Kaaret, P.; Kabuki, S.; Kakuwa, J.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kankanyan, R.; Kapala, M.; Karastergiou, A.; Karczewski, M.; Karkar, S.; Karlsson, N.; Kasperek, J.; Katagiri, H.; Katarzyński, K.; Kawanaka, N.; Kȩdziora, B.; Kendziorra, E.; Khélifi, B.; Kieda, D.; Kifune, T.; Kihm, T.; Klepser, S.; Kluźniak, W.; Knapp, J.; Knappy, A. R.; Kneiske, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Köck, F.; Kodani, K.; Kohri, K.; Kokkotas, K.; Komin, N.; Konopelko, A.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Kostka, P.; Kotuła, J.; Kowal, G.; Kozioł, J.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Kretzschmann, A.; Kubo, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, N.; La Parola, V.; La Rosa, G.; López, A.; Lamanna, G.; Laporte, P.; Lavalley, C.; Le Flour, T.; Le Padellec, A.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lessio, L.; Lieunard, B.; Lindfors, E.; Liolios, A.; Lohse, T.; Lombardi, S.; Lopatin, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lubiński, P.; Luz, O.; Lyard, E.; Maccarone, M. C.; Maccarone, T.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; Maltezos, S.; Małkiewicz, P.; Mañá, C.; Manalaysay, A.; Maneva, G.; Mangano, A.; Manigot, P.; Marín, J.; Mariotti, M.; Markoff, S.; Martínez, G.; Martínez, M.; Mastichiadis, A.; Matsumoto, H.; Mattiazzo, S.; Mazin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; McCubbin, N.; McHardy, I.; Medina, C.; Melkumyan, D.; Mendes, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meucci, M.; Michałowski, J.; Micolon, P.; Mineo, T.; Mirabal, N.; Mirabel, F.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Mizuno, T.; Moal, B.; Moderski, R.; Molinari, E.; Monteiro, I.; Moralejo, A.; Morello, C.; Mori, K.; Motta, G.; Mottez, F.; Moulin, E.; Mukherjee, R.; Munar, P.; Muraishi, H.; Murase, K.; Murphy, A. Stj.; Nagataki, S.; Naito, T.; Nakamori, T.; Nakayama, K.; Naumann, C.; Naumann, D.; Nayman, P.; Nedbal, D.; Niedźwiecki, A.; Niemiec, J.; Nikolaidis, A.; Nishijima, K.; Nolan, S. J.; Nowak, N.; O'Brien, P. T.; Ochoa, I.; Ohira, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Ohka, H.; Okumura, A.; Olivetto, C.; Ong, R. A.; Orito, R.; Orr, M.; Osborne, J. P.; Ostrowski, M.; Otero, L.; Otte, A. N.; Ovcharov, E.; Oya, I.; Oziȩbło, A.; Paiano, S.; Pallota, J.; Panazol, J. L.; Paneque, D.; Panter, M.; Paoletti, R.; Papyan, G.; Paredes, J. M.; Pareschi, G.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pepato, A.; Persic, M.; Petrucci, P. O.; Peyaud, B.; Piechocki, W.; Pita, S.; Pivato, G.; Płatos, Ł.; Platzer, R.; Pogosyan, L.; Pohl, M.; Pojmański, G.; Ponz, J. D.; Potter, W.; Prandini, E.; Preece, R.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quel, E.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rajda, P.; Rando, R.; Rataj, M.; Raue, M.; Reimann, C.; Reimann, O.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; Renner, S.; Reymond, J.-M.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Ribordy, M.; Rico, J.; Rieger, F.; Ringegni, P.; Ripken, J.; Ristori, P.; Rivoire, S.; Rob, L.; Rodriguez, S.; Roeser, U.; Romano, P.; Romero, G. E.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rovero, A. C.; Roy, F.; Royer, S.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Russo, F.; Ryde, F.; Sacco, B.; Saggion, A.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, K.; Saito, T.; Sakaki, N.; Salazar, E.; Salini, A.; Sánchez, F.; Sánchez Conde, M. Á.; Santangelo, A.; Santos, E. M.; Sanuy, A.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Sarkar, S.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Scarcioffolo, M.; Schanz, T.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schmidt, T.; Schmoll, J.; Schroedter, M.; Schultz, C.; Schultze, J.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schweizer, T.; Seiradakis, J.; Selmane, S.; Seweryn, K.; Shayduk, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Shibata, T.; Sikora, M.; Silk, J.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Skole, C.; Smith, N.; Sobczyńska, D.; Sofo Haro, M.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spiga, D.; Spyrou, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Starling, R. L. C.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Steiner, S.; Stergioulas, N.; Sternberger, R.; Stinzing, F.; Stodulski, M.; Straumann, U.; Suárez, A.; Suchenek, M.; Sugawara, R.; Sulanke, K. H.; Sun, S.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutcliffe, P.; Szanecki, M.; Szepieniec, T.; Szostek, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Talbot, R. G.; Tam, P. H.; Tanaka, M.; Tanimori, T.; Tavani, M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tchernin, C.; Tejedor, L. A.; Telezhinsky, I.; Temnikov, P.; Tenzer, C.; Terada, Y.; Terrier, R.; Teshima, M.; Testa, V.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tluczykont, M.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tokanai, F.; Tokarz, M.; Toma, K.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Totani, T.; Toussenel, F.; Vallania, P.; Vallejo, G.; van der Walt, J.; van Eldik, C.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vankov, H.; Vasileiadis, G.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vegas, I.; Venter, L.; Vercellone, S.; Veyssiere, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Videla, M.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Vlahakis, N.; Vlahos, L.; Vogler, P.; Vollhardt, A.; Volpe, F.; von Gunten, H. P.; Vorobiov, S.; Wagner, S.; Wagner, R. M.; Wagner, B.; Wakely, S. P.; Walter, P.; Walter, R.; Warwick, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Wegner, P.; Weinstein, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Welsing, R.; Wetteskind, H.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Williams, D. A.; Winde, M.; Wischnewski, R.; Wiśniewski, Ł.; Wolczko, A.; Wood, M.; Xiong, Q.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamaoka, K.; Yamazaki, R.; Yanagita, S.; Yoffo, B.; Yonetani, M.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshikoshi, T.; Zabalza, V.; Zagdański, A.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A.; Zech, A.; Ziȩtara, K.; Ziółkowski, P.; Zitelli, V.; Zychowski, P.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has had a major breakthrough with the impressive results obtained using systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has a huge potential in astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. CTA is an international initiative to b

  14. 110th anniversary of the birth of P A Cherenkov (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 17 December 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held on 17 December 2014 at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, devoted to the 110th anniversary of the birth of Academician P A Cherenkov. The agenda posted on the website of the Physical Sciences Division RAS http://www.gpad.ac.ru comprised the following reports: (1) Bashmakov Yu A (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Prehistory of discovery"; (2) Kadmensky S G (Voronezh State University, Voronezh) "Cherenkov radiation as a serendipity phenomenon"; (3) Denisov S P (Russian Federation State Scientific Center 'Institute for High Energy Physics' of National Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', Protvino, Moscow region) "Use of Cherenkov counters in accelerator experiments"; (4) Petrukhin A A (National Research Nuclear University 'MEPhI', Moscow) "Cherenkov NEVOD water detector"; (5) Dremin I M (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Cherenkov radiation from gluons in a nuclear medium"; (6) Domogatsky G V (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Cherenkov detectors for high-energy neutrino astrophysics"; (7) Kravchenko E A (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk) "Cherenkov detectors with aerogel radiators"; (8) Malinovski E I (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Cherenkov total absorption spectrometers for high-energy electrons and photons"; (9) Maltseva Yu I (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk) "Distributed beam loss monitor based on the Cherenkov effect in an optical fiber". Papers based on oral reports 1-4, 6-9 are presented below. Some aspects of report 5 can be found in the review by I M Dremin and A V Leonidov published in 2010 in Physics-Uspekhi (Vol. 53, p. 1123). • Cherenkov radiation: from discovery to RICH, Yu A Bashmakov Physics-Uspekhi, 2015, Volume 58, Number 5, Pages 467-471 • Cherenkov radiation as a serendipitous phenomenon, S G Kadmensky Physics

  15. THGEM-based photon detectors for the upgrade of COMPASS RICH-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeev, M.; Birsa, R. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Büchele, M. [Universität Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Chiosso, M. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ciliberti, P. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Denisov, O. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Duic, V. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Finger, M.; Finger, M. [Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic and JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Fischer, H. [Universität Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Giorgi, M. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Gobbo, B.; Gregori, M. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Herrmann, F.; Königsmann, K. [Universität Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Levorato, S. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); and others

    2013-12-21

    New Cherenkov photon detectors are being developed for the upgrade of COMPASS RICH-1. The detectors are based on THGEMs, arranged in a three layer architecture, with a CsI film on the first layer acting as a reflective photocathode. The response of THGEMs with various geometries under different conditions has been studied and photon detector prototypes have been built, tested in laboratory and operated during test beam runs providing a typical gain of 10{sup 5} and a time resolution of better than 10 ns. A photon detector prototype with 300×300 mm{sup 2} active area, operated at the CERN PS T10 test beam in November 2012, has confirmed the validity of this novel technology and has allowed further studies of the detector response. -- Highlights: •The COMPASS THGEM R and D team has performed systematic studies and parameter optimization for THGEMs to be used in RICH applications. •A triple-THGEM photon detector with 300×300 mm{sup 2} active area has been successfully tested at the CERN PS T10 test-beam. •A photon detector prototype based on coupling THGEM and Micromegas has provided encouraging results in laboratory tests. •For the upgrade of COMPASS RICH-1 a set of THGEM-based photon detectors will be produced.

  16. Fast Cherenkov model of optical photons generation and transportation

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This note describes the technical details of Fast Cherenkov model of optical photons generation and transportation: in particular, the mechanism of Cherenkov photons transportation through the straight bar geometry. As an example of usage, the implemetation of the method inside Quartic detector simulation in GEANT4 will be presented and compared to the nominal results.

  17. Development of a custom on-line ultrasonic vapour analyzer/flowmeter for the ATLAS inner detector, with application to gaseous tracking and Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, R; Berry, S; Berthoud, J; Bitadze, A; Bonneau, P; Botelho-Direito, J; Bousson, N; Boyd, G; Bozza, G; Da Riva, E; Degeorge, C; DiGirolamo, B; Doubek, M; Godlewski, J; Hallewell, G; Katunin, S; Lombard, D; Mathieu, M; McMahon, S; Nagai, K; Perez-Rodriguez, E; Rossi, C; Rozanov, A; Vacek, V; Vitek, M; Zwalinski, L

    2013-01-01

    Precision sound velocity measurements can simultaneously determine binary gas composition and flow. We have developed an analyzer with custom electronics, currently in use in the ATLAS inner detector, with numerous potential applications. The instrument has demonstrated ~0.3% mixture precision for C3F8/C2F6 mixtures and < 10-4 resolution for N2/C3F8 mixtures. Moderate and high flow versions of the instrument have demonstrated flow resolutions of +/- 2% F.S. for flows up to 250 l.min-1, and +/- 1.9% F.S. for linear flow velocities up to 15 ms-1; the latter flow approaching that expected in the vapour return of the thermosiphon fluorocarbon coolant recirculator being built for the ATLAS silicon tracker.

  18. Schwarzschild-Couder Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Meagher, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next major ground-based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy. With CTA gamma-ray sources will be studied in the very-high energy gamma-ray range of a few tens of GeV to 100 TeV with up to ten times better sensitivity than available with current generation instruments. We discuss the proposed US contribution to CTA that comprises imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope with Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) optics. Key features of the SC telescope are a wide field of view of eight degrees, a finely pixelated camera with silicon photomultipliers as photon detectors, and a compact and power efficient 1 GS/s readout. The progress in both the optical system and camera development are discussed in this paper.

  19. The Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Valerie

    2014-03-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a large collaborative effort dedicated to the design and operation of the next-generation ground-based very high-energy gamma-ray observatory. CTA will improve by about one order of magnitude the sensitivity with respect to the current major arrays (VERITAS, H.E.S.S., and MAGIC) in the core energy range of 100 GeV to 10 TeV, and will extend the viability of the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique (IACT) down to tens of GeV and above 100 TeV. In order to achieve such improved performance at both a northern and southern CTA site, four 23m diameter Large Size Telescopes (LST) optimized for low energy gamma rays will be deployed close to the centre of the array. A larger number of Medium Size Telescopes (MST) will be optimized for the core IACT energy range. The southern site will include 25 12m single-mirror MSTs and a US contribution of up to 24 novel dual-mirror design Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) type MSTs with a primary mirror of 9.5m diameter, and will also include an array of Small Size Telescopes (SST) to observe the highest-energy gamma rays from galactic sources. The SSTs can be smaller and more widely separated because more energetic gamma rays produce a larger Cherenkov light pool with many photons. The SSTs achieve a large collection area by covering a wide (10 sq km) footprint on the ground. The CTA project is finishing its preparatory phase, and the pre-production phase will start this year. I will review the status and the expected performance of CTA as well as the main scientific goals for the observatory.

  20. The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafá, Miguel A.

    2014-10-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a large field of view, continuously operated, TeV γ-ray experiment under construction at 4,100 m a.s.l. in Mexico. The HAWC observatory will have an order of magnitude better sensitivity, angular resolution, and background rejection than its predecessor, the Milagro experiment. The improved performance will allow us to detect both the transient and steady emissions, to study the Galactic diffuse emission at TeV energies, and to measure or constrain the TeV spectra of GeV γ-ray sources. In addition, HAWC will be the only ground-based instrument capable of detecting prompt emission from γ-ray bursts above 50 GeV. The HAWC observatory will consist of an array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs), each with four photomultiplier tubes. This array is currently under construction on the flanks of the Sierra Negra volcano near the city of Puebla, Mexico. The first 30 WCDs (forming an array approximately the size of Milagro) were deployed in Summer 2012, and 100 WCDs will be taking data by May, 2013. We present in this paper the motivation for constructing the HAWC observatory, the status of the deployment, and the first results from the constantly growing array.

  1. The high-altitude water Cherenkov Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, Miguel A., E-mail: miguel@psu.edu [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Ft Collins, CO (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a large field of view, continuously operated, TeV γ -ray experiment under construction at 4,100ma.s.l. in Mexico. The HAWC observatory will have an order of magnitude better sensitivity, angular resolution, and background rejection than its predecessor, the Milagro experiment. The improved performance will allow to detect both the transient and steady emissions, to study the Galactic diffuse emission at TeV energies, and to measure or constrain the TeV spectra of GeV γ -ray sources. In addition, HAWC will be the only ground-based instrument capable of detecting prompt emission from γ -ray bursts above 50 GeV. The HAWC observatory will consist of an array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs), each with four photomultiplier tubes. This array is currently under construction on the flanks of the Sierra Negra volcano near the city of Puebla, Mexico. The first 30 WCDs (forming an array approximately the size of Milagro) were deployed in Summer 2012, and 100 WCDs will be taking data by May, 2013. We present in this paper the motivation for constructing the HAWC observatory, the status of the deployment, and the first results from the constantly growing array. (author)

  2. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a large field of view, continuously operated, TeV gamma-ray experiment under construction at 4,100 m a.s.l. in Mexico. The HAWC observatory will have an order of magnitude better sensitivity, angular resolution, and background rejection than its predecessor, the Milagro experiment. The improved performance will allow us to detect both transient and steady emissions, to study the Galactic diffuse emission at TeV energies, and to measure or constrain the TeV spectra of GeV gamma-ray sources. In addition, HAWC will be the only ground-based instrument capable of detecting prompt emission from gamma-ray bursts above 50 GeV. The HAWC observatory will consist of an array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs), each with four photomultiplier tubes. This array is currently under construction on the flanks of the Sierra Negra volcano near the city of Puebla, Mexico. The first thirty WCDs (forming an array approximately the size of Milagro) were deployed in Summer...

  3. The Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Bigongiari, Ciro

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is planned to be the next generation ground based observatory for very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy. Gamma-rays provide a powerful insight into the non-thermal universe and hopefully a unique probe for new physics. Imaging Cherenkov telescopes have already discovered more than 170 VHE gamma-ray emitters providing plentiful of valuable data and clearly demonstrating the power of this technique. In spite of the impressive results there are indications that the known sources represent only the tip of the iceberg. A major step in sensitivity is needed to increase the number of detected sources, observe short time-scale variability and improve morphological studies of extended sources. An extended energy coverage is advisable to observe far-away extragalactic objects and improve spectral analysis. CTA aims to increase the sensitivity by an order of magnitude compared to current facilities, to extend the accessible gamma-ray energies from a few tens of GeV to a hundred o...

  4. Progress on Cherenkov Reconstruction in MICE

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, Daniel M; Rajaram, Durga; Winter, Miles; Cremaldi, Lucien; Sanders, David; Summers, Don

    2016-01-01

    Two beamline Cherenkov detectors (Ckov-a,-b) support particle identification in the MICE beamline. Electrons and high-momentum muons and pions can be identified with good efficiency. We report on the Ckov-a,-b performance in detecting pions and muons with MICE Step I data and derive an upper limit on the pion contamination in the standard MICE muon beam.

  5. Immune Based Intrusion Detector Generating Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xiao-mei; YU Ge; XIANG Guang

    2005-01-01

    Immune-based intrusion detection approaches are studied. The methods of constructing self set and generating mature detectors are researched and improved. A binary encoding based self set construction method is applied. First,the traditional mature detector generating algorithm is improved to generate mature detectors and detect intrusions faster. Then, a novel mature detector generating algorithm is proposed based on the negative selection mechanism. Accord ing to the algorithm, less mature detectors are needed to detect the abnormal activities in the network. Therefore, the speed of generating mature detectors and intrusion detection is improved. By comparing with those based on existing algo rithms, the intrusion detection system based on the algorithm has higher speed and accuracy.

  6. Cherenkov light imaging in astro-particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzoyan, Razmik, E-mail: Razmik.Mirzoyan@mpp.mpg.de

    2014-12-01

    Cherenkov light emission plays a key role in contemporary science; it is widely used in high energy, nuclear, and numerous astro-particle physics experiments. Most astro-particle physics experiments are based on the detection of light, and a vast majority of them on the measurement of Cherenkov light. Cherenkov light emission is measured in gases (used in air-Cherenkov technique), in water (for example, neutrino experiments BAIKAL, Super-Kamiokande, NESTOR, ANTARES, future KM3NeT; cosmic and γ-ray experiments Milagro, HAWC, AUGER) and in ice (IceCube). In this report our goal is not limited to simply listing the multitude of experiments that are based on using Cherenkov emission, but we will clarify the reasons making this emission so important and so frequently used. For completeness we will first give a short historical overview on the discovery and evolution of Cherenkov emission and then we will dwell on its main features and numerous applications in astro-particle physics experiments. - Highlights: • We explain why Cherenkov emission is so important and why it is so widely used. • A brief historical excursion is made to the very beginning of Cherenkov emission. • Imaging of the Cherenkov light emission is discussed in a great detail. • The principle of Cherenkov light imaging in diverse experiments is the same.

  7. The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory: First Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgarber, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is under construction at Sierra Negra in the state of Puebla in Mexico. Operation began in September 2012, with the first 30 out of the final 300 water Cherenkov detectors deployed and in data acquisition. The HAWC Observatory is designed to record particle air showers from gamma rays and cosmic rays with TeV energies. Though the detector is only 10% complete, HAWC is already the world's largest water Cherenkov detector in the TeV band. In this presentation, I will summarize the performance of the detector to date and discuss preliminary observations of cosmic-ray and gamma-ray sources. I will also describe deployment plans for the remainder of the detector and outline prospects for TeV observations in the coming year.

  8. Implementing a Java Based GUI for RICH Detector Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendacky, Andrew; Voloshin, Andrew; Benmokhtar, Fatiha

    2016-09-01

    The CLAS12 detector at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) is undergoing an upgrade. One of the improvements is the addition of a Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector to improve particle identification in the 3-8 GeV/c momentum range. Approximately 400 multi anode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMTs) are going to be used to detect Cherenkov Radiation in the single photoelectron spectra (SPS). The SPS of each pixel of all MAPMTs have been fitted to a mathematical model of roughly 45 parameters for 4 HVs, 3 OD. Out of those parameters, 9 can be used to evaluate the PMTs performance and placement in the detector. To help analyze data when the RICH is operational, a GUI application was written in Java using Swing and detector packages from TJNAF. To store and retrieve the data, a MySQL database program was written in Java using the JDBC package. Using the database, the GUI pulls the values and produces histograms and graphs for a selected PMT at a specific HV and OD. The GUI will allow researchers to easily view a PMT's performance and efficiency to help with data analysis and ring reconstruction when the RICH is finished.

  9. Ultrafast graphene-based broadband THz detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mittendorff, Martin; Kamann, Josef; Eroms, Jonathan; Weiss, Dieter; Schneider, Harald; Helm, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    We present an ultrafast graphene-based detector, working in the THz range at room temperature. A logarithmic-periodic antenna is coupled to a graphene flake that is produced by exfoliation on SiO2. The detector was characterized with the free-electron laser FELBE for wavelengths from 8 um to 220 um. The detector rise time is 50 ps in the wavelength range from 30 um to 220 um. Autocorrelation measurements exploiting the nonlinear photocurrent response at high intensities reveal an intrinsic response time below 10 ps. This detector has a high potential for characterizing temporal overlaps, e. g. in two-color pump-probe experiments.

  10. Optical and radiographical characterization of silica aerogel for Cherenkov radiator

    CERN Document Server

    Tabata, Makoto; Hatakeyama, Yoshikiyo; Kawai, Hideyuki; Morita, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    We present optical and X-ray radiographical characterization of silica aerogels with refractive index from 1.05 to 1.07 for a Cherenkov radiator. A novel pin-drying method enables us to produce highly transparent hydrophobic aerogels with high refractive index by shrinking wet-gels. In order to investigate the uniformity in the density (i.e., refractive index) of an individual aerogel monolith, we use the laser Fraunhofer method, an X-ray absorption technique, and Cherenkov imaging by a ring imaging Cherenkov detector in a beam test. We observed an increase in density at the edge of the aerogel tiles, produced by pin-drying.

  11. Development of the optical system for the SST-1M telescope of the Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Seweryn, K; Błocki, J.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Cadoux, F.; Christov, A.; Chruślińska, M.; Curyło, M.; della Volpe, D.; Dyrda, M.; Favre, Y.; Frankowski, A.; Grudnik, Ł.; Grudzińska, M.; Heller, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lalik, K.; Lyard, E.; Mach, E.; Mandat, D.; Marszałek, A.; Michałowski, J.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Neronov, A.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Pech, M.; Porcelli, A.; Prandini, E.; Pueschel, E.; Rajda, P.; Rameez, M.; Rozwadowski, P.; Schioppa, E. jr; Schovanek, P.; Skowron, K.; Sliusar, V.; Sowiński, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Toscano, S.; Pujadas, I. Troyano; Walter, R.; Wiȩcek, M.; Zagdański, A.; Ziȩtara, K.; Żychowski, P.; Barciński, T.; Karczewski, M.; Kukliński, J. Nicolau; Płatos, Ł.; Rataj, M.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.

    2015-01-01

    The prototype of a Davies-Cotton small size telescope (SST-1M) has been designed and developed by a consortium of Polish and Swiss institutions and proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory. The main purpose of the optical system is to focus the Cherenkov light emitted by extensive air showers in the atmosphere onto the focal plane detectors. The main component of the system is a dish consisting of 18 hexagonal mirrors with a total effective collection area of 6.47 m2 (including the shadowing and estimated mirror reflectivity). Such a solution was chosen taking into account the analysis of the Cherenkov light propagation and based on optical simulations. The proper curvature and stability of the dish is ensured by the mirror alignment system and the isostatic interface to the telescope structure. Here we present the design of the optical subsystem together with the performance measurements of its components.

  12. The sensitivity of the Durham Mk6 ground-based Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope to Very High Energy gamma-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, K

    2001-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is a determination of the sensitivity of the Durham Mk6 ground based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope (IACT), an instrument which uses the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique to detect Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-rays. The first three chapters are introductory: Chapter I describes the basics of Very High Energy (VHE) gamma ray astronomy. Chapter 2 describes the properties of Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Chapter 3 describes the detection of these EAS on the ground by lACTs, Chapter 4 details the Durham Mk6 IACT and includes a description of the Cherenkov imaging technique for background discrimination. Chapter 5 describes the MOCCA and SOLMK simulation codes. Chapter 6 contains a description of the details of the simulations produced for this thesis. This chapter continues to its logical conclusion and presents a revised VHE gamma-ray flux of 2.5 +- 0.7 sub s sub t sub a sub t [+0.5 or -1.6] sub s sub y sub s sub t x 10 sup - sup 7 photons m sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 for ...

  13. The major atmospheric gamma-ray imaging Cherenkov telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garczarczyk, Markus; MAGIC Collaboration

    2011-05-01

    MAGIC is a system of two 17 m diameter Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) for ground-based γ-ray astronomy. During many years, starting with the design phase of the first telescope in 2003, the upgrade of the second telescope in 2008 up to now, novel technologies have been developed, commissioned and continuously improved. Most components and subsystems represent nowadays state of the art techniques and are under consideration to be used in future detectors. The large reflector area, together with small diameter, high quantum efficiency (QE) photomultipliers (PMTs) in combination with an improved trigger and readout system permits an analysis threshold of 25 GeV, the lowest among current IACTs. MAGIC overlaps in energy with the upper end of current satellite experiments and gives the unique opportunity, for the first time, to cross-calibrate ground based versus satellite born detectors. Some selected techniques used in MAGIC, which are in context with this conference, are presented.

  14. A disc-DIRC-Detector for WASA at COSY as a test detector for PANDA rate at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroshkevich, Evgueni [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    For a precise measurement of the velocity of highly relativistic particles the detection of Cherenkov light is very attractive. Detectors based on the Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov Light (DIRC) - first built and used in the BaBar experiment - are also planned to be used in the PANDA detector at FAIR, both in form of a barrel-DIRC and in form of a disc-DIRC. In both cases the Cherenkov rings are reconstructed from the internally reflected Cherenkov light deflected into position sensitive detectors. For the WASA Forward Detector setup a Disc-DIRC is constructed, which serves both as a test module for PANDA and an important upgrade of the WASA detector. For an optimal performance at WASA the Disc-DIRC is tilted by 20 out of the vertical plane. The internally reflected Cherenkov light will be guided to multi-anode photomultipliers by focussing light guides. Both Disc-DIRC and focussing light guides will be made of plexiglass. Design, performance and time line of construction and implementation are discussed.

  15. Results from the 1997 run of the LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov test-beam

    CERN Document Server

    Halley, A; Teixeira-Dias, P; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, Guy

    1998-01-01

    Analysis results of data from the ring imaging Cherenkov test-beam using hybrid photo diodes are presented. Details are given of the geometrical arrangement of the prototype and data-taking conditions, together with results of simulation and studies of the detector performance, photon yield and Cherenkov angle resolution using different radiators. Good agreement with simulation is found for both gas and aerogel photon yield calculations and the observed Cherenkov angle resolution.1

  16. Design concepts for the Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA: an advanced facility for ground-based high-energy gamma-ray astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Actis, M.; Agnetta, G.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.; Aleksić, J.; Aliu, E.; Allan, D.; Allekotte, I.; Antico, F.; Antonelli, L.A.; Antoranz, P.; Aravantinos, A.; Arlen, T.; Arnaldi, H.; Artmann, S

    2011-01-01

    Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has had a major breakthrough with the impressive results obtained using systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has a huge potential in astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. CTA is an international initiative to build the next generation instrument, with a factor of 5-10 improvement in sensitivity in the 100 GeV to 10 TeV range and the extension to energies well below 100 GeV and above 100 TeV. CTA will con...

  17. Wavelength-shifted Cherenkov radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krider, E. P.; Jacobson, V. L.; Pifer, A. E.; Polakos, P. A.; Kurz, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The scintillation and Cherenkov responses of plastic Cherenkov radiators containing different wavelength-shifting fluors in varying concentrations have been studied in beams of low energy protons and pions. For cosmic ray applications, where large Cherenkov to scintillation ratios are desired, the optimum fluor concentrations are 0.000025 by weight or less.

  18. Cherenkov radiation in moving medium

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Cherenkov radiation in uniformly moving homogenous isotropic medium without dispersion is studied. Formula for the spectrum of Cherenkov radiation of fermion was derived for the case when the speed of the medium is less than the speed of light in this medium at rest. The properties of Cherenkov spectrum are investigated.

  19. Ion chamber based neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F

    2014-12-16

    A neutron detector with monolithically integrated readout circuitry, including: a bonded semiconductor die; an ion chamber formed in the bonded semiconductor die; a first electrode and a second electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; and the readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the first and second electrodes. The bonded semiconductor die includes an etched semiconductor substrate bonded to an active semiconductor substrate. The readout circuitry is formed in a portion of the active semiconductor substrate. The ion chamber has a substantially planar first surface on which the first electrode is formed and a substantially planar second surface, parallel to the first surface, on which the second electrode is formed. The distance between the first electrode and the second electrode may be equal to or less than the 50% attenuation length for neutrons in the neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber.

  20. Development of a composite large-size SiPM (assembled matrix) based modular detector cluster for MAGIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, A.; Mazin, D.; Bangale, P.; Dettlaff, A.; Fink, D.; Grundner, F.; Haberer, W.; Maier, R.; Mirzoyan, R.; Podkladkin, S.; Teshima, M.; Wetteskind, H.

    2017-02-01

    The MAGIC collaboration operates two 17 m diameter Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) on the Canary Island of La Palma. Each of the two telescopes is currently equipped with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) based imaging camera. Due to the advances in the development of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs), they are becoming a widely used alternative to PMTs in many research fields including gamma-ray astronomy. Within the Otto-Hahn group at the Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich, we are developing a SiPM based detector module for a possible upgrade of the MAGIC cameras and also for future experiments as, e.g., the Large Size Telescopes (LST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Because of the small size of individual SiPM sensors (6 mm×6 mm) with respect to the 1-inch diameter PMTs currently used in MAGIC, we use a custom-made matrix of SiPMs to cover the same detection area. We developed an electronic circuit to actively sum up and amplify the SiPM signals. Existing non-imaging hexagonal light concentrators (Winston cones) used in MAGIC have been modified for the angular acceptance of the SiPMs by using C++ based ray tracing simulations. The first prototype based detector module includes seven channels and was installed into the MAGIC camera in May 2015. We present the results of the first prototype and its performance as well as the status of the project and discuss its challenges.

  1. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Catalano, Osvaldo; Mineo, Teresa; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Pareschi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energ...

  2. A new air-Cherenkov array at the South Pole

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, J E; Hart, S P; Hill, G C; Hinton, J A; Lloyd-Evans, J; Potter, D; Pryke, C L; Rochester, K; Schwarz, R; Watson, A A

    2000-01-01

    VULCAN comprises a 9 element array of air-Cherenkov radiation detectors established at the South Pole. VULCAN operates in coincidence with the air-shower array SPASE-2 and the two Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Arrays, AMANDA A and B, supplementing the data gathered by these instruments with a measurement of the lateral distribution of air-Cherenkov light from extensive air-showers. An overview of the aims and methods of the whole coincidence experiment (SPASE-2, VULCAN and AMANDA) can be found in an accompanying paper (Dickinson et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A (1999), to be published).

  3. Cherenkov TOF PET with silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolenec, R., E-mail: rok.dolenec@ijs.si [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Maribor (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Korpar, S. [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Maribor (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Križan, P. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pestotnik, R. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-12-21

    As previously demonstrated, an excellent timing resolution below 100 ps FWHM is possible in time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF PET) if the detection method is based on the principle of detecting photons of Cherenkov light, produced in a suitable material and detected by microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCP PMTs). In this work, the silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) were tested for the first time as the photodetectors in Cherenkov TOF PET. The high photon detection efficiency (PDE) of SiPMs led to a large improvement in detection efficiency. On the other hand, the time response of currently available SiPMs is not as good as that of MCP PMTs. The SiPM dark counts introduce a new source of random coincidences in Cherenkov method, which would be overwhelming with present SiPM technology at room temperature. When the apparatus was cooled, its performance significantly improved.

  4. Performance study of wavelength shifting acrylic plastic for Cherenkov light detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckford, B., E-mail: beckford@aps.org [American Physical Society, One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); De la Puente, A. [TRIUMF Laboratory, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Fujii, Y.; Hashimoto, O.; Kaneta, M.; Kanda, H.; Maeda, K.; Matsumura, A.; Nakamura, S.N. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Perez, N.; Reinhold, J. [Department of Physics, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Tang, L. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Tsukada, K. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2014-01-21

    The collection efficiency for Cherenkov light incident on a wavelength shifting plate (WLS) has been determined during a beam test at the Proton Synchrotron facility located in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), Tsukuba, Japan. The experiment was conducted in order to determine the detector's response to photoelectrons converted from photons produced by a fused silica radiator; this allows for an approximation of the detector's quality. The yield of the photoelectrons produced through internally generated Cherenkov light as well as light incident from the radiator was measured as a function of the momentum of the incident hadron beam. The yield is proportional to sin{sup 2}θ{sub c}, where θ{sub c} is the opening angle of the Cherenkov light created. Based on estimations and results from similar conducted tests, where the collection efficiency was roughly 39%, the experimental result was expected to be around 40% for internally produced light from the WLS. The results of the experiment determined the photon collection response efficiency of the WLS to be roughly 62% for photons created in a fused silica radiator and 41% for light created in the WLS.

  5. Monte Carlo Studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M; Dumm, J; Funk, S

    2015-01-01

    We present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters repre...

  6. FastDIRC: a fast Monte Carlo and reconstruction algorithm for DIRC detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hardin, John

    2016-01-01

    FastDIRC is a novel fast Monte Carlo and reconstruction algorithm for DIRC detectors. A DIRC employs rectangular fused-silica bars both as Cherenkov radiators and as light guides. Cherenkov-photon imaging and time-of-propagation information are utilized by a DIRC to identify charged particles. GEANT-based DIRC Monte Carlo simulations are extremely CPU intensive. The FastDIRC algorithm permits fully simulating a DIRC detector more than 10000 times faster than using GEANT. This facilitates designing a DIRC-reconstruction algorithm that improves the Cherenkov-angle resolution of a DIRC detector by about 30% compared to existing algorithms. FastDIRC also greatly reduces the time required to study competing DIRC-detector designs.

  7. Multiuser detector based on wavelet networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伶; 焦李成; 陶海红; 刘芳

    2004-01-01

    Multiple access interference (MAI) and near-far problem are two major obstacles in DS-CDMA systems.Combining wavelet neural networks and two matched filters, the novel multiuser detector, which is based on multiple variable function estimation wavelet networks over single path asynchronous channel and space-time channel respectively is presented. Excellent localization characteristics of wavelet functions in both time and frequency domains allowed hierarchical multiple resolution learning of input-output data mapping. The mathematic frame of the neural networks and error back ward propagation algorithm are introduced. The complexity of the multiuser detector only depends on that of wavelet networks. With numerical simulations and performance analysis, it indicates that the multiuser detector has excellent performance in eliminating MAI and near-far resistance.

  8. Sensivity studies for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Tarek Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Since the creation of the first telescope in the 17th century, every major discovery in astrophysics has been the direct consequence of the development of novel observation techniques, opening new windows in the electromagnetic spectrum. After Karl Jansky discovered serendipitously the first radio source in 1933, Grote Reber built the first parabolic radio telescope in his backyard, planting the seed of a whole new field in astronomy. Similarly, new technologies in the 1950s allowed the establishment of other fields, such as the infrared, ultraviolet or the X-rays. The highest energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum, the γ-ray range, represents the last unexplored window for astronomers and should reveal the most extreme phenomena that take place in the Universe. Given the technical complexity of γ-ray detection and the extremely relative low fluxes, γ-ray astronomy has undergone a slower development compared to other wavelengths. Nowadays, the great success of consecutive space missions together with the development and refinement of new detection techniques from the ground, has allowed outstanding scientific results and has brought gamma-ray astronomy to a worthy level in par with other astronomy fields. This work is devoted to the study and improvement of the future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the next generation of ground based γ-ray detectors, designed to observe photons with the highest energies ever observed from cosmic sources.

  9. The upgraded MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tescaro, D., E-mail: dtescaro@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Dept. Astrofísica, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-12-01

    The MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes underwent a major upgrade in 2011 and 2012. A new 1039-pixel camera and a larger area digital trigger system were installed in MAGIC-I, making it essentially identical to the newer MAGIC-II telescope. The readout systems of both telescopes were also upgraded, with fully programmable receiver boards and DRS4-chip-based digitization systems. The upgrade eased the operation and maintenance of the telescopes and also improved significantly their performance. The system has now an integral sensitivity as good as 0.6% of the Crab Nebula flux (for E>400GeV), with an effective analysis threshold at 70 GeV. This allows MAGIC to secure one of the leading roles among the current major ground-based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for the next 5–10 years. - Highlights: • In 2011 and 2012 the MAGIC telescopes underwent a two-stage major upgrade. • The new camera of MAGIC-I allows us to exploit a 1.4 larger trigger area. • The novel DRS4-based readout systems allow a cost-effective ultra-fast digitization. • The upgrade greatly improved the maintainability of the system. • MAGIC has now an optimal integral sensitivity of 0.6% of the Crab Nebula flux.

  10. Development of new photon detection device for Cherenkov and fluorescence radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinti A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress on the development of a new solid state detector allowed the use of finely pixelled photocathodes obtained from silicon semiconductors. SiPM detectors seem to be an ideal tool for the detection of Cherenkov and fluorescence light in spite of their not yet resolved criticism for operating temperature and intrinsic noise. The main disadvantage of SiPM in this case is the poor sensitivity in the wavelength range 300-400 nm, where the Cherenkov light and fluorescence radiation are generated. We report on the possibility to realize a new kind of pixelled photodetector based on the use of silicon substrate with carbon nanotube compounds, more sensitive to the near UV radiation. Also if at the very beginning, the development of such detector appears very promising and useful for astroparticle physics, both in the ground based arrays and in the space experiments. The detectors are ready to be operated in conditions of measurements without signal amplification.

  11. Statistical properties of Cherenkov and quasi-Cherenkov superradiance

    CERN Document Server

    Anishchenko, S V

    2016-01-01

    We consider the effects of shot noise and particle energy spread on statistical properties of Cherenkov and quasi-Cherenkov superradiance emitted by a relativistic electron beam. In the absence of energy spread, we have found the root-mean-square deviations of both peak radiated power and instability growth time as a function of the number of particles. It is shown that energy spread can lead to a sharp drop in the radiated power of Cherenkov and quasi-Cherenkov superradiance at high currents.

  12. Status and progress of the novel photon detectors based on THGEM and hybrid MPGD architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeev, M.; Birsa, R. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Büchele, M. [Universität Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Chiosso, M. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ciliberti, P. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Denisov, O. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Duic, V. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Finger, M.; Finger, M. [Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Fischer, H. [Universität Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Giorgi, M. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Gobbo, B.; Gregori, M. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Herrmann, F.; Königsmann, K. [Universität Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Levorato, S., E-mail: stefano.levorato@ts.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); and others

    2014-12-01

    We are developing large size THick GEM (THGEM)-based detectors of single photons, mainly meant for Cherenkov imaging applications. The R and D programme includes the complete characterisation of the THGEM electron multipliers, the study of the aspects related to the detection of single photons and the engineering towards large size detector prototypes. Our most recent achievements include dedicated studies concerning the ion backflow to the photocathode; relevant progress in the engineering aspects, in particularly related to the production of large-size THGEMs, where the strict correlation between the local gain-value and the local thickness-value has been demonstrated and a 300×300 mm{sup 2} active area detector has been successfully operated at the CERN PS T10 test beam; the introduction of a new hybrid detector architecture, offering promising performance, which is formed by a THGEM layer which acts both as photocathode and pre-amplification device, followed by a MICROMEGAS (MM) multiplication stage. We report about the general status of the R and D programme and, in detail, about the recent progress. - Highlights: • The paper presents a study of micropattern gas electron multipliers based on THGEMs. • The paper focuses on the use of THGEMs as photon detector for RICH application: single photon detection. • The paper addresses the R and D activity and the results obtained both in laboratory activities and test beams. • The paper describes the technological challenges to instrument large surfaces, presenting possible solutions to the critical issues faced during the R and D activity.

  13. Tunable femtosecond Cherenkov fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Svane, Ask Sebastian; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate electrically-tunable femtosecond Cherenkov fiber laser output at the visible range. Using an all-fiber, self-starting femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser as the pump source and nonlinear photonic crystal fiber link as the wave-conversion medium, ultrafast, milliwatt-level, tunable...... and spectral isolated Cherenkov radiation at visible wavelengths are reported. Such a femtosecond Cherenkov laser source is promising for practical biophotonics applications....

  14. Design Concepts for the Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA: An Advanced Facility for Ground-Based High-Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, M

    2012-04-17

    Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has had a major breakthrough with the impressive results obtained using systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has a huge potential in astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. CTA is an international initiative to build the next generation instrument, with a factor of 5-10 improvement in sensitivity in the 100 GeV-10 TeV range and the extension to energies well below 100 GeV and above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the north, one in the south) for full sky coverage and will be operated as open observatory. The design of CTA is based on currently available technology. This document reports on the status and presents the major design concepts of CTA.

  15. Design concepts for the Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA: an advanced facility for ground-based high-energy gamma-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, M.; Agnetta, G.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.; Aleksić, J.; Aliu, E.; Allan, D.; Allekotte, I.; Antico, F.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Aravantinos, A.; Arlen, T.; Arnaldi, H.; Artmann, S.; Asano, K.; Asorey, H.; Bähr, J.; Bais, A.; Baixeras, C.; Bajtlik, S.; Balis, D.; Bamba, A.; Barbier, C.; Barceló, M.; Barnacka, A.; Barnstedt, J.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Basso, S.; Bastieri, D.; Bauer, C.; Becerra, J.; Becherini, Y.; Bechtol, K.; Becker, J.; Beckmann, V.; Bednarek, W.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Belluso, M.; Benallou, M.; Benbow, W.; Berdugo, J.; Berger, K.; Bernardino, T.; Bernlöhr, K.; Biland, A.; Billotta, S.; Bird, T.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Blake, S.; Blanch, O.; Bobkov, A. A.; Bogacz, L.; Bogdan, M.; Boisson, C.; Boix, J.; Bolmont, J.; Bonanno, G.; Bonardi, A.; Bonev, T.; Borkowski, J.; Botner, O.; Bottani, A.; Bourgeat, M.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouvier, A.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Briggs, M. S.; Brun, P.; Brunetti, L.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Byrum, K.; Cailles, M.; Cameron, R.; Canestrari, R.; Cantu, S.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Casiraghi, M.; Castarede, H.; Catalano, O.; Cavazzani, S.; Cazaux, S.; Cerruti, B.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chiang, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cieślar, M.; Ciesielska, M.; Cillis, A.; Clerc, C.; Colin, P.; Colomé, J.; Compin, M.; Conconi, P.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Contreras, J. L.; Coppi, P.; Corlier, M.; Corona, P.; Corpace, O.; Corti, D.; Cortina, J.; Costantini, H.; Cotter, G.; Courty, B.; Couturier, S.; Covino, S.; Croston, J.; Cusumano, G.; Daniel, M. K.; Dazzi, F.; Angelis, A. De; de Cea Del Pozo, E.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; de Jager, O.; de La Calle Pérez, I.; de La Vega, G.; de Lotto, B.; de Naurois, M.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, B.; Deil, C.; Delagnes, E.; Deleglise, G.; Delgado, C.; Dettlaff, T.; di Paolo, A.; di Pierro, F.; Díaz, C.; Dick, J.; Dickinson, H.; Digel, S. W.; Dimitrov, D.; Disset, G.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Doert, M.; Domainko, W.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Dournaux, J.-L.; Dravins, D.; Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Dufour, C.; Durand, D.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edy, E.; Egberts, K.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elles, S.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Enomoto, R.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Errando, M.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcone, A. D.; Farakos, K.; Farnier, C.; Federici, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferenc, D.; Fillin-Martino, E.; Fink, D.; Finley, C.; Finley, J. P.; Firpo, R.; Florin, D.; Föhr, C.; Fokitis, E.; Font, Ll.; Fontaine, G.; Fontana, A.; Förster, A.; Fortson, L.; Fouque, N.; Fransson, C.; Fraser, G. W.; Fresnillo, L.; Fruck, C.; Fujita, Y.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Gäbele, W.; Gabici, S.; Gadola, A.; Galante, N.; Gallant, Y.; García, B.; García López, R. J.; Garrido, D.; Garrido, L.; Gascón, D.; Gasq, C.; Gaug, M.; Gaweda, J.; Geffroy, N.; Ghag, C.; Ghedina, A.; Ghigo, M.; Gianakaki, E.; Giarrusso, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Giro, E.; Giubilato, P.; Glanzman, T.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Gochna, M.; Golev, V.; Gómez Berisso, M.; González, A.; González, F.; Grañena, F.; Graciani, R.; Granot, J.; Gredig, R.; Green, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grimm, O.; Grube, J.; Grudzińska, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Guarino, V.; Guglielmi, L.; Guilloux, F.; Gunji, S.; Gyuk, G.; Hadasch, D.; Haefner, D.; Hagiwara, R.; Hahn, J.; Hallgren, A.; Hara, S.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Hassan, T.; Haubold, T.; Hauser, M.; Hayashida, M.; Heller, R.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Herrero, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, D.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Horns, D.; Hrupec, D.; Huan, H.; Huber, B.; Huet, J.-M.; Hughes, G.; Hultquist, K.; Humensky, T. B.; Huppert, J.-F.; Ibarra, A.; Illa, J. M.; Ingjald, J.; Inoue, Y.; Inoue, S.; Ioka, K.; Jablonski, C.; Jacholkowska, A.; Janiak, M.; Jean, P.; Jensen, H.; Jogler, T.; Jung, I.; Kaaret, P.; Kabuki, S.; Kakuwa, J.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kankanyan, R.; Kapala, M.; Karastergiou, A.; Karczewski, M.; Karkar, S.; Karlsson, N.; Kasperek, J.; Katagiri, H.; Katarzyński, K.; Kawanaka, N.; Kȩdziora, B.; Kendziorra, E.; Khélifi, B.; Kieda, D.; Kifune, T.; Kihm, T.; Klepser, S.; Kluźniak, W.; Knapp, J.; Knappy, A. R.; Kneiske, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Köck, F.; Kodani, K.; Kohri, K.; Kokkotas, K.; Komin, N.; Konopelko, A.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Kostka, P.; Kotuła, J.; Kowal, G.; Kozioł, J.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Kretzschmann, A.; Kubo, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, N.; La Parola, V.; La Rosa, G.; López, A.; Lamanna, G.; Laporte, P.; Lavalley, C.; Le Flour, T.; Le Padellec, A.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lessio, L.; Lieunard, B.; Lindfors, E.; Liolios, A.; Lohse, T.; Lombardi, S.; Lopatin, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lubiński, P.; Luz, O.; Lyard, E.; Maccarone, M. C.; Maccarone, T.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; Maltezos, S.; Małkiewicz, P.; Mañá, C.; Manalaysay, A.; Maneva, G.; Mangano, A.; Manigot, P.; Marín, J.; Mariotti, M.; Markoff, S.; Martínez, G.; Martínez, M.; Mastichiadis, A.; Matsumoto, H.; Mattiazzo, S.; Mazin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; McCubbin, N.; McHardy, I.; Medina, C.; Melkumyan, D.; Mendes, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meucci, M.; Michałowski, J.; Micolon, P.; Mineo, T.; Mirabal, N.; Mirabel, F.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Mizuno, T.; Moal, B.; Moderski, R.; Molinari, E.; Monteiro, I.; Moralejo, A.; Morello, C.; Mori, K.; Motta, G.; Mottez, F.; Moulin, E.; Mukherjee, R.; Munar, P.; Muraishi, H.; Murase, K.; Murphy, A. Stj.; Nagataki, S.; Naito, T.; Nakamori, T.; Nakayama, K.; Naumann, C.; Naumann, D.; Nayman, P.; Nedbal, D.; Niedźwiecki, A.; Niemiec, J.; Nikolaidis, A.; Nishijima, K.; Nolan, S. J.; Nowak, N.; O'Brien, P. T.; Ochoa, I.; Ohira, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Ohka, H.; Okumura, A.; Olivetto, C.; Ong, R. A.; Orito, R.; Orr, M.; Osborne, J. P.; Ostrowski, M.; Otero, L.; Otte, A. N.; Ovcharov, E.; Oya, I.; Oziȩbło, A.; Paiano, S.; Pallota, J.; Panazol, J. L.; Paneque, D.; Panter, M.; Paoletti, R.; Papyan, G.; Paredes, J. M.; Pareschi, G.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pepato, A.; Persic, M.; Petrucci, P. O.; Peyaud, B.; Piechocki, W.; Pita, S.; Pivato, G.; Płatos, Ł.; Platzer, R.; Pogosyan, L.; Pohl, M.; Pojmański, G.; Ponz, J. D.; Potter, W.; Prandini, E.; Preece, R.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quel, E.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rajda, P.; Rando, R.; Rataj, M.; Raue, M.; Reimann, C.; Reimann, O.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; Renner, S.; Reymond, J.-M.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Ribordy, M.; Rico, J.; Rieger, F.; Ringegni, P.; Ripken, J.; Ristori, P.; Rivoire, S.; Rob, L.; Rodriguez, S.; Roeser, U.; Romano, P.; Romero, G. E.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rovero, A. C.; Roy, F.; Royer, S.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Russo, F.; Ryde, F.; Sacco, B.; Saggion, A.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, K.; Saito, T.; Sakaki, N.; Salazar, E.; Salini, A.; Sánchez, F.; Sánchez Conde, M. Á.; Santangelo, A.; Santos, E. M.; Sanuy, A.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Sarkar, S.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Scarcioffolo, M.; Schanz, T.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schmidt, T.; Schmoll, J.; Schroedter, M.; Schultz, C.; Schultze, J.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schweizer, T.; Seiradakis, J.; Selmane, S.; Seweryn, K.; Shayduk, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Shibata, T.; Sikora, M.; Silk, J.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Skole, C.; Smith, N.; Sobczyńska, D.; Sofo Haro, M.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spiga, D.; Spyrou, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Starling, R. L. C.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Steiner, S.; Stergioulas, N.; Sternberger, R.; Stinzing, F.; Stodulski, M.; Straumann, U.; Suárez, A.; Suchenek, M.; Sugawara, R.; Sulanke, K. H.; Sun, S.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutcliffe, P.; Szanecki, M.; Szepieniec, T.; Szostek, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Talbot, R. G.; Tam, P. H.; Tanaka, M.; Tanimori, T.; Tavani, M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tchernin, C.; Tejedor, L. A.; Telezhinsky, I.; Temnikov, P.; Tenzer, C.; Terada, Y.; Terrier, R.; Teshima, M.; Testa, V.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tluczykont, M.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tokanai, F.; Tokarz, M.; Toma, K.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Totani, T.; Toussenel, F.; Vallania, P.; Vallejo, G.; van der Walt, J.; van Eldik, C.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vankov, H.; Vasileiadis, G.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vegas, I.; Venter, L.; Vercellone, S.; Veyssiere, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Videla, M.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Vlahakis, N.; Vlahos, L.; Vogler, P.; Vollhardt, A.; Volpe, F.; von Gunten, H. P.; Vorobiov, S.; Wagner, S.; Wagner, R. M.; Wagner, B.; Wakely, S. P.; Walter, P.; Walter, R.; Warwick, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Wegner, P.; Weinstein, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Welsing, R.; Wetteskind, H.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Williams, D. A.; Winde, M.; Wischnewski, R.; Wiśniewski, Ł.; Wolczko, A.; Wood, M.; Xiong, Q.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamaoka, K.; Yamazaki, R.; Yanagita, S.; Yoffo, B.; Yonetani, M.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshikoshi, T.; Zabalza, V.; Zagdański, A.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A.; Zech, A.; Ziȩtara, K.; Ziółkowski, P.; Zitelli, V.; Zychowski, P.

    2011-12-01

    Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has had a major breakthrough with the impressive results obtained using systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has a huge potential in astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. CTA is an international initiative to build the next generation instrument, with a factor of 5-10 improvement in sensitivity in the 100 GeV-10 TeV range and the extension to energies well below 100 GeV and above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the north, one in the south) for full sky coverage and will be operated as open observatory. The design of CTA is based on currently available technology. This document reports on the status and presents the major design concepts of CTA.

  16. A New Light Boson from Cherenkov Telescopes Observations?

    CERN Document Server

    Roncadelli, Marco; Mansutti, Oriana

    2010-01-01

    Early indications by H.E.S.S. and the subsequent detection of blazar 3C279 by MAGIC show that the Universe is more transparent to very-high-energy gamma rays than previously thought. We demonstrate that this circumstance can be reconciled with standard blazar emission models provided that photon oscillations into a very light Axion-Like Particle occur in extragalactic magnetic fields. A quantitative estimate of this effect indeed explains the observed spectrum of 3C279. Our prediction can be tested by the satellite-borne Fermi/LAT detector as well as by the ground-based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes H.E.S.S., MAGIC, CANGAROO III, VERITAS and by the Extensive Air Shower arrays ARGO-YBJ and MILAGRO.

  17. Characteristics of Cherenkov radiation in naturally occurring ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, R. E.; Poulsen, T.; Uggerhøj, U. I.; Klein, S. R.

    2016-03-01

    We revisit the theory of Cherenkov radiation in uniaxial crystals. Historically, a number of flawed attempts have been made at explaining this radiation phenomenon, and a consistent error-free description is nowhere available. We apply our calculation to a large modern day telescope—IceCube. Located in Antarctica, this detector makes use of the naturally occurring ice as a medium to generate Cherenkov radiation. However, due to the high pressure at the depth of the detector site, large volumes of hexagonal ice crystals are formed. We calculate how this affects the Cherenkov radiation yield and angular dependence. We conclude that the effect is small, at most about a percent, and would only be relevant in future high-precision instruments like e.g. Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU). For radio-Cherenkov experiments which use the presence of a clear Cherenkov cone to determine the arrival direction, any variation in emission angle will directly and linearly translate into a change in apparent neutrino direction. In closing, we also describe a simple experiment to test this formalism and calculate the impact of anisotropy on light yields from lead tungstate crystals as used, for example, in the CMS calorimeter at the CERN LHC.

  18. Characteristics of Cherenkov Radiation in Naturally Occuring Ice

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkelsen, R E; Uggerhøj, U I; Klein, S R

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the theory of Cherenkov radiation in uniaxial crystals. Historically, a number of flawed attempts have been made at explaining this radiation phenomenon and a consistent error-free description is nowhere available. We apply our calculation to a large modern day telescope - IceCube. Being located at the Antarctica, this detector makes use of the naturally occuring ice as a medium to generate Cherenkov radiation. However, due to the high pressure at the depth of the detector site, large volumes of hexagonal ice crystals are formed. We calculate how this affects the Cherenkov radiation yield and angular dependence. We conclude that the effect is small, at most about a percent, and would only be relevant in future high precision instruments like e.g. Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU). For radio-Cherenkov experiments which use the presence of a clear Cherenkov cone to determine the arrival direction, any variation in emission angle will directly and linearly translate into a change in ap...

  19. A Monte Carlo template-based analysis for very high definition imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes as applied to the VERITAS telescope array

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    We present a sophisticated likelihood reconstruction algorithm for shower-image analysis of imaging Cherenkov telescopes. The reconstruction algorithm is based on the comparison of the camera pixel amplitudes with the predictions from a Monte Carlo based model. Shower parameters are determined by a maximisation of a likelihood function. Maximisation of the likelihood as a function of shower fit parameters is performed using a numerical non-linear optimisation technique. A related reconstruction technique has already been developed by the CAT and the H.E.S.S. experiments, and provides a more precise direction and energy reconstruction of the photon induced shower compared to the second moment of the camera image analysis. Examples are shown of the performance of the analysis on simulated gamma-ray data from the VERITAS array.

  20. Tachyonic Cherenkov emission from Jupiter's radio electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaschitz, Roman, E-mail: tom@geminga.org

    2013-12-17

    Tachyonic Cherenkov radiation from inertial relativistic electrons in the Jovian radiation belts is studied. The tachyonic modes are coupled to a frequency-dependent permeability tensor and admit a negative mass-square, rendering them superluminal and dispersive. The superluminal radiation field can be cast into Maxwellian form, using 3D field strengths and inductions, and the spectral densities of tachyonic Cherenkov radiation are derived. The negative mass-square gives rise to a longitudinal flux component. A spectral fit to Jupiter's radio spectrum, inferred from ground-based observations and the Cassini 2001 fly-by, is performed with tachyonic Cherenkov flux densities averaged over a thermal electron population.

  1. A disc-DIRC for experiments at WASA and as a test detector for PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroshkevich, Evgueny [Physikalisches Institut, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: WASA-at-COSY-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    For a precise measurement of the velocity of highly relativistic particles the detection of Cherenkov light is very attractive. Detectors based on the Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov Light (DIRC) - first built and used in the BaBar experiment - are also planned for the PANDA detector at FAIR, both in form of a barrel-DIRC and in form of a disc-DIRC. In both cases the Cherenkov rings are reconstructed from the internally reflected Cherenkov light deflected into position sensitive detectors. For the WASA Forward Detector setup a Disc-DIRC quarter has been built, which serves both as a test module for PANDA and an important upgrade of the WASA. For an optimal performance at WASA the Disc-DIRC-Quarter is tilted by 20 {sup circle} out of the vertical plane. The internally reflected Cherenkov light is guided to multi-anode photomultipliers by focussing light guides, which are made of plexiglass, i.e. the same material the radiator is made of. Results from first tests in the COSY beam are reported.

  2. INTENSITY INTERFEROMETRY WITH CHERENKOV TELESCOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Kieda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se discuten las capacidades de arreglos de interferometría de intensidad estelar (SII que se pueden construir usando la siguiente generación de arreglos de telescopios de Cherenkov de imágenes de aire (IACTs. Estos arreglos de IACT tendrán un gran diámetro de - 100 m (> 8 m de re ectores ópticos, ofreciendo cerca de 5000 líneas de base interferométricas, extendiéndose a partir de 50 m a más que 1000 m. La implementación del SII en arreglos de IACT permitirán imágenes de alta resolución (< 0:1 mas en anchos de banda cortos (bandas B/V, que son óptimas para el estudio de estrellas calientes.

  3. Kilometer-Scale Neutrino Detectors: First Light

    CERN Document Server

    Halzen, Francis

    2009-01-01

    This is a brief report on the status of neutrino "astronomy" at a time when the kilometer-scale neutrino detector IceCube is approaching completion. We revisit the rationale for constructing gigantic neutrino detectors by transforming large volumes of natural ice and water into Cherenkov detectors. With time, the motivation for building such instruments has come into clear focus, and the requirement for their kilometer scale has been rationalized with improved accuracy. We will discuss the performance and some selected results of IceCube based on data taken during construction.

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of the Cherenkov radiation emitted by TeO{sub 2} crystal when crossed by cosmic muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casali, N., E-mail: nicola.casali@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Università degli studi dell' Aquila, Coppito (AQ) (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Bellini, F. [Sapienza Università di roma, P.le A. Moro 2, Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma, P.le A. Moro 2, Roma (Italy); Dafinei, I. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma, P.le A. Moro 2, Roma (Italy); Marafini, M. [Museo Storico della Fisisca e Centro Studi e Ricerche “Enrico Fermi“, Piazza del Viminale 1, Roma (Italy); Morganti, S.; Orio, F.; Pinci, D.; Vignati, M.; Voena, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma, P.le A. Moro 2, Roma (Italy)

    2013-12-21

    TeO{sub 2} crystals are currently used as bolometric detectors in experiments searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 130}Te. The extreme rarity of the studied signal forces the experiments to reach an ultra low background level. The main background source is represented by α particles emitted by radioactive contaminants placed in the materials that compose and surround the detector. Recent measurements show that a particle discrimination in TeO{sub 2} bolometers detecting the light emitted by β/γ particles is possible, opening the possibility to make large improvements in the performance of experiments based on this kind of materials. In order to understand the nature of this light emission a measurement at room temperature with TeO{sub 2} crystals was performed. According to these results, the detected light was compatible with the Cherenkov emission, even though the scintillation hypothesis could not be discarded. In this work a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of the Cherenkov radiation emitted by TeO{sub 2} crystal when crossed by cosmic muons was performed. The data from MC and the room temperature measurement are perfectly compatible and prove that the Cherenkov light is the only component of the light yield of TeO{sub 2} crystals.

  5. Simulation studies of an air Cherenkov telescope, IceACT, for future IceCube surface extensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansmann, Bengt; Auffenberg, Jan; Bekman, Ilja; Kemp, Julian; Roegen, Martin; Schaufel, Merlin; Stahlberg, Martin; Wiebusch, Christopher [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Bretz, Thomas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Middendorf, Lukas; Niggemann, Tim; Schumacher, Johannes [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    IceACT is a compact air Cherenkov telescope using silicon photomultipliers. The Fresnel lens based design has been adopted from the fluorescence telescope FAMOUS. The goal of IceACT is the efficient detection of cosmic ray induced air showers above the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the geographic South Pole. This allows to distinguish cosmic ray induced muons and neutrinos in the southern sky from astrophysical neutrinos in the deep ice detector. This leads to an increase in low-background astrophysical neutrinos of several dozen events per year for a detection threshold of several 100 TeV cosmic ray primary energy. To determine the actual telescope performance, dedicated CORSIKA air shower simulations incorporating the full Cherenkov light information are performed.

  6. Cherenkov light imaging in astro-particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoyan, Razmik

    2014-12-01

    Cherenkov light emission plays a key role in contemporary science; it is widely used in high energy, nuclear, and numerous astro-particle physics experiments. Most astro-particle physics experiments are based on the detection of light, and a vast majority of them on the measurement of Cherenkov light. Cherenkov light emission is measured in gases (used in air-Cherenkov technique), in water (for example, neutrino experiments BAIKAL, Super-Kamiokande, NESTOR, ANTARES, future KM3NeT; cosmic and γ-ray experiments Milagro, HAWC, AUGER) and in ice (IceCube). In this report our goal is not limited to simply listing the multitude of experiments that are based on using Cherenkov emission, but we will clarify the reasons making this emission so important and so frequently used. For completeness we will first give a short historical overview on the discovery and evolution of Cherenkov emission and then we will dwell on its main features and numerous applications in astro-particle physics experiments.

  7. R&D studies of a RICH detector using pressurized C$_{4}$F$_{8}$O radiator gas and a CsI-based gaseous photon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Agócs, A.G; Barnaföldi, G.G; Bellwied, R; Bencédi, G; Bencze, G; Berényi, D; Boldizsár, L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chinellato, D.D; Cindolo, F; Das-Bose, L; Das, D; Das, K; De Cataldo, G; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Futó, E; Garcia, E; Hamar, G; Harton, A; Jimenez, R.T; Kim, D.W; Kim, J.S; Knospe, A; Kovacs, L; Lévai, P; Markert, C; Martinengo, P; Molnar, L; Nappi, E; Olah, L; Paic, G; Pastore, C; Patino, M.E; Peskov, V; Pinsky, L; Piuz, F; Pochybova, S; Sgura, I; Sinha, T; Song, J; Timmins, A; Van Beelen, J.B; Varga, D; Volpe, G; Weber, M; Xaplanteris, L; Yi, J; Yoo, I.-K

    2013-01-01

    We report on studies of layout and performance of a new Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector using for the fi rst time pressurized C 4 F 8 O radiator gas and a photon detector consisting of a MWPC equipped with a CsI photocathode. In particular, we present here the results of beam tests of a MWPC having an adjustable anode – cathode gap, aiming at the optimization of single photoelectron detection and Cherenkov angle resolution. This system was proposed as a Very High Momentum Particle Identi fi cation (VHMPID) upgrade for the ALICE experiment at LHC to provide charged hadron track-by-track identi fi cation in the momentum range 5 – 25 GeV/c.

  8. Novel Photo-Detectors and Photo-Detector Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Danilov, M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in photo-detectors and photo-detector systems are reviewed. The main emphasis is made on Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPM) - novel and very attractive photo-detectors. Their main features are described. Properties of detectors manufactured by different producers are compared. Different applications are discussed including calorimeters, muon detection, tracking, Cherenkov light detection, and time of flight measurements.

  9. Mirror Development for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Förster, A; Baba, H; Bähr, J; Bonardi, A; Bonnoli, G; Brun, P; Canestrari, R; Chadwick, P; Chikawa, M; Carton, P -H; De Souza, V; Dipold, J; Doro, M; Durand, D; Dyrda, M; Giro, E; Glicenstein, J -F; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Hrabovski, M; Jeanney, C; Kagaya, M; Katagiri, H; Lessio, L; MANDAT, D; Mariotti, M; Medina, C; Michałowski, J; Micolon, P; Nakajima, D; Niemiec, J; Nozato, A; Palatka, M; Pareschi, G; Pech, M; Peyaud, B; Pühlhofer, G; Rataj, M; Rodeghiero, G; Rojas, G; Rousselle, J; Sakonaka, R; Schovanek, P; Seweryn, K; Schultz, C; Shu, S; Stinzing, F; Stodulski, M; Teshima, M; Travniczek, P; Van Eldik, C; Vassiliev, V; Wiśniewski, Ł; Wörnlein, A; Yoshida, T

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a planned observatory for very-high energy gamma-ray astronomy. It will consist of several tens of telescopes of different sizes, with a total mirror area of up to 10,000 square meters. Most mirrors of current installations are either polished glass mirrors or diamond-turned aluminium mirrors, both labour intensive technologies. For CTA, several new technologies for a fast and cost-efficient production of light-weight and reliable mirror substrates have been developed and industrial pre-production has started for most of them. In addition, new or improved aluminium-based and dielectric surface coatings have been developed to increase the reflectance over the lifetime of the mirrors compared to those of current Cherenkov telescope instruments.

  10. Quenching the scintillation in CF{sub 4} Cherenkov gas radiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, T. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); D' Ambrosio, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Easo, S. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Eisenhardt, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Fitzpatrick, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Forty, R.; Frei, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Gibson, V. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Gys, T. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Harnew, N.; Hunt, P. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Jones, C.R. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Lambert, R.W. [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics and VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Matteuzzi, C. [Sezione INFN di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Muheim, F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Papanestis, A., E-mail: antonis.papanestis@stfc.ac.uk [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Perego, D.L. [Sezione INFN di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Università di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Piedigrossi, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Plackett, R. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Powell, A. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-08-11

    CF{sub 4} is used as a Cherenkov gas radiator in one of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors at the LHCb experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. CF{sub 4} is well known to have a high scintillation photon yield in the near and far VUV, UV and in the visible wavelength range. A large flux of scintillation photons in our photon detection acceptance between 200 and 800 nm could compromise the particle identification efficiency. We will show that this scintillation photon emission system can be effectively quenched, consistent with radiationless transitions, with no significant impact on the photons resulting from Cherenkov radiation.

  11. Cherenkov Radiation from $e^+e^-$ Pairs and Its Effect on $\

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, S K; Jackson, David J; Mandal, Sourav K.; Klein, Spencer R.

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the Cherenkov radiation from an $e^+e^-$ pair at small separations, as occurs shortly after a pair conversion. The radiation is reduced (compared to that from two independent particles) when the pair separation is smaller than the wavelength of the emitted light. We estimate the reduction in light in large electromagnetic showers, and discuss the implications for detectors that observe Cherenkov radiation from showers in the Earth's atmosphere, as well as in oceans and Antarctic ice.

  12. Properties and Performance of Two Wide Field of View Cherenkov/Fluorescence Telescope Array Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, S S; Cao, Z; Chen, S Z; Chen, M J; Chen, Y; Chen, L H; Ding, K Q; He, H H; Liu, J L; Li, X X; Liu, J; Ma, L L; Ma, X H; Sheng, X D; Zhou, B; Zhang, Y; Zhao, J; Zha, M; Xiao, G

    2011-01-01

    A wide field of view Cherenkov/fluorescence telescope array is one of the main components of the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory project. To serve as Cherenkov and fluorescence detectors, a flexible and mobile design is adopted for easy reconfiguring of the telescope array. Two prototype telescopes have been constructed and successfully run at the site of the ARGO-YBJ experiment in Tibet. The features and performance of the telescopes are presented.

  13. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Miguel; HAWC Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is a continuously operated, wide field of view experiment comprised of an array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs) to study transient and steady emission of TeV gamma and cosmic rays. Each 200000 l WCD is instrumented with 4 PMTs providing charge and timing information. The array covers ~22000 m2 at an altitude of 4100 m a.s.l. inside the Pico de Orizaba national park in Mexico. The high altitude, large active area, and optical isolation of the PMTs allows us to reliably estimate the energy and determine the arrival direction of gamma and cosmic rays with significant sensitivity over energies from several hundred GeV to a hundred TeV. Continuously observing 2 / 3 of the sky every 24 h, HAWC plays a significant role as a survey instrument for multi-wavelength studies. The performance of HAWC makes possible the detection of both transient and steady emissions, the study of diffuse emission and the measurement of the spectra of gamma-ray sources at TeV energies. HAWC is also sensitive to the emission from GRBs above 100 GeV. I will highlight the results from the first year of operation of the full HAWC array, and describe the ongoing site work to expand the array by a factor of 4 to explore the high energy range.

  14. The design and performance of a prototype water Cherenkov optical time-projection chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Oberla, E

    2015-01-01

    A first experimental test of tracking relativistic charged particles by `drifting' Cherenkov photons in a water-based optical time-projection chamber (OTPC) has been performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility. The prototype OTPC detector consists of a 77~cm long, 28~cm diameter, 40~kg cylindrical water mass instrumented with a combination of commercial $5.1\\times5.1$~cm$^2$ micro-channel plate photo-multipliers (MCP-PMT) and $6.7\\times6.7$~cm$^2$ mirrors. Five MCP-PMTs are installed in two columns along the OTPC cylinder in a small-angle stereo configuration. A mirror is mounted opposite each MCP-PMT on the far side of the detector cylinder, effectively doubling the photo-detection efficiency and providing a time-resolved image of the Cherenkov light on the opposing wall. Each MCP-PMT is coupled to an anode readout consisting of thirty 50 Ohm microstrips. A 180-channel data acquisition system digitizes the MCP-PMT signals on one end of the microstrips using the PSEC4 waveform sampling-and-digitizing chip op...

  15. Search for long-lived heavy charged particles using a ring imaging Cherenkov technique at LHCb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaij, R. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Adeva, B. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Adinolfi, M. [Bristol Univ. (United Kingdom). H.H. Wills Physics Lab.; and others

    2015-12-15

    A search is performed for heavy long-lived charged particles using 3.0 fb{sup -1} of proton-proton collisions collected at √(s) = 7 and 8 TeV with the LHCb detector. The search is mainly based on the response of the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors to distinguish the heavy, slow-moving particles from muons. No evidence is found for the production of such long-lived states. The results are expressed as limits on the Drell-Yan production of pairs of long-lived particles, with both particles in the LHCb pseudorapidity acceptance, 1.8 < η < 4.9. The mass-dependent cross-section upper limits are in the range 2-4 fb (at 95 % CL) for masses between 14 and 309 GeV/c{sup 2}. (orig.)

  16. Search for long-lived heavy charged particles using a ring imaging Cherenkov technique at LHCb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaij, R. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Adeva, B. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Adinolfi, M. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Affolder, A. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Ajaltouni, Z. [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC, Clermont-Ferrand (France); and others

    2015-12-15

    A search is performed for heavy long-lived charged particles using 3.0 fb{sup -1} of proton–proton collisions collected at √s= 7 and 8 TeV with the LHCb detector. The search is mainly based on the response of the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors to distinguish the heavy, slow-moving particles from muons. No evidence is found for the production of such long-lived states. The results are expressed as limits on the Drell–Yan production of pairs of long-lived particles, with both particles in the LHCb pseudorapidity acceptance, 1.8<η<4.9. The mass-dependent cross-section upper limits are in the range 2–4 fb (at 95 % CL) for masses between 14 and 309 GeV /c{sup 2}.

  17. ROBAST: Development of a ROOT-based ray-tracing library for cosmic-ray telescopes and its applications in the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Akira; Noda, Koji; Rulten, Cameron

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a non-sequential ray-tracing simulation library, ROOT-basedsimulatorforraytracing (ROBAST), which is aimed to be widely used in optical simulations of cosmic-ray (CR) and gamma-ray telescopes. The library is written in C++, and fully utilizes the geometry library of the ROOT framework. Despite the importance of optics simulations in CR experiments, no open-source software for ray-tracing simulations that can be widely used in the community has existed. To reduce the dispensable effort needed to develop multiple ray-tracing simulators by different research groups, we have successfully used ROBAST for many years to perform optics simulations for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Among the six proposed telescope designs for CTA, ROBAST is currently used for three telescopes: a Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) medium-sized telescope, one of SC small-sized telescopes, and a large-sized telescope (LST). ROBAST is also used for the simulation and development of hexagonal light concentrators proposed for the LST focal plane. Making full use of the ROOT geometry library with additional ROBAST classes, we are able to build the complex optics geometries typically used in CR experiments and ground-based gamma-ray telescopes. We introduce ROBAST and its features developed for CR experiments, and show several successful applications for CTA.

  18. ROBAST: Development of a ROOT-Based Ray-Tracing Library for Cosmic-Ray Telescopes and its Applications in the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Okumura, Akira; Rulten, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a non-sequential ray-tracing simulation library, ROOT-based simulator for ray tracing (ROBAST), which is aimed to be widely used in optical simulations of cosmic-ray (CR) and gamma-ray telescopes. The library is written in C++, and fully utilizes the geometry library of the ROOT framework. Despite the importance of optics simulations in CR experiments, no open-source software for ray-tracing simulations that can be widely used in the community has existed. To reduce the dispensable effort needed to develop multiple ray-tracing simulators by different research groups, we have successfully used ROBAST for many years to perform optics simulations for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Among the six proposed telescope designs for CTA, ROBAST is currently used for three telescopes: a Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) medium-sized telescope, one of SC small-sized telescopes, and a large-sized telescope (LST). ROBAST is also used for the simulation and development of hexagonal light concentrators propose...

  19. Cherenkov radiation conversion and collection considerations for a gamma bang time/reaction history diagnostic for the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Hans W; Mack, Joseph M; Young, Carlton S; Malone, Robert M; Stoeffl, Wolfgang; Horsfield, Colin J

    2008-10-01

    Bang time and reaction history measurements are fundamental components of diagnosing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions and will be essential contributors to diagnosing attempts at ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Fusion gammas provide a direct measure of fusion interaction rate without being compromised by Doppler spreading. Gamma-based gas Cherenkov detectors that convert fusion gamma rays to optical Cherenkov photons for collection by fast recording systems have been developed and fielded at Omega. These systems have established their usefulness in illuminating ICF physics in several experimental campaigns. Bang time precision better than 25 ps has been demonstrated, well below the 50 ps accuracy requirement defined by the NIF system design requirements. A comprehensive, validated numerical study of candidate systems is providing essential information needed to make a down selection based on optimization of sensitivity, bandwidth, dynamic range, cost, and NIF logistics. This paper presents basic design considerations arising from the two-step conversion process from gamma rays to relativistic electrons to UV/visible Cherenkov radiation.

  20. Design optimization of the proximity focusing RICH with dual aerogel radiator using a maximum-likelihood analysis of Cherenkov rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestotnik, R.; Križan, P.; Korpar, S.; Iijima, T.

    2008-09-01

    The use of a sequence of aerogel radiators with different refractive indices in a proximity focusing Cherenkov ring imaging detector has been shown to improve the resolution of the Cherenkov angle. In order to obtain further information on the capabilities of such a detector, a maximum-likelihood analysis has been performed on simulated data, with the simulation being appropriate for the upgraded Belle detector. The results show that by using a sequence of two aerogel layers with different refractive indices, the K/π separation efficiency is improved in the kinematic region above 3 GeV/ c. In the low momentum region, the focusing configuration (with n1 and n2 chosen such that the Cherenkov rings from different aerogel layers at 4 GeV/ c overlap) shows a better performance than the defocusing one (where the two Cherenkov rings are well separated).

  1. Time-based position estimation in monolithic scintillator detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabacchini, V.; Borghi, G.; Schaart, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray detectors based on bright monolithic scintillation crystals coupled to pixelated photodetectors are currently being considered for several applications in the medical imaging field. In a typical monolithic detector, both the light intensity and the time of arrival of the earliest scintilla

  2. TOF-PET detector concept based on organic scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Moskal, P; Białas, P; Ciszewska, M; Czerwiński, E; Heczko, A; Kajetanowicz, M; Kapłon, Ł; Kochanowski, A; Konopka-Cupiał, G; Korcyl, G; Krzemień, W; Łojek, K; Majewski, J; Migdał, W; Molenda, M; Niedźwiecki, Sz; Pałka, M; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Silarski, M; Słomski, A; Smyrski, J; Zdebik, J; Zieliński, M

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution we present a new concept of the large acceptance detector systems based on organic scintillators which may allow for simultaneous diagnostic of large fraction of the human body. Novelty of the concept lies in employing large blocks of polymer scintillators instead of crystals as detectors of annihilation quanta, and in using predominantly the timing of signals instead of their amplitudes.

  3. Results on the Performance of a Broad Band Focussing Cherenkov Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cester, R.; Fitch, V. L.; Montag, A.; Sherman, S.; Webb, R. C.; Witherell, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    The field of ring imaging (broad band differential) Cherenkov detectors has become a very active area of interest in detector development at several high energy physics laboratories. Our group has previously reported on a method of Cherenkov ring imaging for a counter with large momentum and angular acceptance using standard photo multipliers. Recently, we have applied this technique to the design of a set of Cherenkov counters for use in a particle search experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). This new detector operates over the range 0.998 a delta..beta.. approx. 2 x 10{sup -4}. The acceptance in angle is +- 14 mrad in the horizontal and +- 28 mrad in the vertical. We report here on the performance of this counter.

  4. Cherenkov radiation oscillator without reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Wang, Y.; Hangyo, M.; Wei, Y.; Yang, Z.; Miyamoto, S.

    2014-05-01

    This Letter presents a Cherenkov radiation oscillator with an electron beam travelling over a finitely thick plate made of negative-index materials. In such a scheme, the external reflectors required in the traditional Cherenkov oscillators are not necessary, since the electromagnetic energy flows backward in the negative-index materials, leading to inherent feedback. We theoretically analyzed the interaction between the electron beam and the electromagnetic wave, and worked out the growth rate and start current through numerical calculations. With the help of particle-in-cell simulation, the theoretical predictions are well demonstrated.

  5. Silicon Photomultipliers and front-end electronics performance for Cherenkov Telescope Array camera development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, G.; Bissaldi, E.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Ionica, M.; Paoletti, R.; Rando, R.; Simone, D.; Vagelli, V.

    2017-02-01

    In the last few years a number of efforts have been undertaken to develop new technology related to Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). These photosensors consist of an array of identical Avalanche Photodiodes operating in Geiger mode and connected in parallel to a single output. The Italian Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) is involved in the R&D program Progetto Premiale Telescopi CHErenkov made in Italy (TECHE.it) to develop photosensors for a SiPM based camera that will be part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory. In this framework tests are ongoing on innovative devices suitable to detect Cherenkov light in the blue and near-UV wavelength region, the so-called Near Ultra-Violet Silicon Photomultipliers (NUV SiPMs). The tests on photosensors produced by Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK) are revealing promising performance: low operating voltage, capability to detect very low intensity light down to a single photon and high Photo Detection Efficiency (PDE) in the range 390-410 nm. In particular the developed device is a High Density NUV-SiPM (NUV-HD SiPM) based on a micro-cell of 30 μm×30 μm and 6 mm×6 mm area. Tests on this detector in single-cell configuration and in a matrix arrangement have been done. At the same time front-end electronics based on the waveform sampling technique optimized for the new NUV-HD SIPMs is under study and development.

  6. First results of the two square meters multilayer glass composite mirror design proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array developed at INFN

    CERN Document Server

    Schultz, C; Lessio, L; Mariotti, M; Rando, R

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a future ground-based gamma-ray astronomy detector that will consist of more than 100 Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes of different sizes. The total reflective surface of roughly 10 000 m$^2$ requires unprecedented technological efforts towards a cost-efficient production of light-weight and reliable mirror substrates at high production rate. We report on a new mirror concept proposed for CTA developed by INFN, which is based on the replication from a spherical convex mold under low pressure. The mirror substrate is an open structure design made by thin glass layers at the mirror's front and rear interspaced by steel cylinders. A first series of nominal size mirrors has been produced, for which we discuss the optical properties in terms of radius of curvature and focusing power.

  7. Operational performance of the Hall A mirror aerogel Cherenkov counter

    CERN Document Server

    Brash, E J; Lolos, G J; Huber, G M; Meer, R V D; Papandreou, Z

    2002-01-01

    We report the results of an operational test of the efficiency and position sensitivity of a silica-aerogel Cherenkov detector installed in the HRS-E spectrometer in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. The calibration was performed with data from elastic electron scattering from polarized sup 3 He. The response of the photo-multiplier tubes was linearized with a quadratic correction, allowing a unique number of photo-electrons (PEs) to be extracted. The result obtained (approx 7.3 PEs) is consistent with the performance of the prototype detector tested earlier under ideal conditions.

  8. The RICH detector for CLAS12 at Jefferson Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappalardo L.L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The CLAS12 spectrometer at JLab will offer unique possibilities to study the 3D nucleon structure in terms of TMDs and GPDs in the poorly explored valence region, and to perform high precision hadron spectroscopy. A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to achieve the required hadron identification capability in the momentum range 3–8 GeV/c. The detector, based on a novel hybrid imaging design, foresees an aerogel radiator and an array of multi-anode photomultipliers. The detector concept and preliminary results of test-beams on a prototype are presented.

  9. The Non-Imaging CHErenkov (NICHE) Array: A TA/TALE extension using Cherenkov radiation to measure Cosmic Ray Composition to sub-PeV energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizmanic, John; Bergman, Douglas; Tsunesada, Yoshiki; Abu-Zayyad, Tareq; Belz, John; Thomson, Gordon

    2017-01-01

    Co-sited with the Telescope Array (TA) Low Energy (TALE) extension, the Non-Imaging CHErenkov (NICHE) Array will measure the flux and nuclear composition evolution of cosmic rays (CRs) from below 1 PeV to 1 EeV in its eventual full deployment. NICHE will co-measure CR air showers with TA/TALE and will initially be deployed to observe events simultaneously with the TALE telescopes acting in imaging-Cherenkov mode, providing the first hybrid-Cherenkov (simultaneous imaging and non-imaging Cherenkov) measurements of CRs in the Knee region of the CR energy spectrum. NICHE uses easily deployable detectors to measure the amplitude and time-spread of the air-shower Cherenkov signal to achieve an event-by-event measurement of Xmax and energy, each with excellent resolution. First generation detectors are under construction and will form an initial prototype array (jNICHE) that will be deployed in early 2017 at the TA/TALE site. In this talk, the NICHE design, array performance, jNICHE development, and status will be discussed as well as NICHE's ability to measure the cosmic ray nuclear composition as a function of energy.

  10. The Gamma-ray Cherenkov Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Tibaldo, L; Allan, D; Amans, J -P; Armstrong, T P; Balzer, A; Berge, D; Boisson, C; Bousquet, J -J; Brown, A M; Bryan, M; Buchholtz, G; Chadwick, P M; Costantini, H; Cotter, G; Daniel, M K; De Franco, A; De Frondat, F; Dournaux, J -L; Dumas, D; Ernenwein, J -P; Fasola, G; Funk, S; Gironnet, J; Graham, J A; Greenshaw, T; Hervet, O; Hidaka, N; Hinton, J A; Huet, J -M; Jankowsky, D; Jegouzo, I; Jogler, T; Kraus, M; Lapington, J S; Laporte, P; Lefaucheur, J; Markoff, S; Melse, T; Mohrmann, L; Molyneux, P; Nolan, S J; Okumura, A; Osborne, J P; Parsons, R D; Rosen, S; Ross, D; Rowell, G; Rulten, C B; Sato, Y; Sayede, F; Schmoll, J; Schoorlemmer, H; Servillat, M; Sol, H; Stamatescu, V; Stephan, M; Stuik, R; Sykes, J; Tajima, H; Thornhill, J; Trichard, C; Vink, J; Watson, J J; White, R; Yamane, N; Zech, A; Zink, A; Zorn, J

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a forthcoming ground-based observatory for very-high-energy gamma rays. CTA will consist of two arrays of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, and will combine telescopes of different types to achieve unprecedented performance and energy coverage. The Gamma-ray Cherenkov Telescope (GCT) is one of the small-sized telescopes proposed for CTA to explore the energy range from a few TeV to hundreds of TeV with a field of view $\\gtrsim 8^\\circ$ and angular resolution of a few arcminutes. The GCT design features dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder optics and a compact camera based on densely-pixelated photodetectors as well as custom electronics. In this contribution we provide an overview of the GCT project with focus on prototype development and testing that is currently ongoing. We present results obtained during the first on-telescope campaign in late 2015 at the Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, during which we recorded the first Cher...

  11. FACT -- Operation of the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Bretz, T; Buß, J; Commichau, V; Djambazov, L; Dorner, D; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Freiwald, J; Grimm, O; von Gunten, H; Haller, C; Hempfling, C; Hildebrand, D; Hughes, G; Horisberger, U; Knoetig, M L; Krähenbühl, T; Lustermann, W; Lyard, E; Mannheim, K; Meier, K; Mueller, S; Neise, D; Overkemping, A -K; Paravac, A; Pauss, F; Rhode, W; Röser, U; Stucki, J -P; Steinbring, T; Temme, F; Thaele, J; Vogler, P; Walter, R; Weitzel, Q

    2014-01-01

    Since more than two years, the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) is operating successfully at the Canary Island of La Palma. Apart from its purpose to serve as a monitoring facility for the brightest TeV blazars, it was built as a major step to establish solid state photon counters as detectors in Cherenkov astronomy. The camera of the First G-APD Cherenkov Telesope comprises 1440 Geiger-mode avalanche photo diodes (G-APD aka. MPPC or SiPM) for photon detection. Since properties as the gain of G-APDs depend on temperature and the applied voltage, a real-time feedback system has been developed and implemented. To correct for the change introduced by temperature, several sensors have been placed close to the photon detectors. Their read out is used to calculate a corresponding voltage offset. In addition to temperature changes, changing current introduces a voltage drop in the supporting resistor network. To correct changes in the voltage drop introduced by varying photon flux from the night-sky background...

  12. User Identification Detector Based on Power of R Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chun-jiang; YU Quan; LIU Yuan-an

    2005-01-01

    To avoid the inaccurate estimation of the active user's number and the corresponding performance degradation, a novel POR-based User Identification Detector (UID) is proposed for the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) systems. The new detector adopts the Power of R (POR) technique and the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) method, which does not require the estimation of active users' number, and obtains lower false alarm probability than the subspace-based UID in the multipath channels. However, from our analysis, increasing the order m does not improve the performance. Therefore, when m is one, the performance of the new detector is maximal.

  13. Absolute efficiency measurements with the 10B based Jalousie detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modzel, G.; Henske, M.; Houben, A.; Klein, M.; Köhli, M.; Lennert, P.; Meven, M.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmidt, U.; Schweika, W.

    2014-04-01

    The 10B based Jalousie detector is a replacement for 3He counter tubes, which are nowadays less affordable for large area detectors due to the 3He crisis. In this paper we investigate and verify the performance of the new 10B based detector concept and its adoption for the POWTEX diffractometer, which is designed for the detection of thermal neutrons with predicted detection efficiencies of 75-50% for neutron energies of 10-100 meV, respectively. The predicted detection efficiency has been verified by absolute measurements using neutrons with a wavelength of 1.17 Å (59 meV).

  14. Towards graphene-based detectors for dark matter directional detection

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shang-Yung

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter detectors with directional sensitivity have the capability to distinguish dark matter induced nuclear recoils from isotropic backgrounds, thus providing a smoking gun signature for dark matter in the Galactic halo. Here we propose a conceptually novel class of high directional sensitivity dark matter detectors utilizing graphene-based van der Waals heterostructures. The advantages over conventional low pressure gas time projection chamber-based directional detectors are discussed in detail. A practical implementation using graphene/hexagonal boron nitride and graphene/molybdenum disulfide heterostructures is presented together with an overwhelming amount of experimental evidence in strong support of its feasibility.

  15. A compensated fission detector based on photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, M. [CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, DPTA/Service de Physique Nucleaire, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Ethvignot, T. [CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, DPTA/Service de Physique Nucleaire, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Granier, T. [CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, DPTA/Service de Physique Nucleaire, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)]. E-mail: thierry.granier@cea.fr; Haight, R.C. [LANSCE-3, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS H855, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); O' Donnell, J.M. [LANSCE-3, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS H855, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Rochman, D. [LANSCE-3, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS H855, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wender, S.A. [LANSCE-3, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS H855, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Bond, E.M. [C-INC, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS J514, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Bredeweg, T.A. [C-INC, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS J514, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Vieira, D.J. [C-INC, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS J514, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wilhelmy, J.B. [C-INC, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS J514, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Danon, Y. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Standard techniques of event-by-event detection of fission may fail when operated in high {gamma}-ray or particle radiation environments. This is the case within the 800MeV proton-driven lead slowing-down neutron spectrometer at LANSCE where standard fission detectors are found to be inoperable for microseconds to milliseconds after each proton pulse. To overcome this problem, a simple fission fragment detector based on compensated photovoltaic cells has been developed. The compensated detector has lower susceptibility to the strong {gamma}-flash and can recover much faster than an uncompensated detector. This detector is well adapted to applications involving the detection of fission in regions where high intensity {gamma}-ray and/or particle radiation fields exist.

  16. A compensated fission detector based on photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, M.; Ethvignot, T.; Granier, T.; Haight, R. C.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rochman, D.; Wender, S. A.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Danon, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Standard techniques of event-by-event detection of fission may fail when operated in high γ-ray or particle radiation environments. This is the case within the 800 MeV proton-driven lead slowing-down neutron spectrometer at LANSCE where standard fission detectors are found to be inoperable for microseconds to milliseconds after each proton pulse. To overcome this problem, a simple fission fragment detector based on compensated photovoltaic cells has been developed. The compensated detector has lower susceptibility to the strong γ-flash and can recover much faster than an uncompensated detector. This detector is well adapted to applications involving the detection of fission in regions where high intensity γ-ray and/or particle radiation fields exist.

  17. A passive FPAA based RF scatter meteor detector

    CERN Document Server

    Popowicz, Adam; Bernacki, Krzysztof; Fietkiewicz, Karol

    2015-01-01

    In the article we present a hardware meteor detector. The detection principle is based on the electromagnetic wave reflection from the ionized meteor trail in the atmosphere. The detector uses the ANADIGM field programmable analogue array (FPAA), which is an attractive alternative for a typically used detecting equipment - a PC computer with dedicated software. We implement an analog signal path using most of available FPAA resources to obtain precise audio signal detection. Our new detector was verified in collaboration with the Polish Fireball Network - the organization which monitors meteor activity in Poland. When compared with currently used signal processing PC software employing real radio meteor scatter signals, our low-cost detector proved to be more precise and reliable. Due to its cost and efficiency superiority over the current solution, the presented module is going to be implemented in the planned distributed detectors system.

  18. Resonant mode for gravitational wave detectors based on atom interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Peter W.; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; Rajendran, Surjeet

    2016-11-01

    We describe an atom interferometric gravitational wave detector design that can operate in a resonant mode for increased sensitivity. By oscillating the positions of the atomic wave packets, this resonant detection mode allows for coherently enhanced, narrow-band sensitivity at target frequencies. The proposed detector is flexible and can be rapidly switched between broadband and narrow-band detection modes. For instance, a binary discovered in broadband mode can subsequently be studied further as the inspiral evolves by using a tailored narrow-band detector response. In addition to functioning like a lock-in amplifier for astrophysical events, the enhanced sensitivity of the resonant approach also opens up the possibility of searching for important cosmological signals, including the stochastic gravitational wave background produced by inflation. We give an example of detector parameters which would allow detection of inflationary gravitational waves down to ΩGW˜10-14 for a two-satellite space-based detector.

  19. The first GCT camera for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    De Franco, A.; Allan, D.; Armstrong, T.; Ashton, T.; Balzer, A.; Berge, D.; Bose, R.; Brown, A.M.; Buckley, J.; Chadwick, P.M.; Cooke, P.; Cotter, G.; Daniel, M.K.; Funk, S.; Greenshaw, T.; Hinton, J.; Kraus, M.; Lapington, J.; Molyneux, P.; Moore, P.; Nolan, S.; Okumura, A.; Ross, D.; Rulten, C.; Schmoll, J.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Stephan, M.; Sutcliffe, P.; Tajima, H.; Thornhill, J.; Tibaldo, L.; Varner, G.; Watson, J.; Zink, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Gamma Cherenkov Telescope (GCT) is proposed to be part of the Small Size Telescope (SST) array of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The GCT dual-mirror optical design allows the use of a compact camera of diameter roughly 0.4 m. The curved focal plane is equipped with 2048 pixels of ~0.2{\\deg} angular size, resulting in a field of view of ~9{\\deg}. The GCT camera is designed to record the flashes of Cherenkov light from electromagnetic cascades, which last only a few tens of nanoseconds. Modules based on custom ASICs provide the required fast electronics, facilitating sampling and digitisation as well as first level of triggering. The first GCT camera prototype is currently being commissioned in the UK. On-telescope tests are planned later this year. Here we give a detailed description of the camera prototype and present recent progress with testing and commissioning.

  20. Cherenkov and Scintillation Light Separation in Organic Liquid Scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Caravaca, J; Land, B J; Yeh, M; Gann, G D Orebi

    2016-01-01

    The CHErenkov / Scintillation Separation experiment (CHESS) has been used to demonstrate the separation of Cherenkov and scintillation light in both linear alkylbenzene (LAB) and LAB with 2g/L of PPO as a fluor (LAB/PPO). This is the first such demonstration for the more challenging LAB/PPO cocktail and improves on previous results for LAB. A time resolution of 338 +/- 12 ps FWHM results in an efficiency for identifying Cherenkov photons in LAB/PPO of 70 +/- 3% and 63 +/- 8% for time- and charge-based separation, respectively, with scintillation contamination of 36 +/- 5% and 38 +/- 4%. LAB/PPO data is consistent with a rise time of 0.75 +/- 0.25 ns.

  1. Plasma panel-based radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Peter; Beene, James; Benhammou, Yan; Ben-Moshe, Meny; Bentefour, Hassan; Chapman, J W; Etzion, Erez; Ferretti, Claudio; Levin, Daniel; Silver, Yiftah; Varner, Robert; Weaverdyck, Curtis; Zhou, Bing; 10.1002/jsid.151

    2013-01-01

    The plasma panel sensor (PPS) is a gaseous micropattern radiation detector under current development. It has many operational and fabrication principles common to plasma display panels. It comprises a dense matrix of small, gas plasma discharge cells within a hermetically sealed panel. As in plasma display panels, it uses nonreactive, intrinsically radiation-hard materials such as glass substrates, refractory metal electrodes, and mostly inert gas mixtures. We are developing these devices primarily as thin, low-mass detectors with gas gaps from a few hundred microns to a few millimeters. The PPS is a high gain, inherently digital device with the potential for fast response times, fine position resolution (<50-mm RMS) and low cost. In this paper, we report on prototype PPS experimental results in detecting betas, protons, and cosmic muons, and we extrapolate on the PPS potential for applications including the detection of alphas, heavy ions at low-to-medium energy, thermal neutrons, and X-rays.

  2. Evaluation of the optical cross talk level in the SiPMs adopted in ASTRI SST-2M Cherenkov Camera using EASIROC front-end electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Impiombato, D; Mineo, T; Agnetta, G; Biondo, B; Catalano, O; Gargano, C; La Rosa, G; Russo, F; Sottile, G; Belluso, M; Billotta, S; Bonanno, G; Garozzo, S; Marano, D; Romeo, G

    2013-01-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana), is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research whose main goal is the design and construction of an end-to-end prototype of the Small Size of Telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, will adopt a wide field dual mirror optical system in a Schwarzschild-Couder configuration to explore the VHE range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The camera at the focal plane is based on Silicon Photo-Multipliers detectors which is an innovative solution for the detection astronomical Cherenkov light. This contribution reports some preliminary results on the evaluation of the optical cross talk level among the SiPM pixels foreseen for the ASTRI SST-2M camera.

  3. Light Sensor Candidates for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Knoetig, M L; Kurz, M; Hose, J; Lorenz, E; Schweizer, T; Teshima, M; Buzhan, P; Popova, E; Bolmont, J; Tavernet, J -P; Vincent, P; Shayduk, M

    2011-01-01

    We report on the characterization of candidate light sensors for use in the next-generation Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope project called Cherenkov Telescope Array, a major astro-particle physics project of about 100 telescopes that is currently in the prototyping phase. Our goal is to develop with the manufacturers the best possible light sensors (highest photon detection efficiency, lowest crosstalk and afterpulsing). The cameras of those telescopes will be based on classical super-bi-alkali Photomultiplier tubes but also Silicon Photomultipliers are candidate light sensors. A full characterisation of selected sensors was done. We are working in close contact with several manufacturers, giving them feedback and suggesting improvements.

  4. Detection of Cherenkov light emission in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonello, M.; Arneodo, F.; Badertscher, A.; Baiboussinov, B.; Baldo Ceolin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bekman, B.; Benetti, P.; Bernardini, E.; Bischofberger, M.; Borio di Tigliole, A.; Brunetti, R.; Bueno, A.; Calligarich, E.; Campanelli, M.; Carpanese, C.; Cavalli, D.; Cavanna, F. E-mail: flavio.cavanna@aquila.infn.it; Cennini, P.; Centro, S.; Cesana, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, D.; Chen, D.B.; Chen, Y.; Cieslik, C.; Cline, D.; Dai, Z.; De Vecchi, C.; Dabrowska, A.; Dolfini, R.; Felcini, M.; Ferrari, A.; Ferri, F.; Ge, Y.; Gibin, D.; Gigli Berzolari, A.; Gil-Botella, I.; Graczyk, K.; Grandi, L.; Guglielmi, A.; He, K.; Holeczek, J.; Huang, X.; Juszczak, C.; Kielczewska, D.; Kisiel, J.; Kozlowski, T.; Laffranchi, M.; Lagoda, J.; Li, Z.; Lu, F.; Ma, J.; Markiewicz, M.; Matthey, C.; Mauri, F.; Mazza, D.; Meng, G.; Messina, M.; Montanari, C.; Muraro, S.; Navas-Concha, S.; Nurzia, G.; Otwinowski, S.; Ouyang, Q.; Palamara, O.; Pascoli, D.; Periale, L.; Piano Mortari, G.B.; Piazzoli, A.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Polchlopek, W.; Rancati, T.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Rico, J.; Rondio, E.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P.; Scannicchio, D.; Segreto, E.; Seo, Y.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sobczyk, J.; Stepaniak, J.; Szarska, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Terrani, M.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Wang, H.; Woo, J.; Xu, G.; Xu, Z.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Q.; Zhen, S.; Zipper, W

    2004-01-11

    Detection of Cherenkov light emission in liquid argon has been obtained with an ICARUS prototype, during a dedicated test run at the Gran Sasso Laboratory external facility. Ionizing tracks from cosmic ray muons crossing the detector active volume have been collected in coincidence with visible light signals from a photo-multiplier (PMT) immersed in liquid argon. A 3D reconstruction of the tracks has been performed exploiting the ICARUS imaging capability. The angular distributions of the tracks triggered by the PMT signals show an evident directionality. By means of a detailed Monte Carlo simulation we show that the geometrical characteristics of the events are compatible with the hypothesis of Cherenkov light emission as the main source of the PMT signals.

  5. Study of Cherenkov light lateral distribution function around the knee region in extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rubaiee A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cherenkov light lateral distribution function (LDF was simulated with the CORSIKAcode in the energy range (1013 - 1016 eV. This simulation was performed for conditions and configurations of the Tunka EAS Cherenkov array for the two primary particles (p and Fe. Basing on the simulated results, many approximated functions are structured for two primary particles and different zenith angles. This allowed us to reconstruct the EAS events, which is, to determine the type and energy of the primary particles that produced showers from signal amplitudes of Cherenkov radiation measured by the Tunka Cherenkov array experiment. Comparison of the calculated LDF of Cherenkov radiation with that measured at the Tunka EAS array shows the ability to identify the primary particle that initiated the EAS cascades by determining its primary energy around the knee region of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  6. Study of Cherenkov Light Lateral Distribution Function around the Knee Region in Extensive Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Rubaiee, A A; M., Marwah; Al-Douri, Y

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov light lateral distribution function (LDF) was simulated with the CORSIKA code, in the energy range (10^13-10^16) eV. This simulation was performed for conditions and configurations of the Tunka EAS Cherenkov array for two primary particles (p and Fe). Basing on the simulated results, many approximated functions are structured for two primary particles and different zenith angles. This allowed us to reconstruct the EAS events, which is, to determine the type and energy of the primary particles that produced showers from signal amplitudes of Cherenkov radiation which measured with Tunka Cherenkov array experiment. Comparison of the calculated LDF of Cherenkov radiation with that measured at the Tunka EAS array shows the ability for identifying of the primary particle that initiated the EAS cascades determining of its primary energy around the knee region of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  7. Developments on RICH detectors; Les developpements sur les detecteurs RICH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, P.; Bourgeois, P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee

    1996-12-31

    The RICH (ring imaging Cherenkov) detector which is dedicated to Cherenkov radiation detection is described. An improvement made by replacing photo sensible vapor with solid photocathode is studied. A RICH detector prototype with a CsI photocathode has been built in Saclay and used with Saturne. The first results are presented. (A.C.) 13 refs.

  8. First studies of 500-nm Cherenkov radiation from 255-MeV electrons in a diamond crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takabayashi, Y., E-mail: takabayashi@saga-ls.jp [SAGA Light Source, 8-7 Yayoigaoka, Tosu, Saga 841-0005 (Japan); Fiks, E.I. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Pivovarov, Yu.L. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-12

    The first experiment on Cherenkov light from 255-MeV electrons passing through a 50-μm-thick diamond crystal in a special geometry allowing extraction of 500-nm Cherenkov light at a right angle with respect to the electron beam direction has been performed at the injector linac of SAGA Light Source accelerator facility. The dependence of 500-nm Cherenkov light intensity (separated by a band-pass filter) on the crystal rotation angle was measured by a CCD detector. The experimentally obtained rocking curve with an intense maximum is theoretically explained as the projector effect of Cherenkov light deflected by the exit surface of the crystal. The width of the rocking curve is explained by the convolution of the standard Tamm–Frank angular distribution of Cherenkov radiation with chromatic aberration, the multiple scattering of electrons in a crystal, and initial electron beam angular divergence. In addition, it is found that the Cherenkov light intensity did not change under the (220) planar channeling condition, which is consistent with a recent theory. - Highlights: • Cherenkov light from 255-MeV electrons in a diamond crystal has been investigated. • The Cherenkov light from channeled electrons has been observed for the first time. • The experimental results are in good agreement with theory.

  9. Particle Identification Using a Ring Imaging Cherenkov Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Justin; Benmokthar, Fatiha

    2016-09-01

    The installation of a Ring Imaging Cherenkov counter (RICH) on the CLAS12 spectrometer in Hall B of Jefferson Lab will aid in particle identification, specifically with regard to the separation between protons, pions, kaons. The RICH functions by detecting a ring of radiation that is given off by particles moving faster than the speed of light in a medium through the use of multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMTs). Because the size of the ring is dependent on the velocity of the particles, one can separate the incoming charged particles. With 391 MAPMTs being used in the specific design at Jefferson Lab, sophisticated electronic systems are needed to achieve complete data acquisition and ensure the safe operation of RICH. To monitor these electronic systems, the slow control system uses a compilation of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) that communicates and, if necessary, changes certain process variables such as the high voltage going to the MAPMTs and the temperature of the system. My actual project focuses on the development of an efficient and reliable slow control system for this detector as well as a java based analyzer for offline data analysis.

  10. Alpha-particle detection based on the BJT detector and simple, IC-based readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovati, L; Bonaiuti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Bettarini, S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste and INFN Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dalla Betta, G-F; Tyzhnevyi, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento e INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); Verzellesi, G [Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia and INFN Trento, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Zorzi, N, E-mail: giovanni.verzellesi@unimore.i [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper we propose a portable instrument for alpha-particle detection based on a previously-developed BJT detector and a simple, IC-based readout electronics. Experimental tests of the BJT detector and readout electronics are reported. Numerical simulations are adopted to predict the performance enhancement achievable with optimized BJT detectors.

  11. FemtoDAQ: A Low-Cost Digitizer for SiPM-Based Detector Studies and its Application to the HAWC Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Skulski, Wojtek; BenZvi, Segev

    2016-01-01

    The FemtoDAQ is a low-cost two channel data acquisition system which we have used to investigate the signal characteristics of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) coupled to fast scintillators. The FemtoDAQ system can also be used to instrument low cost moderate performance passive detectors, and is suitable for use in harsh environments (e.g., high altitude). The FemtoDAQ is being used as a SiPM test bench for the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory, a TeV gamma ray detector located 4100 m above sea level. Planned upgrades to the HAWC array can benefit greatly from SiPMs, a robust, low-voltage, low-cost alternative to traditional vacuum photomultipliers. The FemtoDAQ is used to power the SiPM detector front end, bias the SiPM, and digitize the photosensor output in a single compact unit.

  12. The Physics and Nuclear Nonproliferation Goals of WATCHMAN: A WAter CHerenkov Monitor for ANtineutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Askins, M; Bernstein, A; Dazeley, S; Dye, S T; Handler, T; Hatzikoutelis, A; Hellfeld, D; Jaffke, P; Kamyshkov, Y; Land, B J; Learned, J G; Marleau, P; Mauger, C; Gann, G D Orebi; Roecker, C; Rountree, S D; Shokair, T M; Smy, M B; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Vagins, M R; van Bibber, K A; Vogelaar, R B; Wetstein, M J; Yeh, M

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the physics and nonproliferation goals of WATCHMAN, the WAter Cherenkov Monitor for ANtineutrinos. The baseline WATCHMAN design is a kiloton scale gadolinium-doped (Gd) light water Cherenkov detector, placed 13 kilometers from a civil nuclear reactor in the United States. In its first deployment phase, WATCHMAN will be used to remotely detect a change in the operational status of the reactor, providing a first- ever demonstration of the potential of large Gd-doped water detectors for remote reactor monitoring for future international nuclear nonproliferation applications. During its first phase, the detector will provide a critical large-scale test of the ability to tag neutrons and thus distinguish low energy electron neutrinos and antineutrinos. This would make WATCHMAN the only detector capable of providing both direction and flavor identification of supernova neutrinos. It would also be the third largest supernova detector, and the largest underground in the western hemisphere. In a...

  13. Scintillation Particle Detectors Based on Plastic Optical Fibres and Microfluidics

    CERN Document Server

    Mapelli, Alessandro; Renaud, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents the design, development, and experimental validation of two types of scintillation particle detectors with high spatial resolution. The first one is based on the well established scintillating fibre technology. It will complement the ATLAS (A Toroidal Large ApparatuS) detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The second detector consists in a microfabricated device used to demonstrate the principle of operation of a novel type of scintillation detector based on microfluidics. The first part of the thesis presents the work performed on a scintillating fibre tracking system for the ATLAS experiment. It will measure the trajectory of protons elastically scattered at very small angles to determine the absolute luminosity of the CERN LHC collider at the ATLAS interaction point. The luminosity of an accelerator characterizes its performance. It is a process-independent parameter that is completely determined by the properties of the colliding beams and it relates the cross section of a ...

  14. Strangeonium spectroscopy at 11 GeV/c and Cherenkov Ring Imaging at the SLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienz, T.L.

    1990-07-01

    This thesis is divided into two sections, which describe portions of the data acquisition system and online software for the Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID) for the SLD, and analyses of several low cross section strangeonium channels in data from the LASS spectrometer. The CRID section includes a description of the data acquisition system, determination of the preamplifier gain, and development of an online pulse finding algorithm based on deconvolution. Deconvolution uses knowledge of the preamplifier impulse response to aid in pulse finding. The algorithm is fast and shows good single pulse resolution and excellent double pulse resolution in preliminary tests. The strangeonium analyses are based on data from a 4.1 event/nanobarn exposure of the LASS spectrometer in K{sup {minus}}p interactions at 11 GeV/c, and include studies of {Lambda}{eta}{pi}{sup {plus}}{pi}{sup {minus}}, {Lambda}{Kappa}*{Kappa}*, and {Lambda}{phi}{phi}.

  15. Influence of aerosols from biomass burning on the spectral analysis of Cherenkov telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes, R de los; Bernloehr, K; Krueger, P; Deil, C; Gast, H; Kosack, K; Marandon, V

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) have proven themselves as astronomical detectors in the very-high-energy (VHE; E>0.1 TeV) regime. The IACT technique observes the VHE photons indirectly, using the Earth's atmosphere as a calorimeter. Much of the calibration of Cherenkov telescope experiments is done using Monte Carlo simulations of the air shower development, Cherenkov radiation and detector, assuming certain models for the atmospheric conditions. Any deviation of the real conditions during observations from the assumed atmospheric model will result in a wrong reconstruction of the primary gamma-ray energy and the resulting source spectra. During eight years of observations, the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) has experienced periodic natural as well as anthropogenic variations of the atmospheric transparency due to aerosols created by biomass burning. In order to identify data that have been taken under such long-term reductions in atmospheric transparency, ...

  16. Prototype of a production system for Cherenkov Telescope Array with DIRAC

    CERN Document Server

    Arrabito, L; Haupt, A; Graciani Diaz, R; Stagni, F; Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) — an array of many tens of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes deployed on an unprecedented scale — is the next generation instrument in the field of very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. CTA will operate as an open observatory providing data products to the scientific community. An average data stream of about 10 GB/s for about 1000 hours of observation per year, thus producing several PB/year, is expected. Large CPU time is required for data-processing as well for massive Monte Carlo simulations needed for detector calibration purposes. The current CTA computing model is based on a distributed infrastructure for the archive and the data off-line processing. In order to manage the off-line data-processing in a distributed environment, CTA has evaluated the DIRAC (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control) system, which is a general framework for the management of tasks over distributed heterogeneous computing environments. In particular, a production sy...

  17. Software Development for Ring Imaging Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torisky, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    Jefferson Lab (Jlab) is performing a large-scale upgrade to their Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) up to 12GeV beam. The Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS12) in Hall B is being upgraded and a new Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector is being developed to provide better kaon - pion separation throughout the 3 to 12 GeV range. With this addition, when the electron beam hits the target, the resulting pions, kaons, and other particles will pass through a wall of translucent aerogel tiles and create Cherenkov radiation. This light can then be accurately detected by a large array of Multi-Anode PhotoMultiplier Tubes (MA-PMT). I am presenting an update on my work on the implementation of Java based reconstruction programs for the RICH in the CLAS12 main analysis package.

  18. Velocity and charge reconstruction with the AMS/RICH detector

    CERN Document Server

    Arruda, Luísa; Borges, João; Carmo, Fernando; Gonçalves, Patrícia; Pimenta, Mário

    2008-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), to be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2008, will be equipped with a proximity focusing Ring Imaging CHerenkov detector (RICH). This detector will be equipped with a dual radiator (aerogel+NaF), a lateral conical mirror and a detection plane made of 680 photomultipliers and light-guides, enabling measurements of particle electric charge and velocity. A likelihood method for the Cherenkov angle reconstruction was applied leading to a velocity determination for protons with a resolution around 0.1%. The electric charge reconstruction is based on the counting of the number of photoelectrons and on an overall efficiency estimation on an event-by-event basis. Results from the application of both methods are presented.

  19. The next generation Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory: CTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vercellone, S., E-mail: stefano@ifc.inaf.it

    2014-12-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a large collaborative effort aimed at the design and operation of an observatory dedicated to the very high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics in the energy range 30 GeV–100 TeV, which will improve by about one order of magnitude the sensitivity with respect to the current major arrays (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS). In order to achieve such improved performance, for both the northern and southern CTA sites, four units of 23 m diameter Large Size Telescopes (LSTs) will be deployed close to the centre of the array with telescopes separated by about 100 m. A larger number (about 25 units) of 12 m Medium Size Telescopes (MSTs, separated by about 150 m), will cover a larger area. The southern site will also include up to 24 Schwarzschild–Couder dual-mirror medium-size Telescopes (SCTs) with the primary mirror diameter of 9.5 m. Above a few TeV, the Cherenkov light intensity is such that showers can be detected even well outside the light pool by telescopes significantly smaller than the MSTs. To achieve the required sensitivity at high energies, a huge area on the ground needs to be covered by Small Size Telescopes (SSTs) with a field of view of about 10° and an angular resolution of about 0.2°, making the dual-mirror configuration very effective. The SST sub-array will be composed of 50–70 telescopes with a mirror area of about 5–10 m{sup 2} and about 300 m spacing, distributed across an area of about 10 km{sup 2}. In this presentation we will focus on the innovative solution for the optical design of the medium and small size telescopes based on a dual-mirror configuration. This layout will allow us to reduce the dimension and the weight of the camera at the focal plane of the telescope, to adopt Silicon-based photo-multipliers as light detectors thanks to the reduced plate-scale, and to have an optimal imaging resolution on a wide field of view.

  20. The next generation Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory: CTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellone, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a large collaborative effort aimed at the design and operation of an observatory dedicated to the very high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics in the energy range 30 GeV-100 TeV, which will improve by about one order of magnitude the sensitivity with respect to the current major arrays (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS). In order to achieve such improved performance, for both the northern and southern CTA sites, four units of 23 m diameter Large Size Telescopes (LSTs) will be deployed close to the centre of the array with telescopes separated by about 100 m. A larger number (about 25 units) of 12 m Medium Size Telescopes (MSTs, separated by about 150 m), will cover a larger area. The southern site will also include up to 24 Schwarzschild-Couder dual-mirror medium-size Telescopes (SCTs) with the primary mirror diameter of 9.5 m. Above a few TeV, the Cherenkov light intensity is such that showers can be detected even well outside the light pool by telescopes significantly smaller than the MSTs. To achieve the required sensitivity at high energies, a huge area on the ground needs to be covered by Small Size Telescopes (SSTs) with a field of view of about 10° and an angular resolution of about 0.2°, making the dual-mirror configuration very effective. The SST sub-array will be composed of 50-70 telescopes with a mirror area of about 5-10 m2 and about 300 m spacing, distributed across an area of about 10 km2. In this presentation we will focus on the innovative solution for the optical design of the medium and small size telescopes based on a dual-mirror configuration. This layout will allow us to reduce the dimension and the weight of the camera at the focal plane of the telescope, to adopt Silicon-based photo-multipliers as light detectors thanks to the reduced plate-scale, and to have an optimal imaging resolution on a wide field of view.

  1. Cherenkov particle identification in FOCUS

    CERN Document Server

    Link, J M; Alimonti, G; Anjos, J C; Arena, V; Bediaga, I; Bianco, S; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Boschini, M; Butler, J N; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Cawlfield, C; Cheung, H W K; Cho, K; Chung, Y S; Cinquini, L; Cuautle, E; Cumalat, J P; D'Angelo, P; Di Corato, M; Dini, P; Engh, D; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Gardner, R; Garren, L A; Giammarchi, M; Gianini, G; Gottschalk, E; Göbel, C; Handler, T; Hernández, H; Hosack, M; Inzani, P; Johns, W E; Kang, J S; Kasper, P H; Kim, D Y; Ko, B R; Kreymer, A E; Kryemadhi, A; Kutschke, R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Leveraro, F; Liguori, G; Magnin, J; Malvezzi, S; Massafferri, A; Menasce, D; Merlo, M M; Mezzadri, M; Milazzo, L; Miranda, J M D; Mitchell, R; Montiel, E; Moroni, L; Méndez, H; Méndez, L; Nehring, M S; O'Reilly, B; Olaya, D; Pantea, D; Paris, A; Park, H; Park, K S; Pedrini, D; Pepe, I M; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Quinones, J; Rahimi, A; Ramírez, J E; Ratti, S P; Reis, A C D; Reyes, M; Riccardi, C; Rivera, C; Rovere, M; Sala, S; Sarwar, S; Segoni, I; Sheaff, M; Sheldon, P D; Stenson, K; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vaandering, E W; Vitulo, P; Vázquez, F; Webster, M; Wilson, J R; Wiss, J; Xiong, W; Yager, P M; Zallo, A; Zhang, Y

    2002-01-01

    We describe the algorithm used to identify charged tracks in the fixed-target charm-photoproduction experiment FOCUS. We begin by describing the new algorithm and contrast this approach with that used in our preceding experiment - E687. We next illustrate the algorithm's performance using physics signals. Finally, we briefly describe some of the methods used to monitor the quantum efficiency and noise of the Cherenkov cells.

  2. Cherenkov particle identification in FOCUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, J.M.; Reyes, M.; Yager, P.M.; Anjos, J.C.; Bediaga, I.; Goebel, C.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; Miranda, J.M. de; Pepe, I.M.; Reis, A.C. dos; Carrillo, S.; Casimiro, E.; Cuautle, E.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Uribe, C.; Vazquez, F.; Cinquini, L.; Cumalat, J.P.; O' Reilly, B.; Ramirez, J.E.; Vaandering, E.W.; Butler, J.N.; Cheung, H.W.K.; Gaines, I.; Garbincius, P.H.; Garren, L.A.; Gottschalk, E.; Kasper, P.H.; Kreymer, A.E.; Kutschke, R.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Sarwar, S.; Zallo, A.; Cawlfield, C.; Kim, D.Y.; Park, K.S.; Rahimi, A.; Wiss, J. E-mail: jew@uiuc.edu; Gardner, R.; Kryemadhi, A.; Chung, Y.S.; Kang, J.S.; Ko, B.R.; Kwak, J.W.; Lee, K.B.; Park, H.; Alimonti, G.; Boschini, M.; D' Angelo, P.; DiCorato, M.; Dini, P.; Giammarchi, M.; Inzani, P.; Leveraro, F.; Malvezzi, S.; Menasce, D.; Mezzadri, M.; Milazzo, L.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Pontoglio, C.; Prelz, F.; Rovere, M.; Sala, S.; Davenport III, T.F.; Agostino, L.; Arena, V.; Boca, G.; Bonomi, G.; Gianini, G.; Liguori, G.; Merlo, M.M.; Pantea, D.; Ratti, S.P.; Riccardi, C.; Segoni, I.; Vitulo, P.; Hernandez, H.; Lopez, A.M.; Mendez, H.; Mendez, L.; Montiel, E.; Olaya, D.; Paris, A.; Quinones, J.; Rivera, C.; Xiong, W.; Zhang, Y.; Wilson, J.R.; Cho, K.; Handler, T.; Mitchell, R.; Engh, D.; Johns, W.E.; Hosack, M.; Nehring, M.S.; Sheldon, P.D.; Stenson, K.; Webster, M.S.; Sheaff, M

    2002-05-21

    We describe the algorithm used to identify charged tracks in the fixed-target charm-photoproduction experiment FOCUS. We begin by describing the new algorithm and contrast this approach with that used in our preceding experiment - E687. We next illustrate the algorithm's performance using physics signals. Finally, we briefly describe some of the methods used to monitor the quantum efficiency and noise of the Cherenkov cells.

  3. Central Tracking Detector Based on Scintillating Fibres

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Scintillating fibres form a reasonable compromise for central tracking detectors in terms of price, resolution, response time, occupancy and heat production. \\\\ \\\\ New fluorescents with large Stokes shifts have been produced, capable of working without wavelength shifters. Coherent multibundles have been developed to achieve high packing fractions. Small segments of tracker shell have been assembled and beam tests have confirmed expectations on spatial resolution. An opto-electronic delay line has been designed to delay the track patterns and enable coincidences with a first level trigger. Replacement of the conventional phosphor screen anode with a Si pixel chip is achieved. This tube is called ISPA-tube and has already been operated in beam tests with a scintillating fibres tracker. \\\\ \\\\ The aim of the proposal is to improve hit densities for small diameter fibres by increasing the fraction of trapped light, by reducing absorption and reflection losses, by reflecting light at the free fibre end, and by inc...

  4. Observational Selection Effects with Ground-based Gravitational Wave Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Holz, Daniel; Katsavounidis, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Ground-based interferometers are not perfectly all-sky instruments, and it is important to account for their behavior when considering the distribution of detected events. In particular, the LIGO detectors are most sensitive to sources above North America and the Indian Ocean and, as the Earth rotates, the sensitive regions are swept across the sky. However, because the detectors do not acquire data uniformly over time, there is a net bias on detectable sources' right ascensions. Both LIGO detectors preferentially collect data during their local night; it is more than twice as likely to be local midnight than noon when both detectors are operating. We discuss these selection effects and how they impact LIGO's observations and electromagnetic follow-up. These effects can inform electromagnetic follow-up activities and optimization, including the possibility of directing observations even before gravitational-wave events occur.

  5. Observational Selection Effects with Ground-based Gravitational Wave Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Vitale, Salvatore; Holz, Daniel E; Katsavounidis, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Ground-based interferometers are not perfectly all-sky instruments, and it is important to account for their behavior when considering the distribution of detected events. In particular, the LIGO detectors are most sensitive to sources above North America and the Indian Ocean and, as the Earth rotates, the sensitive regions are swept across the sky. However, because the detectors do not acquire data uniformly over time, there is a net bias on detectable sources' right ascensions. Both LIGO detectors preferentially collect data during their local night; it is more than twice as likely to be local midnight than noon when both detectors are operating. We discuss these selection effects and how they impact LIGO's observations and electromagnetic follow-up. Beyond galactic foregrounds associated with seasonal variations, we find that equatorial observatories can access over $80\\%$ of the localization probability, while mid-latitudes will access closer to $70\\%$. Facilities located near the two LIGO sites can obser...

  6. Design and simulations for the detector based on DSSSD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yan-Bing; ZHAO Xiao-Yun; WU Feng; WANG Huan-Yu; MENG Xiang-Cheng; WANG Hui; LU Hong; MA Yu-Qian; LI Xin-Qiao; SHI Feng; WANG Ping

    2010-01-01

    The present paper describes the design and simulation results of a position-sensitive charged particle detector based on the Double Sided Silicon Strip Detector (DSSSD). Also, the characteristics of the DSSSD and its testing result were are discussed. With the application of the DSSSD, the position-sensitive charged particle detector can not only give particle flux and energy spectra information and identify different types of charged particles, but also measure the location and angle of incident particles. As the detector can make multi-parameter measurements of charged particles, it is widely used in space detection and exploration missions, such as charged particle detection related to earthquakes, space environment monitoring and solar activity inspection.

  7. Roughness tolerances for Cherenkov telescope mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Tayabaly, K; Canestrari, R; Bonnoli, G; Lavagna, M; Pareschi, G

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a forthcoming international ground-based observatory for very high-energy gamma rays. Its goal is to reach sensitivity five to ten times better than existing Cherenkov telescopes such as VERITAS, H.E.S.S. or MAGIC and extend the range of observation to energies down to few tens of GeV and beyond 100 TeV. To achieve this goal, an array of about 100 telescopes is required, meaning a total reflective surface of several thousands of square meters. Thence, the optimal technology used for CTA mirrors manufacture should be both low-cost (~1000 euros/m2) and allow high optical performances over the 300-550 nm wavelength range. More exactly, a reflectivity higher than 85% and a PSF (Point Spread Function) diameter smaller than 1 mrad. Surface roughness can significantly contribute to PSF broadening and limit telescope performances. Fortunately, manufacturing techniques for mirrors are now available to keep the optical scattering well below the geometrically-predictable effect of ...

  8. Cherenkov radiation threshold in random inhomogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    Grichine, V M

    2009-01-01

    Cherenkov radiation in media with random inhomogeneities like aerogel or Earth atmosphere is discussed. The spectral-angular distribution of Cherenkov photons emitted by relativistic charged particle and averaged over the dielectric permittivity fluctuations shows angular broadening similarly to the case of media with the photon absorption. The broadening results in the smoothing of Cherenkov threshold, and therefore media with strong photon scattering have more extended dependence of Cherenkov light output on the particle speed. It can be potentially used for the particle identification

  9. Comparison of Cherenkov excited fluorescence and phosphorescence molecular sensing from tissue with external beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huiyun; Zhang, Rongxiao; Gunn, Jason R; Esipova, Tatiana V; Vinogradov, Sergei; Gladstone, David J; Jarvis, Lesley A; Pogue, Brian W

    2016-05-21

    Ionizing radiation delivered by a medical linear accelerator (LINAC) generates Cherenkov emission within the treated tissue. A fraction of this light, in the 600-900 nm wavelength region, propagates through centimeters of tissue and can be used to excite optical probes in vivo, enabling molecular sensing of tissue analytes. The success of isolating the emission signal from this Cherenkov excitation background is dependent on key factors such as: (i) the Stokes shift of the probe spectra; (ii) the excited state lifetime; (iii) the probe concentration; (iv) the depth below the tissue surface; and (v) the radiation dose used. Previous studies have exclusively focused on imaging phosphorescent dyes, rather than fluorescent dyes. However there are only a few biologically important phosphorescent dyes and yet in comparison there are thousands of biologically relevant fluorescent dyes. So in this study the focus was a study of efficacy of Cherenkov-excited luminescence using fluorescent commercial near-infrared probes, IRDye 680RD, IRDye 700DX, and IRDye 800CW, and comparing them to the well characterized phosphorescent probe Oxyphor PtG4, an oxygen sensitive dye. Each probe was excited by Cherenkov light from a 6 MV external radiation beam, and measured in continuous wave or time-gated modes. The detection was performed by spectrally resolving the luminescence signals, and measuring them with spectrometer-based separation on an ICCD detector. The results demonstrate that IRDye 700DX and PtG4 allowed for the maximal signal to noise ratio. In the case of the phosphorescent probe, PtG4, with emission decays on the microsecond (μs) time scale, time-gated acquisition was possible, and it allowed for higher efficacy in terms of the probe concentration and detection depth. Phantoms containing the probe at 5 mm depth could be detected at concentrations down to the nanoMolar range, and at depths into the tissue simulating phantom near 3 cm. In vivo studies showed that 5

  10. Cellular automaton-based position sensitive detector equalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrando, Nestor [Grupo de Diseno de Sistemas Digitales, Instituto de Aplicaciones de las Tecnologias de la Informacion y de las Comunicaciones Avanzadas, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: nesferjo@upvnet.upv.es; Herrero, V.; Cerda, J.; Lerche, C.W.; Colom, R.J.; Gadea, R.; Martinez, J.D.; Monzo, J.M.; Mateo, F.; Sebastia, A.; Benlloch, J.M. [Grupo de Diseno de Sistemas Digitales, Instituto de Aplicaciones de las Tecnologias de la Informacion y de las Comunicaciones Avanzadas, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-06-01

    Indirect position detectors based on scintillator crystals lack of spacial uniformity in their response. This happens due to crystal inhomogeneities and gain differences among the photomultiplier anodes. In order to solve this, PESIC, an integrated front-end for multianode photomultiplier based nuclear imaging devices was created. One of its main features is the digitally programmable gain adjustment for every photomultiplier output. On another front, cellular automata have been proved to be a useful method for dynamic system modeling. In this paper, a cellular automaton which emulates the behavior of the scintillator crystal, the photomultiplier and the front-end is introduced. Thanks to this model, an automatic energy-based calibration of the detector can be done by configuring the cellular automaton with experimental data and making it evolve up to an stable state. This can be useful as a precalibration method of the detector.

  11. Geometric correction methods for Timepix based large area detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemlicka, J.; Dudak, J.; Karch, J.; Krejci, F.

    2017-01-01

    X-ray micro radiography with the hybrid pixel detectors provides versatile tool for the object inspection in various fields of science. It has proven itself especially suitable for the samples with low intrinsic attenuation contrast (e.g. soft tissue in biology, plastics in material sciences, thin paint layers in cultural heritage, etc.). The limited size of single Medipix type detector (1.96 cm2) was recently overcome by the construction of large area detectors WidePIX assembled of Timepix chips equipped with edgeless silicon sensors. The largest already built device consists of 100 chips and provides fully sensitive area of 14.3 × 14.3 cm2 without any physical gaps between sensors. The pixel resolution of this device is 2560 × 2560 pixels (6.5 Mpix). The unique modular detector layout requires special processing of acquired data to avoid occurring image distortions. It is necessary to use several geometric compensations after standard corrections methods typical for this type of pixel detectors (i.e. flat-field, beam hardening correction). The proposed geometric compensations cover both concept features and particular detector assembly misalignment of individual chip rows of large area detectors based on Timepix assemblies. The former deals with larger border pixels in individual edgeless sensors and their behaviour while the latter grapple with shifts, tilts and steps between detector rows. The real position of all pixels is defined in Cartesian coordinate system and together with non-binary reliability mask it is used for the final image interpolation. The results of geometric corrections for test wire phantoms and paleo botanic material are presented in this article.

  12. The ARCADE Raman Lidar System for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Valore, Laura; Doro, Michele; Iarlori, Marco; Rizi, Vincenzo; Tonachini, Aurelio Siro; Vallania, Piero

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation of ground-based very high energy gamma-ray instruments; the facility will be organized in two arrays, one for each hemisphere. The atmospheric calibration of the CTA telescopes is a critical task. The atmosphere affects the measured Cherenkov yield in several ways: the air-shower development itself, the variation of the Cherenkov angle with altitude, the loss of photons due to scattering and absorption of Cherenkov light out of the camera field-of-view and the scattering of photons into the camera. In this scenario, aerosols are the most variable atmospheric component in time and space and therefore need a continuous monitoring. Lidars are among the most used instruments in atmospheric physics to measure the aerosol attenuation profiles of light. The ARCADE Lidar system is a very compact and portable Raman Lidar system that has been built within the FIRB 2010 grant and is currently taking data in Lamar, Colorado. The ARCADE Lidar is proposed to operat...

  13. Thermal neutron detectors based on hexagonal boron nitride epilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, T. C.; Marty, A.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2016-09-01

    Solid-state neutron detectors with high performances are urgently sought after for the detection of fissile materials. Until now, direct-conversion neutron detectors based on semiconductors with a measureable efficiency have not been realized. We have successfully synthesized hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) epilayers with varying thicknesses (0.3 μm - 50 μm) by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on sapphire substrates. In this paper, we present the detailed characterization of thermal neutron detectors fabricated from h-BN epilayers with a thickness up to 5 m to obtain insights into the h-BN epilayer thickness dependence of the device performance. The results revealed that the charge collection efficiency is almost independent of the h-BN epilayer thickness. By minimizing h-BN material removal by dry etching, it was shown that detectors incorporating an isotopically 10B-enriched h-BN epilayer of 2.7 μm in thickness exhibited an overall detection efficiency for thermal neutrons of 4% and a charge collection efficiency as high as 83%. By doing away altogether with dry etching, we have successfully realized a simple vertical 43 μm thick h-10BN detector which delivers a detection efficiency of 51.4% for thermal neutrons, which is the highest reported efficiency for any semiconductor-based neutron detector The h-BN detectors possess all the advantages of semiconductor devices including low cost, high efficiency and sensitivity, wafer-scale processing, compact size, light weight, and ability to integrate with other functional devices.

  14. Electronic readout for THGEM detectors based on FPGA TDCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Tobias; Buechele, Maximilian; Fischer, Horst; Gorzellik, Matthias; Grussenmeyer, Tobias; Herrmann, Florian; Joerg, Philipp; Koenigsmann, Kay; Kremser, Paul; Kunz, Tobias; Michalski, Christoph; Schopferer, Sebastian; Szameitat, Tobias [Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: COMPASS-II RICH upgrade Group

    2013-07-01

    In the framework of the RD51 programme the characteristics of a new detector design, called THGEM, which is based on multi-layer arrangements of printed circuit board material, is investigated. The THGEMs combine the advantages for covering gains up to 10{sup 6} in electron multiplication at large detector areas and low material budget. Studies are performed by extending the design to a hybrid gas detector by adding a Micromega layer, which significantly improves the ion back flow ratio of the chamber. With the upgrade of the COMPASS experiment at CERN a MWPC plane of the RICH-1 detector will be replaced by installing THGEM chambers. This summarizes to 40k channels of electronic readout, including amplification, discrimination and time-to-digital conversion of the anode signals. Due to the expected hit rate of the detector we design a cost-efficient TDC, based on Artix7 FPGA technology, with time resolution below 100 ps and sufficient hit buffer depth. To cover the large readout area the data is transferred via optical fibres to a central readout system which is part of the GANDALF framework.

  15. Development of a polymer based fiberoptic magnetostrictive metal detector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei Shu; Hooks, Joshua Rosenberg; Wu, Wen Jong; Wang, Wei Chih

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a new metal detector using a fiberoptic magnetostriction sensor. The metal sensor uses a fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a newly developed ferromagnetic polymer as the magnetostrictive sensing material. This polymeric magnetostrictive fiberoptic metal sensor is simple to fabricate, small in size, and resistant to RF interference (which is common in typical electromagnetic type metal detectors). Metal detection is based on disruption of the magnetic flux density across the magnetostriction sensor. In this paper, characteristics of the material being sensed and magnetic properties of the ferromagnetic polymers will be discussed.

  16. Calibration and performance of the photon sensor response of FACT -- The First G-APD Cherenkov telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Biland, A; Buß, J; Commichau, V; Djambazov, L; Dorner, D; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Freiwald, J; Grimm, O; von Gunten, H; Haller, C; Hempfling, C; Hildebrand, D; Hughes, G; Horisberger, U; Knoetig, M L; Krähenbühl, T; Lustermann, W; Lyard, E; Mannheim, K; Meier, K; Mueller, S; Neise, D; Overkemping, A -K; Paravac, A; Pauss, F; Rhode, W; Röser, U; Stucki, J -P; Steinbring, T; Temme, F; Thaele, J; Vogler, P; Walter, R; Weitzel, Q

    2014-01-01

    The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) is the first in-operation test of the performance of silicon photo detectors in Cherenkov Astronomy. For more than two years it is operated on La Palma, Canary Islands (Spain), for the purpose of long-term monitoring of astrophysical sources. For this, the performance of the photo detectors is crucial and therefore has been studied in great detail. Special care has been taken for their temperature and voltage dependence implementing a correction method to keep their properties stable. Several measurements have been carried out to monitor the performance. The measurements and their results are shown, demonstrating the stability of the gain below the percent level. The resulting stability of the whole system is discussed, nicely demonstrating that silicon photo detectors are perfectly suited for the usage in Cherenkov telescopes, especially for long-term monitoring purpose.

  17. Experimental characterization of semiconductor-based thermal neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedogni, R., E-mail: roberto.bedogni@lnf.infn.it [IFNF—LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Bortot, D.; Pola, A.; Introini, M.V.; Lorenzoli, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); INFN—Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gómez-Ros, J.M. [IFNF—LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sacco, D. [IFNF—LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); INAIL—DIT, Via di Fontana Candida 1, 00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Buonomo, B. [IFNF—LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Palomba, M.; Grossi, A. [ENEA Triga RC-1C.R. Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, 00060 S. Maria di Galeria, Roma (Italy)

    2015-04-21

    In the framework of NESCOFI@BTF and NEURAPID projects, active thermal neutron detectors were manufactured by depositing appropriate thickness of {sup 6}LiF on commercially available windowless p–i–n diodes. Detectors with different radiator thickness, ranging from 5 to 62 μm, were manufactured by evaporation-based deposition technique and exposed to known values of thermal neutron fluence in two thermal neutron facilities exhibiting different irradiation geometries. The following properties of the detector response were investigated and presented in this work: thickness dependence, impact of parasitic effects (photons and epithermal neutrons), linearity, isotropy, and radiation damage following exposure to large fluence (in the order of 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2})

  18. Observer Access to the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Knödlseder, Jürgen; Boisson, Catherine; Brau-Nogué, Sylvie; Deil, Christoph; Khélifi, Bruno; Mayer, Michael; Walter, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a ground-based facility for very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy, will operate as an open observatory, serving a wide scientific community to explore and to study the non-thermal universe. Open community access is a novelty in this domain, putting a challenge on the implementation of services that make VHE gamma-ray astronomy as accessible as any other waveband. We present here the design of the CTA Observer Access system that comprises support of scientific users, dissemination of data and software, tools for scientific analysis, and the system to submit observing proposals. We outline the scientific user workflows and provide the status of the current developments.

  19. Study of a prototype module of a precision time-of-flight detector for particle identification at low momentum

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00388630

    In this thesis, Time Of internally Reflected Cherenkov light detector (TORCH), proposed for the LHCb Upgrade to perform three-sigma separation between kaon and pion up to 10$\\ \\rm{GeV}/\\textit{c}$, was studied. TORCH is designed to add significant particle identification capability to the existing LHCb system based on two gas Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. TORCH would be placed at $\\sim$ 10 m from the interaction point, where the flight time difference between a primary pion and kaon is 37.5 ps. TORCH will give a pion-kaon separation of three sigma at 10$\\ \\rm{GeV}/\\textit{c}$ from the flight time using the Cherenkov photons generated by the charged particle in a 1 cm-thick quartz plate. In order to calculate accurately the flight time in a busy LHCb environment, Cherenkov angle and photon detection time information, as well as the momentum information from the tracking detector are included in the analysis. For the required TORCH performance, the flight time difference must be measured with a resolution o...

  20. Characterization of a GEM-based fast neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, B., E-mail: basilio.esposito@enea.it [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via E. Fermi, 45, I-00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Marocco, D.; Villari, R. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via E. Fermi, 45, I-00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Murtas, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via E. Fermi, 40, I-00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Rodionov, R. [SRC RF TRINITI Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-21

    The neutron efficiency of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM)-based detector designed for fast neutron measurements in fusion devices was determined through the combined use of Monte Carlo (MCNPX) calculations and analysis of deuterium–deuterium and deuterium–tritium neutron irradiation experiments. The detector, characterized by a triple GEM structure flushed with a Ar/CO{sub 2}/CF{sub 4} – 45/15/40 gas mixture, features a digital read-out system and has two sub-units for the detection of 2.5+14 MeV neutrons and 14 MeV neutrons (U{sub DD} and U{sub DT}, respectively). The pulse height spectra (PHS) determined from the curves of experimental efficiency as a function of the detector's high voltage (HV) and the MCNPX-simulated PHS were compared using a fitting routine that finds the best match between the experimental and simulated PHS by assuming a parametric model for the relation between HV (that determines the detector's gain) and the energy deposited in the gas. This led to express the experimental neutron efficiency as a function of the discrimination level set on the deposited energy (energy threshold). The detector sensitivity to γ-rays was also analyzed and the operational range in which the γ-ray contribution to the signal is not negligible was determined. It is found that this detector can reach a maximum neutron efficiency of ∼1×10{sup −3} counts/n at 2.5 MeV (U{sub DD} sub-unit) and of ∼4×10{sup −3} counts/n at 14 MeV (U{sub DT} and U{sub DD} sub-units)

  1. Novel detectors for silicon based microdosimetry, their concepts and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Anatoly B., E-mail: anatoly@uow.edu.au

    2016-02-11

    This paper presents an overview of the development of semiconductor microdosimetry and the most current (state-of-the-art) Silicon on Insulator (SOI) detectors for microdosimetry based mainly on research and development carried out at the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP) at the University of Wollongong with collaborators over the last 18 years. In this paper every generation of CMRP SOI microdosimeters, including their fabrication, design, and electrical and charge collection characterisation are presented. A study of SOI microdosimeters in various radiation fields has demonstrated that under appropriate geometrical scaling, the response of SOI detectors with the well-known geometry of microscopically sensitive volumes will record the energy deposition spectra representative of tissue cells of an equivalent shape. This development of SOI detectors for microdosimetry with increased complexity has improved the definition of microscopic sensitive volume (SV), which is modelling the deposition of ionising energy in a biological cell, that are led from planar to 3D SOI detectors with an array of segmented microscopic 3D SVs. The monolithic ΔE−E silicon telescope, which is an alternative to the SOI silicon microdosimeter, is presented, and as an example, applications of SOI detectors and ΔE−E monolithic telescope for microdosimetery in proton therapy field and equivalent neutron dose measurements out of field are also presented. An SOI microdosimeter “bridge” with 3D SVs can derive the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in {sup 12}C ion radiation therapy that matches the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) quite well, but with outstanding spatial resolution. The use of SOI technology in experimental microdosimetry offers simplicity (no gas system or HV supply), high spatial resolution, low cost, high count rates, and the possibility of integrating the system onto a single device with other types of detectors.

  2. Ruby-based inorganic scintillation detectors for 192Ir brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertzscher, Gustavo; Beddar, Sam

    2016-11-01

    We tested the potential of ruby inorganic scintillation detectors (ISDs) for use in brachytherapy and investigated various unwanted luminescence properties that may compromise their accuracy. The ISDs were composed of a ruby crystal coupled to a poly(methyl methacrylate) fiber-optic cable and a charge-coupled device camera. The ISD also included a long-pass filter that was sandwiched between the ruby crystal and the fiber-optic cable. The long-pass filter prevented the Cerenkov and fluorescence background light (stem signal) induced in the fiber-optic cable from striking the ruby crystal, which generates unwanted photoluminescence rather than the desired radioluminescence. The relative contributions of the radioluminescence signal and the stem signal were quantified by exposing the ruby detectors to a high-dose-rate brachytherapy source. The photoluminescence signal was quantified by irradiating the fiber-optic cable with the detector volume shielded. Other experiments addressed time-dependent luminescence properties and compared the ISDs to commonly used organic scintillator detectors (BCF-12, BCF-60). When the brachytherapy source dwelled 0.5 cm away from the fiber-optic cable, the unwanted photoluminescence was reduced from  >5% to  5% within 10 s from the onset of irradiation and after the source had retracted. The ruby-based ISDs generated signals of up to 20 times that of BCF-12-based detectors. The study presents solutions to unwanted luminescence properties of ruby-based ISDs for high-dose-rate brachytherapy. An optic filter should be sandwiched between the ruby crystal and the fiber-optic cable to suppress the photoluminescence. Furthermore, we recommend avoiding ruby crystals that exhibit significant time-dependent luminescence.

  3. Scientific verification of High Altitude Water Cherenkov observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Antonio; Sparks, Kathryne; Alfaro, Ruben; González, María Magdalena; Patricelli, Barbara; Fraija, Nissim

    2014-04-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a TeV gamma-ray and cosmic-ray detector currently under construction at an altitude of 4100 m close to volcano Sierra Negra in the state of Puebla, Mexico. The HAWC [1] observatory is an extensive air-shower array composed of 300 optically isolated water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs). Each WCD contains ~200,000 l of filtered water and four upward-facing photomultiplier tubes. In Fall 2014, when the HAWC observatory will reach an area of 22,000 m2, the sensitivity will be 15 times higher than its predecessor Milagro [2]. Since September 2012, more than 30 WCDs have been instrumented and taking data. This first commissioning phase has been crucial for the verification of the data acquisition and event reconstruction algorithms. Moreover, with the increasing number of instrumented WCDs, it is important to verify the data taken with different configuration geometries. In this work we present a comparison between Monte Carlo simulation and data recorded by the experiment during 24 h of live time between 14 and 15 April of 2013 when 29 WCDs were active.

  4. Scientific verification of High Altitude Water Cherenkov observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinelli, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.marinelli@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Sparks, Kathryne [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Alfaro, Ruben [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); González, María Magdalena; Patricelli, Barbara; Fraija, Nissim [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-04-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a TeV gamma-ray and cosmic-ray detector currently under construction at an altitude of 4100 m close to volcano Sierra Negra in the state of Puebla, Mexico. The HAWC [1] observatory is an extensive air-shower array composed of 300 optically isolated water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs). Each WCD contains ∼200,000 l of filtered water and four upward-facing photomultiplier tubes. In Fall 2014, when the HAWC observatory will reach an area of 22,000 m{sup 2}, the sensitivity will be 15 times higher than its predecessor Milagro [2]. Since September 2012, more than 30 WCDs have been instrumented and taking data. This first commissioning phase has been crucial for the verification of the data acquisition and event reconstruction algorithms. Moreover, with the increasing number of instrumented WCDs, it is important to verify the data taken with different configuration geometries. In this work we present a comparison between Monte Carlo simulation and data recorded by the experiment during 24 h of live time between 14 and 15 April of 2013 when 29 WCDs were active.

  5. Workshop on Non-Imaging Cherenkov at High Energy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The non-Imaging Cherenkov air shower measurement technique holds great promise in furthering our understanding the Knee-to-Ankle region of the cosmic ray spectrum. In particular, this technique offers a unique way to determine the evolution of the cosmic ray nuclear composition, and an example is given by the recent spectrum results of the Tunka Collaboration. With this in mind, we are organizing a workshop, to be held at the University of Utah, to bring together the various practitioners of this cosmic ray measurement technique to share simulations, analyses, detector designs, and past experimental results amongst the community. The workshop will also be in support of our effort, NICHE, to extend the reach of the TA/TALE detector systems down to the Knee. We anticipate that the workshop will result in a white paper on the scientific importance of these high-energy cosmic ray measurements and on using the Cherenkov technique to accomplish them. Our goal is to have contributions from members of the previous ge...

  6. Progress in Cherenkov femtosecond fiber lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Svane, Ask Sebastian; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    systems are highlighted—dependent on the realization scheme, the Cherenkov lasers can generate the femtosecond output tunable across the entire visible and even the UV range, and for certain designs more than 40% conversion efficiency from the pump to Cherenkov signal can be achieved. The femtosecond...... Cherenkov laser with all-fiber architecture is presented and discussed. Operating in the visible range, it delivers 100–200 fs wavelength-tunable pulses with multimilliwatt output power and exceptionally low noise figure an order of magnitude lower than the traditional wavelength tunable supercontinuumbased...

  7. Cherenkov and Scintillation Properties of Cubic Zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christl, M.J.; Adams, J.H.; Parnell, T.A.; Kuznetsov, E.N.

    2008-01-01

    Cubic zirconium (CZ) is a high index of refraction (n =2.17) material that we have investigated for Cherenkov counter applications. Laboratory and proton accelerator tests of an 18cc sample of CZ show that the expected fast Cherenkov response is accompanied by a longer scintillation component that can be separated by pulse shaping. This presents the possibility of novel particle spectrometers which exploits both properties of CZ. Other high index materials being examined for Cherenkov applications will be discussed. Results from laboratory tests and an accelerator exposure will be presented and a potential application in solar energetic particle instruments will be discussed

  8. Neutron detector based on lithiated sol-gel glass

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, S; Miller, L F; Dai, S

    2002-01-01

    A neutron detector technology is demonstrated based on sup 6 Li/ sup 1 sup 0 B doped sol-gel glass. The detector is a sol-gel glass film coated silicon surface barrier detector (SBD). The ionized charged particles from (n, alpha) reactions in the sol-gel film enter the SBD and are counted. Data showing that gamma-ray pulse amplitudes interfere with identifying charged particles that exit the film layer with energies below the gamma-ray energy is presented. Experiments were performed showing the effect of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma rays on the SBD detector. The reaction product energies of the triton and alpha particles from sup 6 Li are significantly greater than the energies of the Compton electrons from high-energy gamma rays, allowing the measurement of neutrons in a high gamma background. The sol-gel radiation detection technology may be applicable to the characterization of transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel and to the monitoring of stored plutonium.

  9. A Prototype RICH Detector Using Multi-Anode Photo Multiplier Tubes and Hybrid Photo-Diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, E; Bibby, J H; Brook, N H; Doucas, G; Duane, A; Easo, S; Eklund, L; French, M; Gibson, V; Gys, Thierry; Halley, A W; Harnew, N; John, M; Piedigrossi, D; Rademacker, J; Simmons, B; Smale, N J; Teixeira-Dias, P; Toudup, L W; Websdale, David M; Wilkinson, G R; Wotton, S A

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a prototype Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector is studied using a charged particle beam. The detector performance, using CF4 and air as radiators, is described. Cherenkov angle precision and photoelectron yield using hybrid photo-diodes and multi-anode PMTs agree with simulations and are assessed in terms of the requirements of the LHCb experiment.

  10. Cherenkov Telescope Array Data Management

    CERN Document Server

    Lamanna, G; Contreras, J L; Knödlseder, J; Kosack, K; Neyroud, N; Aboudan, A; Arrabito, L; Barbier, C; Bastieri, D; Boisson, C; Brau-Nogué, S; Bregeon, J; Bulgarelli, A; Carosi, A; Costa, A; De Cesare, G; Reyes, R de los; Fioretti, V; Gallozzi, S; Jacquemier, J; Khelifi, B; Kocot, J; Lombardi, S; Lucarelli, F; Lyard, E; Maier, G; Massimino, P; Osborne, J P; Perri, M; Rico, J; Sanchez, D A; Satalecka, K; Siejkowski, H; Stolarczyk, T; Szepieniec, T; Testa, V; Walter, R; Ward, J E; Zoli, A

    2015-01-01

    Very High Energy gamma-ray astronomy with the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is evolving towards the model of a public observatory. Handling, processing and archiving the large amount of data generated by the CTA instruments and delivering scientific products are some of the challenges in designing the CTA Data Management. The participation of scientists from within CTA Consortium and from the greater worldwide scientific community necessitates a sophisticated scientific analysis system capable of providing unified and efficient user access to data, software and computing resources. Data Management is designed to respond to three main issues: (i) the treatment and flow of data from remote telescopes; (ii) "big-data" archiving and processing; (iii) and open data access. In this communication the overall technical design of the CTA Data Management, current major developments and prototypes are presented.

  11. A risk-based approach to flammable gas detector spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defriend, Stephen; Dejmek, Mark; Porter, Leisa; Deshotels, Bob; Natvig, Bernt

    2008-11-15

    Flammable gas detectors allow an operating company to address leaks before they become serious, by automatically alarming and by initiating isolation and safe venting. Without effective gas detection, there is very limited defense against a flammable gas leak developing into a fire or explosion that could cause loss of life or escalate to cascading failures of nearby vessels, piping, and equipment. While it is commonly recognized that some gas detectors are needed in a process plant containing flammable gas or volatile liquids, there is usually a question of how many are needed. The areas that need protection can be determined by dispersion modeling from potential leak sites. Within the areas that must be protected, the spacing of detectors (or alternatively, number of detectors) should be based on risk. Detector design can be characterized by spacing criteria, which is convenient for design - or alternatively by number of detectors, which is convenient for cost reporting. The factors that influence the risk are site-specific, including process conditions, chemical composition, number of potential leak sites, piping design standards, arrangement of plant equipment and structures, design of isolation and depressurization systems, and frequency of detector testing. Site-specific factors such as those just mentioned affect the size of flammable gas cloud that must be detected (within a specified probability) by the gas detection system. A probability of detection must be specified that gives a design with a tolerable risk of fires and explosions. To determine the optimum spacing of detectors, it is important to consider the probability that a detector will fail at some time and be inoperative until replaced or repaired. A cost-effective approach is based on the combined risk from a representative selection of leakage scenarios, rather than a worst-case evaluation. This means that probability and severity of leak consequences must be evaluated together. In marine and

  12. The COMPASS RICH-1 detector upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Abbon, P; Angerer, H; Apollonio, M; Birsa, R; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Busso, L; Chiosso, M; Ciliberti, P; Colantoni, M L; Costa, S; Dalla Torre, S; Dafni, T; Delagnes, E; Deschamps, H; Díaz, V; Dibiase, N; Duic, V; Eyrich, W; Faso, D; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Fischer, H; Gerassimov, S; Giorgi, M; Gobbo, B; Hagemann, R; Von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Joosten, R; Ketzer, B; Königsmann, K C; Kolosov, V N; Konorov, I; Kramer, Daniel; Kunne, F; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Mann, A; Martin, A; Menon, G; Mutter, A; Nähle, O; Nerling, F; Neyret, D; Pagano, P; Panebianco, S; Panzieri, D; Paul, S; Pesaro, G; Polak, J; Rebourgeard, P; Robinet, F; Rocco, E; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schröder, W; Silva, L; Slunecka, M; Sozzi, F; Steiger, L; Sulc, M; Svec, M; Tessarotto, F; Teufel, A; Wollny, H

    2008-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment at CERN provides hadron identification in a wide momentum range employing a large size gaseous Ring Imaging CHerenkov detector (RICH). The presence of large uncorrelated background in the COMPASS environment was limiting the efficiency of COMPASS RICH-1 in the very forward regime. A major upgrade of RICH-1 required a new technique for Cherenkov photon detection at count rates of several 10$^{6}$/s per channel in the central detector part, and a read-out system allowing for trigger rates of up to 100 kHz. To cope with these requirements, the photon detectors of the central region have been replaced with a fast photon detection system described here, while, in the peripheral regions, the existing multi-wire proportional chambers with CsI photo-cathodes have been equipped with a new read-out system based on APV preamplifiers and flash ADC chips. The new system consists of multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMTs) coupled to individual fused silica lens telescopes, and fast read-out electr...

  13. Diamond based detectors for high temperature, high radiation environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, A.; Fern, G. R.; Hobson, P. R.; Smith, D. R.; Lefeuvre, G.; Saenger, R.

    2017-01-01

    Single crystal CVD diamond has many desirable properties as a radiation detector; exceptional radiation hardness and physical hardness, chemical inertness, low Z (close to human tissue, good for dosimetry and transmission mode applications), wide bandgap (high temperature operation with low noise and solar blind), an intrinsic pathway to fast neutron detection through the 12C(n,α)9Be reaction. This combination of radiation hardness, temperature tolerance and ability to detect mixed radiation types with a single sensor makes diamond particularly attractive as a detector material for harsh environments such as nuclear power station monitoring (fission and fusion) and oil well logging. Effective exploitation of these properties requires the development of a metallisation scheme to give contacts that remain stable over extended periods at elevated temperatures (up to 250°C in this instance). Due to the cost of the primary detector material, computational modelling is essential to best utilise the available processing methods for optimising sensor response through geometry and conversion media configurations and to fully interpret experimental data. Monte Carlo simulations of our diamond based sensor have been developed, using MCNP6 and FLUKA2011, assessing the sensor performance in terms of spectral response and overall efficiency as a function of the detector and converter geometry. Sensors with varying metallisation schemes for high temperature operation have been fabricated at Brunel University London and by Micron Semiconductor Limited. These sensors have been tested under a varied set of conditions including irradiation with fast neutrons and alpha particles at high temperatures. The presented study indicates that viable metallisation schemes for high temperature contacts have been successfully developed and the modelling results, supported by preliminary experimental data from partners, indicate that the simulations provide a reasonable representation of

  14. The study of CP violation in the B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}D{sup -} by means of the BABAR detector. Measurement of the performances of DIRC Cherenkov detector of BABAR: Prototype-II and final detector; L'etude de la violation de CP dans le canal B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}D{sup -} a l'aide du detecteur BABAR. La mesure des performances du detecteur Cerenkov DIRC de BABAR: Prototype -II et detecteur final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkebil, Mehdi [Lab. de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-04-16

    The work presented in this thesis is divided into two parts: the physics analysis of the decay mode B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}D{sup -} and the performance obtained with a new type of a particle identification detector using the Cherenkov effect technique: the DIRC. The analysis of this decay mode has been performed with data generated from fast simulation and a preliminary version of the reconstruction program. The branching ratio of this channel is predicted to be 4.5 x 10{sup -4}. The uncertainty in the sin 2 {beta} measurement obtained with this mode is: {sigma}(sin 2{beta})0.19 and 0.32 for fast simulation and preliminary version of the reconstruction program, respectively. The comparison of this result with the one obtained in the B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}K{sub s}{sup 0} mode will bring very useful theoretical insights. The performance study of the DIRC has been done on the prototype-II and the final detector. The beam-test results in terms resolution on the {theta}{sub c} angle and number of Cherenkov photons are the following: {sigma}({theta}{sub c}) = 10.2 {+-} 0.1 mrad per photon, {sigma}({theta}{sub c}) = 3.2 {+-} 0.2 mrad per track and N{sub {gamma}} 15.7 {+-} 0.1 at {theta}{sub dip} = 20 angle and 0 transmission in the bar. The analysis of the first cosmic data collected by the BABAR detector has allowed to study the DIRC in its final configuration. Among all the results obtained, we give the following ones: {sigma}({theta}{sub c}) = 10.09 {+-} 0.06 mrad per photon, {sigma}({theta}{sub c}) = 4.71 {+-} 0.14 mrad per track and N{sub {gamma}} 35.2 {+-} 3.8 at {theta}{sub dip} = 20 angle and 0 transmission in the bar. The extrapolation to the real condition of BABAR for all these results shows that the DIRC will run with performances similar to the nominal values. A detailed study of the background shows that, even though it will not be negligible, it will not compromise the DIRC performances in BABAR.

  15. All-fiber femtosecond Cherenkov radiation source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Møller, Uffe

    2012-01-01

    An all-fiber femtosecond source of spectrally isolated Cherenkov radiation is reported, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. Using a monolithic, self-starting femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser as the pump source and the combination of photonic crystal fibers as the wave-conversion med......An all-fiber femtosecond source of spectrally isolated Cherenkov radiation is reported, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. Using a monolithic, self-starting femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser as the pump source and the combination of photonic crystal fibers as the wave......-conversion medium, we demonstrate milliwatt-level, stable, and tunable Cherenkov radiation at visible wavelengths 580–630 nm, with pulse duration of sub-160-fs, and the 3 dB spectral bandwidth not exceeding 36 nm. Such an all-fiber Cherenkov radiation source is promising for practical applications in biophotonics...

  16. Vehicle passes detector based on multi-sensor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharov, D.; Sidorchuk, D.; Konovalenko, I.; Koptelov, I.

    2015-02-01

    The study concerned deals with a new approach to the problem of detecting vehicle passes in vision-based automatic vehicle classification system. Essential non-affinity image variations and signals from induction loop are the events that can be considered as detectors of an object presence. We propose several vehicle detection techniques based on image processing and induction loop signal analysis. Also we suggest a combined method based on multi-sensor analysis to improve vehicle detection performance. Experimental results in complex outdoor environments show that the proposed multi-sensor algorithm is effective for vehicles detection.

  17. Astroparticle Physics: Detectors for Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Humberto; Villaseñor, Luis

    2006-09-01

    We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the measurement of the muon lifetime and the ratio of positive to negative muons in the natural background of cosmic ray muons at 2000 m.a.s.l. Next we describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector as well as a technique to separate isolated particles. We also describe the detection of isolated muons and electrons in a liquid scintillator detector and their separation. Next we describe the detection of extensive air showers (EAS) with a hybrid detector array consisting of water Cherenkov and liquid scintillator detectors, located at the campus of the University of Puebla. Finally we describe work in progress to detect EAS at 4600 m.a.s.l. with a water Cherenkov detector array and a fluorescence telescope at the Sierra Negra mountain.

  18. Status of the KEDR detector

    CERN Document Server

    Anashin, V V; Baibusinov, B O; Balashov, V; Baldin, E M; Barkov, L M; Barladyan, A K; Barnyakov, M Y; Baru, S E; Bedny, I; Beilin, D M; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bondarev, D V; Bondar, A E; Buzykaev, A R; Cantoni, P; Chilingarov, A G; Dneprovsky, L V; Eidelman, S I; Epifanov, D A; Frabetti, P L; Gaidarev, P B; Groshev, V R; Karpov, S V; Kiselev, V A; Klimenko, S G; Kolachev, G M; Kononov, S A; Kozlov, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Kulikov, V F; Kurdadze, L M; Kuzmin, A S; Kuznecov, S A; Lanni, F; Lelchuk, M Y; Leontiev, L A; Levichev, E B; Malyshev, V M; Manfredi, P F; Maslennikov, A L; Minakov, G D; Nagaslaev, V P; Naumenkov, A I; Nikitin, S A; Nomerotski, A; Onuchin, A P; Oreshkin, S B; Ovechkin, R; Palombo, F; Peleganchuk, S V; Petrosyan, S S; Pivovarov, S V; Poluektov, A O; Pospelov, G E; Protopopov, I Ya; Re, V; Romanov, L V; Root, N I; Ruban, A A; Savinov, G A; Shamov, A G; Shatilov, D; Shubin, M A; Shusharo, A I; Shwartz, B A; Sidorov, V A; Skovpen, Y I; Smakhtin, V P; Snopkov, R G; Sokolov, A V; Soukharev, A M; Talyshev, A A; Tayursky, V A; Telnov, V I; Tikhonov, Yu A; Todyshev, K Y; Usov, Y V; Vorobyev, A I; Yushkov, A N; Zatcepin, A V; Zhilich, V N

    2002-01-01

    KEDR is a general-purpose detector for experiments at the VEPP-4M e sup + e sup - -collider in the energy range 2E=2.0-12 GeV. All detector subsystems (except the aerogel Cherenkov counters) have been installed into the detector at VEPP-4M. Some preliminary data have been taken in the energy region of the J/PSI meson. The tuning of the detector and the VEPP-4M collider is in progress. Preliminary results on the detector performance are presented. The future experimental program for the KEDR detector is discussed.

  19. Status of the KEDR detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anashin, V.V.; Aulchenko, V.M.; Baibusinov, B.O.; Balashov, V.; Baldin, E.M.; Barkov, L.M.; Barladyan, A.K.; Barnyakov, M.Yu.; Baru, S.E.; Bedny, I.V.; Beilin, D.M.; Blinov, A.E.; Blinov, V.E.; Bondarev, D.V.; Bondar, A.E.; Buzykaev, A.R.; Cantoni, P.; Chilingarov, A.G.; Dneprovsky, L.V.; Eidelman, S.I.; Epifanov, D.A.; Frabetti, P.L.; Gaidarev, P.B.; Groshev, V.R.; Karpov, S.V.; Kiselev, V.A.; Klimenko, S.G.; Kolachev, G.M.; Kononov, S.A.; Kozlov, V.N.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Kulikov, V.F.; Kurdadze, L.M.; Kuzmin, A.S.; Kuznecov, S.A.; Lanni, F.; Lelchuk, M.Yu.; Leontiev, L.A.; Levichev, E.B.; Malyshev, V.M.; Manfredi, P.F.; Maslennikov, A.L.; Minakov, G.D.; Nagaslaev, V.P.; Naumenkov, A.; Nikitin, S.A.; Nomerotsky, A.; Onuchin, A.P.; Oreshkin, S.B.; Ovechkin, R.; Palombo, F.; Peleganchuk, S.V.; Petrosyan, S.S.; Pivovarov, S.V.; Poluektov, A.O.; Pospelov, G.E.; Protopopov, I.Ya.; Re, V.; Romanov, L.V.; Root, N.I.; Ruban, A.A.; Savinov, G.A.; Shamov, A.G.; Shatilov, D.; Shubin, M.A.; Shusharo, A.I.; Shwartz, B.A.; Sidorov, V.A.; Skovpen, Yu.I.; Smakhtin, V.P.; Snopkov, R.G.; Sokolov, A.V.; Soukharev, A.M.; Talyshev, A.A.; Tayursky, V.A.; Telnov, V.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.A. E-mail: tikhonov@cppm.in2p3.fr; Todyshev, K.Yu.; Usov, Yu.V.; Vorobyev, A.I.; Yushkov, A.N.; Zatcepin, A.V.; Zhilich, V.N

    2002-02-01

    KEDR is a general-purpose detector for experiments at the VEPP-4M e{sup +}e{sup -}-collider in the energy range 2E=2.0-12 GeV. All detector subsystems (except the aerogel Cherenkov counters) have been installed into the detector at VEPP-4M. Some preliminary data have been taken in the energy region of the J/{psi} meson. The tuning of the detector and the VEPP-4M collider is in progress. Preliminary results on the detector performance are presented. The future experimental program for the KEDR detector is discussed.

  20. System Test of a Prototype LHCb RICH Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, M

    2004-01-01

    A prototype of the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector has been constructed. The prototype module contained a pre-production Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector, mounted on the final photon detector mechanics. The photon detector was read out at the full LHC speed of 40 MHz using the full prototype on-detector RICH electronics readout chain. The readout uses radiation-tolerant FPGA technology, 1.6 GHz optical links and 40 MHz trigger-timing and control (TTC). The photon detector was mounted in a gas vessel and Cherenkov rings have been observed from and N$_2$ radiator using electron and pion beams.

  1. An Analog Trigger System for Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Barcelo, M; Bigas, O Blanch; Boix, J; Delgado, C; Herranz, D; Lopez-Coto, R; Martinez, G

    2013-01-01

    Arrays of Cherenkov telescopes typically use multi-level trigger schemes to keep the rate of random triggers from the night sky background low. At a first stage, individual telescopes produce a trigger signal from the pixel information in the telescope camera. The final event trigger is then formed by combining trigger signals from several telescopes. In this poster, we present a possible scheme for the Cherenkov Telescope Array telescope trigger, which is based on the analog pulse information of the pixels in a telescope camera. Advanced versions of all components of the system have been produced and working prototypes have been tested, showing a performance that meets the original specifications. Finally, issues related to integrating the trigger system in a telescope camera and in the whole array will be dealt with.

  2. Normalized and Asynchronous Mirror Alignment for Cherenkov Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Ahnen, M L; Balbo, M; Bergmann, M; Biland, A; Blank, M; Bretz, T; Bruegge, K A; Buss, J; Domke, M; Dorner, D; Einecke, S; Hempfling, C; Hildebrand, D; Hughes, G; Lustermann, W; Mannheim, K; Mueller, S A; Neise, D; Neronov, A; Noethe, M; Overkemping, A -K; Paravac, A; Pauss, F; Rhode, W; Shukla, A; Temme, F; Thaele, J; Toscano, S; Vogler, P; Walter, R; Wilbert, A

    2016-01-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) need imaging optics with large apertures and high image intensities to map the faint Cherenkov light emitted from cosmic ray air showers onto their image sensors. Segmented reflectors fulfill these needs, and as they are composed from mass production mirror facets they are inexpensive and lightweight. However, as the overall image is a superposition of the individual facet images, alignment is a challenge. Here we present a computer vision based star tracking alignment method, which also works for limited or changing star light visibility. Our method normalizes the mirror facet reflection intensities to become independent of the reference star's intensity or the cloud coverage. Using two CCD cameras, our method records the mirror facet orientations asynchronously of the telescope drive system, and thus makes the method easy to integrate into existing telescopes. It can be combined with remote facet actuation, but does not require one to work. Furthermore, it ca...

  3. G-APDs in Cherenkov astronomy: The FACT camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraehenbuehl, T., E-mail: thomas.kraehenbuehl@phys.ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Anderhub, H. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Backes, M. [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Biland, A.; Boller, A.; Braun, I. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Bretz, T. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Commichau, V.; Djambazov, L. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Dorner, D.; Farnier, C. [ISDC Data Center for Astrophysics, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Gendotti, A.; Grimm, O.; Gunten, H. von; Hildebrand, D.; Horisberger, U.; Huber, B.; Kim, K.-S. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Koehne, J.-H.; Krumm, B. [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); and others

    2012-12-11

    Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APD, SiPM) are a much discussed alternative to photomultiplier tubes in Cherenkov astronomy. The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) collaboration builds a camera based on a hexagonal array of 1440 G-APDs and has now finalized its construction phase. A light-collecting solid PMMA cone is glued to each G-APD to eliminate dead space between the G-APDs by increasing the active area, and to restrict the light collection angle of the sensor to the reflector area in order to reduce the amount of background light. The processing of the signals is integrated in the camera and includes the digitization using the domino ring sampling chip DRS4.

  4. Neural network based cluster creation in the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The read-out from individual pixels on planar semi-conductor sensors are grouped into clusters to reconstruct the location where a charged particle passed through the sensor. The resolution given by individual pixel sizes is significantly improved by using the information from the charge sharing be- tween pixels. Such analog cluster creation techniques have been used by the ATLAS experiment for many years to obtain an excellent performance. How- ever, in dense environments, such as those inside high-energy jets, clusters have an increased probability of merging the charge deposited by multiple particles. Recently, a neural network based algorithm which estimates both the cluster position and whether a cluster should be split has been developed for the ATLAS Pixel Detector. The algorithm significantly reduces ambigui- ties in the assignment of pixel detector measurement to tracks and improves the position accuracy with respect to standard techniques by taking into account the 2-dimensional charge distribution.

  5. The software architecture of the camera for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiorgi, Pierluca; Capalbi, Milvia; Gimenes, Renato; La Rosa, Giovanni; Russo, Francesco; Segreto, Alberto; Sottile, Giuseppe; Catalano, Osvaldo

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to present the current status of the software architecture of the ASTRI SST-2M Cherenkov Camera. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope is an end-to-end prototype for the Small Size Telescope of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The ASTRI camera is an innovative instrument based on SiPM detectors and has several internal hardware components. In this contribution we will give a brief description of the hardware components of the camera of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype and of their interconnections. Then we will present the outcome of the software architectural design process that we carried out in order to identify the main structural components of the camera software system and the relationships among them. We will analyze the architectural model that describes how the camera software is organized as a set of communicating blocks. Finally, we will show where these blocks are deployed in the hardware components and how they interact. We will describe in some detail, the physical communication ports and external ancillary devices management, the high precision time-tag management, the fast data collection and the fast data exchange between different camera subsystems, and the interfacing with the external systems.

  6. Isotope separation with the RICH detector of the AMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Arruda, Luísa; Borges, João; Carmo, Fernando; Gonçalves, Patrícia; Pereira, Rui; Pimenta, Mário

    2007-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), to be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2008, is a cosmic ray detector with several subsystems, one of which is a proximity focusing Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector. This detector will be equipped with a dual radiator (aerogel+NaF), a lateral conical mirror and a detection plane made of 680 photomultipliers and light guides, enabling precise measurements of particle electric charge and velocity. Combining velocity measurements with data on particle rigidity from the AMS Tracker it is possible to obtain a measurement for particle mass, allowing the separation of isotopes. A Monte Carlo simulation of the RICH detector, based on realistic properties measured at ion beam tests, was performed to evaluate isotope separation capabilities. Results for three elements -- H (Z=1), He (Z=2) and Be (Z=4) -- are presented.

  7. Monitoring of absolute mirror alignment at COMPASS RICH-1 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeev, M. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of East Piemonte, Alessandria (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Birsa, R. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Chiosso, M. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ciliberti, P. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dalla Torre, S. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Denisov, O. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Duic, V. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Ferrero, A. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Finger, M.; Finger, M. [Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Gayde, J.Ch. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Giorgi, M. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Gobbo, B.; Levorato, S. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Maggiora, A. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Martin, A. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Menon, G. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Panzieri, D. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of East Piemonte, Alessandria (Italy); and others

    2014-12-01

    The gaseous COMPASS RICH-1 detector uses two spherical mirror surfaces, segmented into 116 individual mirrors, to focus the Cherenkov photons onto the detector plane. Any mirror misalignment directly affects the detector resolution. The on-line Continuous Line Alignment and Monitoring (CLAM) photogrammetry-based method has been implemented to measure the alignment of individual mirrors which can be characterized by the center of curvature. The mirror wall reflects a regular grid of retroreflective strips placed inside the detector vessel. Then, the position of each mirror is determined from the image of the grid reflection. The images are collected by four cameras. Any small mirror misalignment results in changes of the grid lines’ positions in the image. The accuracy limits of the CLAM method were checked by laser interferometry and are below 0.1 mrad.

  8. Switching variability index based multiple strategy CFAR detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Li; Zhenyuan Ji; Bingfei Li; Gil Alterovitz

    2014-01-01

    A switching variability index (SVI) constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detector is proposed for improving the detection performance of VI-CFAR detectors in multiple targets back-grounds. When the presence of non-homogeneity in CFAR re-ference windows is indicated by a VI-CFAR detector, a switching-CFAR detector is introduced to optimize the performance of the VI-CFAR detector in homogeneous, multiple targets and clut-ter edge backgrounds. The structure and parameters selection method of the SVI-CFAR detector is presented. Comparisons with classic CFAR detectors and recently proposed detectors are also given. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that SVI-CFAR detector maintains the good performance of the VI-CFAR detector in homogeneous and clutter edge backgrounds, while greatly improving the capacity of anti-multi targets.

  9. Future Gravitational Wave Detectors Based on Atom Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Geiger, Remi

    2016-01-01

    We present the perspective of using atom interferometry for gravitational wave (GW) detection in the mHz to about 10 Hz frequency band. We focus on light-pulse atom interferometers which have been subject to intense developments in the last 25 years. We calculate the effect of the GW on the atom interferometer and present in details the atomic gradiometer configuration which has retained more attention recently. The principle of such a detector is to use free falling atoms to measure the phase of a laser, which is modified by the GW. We highlight the potential benefits of using atom interferometry compared to optical interferometry as well as the challenges which remain for the realization of an atom interferometry based GW detector. We present some of the important noise sources which are expected in such detectors and strategies to cirucumvent them. Experimental techniques related to cold atom interferometers are briefly explained. We finally present the current progress and projects in this rapidly evolvin...

  10. The Effect of Personalization on Smartphone-Based Fall Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Medrano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of falling is high among different groups of people, such as older people, individuals with Parkinson's disease or patients in neuro-rehabilitation units. Developing robust fall detectors is important for acting promptly in case of a fall. Therefore, in this study we propose to personalize smartphone-based detectors to boost their performance as compared to a non-personalized system. Four algorithms were investigated using a public dataset: three novelty detection algorithms—Nearest Neighbor (NN, Local Outlier Factor (LOF and One-Class Support Vector Machine (OneClass-SVM—and a traditional supervised algorithm, Support Vector Machine (SVM. The effect of personalization was studied for each subject by considering two different training conditions: data coming only from that subject or data coming from the remaining subjects. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC was selected as the primary figure of merit. The results show that there is a general trend towards the increase in performance by personalizing the detector, but the effect depends on the individual being considered. A personalized NN can reach the performance of a non-personalized SVM (average AUC of 0.9861 and 0.9795, respectively, which is remarkable since NN only uses activities of daily living for training.

  11. Large area radiation detectors based on II VI thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo-Lopez, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    The development of low temperature device technologies that have enabled flexible displays also present opportunities for flexible electronics and flexible integrated systems. Of particular interest are possible applications in flexible, low metal content, sensor systems for unattended ground sensors, smart medical bandages, electronic ID tags for geo-location, conformal antennas, neutron/gamma-ray/x-ray detectors, etc. In this talk, our efforts to develop novel CMOS integration schemes, circuits, memory, sensors as well as novel contacts, dielectrics and semiconductors for flexible electronics are presented. In particular, in this presentation we discuss fundamental materials properties including crystalline structure, interfacial reactions, doping, etc. defining performance and reliability of II-VI-based radiation sensors. We investigate the optimal thickness of a semiconductor diode for thin-film solid state thermal neutron detectors. Besides II-VI materials, we also evaluated several diode materials, Si, CdTe,GaAs, C (diamond), and ZnO, and two neutron converter materials,10B and 6LiF. We determine the minimum semiconductor thickness needed to achieve maximum neutron detection efficiency. By keeping the semiconductor thickness to a minimum, gamma rejection is kept as high as possible. In this way, we optimize detector performance for different thin-film semiconductor materials.

  12. Observational Selection Effects with Ground-based Gravitational Wave Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Holz, Daniel E.; Katsavounidis, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Ground-based interferometers are not perfect all-sky instruments, and it is important to account for their behavior when considering the distribution of detected events. In particular, the LIGO detectors are most sensitive to sources above North America and the Indian Ocean, and as the Earth rotates, the sensitive regions are swept across the sky. However, because the detectors do not acquire data uniformly over time, there is a net bias on detectable sources’ right ascensions. Both LIGO detectors preferentially collect data during their local night; it is more than twice as likely to be local midnight than noon when both detectors are operating. We discuss these selection effects and how they impact LIGO’s observations and electromagnetic (EM) follow-up. Beyond galactic foregrounds associated with seasonal variations, we find that equatorial observatories can access over 80% of the localization probability, while mid-latitudes will access closer to 70%. Facilities located near the two LIGO sites can observe sources closer to their zenith than their analogs in the south, but the average observation will still be no closer than 44° from zenith. We also find that observatories in Africa or the South Atlantic will wait systematically longer before they can begin observing compared to the rest of the world though, there is a preference for longitudes near the LIGOs. These effects, along with knowledge of the LIGO antenna pattern, can inform EM follow-up activities and optimization, including the possibility of directing observations even before gravitational-wave events occur.

  13. PyFACT: Python and FITS analysis for Cherenkov telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raue, Martin; Deil, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    Ground-based very-high energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) gamma-ray astronomy is growing from being conducted by small teams in closed collaborations into a full-fledged branch of astronomy with open observatories. This is best illustrated by the number of known sources: it increased by one order of magnitude in the past ten years, from 10 in the year 2000 to more than 100 in 2010. It is expected that this trend will continue with the next-generation instrument Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). This transformation has a profound impact on the data format and analysis of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). Up to now, IACT data analysis was an internal task performed by specialists with no public access to the data or software. In the future, a large community of VHE astronomers from different scientific topics should be enabled to work with the data. Ease of use, compatibility, and integration with existing astronomy standards and tools will be key. In this contribution, a collection of Python tools for the analysis of data in FITS format (PyFACT; Python and FITS Analysis for Cherenkov Telescopes) is presented, which connects with existing tools like xspec, sherpa, and ds9. The package is available as open source (https://github.com/mraue/pyfact, comments and contributions welcome). Advantages of the chosen ansatz are discussed and implications for future observatories and data archival are presented.

  14. Normalized and asynchronous mirror alignment for Cherenkov telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Baack, D.; Balbo, M.; Bergmann, M.; Biland, A.; Blank, M.; Bretz, T.; Bruegge, K. A.; Buss, J.; Domke, M.; Dorner, D.; Einecke, S.; Hempfling, C.; Hildebrand, D.; Hughes, G.; Lustermann, W.; Mannheim, K.; Mueller, S. A.; Neise, D.; Neronov, A.; Noethe, M.; Overkemping, A.-K.; Paravac, A.; Pauss, F.; Rhode, W.; Shukla, A.; Temme, F.; Thaele, J.; Toscano, S.; Vogler, P.; Walter, R.; Wilbert, A.

    2016-09-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) need imaging optics with large apertures and high image intensities to map the faint Cherenkov light emitted from cosmic ray air showers onto their image sensors. Segmented reflectors fulfill these needs, and as they are composed from mass production mirror facets they are inexpensive and lightweight. However, as the overall image is a superposition of the individual facet images, alignment is a challenge. Here we present a computer vision based star tracking alignment method, which also works for limited or changing star light visibility. Our method normalizes the mirror facet reflection intensities to become independent of the reference star's intensity or the cloud coverage. Using two CCD cameras, our method records the mirror facet orientations asynchronously of the telescope drive system, and thus makes the method easy to integrate into existing telescopes. It can be combined with remote facet actuation, but does not require one to work. Furthermore, it can reconstruct all individual mirror facet point spread functions without moving any mirror. We present alignment results on the 4 m First Geiger-mode Avalanche Cherenkov Telescope (FACT).

  15. Strange meson spectroscopy in K[omega] and K[phi] at 11 GeV/c and Cherenkov ring imaging at SLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Youngjoon.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis consists of two independent parts; development of Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID) system and analysis of high-statistics data of strange meson reactions from the LASS spectrometer. Part 1: The CRID system is devoted to charged particle identification in the SLAC Large Detector (SLD) to study e[sup +]e[sup [minus

  16. Temporal signatures of the Cherenkov light induced by extensive air showers of cosmic rays detected with the Yakutsk array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Timofeev, L. V.

    2016-05-01

    We analyze temporal characteristics of signals from the wide field-of-view (WFOV) Cherenkov telescope (CT) detecting extensive air showers (EAS) of cosmic rays (CRs) in coincidence with surface detectors of the Yakutsk array. Our aim is to reveal causal relationships between measured characteristics and physical properties of EAS.

  17. Temporal signatures of the Cherenkov light induced by extensive air showers of cosmic rays detected with the Yakutsk array

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, A A

    2016-01-01

    We analyze temporal characteristics of signals from the wide field-of-view (WFOV) Cherenkov telescope (CT) detecting extensive air showers (EAS) of cosmic rays (CR) in coincidence with surface detectors of the Yakutsk array. Our aim is to reveal causal relationships between measured characteristics and physical properties of EAS.

  18. FACT -- The G-APD revolution in Cherenkov astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Bretz, T; Backes, M; Biland, A; Boccone, V; Braun, I; Buß, J; Cadoux, F; Commichau, V; Djambazov, L; Dorner, D; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Gendotti, A; Grimm, O; von Gunten, H; Haller, C; Hempfling, C; Hildebrand, D; Horisberger, U; Huber, B; Kim, K S; Knoetig, M L; Köhne, J H; Krähenbühl, T; Krumm, B; Lee, M; Lorenz, E; Lustermann, W; Lyard, E; Mannheim, K; Meharga, M; Meier, K; Müuller, S; Montaruli, T; Neise, D; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Overkemping, A K; Paravac, A; Pauss, F; Renker, D; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Röser, U; Stucki, J P; Schneider, J; Steinbring, T; Temme, F; Thaele, J; Tobler, S; Viertel, G; Vogler, P; Walter, R; Warda, K; Weitzel, Q; Zänglein, M

    2014-01-01

    Since two years, the FACT telescope is operating on the Canary Island of La Palma. Apart from its purpose to serve as a monitoring facility for the brightest TeV blazars, it was built as a major step to establish solid state photon counters as detectors in Cherenkov astronomy. The camera of the First G-APD Cherenkov Telesope comprises 1440 Geiger-mode avalanche photo diodes (G-APD), equipped with solid light guides to increase the effective light collection area of each sensor. Since no sense-line is available, a special challenge is to keep the applied voltage stable although the current drawn by the G-APD depends on the flux of night-sky background photons significantly varying with ambient light conditions. Methods have been developed to keep the temperature and voltage dependent response of the G-APDs stable during operation. As a cross-check, dark count spectra with high statistics have been taken under different environmental conditions. In this presentation, the project, the developed methods and the e...

  19. NECTAr: New electronics for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobiov, S., E-mail: vorobiov@lpta.in2p3.f [LPTA, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, Montpellier (France); Bolmont, J.; Corona, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and IN2P3/CNRS, Paris (France); Delagnes, E. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Feinstein, F. [LPTA, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, Montpellier (France); Gascon, D. [ICC-UB, Universitat Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Glicenstein, J.-F. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Naumann, C.L.; Nayman, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and IN2P3/CNRS, Paris (France); Sanuy, A. [ICC-UB, Universitat Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Toussenel, F.; Vincent, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and IN2P3/CNRS, Paris (France)

    2011-05-21

    The European astroparticle physics community aims to design and build the next generation array of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs), that will benefit from the experience of the existing H.E.S.S. and MAGIC detectors, and further expand the very-high energy astronomy domain. In order to gain an order of magnitude in sensitivity in the 10 GeV to >100TeV range, the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will employ 50-100 mirrors of various sizes equipped with 1000-4000 channels per camera, to be compared with the 6000 channels of the final H.E.S.S. array. A 3-year program, started in 2009, aims to build and test a demonstrator module of a generic CTA camera. We present here the NECTAr design of front-end electronics for the CTA, adapted to the trigger and data acquisition of a large IACTs array, with simple production and maintenance. Cost and camera performances are optimized by maximizing integration of the front-end electronics (amplifiers, fast analog samplers, ADCs) in an ASIC, achieving several GS/s and a few {mu}s readout dead-time. We present preliminary results and extrapolated performances from Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Characterization study of silica aerogel for Cherenkov imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallaz-Damaz, Y. [LPSC, IN2P3/CNRS, 53 av. des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Derome, L., E-mail: derome@lpsc.in2p3.f [LPSC, IN2P3/CNRS, 53 av. des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Mangin-Brinet, M.; Loth, M.; Protasov, K.; Putze, A.; Vargas-Trevino, M.; Veziant, O.; Buenerd, M. [LPSC, IN2P3/CNRS, 53 av. des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Belmont, E.; Vargas-Magana, M.; Leon-Vargas, H.; Ortiz-Velasquez, A. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, AP 20-364, Mexico DF (Mexico); Malinine, A. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Barao, F.; Pereira, R. [LIP, Avenida Elias Garcia 14-1, P - 1000 Lisboa (Portugal); Bellunato, T.; Matteuzzi, C.; Perego, D.L. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca and INFN, Milano (Italy)

    2010-03-01

    Different methods to measure the characteristics of silica aerogel tiles used as Cherenkov radiator in the CREAM and AMS experiments have been investigated to optimize the detector performances. The measurement accuracy dictated by the physics objectives on the velocity and charge resolutions set stringent requirements on the aerogel refractive index determination, namely DELTAnapprox1.5x10{sup -4} and DELTAnapprox5x10{sup -4} for the AMS and CREAM imagers, respectively. The matching of such accuracies for this material turned out to be a metrological challenge, and finally led to a full R and D program, to develop an appropriate characterization procedure. Preliminary studies performed with a standard refractive index measurement technique (laser beam deviation by a prism) have revealed a significant systematic index nonuniformity for the AMS tiles at a level (10{sup -3}), not acceptable considering the aimed accuracy. These large variations were confirmed in a beam test. A second method, mapping the transverse index gradient by deflection of a laser beam entering normally to the tile has then been developed. It is shown that this procedure is suitable to reach the required accuracy, at the price of using both methods combined. The several hundreds of tiles of the radiator plane of the CREAM and AMS Cherenkov imagers were characterized using a simplified procedure, however, appropriate for each case, compromising between the amount of work and the time available. The experimental procedures and set-ups used are described in the text, and the obtained results are reported.

  1. The HERA-B ring imaging Cherenkov counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arino, I.; Bastos, J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Carvalho, J.; Chmeissani, M.; Conde, P.; Davila, J.; Dujmic, D.; Eckmann, R.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Hamacher, T.; Gorisek, A.; Ivaniouchenkov, I.; Ispirian, M.; Karabekian, S.; Kim, M.; Korpar, S.; Krizan, P. E-mail: peter.krizan@ijs.si; Kupper, S.; Lau, K.; Maas, P.; McGill, J.; Miquel, R.; Murthy, N.; Peralta, D.; Pestotnik, R.; Pyrlik, J.; Ramachandran, S.; Reeves, K.; Rosen, J.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Schwarz, A.; Schwitters, R.F.; Siero, X.; Staric, M.; Stanovnik, A.; Skrk, D.; Zivko, T

    2004-01-11

    The HERA-B RICH uses a radiation path length of 2.8 m in C{sub 4}F{sub 10} gas and a large 24 m{sup 2} spherical mirror for imaging Cherenkov rings. The photon detector consists of 2240 Hamamatsu multi-anode photomultipliers with about 27 000 channels. A 2:1 reducing two-lens telescope in front of each photomultiplier tube increases the sensitive area at the expense of increased pixel size, resulting in a contribution to the resolution which roughly matches that of dispersion. The counter was completed in January of 1999, and its performance has been steady and reliable over the years it has been in operation. The design performance of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov counter was fully reached: the average number of detected photons in the RICH for a {beta}=1 particle was found to be 33 with a single-hit resolution of 0.7 and 1 mrad in the fine and coarse granularity regions, respectively.

  2. The HERA-B ring imaging Cherenkov counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariño, I.; Bastos, J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Carvalho, J.; Chmeissani, M.; Conde, P.; Davila, J.; Dujmić, D.; Eckmann, R.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Hamacher, T.; Gorišek, A.; Ivaniouchenkov, I.; Ispirian, M.; Karabekian, S.; Kim, M.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Kupper, S.; Lau, K.; Maas, P.; McGill, J.; Miquel, R.; Murthy, N.; Peralta, D.; Pestotnik, R.; Pyrlik, J.; Ramachandran, S.; Reeves, K.; Rosen, J.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Schwarz, A.; Schwitters, R. F.; Siero, X.; Starič, M.; Stanovnik, A.; Škrk, D.; Živko, T.

    2004-01-01

    The HERA-B RICH uses a radiation path length of 2.8 m in C 4F 10 gas and a large 24 m2 spherical mirror for imaging Cherenkov rings. The photon detector consists of 2240 Hamamatsu multi-anode photomultipliers with about 27 000 channels. A 2:1 reducing two-lens telescope in front of each photomultiplier tube increases the sensitive area at the expense of increased pixel size, resulting in a contribution to the resolution which roughly matches that of dispersion. The counter was completed in January of 1999, and its performance has been steady and reliable over the years it has been in operation. The design performance of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov counter was fully reached: the average number of detected photons in the RICH for a β=1 particle was found to be 33 with a single-hit resolution of 0.7 and 1 mrad in the fine and coarse granularity regions, respectively.

  3. Highlights from the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Pretz, John

    2015-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-Ray Observatory was completed this year at a 4100-meter site on the flank of the Sierra Negra volcano in Mexico. HAWC is a water Cherenkov ground array with the capability to distinguish 100 GeV - 100 TeV gamma rays from the hadronic cosmic-ray background. HAWC is uniquely suited to study extremely high energy cosmic-ray sources, search for regions of extended gamma-ray emission, and to identify transient gamma-ray phenomena. HAWC will play a key role in triggering multi-wavelength and multi-messenger studies of active galaxies, gamma-ray bursts, supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae. Observation of TeV photons also provide unique tests for a number of fundamental physics phenomena including dark matter annihilation and primordial black hole evaporation. Operation began mid-2013 with the partially-completed detector. Multi-TeV emission from the Galactic Plane is clearly seen in the first year of operation, confirming a number of known TeV sources, and a numb...

  4. Gamma astronomy above 30 GeV. A new method for identifying cosmic gamma rays from the ground based detector Celeste; Astronomie gamma au-dessus de 30 GeV. Une nouvelle methode d'identification des rayons gamma cosmiques a partir du sol avec le detecteur CELESTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manseri, H

    2004-03-15

    Celeste is an atmospheric Cherenkov telescope based on the reconversion of the Themis solar facility, located in the Eastern Pyrenees. The mirrors, named heliostats, recover the Cherenkov light emitted by the electromagnetic shower created by gamma-rays in the atmosphere. The Celeste experiment was designed during the 90's to cover the 30-300 GeV energy range and to fill the gap between satellites and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. In 2000, we attained our goal with the detection of the Crab Nebula and those of the active galactic nucleus Markarian 421. This thesis presents the work accomplished since then to improve the sensitivity of our instrument by studying the detector and by developing a new analysis. Despite the very bad weather conditions, a new detection of the Crab Nebula is presented here which validates the principle of the new analysis. This manuscript ends with the study of the data sample taken on two Active Galactic Nuclei, the blazars Markarian 421 and 1ES1426+428. (author)

  5. Development of a SiPM Camera for a Schwarzschild-Couder Cherenkov Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Otte, A N; Dickinson, H.; Funk, S.; Jogler, T.; Johnson, C.A.; Karn, P.; Meagher, K.; Naoya, H.; Nguyen, T.; Okumura, A.; Santander, M.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Stier, A.; Tajima, H.; Tibaldo, L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Wakely, S.; Weinstein, A.; Williams, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the development of a novel 11328 pixel silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) camera for use with a ground-based Cherenkov telescope with Schwarzschild-Couder optics as a possible medium-sized telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The finely pixelated camera samples air-shower images with more than twice the optical resolution of cameras that are used in current Cherenkov telescopes. Advantages of the higher resolution will be a better event reconstruction yielding improved background suppression and angular resolution of the reconstructed gamma-ray events, which is crucial in morphology studies of, for example, Galactic particle accelerators and the search for gamma-ray halos around extragalactic sources. Packing such a large number of pixels into an area of only half a square meter and having a fast readout directly attached to the back of the sensors is a challenging task. For the prototype camera development, SiPMs from Hamamatsu with through silicon via (TSV) technology are used. We give ...

  6. Real-time pattern recognition for the electron detection with a RICH detector in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Lehnert, J

    2001-01-01

    detector simulations as well as from test experiments of the real detector and thereby from the simulated data a ring-recognition efficiency above 90% at less than 0. 5 misidentified electrons/event for an optimized detector determined. In the present thesis a fast real-time trigger system for the identification of dileptons in a given invariant-mass interval is described as well as especially the trigger component for the recognition of electron and positron signatures on the segmented detector area of a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector presented. This comprehends the complete development of the hardware as well a fitted algorithm for the ring recognition. A component of this system are the trigger electronics for the processing of data of a hadron-blind ring- imaging Cherenkov detector. The electronics consist of two VME plug-in cards per detector segment, which reconstruct from the coordinate informations of the detector read-out within in the meam 40 mu s the complete hit pattern, perform on the base of th...

  7. Performance of a prototype RICH detector using hybrid photo-diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, E; Bibby, J H; Brook, N H; Duane, A; French, M; Gibson, V; Giles, R; Halley, A W; Harnew, N; John, M; Miller, D G; O'Shea, V; Teixeira-Dias, P; Smale, N J; Websdale, David M; Wilkinson, G R; Wotton, S A

    2001-01-01

    A prototype Ring-Imaging Cherenkov detector has been operated in a charged particle test beam, Cherenkov photons are imaged onto a plane of hybrid photo-diode detectors. The geometrical arrangement of the prototype and data-taking conditions are described. An analysis of the detector performance, using silica aerogel, air and C/sub 4/F/sub 10/ gas radiators, is presented. The photon yields and observed Cherenkov angle resolutions are found to be in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulation and satisfy the requirements of the RICH 1 detector in the LHCb experiment. (14 refs).

  8. Micro flame-based detector suite for universal gas sensing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Thomas Warren; Washburn, Cody M.; Moorman, Matthew Wallace; Manley, Robert George; Lewis, Patrick Raymond; Miller, James Edward; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Shelmidine, Gregory J.; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Okandan, Murat

    2005-11-01

    A microflame-based detector suit has been developed for sensing of a broad range of chemical analytes. This detector combines calorimetry, flame ionization detection (FID), nitrogen-phosphorous detection (NPD) and flame photometric detection (FPD) modes into one convenient platform based on a microcombustor. The microcombustor consists in a micromachined microhotplate with a catalyst or low-work function material added to its surface. For the NPD mode a low work function material selectively ionizes chemical analytes; for all other modes a supported catalyst such as platinum/alumina is used. The microcombustor design permits rapid, efficient heating of the deposited film at low power. To perform calorimetric detection of analytes, the change in power required to maintain the resistive microhotplate heater at a constant temperature is measured. For FID and NPD modes, electrodes are placed around the microcombustor flame zone and an electrometer circuit measures the production of ions. For FPD, the flame zone is optically interrogated to search for light emission indicative of deexcitation of flame-produced analyte compounds. The calorimetric and FID modes respond generally to all hydrocarbons, while sulfur compounds only alarm in the calorimetric mode, providing speciation. The NPD mode provides 10,000:1 selectivity of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds over hydrocarbons. The FPD can distinguish between sulfur and phosphorous compounds. Importantly all detection modes can be established on one convenient microcombustor platform, in fact the calorimetric, FID and FPD modes can be achieved simultaneously on only one microcombustor. Therefore, it is possible to make a very universal chemical detector array with as little as two microcombustor elements. A demonstration of the performance of the microcombustor in each of the detection modes is provided herein.

  9. The large-area hybrid-optics CLAS12 RICH detector: Tests of innovative components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contalbrigo, M., E-mail: contalbrigo@fe.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Baltzell, N. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Benmokhtar, F. [Christopher Newport University, VA (United States); Duquesne University, PA (United States); Barion, L. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Cisbani, E. [INFN Sezione di Roma – Gruppo Collega to Sanità (Italy); Italian National Institute of Health (Italy); El Alaoui, A. [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile); Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Hafidi, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Hoek, M. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); J. Gutenberg Universität, Mainz (Germany); Kubarovsky, V. [Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, VA (United States); Lagamba, L. [INFN Sezione di Bari, University of Bari (Italy); Lucherini, V. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Malaguti, R. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Mirazita, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Montgomery, R. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Movsisyan, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Musico, P. [INFN Sezione di Genova (Italy); Orecchini, D.; Orlandi, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Pappalardo, L.L. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Pereira, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); and others

    2014-12-01

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Lab to study the 3D nucleon structure in the yet poorly explored valence region by deep-inelastic scattering, and to perform precision measurements in hadronization and hadron spectroscopy. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on an aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and densely packed and highly segmented photon detectors. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). The preliminary results of individual detector component tests and of the prototype performance at test-beams are reported here. - Highlights: • A novel hybrid-optics configuration was proven to work with a large RICH prototype. • Innovative RICH components were studied both in laboratory tests and test-beams. • Aerogel of large Rayleigh scattering length at n=1.05 was characterized. • Novel vs commercially available multi-anode photomultipliers were compared. • The response of SiPM matrices to Cherenkov light was tested at various temperatures.

  10. A carbon nanotube based x-ray detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Richard A.; Bauch, Jürgen; Wünsche, Dietmar; Lackner, Gerhard; Majumder, Anindya

    2016-11-01

    X-ray detectors based on metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors couple instantaneous measurement with high accuracy. However, they only have a limited measurement lifetime because they undergo permanent degradation due to x-ray beam exposure. A field effect transistor based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), however, overcomes this drawback of permanent degradation, because it can be reset into its starting state after being exposed to the x-ray beam. In this work the CNTs were deposited using a dielectrophoresis method on SiO2 coated p-type (boron-doped) Si substrates. For the prepared devices a best gate voltage shift of 244 V Gy-1 and a source-drain current sensitivity of 382 nA Gy-1 were achieved. These values are larger than those reached by the currently used MOSFET based devices.

  11. Particlc detectors. Foundations and applications; Teilchendetektoren. Grundlagen und Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolanoski, Hermann; Wermes, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Interaction of particles with matter, motion of charge carriers in electric and magnetic fields, signal generation by moving charges, non-electronic detectors, gas-filled detectors, semiconductor detectors, track reconstruction and momentum measurement, photodetectors, Cherenkov detectors, transition-radiation detectors, scintillation detectors, particle identification, calorimeters, detection of cosmic particles, signal processing and noise, trigger and data acquisition systems. (HSI)

  12. Atmospheric Neutron Measurements using a Small Scintillator Based Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kole, Merlin; Pearce, Mark; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Fukuda, Kentaro; Ishizu, Sumito; Jackson, Miranda; Kamae, Tune; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Kawano, Takafumi; Kiss, Mozsi; Moretti, Elena; Yanagida, Takayuki; Chauvin, Maxime; Mikhalev, Victor; Rydstrom, Stefan; Takahashi, Hiromitsu

    PoGOLino is a standalone scintillator-based neutron detector designed for balloon-borne missions. Its main purpose is to provide data of the neutron flux in 2 different energy ranges in the high altitude / high latitude region where the highest neutron flux in the atmosphere is found. Furthermore the influence of the Solar activity upon the neutron environment in this region is relatively strong. As a result both short and long term time fluctuations are strongest in this region. At high altitudes neutrons can form a source of background for balloon-borne scientific measurements. They can furthermore form a major source for single event upsets in electronics. A good understanding of the high altitude / high latitude neutron environment is therefore important. Measurements of the neutron environment in this region are however lacking. PoGOLino contains two 5 mm thick Lithium Calcium Aluminium Fluoride (LiCAF) scintillators used for neutron detection. The LiCAF crystals are sandwiched between 2 Bismuth Germanium Oxide (BGO) scintillating crystals, which serve to veto signals produced by gamma-rays and charged particles. The veto system makes measurements of the neutron flux possible even in high radiation environments. One LiCAF detector is shielded with polyethylene while the second remains unshielded, making the detectors sensitive in different energy ranges. The choice of a scintillator crystals as the detection material ensures a high detection efficiency while keeping the instrument small, robust and light weight. The full standalone cylindrical instrument has a radius of 120 mm, a height of 670 mm and a total mass of 13 kg, making it suitable as a piggy back mission. PoGOLino was successfully launched on March 20th 2013 from the Esrange Space Center in Northern Sweden to an altitude of 30.9 km. A detailed description of the detector design is presented, along with results of of the flight. The neutron flux measured during flight is compared to predictions based

  13. Applications of Cherenkov Light Emission for Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Adam Kenneth

    Since its discovery in the 1930's, the Cherenkov effect has been paramount in the development of high-energy physics research. It results in light emission from charged particles traveling faster than the local speed of light in a dielectric medium. The ability of this emitted light to describe a charged particle's trajectory, energy, velocity, and mass has allowed scientists to study subatomic particles, detect neutrinos, and explore the properties of interstellar matter. However, only recently has the phenomenon been considered in the practical context of medical physics and radiation therapy dosimetry, where Cherenkov light is induced by clinical x-ray photon, electron, and proton beams. To investigate the relationship between this phenomenon and dose deposition, a Monte Carlo plug-in was developed within the Geant4 architecture for medically-oriented simulations (GAMOS) to simulate radiation-induced optical emission in biological media. Using this simulation framework, it was determined that Cherenkov light emission may be well suited for radiation dosimetry of clinically used x-ray photon beams. To advance this application, several novel techniques were implemented to realize the maximum potential of the signal, such as time-gating for maximizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and Cherenkov-excited fluorescence for generating isotropic light release in water. Proof of concept experiments were conducted in water tanks to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method for two-dimensional (2D) projection imaging, three-dimensional (3D) parallel beam tomography, large field of view 3D cone beam tomography, and video-rate dynamic imaging of treatment plans for a number of common radiotherapy applications. The proposed dosimetry method was found to have a number of unique advantages, including but not limited to its non-invasive nature, water-equivalence, speed, high-resolution, ability to provide full 3D data, and potential to yield data in-vivo. Based on

  14. First year results of the High Altitude Water Cherenkov observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Carramiñana, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) gamma-ray observatory is a wide field of view (1.8 Sr) and high duty cycle (>95% up-time) detector of unique capabilities for the study of TeV gamma-ray sources. Installed at an altitude of 4100m in the Northern slope of Volc\\'an Sierra Negra, Puebla, by a collaboration of about thirty institutions of Mexico and the United States, HAWC has been in full operations since March 2015, surveying 2/3 of the sky every sidereal day, monitoring active galaxies and mapping sources in the Galactic Plane to a detection level of 1 Crab per day. This contribution summarizes the main results of the first year of observations of the HAWC gamma-ray observatory.

  15. First year results of the High Altitude Water Cherenkov observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carramiñana, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) γ-ray observatory is a wide field of view (1.8 Sr) and high duty cycle (> 95% up-time) detector of unique capabilities for the study of TeV gamma-ray sources. Installed at an altitude of 4100m in the Northern slope of Volcan Sierra Negra, Puebla, by a collaboration of about thirty institutions of Mexico and the United States, HAWC has been in full operations since March 2015, surveying 2/3 of the sky every sidereal day, monitoring active galaxies and mapping sources in the Galactic Plane to a detection level of 1 Crab per day. This contribution summarizes the main results of the first year of observations of the HAWC γ-ray observatory.

  16. The Cherenkov Radiation for Non-Trivial Systems; La Radiacion Cherenkov en Sistemas No Triviales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.

    2002-07-01

    The charge pathways and the dielectric properties of the medium are two essential aspects to be considered in the study of the emission of Cherenkov radiation. We described the evolution of the Cherenkov wavefront when the charges follow circular or helical pathways. Also we derive expressions for the refractive Index in different transparent media (solid, liquid or gas), focusing our attention on optically active plasmas. The optical analogies between the plasma and the birefringent crystals is studied in detail. Finally, we list some examples of plasmas, which can be considered emitters of Cherenkov radiation. (Author) 52 refs.

  17. A prototype coordinate detector based on granulated thin-walled drift tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Bazylev, S N; Tikhomirov, V O; Davkov, K I; Gregor, I; Smirnov, S Y; Senger, P; Shutov, A V; Slepnev, I V; Myalkovskiy, V V; Naumann, L; Mouraviev, S V; Zhukov, I A; Peshekhonov, V D; Russakovich, N A; Rufanov, I A; Rembser, C

    2011-01-01

    A prototype detector based on thin-walled segmented tubes has been developed and its parameters have been studied. The detector contains 360 registration channels with a straw diameter of 4 mm. The prototype' granularity is 4 cm(2) and the length of insensitive region due to straw internal elements is less than 5\\% of its full sensitive area. Deterioration of the spatial resolution near these elements is observed for 1.0\\% of the detector sensitive area. The time and spatial parameters of the detector do not differ from those of conventional tracking detectors based on drift tubes. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A facility to evaluate the focusing performance of mirrors for Cherenkov Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Canestrari, Rodolfo; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Farisato, Giancarlo; Lessio, Luigi; Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Spiga, Rossella; Toso, Giorgio; Pareschi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique in late 1980's, ground-based observations of Very High-Energy gamma rays came into reality. Since the first source detected at TeV energies in 1989 by Whipple, the number of high energy gamma-ray sources has rapidly grown up to more than 150 thanks to the second generation experiments like MAGIC, H.E.S.S. and VERITAS. The Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory is the next generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes, with at least 10 times higher sensitivity than current instruments. Cherenkov Telescopes have to be equipped with optical dishes of large diameter -- in general based on segmented mirrors -- with typical angular resolution of a few arc-minutes. To evaluate the mirror's quality specific metrological systems are required that possibly take into account the environmental conditions in which typically Cherenkov telescopes operate (in open air without dome protection). For this purpose a new facility for the characterization of mi...

  19. Flipping photons backward: reversed Cherenkov radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Charged particles moving faster than light in a medium produce Cherenkov radiation. In traditional, positive index-of-refraction materials this radiation travels forward. Metamaterials, with negative indices of refraction, flip the radiation backward. This readily separates it from the particles, providing higher flexibility in photon manipulation and is useful for particle identification and counting. Here we review recent advances in reversed Cherenkov radiation research, including the first demonstration of backward emission. We also discuss the potential for developing new types of devices, such as ones that pierce invisibility cloaks.

  20. Illicit material detector based on gas sensors and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Vincent; Politano, Jean-Luc

    1997-02-01

    In accordance with its missions, le Centre de Recherches et d'Etudes de la Logistique de la Police Nationale francaise (CREL) has been conducting research for the past few years targeted at detecting drugs and explosives. We have focused our approach of the underlying physical and chemical detection principles on solid state gas sensors, in the hope of developing a hand-held drugs and explosives detector. The CREL and Laboratory and Scientific Services Directorate are research partners for this project. Using generic hydrocarbon, industrially available, metal oxide sensors as illicit material detectors, requires usage precautions. Indeed, neither the product's concentrations, nor even the products themselves, belong to the intended usage specifications. Therefore, the CREL is currently investigating two major research topics: controlling the sensor's environment: with environmental control we improve the detection of small product concentration; determining detection thresholds: both drugs and explosives disseminate low gas concentration. We are attempting to quantify the minimal concentration which triggers detection. In the long run, we foresee a computer-based tool likely to detect a target gas in a noisy atmosphere. A neural network is the suitable tool for interpreting the response of heterogeneous sensor matrix. This information processing structure, alongside with proper sensor environment control, will lessen the repercussions of common MOS sensor sensitivity characteristic dispersion.

  1. Diseño de montura Davies-Cotton de telescopio Cherenkov de 6m de diámetro para el proyecto CTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, M.; Ringegni, P.; Antico, F.; Bottani, A.; Vallejo, G.; Ochoa, I.; Marconi, D.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Rovero, A. C.

    For the next generation of ground-based instruments for the observation of gamma-rays, the construction of 6 m diameter Cherenkov telescopes is foreseen. We have proposed a design of Davies-Cotton mount for such a telescope, within Cherenkov Telescope Array specifications, and evaluated its mechanical and optical performance. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  2. Scintillation Detector for the Measurement of Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Rays on the Super-TIGER Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Jason

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the design and construction of the scintillation detectors for the Super-TIGER experiment. Super-TIGER is a large-area (5.4sq m) balloon-borne experiment designed to measure the abundances of cosmic-ray nuclei between Z= 10 and Z=56. It is based on the successful TIGER experiment that flew in Antarctica in 2001 and 2003. Super-TIGER has three layers of scintillation detectors, two Cherenkov detectors and a scintillating fiber hodoscope. The scintillation detector employs four wavelength shifter bars surrounding the edges of the scintillator to collect the light from particles traversing the detector. PMTs are optically coupled at both ends of the bars for light collection. We report on laboratory performance of the scintillation counters using muons. In addition we discuss the design challenges and detector response over this broad charge range including the effect of scintilator saturation.

  3. Development of the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE)

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, R A

    1998-01-01

    STACEE is a proposed atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for ground-based gamma-ray astrophysics between 25 and 500 GeV. The telescope will make use of the large solar mirrors (heliostats) available at a solar research facility to achieve an energy threshold lower than any existing ground-based instrument. This paper describes the development of STACEE, including an overview of the complete instrument design and a discussion of results from recent prototype tests at the large solar heliostat field of Sandia National Laboratories.

  4. HiFi-MBQC High Fidelitiy Measurement-Based Quantum Computing using Superconducting Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0006 HiFi-MBQC High Fidelitiy Measurement - Based Quantum Computing using Superconducting Detectors Philip Walther UNIVERSITT...HiFi-MBQC High Fidelitiy Measurement - Based Quantum Computing using Superconducting Detectors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8655-11-1-3004 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Report for for 11-3004 HiFi-MBQC High Fidelitiy Measurement - Based Quantum Computing using Superconducting Detectors March 2016 This project by the

  5. Monitoring of absolute mirror alignment at COMPASS RICH-1 detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexeev, M.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Chiosso, M.; Ciliberti, P.; Dalla Torre, S.; Denisov, O.; Duic, V.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Gayde, J. Ch; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Levorato, S.; Maggiora, A.; Martin, A.; Menon, G.; Panzieri, D.; Pesaro, G.; Polak, J.; Rocco, E.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Steiger, L.; Sulc, M.; Takekawa, S.; Tessarotto, F.

    2014-01-01

    The gaseous COMPASS RICH-1 detector uses two spherical mirror surfaces, segmented into 116 individual mirrors, to focus the Cherenkov photons onto the detector plane. Any mirror misalignment directly affects the detector resolution. The on-line Continuous Line Alignment and Monitoring (CLAM) photogr

  6. Prototype Test Results of the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE)

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, D A; Manna, D S; Marion, G M; Ong, R A; Tunner, T O; Dragovan, M; Oser, S; Chantel, M C; Bhattacharya, D P; Covault, C E; Fernholx, R

    1998-01-01

    There are currently no experiments, either satellite or ground-based, that are sensitive to astrophysical gamma-rays at energies between 20 and 250 GeV. We are developing the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) to explore this energy range. STACEE will use heliostat mirrors at a solar research facility to collect Cherenkov light from extensive air showers produced by high energy gamma-rays. Here we report on the results of prototype test work at the solar facility of Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM). The work demonstrates that the facility is suitable for use as an astrophysical observatory. In addition, using a full scale prototype of part of STACEE, we detected atmospheric Cherenkov radiation at energies lower than any other ground-based experiment to date.

  7. The SELEX Phototube RICH Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Engelfried, J; Kilmer, J; Kozhevnikov, A P; Kubarovskii, V P; Molchanov, V V; Nemitkin, A V; Ramberg, E; Rud, V I; Stutte, L

    1999-01-01

    In this article, construction, operation, and performance of the RICH detector of Fermilab experiment 781 (SELEX) are described. The detector utilizes a matrix of 2848 phototubes for the photocathode to detect Cherenkov photons generated in a 10m Neon radiator. For the central region an N0 of 104/cm, corresponding to 13.6 hits on a beta=1 ring, was obtained. The ring radius resolution measured is 1.6%.

  8. Research on Stealthy Headphone Detector Based on Geomagnetic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of stealth headphone detector based on geomagnetic sensor has been developed to deal with the stealth headphones which are small, extremely stealthy and hard to detect. The U.S. PNI geomagnetic sensor is chosen to obtain magnetic field considering the strong magnetic performance of stealth headphones. The earth’s magnetic field at the geomagnetic sensor is eliminated by difference between two geomagnetic sensors, and then weak variations of magnetic field is detected. STM8S103K2 is chosen as the central controlling chip, which is connected to LED, buzzer and LCD 1602. As shown by the experimental results, the probe is not liable to damage by the magnetic field and the developed device has high sensitivity, low False Positive Rate (FAR and satisfactory reliability.

  9. Joint preprocesser-based detector for cooperative networks with limited hardware processing capability

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Abdulrahman I.

    2015-02-01

    In this letter, a joint detector for cooperative communication networks is proposed when the destination has limited hardware processing capability. The transmitter sends its symbols with the help of L relays. As the destination has limited hardware, only U out of L signals are processed and the energy of the remaining relays is lost. To solve this problem, a joint preprocessing based detector is proposed. This joint preprocessor based detector operate on the principles of minimizing the symbol error rate (SER). For a realistic assessment, pilot symbol aided channel estimation is incorporated for this proposed detector. From our simulations, it can be observed that our proposed detector achieves the same SER performance as that of the maximum likelihood (ML) detector with all participating relays. Additionally, our detector outperforms selection combining (SC), channel shortening (CS) scheme and reduced-rank techniques when using the same U. Our proposed scheme has low computational complexity.

  10. Summary of activity. Topic I: detectors and experiments. [High-energy detectors for use at ISABELLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, J; Ozaki, S

    1978-01-01

    Results of a workshop studying detectors for Isabelle experimental halls are described. The detectors must be very reliable. Spatial resolution of the tracking detectors must be high to provide accurate measurements of angle and momentum, retain a short resolving time, and show excellent multiparticle handling capability. Included in the study were hodoscopes, drift chambers, proportional chambers, time projection chambers, Cherenkov counters, electromagnetic shower detectors, and hadron calorimeters. Data handling methods were also included in the studies. (FS)

  11. Tachyonic Cherenkov radiation in the absorptive aether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaschitz, Roman, E-mail: tom@geminga.org

    2014-08-14

    Dissipative tachyonic Cherenkov densities are derived and tested by performing a spectral fit to the γ-ray flux of supernova remnant (SNR) RX J1713.7 − 3946, measured over five frequency decades up to 100 TeV. The manifestly covariant formalism of tachyonic Maxwell–Proca radiation fields is developed in the spacetime aether, starting with the complex Lagrangian coupled to dispersive and dissipative permeability tensors. The spectral energy and flux densities of the radiation field are extracted by time averaging, the energy conservation law is derived, and the energy dissipation caused by the complex frequency-dependent permeabilities of the aether is quantified. The tachyonic mass-square in the field equations gives rise to transversally/longitudinally propagating flux components, with differing attenuation lengths determined by the imaginary part of the transversal/longitudinal dispersion relation. The spectral fit is performed with the classical tachyonic Cherenkov flux radiated by the shell-shocked electron plasma of SNR RX J1713.7 − 3946, exhibiting subexponential spectral decay. - Highlights: • Tachyonic Maxwell–Proca radiation fields in a dispersive and dissipative spacetime. • Transversal/longitudinal Poynting flux vector and associated spectral energy density. • Energy dissipation quantified by absorption term in the energy conservation law. • Dissipative Cherenkov densities (classical) and tachyonic attenuation lengths. • Cherenkov energy flux from the shocked electron plasma of SNR RX J1713.7 − 3946.

  12. Wide field-of-view Cherenkov telescope for the detection of cosmic rays in coincidence with the Yakutsk extensive air shower array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A.A., E-mail: ivanov@ikfia.ysn.ru; Knurenko, S.P.; Krasilnikov, A.D.; Petrov, Z.E.; Pravdin, M.I.; Sleptsov, I.Ye.; Timofeev, L.V.

    2015-02-01

    The Yakutsk array group is developing a wide field-of-view Cherenkov telescope to be operated in coincidence with the surface detectors of the extensive air shower array. Currently, the engineering prototype of the reflecting telescope with the front-end electronics is designed, assembled, and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of the conceived instrument. The status and specifications of the prototype telescope are presented, as well as the modernization program of the already existing Cherenkov light detectors subset of the array measuring ultra-high energy cosmic rays.

  13. CELESTE an atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for high energy gamma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Paré, E; Bazer-Bachi, R; Bergeret, H; Berny, F; Briand, N; Bruel, P; Cerutti, M; Collon, J; Cordier, A; Cornebise, P; Debiais, G; Dezalay, J P; Dumora, D; Durand, E; Eschstruth, P T; Espigat, P; Fabre, B; Fleury, P; Gilly, J; Gouillaud, J C; Gregory, C; Herault, N; Holder, J; Hrabovsky, M; Incerti, S; Jouenne, A; Kalt, L; Legallou, R; Lott, B; Lodygensky, O; Manigot, P; Manseri, H; Manitaz, H; Martin, M; Morano, R; Morineaud, G; Muenz, F; Musquere, A; Naurois, M D; Neveu, J; Noppe, J M; Olive, J F; Palatka, M; Pérez, A; Quebert, J; Rebii, A; Reposeur, T; Rob, L; Roy, P; Sans, J L; Sako, T; Schovanek, P; Smith, D A; Snabre, P; Villard, G

    2002-01-01

    CELESTE is an atmospheric Cherenkov telescope based on the sampling method which makes use of the de-commissioned THEMIS solar electrical plant in the French Pyrenees. A large (2000 m sup 2) mirror surface area from 40 independent heliostats followed by a secondary optic, a trigger system using analog summing techniques and signal digitization with 1 GHz flash ADCs make possible the detection of cosmic gamma-rays down to 30 GeV. This paper provides a detailed technical description of the CELESTE installation.

  14. First scientific contributions from the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Vargas, H.; HAWC Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC), located at the slopes of the volcanoes Sierra Negra and Pico de Orizaba in Mexico, was inaugurated on March 20, 2015. However, data taking started in August 2013 with a partially deployed observatory and since then the instrument has collected data as it got closer to its final configuration. HAWC is a ground based TeV gamma-ray observatory with a large field of view that will be used to study the Northern sky with high sensitivity. In this contribution we present some of the results obtained with the partially built instrument and the expected capabilities to detect different phenomena with the complete observatory.

  15. Control Software for the VERITAS Cherenkov Telescope System

    CERN Document Server

    Krawczynski, H; Sembroski, G; Gibbs, K

    2003-01-01

    The VERITAS collaboration is developing a system of initially 4 and eventually 7 Cherenkov Telescopes of the 12 m diameter class for high sensitivity gamma-ray astronomy in the >50 GeV energy range. In this contribution we describe the software that controls and monitors the various VERITAS sub-systems. The software uses an object-oriented approach to cope with the complexities that arise from using sub-groups of the 7 VERITAS telescopes to observe several sources at the same time. Inter-process communication is based on the CORBA Object Request Broker protocol and watch-dog processes monitor the sub-system performance.

  16. Scintillation neutron detectors based on solid-state photomultipliers and lightguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvin, V. S., E-mail: vlitvin@inr.ru; Marin, V. N.; Karaevsky, S. K.; Trunov, D. N.; Axenov, S. N.; Stolyarov, A. A.; Sadykov, R. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Neutron detectors based on scintillation screens ZnS(Ag)/LiF and solid-state photomultipliers have been developed. Lightguides are used to collect light. The application of a coincidence scheme provides a low dark count and a neutron detection efficiency as high as 70%. A scheme of x-y neutron detector based on wavelength shifting fibers is also proposed. Tests of the proposed versions of detectors in a neutron beam have shown their efficiency.

  17. VME-based data acquisition system for the India-based Neutrino Observatory prototype detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuyan, M. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Chandratre, V.B. [Electronics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Dasgupta, S. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Datar, V.M. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kalmani, S.D.; Lahamge, S.M.; Mondal, N.K.; Nagaraj, P.; Pal, S.; Rao, S.K.; Redij, A. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Samuel, D., E-mail: samuel@tifr.res.in [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Saraf, M.N.; Satyanarayana, B.; Shinde, R.R.; Upadhya, S.S. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2012-01-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration has proposed to build a 50 kton Iron-Calorimeter (ICAL) to study neutrino oscillations. About 28,800 Resistive Plate Chambers will be used as active detector elements in this experiment. Preliminary studies are currently underway and as a part of it, a prototype detector was developed which now serves as a cosmic-ray telescope and as a test-bench to study the indigenously built RPCs. A VME-based data acquisition system was designed for this prototype system. Modern software tools were used in the designing of the DAQ software. The design and development of this DAQ system are discussed.

  18. Blind multiuser detector for chaos-based CDMA using support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Johnny Wei-Hsun; Berber, Stevan Mirko; Kecman, Vojislav

    2010-08-01

    The algorithm and the results of a blind multiuser detector using a machine learning technique called support vector machine (SVM) on a chaos-based code division multiple access system is presented in this paper. Simulation results showed that the performance achieved by using SVM is comparable to existing minimum mean square error (MMSE) detector under both additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and Rayleigh fading conditions. However, unlike the MMSE detector, the SVM detector does not require the knowledge of spreading codes of other users in the system or the estimate of the channel noise variance. The optimization of this algorithm is considered in this paper and its complexity is compared with the MMSE detector. This detector is much more suitable to work in the forward link than MMSE. In addition, original theoretical bit-error rate expressions for the SVM detector under both AWGN and Rayleigh fading are derived to verify the simulation results.

  19. MCP-based detector some results and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Patarakin, O O; Strepetov, A N; Turbin, E V; Sinitsin, V I; Kartamushev, A A

    1997-01-01

    The timing resolution of photomultiplier tubes (PMT) based on shevron-type microchannel plates (MCP) has been studied inmagnetic fields. The same timingresolution with and without a longitudinal magnetic field up to 2.0 kGwas obtained as = 85 ± 2 ps. It is shown that an increase of timing resolution in this magnetic field does not exceed25 ps (upper limit). The timing resolution of = 31 ± 2 pswas obtained for narrow (10resolution) amplitude spectrumfrom Corone discharge. The counting rate of MCP-based detector was studied in function of the direction of the magnetic field.The spatial and timing resolution for the MCP-based PMT were obtained using laser pulses as well. With laser pulses of 0.3 ns a timing resolution of ≅ 450 ps was obtained. Taking into account the amplitude correction narrows to 140 ps. Using 100 fs-laser with the standard constant fractiondiscriminator gives a timing resolution from 20 to 40 ps depending on the read-out MCP region.The perspectives of using...

  20. Polarimetric Edge Detector Based on the Complex Wishart Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Schou, Jesper; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg;

    2001-01-01

    polarimetric edge detector provides a constant false alarm rate and it utilizes the full polarimetric information. The edge detector has been applied to polarimetric SAR data from the Danish dual-frequency, airborne polarimetric SAR, EMISAR. The results show clearly an improved edge detection performance...

  1. Study on Signal Processing Circuit Based on Scintillation Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO; Yong-gang; DENG; Chang-ming; LI; Jian-wei; XIAO; Cai-jin; ZHANG; Gui-ying; WANG; Ping-sheng; WANG; Xing-hua; JIN; Xiang-chun; HUA; Long; YUAN; Guo-jun; NI; Bang-fa

    2013-01-01

    Compared with silicon semiconductor detector,higher energy resolution and together with the high detection efficiency,big sensitive volume,good adaptability to environment and high sensitivityespecially in nature background environment are the characteristics of scintillation detector.The most widely applied scintillator includes inorganic crystals,of which sodium iodide is the favorite and

  2. About Modeling the Excitation Conditions of Cherenkov and Diffraction Radiations in Periodic Metal-dielectric Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Vorobjov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available General procedure for modeling the excitation conditions of Cherenkov and diffraction radiations in periodic metal-dielectric structures is described. It is based on the representation of the electron beam space-charge wave in the form of a dielectric waveguide surface-wave. On the experimental facility of millimeter-wave the basic modes of excitation conditions of spatial harmonics of the Cherenkov and diffraction radiations are simulated. The method is tested by comparing the numerical analysis and experimental results on the layout of the device of the orotron type - generator of diffraction radiation.

  3. Prototyping the graphical user interface for the operator of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Sadeh, Iftach; Schwarz, Joseph; Pietriga, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a planned gamma-ray observatory. CTA will incorporate about 100 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) at a Southern site, and about 20 in the North. Previous IACT experiments have used up to five telescopes. Subsequently, the design of a graphical user interface (GUI) for the operator of CTA involves new challenges. We present a GUI prototype, the concept for which is being developed in collaboration with experts from the field of Human-Computer Interaction. The prototype is based on Web technology; it incorporates a Python web server, Web Sockets and graphics generated with the d3.js Javascript library.

  4. Prototyping the graphical user interface for the operator of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, I.; Oya, I.; Schwarz, J.; Pietriga, E.

    2016-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a planned gamma-ray observatory. CTA will incorporate about 100 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) at a Southern site, and about 20 in the North. Previous IACT experiments have used up to five telescopes. Subsequently, the design of a graphical user interface (GUI) for the operator of CTA involves new challenges. We present a GUI prototype, the concept for which is being developed in collaboration with experts from the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). The prototype is based on Web technology; it incorporates a Python web server, Web Sockets and graphics generated with the d3.js Javascript library.

  5. Design and construction of a Cherenkov imager for charge measurement of nuclear cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Bourrion, O; Bondoux, D; Bouly, J L; Bouvier, J; Boyer, B; Brinet, M; Buenerd, M; Damieux, G; Derome, L; Eraud, L; Foglio, R; Fombaron, D; Grondin, D; Lee, M H; Lutz, L; Marton, M; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Pelissier, A; Périé, J N; Putze, A; Roudier, S; Sallaz-Damaz, Y; Seo, E S; Scordilis, J P; Yoon, Y S

    2011-01-01

    A proximity focusing Cherenkov imager called CHERCAM, has been built for the charge measurement of nuclear cosmic rays with the CREAM instrument. It consists of a silica aerogel radiator plane across from a detector plane equipped with 1,600 1" diameter photomultipliers. The two planes are separated by a ring expansion gap. The Cherenkov light yield is proportional to the charge squared of the incident particle. The expected relative light collection accuracy is in the few percents range. It leads to an expected single element separation over the range of nuclear charge Z of main interest 1 < Z < 26. CHERCAM is designed to fly with the CREAM balloon experiment. The design of the instrument and the implemented technical solutions allowing its safe operation in high altitude conditions (radiations, low pressure, cold) are presented.

  6. Design and construction of a Cherenkov imager for charge measurement of nuclear cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourrion, O; Bernard, C; Bondoux, D; Bouly, J L; Bouvier, J; Boyer, B; Brinet, M; Buenerd, M; Damieux, G; Derome, L; Eraud, L; Foglio, R; Fombaron, D; Grondin, D; Marton, M; Pelissier, A [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53, rue des Martyrs, Grenoble (France); Lee, M H; Lutz, L [University of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 (United States); Menchaca-Rocha, A [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, A.P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico DF (Mexico); Perie, J N, E-mail: olivier.bourrion@lpsc.in2p3.fr [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, Mines Albi, ISAE, ICA (Institut Clement Ader), 133, avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France)

    2011-06-15

    A proximity focusing Cherenkov imager called CHERCAM, has been built for the charge measurement of nuclear cosmic rays with the CREAM instrument. It consists of a silica aerogel radiator plane across from a detector plane equipped with 1,600 1'' diameter photomultipliers. The two planes are separated by a ring expansion gap. The Cherenkov light yield is proportional to the charge squared of the incident particle. The expected relative light collection accuracy is in the few percents range. It leads to an expected single element separation over the range of nuclear charge Z of main interest 1 {<=} Z{approx}<26. CHERCAM is designed to fly with the CREAM balloon experiment. The design of the instrument and the implemented technical solutions allowing its safe operation in high altitude conditions (radiations, low pressure, cold) are presented.

  7. A beta-ray spectrometer based on a two-or three silicon detector coincidence telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Y.S. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Physics; Weizman, Y. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Physics; Hirning, C.R. [Health Physics Dept., Ontario Hydro, Whitby (Canada)

    1995-03-11

    This report describes the operation of a beta-ray energy spectrometer based on a silicon detector telescope using two or three elements. The front detector is a planar, totally-depleted, silicon surface barrier detector that is 97 {mu}m thick, the back detector is a room-temperature, lithium compensated, silicon detector that is 5000 {mu}m thick, and the intermediate detector is similar to the front detector but 72 {mu}m thick and intended to be used only in intense photon fields. The three detectors are mounted in a light-tight aluminum housing. The capability of the spectrometer to reject photons is based upon the fact that the incident photon will have a small probability of simultaneously losing detectable energy in two detectors, and an even smaller probability of losing detectable energy in all three detectors. Electrons will, however, almost always record measurable events in either the front two or all three detectors. A coincidence requirement between the detectors thus rejects photon induced events. With a 97 {mu}m thick detector the lower energy coincidence threshold is approximately 110 keV. With an ultra-thin 40 {mu}m thick front detector, and operated at 15 C, the spectrometer is capable of detecting even 60-70 keV electrons with a coincidence efficiency of 60%. The spectrometer has been used to measure beta radiation fields in CANDU reactor working environments, and the spectral information is intended to support dose algorithms for the LiF TLD chips used in the Ontario Hydro dosimetry program. (orig.).

  8. Electronics and data acquisition system for the ICAL prototype detector of India-based neutrino observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behere, A. [Electronics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bhuyan, M. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Chandratre, V.B. [Electronics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Dasgupta, S., E-mail: sudeshnadasgupta@tifr.res.in [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Datar, V.M. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kalmani, S.D.; Lahamge, S.M.; Mondal, N.K. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Mukhopadhyay, P.K. [Electronics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Nagaraj, P.; Nagesh, B.K.; Pal, S.; Rao, Shobha K.; Samuel, D.; Saraf, M.N.; Satyanarayana, B. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Shastrakar, R.S. [Electronics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Shinde, R.R. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Sudheer, K.M. [Electronics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Upadhya, S.S. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); and others

    2013-02-11

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration has proposed to build a 50 kton magnetized Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector with the primary goal to study neutrino oscillations, employing Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) as active detector elements. A prototype of the ICAL detector has been built in order to develop and characterize the intrinsic sub-systems, like RPCs, gas system, electronics and data acquisition system, etc. This paper describes in detail the readout electronics as well as the VME-based data acquisition system for the prototype detector.

  9. Characterization of the KID-Based Light Detectors of CALDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, N.; Bellini, F.; Cardani, L.; Castellano, M. G.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A.; D'Addabbo, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Martinez, M.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the Cryogenic wide-Area Light Detectors with Excellent Resolution (CALDER) project is the development of light detectors with active area of 5 × 5 cm2 and noise energy resolution smaller than 20 eV RMS, implementing phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors. The detectors are developed to improve the background suppression in large-mass bolometric experiments such as CUORE, via the double read-out of the light and the heat released by particles interacting in the bolometers. In this work, we present the characterization of the first light detectors developed by CALDER. We describe the analysis tools to evaluate the resonator parameters (resonant frequency and quality factors) taking into account simultaneously all the resonance distortions introduced by the read-out chain (as the feed-line impedance and its mismatch) and by the power stored in the resonator itself. We detail the method for the selection of the optimal point for the detector operation (maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio). Finally, we present the response of the detector to optical pulses in the energy range of 0{-}30 keV.

  10. The calibration system of the GERDA muon veto Cherenkov detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, Florian, E-mail: ritter@pit.physik.uni-tuebingen.d [Kepler Centre for Astro and Particle Physics, Universitaet Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Lubsandorzhiev, Bayarto [Kepler Centre for Astro and Particle Physics, Universitaet Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Freund, Kai; Grabmayr, Peter; Jochum, Josef; Knapp, Markus; Meierhofer, Georg [Kepler Centre for Astro and Particle Physics, Universitaet Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Shaibonov, Bator [Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-21

    The GERDA experiment searches for neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}). To achieve a sensitivity of 10{sup -3}counts/(keVkgy) or better within a specific region of interest (ROI), a good background identification is needed. Therefore GERDA is located in the LNGS (Laboratori Nationali del Gran Sasso) underground facility. In addition to the good rejection of cosmic muons due to the surrounding bedrocks, a dual muon veto system has to be used. For calibration and monitoring of the muon veto, two separate systems have been developed.

  11. A beta ray spectrometer based on a two-, or three-element silicon detector coincidence telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Y.S.; Weizman, Y. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Physics; Hirning, C.R. [Ontario Hydro, Whitby, ON (Canada). Health Physics Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The operation of a beta ray energy spectrometer based on a two-or three-element silicon detector telescope is described. The front detector (A) is a thin, totally depleted, silicon surface barrier detector either 40 {mu}m, 72 {mu}m or 98 {mu}m thick. The back detector (C) is a Li compensated silicon detector, 5000 {mu}m thick. An additional thin detector can be inserted between these two detectors when additional photon rejection capability is required in intense photon fields. The capability of the spectrometer to reject photons is based on the fact that incident photons will have a small probability of simultaneously losing detectable energy in two detectors and an even smaller probability of losing detectable energy in all three detectors. Electrons, however, above a low energy threshold, will always record simultaneous, events in all three detectors. The spectrometer is capable of measuring electron energies from a lower energy coincidence threshold of 70 keV with 60% efficiency increasing to 100% efficiency in the energy region between 150 keV and 2.5 MeV. (Author).

  12. Optimisation and Characterisation of Glass RPC for India-based Neutrino Observatory Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kanishka, R; Indumathi, D

    2016-01-01

    The proposed magnetised Iron CALorimeter detector (ICAL) to be built in the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) laboratory aims to detect atmospheric muon neutrinos. In order to achieve improved physics results, the constituent components of the detector must be fully understood by proper characterisation and optimisation of various parameters. Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are the active detector elements in the ICAL detector and can be made of glass or bakelite. The number of RPCs required for this detector is very large number so a detailed R & D is necessary to establish the characterisation and optimisation of these RPCs. These detectors once installed will be taking data for 15-20 years. In this paper, we report the selection criteria of glass used of various Indian manufacturers such as Asahi, Saint Gobain and Modi. Based on the factors like aging that deteriorate the quality of glass the choice is made. The glass characterisation studies include UV-VIS transmission for optical properties, SEM...

  13. On-site mirror facet condensation measurements for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipold, J.; Medina, M. C.; García, B.; Rasztocky, E.; Mancilla, A.; Maya, J.; Larrarte, J. J.; de Souza, V.

    2016-09-01

    The Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique (IACT) has provided very important discoveries in Very High Energy (VHE) γ-ray astronomy for the last two decades, being exploited mainly by experiments such as H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VERITAS. The same technique will be used by the next generation of γ-ray telescopes, Cherenkov Telescope Array - CTA, which is conceived to be an Observatory composed by two arrays strategically placed in both hemispheres, one in the Northern and one in the Southern. Each site will consist of several tens of Cherenkov telescopes of different sizes and will be equipped with about 10000 m2 of reflective surface. Because of its large size, the reflector of a Cherenkov telescope is composed of many individual mirror facets. Cherenkov telescopes operate without any protective system from weather conditions therefore it is important to understand how the reflective surfaces behave under different environmental conditions. This paper describes a study of the behavior of the mirrors in the presence of water vapor condensation. The operational time of a telescope is reduced by the presence of condensation on the mirror surface, therefore, to control and to monitor the formation of condensation is an important issue for IACT observatories. We developed a method based on pictures of the mirrors to identify the areas with water vapor condensation. The method is presented here and we use it to estimate the time and area two mirrors had condensation when exposed to the environmental conditions in the Argentinean site. The study presented here shows important guidelines in the selection procedure of mirror technologies and shows an innovative monitoring tool to be used in future Cherenkov telescopes.

  14. Ethernet-Based DAQ System for QUIET-II Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, M.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Higuchi, T.; Ikeno, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Hazumi, M.; Tajima, O.; Tanaka, M.; Uchida, T.

    2012-06-01

    The B-modes in cosmic microwave background polarization are a smoking gun for the inflationary universe. For the detection of the B-modes, having a large detector array is a generic approach since the B-modes is so faint pattern ( T b≲0.1 μK). The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT Phase-II (QUIET-II) is proposed to search the B-modes, using an array with 500 HEMT-based polarimeters. Each polarimeter element has 4-outputs, therefore we have to manage 2000 channels in total. We developed a scalable DAQ system based on TCP/Ethernet for QUIET-II. The DAQ system is composed of the polarimeters, ADC boards, a Master Clock and a control computer (PC). The analog signals from the polarimeters are digitized on the ADC boards. On-board demodulation, which synchronizes the phase flip modulations on the polarimeter, extracts the polarized components in the digitized signal. The Master Clock distributes all necessary clocks to the ADC boards as well as the polarimeters. This scheme guarantees the synchronization of the modulations and demodulations. We employed Ethernet-based communication scheme between the data collection program (Collector) on the PC and the ADC boards as well as the Master Clock. Such an Ethernet-based communication scheme allows us to construct a simple structure of the upper level software, which results in the high scalability to increase the number of channels. All basic functions and requirements are confirmed by the laboratory tests; demonstration with test signals as well as the signals from the polarimeters, measurements of the data transfer rate, and the synchronous operation with two ADC boards. Therefore, the DAQ system is confirmed to be suitable for QUIET-II.

  15. BJT detector with FPGA-based read-out for alpha particle monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyzhnevyi, V; Dalla Betta, G-F [Universita di Trento, via Sommarive, 14, 38123 Trento (Italy); Rovati, L [Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy); Verzellesi, G [Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Amendola 2, Pad. Morselli, 42100 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Zorzi, N, E-mail: tyzhnevyi@disi.unitn.it [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, via Sommarive, 18, 38123 Trento (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    In this work we introduce a new prototype of readout electronics (ALPHADET), which was designed for an {alpha}-particle detection system based on a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) detector. The system uses an FPGA, which provides many advantages at the stage of prototyping and testing the detector. The main design and electrical features of the board are discussed in this paper, along with selected results from the characterization of ALPHADET coupled to BJT detectors.

  16. AlN Based Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Detectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I project is to investigate the feasibility for achieving EUV detectors for space applications by exploiting the ultrahigh bandgap semiconductor - AlN. We...

  17. Injection quality measurements with diamond based particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Oliver; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    During the re-commissioning phase of the LHC after the long shutdown 1 very high beam losses were observed at the TDI during beam injection. The losses reached up to 90% of the dump threshold. To decrease the through beam losses induced stress on the accelerator components these loss levels need to be reduced. Measurements with diamond based particle detectors (dBLMs), which have nano-second time resolution, revealed that the majority of these losses come from recaptured SPS beam surrounding the nominal bunch train. In this MD the injection loss patterns and loss intensities were investigated in greater detail. Performed calibration shots on the TDI (internal beam absorber for injection) gave a conversion factor from impacting particles intensities to signal in the dBLMs (0.1Vs/109 protons). Using the SPS tune kicker for cleaning the recaptured beam in the SPS and changing the LHC injection kicker settings resulted in a reduction of the injection losses. For 144 bunch injections the loss levels were decreased...

  18. CdTe detector based PIXE mapping of geological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, P.C., E-mail: cchaves@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Taborda, A. [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Oliveira, D.P.S. de [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG), Apartado 7586, 2611-901 Alfragide (Portugal); Reis, M.A. [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    A sample collected from a borehole drilled approximately 10 km ESE of Bragança, Trás-os-Montes, was analysed by standard and high energy PIXE at both CTN (previous ITN) PIXE setups. The sample is a fine-grained metapyroxenite grading to coarse-grained in the base with disseminated sulphides and fine veinlets of pyrrhotite and pyrite. Matrix composition was obtained at the standard PIXE setup using a 1.25 MeV H{sup +} beam at three different spots. Medium and high Z elemental concentrations were then determined using the DT2fit and DT2simul codes (Reis et al., 2008, 2013 [1,2]), on the spectra obtained in the High Resolution and High Energy (HRHE)-PIXE setup (Chaves et al., 2013 [3]) by irradiation of the sample with a 3.8 MeV proton beam provided by the CTN 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. In this paper we present results, discuss detection limits of the method and the added value of the use of the CdTe detector in this context.

  19. Low power adder based digital filter for QRS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, L; Chitra, D; Manigandan, T

    2014-01-01

    Most of the Biomedical applications use dedicated processors for the implementation of complex signal processing. Among them, sensor network is also a type, which has the constraint of low power consumption. Since the processing elements are the most copiously used operations in the signal processors, the power consumption of this has the major impact on the system level application. In this paper, we introduce low power concept of transistor stacking to reduce leakage power; and new architectures based on stacking to implement the full adder and its significance at the digital filter level for QRS detector are implemented. The proposed concept has lesser leakage power at the adder as well as filter level with trade-off in other quality metrics of the design. This enabled the design to be dealt with as the low-power corner and can be made adaptable to any level of hierarchical abstractions as per the requirement of the application. The proposed architectures are designed, modeled at RTL level using the Verilog-HDL, and synthesized in Synopsys Design Compiler by mapping the design to 65 nm technology library standard cells.

  20. A Compact High Energy Camera for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Daniel, M K; Berge, D; Buckley, J; Chadwick, P M; Cotter, G; Funk, S; Greenshaw, T; Hidaka, N; Hinton, J; Lapington, J; Markoff, S; Moore, P; Nolan, S; Ohm, S; Okumura, A; Ross, D; Sapozhnikov, L; Schmoll, J; Sutcliffe, P; Sykes, J; Tajima, H; Varner, G S; Vandenbroucke, J; Vink, J; Williams, D

    2013-01-01

    The Compact High Energy Camera (CHEC) is a camera-development project involving UK, US, Japanese and Dutch institutes for the dual-mirror Small-Sized Telescopes (SST-2M) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Two CHEC prototypes, based on different photosensors are funded and will be assembled and tested in the UK over the next ~18 months. CHEC is designed to record flashes of Cherenkov light lasting from a few to a hundred nanoseconds, with typical RMS image width and length of ~0.2 x 1.0 degrees, and has a 9 degree field of view. The physical camera geometry is dictated by the telescope optics: a curved focal surface with radius of curvature 1m and diameter ~35cm is required. CHEC is designed to work with both the ASTRI and GATE SST-2M telescope structures and will include an internal LED flasher system for calibration. The first CHEC prototype will be based on multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPMs) and the second on silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs or MPPCs). The first prototype will soon be installed on the...

  1. INFN Camera demonstrator for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosi, G; Aramo, C.; Bertucci, B.; Bissaldi, E.; Bitossi, M.; Brasolin, S.; Busetto, G.; Carosi, R.; Catalanotti, S.; Ciocci, M.A.; Consoletti, R.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Giulio, C.; Doro, M.; D'Urso, D.; Ferraro, G.; Ferrarotto, F.; Gargano, F.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giraudo, G.; Iacovacci, M.; Ionica, M.; Iori, M.; Longo, F.; Mariotti, M.; Mastroianni, S.; Minuti, M.; Morselli, A.; Paoletti, R.; Pauletta, G.; Rando, R.; Fernandez, G. Rodriguez; Rugliancich, A.; Simone, D.; Stella, C.; Tonachini, A.; Vallania, P.; Valore, L.; Vagelli, V.; Verzi, V.; Vigorito, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array is a world-wide project for a new generation of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes of the Imaging class with the aim of exploring the highest energy region of the electromagnetic spectrum. With two planned arrays, one for each hemisphere, it will guarantee a good sky coverage in the energy range from a few tens of GeV to hundreds of TeV, with improved angular resolution and a sensitivity in the TeV energy region better by one order of magnitude than the currently operating arrays. In order to cover this wide energy range, three different telescope types are envisaged, with different mirror sizes and focal plane features. In particular, for the highest energies a possible design is a dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder optical scheme, with a compact focal plane. A silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) based camera is being proposed as a solution to match the dimensions of the pixel (angular size of ~ 0.17 degrees). INFN is developing a camera demonstrator made by 9 Photo Sensor Modules (PSMs...

  2. Characterization of a Polymer-Based MEMS Pyroelectric Infrared Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    engineered protein in hydrogels tailors stimuli-responsive characteristics.” Nature, vol 4, pp 298 – 302, Apr 2005. [8] Brott, Lawrence L...CR Detector Pre- amp Φe (t) 38 three regimes can be seen in Figure 14, which represents the voltage reponsivity...detector needs amplification, using one of the two circuits shown in Figure 19 or 20. In lieu of this circuit, a voltage pre- amp was used

  3. Theoretical performance analysis for CMOS based high resolution detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2013-03-06

    High resolution imaging capabilities are essential for accurately guiding successful endovascular interventional procedures. Present x-ray imaging detectors are not always adequate due to their inherent limitations. The newly-developed high-resolution micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF-CCD) detector has demonstrated excellent clinical image quality; however, further improvement in performance and physical design may be possible using CMOS sensors. We have thus calculated the theoretical performance of two proposed CMOS detectors which may be used as a successor to the MAF. The proposed detectors have a 300 μm thick HL-type CsI phosphor, a 50 μm-pixel CMOS sensor with and without a variable gain light image intensifier (LII), and are designated MAF-CMOS-LII and MAF-CMOS, respectively. For the performance evaluation, linear cascade modeling was used. The detector imaging chains were divided into individual stages characterized by one of the basic processes (quantum gain, binomial selection, stochastic and deterministic blurring, additive noise). Ranges of readout noise and exposure were used to calculate the detectors' MTF and DQE. The MAF-CMOS showed slightly better MTF than the MAF-CMOS-LII, but the MAF-CMOS-LII showed far better DQE, especially for lower exposures. The proposed detectors can have improved MTF and DQE compared with the present high resolution MAF detector. The performance of the MAF-CMOS is excellent for the angiography exposure range; however it is limited at fluoroscopic levels due to additive instrumentation noise. The MAF-CMOS-LII, having the advantage of the variable LII gain, can overcome the noise limitation and hence may perform exceptionally for the full range of required exposures; however, it is more complex and hence more expensive.

  4. Characterization of the KID-Based Light Detectors of CALDER

    CERN Document Server

    Casali, N; Cardani, L; Castellano, M G; Colantoni, I; Coppolecchia, A; Cosmelli, C; Cruciani, A; D'Addabbo, A; Di Dominio, S; Martinez, M; Tomei, C; Vignati, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Cryogenic wide-Area Light Detectors with Excellent Resolution (CALDER) project is the development of light detectors with active area of $5\\times5$ cm$^2$ and noise energy resolution smaller than 20 eV RMS, implementing phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors. The detectors are developed to improve the background suppression in large-mass bolometric experiments such as CUORE, via the double read-out of the light and the heat released by particles interacting in the bolometers. In this work, we present the characterization of the first light detectors developed by CALDER. We describe the analysis tools to evaluate the resonator parameters (resonant frequency and quality factors) taking into account simultaneously all the resonance distortions introduced by the read-out chain (as the feed-line impedance and its mismatch) and by the power stored in the resonator itself. We detail the method for the selection of the optimal point for the detector operation (maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio...

  5. Low-Noise Operation of All-Fiber Femtosecond Cherenkov Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Villanueva Ibáñez, Guillermo Eduardo; Lægsgaard, Jesper;

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the noise properties of a femtosecond all-fiber Cherenkov radiation source with emission wavelength around 600 nm, based on an Yb-fiber laser and a highly-nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. A relative intensity noise as low as - 103 dBc/Hz, corresponding to 2.48 % pulse-to-pulse flu...

  6. Characterization of coherent Cherenkov radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A.V.

    2015-01-21

    Engineering formulae for calculation of peak, and spectral brightness of resonant long-range wakefield extractor are given. It is shown that the brightness is dominated by beam density in the slow wave structure and antenna gain of the outcoupling. Far field radiation patterns and brightness of circular and high aspect ratio planar radiators are compared. A possibility to approach diffraction limited brightness is demonstrated. The role of group velocity in designing of the Cherenkov source is analyzed. The approach can be applied for design and characterization of various structure-dominated sources (e.g., wakefield extractors with gratings or dielectrics, or FEL-Cherenkov combined sources) radiating into a free space using an antenna (in microwave to sub-mm wave regions). The high group velocity structures can be also effective as energy dechirpers and for diagnostics of microbunched relativistic electron beams.

  7. Performance of the STACEE Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, D A; Boone, L M; Chantell, M C; Conner, Z; Covault, C E; Dragovan, M; Fortin, P; Gingrich, D M; Gregorich, D T; Hanna, D S; Mohanty, G B; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Oser, S M; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Schütte, D R; Theoret, C G; Tümer, T O; Vincent, F; Zweerink, J A

    2000-01-01

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is located at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The field of solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) around a central receiver tower is used to direct Cherenkov light from atmospheric showers onto secondary mirrors on the tower, which in turn image the light onto cameras of photomultiplier tubes. The STACEE Collaboration has previously reported a detection of the Crab Nebula with approximately 7 standard deviation significance, using 32 heliostats (STACEE-32). This result demonstrates both the viability of the technique and the suitability of the site. We are in the process of completing an upgrade to 48 heliostats (STACEE-48) en route to an eventual configuration using 64 heliostats (STACEE-64) in early 2001. In this paper, we summarize the results obtained on the sensitivity of STACEE-32 and our expectations for STACEE-48 and STACEE-64.

  8. Bokeh Mirror Alignment for Cherenkov Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Ahnen, M L; Balbo, M; Bergmann, M; Biland, A; Blank, M; Bretz, T; Bruegge, K A; Buss, J; Domke, M; Dorner, D; Einecke, S; Hempfling, C; Hildebrand, D; Hughes, G; Lustermann, W; Mannheim, K; Mueller, S A; Neise, D; Neronov, A; Noethe, M; Overkemping, A -K; Paravac, A; Pauss, F; Rhode, W; Shukla, A; Temme, F; Thaele, J; Toscano, S; Vogler, P; Walter, R; Wilbert, A

    2016-01-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) need imaging optics with large apertures and high image intensities to map the faint Cherenkov light emitted from cosmic ray air showers onto their image sensors. Segmented reflectors fulfill these needs, and composed from mass production mirror facets they are inexpensive and lightweight. However, as the overall image is a superposition of the individual facet images, alignment remains a challenge. Here we present a simple, yet extendable method, to align a segmented reflector using its Bokeh. Bokeh alignment does not need a star or good weather nights but can be done even during daytime. Bokeh alignment optimizes the facet orientations by comparing the segmented reflectors Bokeh to a predefined template. The optimal Bokeh template is highly constricted by the reflector's aperture and is easy accessible. The Bokeh is observed using the out of focus image of a near by point like light source in a distance of about 10 focal lengths. We introduce Bokeh alignment ...

  9. Performance of the STACEE Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. A.; Bhattacharya, D.; Boone, L. M.; Chantell, M. C.; Conner, Z.; Covault, C. E.; Dragovan, M.; Fortin, P.; Gingrich, D.; Gregorich, D. T.; Hanna, D. S.; Mohanty, G.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R. A.; Oser, S.; Ragan, K.; Scalzo, R. A.; Schuette, D. R.; Théoret, C. G.; Tümer, T. O.; Vincent, F.; Zweerink, J. A.

    2001-04-01

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is located at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The field of solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) around a central receiver tower is used to direct Cherenkov light from atmospheric showers onto secondary mirrors on the tower, which in turn image the light onto cameras of photomultiplier tubes. The STACEE Collaboration has previously reported a detection of the Crab Nebula with approximately 7 standard deviation significance, using 32 heliostats (STACEE-32). This result demonstrates both the viability of the technique and the suitability of the site. We are in the process of completing an upgrade to 48 heliostats (STACEE-48) en route to an eventual configuration using 64 heliostats (STACEE-64) in early 2001. In this paper, we summarize the results obtained on the sensitivity of STACEE-32 and our expectations for STACEE-48 and STACEE-64. .

  10. Evaluation of cassette-based digital radiography detectors using standardized image quality metrics: AAPM TG-150 Draft Image Detector Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Greene, Travis C; Nishino, Thomas K; Willis, Charles E

    2016-09-08

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate several of the standardized image quality metrics proposed by the American Association of Physics in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 150. The task group suggested region-of-interest (ROI)-based techniques to measure nonuniformity, minimum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), number of anomalous pixels, and modulation transfer function (MTF). This study evaluated the effects of ROI size and layout on the image metrics by using four different ROI sets, assessed result uncertainty by repeating measurements, and compared results with two commercially available quality control tools, namely the Carestream DIRECTVIEW Total Quality Tool (TQT) and the GE Healthcare Quality Assurance Process (QAP). Seven Carestream DRX-1C (CsI) detectors on mobile DR systems and four GE FlashPad detectors in radiographic rooms were tested. Images were analyzed using MATLAB software that had been previously validated and reported. Our values for signal and SNR nonuniformity and MTF agree with values published by other investigators. Our results show that ROI size affects nonuniformity and minimum SNR measurements, but not detection of anomalous pixels. Exposure geometry affects all tested image metrics except for the MTF. TG-150 metrics in general agree with the TQT, but agree with the QAP only for local and global signal nonuniformity. The difference in SNR nonuniformity and MTF values between the TG-150 and QAP may be explained by differences in the calculation of noise and acquisition beam quality, respectively. TG-150's SNR nonuniformity metrics are also more sensitive to detector nonuniformity compared to the QAP. Our results suggest that fixed ROI size should be used for consistency because nonuniformity metrics depend on ROI size. Ideally, detector tests should be performed at the exact calibration position. If not feasible, a baseline should be established from the mean of several repeated measurements. Our study indicates that the TG-150 tests can be

  11. Performance of the LHCb Detector during 2010-2011 data taking

    CERN Document Server

    van Beuzekom, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The status and performance of the LHCb detector during the physics LHC physics run is described. The LHCb detector has a number of notable features including: 12 micron resolution in the transverse plane on 30-35 track primary vertices, pion and kaon separation from 1 to 100 GeV, and 1 MHz full readout of all sub-systems. The detector is being operating above its design luminosity and is comprised of a silicon vertex detector, silicon and straw-tube tracking systems, ring imaging Cherenkov particle identification systems, electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry, and muon systems. Hardware and software based trigger levels are utilised to efficiently select leptonically and hadronically decay beauty and charm hadrons. The alignment, tracking and particle identification performance will be discussed.

  12. Recent progress in silica aerogel Cherenkov radiator

    CERN Document Server

    Tabata, Makoto; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kubo, Masato; Sato, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent progress in the development of hydrophobic silica aerogel as a Cherenkov radiator. In addition to the conventional method, the recently developed pin-drying method for producing high-refractive-index aerogels with high transparency was studied in detail. Optical qualities and large tile handling for crack-free aerogels were investigated. Sufficient photons were detected from high-performance aerogels in a beam test.

  13. Physics Potential of the ICAL detector at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO)

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Hasan, Rashid; Salim, Mohammad; Singh, S K; Inbanathan, S S R; Singh, Venktesh; Subrahmanyam, V S; Behera, Shiba Prasad; Chandratre, Vinay B; Dash, Nitali; Datar, Vivek M; Kashyap, V K S; Mohanty, Ajit K; Pant, Lalit M; Chatterjee, Animesh; Choubey, Sandhya; Gandhi, Raj; Ghosh, Anushree; Tiwari, Deepak; Ajmi, Ali; Sankar, S Uma; Behera, Prafulla; Chacko, Aleena; Jafer, Sadiq; Libby, James; Raveendrababu, K; Rebin, K R; Indumathi, D; Meghna, K; Lakshmi, S M; Murthy, M V N; Pal, Sumanta; Rajasekaran, G; Sinha, Nita; Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Khatun, Amina; Mehta, Poonam; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Kanishka, R; Kumar, A; Shahi, J S; Singh, J B; Ghosh, Monojit; Ghoshal, Pomita; Goswami, Srubabati; Gupta, Chandan; Raut, Sushant; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Bose, Suvendu; Ghosal, Ambar; Jash, Abhik; Kar, Kamalesh; Majumdar, Debasish; Majumdar, Nayana; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Saha, Satyajit; Acharya, B S; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharya, Kolahal; Dasgupta, Sudeshna; Devi, Moon Moon; Dighe, Amol; Majumder, Gobinda; Mondal, Naba K; Redij, Asmita; Samuel, Deepak; Satyanarayana, B; Thakore, Tarak; Ravikumar, C D; Vinodkumar, A M; Gangopadhyay, Gautam; Raychaudhuri, Amitava; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Gaur, Ankit; Kaur, Daljeet; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Sanjeev; Naimuddin, Md; Bari, Waseem; Malik, Manzoor A; Singh, Jyotsna; Krishnaveni, S; Ravikumar, H B; Ranganathaiah, C; Mahapatra, Swapna; Biswas, Saikat; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Ganai, Rajesh; Ghosh, Tapasi; Viyogi, Y P

    2015-01-01

    The upcoming 50 kt magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) detector at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is designed to study the atmospheric neutrinos and antineutrinos separately over a wide range of energies and path lengths. The primary focus of this experiment is to explore the Earth matter effects by observing the energy and zenith angle dependence of the atmospheric neutrinos in the multi-GeV range. This study will be crucial to address some of the outstanding issues in neutrino oscillation physics, including the fundamental issue of neutrino mass hierarchy. In this document, we present the physics potential of the detector as obtained from realistic detector simulations. We describe the simulation framework, the neutrino interactions in the detector, and the expected response of the detector to particles traversing it. The ICAL detector can determine the energy and direction of the muons to a high precision, and in addition, its sensitivity to multi-GeV hadrons increases its physics reach substant...

  14. A measurement method of a detector response function for monochromatic electrons based on the Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhlanov, S. V.; Bazlov, N. V.; Derbin, A. V.; Drachnev, I. S.; Kayunov, A. S.; Muratova, V. N.; Semenov, D. A.; Unzhakov, E. V.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present a method of scintillation detector energy calibration using the gamma-rays. The technique is based on the Compton scattering of gamma-rays in a scintillation detector and subsequent photoelectric absorption of the scattered photon in the Ge-detector. The novelty of this method is that the source of gamma rays, the germanium and scintillation detectors are immediately arranged adjacent to each other. The method presents an effective solution for the detectors consisting of a low atomic number materials, when the ratio between Compton effect and photoelectric absorption is large and the mean path of gamma-rays is comparable to the size of the detector. The technique can be used for the precision measurements of the scintillator light yield dependence on the electron energy.

  15. A measurement method of a detector response function for monochromatic electrons based on the Compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bakhlanov, S V; Derbin, A V; Drachnev, I S; Kayunov, A S; Muratova, V N; Semenov, D A; Unzhakov, E V

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a method of scintillation detector energy calibration using the gamma-rays. The technique is based on the Compton scattering of gamma-rays in a scintillation detector and subsequent photoelectric absorption of the scattered photon in the Ge-detector. The novelty of this method is that the source of gamma rays, the germanium and scintillation detectors are immediately arranged adjacent to each other. The method presents an effective solution for the detectors consisting of a low atomic number materials, when the ratio between Compton effect and photoelectric absorption is large and the mean path of gamma-rays is comparable to the size of the detector. The technique can be used for the precision measurements of the scintillator light yield dependence on the electron energy.

  16. Review of amorphous silicon based particle detectors: the quest for single particle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrsch, N.; Ballif, C.

    2016-10-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is attractive for radiation detectors because of its radiation resistance and processability over large areas with mature Si microfabrication techniques. While the use of a-Si:H for medical imaging has been very successful, the development of detectors for particle tracking and minimum-ionizing-particle detection has lagged, with almost no practical implementation. This paper reviews the development of various types of a-Si:H-based detectors and discusses their respective achievements and limitations. It also presents more recent developments of detectors that could potentially achieve single particle detection and be integrated in a monolithic fashion into a variety of applications.

  17. Development of trigger scheme for the ICAL detector of India-based Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, S., E-mail: sudeshnadasgupta@tifr.res.in [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Mondal, N.K.; Samuel, D.; Saraf, M.N.; Satyanarayana, B.; Upadhya, S.S. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2012-06-21

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration has proposed to build a 50 kton magnetized Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector with the primary goal to study neutrino oscillations, employing Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) as active detector elements. Various aspects of a proposed trigger scheme for the ICAL detector are discussed. The associated chance trigger rates are calculated and the trigger efficiency of the scheme for the events of interest for the ICAL detector is determined. An approach toward the implementation of the scheme is also presented.

  18. Bokeh mirror alignment for Cherenkov telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Baack, D.; Balbo, M.; Bergmann, M.; Biland, A.; Blank, M.; Bretz, T.; Bruegge, K. A.; Buss, J.; Domke, M.; Dorner, D.; Einecke, S.; Hempfling, C.; Hildebrand, D.; Hughes, G.; Lustermann, W.; Mannheim, K.; Mueller, S. A.; Neise, D.; Neronov, A.; Noethe, M.; Overkemping, A.-K.; Paravac, A.; Pauss, F.; Rhode, W.; Shukla, A.; Temme, F.; Thaele, J.; Toscano, S.; Vogler, P.; Walter, R.; Wilbert, A.

    2016-09-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) need imaging optics with large apertures and high image intensities to map the faint Cherenkov light emitted from cosmic ray air showers onto their image sensors. Segmented reflectors fulfill these needs, and composed from mass production mirror facets they are inexpensive and lightweight. However, as the overall image is a superposition of the individual facet images, alignment remains a challenge. Here we present a simple, yet extendable method, to align a segmented reflector using its Bokeh. Bokeh alig nment does not need a star or good weather nights but can be done even during daytime. Bokeh alignment optimizes the facet orientations by comparing the segmented reflectors Bokeh to a predefined template. The optimal Bokeh template is highly constricted by the reflector's aperture and is easy accessible. The Bokeh is observed using the out of focus image of a near by point like light source in a distance of about 10 focal lengths. We introduce Bokeh alignment on segmented reflectors and demonstrate it on the First Geiger-mode Avalanche Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) on La Palma, Spain.

  19. Upgraded cameras for the HESS imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavitto, Gianluca; Ashton, Terry; Balzer, Arnim; Berge, David; Brun, Francois; Chaminade, Thomas; Delagnes, Eric; Fontaine, Gérard; Füßling, Matthias; Giebels, Berrie; Glicenstein, Jean-François; Gräber, Tobias; Hinton, James; Jahnke, Albert; Klepser, Stefan; Kossatz, Marko; Kretzschmann, Axel; Lefranc, Valentin; Leich, Holger; Lüdecke, Hartmut; Lypova, Iryna; Manigot, Pascal; Marandon, Vincent; Moulin, Emmanuel; de Naurois, Mathieu; Nayman, Patrick; Penno, Marek; Ross, Duncan; Salek, David; Schade, Markus; Schwab, Thomas; Simoni, Rachel; Stegmann, Christian; Steppa, Constantin; Thornhill, Julian; Toussnel, François

    2016-08-01

    The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is an array of five imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, sensitive to cosmic gamma rays of energies between 30 GeV and several tens of TeV. Four of them started operations in 2003 and their photomultiplier tube (PMT) cameras are currently undergoing a major upgrade, with the goals of improving the overall performance of the array and reducing the failure rate of the ageing systems. With the exception of the 960 PMTs, all components inside the camera have been replaced: these include the readout and trigger electronics, the power, ventilation and pneumatic systems and the control and data acquisition software. New designs and technical solutions have been introduced: the readout makes use of the NECTAr analog memory chip, which samples and stores the PMT signals and was developed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The control of all hardware subsystems is carried out by an FPGA coupled to an embedded ARM computer, a modular design which has proven to be very fast and reliable. The new camera software is based on modern C++ libraries such as Apache Thrift, ØMQ and Protocol buffers, offering very good performance, robustness, flexibility and ease of development. The first camera was upgraded in 2015, the other three cameras are foreseen to follow in fall 2016. We describe the design, the performance, the results of the tests and the lessons learned from the first upgraded H.E.S.S. camera.

  20. The On-Site Analysis of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Bulgarelli, Andrea; Zoli, Andrea; Aboudan, Alessio; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Juan José; De Cesare, Giovanni; De Rosa, Adriano; Maier, Gernot; Lyard, Etienne; Bastieri, Denis; Lombardi, Saverio; Tosti, Gino; Bergamaschi, Sonia; Beneventano, Domenico; Lamanna, Giovanni; Jacquemier, Jean; Kosack, Karl; Antonelli, Lucio Angelo; Boisson, Catherine; Borkowski, Jerzy; Buson, Sara; Carosi, Alessandro; Conforti, Vito; Colomé, Pep; Reyes, Raquel de los; Dumm, Jon; Evans, Phil; Fortson, Lucy; Fuessling, Matthias; Gotz, Diego; Graciani, Ricardo; Gianotti, Fulvio; Grandi, Paola; Hinton, Jim; Humensky, Brian; Inoue, Susumu; Knödlseder, Jürgen; Flour, Thierry Le; Lindemann, Rico; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Markoff, Sera; Marisaldi, Martino; Neyroud, Nadine; Nicastro, Luciano; Ohm, Stefan; Osborne, Julian; Oya, Igor; Rodriguez, Jerome; Rosen, Simon; Ribo, Marc; Tacchini, Alessandro; Schüssler, Fabian; Stolarczyk, Thierry; Torresi, Eleonora; Testa, Vincenzo; Wegner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will be one of the largest ground-based very high-energy gamma-ray observatories. The On-Site Analysis will be the first CTA scientific analysis of data acquired from the array of telescopes, in both northern and southern sites. The On-Site Analysis will have two pipelines: the Level-A pipeline (also known as Real-Time Analysis, RTA) and the level-B one. The RTA performs data quality monitoring and must be able to issue automated alerts on variable and transient astrophysical sources within 30 seconds from the last acquired Cherenkov event that contributes to the alert, with a sensitivity not worse than the one achieved by the final pipeline by more than a factor of 3. The Level-B Analysis has a better sensitivity (not be worse than the final one by a factor of 2) and the results should be available within 10 hours from the acquisition of the data: for this reason this analysis could be performed at the end of an observation or next morning. The latency (in part...

  1. The small size telescope projects for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The small size telescopes (SSTs), spread over an area of several square km, dominate the CTA sensitivity in the photon energy range from a few TeV to over 100 TeV, enabling for the detailed exploration of the very high energy gamma-ray sky. The proposed telescopes are innovative designs providing a wide field of view. Two of them, the ASTRI (Astrophysics con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) and the GCT (Gamma-ray Cherenkov Telescope) telescopes, are based on dual mirror Schwarzschild-Couder optics, with primary mirror diameters of 4 m. The third, SST-1M, is a Davies-Cotton design with a 4 m diameter mirror. Progress with the construction and testing of prototypes of these telescopes is presented. The SST cameras use silicon photomultipliers, with preamplifier and readout/trigger electronics designed to optimize the performance of these sensors for (atmospheric) Cherenkov light. The status of the camera developments is discussed. The SST sub-array will consist of about 70 telescopes at the CTA souther...

  2. Position resolution of a double junction superconductive detector based on a single material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samedov, V. V.

    2008-02-01

    The Naples group from Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare presented the results of theoretical investigations of a new class of superconductive radiation detectors - double junction superconductive detector based on a single material [1]. In such detectors, the absorption of energy occurs in a long superconductive strip while two superconductive tunnel junctions positioned at the ends of the strip provide the readout of the signals. The main peculiarity of this type of detectors is that they are based on a single superconducting material, i.e., without trapping layers at the ends of the strip. In this paper, general approach to the position resolution of this type of detectors has been attempted. The formula for the position resolution is derived. It is shown that the application of the aluminium for the absorber may be the best possible way not only due to the small gap energy, but also mainly for STJ fabrication technology based on the aluminium oxide tunnel barrier.

  3. Asymmetric devices based on carbon nanotubes as detectors of sub-THz radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayduchenko, I. A.; Fedorov, G. E.; Stepanova, T. S.; Titova, N.; Voronov, B. M.; But, D.; Coquillat, D.; Diakonova, N.; Knap, W.; Goltsman, G. N.

    2016-08-01

    Demand for efficient terahertz (THz) radiation detectors resulted in intensive study of the asymmetric carbon nanostructures as a possible solution for that problem. In this work, we systematically investigate the response of asymmetric carbon nanodevices to sub-terahertz radiation using different sensing elements: from dense carbon nanotube (CNT) network to individual CNT. We conclude that the detectors based on individual CNTs both semiconducting and quasi-metallic demonstrate much stronger response in sub-THz region than detectors based on disordered CNT networks at room temperature. We also demonstrate the possibility of using asymmetric detectors based on CNT for imaging in the THz range at room temperature. Further optimization of the device configuration may result in appearance of novel terahertz radiation detectors.

  4. A specific gas chromatographic detector for carbonyl compounds, based on polarography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, B; Risby, T H

    1969-07-01

    The evaluation of a specific gas Chromatographie detector for carbonyl compounds is described. This is based on the polarographic reduction of the Girard T hydrazone derivative which is formed when the carbonyl compound is absorbed in a buffered supporting electrolyte containing the carbonyl reagent. The detector was used to monitor the separation of a homologous series of alkanals.

  5. An Ultra-Wideband Schottky Diode Based Envelope Detector for 2.5 Gbps signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimoli, Bruno; Valdecasa, Guillermo Silva; Granja, Angel Blanco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper an ultra-wideband (UWB) Schottky diode based envelope detector is reported. The detector consists of an input matching network, a Schottky diode and wideband output filtering network. The output network is tailored to demodulate ultra-wideband amplitude shift keying (ASK) signals up...

  6. In situ, high sensitivity, measurement of sup 9 sup 0 strontium in ground water using Cherenkov light

    CERN Document Server

    Bowyer, T W; Hossbach, T W; Hansen, R; Wilcox, W A

    2000-01-01

    The measurement of sup 9 sup 0 Sr in soils and ground water is important for characterization and remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. Measuring the sup 9 sup 0 Sr content to a few pCi/g of soil has been accomplished based on a design of scintillating fibers in a multilayered configuration measuring the high-energy beta emitted from sup 9 sup 0 Y decay (when in secular equilibrium with sup 9 sup 0 Sr), but has not been applied to water because the technique is sensitive to only the first few mm of soil. The volume of the source to which the detector is sensitive limits the theoretical sensitivity of such a detector, unless chemical preprocessing to strip the sup 9 sup 0 Sr from the water is performed. sup 9 sup 0 Sr activity in water can be quantified by detecting the high-energy beta particle by the Cherenkov light it produces when the high-energy beta from sup 9 sup 0 Y passes through the medium. We have used this phenomenon to sensitively measure sup 9 sup 0 Sr ( sup 9 sup 0 Y) from a volume of...

  7. Development of a microstrip-based neutron detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Desai; A M Shaikh; V Radhakrishna; K Rajanna

    2004-08-01

    A gas-filled microstrip detector for thermal neutrons has been built and successfully tested in our laboratory. The detector has an active area of 20 mm × 15 mm and consists of alternate anodes and cathodes of widths 12 m and 300 m respectively. The anode to cathode gap is 150 m and the pitch is 612 m. A high resistance, meandering type horizontal strip connects the anodes at one end and aids in position sensing by charge division method. The detector is tested with gas mixtures 3He+Kr (1 : 2) and 3He+CF4 (2 : 1) at pressure of 3 atmospheres and using a Pu-Be neutron source. The pulse height spectrum shows energy resolution of ∼ 8% (FWHM) for the 764 keV peak at anode voltage of 525 V for 3He+Kr and ∼ 15% at anode voltage of 800 V for 3He+CF4. Gas gains up to 6.3 × 103 and 3.6 × 103 are obtained respectively with these gas mixtures. The overall efficiency of the detector along the sensitive length is tested by exposing the active area to neutrons and recording the position spectrum. The detector shows fairly uniform efficiency (∼ 45\\%) over the active length.

  8. Organic semiconductor nickel phthalocyanine-based photocapacitive and photoresistive detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mutabar; Karimov, Kh S.; Sayyad, M. H.

    2010-07-01

    In this study, the photosensitive organic semiconductor nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc) is investigated as a photocapacitive and photoresistive detector. NiPc thin film is grown by vacuum thermal evaporation on an indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is deposited as a top electrode by drop-casting to fabricate the ITO/NiPc/PEDOT:PSS light detector. It has been observed that under the unmodulated filament lamp illumination of up to 9720 lux the capacitance of the detectors increased up to 21, 18 and 4% at a frequency of measuring voltage of 120 Hz, 1 kHz and 10 kHz, respectively, under dark conditions. The change in resistance with the variation in the intensity of light is also investigated. The capacitance and resistance of the light detector decrease with an increase in the frequency. It is assumed that the photocapacitive and photoresistive response of the detector is associated with polarization occurring due to the transfer of photo-generated electrons and holes. The calculated results are in reasonable agreement with the experimental results.

  9. An Omnidirectional Polarization Detector Based on a Metamaterial Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binzhen; Zhang, Yong; Duan, Junping; Zhang, Wendong; Wang, Wanjun

    2016-01-01

    The theory, design, simulation, fabrication, and performance of an omnidirectional polarization detector (PD) with two resonances located in the X and Ka ranges based on a metamaterial absorber (MMA) are presented in this paper. The sandwich structure of PD is composed of 0.1 μm periodic “I” shaped patches on the metasurface, a dielectric of 200 μm FR-4 on the interlayer, and a 0.3 μm copper film on the substrate. PD absorptivity is first used to reflect and describe the polarization of the incident wave. The numerical results, derived from the standard full wave finite integration technology (FIT) of CST 2015, indicates that the designed PD shows polarization sensitivity at all incidence angles. The effects on absorptivity produced by the incidence angles, polarization angles, and materials are investigated. The amplitude of absorptivity change caused by polarization reaches 99.802%. A laser ablation process is adopted to prepare the designed PD on a FR-4 board coated with copper on the double plane with a thickness that was 1/93 and 1/48 of wavelength at a resonance frequency of 16.055 GHz and 30.9 GHz, respectively. The sample test results verify the designed PD excellent detectability on the polarization of the incident waves. The proposed PD, which greatly enriches the applications of metamaterials in bolometers, thermal images, stealth materials, microstructure measurements, and electromagnetic devices, is easy to mass produce and market because of its strong detectability, ultrathin thickness, effective cost, and convenient process. PMID:27455280

  10. Solar panels as cosmic-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Stella, Carlo; Assis, Pedro; Brogueira, Pedro; Santo, Catarina Espirito; Goncalves, Patricia; Pimenta, Mario; De Angelis, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Due to fundamental limitations of accelerators, only cosmic rays can give access to centre-of- mass energies more than one order of magnitude above those reached at the LHC. In fact, extreme energy cosmic rays (1018 eV - 1020 eV) are the only possibility to explore the 100 TeV energy scale in the years to come. This leap by one order of magnitude gives a unique way to open new horizons: new families of particles, new physics scales, in-depth investigations of the Lorentz symmetries. However, the flux of cosmic rays decreases rapidly, being less than one particle per square kilometer per year above 1019 eV: one needs to sample large surfaces. A way to develop large-effective area, low cost, detectors, is to build a solar panel-based device which can be used in parallel for power generation and Cherenkov light detection. Using solar panels for Cherenkov light detection would combine power generation and a non-standard detection device.

  11. Experimental research on the THGEM-based thermal neutron detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Yang; Zhi-Jia, Sun; Ying, Zhang; Chao-Qiang, Huang; Guang-Ai, Sun; Yan-Feng, Wang; Gui-An, Yang; Hong, Xu; Yu-Guang, Xie; Yuan-Bo, Chen

    2014-01-01

    A new thermal neutron detector with the domestically produced THGEM (THick Gas Electron Multiplier) was developed as an alternative to 3He to meet the needs of the next generation of neutron facilities. One type of Au-coated THGEM was designed specifically for the neutron detection. A detector prototype had been developed and the preliminary experimental tests were presented, including the performance of the Au-coated THGEM working in the Ar/CO2 gas mixtures and the neutron imaging test with 252CF source, which would provide the reference of experimental data for the research in future.

  12. Field test: first detection of Cherenkov light from air showers with Geiger APDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otte, N. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Biland, A.; Ilia, B.; Felicitas, P.; Ulf, R. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zuerich (Switzerland); Eckart, L. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zuerich (Switzerland); Dieter, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    G-APDs are novel semiconductor photon-detectors which offer several advantages compared to conventional photomultiplier tubes in the field of air shower detection. Folded with the Cherenkov spectrum the response of G-APDs is up to a factor of three higher if compared with classical photomultipliers. Moreover they offer high gain ({proportional_to} 10{sup 5}.. 10{sup 6}) at low operation voltages (< 100 V). Under operation they are insensible to excessive and prolonged exposure to light and are mechanical robust. Dark count rates of some G-APDs are below the level of light coming from the night sky. Furthermore G-APDs can be mass-produced which allows to considerably reduce the costs of these sensors. According to the present state of the development of G-APD they promise to be a major progress for {gamma}-ray astronomy. Here we report on first-time tests of the detection of Cherenkov light from air showers with G-APD. We discuss first test results and the advantages and problems of G-APDs in Cherenkov telescopes. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of Compton gamma camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Y Calderón; Chmeissani, M.; Kolstein, M.; De Lorenzo, G.

    2014-01-01

    A proposed Compton camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe is simulated and evaluated in order to establish its feasibility and expected performance in real laboratory tests. The system is based on module units containing a 2×4 array of square CdTe detectors of 10×10 mm2 area and 2 mm thickness. The detectors are pixelated and stacked forming a 3D detector with voxel sizes of 2 × 1 × 2 mm3. The camera performance is simulated with Geant4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations(G...

  14. AIGO: a southern hemisphere detector for the worldwide array of ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, P; Blair, D G; Coward, D; Davidson, J; Dumas, J-C; Howell, E; Ju, L; Wen, L; Zhao, C [School of Physics, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McClelland, D E; Scott, S M; Slagmolen, B J J; Inta, R [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Munch, J; Ottaway, D J; Veitch, P; Hosken, D [Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Melatos, A; Chung, C; Sammut, L, E-mail: pbarriga@cyllene.uwa.edu.a [School of Physics University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic 3010 (Australia)

    2010-04-21

    This paper describes the proposed AIGO detector for the worldwide array of interferometric gravitational wave detectors. The first part of the paper summarizes the benefits that AIGO provides to the worldwide array of detectors. The second part gives a technical description of the detector, which will follow closely the Advanced LIGO design. Possible technical variations in the design are discussed.

  15. Ground detectors for the study of cosmic ray showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, H.; Villasenor, L.

    2008-06-01

    We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector and discuss an application of these results to calibrate water Cherenkov detectors. We also describe a technique to separate isolated isolated muons and electrons in water Cherenkov detector. Next we describe the design and performance of a hybrid extensive air shower detector array built on the Campus of the University of Puebla (19°N, 90°W, 800 g/cm2) to measure the energy, arrival direction and composition of primary cosmic rays with energies around 1 PeV.

  16. Ground detectors for the study of cosmic ray showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, H [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla, Pue., 72000 (Mexico); Villasenor, L [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, UMSNH, Morelia, Michoacan, 58040 (Mexico)], E-mail: villasen@ifm.umich.mx

    2008-06-01

    We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector and discuss an application of these results to calibrate water Cherenkov detectors. We also describe a technique to separate isolated isolated muons and electrons in water Cherenkov detector. Next we describe the design and performance of a hybrid extensive air shower detector array built on the Campus of the University of Puebla (19 deg. N, 90 deg. W, 800 g/cm{sup 2}) to measure the energy, arrival direction and composition of primary cosmic rays with energies around 1 PeV.

  17. UVSiPM: a light detector instrument based on a SiPM sensor working in single photon counting

    CERN Document Server

    Sottile, G; Agnetta, G; Belluso, M; Billotta, S; Biondo, B; Bonanno, G; Catalano, O; Giarrusso, S; Grillo, A; Impiombato, D; La Rosa, G; Maccarone, M C; Mangano, A; Marano, D; Mineo, T; Segreto, A; Strazzeri, E; Timpanaro, M C; 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2013.05.040

    2013-01-01

    UVSiPM is a light detector designed to measure the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the 320-900 nm wavelength range. It has been developed in the framework of the ASTRI project whose main goal is the design and construction of an end-to-end Small Size class Telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The UVSiPM instrument is composed by a multipixel Silicon Photo-Multiplier detector unit coupled to an electronic chain working in single photon counting mode with 10 nanosecond double pulse resolution, and by a disk emulator interface card for computer connection. The detector unit of UVSiPM is of the same kind as the ones forming the camera at the focal plane of the ASTRI prototype. Eventually, the UVSiPM instrument can be equipped with a collimator to regulate its angular aperture. UVSiPM, with its peculiar characteristics, will permit to perform several measurements both in lab and on field, allowing the absolute calibration of the ASTRI prototype.

  18. UVSiPM: A light detector instrument based on a SiPM sensor working in single photon counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sottile, G.; Russo, F.; Agnetta, G. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Belluso, M.; Billotta, S. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Biondo, B. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Bonanno, G. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Catalano, O.; Giarrusso, S. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Grillo, A. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Impiombato, D.; La Rosa, G.; Maccarone, M.C.; Mangano, A. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Marano, D. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Mineo, T.; Segreto, A.; Strazzeri, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Timpanaro, M.C. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    UVSiPM is a light detector designed to measure the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the 320–900 nm wavelength range. It has been developed in the framework of the ASTRI project whose main goal is the design and construction of an end-to-end Small Size class Telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The UVSiPM instrument is composed by a multipixel Silicon Photo-Multiplier detector unit coupled to an electronic chain working in single photon counting mode with 10 nanosecond double pulse resolution, and by a disk emulator interface card for computer connection. The detector unit of UVSiPM is of the same kind as the ones forming the camera at the focal plane of the ASTRI prototype. Eventually, the UVSiPM instrument can be equipped with a collimator to regulate its angular aperture. UVSiPM, with its peculiar characteristics, will permit to perform several measurements both in lab and on field, allowing the absolute calibration of the ASTRI prototype.

  19. Cherenkov-type diagnostics of fast electrons beams escaping from MCF facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowski, L.; Malinowski, K.; Mirowski, R.; Rabinski, M.; Sadowski, M.J.; Zebrowski, J. [Institute for Nuclear Studies - IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    The paper presents the feasibility study, the measuring system and the first experimental results of a new method developed for direct detection of high-energy (super-thermal, ripple-born and runaway) electrons generated in magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) facilities. The technique in question is based on registration of the Cherenkov radiation, emitted by energetic electrons, moving through a transparent medium (radiator) with a velocity higher than the velocity of light in this material. The main aim of our studies was to develop a diagnostic technique applicable for measurements of fast electron beams within MCF devices. The IPJ team proposed Cherenkov-type probes because of their high spatial- and temporal-resolutions. The most important results of applications of the presented Cherenkov-type diagnostics have proved that the one- and four-channel versions of the detecting head are useful for studies of the fast (ripple-born and runaway) electrons in different MCF experiments. Experience collected during the described studies allows to introduce some changes in the radiator configuration and to modify the Cherenkov probe design. This document is composed of a paper followed by a poster

  20. The New ATLAS/LUCID detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bruschi, Marco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The new ATLAS luminosity monitor has many innovative aspects implemented. Its photomultipliers tubes are used as detector elements by using the Cherenkov light produced by charged particles above threshold crossing the quartz windows. The analog shaping of the readout chain has been improved, in order to cope with the 25 ns bunch spacing of the LHC machine. The main readout card is a quite general processing unit based on 12 bit - 500 MS/s Flash ADC and on FPGAs, delivering the processed data to 1.3 Gb/s optical links. The talk will describe all these aspects and will outline future perspectives of the card for next generation high energy physics experiments.

  1. The new ATLAS/LUCID detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bruschi, Marco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The new ATLAS luminosity monitor has many innovative aspects implemented. Its photomultipliers tubes are used as detector elements by using the Cherenkov light produced by charged particles above threshold crossing the quartz windows. The analog shaping of the readout chain has been improved, in order to cope with the 25 ns bunch spacing of the LHC machine. The main readout card is a quite general processing unit based on 12 bit - 320 MS/s Flash ADC and on FPGAs, delivering the processed data to 1.3 Gb/s optical links. The article will describe all these aspects and will outline future perspectives of the card for next generation high energy physics experiments.

  2. The new ATLAS/LUCID detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruschi, Marco [INFN, Bologna, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    The new ATLAS luminosity monitor has many innovative aspects implemented. Its photomultipliers tubes are used as detector elements by using the Cherenkov light produced by charged particles above threshold crossing the quartz windows. The analog shaping of the readout chain has been improved, in order to cope with the 25 ns bunch spacing of the LHC machine. The main readout card is a quite general processing unit based on 12 bit - 500 MS/s Flash ADC and on FPGAs, delivering the processed data to 1.3 Gb/s optical links. The article will describe all these aspects and will outline future perspectives of the card for next generation high energy physics experiments. (authors)

  3. Absolute efficiency measurements with the {sup 10}B based Jalousie detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modzel, G., E-mail: modzel@physi.uni-heidelberg [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, Neuenheimer Feld 226, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Henske, M. [CDT CASCADE Detector Technologies GmbH, Hans-Bunte-Str. 8–10, 69123 Heidelberg (Germany); Houben, A. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Landoltweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Klein, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, Neuenheimer Feld 226, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); CDT CASCADE Detector Technologies GmbH, Hans-Bunte-Str. 8–10, 69123 Heidelberg (Germany); Köhli, M.; Lennert, P. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, Neuenheimer Feld 226, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Meven, M. [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), 85747 Garching (Germany); Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS), Outstation at MLZ, 85747 Garching (Germany); Schmidt, C.J. [CDT CASCADE Detector Technologies GmbH, Hans-Bunte-Str. 8–10, 69123 Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Detector Laboratory, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Schmidt, U. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, Neuenheimer Feld 226, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schweika, W. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS), 52425 Jülich (Germany); European Spallation Source ESS AB, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-04-11

    The {sup 10}B based Jalousie detector is a replacement for {sup 3}He counter tubes, which are nowadays less affordable for large area detectors due to the {sup 3}He crisis. In this paper we investigate and verify the performance of the new {sup 10}B based detector concept and its adoption for the POWTEX diffractometer, which is designed for the detection of thermal neutrons with predicted detection efficiencies of 75–50% for neutron energies of 10–100 meV, respectively. The predicted detection efficiency has been verified by absolute measurements using neutrons with a wavelength of 1.17 Å (59 meV)

  4. FIR Detectors/Cameras Based on GaN and Si Field-Effect Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SETI proposes to develop GaN and Si based multicolor FIR/THz cameras with detector elements and readout, signal processing electronics integrated on a single chip....

  5. Image-based spectral distortion correction for photon-counting x-ray detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Huanjun; Molloi, Sabee

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using an image-based method to correct for distortions induced by various artifacts in the x-ray spectrum recorded with photon-counting detectors for their application in breast computed tomography (CT).

  6. End-view of the DELPHI detector

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    End-view of the 10-m diameter DELPHI detector at CERN's LEP electron-positron collider from 1989 to 2000. Its concentric modules, including a pioneer large-scale application of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov technique to differentiate between all the various secondary particles, ensure high precision and 'granularity'.

  7. Optimal Filtering Algorithm-Based Multiuser Detector for Fast Fading CDMA Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A multiuser detector was developed for fast fading code-division multiple-access systems by representing the channels as a system with the multiplicative noise (SMN) model and then using the known optimal filtering algorithm for the SMN for multiuser detection (MUD). This multiuser detector allows the channel response to be stochastic in one symbol duration, which can be regarded as an effective method of MUD for fast fading CDMA systems. Performance analyses show that the multiuser detector is theoretically valid for CDMA systems over fast fading channels. Simulations show that the multiuser detector performs better than the Kalman filter-based multiuser detector with a faster convergence rate and lower bit error rate.

  8. Design of wavelet-based ECG detector for implantable cardiac pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Young-Jae; Kim, Hoon-Ki; Kang, Yu-Ri; Kim, Gil-Su; Park, Jongsun; Kim, Soo-Won

    2013-08-01

    A wavelet Electrocardiogram (ECG) detector for low-power implantable cardiac pacemakers is presented in this paper. The proposed wavelet-based ECG detector consists of a wavelet decomposer with wavelet filter banks, a QRS complex detector of hypothesis testing with wavelet-demodulated ECG signals, and a noise detector with zero-crossing points. In order to achieve high detection accuracy with low power consumption, a multi-scaled product algorithm and soft-threshold algorithm are efficiently exploited in our ECG detector implementation. Our algorithmic and architectural level approaches have been implemented and fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The testchip including a low-power analog-to-digital converter (ADC) shows a low detection error-rate of 0.196% and low power consumption of 19.02 μW with a 3 V supply voltage.

  9. Influence of field effect on the performance of InGaAs-based terahertz radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Minkevičius, Linas; Kojelis, Martynas; Žąsinas, Ernestas; Bukauskas, Virginijus; Šetkus, Arūnas; Kašalynas, Irmantas; Valušis, Gintaras

    2016-01-01

    Detailed electric characterization of high-performance InGaAs-based terahertz radiation detectors and corresponding simulation results are presented. The local surface potential and tunneling current were scanned on the surface of detectors by Kelvin probe force microscope (KPFM) and scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and a position of the Fermi level was obtained from these experiments. Current-voltage curves were measured and modelled using Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD package to get a better insight of processes happening within the detector. In addition, finite-difference time-domain simulations were performed to reveal the peculiarities of electric field concentration by the metal contacts of the detectors. Results of our investigation confirm, that field-effect induced conductivity modulation is a possible contributing mechanism to high sensitivity of the detectors.

  10. An InGrid based Low Energy X-ray Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, Christoph; Kaminski, Jochen; Lupberger, Michael; Vafeiadis, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    An X-ray detector based on the combination of an integrated Micromegas stage with a pixel chip has been built in order to be installed at the CERN Axion Solar Telescope. Due to its high granularity and spatial resolution this detector allows for a topological background suppression along with a detection threshold below $1\\,\\text{keV}$. Tests at the CAST Detector Lab show the detector's ability to detect X-ray photons down to an energy as low as $277\\,\\text{eV}$. The first background data taken after the installation at the CAST experiment underline the detector's performance with an average background rate of $5\\times10^{-5}\\,/\\text{keV}/\\text{cm}^2/\\text{s}$ between 2 and $10\\,\\text{keV}$ when using a lead shielding.

  11. An Innovative Workspace for The Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Alessandro; Becchini, Ugo; Massimino, Piero; Riggi, Simone; Sanchez, David; Vitello, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an initiative to build the next generation, ground-based gamma-ray observatories. We present a prototype workspace developed at INAF that aims at providing innovative solutions for the CTA community. The workspace leverages open source technologies providing web access to a set of tools widely used by the CTA community. Two different user interaction models, connected to an authentication and authorization infrastructure, have been implemented in this workspace. The first one is a workflow management system accessed via a science gateway (based on the Liferay platform) and the second one is an interactive virtual desktop environment. The integrated workflow system allows to run applications used in astronomy and physics researches into distributed computing infrastructures (ranging from clusters to grids and clouds). The interactive desktop environment allows to use many software packages without any installation on local desktops exploiting their native graphical user i...

  12. Measurement of the atmospheric muon flux with the ANTARES detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bazzotti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    ANTARES is a submarine neutrino telescope deployed in the Mediterranean Sea, at a depth of about 2500 m. It consists of a three-dimensional array of photomultiplier tubes that can detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles produced in the interactions of neutrinos with the surrounding medium. Down-going muons produced in atmospheric showers are a physical background to the neutrino detection, and are being studied. In this paper the measurement of the Depth Intensity Relation (DIR) of atmospheric muon flux is presented. The data collected in June and July 2007, when the ANTARES detector was in its 5-line configuration, are used in the analysis. The corresponding livetime is $724 h$. A deconvolution method based on a Bayesian approach was developed, which takes into account detector and reconstruction inefficiencies. Comparison with other experimental results and Monte Carlo expectations are presented and discussed.

  13. Recent results on aerogel development for use in Cherenkov counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilyuk, A.F. E-mail: danilyuk@catalysis.nsk.su; Kirillov, V.L.; Savelieva, M.D.; Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Buzykaev, A.R.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Lavrov, A.V.; Onuchin, A.P

    2002-11-21

    Synthesis of silica aerogel for Cherenkov counters is being studied for more than 10 years at the Boreskov Institute of Catalysis in collaboration with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. Index of refraction, light scattering length and light absorption length are optical characteristics which determine the quality of aerogel Cherenkov counter. These parameters were measured for the aerogel produced. The results are presented.

  14. Recent results on aerogel development for use in Cherenkov counters

    CERN Document Server

    Danilyuk, A F; Savelieva, M D; Bobrovnikov, V S; Buzykaev, A R; Kravchenko, E A; Lavrov, A V; Onuchin, A P

    2002-01-01

    Synthesis of silica aerogel for Cherenkov counters is being studied for more than 10 years at the Boreskov Institute of Catalysis in collaboration with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. Index of refraction, light scattering length and light absorption length are optical characteristics which determine the quality of aerogel Cherenkov counter. These parameters were measured for the aerogel produced. The results are presented.

  15. Camera Development for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Roberto Jose

    2017-01-01

    With the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the very-high-energy gamma-ray universe, between 30 GeV and 300 TeV, will be probed at an unprecedented resolution, allowing deeper studies of known gamma-ray emitters and the possible discovery of new ones. This exciting project could also confirm the particle nature of dark matter by looking for the gamma rays produced by self-annihilating weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). The telescopes will use the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique (IACT) to record Cherenkov photons that are produced by the gamma-ray induced extensive air shower. One telescope design features dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) optics that allows the light to be finely focused on the high-resolution silicon photomultipliers of the camera modules starting from a 9.5-meter primary mirror. Each camera module will consist of a focal plane module and front-end electronics, and will have four TeV Array Readout with GSa/s Sampling and Event Trigger (TARGET) chips, giving them 64 parallel input channels. The TARGET chip has a self-trigger functionality for readout that can be used in higher logic across camera modules as well as across individual telescopes, which will each have 177 camera modules. There will be two sites, one in the northern and the other in the southern hemisphere, for full sky coverage, each spanning at least one square kilometer. A prototype SC telescope is currently under construction at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Arizona. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's REU program through NSF award AST-1560016.

  16. HgZnTe-based detectors for LWIR NASA applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Elizabeth A.; Kalisher, Murray H.

    1990-01-01

    The initial goal was to grow and characterize HgZnTe and determine if it indeed had the advantageous properties that were predicted. Researchers grew both bulk and liquid phase epitaxial HgZnTe. It was determined that HgZnTe had the following properties: (1) microhardness at least 50 percent greater than HgCdTe of equivalent bandgap; (2) Hg annealing rates of at least 2 to 4 times longer than HgCdTe; and (3) higher Hg vacancy formation energies. This early work did not focus on one specific composition (x-value) of HgZnTe since NASA was interested in HgZnTe's potential for a variety of applications. Since the beginning of 1989, researchers have been concentrating, however, on the liquid phase growth of very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) HgZnTe (cutoff approx. equals 17 microns at 65K) to address the requirements of the Earth Observing System (EOS). Since there are no device models to predict the advantages in reliability one can gain with increased microhardness, surface stability, etc., one must fabricate HgZnTe detectors and assess their relative bake stability (accelerated life test behavior) compared with HgCdTe devices fabricated in the same manner. Researchers chose to fabricate HIT detectors as a development vehicle for this program because high performance in the VLWIR has been demonstrated with HgCdTe HIT detectors and the HgCdTe HIT process should be applicable to HgZnTe. HIT detectors have a significant advantage for satellite applications since these devices dissipate much less power than conventional photoconductors to achieve the same responsivity.

  17. The Cherenkov Telescope Array Large Size Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosi, G; Baba, H; Bamba, A; Barceló, M; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; Bigas, O Blanch; Boix, J; Brunetti, L; Carmona, E; Chabanne, E; Chikawa, M; Colin, P; Conteras, J L; Cortina, J; Dazzi, F; Deangelis, A; Deleglise, G; Delgado, C; Díaz, C; Dubois, F; Fiasson, A; Fink, D; Fouque, N; Freixas, L; Fruck, C; Gadola, A; García, R; Gascon, D; Geffroy, N; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Grañena, F; Gunji, S; Hagiwara, R; Hamer, N; Hanabata, Y; Hassan, T; Hatanaka, K; Haubold, T; Hayashida, M; Hermel, R; Herranz, D; Hirotani, K; Inoue, S; Inoue, Y; Ioka, K; Jablonski, C; Kagaya, M; Katagiri, H; Kishimoto, T; Kodani, K; Kohri, K; Konno, Y; Koyama, S; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; Lamanna, G; Flour, T Le; López-Moya, M; López, R; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Manalaysay, A; Mariotti, M; Martínez, G; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Monteiro, I; Moralejo, A; Murase, K; Nagataki, S; Nakajima, D; Nakamori, T; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Nozato, A; Ohira, Y; Ohishi, M; Ohoka, H; Okumura, A; Orito, R; Panazol, J L; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pauletta, G; Podkladkin, S; Prast, J; Rando, R; Reimann, O; Ribó, M; Rosier-Lees, S; Saito, K; Saito, T; Saito, Y; Sakaki, N; Sakonaka, R; Sanuy, A; Sasaki, H; Sawada, M; Scalzotto, V; Schultz, S; Schweizer, T; Shibata, T; Shu, S; Sieiro, J; Stamatescu, V; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Sugawara, R; Tajima, H; Takami, H; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, M; Tejedor, L A; Terada, Y; Teshima, M; Totani, T; Ueno, H; Umehara, K; Vollhardt, A; Wagner, R; Wetteskind, H; Yamamoto, T; Yamazaki, R; Yoshida, A; Yoshida, T; Yoshikoshi, T

    2013-01-01

    The two arrays of the Very High Energy gamma-ray observatory Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will include four Large Size Telescopes (LSTs) each with a 23 m diameter dish and 28 m focal distance. These telescopes will enable CTA to achieve a low-energy threshold of 20 GeV, which is critical for important studies in astrophysics, astroparticle physics and cosmology. This work presents the key specifications and performance of the current LST design in the light of the CTA scientific objectives.

  18. The AMS-01 Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barancourt, D.; Barao, F.; Barbier, G.; Barreira, G.; Buenerd, M.; Castellini, G.; Choumilov, E.; Favier, J.; Fouque, N.; Gougas, A.; Hermel, V.; Kossakowski, R.; Laborie, G.; Laurenti, G.; Lee, S.-C.; Mayet, F. E-mail: frederic.mayet@isn.in2p3.fr; Meillon, B.; Oyang, Y.-T.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Rossin, C.; Santos, D.; Vezzu, F.; Vialle, J.P

    2001-06-11

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer in a precursor version (AMS-01), was flown in June 1998 on a 51.6 deg. orbit and at altitudes ranging between 320 and 390 km, on board of the space shuttle Discovery (flight STS-91). AMS-01 included an Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter (ATC) to separate p-bar from e{sup -} and e{sup +} from p, for momenta below 3.5 GeV/c. This paper presents a description of the ATC counter and reports on its performances during the flight STS-91.

  19. The AMS-01 Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter

    CERN Document Server

    Barancourt, D; Barbier, G; Barreira, G; Buénerd, M; Castellini, G; Choumilov, E; Favier, Jean; Fouque, N; Gougas, Andreas; Hermel, V; Kossakowski, R; Laborie, G; Laurenti, G; Lee, S C; Mayet, F; Meillon, B; Oyang, J Y T; Plyaskin, V; Pozhidaev, V; Rossin, C; Santos, D; Vezzu, F; Vialle, J P

    2001-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer in a precursor version (AMS-01), was flown in June 1998 on a 51.6 degrees orbit and at altitudes ranging between 320 and 390 km, on board of the space shuttle Discovery (flight STS-91). AMS-01 included an Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter (ATC) to separate antiprotons from electrons and positrons from protons, for momenta below 3.5 GeV/c. This paper presents a description of the ATC counter and reports on its performances during the flight STS-91.

  20. Atmospheric Cherenkov Gamma-ray Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Holder, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    The stereoscopic imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique, developed in the 1980s and 1990s, is now used by a number of existing and planned gamma-ray observatories around the world. It provides the most sensitive view of the very high energy gamma-ray sky (above 30 GeV), coupled with relatively good angular and spectral resolution over a wide field-of-view. This Chapter summarizes the details of the technique, including descriptions of the telescope optical systems and cameras, as well as the most common approaches to data analysis and gamma-ray reconstruction.

  1. Novel Boron-10-based detectors for Neutron Scattering Science

    CERN Document Server

    Piscitelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays neutron scattering science is increasing its instrumental power. Most of the neutron sources in the world are pushing the development of their technologies to be more performing. The neutron scattering development is also pushed by the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Sweden, a neutron facility which has just started construction. Concerning small area detectors (1m^2), the 3He technology, which is today cutting edge, is reaching fundamental limits in its development. Counting rate capability, spatial resolution and cost-e?ectiveness, are only a few examples of the features that must be improved to ful?fill the new requirements. On the other hand, 3He technology could still satisfy the detector requirements for large area applications (50m^2), however, because of the present 3He shortage that the world is experiencing, this is not practical anymore. The recent detector advances (the Multi-Grid and the Multi-Blade prototypes) developed in the framework of the collaboration between the Institut Laue...

  2. Latest news from the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Muñoz, A.; HAWC Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory is an air shower detector designed to study very-high-energy gamma rays (˜ 100 GeV to ˜ 100 TeV). It is located in the Pico de Orizaba National Park, Mexico, at an elevation of 4100 m. HAWC started operations since August 2013 with 111 tanks and in April of 2015 the 300 tanks array was completed. HAWC's unique capabilities, with a field of view of ˜ 2 sr and a high duty cycle of 5%, allow it to survey 2/3 of the sky every day. These features makes HAWC an excellent instrument for searching new TeV sources and for the detection of transient events, like gamma-ray bursts. Moreover, HAWC provides almost continuous monitoring of already known sources with variable gamma-ray fluxes in most of the northern and part of the southern sky. These observations will bring new information about the acceleration processes that take place in astrophysical environments. In this contribution, some of the latest scientific results of the observatory will be presented.

  3. CALDER: neutrinoless double-beta decay identification in TeO{sub 2} bolometers with kinetic inductance detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battistelli, E. S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome (Italy); Bellini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Bucci, C. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); Calvo, M. [Institut Néel, CNRS, Saint-Martin-d’Héres (France); Cardani, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome (Italy); Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Casali, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Castellano, M. G. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR, Rome (Italy); Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome (Italy); Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A.; Bernardis, P. de [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Di Domizio, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova, Genoa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); D’Addabbo, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); Martinez, M.; Masi, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Pagnanini, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); INFN Gran Sasso Science Institute, L’Aquila (Italy); Tomei, C. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Vignati, M., E-mail: marco.vignati@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2015-07-31

    Next-generation experiments searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay must be sensitive to a Majorana neutrino mass as low as 10 meV. CUORE , an array of 988 TeO{sub 2} bolometers being commissioned at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, features an expected sensitivity of 50–130 meV at 90 % C.L. The background is expected to be dominated by α radioactivity, and can be in principle removed by detecting the small amount of Cherenkov light emitted by the β signal. The Cryogenic wide-Area Light Detectors with Excellent Resolution project aims at developing a small prototype experiment consisting of TeO{sub 2} bolometers coupled to high-sensitivity light detectors based on kinetic inductance detectors. The R&D is focused on the light detectors in view of the implementation in a next-generation neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment.

  4. CALDER: neutrinoless double-beta decay identification in TeO{sub 2} bolometers with kinetic inductance detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battistelli, E.S.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A.; De Bernardis, P.; Martinez, M.; Masi, S.; Vignati, M. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Bucci, C.; D' Addabbo, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); Calvo, M. [CNRS, Institut Neel, Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France); Cardani, L. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Princeton University, Physics Department, NJ (United States); Castellano, M.G. [CNR, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Rome (Italy); Di Domizio, S. [Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Pagnanini, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); INFN Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Tomei, C. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Next-generation experiments searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay must be sensitive to a Majorana neutrino mass as low as 10 meV. CUORE, an array of 988 TeO{sub 2} bolometers being commissioned at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, features an expected sensitivity of 50- 130 meV at 90 % C.L. The background is expected to be dominated by α radioactivity, and can be in principle removed by detecting the small amount of Cherenkov light emitted by the β signal. The Cryogenic wide-Area Light Detectors with Excellent Resolution project aims at developing a small prototype experiment consisting of TeO{sub 2} bolometers coupled to high-sensitivity light detectors based on kinetic inductance detectors. The R and D is focused on the light detectors in view of the implementation in a next-generation neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. (orig.)

  5. A GEM-based dose imaging detector with optical readout for proton radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyachko, A.V., E-mail: aklyachk@indiana.edu [Indiana University Cyclotron Operations, Indiana University Integrated Science and Accelerator Technology Hall, 2401 Milo. B. Sampson Ln., Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Moskvin, V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Nichiporov, D.F.; Solberg, K.A. [Indiana University Cyclotron Operations, Indiana University Integrated Science and Accelerator Technology Hall, 2401 Milo. B. Sampson Ln., Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    New techniques in proton radiation therapy and advances in beam delivery systems design such as beam scanning require accurate 2D dosimetry systems to verify the delivered dose distribution. Dose imaging detectors based on gas electron multipliers (GEMs) are capable of providing high sensitivity, improved dose measurement linearity, position resolution, fast response and accurate characterization of depth-dose distributions. In this work, we report on the development of a GEM-based dose imaging detector with optical readout using a CCD camera. A 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2} detector has been tested in a 205 MeV proton beam in single- and double-GEM configurations. The detector demonstrates linearity in dose rate up to 100 Gy/min and position resolution ({sigma}) of 0.42 mm. Transverse non-uniformity of the detector response is {<=}10% before correction and the stability of the detector output throughout the day is within {+-}1%, with day-to-day reproducibility of about 10%. The depth-dose response of the detector is close to that of a wide-aperture air-filled ionization chamber and is in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations.

  6. Experimental and theoretical performance analysis for a CMOS-based high resolution image detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-19

    Increasing complexity of endovascular interventional procedures requires superior x-ray imaging quality. Present state-of-the-art x-ray imaging detectors may not be adequate due to their inherent noise and resolution limitations. With recent developments, CMOS based detectors are presenting an option to fulfill the need for better image quality. For this work, a new CMOS detector has been analyzed experimentally and theoretically in terms of sensitivity, MTF and DQE. The detector (Dexela Model 1207, Perkin-Elmer Co., London, UK) features 14-bit image acquisition, a CsI phosphor, 75 µm pixels and an active area of 12 cm × 7 cm with over 30 fps frame rate. This detector has two modes of operations with two different full-well capacities: high and low sensitivity. The sensitivity and instrumentation noise equivalent exposure (INEE) were calculated for both modes. The detector modulation-transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectra (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were measured using an RQA5 spectrum. For the theoretical performance evaluation, a linear cascade model with an added aliasing stage was used. The detector showed excellent linearity in both modes. The sensitivity and the INEE of the detector were found to be 31.55 DN/µR and 0.55 µR in high sensitivity mode, while they were 9.87 DN/µR and 2.77 µR in low sensitivity mode. The theoretical and experimental values for the MTF and DQE showed close agreement with good DQE even at fluoroscopic exposure levels. In summary, the Dexela detector's imaging performance in terms of sensitivity, linear system metrics, and INEE demonstrates that it can overcome the noise and resolution limitations of present state-of-the-art x-ray detectors.

  7. Experimental and theoretical performance analysis for a CMOS-based high resolution image detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Increasing complexity of endovascular interventional procedures requires superior x-ray imaging quality. Present stateof- the-art x-ray imaging detectors may not be adequate due to their inherent noise and resolution limitations. With recent developments, CMOS based detectors are presenting an option to fulfill the need for better image quality. For this work, a new CMOS detector has been analyzed experimentally and theoretically in terms of sensitivity, MTF and DQE. The detector (Dexela Model 1207, Perkin-Elmer Co., London, UK) features 14-bit image acquisition, a CsI phosphor, 75 μm pixels and an active area of 12 cm x 7 cm with over 30 fps frame rate. This detector has two modes of operations with two different full-well capacities: high and low sensitivity. The sensitivity and instrumentation noise equivalent exposure (INEE) were calculated for both modes. The detector modulation-transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectra (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were measured using an RQA5 spectrum. For the theoretical performance evaluation, a linear cascade model with an added aliasing stage was used. The detector showed excellent linearity in both modes. The sensitivity and the INEE of the detector were found to be 31.55 DN/μR and 0.55 μR in high sensitivity mode, while they were 9.87 DN/μR and 2.77 μR in low sensitivity mode. The theoretical and experimental values for the MTF and DQE showed close agreement with good DQE even at fluoroscopic exposure levels. In summary, the Dexela detector's imaging performance in terms of sensitivity, linear system metrics, and INEE demonstrates that it can overcome the noise and resolution limitations of present state-of-the-art x-ray detectors.

  8. Coherent Cherenkov radiation as an intense THz source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleko, V.; Karataev, P.; Konkov, A.; Kruchinin, K.; Naumenko, G.; Potylitsyn, A.; Vaughan, T.

    2016-07-01

    Diffraction and Cherenkov radiation of relativistic electrons from a dielectric target has been proposed as mechanism for production of intense terahertz (THz) radiation. The use of an extremely short high-energy electron beam of a 4th generation light source (X-ray free electron laser) appears to be very promising. A moderate power from the electron beam can be extracted and converted into THz radiation with nearly zero absorption losses. The initial experiment on THz observation will be performed at CLARA/VELA FEL test facility in the UK to demonstrate the principle to a wider community and to develop the radiator prototype. In this paper, we present our theoretical predictions (based on the approach of polarization currents), which provides the basis for interpreting the future experimental measurements. We will also present our hardware design and discuss a plan of the future experiment.

  9. Data model issues in the Cherenkov Telescope Array project

    CERN Document Server

    Contreras, J L; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Bregeon, J; Bulgarelli, A; de Cesare, G; Reyes, R de los; Fioretti, V; Kosack, K; Lavalley, C; Lyard, E; Marx, R; Rico, J; Sanguillot, M; Servillat, M; Walter, R; Ward, J E

    2015-01-01

    The planned Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a future ground-based Very-High-Energy (VHE) gamma-ray observatory, will be the largest project of its kind. It aims to provide an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity compared to currently operating VHE experiments and open access to guest observers. These features, together with the thirty years lifetime planned for the installation, impose severe constraints on the data model currently being developed for the project. In this contribution we analyze the challenges faced by the CTA data model development and present the requirements imposed to face them. While the full data model is still not completed we show the organization of the work, status of the design, and an overview of the prototyping efforts carried out so far. We also show examples of specific aspects of the data model currently under development.

  10. Building Medium Size Telescope Structures for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, A; Oakes, L; Schlenstedt, S; Schwanke, U

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the future instrument in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range from 20 GeV to 300 TeV. Its sensitivity will surpass that of current generation experiments by a factor $\\sim$10, facilitated by telescopes of three sizes. The performance in the core energy regime will be dominated by Medium Size Telescopes (MST) with a reflector of 12 m diameter. A full-size mechanical prototype of the telescope structure has been constructed in Berlin. The performance of the prototype is being evaluated and optimisations, among others, facilitating the assembly procedure and mass production possibilities are being implemented. We present the current status of the developments from prototyping towards pre-production telescopes, which will be deployed at the final site.

  11. FACT: Towards Robotic Operation of an Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Biland, A; Backes, M; Boccone, V; Braun, I; Bretz, T; Buss, J; Cadoux, F; Commichau, V; Djambazov, L; Dorner, D; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Gendotti, A; Grimm, O; von Gunten, H; Haller, C; Hildebrand, D; Horisberger, U; Huber, B; Kim, K -S; Knoetig, M L; Koehne, J -H; Kraehenbuehl, T; Krumm, B; Lee, M; Lorenz, E; Lustermann, W; Lyard, E; Mannheim, K; Meharga, M; Meier, K; Montaruli, T; Neise, D; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Overkemping, A -K; Paravac, A; Pauss, F; Renker, D; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Roeser, U; Stucki, J -P; Schneider, J; Steinbring, T; Temme, F; Thaele, J; Tobler, S; Viertel, G; Vogler, P; Walter, R; Warda, K; Weitzel, Q; Zaenglein, M

    2013-01-01

    The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) became operational at La Palma in October 2011. Since summer 2012, due to very smooth and stable operation, it is the first telescope of its kind that is routinely operated from remote, without the need for a data-taking crew on site. In addition, many standard tasks of operation are executed automatically without the need for manual interaction. Based on the experience gained so far, some alterations to improve the safety of the system are under development to allow robotic operation in the future. We present the setup and precautions used to implement remote operations and the experience gained so far, as well as the work towards robotic operation.

  12. The RICH2 detector took its place in the LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb's RICH2 detector, the larger of two Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors, has been successfully installed at the site of the LHCb experiment. A delicate and complex operation that had taken place during night and day finished on Saturday 19th November at 6 pm, when the RICH2 detector took its place in the LHCb experiment.

  13. Robust PCA-Based Abnormal Traffic Flow Pattern Isolation and Loop Detector Fault Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xuexiang; ZHANG Yi; LI Li; HU Jianming

    2008-01-01

    One key function of intelligent transportation systems is to automatically detect abnormal traffic phenomena and to help further investigations of the cause of the abnormality. This paper describes a robust principal components analysis (RPCA)-based abnormal traffic flow pattern isolation and loop detector fault detection method. The results show that RPCA is a useful tool to distinguish regular traffic flow from abnor-mal traffic flow patterns caused by accidents and loop detector faults. This approach gives an effective traffic flow data pre-processing method to reduce the human effort in finding potential loop detector faults. The method can also be used to further investigate the causes of the abnormality.

  14. Detector block based on arrays of 144 SiPMs and monolithic scintillators: A performance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, A.J.; Conde, P.; Iborra, A. [Institute for Instrumentation in Molecular Imaging (I3M), Universidad Politécnica de Valencia – CSIC – CIEMAT (Spain); Aguilar, A. [Communications and Digital Systems Design Group (DSDC), Universidad de Valencia (Spain); Bellido, P. [Institute for Instrumentation in Molecular Imaging (I3M), Universidad Politécnica de Valencia – CSIC – CIEMAT (Spain); García-Olcina, R. [Communications and Digital Systems Design Group (DSDC), Universidad de Valencia (Spain); Hernández, L.; Moliner, L.; Rigla, J.P.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, M.J.; Sánchez, F.; Seimetz, M.; Soriano, A. [Institute for Instrumentation in Molecular Imaging (I3M), Universidad Politécnica de Valencia – CSIC – CIEMAT (Spain); Torres, J. [Communications and Digital Systems Design Group (DSDC), Universidad de Valencia (Spain); Vidal, L.F.; Benlloch, J.M. [Institute for Instrumentation in Molecular Imaging (I3M), Universidad Politécnica de Valencia – CSIC – CIEMAT (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a detector block composed by a monolithic LYSO scintillator coupled to a custom made 12×12 SiPMs array. The design is mainly focused to applications such as Positron Emission Tomography. The readout electronics is based on 3 identical and scalable Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC). We have determined the main performance of the detector block namely spatial, energy, and time resolution but also the system capability to determine the photon depth of interaction, for different crystal surface treatments. Intrinsic detector spatial resolution values as good as 1.7 mm FWHM and energies of 15% for black painted crystals were measured.

  15. The RICH detectors of the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Perego, D L

    2009-01-01

    The status of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) system of the LHCb experiment is presented. The commissioning of both RICH detectors is in an advanced phase and they are ready to take data at the start–up of the Large Hadron Collider. The detectors provide essential contributions to the LHCb physics program. The expected performance of the RICH system, the pattern recognition and the particle identification is discussed.

  16. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  17. Proton recoil telescope based on diamond detectors for measurement of fusion neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Caiffi, B; Ripani, M; Pillon, M; Taiuti, M

    2015-01-01

    Diamonds are very promising candidates for the neutron diagnostics in harsh environments such as fusion reactor. In the first place this is because of their radiation hardness, exceeding that of Silicon by an order of magnitude. Also, in comparison to the standard on-line neutron diagnostics (fission chambers, silicon based detectors, scintillators), diamonds are less sensitive to $\\gamma$ rays, which represent a huge background in fusion devices. Finally, their low leakage current at high temperature suppresses the detector intrinsic noise. In this talk a CVD diamond based detector has been proposed for the measurement of the 14 MeV neutrons from D-T fusion reaction. The detector was arranged in a proton recoil telescope configuration, featuring a plastic converter in front of the sensitive volume in order to induce the (n,p) reaction. The segmentation of the sensitive volume, achieved by using two crystals, allowed to perform measurements in coincidence, which suppressed the neutron elastic scattering backg...

  18. Novel ultrasound detector based on small slot micro-ring resonator with ultrahigh Q factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Senlin; Chen, Jian; He, Sailing

    2017-01-01

    An ultrasound detector based on a novel slot micro-ring resonator (SMRR) with ultrahigh Q factor and small size is proposed in this study. The theoretical Q factor of SMRR can be approximately 8.34×108 with bending radius of merely 12 μm. The ultrahigh Q factor leads to an enhanced sensitivity that is approximately two orders of that of state-of-the-art ultrasound detector based on polymer micro-ring resonator. Moreover, the 3 dB bandwidth of the ultrasound detector is approximately 540 MHz, thereby leading to an ultrahigh axial resolution of 1.2 μm. The proposed detector is also CMOS compatible and can be easily and extensively integrated to be maximized in photoacoustic microscopy.

  19. High dynamic range CMOS-based mammography detector for FFDM and DBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Inge M.; Smit, Chiel; Miller, James J.; Lomako, Andrey

    2016-03-01

    Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) requires excellent image quality in a dynamic mode at very low dose levels while Full Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) is a static imaging modality that requires high saturation dose levels. These opposing requirements can only be met by a dynamic detector with a high dynamic range. This paper will discuss a wafer-scale CMOS-based mammography detector with 49.5 μm pixels and a CsI scintillator. Excellent image quality is obtained for FFDM as well as DBT applications, comparing favorably with a-Se detectors that dominate the X-ray mammography market today. The typical dynamic range of a mammography detector is not high enough to accommodate both the low noise and the high saturation dose requirements for DBT and FFDM applications, respectively. An approach based on gain switching does not provide the signal-to-noise benefits in the low-dose DBT conditions. The solution to this is to add frame summing functionality to the detector. In one X-ray pulse several image frames will be acquired and summed. The requirements to implement this into a detector are low noise levels, high frame rates and low lag performance, all of which are unique characteristics of CMOS detectors. Results are presented to prove that excellent image quality is achieved, using a single detector for both DBT as well as FFDM dose conditions. This method of frame summing gave the opportunity to optimize the detector noise and saturation level for DBT applications, to achieve high DQE level at low dose, without compromising the FFDM performance.

  20. TORCH: A Large-Area Detector for Precision Time-of-Flight Measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Harnew, N

    2012-01-01

    The TORCH (Time Of internally Reflected CHerenkov light) is an innovative high-precision time-of-flight detector which is suitable for large areas, up to tens of square metres, and is being developed for the upgraded LHCb experiment. The TORCH provides a time-of-flight measurement from the imaging of photons emitted in a 1 cm thick quartz radiator, based on the Cherenkov principle. The photons propagate by total internal reflection to the edge of the quartz plane and are then focused onto an array of Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) photon detectors at the periphery of the detector. The goal is to achieve a timing resolution of 15 ps per particle over a flight distance of 10 m. This will allow particle identification in the challenging momentum region up to 20 GeV/c. Commercial MCPs have been tested in the laboratory and demonstrate the required timing precision. An electronics readout system based on the NINO and HPTDC chipset is being developed to evaluate an 8×8 channel TORCH prototype. The simulated performance...

  1. The role of space charge in GaAs-based particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mares, J J; Hubik, P; Pospísil, S

    1999-01-01

    The direct measurement of the captured charge using the Faraday cup method together with the analysis of current-voltage curves was used for the experimental proof of the existence of the space charge in biased GaAs detector structures. The role of this space charge was discussed using the generalized Ramo-Gunn's theorem which enabled the explanation of the data observed and, moreover, provides a useful criterion for the optimization of GaAs-based particle detectors. (author)

  2. New scintillating media based on liquid crystals for particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Barnik, M I; Vasilchenko, V G; Golovkin, S V; Medvedkov, A M; Soloviev, A S

    2000-01-01

    The study results of optical, photoluminiscent and scintillation properties of a liquid crystal 4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl are presented. The scintillation light output of this liquid crystal is about 35% of crystal anthracene, its main decay time constants are 4 and 14 ns, and the maximum of light emission spectrum is about 400 nm. The light output of a dissolution of green emitting light scintillation dopant R6 in the liquid crystal is about 120% of crystal anthracene. The light output of the frozen dissolution measured at -112 deg. C is about 2.5 times higher as observed at +20 deg. C. In the uniaxially oriented liquid crystal, the predominant intensity direction of emitted light is pointed perpendicular to the liquid crystal director and an appreciable part of the emitted light is elliptically polarized. The possibility to use scintillation properties of liquid crystals is considered both for the improvement of existing particle detector characteristics and for the creation of new gated particle detectors.

  3. Neutron detectors based on CMOS solid state photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Radia; Christian, James F.; Stapels, Christopher J.; Prettyman, Thomas; Squillante, Michael R.

    2008-08-01

    CMOS solid-state photomultipliers (CMOS-SSPM) are new, potentially very inexpensive, photodetectors that have the promise of supplanting photomultiplier tubes and standard photodiodes for many nuclear radiation detection measurements using scintillator crystals. The compact size and very high gain make SSPMs attractive for use in applications where photomultiplier tubes cannot be used and standard photodiodes have insufficient sensitivity. In this effort, the use of SSPMs was investigated for the detection of neutrons with the goal of designing a detector for portable systems that has the capability of discriminating neutrons from gamma rays. The neutron scintillation signatures were measured using boron-loaded plastic scintillators. Our detector concept design incorporates a dual-scintillator design with both a neutrons sensitive organic scintillator (a boron-loaded gel) and a gamma ray sensitive inorganic scintillator (LYSO). Using this design, the gamma ray signal is suppressed and the neutron events are clearly resolved. The design was modeled to optimize the detection efficiency for both thermal and energetic neutrons. In addition, the detection of thermal neutrons in the presence of gamma rays was examined using the SSPM coupled to Cs2LiYCl6:Ce scintillator (CLYC).

  4. New gamma detector modules based on micropixel avalanche photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadov, F.; Ahmadov, G.; Guliyev, E.; Madatov, R.; Sadigov, A.; Sadygov, Z.; Suleymanov, S.; Akberov, R.; Nuriyev, S.; Zerrouk, F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper presented the results of the ionizing radiation detector modules, which developed on the basis of a new generation of micropixel avalanche photodiode (MAPD) of MAPD-3NK type. The samples were produced in cooperation with the Zecotek Photonics and characterized by the following parameters: sensitive area—3.7 mm × 3.7 mm, density of pixels—10000 pixels/mm2, photon detection efficiency—35-40% (at wavelength of 450-550 nm) and operation voltage—91 V. The beta particle and gamma ray detection performance of MAPD with different single scintillation crystal such as NaI, LFS and p-terphenyl was investigated. The gamma ray detector modules demonstrated a perfect linear behavior of detected signal amplitudes as a function of the gamma ray energy (from 26.3 keV up to 1.33 MeV). Energy resolution for 662 keV gamma rays was 11.2% and the minimum detectable energy was 26.3 keV.

  5. Report on the Depth Requirements for a Massive Detector at Homestake

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein, Adam; Blucher, Edward; Cline, David B; Diwan, Milind V; Fleming, Bonnie; Hladysz, Zbigniew J; Kadel, Richard; Kearns, Edward; Klein, Joshua; Lande, Kenneth; Lanni, Francesco; Lissauer, David; Marks, Steve; McKeown, Robert; Morse, William; Rameika, Regina; Roggenthen, William M; Scholberg, Kate; Smy, Michael; Sobel, Henry; Stewart, James; Sullivan, Gregory; Svoboda, Robert; Vagins, Mark; Viren, Brett; Walter, Christopher; Zwaska, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This report provides the technical justification for locating a large detector underground in a US based Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. A large detector with a fiducial mass in the mega-ton scale will most likely be a multipurpose facility. The main physics justification for such a device is detection of accelerator generated neutrinos, nucleon decay, and natural sources of neutrinos such as solar, atmospheric and supernova neutrinos. In addition to the physics justification there are practical issues regarding the existing infrastructure at Homestake, and the stress characteristics of the Homestake rock formations. The depth requirements associated with the various physics processes are reported for water Cherenkov and liquid argon detector technologies. While some of these physics processes can be adequately studied at shallower depths, none of them require a depth greater than 4300 mwe which corresponds to the 4850 ft level at Homestake. It is very important to note that the scale of ...

  6. Design of a 7m Davies-Cotton Cherenkov telescope mount for the high energy section of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Rovero, A C; Vallejo, G; Supanitsky, A D; Actis, M; Botani, A; Ochoa, I; Hughes, G

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array is the next generation ground-based observatory for the study of very-high-energy gamma-rays. It will provide an order of magnitude more sensitivity and greater angular resolution than present systems as well as an increased energy range (20 GeV to 300 TeV). For the high energy portion of this range, a relatively large area has to be covered by the array. For this, the construction of ~7 m diameter Cherenkov telescopes is an option under study. We have proposed an innovative design of a Davies-Cotton mount for such a telescope, within Cherenkov Telescope Array specifications, and evaluated its mechanical and optical performance. The mount is a reticulated-type structure with steel tubes and tensioned wires, designed in three main parts to be assembled on site. In this work we show the structural characteristics of the mount and the optical aberrations at the focal plane for three options of mirror facet size caused by mount deformations due to wind and gravity.

  7. Analogue Sum ASIC for L1 Trigger Decision in Cherenkov Telescope Cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Barrio, Joan Abel; Boix, Joan; Delagnes, Eric; Delgado, Carlos; Coromina, Lluis Freixas; Gascon, David; Guilloux, Fabrice; Coto, Ruben Lopez; Martinez, Gustavo; Sanuy, Andreu; Tejedor, Luis Angel

    2014-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project aims to build the largest ground-based gamma-ray observatory based on an array of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). The CTA will implement a multi-level trigger system to distinguish between gamma ray-like induced showers and background images induced by night sky background (NSB) light. The trigger system is based on coincident detections among pixels (level 0 trigger), clusters of pixels (level 1) or telescopes. In this article, the first version of the application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for Level 1 trigger system is presented, capable of working with different Level 0 strategies and different trigger region sizes. In addition, it complies with all the requirements specified by the CTA project, specially the most critical ones as regards noise, bandwidth, dynamic range and power consumption. All these features make the presented system very suitable for use in the CTA cameras and improve the features of discrete components prototypes of...

  8. On the possiblity of using vertically pointing Central Laser Facilities to calibrate the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Gaug, Markus

    2014-01-01

    A Central Laser Facility is a system composed of a laser placed at a certain distance from a light-detector array, emitting fast light pulses, typically in the vertical direction, with the aim to calibrate that array. During calibration runs, all detectors are pointed towards the same portion of the laser beam at a given altitude. Central Laser Facilities are used for various currently operating ultra-high-energy cosmic ray and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope arrays. In view of the future Cherenkov Telescope Array, a similar device could provide a fast calibration of the whole installation at different wavelengths. The relative precision (i.e. each individual telescope with respect to the rest of the array is expected) to be better than 5%, while an absolute calibration should reach a precisions of 4-11%, if certain design requirements are met. Additionally, a preciser monitoring of the sensitivity of each telescope can be made on time-scales of days to years.

  9. Design of a Cherenkov telescope for the measurement of PCR composition above 1 PeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galkin V I

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of PCR Composition at super high energies is far from being solved.EAS Cherenkov light spatial-angular distribution (CL SAD can yield important information on the primary mass. In order to use EAS CL SAD for the study of PCR composition one needs a set of imaging telescopes with the appropriate parameters supported by a dense net of fast optical detectors capable of measuring EAS Cherenkov light pulses. On the basis of full Monte-Carlo simulations the pixel size of imaging telescopes is optimized for a specific observation level ∼4km which is typical for the Eastern Pamir mountains. Another goal to be pursued by the new detector array is the search for ultra high energy gamma ray sources and this is where the imaging technique can help a lot. A simple criterion is introduced to recognize gamma-quanta against the proton background and its performance, once again analyzed using simulated events, sets certain limits to the pixel size.

  10. Application of GEM-based detectors in full-field XRF imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, W.; Fiutowski, T.; Frączek, P.; Koperny, S.; Lankosz, M.; Mendys, A.; Mindur, B.; Świentek, K.; Wiącek, P.; Wróbel, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) is a commonly used technique for non-destructive elemental analysis of cultural heritage objects. It can be applied to investigations of provenance of historical objects as well as to studies of art techniques. While the XRF analysis can be easily performed locally using standard available equipment there is a growing interest in imaging of spatial distribution of specific elements. Spatial imaging of elemental distrbutions is usually realised by scanning an object with a narrow focused X-ray excitation beam and measuring characteristic fluorescence radiation using a high energy resolution detector, usually a silicon drift detector. Such a technique, called macro-XRF imaging, is suitable for investigation of flat surfaces but it is time consuming because the spatial resolution is basically determined by the spot size of the beam. Another approach is the full-field XRF, which is based on simultaneous irradiation and imaging of large area of an object. The image of the investigated area is projected by a pinhole camera on a position-sensitive and energy dispersive detector. The infinite depth of field of the pinhole camera allows one, in principle, investigation of non-flat surfaces. One of possible detectors to be employed in full-field XRF imaging is a GEM based detector with 2-dimensional readout. In the paper we report on development of an imaging system equipped with a standard 3-stage GEM detector of 10 × 10 cm2 equipped with readout electronics based on dedicated full-custom ASICs and DAQ system. With a demonstrator system we have obtained 2-D spatial resolution of the order of 100 μm and energy resolution at a level of 20% FWHM for 5.9 keV . Limitations of such a detector due to copper fluorescence radiation excited in the copper-clad drift electrode and GEM foils is discussed and performance of the detector using chromium-clad electrodes is reported.

  11. Monte Carlo based performance assessment of different animal PET architectures using pixellated CZT detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visvikis, D. [INSERM U650, LaTIM, University Hospital Medical School, F-29609 Brest (France)]. E-mail: Visvikis.Dimitris@univ-brest.fr; Lefevre, T. [INSERM U650, LaTIM, University Hospital Medical School, F-29609 Brest (France); Lamare, F. [INSERM U650, LaTIM, University Hospital Medical School, F-29609 Brest (France); Kontaxakis, G. [ETSI Telecomunicacion Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, s/n 28040, Madrid (Spain); Santos, A. [ETSI Telecomunicacion Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, s/n 28040, Madrid (Spain); Darambara, D. [Department of Physics, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-20

    The majority of present position emission tomography (PET) animal systems are based on the coupling of high-density scintillators and light detectors. A disadvantage of these detector configurations is the compromise between image resolution, sensitivity and energy resolution. In addition, current combined imaging devices are based on simply placing back-to-back and in axial alignment different apparatus without any significant level of software or hardware integration. The use of semiconductor CdZnTe (CZT) detectors is a promising alternative to scintillators for gamma-ray imaging systems. At the same time CZT detectors have the potential properties necessary for the construction of a truly integrated imaging device (PET/SPECT/CT). The aims of this study was to assess the performance of different small animal PET scanner architectures based on CZT pixellated detectors and compare their performance with that of state of the art existing PET animal scanners. Different scanner architectures were modelled using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). Particular scanner design characteristics included an overall cylindrical scanner format of 8 and 24 cm in axial and transaxial field of view, respectively, and a temporal coincidence window of 8 ns. Different individual detector modules were investigated, considering pixel pitch down to 0.625 mm and detector thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Modified NEMA NU2-2001 protocols were used in order to simulate performance based on mouse, rat and monkey imaging conditions. These protocols allowed us to directly compare the performance of the proposed geometries with the latest generation of current small animal systems. Results attained demonstrate the potential for higher NECR with CZT based scanners in comparison to scintillator based animal systems.

  12. The Photodetector Plane of the 4m Davies Cotton Small Size Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Boccone, V; Basili, A; Christov, A; della Volpe, M; Montaruli, T

    2013-01-01

    Photomultipliers (PMTs) are currently adopted for the photodetector plane of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). Even though PMT quantum efficiency has improved impressively in the recent years, one of the main limitation for their application in the gamma-astronomy field - the impossibility to operate with moon light - still remains. As a matter of fact, the light excess would lead to significant and faster camera ageing. Solid state detectors, in particular Geiger-mode avalanche photo-diodes (G-APDs) represent a valuable alternative solution to overcome this limitation as demonstrated in the field by the FACT experiment (The First G- APD Cherenkov Telescope). They can be regarded as a more promising long term approach, which can be easily adopted for the new generation of cameras and for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). We describe here the Photo-Detector Plane (PDP) of the camera for the 4 m Davies Cotton CTA Small Size Telescopes, for which large area G-APD coupled to non-imaging light c...

  13. Performance of a prototype RICH detector using hybrid photo-diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, E; Billy, J H; Brook, N H; Duane, A; French, M; Gibson, V; Giles, R; Halley, A W; Harnew, N; John, M; Miller, D G; O'Shea, V; Teixeira-Dias, P; Smale, N J; Websdale, D M; Wilkinson, G; Wotton, S A

    2001-01-01

    A prototype Ring-Imaging Cherenkov detector has been operated in a charged particle test beam. Cherenkov photons are imaged onto a plane of hybrid photo-diode detectors. The geometrical arrangement of the prototype and data-taking conditions are described. An analysis of the detector performance, using silica aerogel, air and C4F10 gas radiators, is presented. The photon yields and observed angle resolutions are found to be in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulation and satisfy the requirements of the RICH-1 detector in the LHCb experiment.

  14. Feasibility of VHE gamma ray detection by an array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes using the fluorescence technique

    CERN Document Server

    Contreras, J L; Arqueros, F; López, M; Barrio, J A; Nievas, M

    2015-01-01

    The last 20 years have seen the development of new techniques in Astroparticle Physics providing access to the highest end of the electromagnetic spectrum. It has been shown that some sources emit photons up to energies close to 100 TeV. Yet the fluxes of these photons are incredibly low and new detection techniques are needed to go higher in energy. A new technique that would use the new generation of Cherenkov Telescopes, i.e., the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), is proposed to push further the energy frontier. It is based on the detection of the fluorescence radiation emitted in extensive air showers, a successful method used in ultra-high-energy cosmic ray experiments, like the Pierre Auger Observatory. It would complement the standard imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique with only minor modifications of the hardware currently being developed for the CTA and would not imply significant extra costs during its planned operation.

  15. Enhancement of the Yakutsk array by atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes to study cosmic rays above $10^{15}$ eV

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, A A; Petrov, Z E; Pravdin, M I; Sleptsov, I Ye

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the Yakutsk array enhancement project is to create an instrument to study the highest-energy galactic cosmic rays (CRs) -- their sources, energy spectrum, and mass composition. Additionally, there will be unique capabilities for investigations in the transition region between galactic and extragalactic components of CRs. Using the well-developed imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope technique adapted to the energy region $E>10^{15}$ eV, we plan to measure the longitudinal structure parameters of the shower, e.g., angular and temporal distributions of the Cherenkov signal related to $X_{max}$ and the mass composition of CRs. The main advantages of the Yakutsk array, such as its multi-component measurements of extensive air showers, and model-independent CR energy estimation based on Cherenkov light measurements, will be inherited by the instrument to be created.

  16. Optimization of a bolometer detector for ITER based on Pt absorber on SiN membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, H; Eich, T; Endstrasser, N; Giannone, L; Kannamüller, M; Kling, A; Koll, J; Trautmann, T; Detemple, P; Schmitt, S

    2010-10-01

    Any plasma diagnostic in ITER must be able to operate at temperatures in excess of 200 °C and neutron loads corresponding to 0.1 dpa over its lifetime. To achieve this aim for the bolometer diagnostic, a miniaturized metal resistor bolometer detector based on Pt absorbers galvanically deposited on SiN membranes is being developed. The first two generations of detectors featured up to 4.5 μm thick absorbers. Results from laboratory tests are presented characterizing the dependence of their calibration constants under thermal loads up to 450 °C. Several detectors have been tested in ASDEX Upgrade providing reliable data but also pointing out the need for further optimization. A laser trimming procedure has been implemented to reduce the mismatch in meander resistances below 1% for one detector and the thermal drifts from this mismatch.

  17. Optimization of a bolometer detector for ITER based on Pt absorber on SiN membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, H.; Eich, T.; Endstrasser, N.; Giannone, L.; Kannamueller, M.; Kling, A.; Koll, J.; Trautmann, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Detemple, P.; Schmitt, S. [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 18-20, D-55129 Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2010-10-15

    Any plasma diagnostic in ITER must be able to operate at temperatures in excess of 200 deg. C and neutron loads corresponding to 0.1 dpa over its lifetime. To achieve this aim for the bolometer diagnostic, a miniaturized metal resistor bolometer detector based on Pt absorbers galvanically deposited on SiN membranes is being developed. The first two generations of detectors featured up to 4.5 {mu}m thick absorbers. Results from laboratory tests are presented characterizing the dependence of their calibration constants under thermal loads up to 450 deg. C. Several detectors have been tested in ASDEX Upgrade providing reliable data but also pointing out the need for further optimization. A laser trimming procedure has been implemented to reduce the mismatch in meander resistances below 1% for one detector and the thermal drifts from this mismatch.

  18. Mosaic diamond based detector for MIPs detection, T0 determination and triggering in HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietraszko, Jerzy; Koenig, Wolfgang [GSI Helmholtzzentum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: HADES-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The CVD based diamond detectors were successfully used for HI detection in HADES already in 2001. In the following experiments the polycrystalline diamond material showed very good performance (time resolution below 50 ps sigma) and stable long term operation. Detection of the minimum ionising particles (MIPs) by means of the diamond detectors is a challenging task mainly because of very small energy deposit in the diamond material. In this case the single crystalline CVD diamond material has to be used which is well known for its excellent charge collection efficiency (almost 100 %) and for its very good timing properties. For pion induced experiments at HADES a large area, segmented, position sensitive, operated in vacuum detector was developed. The construction of the detector is presented along with the requirements and the obtained performance.

  19. OFDM Signal Detector Based on Cyclic Autocorrelation Function and its Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Fedra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to research of the general and particular properties of the OFDM signal detector based on the cyclic autocorrelation function. The cyclic autocorrelation function is estimated using DFT. The parameters of the testing signal have been chosen according to 802.11g WLAN. Some properties are described analytically; all events are examined via computer simulations. It is shown that the detector is able to detect an OFDM signal in the case of multipath propagation, inexact frequency synchronization and without time synchronization. The sensitivity of the detector could be decreased in the above cases. An important condition for proper value of the detector sampling interval was derived. Three types of the channels were studied and compared. Detection threshold SNR=-9 dB was found for the signal under consideration and for two-way propagation.

  20. Solid-state neutron detectors based on thickness scalable hexagonal boron nitride

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Kawser; Weltz, Adam; Lu, James J -Q; Danon, Yaron; Bhat, Ishwara B

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the device processing and characterization of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) based solid-state thermal neutron detectors, where hBN thickness varied from 2.5 to 15 microns. These natural hBN epilayers (with 19.9% B-10) were grown by a low pressure chemical vapor deposition process. Complete dry processing was adopted for the fabrication of these metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) configuration detectors. These detectors showed intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency values of 0.86%, 2.4%, 3.15%, and 4.71% for natural hBN thickness values of 2.5, 7.5, 10, and 15 microns, respectively. Measured efficiencies are very close (more than 92%) to the theoretical maximum efficiencies for corresponding hBN thickness values for these detectors. This clearly shows the hBN thickness scalability of these detectors. A 15-micron thick hBN based MSM detector is expected to yield an efficiency of 21.4%, if enriched hBN (with ~100% B-10) is used instead of natural hBN. These results demonstrate that the...