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Sample records for chemotoxic agents rabbits

  1. Induction of mitosis in ocular tissue by chemotoxic agents. [Rabbits, guinea pigs, Degus (Octodon degus), frogs

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    Weinsieder, A. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit); Briggs, R.; Reddan, J.; Rothstein, H.; Wilson, D.; Harding, C.V.

    1975-01-01

    Ocular inflammation has been induced in a number of species by a variety of chemical agents, including methylene blue. Initial cell destruction and subsequent repopulation by mitogenesis in lens epithelium and corneal endothelium were observed using techniques for living and fixed tissue. During the course of the chemical inflammation response, the lens displayed a prominent, anterior pole subcapsular opacity underlying the area of maximal epithelial destruction. Near-normal transparency returned with recovery of the lens tissue cytoarchitecture. Elevated protein concentrations in aqueous humor were found throughout the course of the experiments. Similar alterations in aqueous humor were observed in the course of immunogenic uveitis although lenticular or corneal endothelial destruction and subsequent proliferation were not detected.

  2. Inhibiting p53 Acetylation Reduces Cancer Chemotoxicity.

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    Zheng, Shunsheng; Koh, Xin Yu; Goh, Hui Chin; Rahmat, Siti Aishah B; Hwang, Le-Ann; Lane, David P

    2017-08-15

    Chemotoxicity due to unwanted p53 activation in the bone marrow remains an unmet clinical challenge. Doxorubicin, a first-line chemotherapy drug, often causes myelosuppression in patients, thus limiting its effectiveness. In this study, we discovered that C646, a reversible p300 inhibitor, downregulates p53 transcription and selectively protects noncancerous cells from p53-dependent apoptosis. C646 treatment blocked acetylation of specific lysine residues that regulate p53 activity. Exploitation of differential p53 genetic backgrounds between human hematopoietic and colorectal cancer cells improved the therapeutic index of doxorubicin with C646 cotreatment. C646 administration in mice afflicted with p53-mutant tumors protected them from doxorubicin-induced neutropenia and anemia while retaining antitumor efficacy. We deduce that temporary and reversible inhibition of p53 acetylation in cancer subjects, especially those with p53-mutant tumors, may protect them from severe chemotoxicity while allowing treatment regimens to effectively proceed. Cancer Res; 77(16); 4342-54. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. The histopathologic reaction of rabbit lungs after intrabronchial application of contrast agents

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    Lim, Hyo Soon; Kim, Jae Kyu; Shen, Yu Lan; Oh, Jeong Won; Chang, Nam Kyu; Shin, Sang Soo; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-05-15

    The aim of this study was to determine a safe gastrointestinal contrast agent that could be used in various clinical situations where there is a risk of aspiration using a rabbit model. 30 healthy white rabbits were used. The rabbits were divided into 5 groups containing six animals each, one control group (anesthesia only) and 4 groups receiving various contrast agents [Solotop (Barium sulphate suspension), Gastrografin (sodium and meglumine amidotrizoate), and Telebrix (Meglumine ioxitalamate), Visipaque (Iodixanol)]. The contrast agents were injected selectively into a main bronchus via a catheter inserted under fluoroscopy guidance. The rabbits were sacrificed either 1 day or 7 days after injecting the contrast agents, and the tissue reaction of the bronchi and lungs were examined both macro-and microscopically. The level of alveolar septal thickening, peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, pulmonary congestion and edema, inflammatory exudate in the alveoli or bronchiolar lumina, microabscess formation, necrosis, pigmentation of materials injected, and fibropurulent pleurisy were evaluated and graded according to the severity as follows: no change, mild, moderate, marked in degree. The common microscopic findings were alveolar septal thickening and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration. Pulmonary congestion and edema, inflammatory exudate in the alveoli of bronchiolar lumina were observed in 21 out of 24 rabbits receiving the contrast agents. Pigmentation of the materials injected was observed only in the group receiving Solotop. An inflammatory exudate in the alveoli and bronchiolar/bronchial lumina, microabscess formation, and necrosis were noted in most groups, but was more frequent and severe in the group receiving Gastrografin. The histopathological reactions of the rabbit lungs after the intrabronchial application of a contrast agent showed variable degrees of inflammatory reaction. Gastrografin produced most severe and extensive reaction, Solotop

  4. Determining patient preferences for improved chemotoxicity during treatment for advanced bladder cancer

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    Aristides, M.; Maase, Hans von der; Roberts, T.

    2005-01-01

    Determining patient preferences for improved chemotoxicity during treatment for advanced bladder cancer Conventional treatment for advanced bladder cancer is methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin plus cisplatin (MVAC), with a median survival of 1 year but significant toxicity. The newer combinat...

  5. Additive Intraocular Pressure-Lowering Effects of Ripasudil with Glaucoma Therapeutic Agents in Rabbits and Monkeys

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    Yoshio Kaneko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ripasudil hydrochloride hydrate (K-115, a specific Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK inhibitor, is developed for the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Topical administration of ripasudil decreases intraocular pressure (IOP by increasing conventional outflow through the trabeculae to Schlemm’s canal, which is different from existing agents that suppress aqueous humor production or promote uveoscleral outflow. In this study, we demonstrated that ripasudil significantly lowered IOP in combined regimens with other glaucoma therapeutic agents in rabbits and monkeys. Ripasudil showed additional effects on maximum IOP lowering or prolonged the duration of IOP-lowering effects with combined administration of timolol, nipradilol, brimonidine, brinzolamide, latanoprost, latanoprost/timolol fixed combination, and dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination. These results indicate that facilitation of conventional outflow by ripasudil provides additive IOP-lowering effect with other classes of antiglaucoma agents. Ripasudil is expected to have substantial utility in combined regimens with existing agents for glaucoma treatment.

  6. A Pilot Study: The Efficacy of Virgin Coconut Oil as Ocular Rewetting Agent on Rabbit Eyes

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    Haliza Abdul Mutalib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. An open-label pilot study of virgin coconut oil (VCO was conducted to determine the safety of the agent as ocular rewetting eye drops on rabbits. Methods. Efficacy of the VCO was assessed by measuring NIBUT, anterior eye assessment, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value before instillation and at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks after instillation. Friedman test was used to analyse any changes in all the measurable variables over the period of time. Results. Only conjunctival redness with instillation of saline agent showed significant difference over the period of time (P0.05. There were no changes in the NIBUT, limbal redness, palpebral conjunctiva redness, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value over the period of time for each agent (P>0.05. Conclusion. VCO acts as safe rewetting eye drops as it has shown no significant difference in the measurable parameter compared to commercial brand eye drops and saline. These study data suggest that VCO is safe to be used as ocular rewetting agent on human being.

  7. The effect of intravitreal anti-VEGF agents on peripheral wound healing in a rabbit model

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    Christoforidis J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available John Christoforidis1, Robert Ricketts1, Cedric Pratt1, Jordan Pierce1, Scott Bean1, Michael Wells1, Xiaoli Zhang2, Krista La Perle31College of Medicine, 2Center for Biostatistics, 3College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAPurpose: To investigate the effect of intravitreal pegaptanib, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab on blood-vessel formation during cutaneous wound healing in a rabbit model and to compare this effect to placebo controls.Methods: Forty New Zealand albino rabbits underwent full thickness cutaneous wounds using 6-mm dermatologic punch biopsies. The rabbits were assigned to four groups of ten, each receiving intravitreal injections of pegaptanib, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, or no injection (untreated controls. Five rabbits from each group underwent wound harvesting on day 7 and five from each group on day 14. The skin samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE, Masson's trichrome (MT, and CD34 for vascular endothelial cells. Semiquantitative evaluation of HE- and MT-stained slides was performed by one pathologist. Quantitative assessment of mean neovascularization (MNV scores was obtained from five contiguous biopsy margin 400× fields of CD34-stained sections by four independent observers.Results: Week 1 MNV scores in CD-34 stained sections were: untreated controls: 11.51 ± 4.36; bevacizumab: 7.41 ± 2.82 (P = 0.013; ranibizumab: 8.71 ± 4.08 (P = 0.071; and pegaptanib: 10.15 ± 5.59 (P = 0.378. Week 2 MNV data were: untreated controls: 6.14 ± 2.25; bevacizumab: 7.25 ± 2.75 (P = 0.471; ranibizumab: 4.53 ± 3.12 (P = 0.297; and, pegaptanib: 6.35 ± 3.09 (P = 0.892. Interobserver variability using intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.961.Conclusions: At week 1, all three anti-VEGF agents had suppressed MNV scores compared to controls. Although not statistically significant, there was an inhibitory trend, particularly with bevacizumab and ranibizumab. These effects were diminished at 2 weeks

  8. Safety evaluation of a potential ablation agent-hydrochloric acid in the rabbits' model.

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    Yao, Wang; Gu, Yang-Kui; Wang, Jian; Gao, Fei; Liu, Wan-Li; Huang, Jin-Hua

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the safety of a potential ablation agent-hydrochloric acid (HCl), which may apply to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Eighty adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into five groups of equal size (n=16), i.e., untreated group, normal saline (NS) control group, 10% HCl group, 20% HCl group and 30% HCl group. Each group was divided into two subgroups: ten rabbits for two-week toxicology study at the time points of hours 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 3, 6 and days 2, 7, 14 and six rabbits for imaging and histopathology study at the time points of days 2, 7 and 14. In toxicology study we evaluated the safety of HCl from arterial blood gas status, hematology and hepatic and renal functions. In imaging and histopathology study, we observed the relationship between the sizes of lesion and the concentration of HCl, as well as extension of necrosis and concentration of HCl. In this study we also observed the microcosmic and macroscopic lesion that caused by HCl. In general condition, food, water consumption and body weight decreased notablely during the beginning of the experiment. In toxicology study, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactic acid contents were higher in the 30% hydrochloric acid group than in other groups (P<0.005), all test items returned to normal on day 14. Imaging and histopathology study showed that 30% HCl caused larger lesion area than other HCl concentration and the necrosis that caused by HCl was complete. There was also a close relationship between the size of minor damaged area and HCl concentration. The 30% HCl caused larger minor damaged area than other HCl concentration. Because the damaged area was surrounded by a layer of fiber tissue, the lesion area became larger at days 7 and 14 time points. This study also demonstrated that the adjacent organs had no obvious damage, and all the damaged areas were limited in the liver. HCl is a safe ablation agent for local injection in the liver. HCl at a lower concentration is

  9. Transmission electron microscopy of rabbit liver after high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation combined with ultrasound contrast agents.

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    Jiang, Ying; Tian, Xue; Luo, Wen; Zhou, Xiaodong

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe sequential changes in rabbit liver under transmission electron microscopy after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups. The livers of rabbits in group A underwent single HIFU ablation; those in group B were given the ultrasound contrast agent Sonovue 0.2 mL/kg before HIFU exposure. Five rabbits from each of the 2 groups were killed at 0 h, 6 d, and 14 d after HIFU ablation. Tissue samples that included targeted and untargeted tissues were observed under transmission electron microscopy. Electron microscopy showed that most of the cell organs in targeted areas of groups A and B disappeared early after HIFU, but the basic cell structure was seen in group A. On the sixth day after HIFU ablation in the 2 groups, all cells in the targeted areas were disrupted and fibrous bands were detected in the rims of targeted areas. In surrounding areas, cell swelling in group B was more severe than in group A, and a greater number of apoptotic bodies were found in group B. The use of an ultrasound contrast agent can enhance the effects of HIFU ablation on the destruction of cell ultrastructure and can enlarge the region of HIFU ablation; this provides experimental evidence for control of HIFU effects.

  10. Grey scale enhancement of rabbit liver and kidney by intravenous injection of a new lipid-coated ultrasound contrast agent

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    Liu, Ping; Gao, Yun-Hua; Tan, Kai-Bin; Liu, Zheng; Zuo, Song

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess the grey scale enhancement of a new lipid-coated ultrasound contrast agent in solid abdominal organs as liver and kidney. METHODS: Size distribution and concentration of the lipid-coated contrast microbubbles were analyzed by a Coulter counter. Two-dimensional (2D) second harmonic imaging of the hepatic parenchyma, the inferior vena cava and the right kidney of the rabbits were acquired before and after contrast agent injection. Images were further quantified by histogram in Adobe Photoshop 6.0. Time-intensity curves of hepatic parenchyma, inferior vena cava and renal cortex were generated from the original grey scale. RESULTS: The 2D images of hepatic parenchyma and cortex of the kidney were greatly enhanced after injection and the peak time could last more than 50 min. CONCLUSION: This new lipid ultrasound contrast agent could significantly enhance the grey scale imaging of the hepatic parenchyma and the renal cortex for more than 50 min. PMID:15285021

  11. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits

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    Hackett, P. L.; Rommereim, R. L.; Burton, F. G.; Buschbom, R. L.; Sasser, L . B.

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with 0. 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development. These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats and rabbits since fetal effects were observed only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for "no observable effects levels" in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  12. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents. Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-21

    objective. The purpose of our study was to determine developmental effects in pregnant rats and rabbits exposed to sulfur mustard during the gesta ...gain depression during gesta - tion, or because of fetal failure to gain weight or secondary fetal immaturity as a result of large litter size. Retarded

  13. {sup 166}Ho-chitosan as a radiation synovectomy agent - antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits

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    Kim, Sug Jun; Lee, Soo Yong; Jeon, Dae Geun; Lee, Jong Seok [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    Radiation synovectomy is a noninvasive therapy that has been investigated as an alternative to surgical synovectomy. It has been successfully employed in the treatment of synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory arthropathies. In this study, we developed experimental animal model for radiation synovectomy. A model system in which a single injection of ovalbumin into the knee joints of previously sensitized rabbits consistently produced a chronic arthritis which was histologically similiar to human rheumatoid arthritis. (author). 8 refs., 8 figs

  14. Delivery of antifibroblast agents as adjuncts to filtration surgery. Part I--Periocular clearance of cobalt-57 bleomycin in experimental drug delivery: pilot study in the rabbit

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    Kay, J.S.; Litin, B.S.; Woolfenden, J.M.; Chvapil, M.; Herschler, J.

    1986-10-01

    Antitumor and antifibroblast agents show promise as adjuncts after glaucoma filtration surgery in reducing postoperative scarring and failure. We used nuclear imaging in rabbits to investigate periocular clearance of one such agent (/sup 57/Co-bleomycin). Sub-Tenon injection was compared to other delivery techniques. Our results showed that a collagen sponge and a silastic disc implant with a microhole prolonged drug delivery when compared to sub-Tenon injection alone or injection with a viscosity enhancing agent (0.5% sodium hyaluronate). We theorize that if an antifibroblast agent can be delivered in small and sustained amounts after filtration surgery, this may prolong bleb longevity and avoid unnecessary drug toxicity.

  15. Illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic substances from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste.

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    Wilson, James C; Thorne, Michael C; Towler, George; Norris, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Many countries have a programme for developing an underground geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. A case study is provided herein on the illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic and radioactive substances from a generic geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. The illustrative assessment uses a source-pathway-receptor methodology and considers a number of human exposure pathways. Estimated exposures are compared with authoritative toxicological assessment criteria. The possibility of additive and synergistic effects resulting from exposures to mixtures of chemical contaminants or a combination of radiotoxic and chemotoxic substances is considered. The case study provides an illustration of how to assess human health issues arising from chemotoxic species released from a GDF for radioactive waste and highlights potential difficulties associated with a lack of data being available with which to assess synergistic effects. It also highlights how such difficulties can be addressed.

  16. Potential drug interactions and chemotoxicity in older patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy.

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    Popa, Mihaela A; Wallace, Kristie J; Brunello, Antonella; Extermann, Martine; Balducci, Lodovico

    2014-07-01

    Increased risk of drug interactions due to polypharmacy and aging-related changes in physiology among older patients with cancer is further augmented during chemotherapy. No previous studies examined potential drug interactions (PDIs) from polypharmacy and their association with chemotherapy tolerance in older patients with cancer. This study is a retrospective medical chart review of 244 patients aged 70+ years who received chemotherapy for solid or hematological malignancies. PDI among all drugs, supplements, and herbals taken with the first chemotherapy cycle were screened for using the Drug Interaction Facts software, which classifies PDIs into five levels of clinical significance with level 1 being the highest. Descriptive and correlative statistics were used to describe rates of PDI. The association between PDI and severe chemotoxicity was tested with logistic regressions adjusted for baseline covariates. A total of 769 PDIs were identified in 75.4% patients. Of the 82 level 1 PDIs identified among these, 32 PDIs involved chemotherapeutics. A large proportion of the identified PDIs were of minor clinical significance. The risk of severe non-hematological toxicity almost doubled with each level 1 PDI (OR=1.94, 95% CI: 1.22-3.09), and tripled with each level 1 PDI involving chemotherapeutics (OR=3.08, 95% CI: 1.33-7.12). No association between PDI and hematological toxicity was found. In this convenience sample of older patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy we found notable rates of PDI and a substantial adjusted impact of PDI on risk of non-hematological toxicity. These findings warrant further research to optimize chemotherapy outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rabbits Using a Nanoscale Ultrasound Contrast Agent Targeting ICAM-1.

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    Fang Xie

    Full Text Available To assess the feasibility of ultrasound molecular imaging in the early diagnosis of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI using a nanoscale contrast agent targeting anti-intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (anti-ICAM-1.The targeted nanobubbles containing anti-ICAM-1 antibody were prepared using the avidin-biotin binding method. Human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HHSECs were cultured at the circumstances of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R and low temperature. The rabbit liver IRI model (I/R group was established using the Pringle's maneuver. The time-intensity curve of the liver contrast ultrasonographic images was plotted and the peak intensity, time to peak, and time of duration were calculated.The size of the targeted nanobubbles were 148.15 ± 39.75 nm and the concentration was 3.6-7.4 × 109/ml, and bound well with the H/R HHSECs. Animal contrast enhanced ultrasound images showed that the peak intensity and time of duration of the targeted nanobubbles were significantly higher than that of common nanobubbles in the I/R group, and the peak intensity and time of duration of the targeted nanobubbles in the I/R group were also significantly higher than that in the SO group.The targeted nanobubbles have small particle size, stable characteristic, and good targeting ability, which can assess hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury specifically, noninvasively, and quantitatively at the molecular level.

  18. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits - Part 2, Appendices

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    Hackett, P L; Rommereim, R L; Burton, F G; Buschbom, R L; Sasser, L B

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with o. 0.5, 1 .0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats • and rabbits since fetal effects were obs~rved only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for •no observable effects levers· in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  19. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using a macromolecular MR contrast agent (P792): Evaluation of antivascular drug effect in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model

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    Park, Hee Sun [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joon Koo; Lee, Jeong Min; Woo, Sung Min; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Il [Dept. of Radiology, Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital, Ras Al Khaimah (United Arab Emirates); Choi, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate the utility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using macromolecular contrast agent (P792) for assessment of vascular disrupting drug effect in rabbit VX2 liver tumor models. This study was approved by our Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. DCE-MRI was performed with 3-T scanner in 13 VX2 liver tumor-bearing rabbits, before, 4 hours after, and 24 hours after administration of vascular disrupting agent (VDA), using gadomelitol (P792, n = 7) or low molecular weight contrast agent (gadoterate meglumine [Gd-DOTA], n = 6). P792 was injected at a of dose 0.05 mmol/kg, while that of Gd-DOTA was 0.2 mmol/kg. DCE-MRI parameters including volume transfer coefficient (Ktrans) and initial area under the gadolinium concentration-time curve until 60 seconds (iAUC) of tumors were compared between the 2 groups at each time point. DCE-MRI parameters were correlated with tumor histopathology. Reproducibility in measurement of DCE-MRI parameters and image quality of source MR were compared between groups. P792 group showed a more prominent decrease in Ktrans and iAUC at 4 hours and 24 hours, as compared to the Gd-DOTA group. Changes in DCE-MRI parameters showed a weak correlation with histologic parameters (necrotic fraction and microvessel density) in both groups. Reproducibility of DCE-MRI parameters and overall image quality was not significantly better in the P792 group, as compared to the Gd-DOTA group. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using a macromolecular contrast agent shows changes of hepatic perfusion more clearly after administration of the VDA. Gadolinium was required at smaller doses than a low molecular contrast agent.

  20. [The dynamics of the Zn content in the pancreatic islets of rabbits after the administration of the diabetogenic agent dithizone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gol'dberg, E D; Eshchenko, V A; Bovt, V D

    1991-01-01

    The dynamics of changes of the Zn content in the pancreatic islets of rabbits after dithizon injection was studied. The amount of this metal in the islets reduced due to destruction of the cells and under the effect of high blood plasma glucose concentration. The insulin producing cells were devoid of zinc in diabetes of long duration with high hyperglycemia.

  1. Teratology studies of lewisite and sulfur mustard agents: Effects of lewisite in rats and rabbits: Final report

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    Hackett, P L; Sasser, L B; Rommereim, R L; Cushing, J A; Buschbom, R L; Kalkwarf, D R

    1987-12-31

    Lewisite was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Maternal animals were weighed periodically, and, at necropsy (20 dg (days of gestation) in rats and 30 dg in rabbits), were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performances; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defect. In rats, a dose level of 1.5 mg/kg did not induce toxic or teratogenic responses in maternal and fetal body weights and a significant reduction in the number if viable fetuses were evident. In rabbit studies maternal mortality occurred in all but one of the lewisite treatment groups and ranged from 13% to 100% at dose levels of 0.07 and 1.5 mg/kg, respectively. This mortality rate limited the sample size and impaired the detection of statistical significance among treatments. However, at the lowest dose level of the teratology study (0.07 mg/kg, maternal mortality was the only indicator of lewisite toxicity; at the highst dose (0.6 mg/kg), significant findings included 86% maternal mortality, a decrease in maternal body weight gains and an increase in the incidence of fetal stunting, although only a tendency in decreased fetal body weights was observed. These results suggest that maternal mortality was the most important factor in predicting the induction of maternal and fetal effects and, therfore, a ''no observable effect level'' in maternal animals and their fetuses would be between 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg in rats and less than 0.07 mg/kg in rabbits. 50 refs., 6 figs., 29 tabs.

  2. Teratology studies of lewisite and sulfur mustard agents: Effects of lewisite in rats and rabbits: Final report: Part 2, Appendices

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    Hackett, P.L.; Sasser, L.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Cushing, J.A.; Buschbom, R.L.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1987-12-31

    Lewisite was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Maternal animals were weighed periodically, and, at necropsy (20 dg (days of gestation) in rats and 30 dg in rabbits), were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performances; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, a dose level of 1.5 mg/kg did not induce toxic or teratogenic responses in maternal animals or their fetuses. At 2.0 mg/kg, 10% maternal mortality, trends in decreased maternal and fetal body weights and a significant reduction in the number of viable fetuses were evident. In rabbit studies, maternal mortality occured in all but one of the lewisite treatment groups and range from 13% to 100% at dose levels of 0.07 and 1.5 mg/kg, respectively. This mortality rate limited the sample size and impaired the detection of statistical significance among treatments. However, at the lowest dose level of the teratology study (0.07 mg/kg), maternal mortality was the only indicator of lewisite toxicity; at the highest dose (0.6 mg/kg), significant findings included 86% maternal mortality, a decrease in maternal body weight gains and an increase in the incidence of fetal stunting, although only a tendency in decreased fetal body weights was observed. These results suggest that maternal mortality was the most important factor in predicting the induction of maternal and fetal effects and, therefore, a ''no observable effect level'' in maternal animals and their fetuses would be between 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg in rats and less than 0.07 mg/kg in rabbits. Part 2 contains 6 appendices.

  3. Heated lipiodol as an embolization agent for transhepatic arterial embolization in VX2 rabbit liver cancer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Wei [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No.1 Xinshi Road, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an 710038 (China)], E-mail: zjfurong2008@126.com; Wan Yi [Department of Health Statistics, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 17 West Changle Road, Xi' an 710032 (China); Liang Zhihui [Department of Radiology, Bethune International Peace Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province 050082 (China); Duan Yunyou; Liu Xi [Department of Ultrasonography, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 1 Xinshi Road, Xi' an 710038 (China); Wang Zhimin; Liu Yiyong; Zhu Jia; Liu Xiongtao [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No.1 Xinshi Road, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an 710038 (China); Zhang Hongxin [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No.1 Xinshi Road, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an 710038 (China)], E-mail: cawe-001@163.com

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of heated (60 deg. C) lipiodol via hepatic artery administration in a rabbit model of VX2 liver cancer. Materials and methods: Thirty male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups with 10 rabbits assigned to each group. VX2 carcinoma cells were surgically implanted into the left hepatic lobe. The tumors were allowed to grow for 2 weeks, and studies were performed until the diameter of the tumors detected by ultrasonograph reached 2-3 cm. Under anesthesia, trans-catheter hepatic arterial embolization was performed and doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) (1 mL), lipiodol (60 deg. C) (1 mL) or control (physiological saline (37 deg. C) (1 mL)) solution was injected into the hepatic arteries of animals in the three groups. One week later, the volume of the tumor was measured by ultrasonograph again. The serum of all rabbits was collected before injection and at 4 and 7 days after injection, and the level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was checked. The survival period of the three groups of rabbits after treatment was also recorded. During the last course of their disease, the rabbits were given analgesics to relieve suffering. Results: The tumor growth rate in the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (0.92 {+-} 0.21, tumor volume from 1811 {+-} 435 to 1670 {+-} 564 mm{sup 3}) was significantly lower than that in the control group (3.48 {+-} 1.17, tumor volume from 1808 {+-} 756 to 5747 {+-} 1341 mm{sup 3}) (P < 0.05) and in the doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) group (1.69 {+-} 0.26, tumor volume from 1881 {+-} 641 to 2428 {+-} 752 mm{sup 3}) (P < 0.05). Consequently, the survival period of the animals in the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (41.0 {+-} 3.0 days) was significantly greater than that in the doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) group (38.0 {+-} 2.5 days) (P < 0.05). On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference in serum AST levels between the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (148.2 {+-} 11

  4. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of postoperative scars and VX2 carcinoma in rabbits: comparison of macromolecular contrast agent and gadopentetate dimeglumine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Woo; Moon, Woo Kyung; Weinmann, Hanns-Joachim; Kim, Soo Jeoung; Kim, Jong Hyo; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Tae Jung; Yoon, Chang Jin; Kim, Young Hoon; Cho, Eun Yoon; Ha, Sung Whan; Kang, Wee-Saing; Chang, Kee Hyun

    2003-10-01

    To compare the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging enhancement patterns of a blood pool contrast agent, SH L 643A, with those of gadopentetate dimeglumine in postoperative scars and VX2 carcinomas in rabbits and to compare these enhancement patterns with microvessel density in pathologic specimens. Eighteen rabbits with experimentally induced postoperative scars (n = 12) or VX2 carcinoma (n = 6) in the thighs underwent sequential MR imaging first with gadopentetate dimeglumine and then, 24 hours later, with SH L 643A. The enhancement ratios (ie, the ratios of postcontrast to precontrast signal intensity) and the microvessel densities of postoperative scars and VX2 carcinomas were assessed. Differences were tested for by using the Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. In postoperative scars, enhancement ratios were consistently lower with injection of SH L 643A than with injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine for up to 30 minutes (P gadopentetate dimeglumine (P gadopentetate dimeglumine at all time points. The mean difference between the enhancement ratios of the VX2 carcinomas and postoperative scars was 0.64 +/- 0.10 (range, 0.50-0.77) with SH L 643A and 0.36 +/- 0.16 (range, 0.17-0.66) with gadopentetate dimeglumine (P gadopentetate dimeglumine. Enhancement ratios at SH L 643A-enhanced MR imaging corresponded well with microvessel density in postoperative scars and VX2 carcinomas. Copyright RSNA, 2003

  5. The class III anti-arrhythmic agent, amiodarone, inhibits voltage-dependent K(+) channels in rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Kim, Han Sol; Kim, Hye Won; Shin, Sung Eun; Jung, Won-Kyo; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Han, Eun-Taek; Hong, Seok-Ho; Firth, Amy L; Bae, Young Min; Choi, Il-Whan; Park, Won Sun

    2016-07-01

    We examined the inhibitory effect of amiodarone, a class III anti-arrhythmic agent, on voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) currents in freshly isolated rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle cells, using a whole-cell patch clamp technique. Amiodarone inhibited Kv currents in a concentration-dependent manner, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 3.9 ± 1.44 μM and a Hill coefficient of 0.45 ± 0.14. Amiodarone did not have a significant effect on the steady-state activation of Kv channels, but shifted the inactivation current toward a more negative potential. Application of consecutive pulses progressively augmented the amiodarone-induced Kv channel inhibition. Another class III anti-arrhythmic agent, dofetilide, did not inhibit the Kv current or change the inhibitory effect of amiodarone on Kv channels. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that amiodarone inhibits Kv currents in a concentration- and state-dependent manner.

  6. Normal development of hamster and rabbit eggs fertilized by spermatozoa labelled with the fluorescent thiol alkylating agent, monobromobimane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, A.D.; Cummins, J.M.; Kuehl, T.J.; Seidel, G.E. Jr.; Yanagimachi, R.

    1986-03-01

    Cauda epididymal spermatozoa of the golden hamster were labelled with the thiol-alkylating reagent, monobromobimane (MB). Female hamsters underwent uterine insemination with labelled spermatozoa at laparotomy under metofane anesthesia. All 12 females examined between 5 and 54 h postinsemination yielded a total of 83/100 (83%) eggs in the process of fertilization or embryos. Under ultraviolet (UV) exposure all exhibited a fluorescent tail which, in the 4- and 8-cell embryos, could be seen to be fraying or disintegrating. As cleavage progressed, labelled tail components came to be restricted among the blastomeres such that at the 4- and 8-cell stage the tail could be seen in only one to three blastomeres. To study complete development and pregnancy another 12 females received uterine insemination. After recovery from anesthesia (approximately equal to 4 h) these females were mated with a vasectomized male bearing a dominant genetic marker (black eyes) to allow unequivocal determination of paternity in the fetuses and young produced. Seven became pregnant with one female losing her pregnancy about Day 7 of gestation. Two females sacrificed on Day 13 produced 17 normal fetuses and one resorption. Four females delivered 16 young, all normal at birth and in subsequent growth and fertility. In addition, insemination of female rabbits with MB-labelled spermatozoa yielded normal embryos (50/52 96%) from 3 does on Day 2 and (38/64 60%) from 4 does on Days 4 or 5. Two normal litters (9 bunnies) have delivered from 3 does allowed to carry to term.

  7. {sup 166}Ho-chitosan as a radiation synovectomy agent - biocompatibility study of {sup 166}Ho-chitosan in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sug Jun; Lee, Soo Yong; Jeon, Dae Geun; Lee Jong Seok [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    Radiation synovectomy is a noninvasive therapy that has been investigated as an alternative to surgical synovectomy. It is been successfully employed in the treatment of synovitis in rheumatoid arthrits and other inflammatory arthropathies. We developed the {sup 166}Ho-chitosan complex for possible use as a radiation synovectomy agent. Holmium is the more practical isotope based on its higher radioactivity and logner half-life. And isotope based on its higher radioactivity and logner half-life. And chitosan is ideal and suitable particles based on its soluble and biodegradable characteristics. So we investigated the biocompatibility of the {sup 166}Ho-chitosan complex to evaluated the suitability as a radiation synovectomy agent. In this study, we performed in vivo and in vitro stability test and biodistribution test. Our results indicate that {sup 166}Ho-chitosan may be an effective radiopharmaceutical for radiation synovectomy. (author). 30 refs., 7 tabs.

  8. Efficacy of CMX001 as a Prophylactic and Presymptomatic Antiviral Agent in New Zealand White Rabbits Infected with Rabbitpox Virus, a Model for Orthopoxvirus Infections of Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W. Moyer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CMX001, a lipophilic nucleotide analog formed by covalently linking 3‑(hexdecyloxypropan-1-ol to cidofovir (CDV, is being developed as a treatment for smallpox. CMX001 has dramatically increased potency versus CDV against all dsDNA viruses and, in contrast to CDV, is orally available and has shown no evidence of nephrotoxicity in healthy volunteers or severely ill transplant patients to date. Although smallpox has been eliminated from the environment, treatments are urgently being sought due to the risk of smallpox being used as a bioterrorism agent and for monkeypox virus, a zoonotic disease of Africa, and adverse reactions to smallpox virus vaccinations. In the absence of human cases of smallpox, new treatments must be tested for efficacy in animal models. Here we first review and discuss the rabbitpox virus (RPV infection of New Zealand White rabbits as a model for smallpox to test the efficacy of CMX001 as a prophylactic and early disease antiviral. Our results should also be applicable to monkeypox virus infections and for treatment of adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination.

  9. Efficacy of CMX001 as a prophylactic and presymptomatic antiviral agent in New Zealand white rabbits infected with rabbitpox virus, a model for orthopoxvirus infections of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amanda D; Adams, Mathew M; Lampert, Bernhard; Foster, Scott; Robertson, Alice; Painter, George; Moyer, Richard W

    2011-02-01

    CMX001, a lipophilic nucleotide analog formed by covalently linking 3-(hexdecyloxy)propan-1-ol to cidofovir (CDV), is being developed as a treatment for smallpox. CMX001 has dramatically increased potency versus CDV against all dsDNA viruses and, in contrast to CDV, is orally available and has shown no evidence of nephrotoxicity in healthy volunteers or severely ill transplant patients to date. Although smallpox has been eliminated from the environment, treatments are urgently being sought due to the risk of smallpox being used as a bioterrorism agent and for monkeypox virus, a zoonotic disease of Africa, and adverse reactions to smallpox virus vaccinations. In the absence of human cases of smallpox, new treatments must be tested for efficacy in animal models. Here we first review and discuss the rabbitpox virus (RPV) infection of New Zealand White rabbits as a model for smallpox to test the efficacy of CMX001 as a prophylactic and early disease antiviral. Our results should also be applicable to monkeypox virus infections and for treatment of adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination.

  10. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of VX2 carcinomas after X-irradiation in rabbits: comparison of gadopentetate dimeglumine and a macromolecular contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hoon; Choi, Byung Ihn; Cho, Woo Ho; Lim, Sungjig; Moon, Woo Kyoung; Han, Joon Koo; Weinmann, Hanns-Joachim; Chang, Kee-Hyun

    2003-09-01

    To compare enhancement patterns of gadomer-17 with those of gadopentetate dimeglumine in VX2 carcinomas after irradiation on rabbits. Twelve rabbits with VX2 carcinoma in the thigh underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with gadopentetate dimeglumine and gadomer-17 at 24-hour intervals before (n = 12), 3 days (group 1, n = 12), 1 month (group 2, n = 8) and 2 months (group 3, n = 4) after 30 Gy irradiation. After taking postirradiation MR images, 4 rabbits were killed for histopathologic examination at each time interval. The enhancement characteristics in MR imaging and morphology of tumor vessels in histopathologic specimen were assessed. After gadopentetate dimeglumine injection, the enhancement characteristics were not different among tumors before and after irradiation (P > 0.05). For gadomer-17, the enhancement ratios decreased after irradiation. The shape of the curves for tumor enhancement before irradiation was significantly different from curves of group 1(P < 0.05). The specimens from group 3 showed sclerosis and wall thickening in arterioles. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging with a gadomer-17 reveals increased capillary permeability at an early phase after irradiation and chronic obliterating vasculopathy at delayed phase.

  11. Chemotoxicity of doxorubicin and surface expression of P-glycoprotein (MDR1) is regulated by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin Cif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Siying; MacEachran, Daniel P; Hamilton, Joshua W; O'Toole, George A; Stanton, Bruce A

    2008-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a member of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily, is a major drug efflux pump expressed in normal tissues, and is overexpressed in many human cancers. Overexpression of Pgp results in reduced intracellular drug concentration and cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs and is thought to contribute to multidrug resistance of cancer cells. The involvement of Pgp in clinical drug resistance has led to a search for molecules that block Pgp transporter activity to improve the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of therapeutic agents. We have recently identified and characterized a secreted toxin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, designated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitory factor (Cif). Cif reduces the apical membrane abundance of CFTR, also an ABC transporter, and inhibits the CFTR-mediated chloride ion secretion by human airway and kidney epithelial cells. We report presently that Cif also inhibits the apical membrane abundance of Pgp in kidney, airway, and intestinal epithelial cells but has no effect on plasma membrane abundance of multidrug resistance protein 1 or 2. Cif increased the drug sensitivity to doxorubicin in kidney cells expressing Pgp by 10-fold and increased the cellular accumulation of daunorubicin by 2-fold. Thus our studies show that Cif increases the sensitivity of Pgp-overexpressing cells to doxorubicin, consistent with the hypothesis that Cif affects Pgp functional expression. These results suggest that Cif may be useful to develop a new class of specific inhibitors of Pgp aimed at increasing the sensitivity of tumors to chemotherapeutic drugs, and at improving the bioavailability of Pgp transport substrates.

  12. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida involved in rabbit infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massacci, Francesca Romana; Magistrali, Chiara Francesca; Cucco, Lucilla

    2018-01-01

    In rabbit, P. multocida is considered a predominant pathogenic agent; despite this, few data on the molecular epidemiology are available so far. The aim of this work was to characterize P. multocida isolates from rabbit affected by various diseases in Italy. Comparison was made to reference strains...... belonged to the LPS genotypes 3 (22/39) or 6 (17/39). The clonal relationships of the Italian strains from rabbit had similarity to previously reported rabbit isolates that belonged to ST9, ST74, ST204 and ST206, however, they differed from other rabbit references strains that belonged to six other STs....... In particular, ST9 with capsular type F has been previously reported from diseased rabbit in Czech Republic and ST74 has been observed for older rabbit isolates. ST50 has probably been reported from Spain. ST9 and ST50 have previously also been reported from birds and pig, respectively, whereas ST74 has...

  13. Effect of field strengths on magnetic resonance angiography: comparison of an ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide blood-pool contrast agent and gadopentetate dimeglumine in rabbits at 1.5 and 3.0 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allkemper, Thomas; Heindel, Walter; Kooijman, Hendrik; Ebert, Wolfgang; Tombach, Bernd

    2006-02-01

    We sought to compare the intravascular enhancement of an ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) blood-pool contrast agent to gadopentetate dimeglumine for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) at field strengths of 1.5 and 3.0 T in rabbits. CE-MRA at 1.5 and 3.0 T was performed at several time points (50 seconds and 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes) after the manual intravenous injection of 40 micromol Fe/kg body weight of an USPIO (SH U 555 C; Schering AG, Berlin, Germany) and 100 micromol/kg body weight gadopentetate dimeglumine (Magnevist; Schering AG, Berlin, Germany). MRA was performed with comparable acquisition parameters at both field strengths (Turbo-gradient sequence; 1.5 T: TR/TE/alpha: 5.5/1.7 milliseconds/40 degrees ; 3.0 T: TR/TE/alpha: 5.1/1.8 milliseconds/40 degrees ) on clinical imaging systems (both: Gyroscan Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands). At either field strength, 6 rabbits were studied with both contrast agents (n = 24 in total). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated from signal intensity measurements in the abdominal aorta. Compared with 1.5 T, the SNR and CNR of gadopentetate dimeglumine significantly increased at 3.0 T by a factor of 2.2 and 2.3, respectively (P or= 0.05). At both field strength and either time point, CNR and SNR of SH U 555 C were significantly higher compared with gadopentetate dimeglumine at 3.0 T (P gadopentetate dimeglumine significantly increased with increasing field strength. No SNR or CNR gain was observed for SH U 555 C. However, blood-pool MRA with SH U 555 C is feasible at 3.0 T. Compared with gadopentetate dimeglumine, SNR and CNR of SH U 555 C were significantly higher from 5 to 30 minutes at both field strengths (P

  14. Welfare Impacts of Pindone Poisoning in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Penny; Brown, Samantha; Arrow, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The nature and duration of the effects of pindone poisoning in rabbits were evaluated through observational monitoring of affected animals and necropsy. Using the resulting data in a formal assessment framework, the welfare impacts of pindone poisoning were ranked as relatively higher than other vertebrate toxic agents currently used for rabbit control. Abstract Control methods used to manage unwanted impacts of the European rabbit in Australia and New Zealand include the use o...

  15. Long-term effectiveness of tocilizumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, stratified by number of previous treatment failures with biologic agents: results from the German RABBIT cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baganz, Lisa; Richter, Adrian; Kekow, Jörn; Bussmann, Arnold; Krause, Andreas; Stille, Carsten; Listing, Joachim; Zink, Angela; Strangfeld, Anja

    2017-11-16

    In Germany, Tocilizumab (TCZ) is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis both in biologic-naïve patients and those with previous failures of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs). The long-term effectiveness and retention rates of TCZ in patients with different numbers of prior bDMARD failures has rarely been investigated. We included 885 RA patients in the analyses, enrolled with the start of TCZ between 2009 and 2015 in the German biologics register RABBIT. Patients were stratified according to prior bDMARD failures: no prior bDMARD or 1, 2 or ≥ 3 bDMARD failures. We applied Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox-regression to examine treatment adherence as well as linear mixed effects models to investigate effectiveness over 3 years of follow-up. Compared to biologic-naïve patients, those with prior bDMARD failures at start of TCZ were younger but had significantly longer disease duration and more comorbidities. DAS28 at baseline and loss of physical function were highest in patients with ≥ 3 bDMARD failures. During follow-up, patients with up to two bDMARD failures on average reached low disease activity (LDA, DAS28 failures but significantly lower in those with ≥ 3 bDMARD failures. TCZ seems to be similarly effective in patients with no, one or two prior bDMARD failures. The majority of patients achieved LDA already after 6 months and maintained it over a period of 3 years. TCZ proved effective even in the high-risk group of patients with more than two prior bDMARD failures.

  16. Benign Rabbit Calicivirus in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Leila J; Mahar, Jackie E; Strive, Tanja; Zheng, Tao; Holmes, Edward C; Ward, Vernon K; Duckworth, Janine A

    2017-06-01

    The Czech v351 strain of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV1) is used in Australia and New Zealand as a biological control agent for rabbits, which are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in these countries. However, nonpathogenic rabbit caliciviruses (RCVs) can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with effective rabbit biocontrol. Antibodies that cross-reacted against RHDV antigens were found in wild rabbits before the release of RHDV1 in New Zealand in 1997, suggesting that nonpathogenic RCVs were already present in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of nonpathogenic RCV in New Zealand and describe its geographical distribution. RCV and RHDV antibody assays were used to screen serum samples from 350 wild rabbits from 14 locations in New Zealand. The serological survey indicated that both RCV and RHDV are widespread in New Zealand wild rabbits, with antibodies detected in 10 out of 14 and 12 out of 14 populations, respectively. Two closely related RCV strains were identified in the duodenal tissue from a New Zealand wild rabbit (RCV Gore-425A and RCV Gore-425B). Both variants are most closely related to Australian RCV strains, but with 88% nucleotide identity, they are genetically distinct. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the New Zealand RCV strains fall within the genetic diversity of the Australian RCV isolates, indicating a relatively recent movement of RCVs between Australia and New Zealand. IMPORTANCE Wild rabbits are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in Australia and New Zealand. Although RHDV1 is used as a biological control agent, some nonpathogenic RCVs can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with its effectiveness for rabbit control. The presence of nonpathogenic RCVs in New Zealand wild rabbits has been long hypothesized, but earlier attempts to isolate a New Zealand

  17. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  18. Incisor adjustment in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cyndi

    2009-06-01

    Rabbit incisor teeth are open-rooted and, in healthy animals, grow continuously. Incisor adjustments are often necessary to maintain the health and well-being of rabbits with incisor malocclusion. This column will describe some techniques used to manage incisor malocclusion in the rabbit.

  19. Ação de diferentes agentes curtentes utilizados no curtimento de peles de coelhos: testes físico-mecânicos dos couros - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i4.5592 Action of different tanning agents used on rabbit hide tanning: physical-mechanic tests - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i4.5592

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson do Prado Franco

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a ação de diferentes agentes curtentes no processamento das peles de coelhos, sobre a resistência do couro. Cinquenta peles de coelhos foram submetidas a diferentes agentes curtentes na etapa de curtimento (T1 = 6% sais de cromo Chromossal B®, T2 = 22% tanino vegetal Clarotan-x8®; T3 = 22% tanino sintético Syntac CW®; T4 = 12% tanino vegetal Weibull® + 10% tanino sintético Syntac F®; T5 = 22% tanino vegetal Weibull®. Foram retirados os corpos de prova do couro, na região dorsal, no sentido longitudinal e transversal em relação ao eixo céfalo-caudal. Os agentes curtentes e retirada dos corpos de prova não influenciaram no teste de tração (9,28 a 11,63 N mm-2 e força aplicada (17,91 N a 24,85 N nos testes. Os curtimentos com sais de cromo (62,85% e Clarotan–x8® (70,28% proporcionaram maiores valores de alongamento em relação aos demais agentes curtentes utilizados. Os corpos de prova do couro no sentido transversal (59,12% apresentaram maior alongamento comparado ao longitudinal (49,72%. Os curtimentos com sais de cromo (22,70 N mm-1, Clarotan–x8® (25,94 N mm-1 e Weibull® (21,58 N mm-1 proporcionaram couros com maior resistência ao rasgamento. O sentido de retirada dos corpos de prova no couro não influenciou no rasgamento progressivo. As técnicas de curtimento com sais de cromo e Clarotan-x8® proporcionaram couros com melhores valores de resistência ao alongamento e rasgamento progressivo.The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the action of different tanning agents in the processing of rabbit hides over skin resistance. Fifty skins of rabbit hides were submitted to different tanning agents in the tanning stage (T1 = 6% Chromossal B® chrome salts; T2 = 22% Clarotan–x8® vegetable tannin; T3 = 22% Syntac CW® synthetic tannin; T4 = 12% Weibull® vegetable tannin + 10% Syntac F® synthetic tannin; T5 = 22% Weibull® vegetable tannin. The specimens were removed from

  20. Cardioplegia using low volumic cardioplegic agents: morphological study in isolated rabbit hearts Cardioplegia utilizando baixo volume de agentes cardioplégicos: estudo morfológico em coração isolado de coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Marques Lima-Oliveira

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pharmacological cardioplegic solution aims to eliminate the consequences of ischemic damage, which results from the misbalance between the offer and consumption of energy during the arrest of the heart beats during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. OBJECTIVES: This research experimentally evaluates the structural and ultrastructural changes in isolated rabbit hearts submitted to arrest protected by a Low Volumetric Cardioplegic Solution (LVCS. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study counted with a control group and two experimental groups. In group I the cardiac arrest was obtained by infusion of the LVCS for 2 hours. In group II the experiment was conducted in the same way until the arrest protected by LVCS for 2 hours, and immediately after reperfusion was performed with the Ringer Locke (RL oxygenated solution for 1 hour. In the control group the hearts were perfused with the RL oxygenated solution for 2 hours. After the experiments, 8 samples of the left ventricle were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and 2.5% glutaraldehyde for histological and ultrastructural analysis. RESULTS: The myocardial cells, the fibroblasts and the endothelial cells which were observed in the experimental groups I and II, presented with marginalization of the heterochromatin, compaction of the nucleolus, change in the morphology of the mitochondria and compaction of the cristae. Also there was an increase of the density of the mitochondrial matrix. This indicates that the nuclear structure as well as the structure of the cytoplasmic organelles were altered when compared to the cells of the control group. CONCLUSION: The structural modifications were due a physiological adaptation of the cell, and not an indication of oncosis or apoptosis, suggesting that the cardioplegic solution used was efficient for the preservation of the cells.INTRODUÇÃO: A solução cardioplégica farmacológica busca eliminar as conseqüências do dano isquêmico, que é o

  1. Multiphoton microscopic imaging of rabbit dorsal skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xu, Yahao; Hong, Zhipeng; Chen, Jing; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2015-01-01

    Rabbits are often preferred to be experimental animals during the skin research. The visualizing and understanding the full-thickness structure of rabbit skin has significance in biology, medicine, and animal husbandry. In this study, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was employed to examine the rabbit skin on the back, which was based on second harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence. High-resolution images were achieved from the fresh, unfixed, and unstained tissues, showing detailed microstructure of the skin without the administration of exogenous contrast agents. The morphology and distribution of the main components of epidermis and dermis, such as keratin, collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and hair follicles, can be distinctly identified in MPM images. Since the changes in these components are tightly related to skin diseases and wound healing, the noninvasive nature of MPM enables it become a valuable tool in skin research for detecting and monitoring. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Utilization of tropical rabbits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The productive performance of rabbits was evaluated on diets of alfalfa meal and tropical forages. The results showed that rabbits can utilize high forage diets wlth little or no cereal grain. Several tropical legumes (Desmodium distortum, Macrop tilium lathyroides, Clitoria ternata and Cassra tora) have the same feeding ...

  3. Pharmacokinetics of chloroquine in diabetic rabbits | Adelusi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pharmacokinetic parameters derived from diabetic rabbits have been compared to those of normal rabbits. Two sets of rabbits were used, normal rabbits and diabetic rabbits. The diabetic rabbits were obtained by inducing diabetes in rabbits using streptozotocin. Chloroquine at a dose of 10 mg/kg was administered to ...

  4. Ozone-Induced Hypertussive Responses in Rabbits and Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, Emlyn; Patacchini, Riccardo; Trevisani, Marcello; Preti, Delia; Bran?, Maria Pia; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Cough remains a major unmet clinical need, and preclinical animal models are not predictive for new antitussive agents. We have investigated the mechanisms and pharmacological sensitivity of ozone-induced hypertussive responses in rabbits and guinea pigs. Ozone induced a significant increase in cough frequency and a decrease in time to first cough to inhaled citric acid in both conscious guinea pigs and rabbits. This response was inhibited by the established antitussive drugs codeine and levo...

  5. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Sara A; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H M

    2016-09-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (0, 60, and 23 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates. Dutch rabbits are unlikely to be a zoonotic source.

  6. RabbitMQ essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dossot, David

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y

  7. Prescription diets for rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Laila Maftoum; Mayer, Jörg

    2014-09-01

    Dietary management can be used with drug therapy for the successful treatment of many diseases. Therapeutic nutrition is well-recognized in dogs and cats and is beginning to increase among other pet species, including rabbits. The nutritional component of some rabbit diseases (eg, urolithiasis) is not completely understood, and the clinician should evaluate the use of prescription diets based on the scientific literature and individual needs. Long-term feeding trials are needed to further evaluate the efficacy of prescription diets in rabbits. Prescription diets are available for selected diseases in rabbits, including diets for immediate-term, short-term, and long-term management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Welfare Impacts of Pindone Poisoning in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Penny; Brown, Samantha; Arrow, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The nature and duration of the effects of pindone poisoning in rabbits were evaluated through observational monitoring of affected animals and necropsy. Using the resulting data in a formal assessment framework, the welfare impacts of pindone poisoning were ranked as relatively higher than other vertebrate toxic agents currently used for rabbit control. Abstract Control methods used to manage unwanted impacts of the European rabbit in Australia and New Zealand include the use of toxic bait containing the anticoagulant pindone. Towards increased certainty in evaluating the animal welfare impacts of pindone poisoning in rabbits, we recorded behavioral and post-mortem data from rabbits which ingested lethal quantities of pindone bait in a laboratory trial. Pindone poisoning in rabbits resulted in welfare compromise, primarily through functional impairments related to internal haemorrhage over a maximum duration of 7 days. Applying this data to a formal assessment framework for ranking animal welfare impacts indicated that pindone had relatively high severity and also duration of welfare impacts in comparison to other rabbit control methods. PMID:26927192

  9. 30-day intravenous administration of VRCTC-310-ONCO in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanchi, Nestor O; Arias, Daniel; Martino, Pablo E; Diez, Roberto A; Costa, Luis A

    2002-02-01

    VRCTC-310-ONCO, an agent based on the snake phospholipase A2 (crotoxin), is currently under clinical development. After phase I study in patients by intramuscular administration, the interest of intravenous (IV) dosing arose. To evaluate IV administration of VRCTC-310-ONCO in rabbits, ten animals were subjected to surgical implant of fixed jugular catheter, by which they received daily IV doses of 0.03 mg/kg body weight of VRCTC-310-ONCO for 30 days (n = 8) or saline (n = 2). The procedure was well tolerated in all rabbits. One of the animals died after the sixth dose of VRCTC-310-ONCO with CNS involvement; two additional rabbits required dose-reduction. All other rabbits achieved 30 days of treatment and were sacrificed. All rabbits (even controls) developed lymphocytosis and mild anaemia, without changes in blood neutrophils. No changes were found in serum transaminases (GOT and GPT), cholesterol, triglycerides, and y-glutamyl transpeptidase. At necropsy, chronic granulation tissue was found surrounding the implant in all rabbits. VRCTC-3 10-ONCO-treated rabbits presented generalised and marked swelling of hepatocytes, with areas of cytoplasmic vacuolisation. No abnormalities were found in kidney, heart, lung, spleen, adrenal gland, uterus, testes and ovary. Additional studies with IV route for VRCTC-310-ONCO, including humans, are required to define its toxicity in the clinical setting.

  10. Nutrition of the domestic rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeke, P R

    1976-08-01

    Recent studies on the nutritional needs of the rabbit were reviewed. Emphasis was placed on fiber utilization by rabbits, digestibility of forage protein, and unique aspects of mineral and vitamin requirements. In spite of the herbivorous nature of rabbits, their ability to digest fiber is low. Indigestible fiber may have a role in preventing enteritis. While lacking the ability to efficiently digest fiber, rabbits do make efficient use of forage protein, in contrast to most other monogastric animals. Differences in serum calcium homeostasis and calcium excretion as compared with other animals were discussed. The interrelationship between vitamin E and selenium appears different in the rabbit compared with other species. The limited information available on rabbit nutrition suggests that rabbits are unusual in their metabolism of several nutrients; because of their wide use in biological research, more extensive information on nutritional and metabolic characteristics of rabbits is needed.

  11. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60?% respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates. Dutch rabbits are unlikely to be a zoonotic source. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12560-016-9239-3) contains supplementary material, which is avail...

  12. Progress in biological threat agent vaccine development: a repeat-dose toxicity study of a recombinant ricin toxin A-chain (rRTA) 1-33/44-198 vaccine (RVEc) in male and female New Zealand white rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, Daniel E; Horn, Thomas L; Detrisac, Carol J; Lindsey, Changhong Y; Smith, Leonard A

    2011-03-01

    A recombinant ricin toxin A-chain 1-33/44-198 vaccine (RVEc) was administered to male and female New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits (10/sex/group) in a repeat-dose toxicity study. The RVEc vaccine was administered on study days 1, 29, 57, and 85 via intramuscular (IM) injection (0, 100, or 200 μg/dose). All study animals were observed throughout treatment until euthanized and submitted for necropsy on study day 88 or 99 (recovery period). There were no treatment-related or toxicologically significant effects observed. There were no statistically significant differences noted in the antibody titers and/or concentrations in 100 μg RVEc-treated animals when compared to 200 μg RVEc-treated animals, suggesting that both doses produced comparable antibody titers/concentrations during the study. The highest immune response was observed on study day 99 (ie, 2 weeks after the last dose). The immune response observed demonstrated that RVEc is biologically active in the rabbit model, with no apparent marked sex differences.

  13. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/140114432; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  14. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  15. Rabbit Repellent Paint

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Five gallons of rabbit repellent paint were sent to George Wilson to be applied on the trees of the Tewaukon tree plot. Mr. Wilson requires a 3 or 4 in. brush for...

  16. Sildenafil Stimulates Aqueous Humor Turnover in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Zamudio, Aldo C.; Candia, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ≈ 2 hrs of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ≈ 45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90–120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 μL/min to 3.14 μL/min (PViagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

  17. Laparoscopic ovariectomy in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Al-Badrany

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative evaluation of three different techniques of laparoscopic ovariectomy was carried out in 33 healthy female in rabbits, which included resection and removal of ovary after clip application, electrocautery of the ovary, then resection, and pulling ovary outside abdomen, ligation by silk, then ovary was removed. The ovaries and associated structures were better visualized by laparoscopy and all three techniques were carried out perfectly. All rabbits after operation were healthy and they were monitored for one month after operation. However, 3 of them died after operation, two of them died due to bleeding and the other of them died due to unknown causes. General anesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine i.m., was suitable for this technique, and the anesthesia provided good analgesia and good muscle relaxation. CO2 was used to establish pneumoperitoneum. In conclusion, resection and removal of the ovaries after clip application technique was found superior to the other two techniques.

  18. Rabbit renotropic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Areas, J.; Yun, G.C.; Rahmat, J.; Gersten, D.; Goel, R.; Preuss, H.G.

    1988-04-01

    Elevated levels of a specific renal growth factor, renotropin, have been associated with spontaneous hypertension. To examine this association more closely, we have undertaken the development of a better assay system to characterize and purify renotropin. Sera from rabbits prior to operation (control) and at a specified time after unilateral nephrectomy (uni) were examined for renotropic activity. Comparing the effects of uni to control sera in the same rabbit, significant stimulation of 3H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of primary rabbit kidney cultures incubated in D-valine medium to eliminate fibroblast growth was noted: at 3 days postoperatively 73% (n = 13), at 7 days 103% (n = 39), at 10 days 130% (n = 31), at 21 days 101% (n = 24), at 42 days 89% (n = 13). All values were at least P less than 0.01. The stimulatory properties were dose-dependent but reached a plateau at high serum concentrations. Comparing CPM/mg protein in uni/control in different concentrations of sera 7 days postoperatively, uni versus control were 67/44 at 5% v/v, 139/72 at 10% v/v, 261/161 at 20% v/v, and 243/136 at 40% v/v. The renotropic effect of uni sera remained after dialysis in incubation medium and after sera were heated in boiling water for 5 minutes. Renal extracts obtained from growing kidneys 7 days postnephrectomy augmented renotropic activity. Atrial natriuretic factor, ouabain, PGF2 alpha, PGE1, and cAMP did not possess renotropic activity. We conclude that the primary rabbit kidney culture assay for renotropin is highly sensitive and will be an important tool to comprehend the role of renotropin in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

  19. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K.; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit......Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit...

  20. Associations with rabbits and rabbit meat of three different ethnic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Associations with rabbits and rabbit meat of three different ethnic groups in Stellenbosch, South Africa. LC Hoffman, C Vosloo, P Nkhabutlane, DW Schutte. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  2. Reported analgesic administration to rabbits undergoing experimental surgical procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leach Matthew C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has become widely accepted that whenever animals are used in scientific procedures, the 3Rs principle of replacement, reduction and refinement described by William Russell and Rex Burch should be adhered to. Animals should be replaced with non-sentient alternatives if possible, the number of animals used should be reduced and experimental procedures should be refined to minimise pain, suffering and distress. Administration of analgesic agents to animals undergoing surgical procedures is a refinement used to alleviate pain. In this study, a structured literature review was carried out to examine current trends in analgesic administration to rabbits undergoing experimental surgical procedures. Results 128 papers from 51 peer-reviewed journals were selected for inclusion in this review. Reporting administration of systemic analgesia to rabbits in peer-reviewed scientific papers increased significantly from 16% to 50% between 1995-1997 and 2005-2007 (P P Conclusions Although this review provides evidence that systemic analgesic administration to rabbits undergoing surgical procedures is increasing, rabbits do not always receive analgesia when they undergo experimental surgery. Other practices in rabbit perioperative care that could be improved, highlighted by this survey include: 1 changing the timing of analgesic administration by giving systemic analgesics pre- or perioperatively rather than only postoperatively, 2 using multimodal analgesia when pain is likely to be moderate to severe and 3 increasing the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and use of other techniques such as epidural analgesia particularly for orthopaedic procedures.

  3. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  4. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadel, Joseph E.; Ward, S. M.; Rivers, Thomas M.

    1940-01-01

    A second soluble antigen, separable from the virus, occurs in extracts of infected skin and in the serum of rabbits acutely ill with infectious myxomatosis. Like the first antigen (A), the second (B) is heat labile and has certain characteristics of a globulin. The two antigens precipitate in different concentrations of ammonium sulfate and can be separated by this method. Neither of the antigens after being heated at 56°C. precipitates in the presence of specific antibody but each is capable of inhibiting the activity of its antibody. PMID:19871012

  5. Acupuncture analgesia in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, C; Leung, C Y; Robitaille, R; Roy-Chabot, T

    1979-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the validity and reliability of analgesia elicited by acupuncture stimulation in rabbits. Ninety-five experiments were performed using 21 adult animals. The reaction time of the avoidance response elicited by noxious heat stimulation on the snout, and the presence or absence of the start response elicited by pin-prick and clamping of the skin were studied. Bilateral electric acupuncture stimulation in the area of Tsu-san-li and Shang-chu-hsu points in the hind legs was used. The animals were either held in a soft bag, loosely attached by cords, or suspended in a hammock; the eyes were either free of blindfolded. On the basis of operational behavioral measurements, it was found that acupuncture stimulation did not produce analgesia in undisturbed, placid animals. However, during agitated or fighting periods and the immobility reflex-like state, sometimes associated with acupuncture maneuvers, long reaction times were observed. Pin-pricking and clamping stimulation of the skin were not reliable methods of noxious stimulation in the rabbit.

  6. The Use of Ozonized Oil in the Treatment of Dermatophitosis Caused by Microsporum Canis in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Daud, Fernanda Vasquez; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko; Navarini, Alessandra; M?mica, Lycia Mara Jenn?

    2011-01-01

    The ozone is effective against most microorganisms due to its high oxidant power. Low concentrations and short-term contact are sufficient to inactivate bacteria, mold, yeast, parasites, seaweeds, protozoa and fungi. Microsporum canis is an important agent of dermatophitosis in human and animal. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy of ozonized oil over Microsporum canis in rabbits. Eighteen male New Zealand white rabbits, weight ranging from 2 to 3.2 kg were depilated in th...

  7. Biosecurity practices and causes of enteritis on Ontario meat rabbit farms

    OpenAIRE

    Kylie, Jennifer; Brash, Marina; Whiteman, Ashley; Tapscott, Brian; Slavic, Durda; Weese, J. Scott; Turner, Patricia V.

    2017-01-01

    Infectious enterocolitis is a significant cause of mortality in meat rabbits. Disease risk is enhanced by intensive rearing practices and poor on-farm biosecurity. This investigation was undertaken in farmed meat rabbits during an Ontario-wide outbreak of enteritis with high mortality to determine the prevalence of causative agents. A survey evaluating on-farm biosecurity practices was also conducted to identify potential means of pathogen contamination and zoonotic risks. Gross and microscop...

  8. Oculoscopy in Rabbits and Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekl, Vladimir; Hauptman, Karel; Knotek, Zdenek

    2015-09-01

    Ophthalmic diseases are common in rabbits and rodents. Fast and definitive diagnosis is imperative for successful treatment of ocular diseases. Ophthalmic examination in rabbits and rodents can be challenging. Oculoscopy offers great magnification for the examination of the ocular structures in such animals, including the evaluation of cornea, anterior eye chamber, limbus, iris, lens, and retina. To date, oculoscopy has been described only sporadically and/or under experimental conditions. This article describes the oculoscopy technique, normal and abnormal ocular findings, and the most common eye disorders diagnosed with the aid of endoscopy in rabbits and rodents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Kinetics and tolerability of intravitreal pefloxacin in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochereau-Massin, I; Marrakchi-Benjaafar, S; Bauchet, J; Vallois, J M; Faurisson, F; D'Hermies, F; Pocidalo, J J

    1994-02-01

    In the treatment of patients with bacterial endophthalmitis, the intravitreal administration of antibiotics is suitable for induction therapy since it provides immediate high concentrations in the vitreous humor. Pefloxacin has been shown to have good intraocular penetration when given systemically. In order to extend the potential routes of administration of this agent, we have assessed the kinetics and toxicity of pefloxacin in rabbit phakic eyes following intravitreal instillation. Kinetic parameters were determined for 12 albino and 12 pigmented rabbits after a single injection of 80 micrograms. Pefloxacin was undetectable in the aqueous humor but high concentrations were found in the chorioretina. The vitreal half-life was short (3 h). These results were consistent with posterior elimination via the chorioretina. Pefloxacin concentrations in the iris and chorioretina of pigmented rabbits were two-fold greater than those in albino rabbits, probably because of binding to the pigmentary apparatus. Toxicity studies, including ophthalmological and histopathological investigations, identified a maximum non-toxic dosage of 400 micrograms. Intravitreal pefloxacin may therefore be suitable for induction therapy in patients with endophthalmitis, although further studies in primates are required to confirm the efficacy and tolerability of this route of administration.

  10. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  11. Effects of Repeated Oral Administration of Pazufloxacin Mesylate and Meloxicam on the Antioxidant Status in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adil Mehraj; Rampal, Satyavan

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged antibiotic and antiinflammatory therapy for complicated infections exposes the body to xenobiotics that can produce several adverse effects for which oxidative damage is the proposed underlying mechanism. In this context, we evaluated the effect of pazufloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial, and meloxicam, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, on antioxidant parameters and lipid peroxidation in rabbits after oral administration for 21 d. Reduced glutathione levels were significantly decreased in rabbits (n = 4 per group) given pazufloxacin, meloxicam, or their combination. In addition, glutathione peroxidase activity was induced in the rabbits treated with pazufloxacin only. Administration of pazufloxacin and meloxicam, as single agents as well as in combination, produced significant lipid peroxidation compared with levels in untreated controls. In conclusion, both pazufloxacin and meloxicam potentially can induce oxidative damage in rabbits. PMID:25199097

  12. Myxoma virus in the European rabbit: interactions between the virus and its susceptible host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Marianne M; Werden, Steven J; McFadden, Grant

    2007-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MV) is a poxvirus that evolved in Sylvilagus lagomorphs, and is the causative agent of myxomatosis in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). This virus is not a natural pathogen of O. cuniculus, yet is able to subvert the host rabbit immune system defenses and cause a highly lethal systemic infection. The interaction of MV proteins and the rabbit immune system has been an ideal model to help elucidate host/poxvirus interactions, and has led to a greater understanding of how other poxvirus pathogens are able to cause disease in their respective hosts. This review will examine how MV causes myxomatosis, by examining a selection of the identified immunomodulatory proteins that this virus expresses to subvert the immune and inflammatory pathways of infected rabbit hosts.

  13. Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

    2010-10-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent.

  14. Production of Polyclonal Antibodies in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Increased hemosiderin pigment within splenic macrophages was seen in four of the rabbits. The reports by the histopathologist are included in Appendix A...hypoplasia in the spleens of all five rabbits and varying levels of increased U I I Page 21 hemosiderin pigment within splenic macrophages in four of the...99 and 443. Increased hemosiderin pigment within splenic macrophages was noted in 5/6 rabbits and was especially prominent in rabbit #99. I

  15. RABBIT POX : II. PATHOLOGY OF THE EPIDEMIC DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, H S

    1934-09-30

    The lesions found in animals with epidemic rabbit pox have been described in this paper. The most distinctive gross lesion in all organs and tissues was the small nodule or papule which was found to consist of mononuclear infiltration and necrosis. Diffuse lesions were also found in which the infiltration was widespread and accompanied by edema, hemorrhage and extensive necrosis of affected tissues and organs. The possibility of the diffuse lesions being due to the action of secondary invaders was considered, but available evidence indicated that the different types, including pneumonia, represented reactions to a single causative agent. Moreover, an intimate relationship was observed to exist between lesions and small blood vessels in which primary endothelial damage was usually apparent. The degree of vascular damage generally corresponded to the extent of the lesion and it is probable that this in turn corresponded to the dose of the causative agent. The close analogy between the clinical manifestations and pathological processes of this disease in the rabbit and small pox in man led to the conclusion that the disease in the rabbit is essentially the same as small pox, and that it is probably produced by a virus closely related to the virus of small pox. Available evidence indicated that the infection originated in the Institute and that it spread in atypical form or masked by some other disease until it reached the breeding colony as a clearly defined epidemic infection.

  16. European Rabbits as Reservoir for Coxiella burnetii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barrio, David; Maio, Elisa; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    We studied the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a reservoir for Coxiella burnetii in the Iberian region. High individual and population seroprevalences observed in wild and farmed rabbits, evidence of systemic infections, and vaginal shedding support the reservoir role of the European rabbit for C. burnetii.

  17. Necrotizing gastritis associated with Clostridium septicum in a rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jorge P; Moore, Janet; Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Diab, Santiago S; Uzal, Francisco A

    2014-09-01

    Clostridium septicum is the causative agent of histotoxic infections, including malignant edema and braxy (necrotizing abomasitis) in several animal species. The carcass of a 2-year-old, female New Zealand white rabbit with a history of acute depression and obtundation followed by death was received at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (San Bernardino, California) for necropsy and diagnostic workup. No gross lesions were detected at necropsy. Microscopically, there was moderate to severe, multifocal fibrinonecrotizing, transmural gastritis with numerous intralesional Gram-positive, sporulated rods, and disseminated thrombosis of the brain, lungs, heart, and liver, with occasional intravascular rods. The rods observed within the gastric wall and thrombi in the stomach and lung were positive for C. septicum by immunohistochemical staining. However, this microorganism was not isolated from stomach content. Clostridium septicum should be included in the list of possible etiologies of gastritis in rabbits. © 2014 The Author(s).

  18. Disorders of the Reproductive Tract of Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt-Brown, Frances Margaret

    2017-05-01

    Disorders of the reproductive tract are common in rabbits. Conditions are different in rabbits that are farmed for their meat or fur and those that are kept as pets. Farmed rabbits suffer from infections and diseases associated with pregnancy. Congenital abnormalities are more likely to be recognized and treated in pet rabbits. Pet rabbits suffer from age-related changes to their genital tract (hyperplasia, neoplasia, or hernias). Neutering is an important part of prevention and treatment of reproductive disorders. Knowledge of normal male and female reproductive anatomy is essential to prevent complications. These are described and illustrated. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence-Based Advances in Rabbit Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Brandão, João

    2017-09-01

    Rabbit medicine has been continuously evolving over time with increasing popularity and demand. Tremendous advances have been made in rabbit medicine over the past 5 years, including the use of imaging tools for otitis and dental disease management, the development of laboratory testing for encephalitozoonosis, or determination of prognosis in rabbits. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have been published, providing additional information on commonly used antibiotics and motility-enhancer drugs, as well as benzimidazole toxicosis. This article presents a review of evidence-based advances for liver lobe torsions, thymoma, and dental disease in rabbits and controversial and new future promising areas in rabbit medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression and immunolocalisation of TpFABP as a candidate antigen for the serodiagnosis of rabbit Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Deying; Chen, Lin; Xie, Yue; Wu, Xuhang; Nong, Xiang; Peng, Xi; Lai, Weimin; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    The larval stage of Taenia pisiformis, also known as Cysticercus pisiformis, is the causative agent of cysticercosis and the cause of severe health problems in rabbits that negatively impacts on husbandry production. To date, there is no fast detection method to identify early infections in rabbits. In the present study, a new dot-ELISA-based on an endogenous antigen fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) was developed for the detection of cysticercosis, and its potential was then evaluated using ...

  1. Adverse fetal outcomes in pregnant rabbits experimentally infected with rabbit hepatitis E virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hee-Seop; Han, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Park, Byung-Joo; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Choi, Changsun; Myoung, Jinjong; Choi, In-Soo

    2017-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes severe hepatitis in pregnant women, with associated poor fetal outcomes. To study HEV viral pathogenesis, pregnant rabbits were infected with low- and high-dose rabbit HEV at 2 weeks gestation. HEV was identified in the serum, feces, and liver tissue of infected rabbits, and dose-dependent fetal mortality rates ranging from 67% to 80% were observed. The aspartate transaminase (AST)/alanine transaminase ratio was significantly higher (P rabbits than low-dose infected and negative control rabbits 14 days post infection (dpi). Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was significantly higher in low-dose (P rabbits (P rabbits produced significantly more interferon-γ (IFN-γ; P rabbits at 7 and 14 dpi. High levels of AST, TNF-α, and IFN-γ may substantially influence adverse fetal outcomes in pregnant rabbits infected with high-dose HEV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Model of evoked rabbit phonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ping Jiang; French, Lesley C; Ohno, Tsunehisa; Zealear, David L; Rousseau, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method for eliciting phonation in an in vivo rabbit preparation using low-frequency, bipolar pulsed stimulation of the cricothyroid muscles with airflow delivered to the glottis. Ten New Zealand White breeder rabbits weighing 3 to 5 kg were used in this study. The cricothyroid muscles were isolated bilaterally, and separate pairs of anode-cathode hooked-wire electrodes were inserted into each muscle. A Grass S-88 stimulator and 2 constant-current PSIU6 isolation units were used to deliver bipolar square wave pulses to each cricothyroid muscle, with airflow delivered to the glottis through a cuffed endotracheal tube. Phonation was evoked with a 50-Hz, 4-mA stimulus train of 1-ms pulses delivered to each cricothyroid muscle. The pulse trains were on for 2 seconds and were repeated every 5 seconds over a period of 180 minutes. Airflow was delivered at 143 cm3/s, producing phonation measuring 71 to 85 dB sound pressure level. Evoked phonation is feasible in rabbits by use of bipolar stimulation of the cricothyroid muscles with airflow delivered to the glottis. The in vivo rabbit preparation described may provide a useful small animal option for studies of evoked phonation. From the level and consistency of the adduction observed, we hypothesize that current spreading to the underlying adductor muscles and nerves resulted in neural pathway involvement beyond discrete activation of the cricothyroid muscle, providing sufficient approximation of the vocal folds for phonation.

  3. Evaluation Of A Haemostatic Agent In Rabbits | Turhan | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animals were observed for 1 hr before euthanasia was performed by administering 40 mg of intracardiac suxamethonium chloride. In the event of death (cardiopulmonary arrest) before the end of the planned observation period of 60 minutes, time of death was recorded and histopathological examination of the liver and ...

  4. Pheromone-Induced Olfactory Memory in Newborn Rabbits: Involvement of Consolidation and Reconsolidation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coureaud, Gerard; Languille, Solene; Schaal, Benoist; Hars, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Mammary pheromone (MP)-induced odor memory is a new model of appetitive memory functioning early in a mammal, the newborn rabbit. Some properties of this associative memory are analyzed by the use of anisomycin as an amnesic agent. Long-term memory (LTM) was impaired by anisomycin delivered immediately, but not 4 h after either acquisition or…

  5. Using a Single Blood Sample and Inulin to Estimate Glomerular Filtration Rate in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigoshi, Yuuki; Yamagishi, Norio; Satoh, Hiroshi; Kato, Masaki; Furuhama, Kazuhisa

    2011-01-01

    To establish a simple procedure for estimating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in conscious rabbits, we used the conventional multisample approach to develop a single-blood-sample method. A bolus injection of inulin was administered intravenously at a dose of 40 mg/kg to male New Zealand White rabbits, and blood was collected 30, 60, 90, and 120 min later. Serum inulin, urea nitrogen, and creatinine concentrations were determined. Using this multi-sample method, the reference GFR in clinically healthy rabbits was 4.01 ± 0.17 mL/min/kg (n = 17). In rabbits given an intravenous injection of the antitumor agent cisplatin, GFR fell before serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations increased. Based on cumulative GFR data from healthy and nephropathy rabbits, the GFR obtained from the 3-sample method (30-, 60-, and 90-min samples) was closely correlated (r = 0.99) with that calculated from the estimated distribution volume and serum inulin concentration at 90 min after inulin injection in the single-blood-sample method. These results demonstrate that the single-blood-sample method supports sequential GFR measurements in rabbits and is a versatile procedure not only for research purposes but also in clinical settings. PMID:22330718

  6. EXPERIMENTAL LIPEMIA IN RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Thomas R.; Morris, Roger S.

    1909-01-01

    In reviewing the literature, no description of a lipemia occurring in relation to simple hemorrhage was found, so that the observation of the phenomenon here recorded would seem to be new. Very high percentages of fat have been found in the blood of diabetics. Fischer's case showed 18.1 per cent total ether extract. Of this very little was free fat (0.0018 gm. potassium hydroxide per gram of fat); iodine absorption was 60.6 per cent.; cholesterin, 2.6 per cent. Chatin's case, cited by Fischer, showed 1.2 per cent. cholesterin, 66.5 per cent. olein, 32.2 per cent. margarin in the fat. Neisser and Derlin in the ether extract of blood from a patient with diabetic coma found 19.7 per cent. fat, with melting point of from 39° to 41° C.; iodine absorption was 53.6 per cent. Javal in a similar case found 25.4 per cent. of fat in ether extract of dry serum (perhaps by Soxhlet method); 21 per cent. of the fat was lecithin. Bleibtreu produced alimentary lipemia in geese by feeding barley and butter. Ether extract of serum showed 6 per cent. of fat. The serum was milky with invisible droplets. Iodine absorption was 57 to 58 per cent. The fat was quite different, chemically, from the fat in the food. Lipemia disappeared a few days after discontinuing the forced feeding. Our experiments suggest, by analogy, the possible occurrence of lipemia in human anemias. In this connection it is of interest to note that we have recently demonstrated a moderate lipemia in a case of marked secondary anemia from hemorrhoids. The emaciation in such cases, as contrasted with the well-recognized conservation of the fat in pernicious anemia, suggests in human pathology a still further analogy which we now have under investigation. The fat in our lipemic rabbits differs from fats described above in its insolubility, as well as in its "constants." The change after precipitation of calcium from the serum suggests that the fat may be present in the serum as a protein-calcium-lecithin combination

  7. A survey exploring factors associated with 2890 companion-rabbit owners' knowledge of rabbit care and the neuter status of their companion rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Tasha; Coe, Jason B; Niel, Lee; McCobb, Emily

    2017-02-01

    Pet owners' knowledge of pet care has been shown to affect the human-animal relationship and the welfare of companion animals. With rabbits being the third most common companion animal in many regions, and evidence of owners' lack of awareness for the standards of care required to care for companion rabbits, it is important to understand the knowledge level of rabbit owners and determine how companion rabbits are being cared for. The purpose of this study was to survey rabbit owners in order to explore factors associated with their knowledge of rabbit care, and the neuter status of their companion rabbit. Current rabbit owners (n=2890) completed an online survey investigating acquisition of their companion rabbit, husbandry and care of their current rabbit, neuter status of their rabbit, owners' knowledge of rabbit care and owners' attachment to their current rabbit. An approximation of logistic regression modeling revealed increasing attachment (powners, the current study suggests acquisition sources, veterinarians, and companion-animal professionals can have an important role in the development of companion-rabbit owners' knowledge of rabbit care and in promoting the importance of neutering companion rabbits. Efforts to develop accessible resources to assist with educating companion-rabbit owners is important to ensuring successful rabbit-owner relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spontaneous Latency in a Rabbit Model of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbian, Selvakumar; Tsenova, Liana; O'Brien, Paul; Yang, Guibin; Kushner, Nicole L.; Parsons, Sven; Peixoto, Blas; Fallows, Dorothy; Kaplan, Gilla

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is an exquisitely adapted human pathogen capable of surviving for decades in the lungs of immune-competent individuals in the absence of disease. The World Health Organization estimates that 2 billion people have latent TB infection (LTBI), defined by a positive immunological response to Mtb antigens, with no clinical signs of disease. A better understanding of host and pathogen determinants of LTBI and subsequent reactivation would benefit TB control efforts. Animal models of LTBI have been hampered generally by an inability to achieve complete bacillary clearance. Herein, we have characterized a rabbit model of LTBI in which, similar to most humans, complete clearance of pulmonary Mtb infection and pathological characteristics occurs spontaneously. The evidence that Mtb-CDC1551–infected rabbits achieve LTBI, rather than sterilization, is based on the ability of the bacilli to be reactivated after immune suppression. These rabbits showed early activation of T cells and macrophages and an early peak in the TNFα level, which decreased in association with clearance of bacilli from the lungs. In the absence of sustained tumor necrosis factor-α production, no necrosis was seen in the evolving lung granulomas. In addition, bacillary control was associated with down-regulation of several metalloprotease genes and an absence of lung fibrosis. This model will be used to characterize molecular markers of protective immunity and reactivation. PMID:22960076

  9. Biomechanics of sclera crosslinked using genipin in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Xiang Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To strengthen the biomechanics of collagen by crosslinking rabbit scleral collagen with genipin to develop a new therapy for preventing myopic progression. METHODS: Ten New Zealand rabbits were treated with 0.5 mmol/L genipin injected into the sub-Tenon’s capsule in the right eyes. Untreated contralateral eyes served as the control. The treated area was cut into scleral strips measuring 4.0 mm×10.0 mm for stress-strain measurements (n=5. The remaining five treated eyes were prepared for histological examination. RESULTS: Compared to the untreated scleral strips, the genipin-crosslinked scleral strips showed that the ultimate stress and Young’s modulus at 10% strain were increased by the amplitude of 130% and 303% respectively, ultimate strain was decreased by 24%. There had no (-smooth muscle actin ((-SMA positive cells in control and treated sclera. Histologically, there was no sign of apoptosis in the sclera, choroid, and retina; and no side effects were found in the peripheral cornea and optic nerve adjacent to the treatment area. CONCLUSION: Genipin induced crosslinking of collagen can increase its biomechanical behavior by direct strengthening of the extracellular matrix in rabbit sclera, with no (-SMA expression seen in the myofibroblasts. As there is no evidence of cytotoxicity in the scleral, choroidal, and retinal cells, genipin is likely a promising agent to strengthen the weakened sclera to prevent myopic progression.

  10. Immunosuppression abrogates resistance of young rabbits to Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) is caused by a calicivirus (RHDV) that kills 90% of infected adult European rabbits within 3 days. Remarkably, young rabbits are resistant to RHD. We induced immunosuppression in young rabbits by treatment with methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) and challenged the animals with RHDV by intramuscular injection. All of these young rabbits died within 3 days of infection due to fulminant hepatitis, presenting a large number of RHDV-positive dead or apoptotic hepatocytes, and a significant seric increase in cytokines, features that are similar to those of naïve adult rabbits infected by RHDV. We conclude that MPA-induced immunosuppression abrogates the resistance of young rabbits to RHD, indicating that there are differences in the innate immune system between young and adult rabbits that contribute to their distinct resistance/susceptibility to RHDV infection. PMID:24490832

  11. How does domain replacement affect fibril formation of the rabbit/human prion proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yan

    Full Text Available It is known that in vivo human prion protein (PrP have the tendency to form fibril deposits and are associated with infectious fatal prion diseases, while the rabbit PrP does not readily form fibrils and is unlikely to cause prion diseases. Although we have previously demonstrated that amyloid fibrils formed by the rabbit PrP and the human PrP have different secondary structures and macromolecular crowding has different effects on fibril formation of the rabbit/human PrPs, we do not know which domains of PrPs cause such differences. In this study, we have constructed two PrP chimeras, rabbit chimera and human chimera, and investigated how domain replacement affects fibril formation of the rabbit/human PrPs.As revealed by thioflavin T binding assays and Sarkosyl-soluble SDS-PAGE, the presence of a strong crowding agent dramatically promotes fibril formation of both chimeras. As evidenced by circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and proteinase K digestion assays, amyloid fibrils formed by human chimera have secondary structures and proteinase K-resistant features similar to those formed by the human PrP. However, amyloid fibrils formed by rabbit chimera have proteinase K-resistant features and secondary structures in crowded physiological environments different from those formed by the rabbit PrP, and secondary structures in dilute solutions similar to the rabbit PrP. The results from transmission electron microscopy show that macromolecular crowding caused human chimera but not rabbit chimera to form short fibrils and non-fibrillar particles.We demonstrate for the first time that the domains beyond PrP-H2H3 (β-strand 1, α-helix 1, and β-strand 2 have a remarkable effect on fibrillization of the rabbit PrP but almost no effect on the human PrP. Our findings can help to explain why amyloid fibrils formed by the rabbit PrP and the human PrP have different secondary structures and why macromolecular crowding has different

  12. Experimental Infection of Rabbits with Rabbit and Genotypes 1 and 4 Hepatitis E Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, H. X.; Zheng, L.; Liu, Y. B.; Zhao, C. Y.; Harrison, T. J.; Ma, Y. Y.; Sun, S. H.; Zhang, J. G.; Wang, Y. C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A recent study provided evidence that farmed rabbits in China harbor a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype. Although the rabbit HEV isolate had 77-79% nucleotide identity to the mammalian HEV genotypes 1 to 4, their genomic organization is very similar. Since rabbits are used widely experimentally, including as models of infection, we investigated whether they constitute an appropriate animal model for human HEV infection. METHODS: Forty-two SPF rabbits were divided randomly in...

  13. White Rabbit Status and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M; Beck, D; Hoffmann, J; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S; Terpstra, W W; Zweig, M

    2014-01-01

    The White Rabbit (WR) project started off to provide a sequencing and synchronisation solution for the needs of CERN and GSI. Since then, many other users have adopted it to solve problems in the domain of distributed hard realtime systems. The paper discusses the current performance of WR hardware, along with present and foreseen applications. It also describes current efforts to standardise WR under IEEE 1588 and recent developments on reliability of timely data distribution, finishing with an outline of future plans.

  14. Role of Households in Rabbit Production in Enugu-North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    North Agricultural Zone of Enugu State. It determined rabbit management and breeding practices of respondents, roles of households in rabbit production and constraints associated with rabbit production in the area. Multistage sampling technique ...

  15. Real time PCR detection of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus in rabbits infected with different European strains of RHDV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Hukowska-Szematowicz, B; Działo, J; Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Deptuła, W

    2013-01-01

    The paper concerns the use of a novel, very effective diagnostic method, a real-time PCR for diagnosis of a viral agent causing viral haemorrhagic disease in rabbits - RHDV. Until now, the method was widely used for detecting many different viruses, both DNA, and RNA, but as far as RHDV is concerned, there are not many records of such use. This study aimed at the detection of 17 different strains from different European regions, differing in biological features and mortality. The study confirmed that real-time PCR is an applicable and effective method for diagnosis of RHDV, irrespective of the stains' features.

  16. Ozone-Induced Hypertussive Responses in Rabbits and Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Emlyn; Patacchini, Riccardo; Trevisani, Marcello; Preti, Delia; Branà, Maria Pia; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive

    2016-04-01

    Cough remains a major unmet clinical need, and preclinical animal models are not predictive for new antitussive agents. We have investigated the mechanisms and pharmacological sensitivity of ozone-induced hypertussive responses in rabbits and guinea pigs. Ozone induced a significant increase in cough frequency and a decrease in time to first cough to inhaled citric acid in both conscious guinea pigs and rabbits. This response was inhibited by the established antitussive drugs codeine and levodropropizine. In contrast to the guinea pig, hypertussive responses in the rabbit were not inhibited by bronchodilator drugs (β2 agonists or muscarinic receptor antagonists), suggesting that the observed hypertussive state was not secondary to bronchoconstriction in this species. The ozone-induced hypertussive response in the rabbit was inhibited by chronic pretreatment with capsaicin, suggestive of a sensitization of airway sensory nerve fibers. However, we could find no evidence for a role of TRPA1 in this response, suggesting that ozone was not sensitizing airway sensory nerves via activation of this receptor. Whereas the ozone-induced hypertussive response was accompanied by a significant influx of neutrophils into the airway, the hypertussive response was not inhibited by the anti-inflammatory phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor roflumilast at a dose that clearly exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. In summary, our results suggest that ozone-induced hypertussive responses to citric acid may provide a useful model for the investigation of novel drugs for the treatment of cough, but some important differences were noted between the two species with respect to sensitivity to bronchodilator drugs. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. Rabbit model for Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, I W; Chiu, B.; Viira, E; Fong, M W; Jang, D.; Mahony, J

    1997-01-01

    A rabbit model was established for Chlamydia pneumoniae infection that may be helpful to understand the pathogenesis of disease in humans. Twelve, pathogen-free, 1-month-old New Zealand White rabbits were inoculated with 1.0 x 10(7) to 5.0 x 10(7) CFU of purified C. pneumoniae (ATCC strain VR 1310) via the nasopharynx (1 rabbit died immediately postinoculation, and 11 were available for study). Five controls were inoculated with the carrier buffer. Ten of the 11 study rabbits demonstrated ser...

  18. Fibronectin promotes epithelial migration of cultured rabbit cornea in situ

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    We investigated the effect of fibronectin on epithelial migration onto the stroma in cultured rabbit cornea. Rabbit plasma fibronectin was purified by affinity chromatography using gelatin-Sepharose 4B, and its purity was confirmed by SDS polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. Antibody against rabbit plasma fibronectin raised in guinea pigs formed a single precipitin line against rabbit plasma and purified rabbit plasma fibronectin by Ouchterlony double diffusion test. When rabbit cornea wa...

  19. Experimental Infection of Rabbits with Rabbit and Genotypes 1 and 4 Hepatitis E Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongxia; Zheng, Lin; Liu, Yunbo; Zhao, Chenyan; Harrison, Tim J.; Ma, Yuyuan; Sun, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingang; Wang, Youchun

    2010-01-01

    Background A recent study provided evidence that farmed rabbits in China harbor a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype. Although the rabbit HEV isolate had 77–79% nucleotide identity to the mammalian HEV genotypes 1 to 4, their genomic organization is very similar. Since rabbits are used widely experimentally, including as models of infection, we investigated whether they constitute an appropriate animal model for human HEV infection. Methods Forty-two SPF rabbits were divided randomly into eleven groups and inoculated with six different isolates of rabbit HEV, two different doses of a second-passage rabbit HEV, and with genotype 1 and 4 HEV. Sera and feces were collected weekly after inoculation. HEV antigen, RNA, antibody and alanine aminotransferase in sera and HEV RNA in feces were detected. The liver samples were collected during necropsy subject to histopathological examination. Findings Rabbits inoculated with rabbit HEV became infected with HEV, with viremia, fecal virus shedding and high serum levels of viral antigens, and developed hepatitis, with elevation of the liver enzyme, ALT. The severity of disease corresponded to the infectious dose (genome equivalents), with the most severe hepatic disease caused by strain GDC54-18. However, only two of nine rabbits infected with HEV genotype 4, and none infected with genotype 1, developed hepatitis although six of nine rabbits inoculated with the genotype 1 HEV and in all rabbits inoculated with the genotype 4 HEV seroconverted to be positive for anti-HEV IgG antibody by 14 weeks post-inoculation. Conclusions These data indicate that rabbits are an appropriate model for rabbit HEV infection but are not likely to be useful for the study of human HEV. The rabbit HEV infection of rabbits may provide an appropriate parallel animal model to study HEV pathogenesis. PMID:20161794

  20. Experimental infection of rabbits with rabbit and genotypes 1 and 4 hepatitis E viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongxia; Zheng, Lin; Liu, Yunbo; Zhao, Chenyan; Harrison, Tim J; Ma, Yuyuan; Sun, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingang; Wang, Youchun

    2010-02-11

    A recent study provided evidence that farmed rabbits in China harbor a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype. Although the rabbit HEV isolate had 77-79% nucleotide identity to the mammalian HEV genotypes 1 to 4, their genomic organization is very similar. Since rabbits are used widely experimentally, including as models of infection, we investigated whether they constitute an appropriate animal model for human HEV infection. Forty-two SPF rabbits were divided randomly into eleven groups and inoculated with six different isolates of rabbit HEV, two different doses of a second-passage rabbit HEV, and with genotype 1 and 4 HEV. Sera and feces were collected weekly after inoculation. HEV antigen, RNA, antibody and alanine aminotransferase in sera and HEV RNA in feces were detected. The liver samples were collected during necropsy subject to histopathological examination. Rabbits inoculated with rabbit HEV became infected with HEV, with viremia, fecal virus shedding and high serum levels of viral antigens, and developed hepatitis, with elevation of the liver enzyme, ALT. The severity of disease corresponded to the infectious dose (genome equivalents), with the most severe hepatic disease caused by strain GDC54-18. However, only two of nine rabbits infected with HEV genotype 4, and none infected with genotype 1, developed hepatitis although six of nine rabbits inoculated with the genotype 1 HEV and in all rabbits inoculated with the genotype 4 HEV seroconverted to be positive for anti-HEV IgG antibody by 14 weeks post-inoculation. These data indicate that rabbits are an appropriate model for rabbit HEV infection but are not likely to be useful for the study of human HEV. The rabbit HEV infection of rabbits may provide an appropriate parallel animal model to study HEV pathogenesis.

  1. Experimental infection of rabbits with rabbit and genotypes 1 and 4 hepatitis E viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A recent study provided evidence that farmed rabbits in China harbor a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV genotype. Although the rabbit HEV isolate had 77-79% nucleotide identity to the mammalian HEV genotypes 1 to 4, their genomic organization is very similar. Since rabbits are used widely experimentally, including as models of infection, we investigated whether they constitute an appropriate animal model for human HEV infection. METHODS: Forty-two SPF rabbits were divided randomly into eleven groups and inoculated with six different isolates of rabbit HEV, two different doses of a second-passage rabbit HEV, and with genotype 1 and 4 HEV. Sera and feces were collected weekly after inoculation. HEV antigen, RNA, antibody and alanine aminotransferase in sera and HEV RNA in feces were detected. The liver samples were collected during necropsy subject to histopathological examination. FINDINGS: Rabbits inoculated with rabbit HEV became infected with HEV, with viremia, fecal virus shedding and high serum levels of viral antigens, and developed hepatitis, with elevation of the liver enzyme, ALT. The severity of disease corresponded to the infectious dose (genome equivalents, with the most severe hepatic disease caused by strain GDC54-18. However, only two of nine rabbits infected with HEV genotype 4, and none infected with genotype 1, developed hepatitis although six of nine rabbits inoculated with the genotype 1 HEV and in all rabbits inoculated with the genotype 4 HEV seroconverted to be positive for anti-HEV IgG antibody by 14 weeks post-inoculation. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that rabbits are an appropriate model for rabbit HEV infection but are not likely to be useful for the study of human HEV. The rabbit HEV infection of rabbits may provide an appropriate parallel animal model to study HEV pathogenesis.

  2. Rabbit colony infected with a bovine-like G6P[11] rotavirus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoondermark-van de Ven, Esther; Van Ranst, Marc; de Bruin, Wieke; van den Hurk, Patrick; Zeller, Mark; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Heylen, Elisabeth

    2013-09-27

    Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are the main etiological agent of infantile diarrhea in both humans and animals worldwide. A limited number of studies have investigated the molecular characteristics of RVA strains in stool specimens of rabbits, with only a few lapine RVA strains isolated and (partially) characterized to date. The most common G/P-genotype combinations found in rabbits are G3P[14] and G3P[22]. In this study a RVA strain was isolated from the small intestine of a 9-week-old rabbit from an infected laboratory rabbit colony. The RVA strain RVA/Rabbit-tc/NLD/K1130027/2011/G6P[11] was shown to possess the typical bovine G6 and P[11] genotypes. The complete genome of this unusual lapine strain was sequenced and characterized. Phylogenetic analyses of all 11 gene segments revealed the following genotype constellation: G6-P[11]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A13-N2-T6-E2-H3. The VP1, VP2, VP3, VP6, NSP2 and NSP4 genes all belonged to DS-1-like genotype 2, but clustered more closely to bovine RVA strains than to lapine RVA strains. The NSP1 genotype A13 is typically associated with bovine RVAs, while the NSP3 genotype T6 and the NSP5 genotype H3 have been found in a wide variety of species. However, the isolated strain clustered within bovine(-like) T6 and H3 subclusters. Overall, the data indicate that the RVA strain is most closely related to bovine-like RVA strains and most likely represents a direct interspecies transmission from a cow to a rabbit. Altogether, these findings indicate that a RVA strain with an entirely bovine genome constellation was able to infect and spread in a laboratory rabbit colony. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mapping superficial lymphatic territories in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Miranda, Miguel A; Suami, Hiroo; Chang, David W

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the anatomy of the lymphatic system in the rabbit with regard to relationships between the lymphatic vessel and lymph node. According to our previous studies in human cadavers and canines, the superficial lymphatic system could be divided into lymphatic territories. The aim of this study was to completely map the superficial lymphatic system in the rabbit. We used our microinjection technique and histological analysis for dissecting studies and recently developed indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphography for demonstrating dynamic lymph flow in living rabbits. Real-time ICG fluorescent lymphography was performed in two living New Zealand White rabbits, and direct dye microinjection of the lymphatic vessels was performed in eight dead rabbits. To assess the relationships between the vascular and lymphatic systems in rabbits, we performed radiocontrast injection into arteries in two dead rabbits prior to the lymphatic injection. The ICG fluorescent lymphography revealed eight lymphatic territories in the preauricular, submandibular, root of the lateral neck, axillary, lumbar, inguinal, root of the tail, and popliteal regions. We injected blue acrylic dye into every lymphatic vessel 0.1 mm in diameter or larger. We then dissected and chased the stained lymphatic vessels proximally until the vessels connected to the first tier lymph node. This procedure was repeated throughout the body until all the relationships between the lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes were defined. The lymphatic system of the rabbit could be defined as eight lymphatic territories, each with its own lymphatic vessels and lymph node. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. VASCULAR EFFECTS OF KETAMINE IN ISOLATED RABBIT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    Summary: The precise mechanism by which ketamine induces relaxation of vascular smooth muscle is not clear. The goal of this study was to further characterize the vascular actions of ketamine in rabbit aortic smooth muscles. Ring segments (2mm) of rabbit aortae were suspended in 20ml organ baths containing ...

  5. Uterine disorders in 50 pet rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Grinninger, Petra; Shibly, Sarina; Hassan, Jasmin; Tichy, Alexander; Berghold, Petra; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Although the incidence of uterine disorders in pet rabbits is high there are only a few retrospective studies and case reports on genital tract disease in female rabbits. Uterine disorders were assessed in 50 pet rabbits. In 31 pet rabbits with suspected clinical uterine disease, medical records were further reviewed regarding clinical signs, diagnostic workup, treatment as well as the outcome itself. Uterine adenocarcinoma (54%) was most frequently diagnosed, followed by endometrial hyperplasia (26%). Serosanguineous vaginal discharge was the predominant clinical sign observed by the rabbit owners. In approximately 50% of the rabbits with suspected uterine disorders, abdominal palpation revealed enlarged and/or irregular masses in the caudoventral abdomen indicating uterine lesions. Out of 23 rabbits undergoing ovariohysterectomy, four were either euthanized or died shortly after surgery because they were clinically unstable. Overall, 80% of the ovariohysterectomized animals were still alive 6 mo after surgery. In female pet rabbits that are not breeding, either ovariohysterectomy should be performed at an early age or routine checks including ultrasonography of the abdomen are recommended on a regular basis.

  6. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Welfare and the intensive production of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisse, J P; Maurice, R

    1994-03-01

    Rabbit production in Europe is concentrated largely in the "Latin" countries of Italy, France and Spain, in which animal protectionist attitudes are considered moderate. However, in the case of rabbits, the intensification of husbandry necessitates strict observance of physiological, behavioural and health requirements, in view of the very special needs of the species and the sensitivity of rabbits to environmental conditions. Rabbits are described as anxious, timid and emotional, with unusual arrangements for reproduction (induced ovulation) and digestion (caecotrophy). Therefore, these animals could not be reared intensively until the completion of extensive research, which has been conducted over the past twenty years, into the environmental and nutritional needs of rabbits, and the selection of lines having a calm temperament and maternal aptitude. This research was required to meet the welfare needs of this species. These concepts are perfectly integrated into the current operation of intensive units, and should not be brought into question on the basis of fragmentary observations by some researchers who would wish to see a return to rearing on litter. A discussion of rabbit welfare conducted in 1992 by specialists of the German branch of the World Rabbit Science Association approved modern methods of keeping rabbits on wire grids, provided that some changes were made to current procedures.

  8. Experimental Infections Of Domestic Rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Comparative study of single infections of domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Nigerian isolates of Trypanosoma brucei (Gboko strain), and Trypanosoma congolense (Binchi ... Eighteen rabbits of 10-14 weeks old weighing between 600-1200 grams were used for the study.

  9. N-nitrosamines induced infertility and hepatotoxicity in male rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheweita, S A; El Banna, Y Y; Balbaa, M; Abdullah, I A; Hassan, H E

    2017-09-01

    N-nitrosamines are widely spread environmental pollutants of well-known toxicity and carcinogenicity in various animal species. These compounds are metabolically activated by cytochrome P450 system predominantly in the liver and in other tissues into more active metabolites leading to generation of both alkylating agents that alkylate DNA and reactive oxygen species. In the current study, we investigated the influence of four types of N-nitrosamines that are commonly present in the environment [methyethylnitrosamine, (MEN), diethylnitrosamine (DEN), diphenylnitroasamine (DPN) and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)] on both livers and testes of male rabbits through assessment of 17 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17 β-HSD) activity. The protein expression of the three cytochrome P450s (CYP11A1, CYP19A1, and CYP21A2) is involved in the steroidogenesis. The levels of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) were also determined in the plasma of N-nitrosamines-treated rabbits after one, four-, eight- and twelve weeks of treatment of male New Zealand rabbits with an oral dose of 0.5 mg/kg B.W/day of each compound. In addition, activities of glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and levels of free radicals measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and reduced glutathione (GSH) level were quantified in both livers and testes. The present study showed that levels of free radicals (TBARS) were markedly increased, whereas GSH levels were depleted in the tissues of both livers and testes after treatment of rabbits with any of N-nitrosamines. In addition, all tested N-nitrosamines inhibited the activities of antioxidant enzyme activities (GR, GST, SOD, and CAT) in hepatic and testicular tissues of rabbits after 12 weeks of treatment. Histopathological examination showed that N-nitrosamines caused lymphocytic infiltration with vascular degeneration and necrosis, congestion of central vein with RBCs hemolysis, dilated sinusoids, as well as

  10. Effect of hypoxia on endothelium-dependent relaxation of canine and rabbit basilar arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagomi, T; Kassell, N F; Sasaki, T; Hongo, K; Fujiwara, S; Lehman, R M; Vollmer, D G

    1989-01-01

    An important role of endothelium-dependent relaxation in the local regulation of vascular tone has been suggested. In the present study, the effect of hypoxia on endothelium-dependent relaxation was investigated in canine and rabbit basilar and in rabbit common carotid arteries in vitro, using an isometric tension recording method. Hypoxia was introduced by changing the gas mixture in the in vitro chamber from 95% O2-5% CO2 to 95% N2-5% CO2. Thrombin and acetylcholine were used to induce endothelium-dependent relaxation. Thrombin at 0.1 and 1.0 U/ml, respectively, caused dose-dependent relaxation of the canine basilar artery precontracted by 10(-6)M prostaglandin F2 alpha. Acetylcholine also evoked dose-dependent relaxation of rabbit basilar and common carotid arteries precontracted by serotonin. Under hypoxic conditions, the relaxing effect of thrombin or acetylcholine decreased both in canine and in rabbit arteries, although it was not significant in rabbit basilar arteries. It has been postulated that following subarachnoid haemorrhage, diffusion of oxygen to the walls of the major cerebral arteries might be impaired by the subarachnoid clot. This could cause hypoxia of the arteries and contribute to vasospasm by suppressing endothelium-dependent relaxation, as well as by enhancing the contractile responses of the cerebral arteries to the vasoconstrictor agents in the bloody cerebrospinal fluid.

  11. Bone mineral measurements of subchondral and trabecular bone in healthy and osteoporotic rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, S [Universidad Autonoma, Rheumatology Department, Hospital de la Princesa, Madrid (Spain); Largo, R.; Marcos, M.E.; Herrero-Beaumont, G. [Universidad Autonoma, Inflammation Research Unit, Rheumatology Department, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, E. [Universidad Autonoma, Inflammation Research Unit, Rheumatology Department, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Autonoma, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez-Salvanes, F. [Universidad Autonoma, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Hospital de la Princesa, Madrid (Spain); Diaz-Curiel, M. [Universidad Autonoma, Department of Internal Medicine, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-01-01

    Experimental models of osteoporosis in rabbits are useful to investigate anabolic agents because this animal has a fast bone turnover with predominant remodelling over the modelling processes. For that purpose, it is necessary to characterize the densitometric values of each type of bony tissue. To determine areal bone mass measurement in the spine and in trabecular, cortical and subchondral bone of the knee in healthy and osteoporotic rabbits. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density were measured in lumbar spine, global knee, and subchondral and cortical bone of the knee with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Hologic QDR-1000/W densitometer in 29 skeletally mature female healthy New Zealand rabbits. Ten rabbits underwent triplicate scans for evaluation of the effect of repositioning. Osteoporosis was experimentally induced in 15 rabbits by bilateral ovariectomy and postoperative corticosteroid treatment for 4 weeks. Identical dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) studies were performed thereafter. Mean values of bone mineral content at the lumbar spine, global knee, subchondral bone and cortical tibial metaphysis were: 1934{+-}217 mg, 878{+-}83 mg, 149{+-}14 mg and 29{+-}7.0 mg, respectively. The mean values of bone mineral density at the same regions were: 298{+-}24 mg/cm{sup 2}, 455{+-}32 mg/cm{sup 2}, 617{+-}60 mg/cm{sup 2} and 678{+-}163 mg/cm{sup 2}, respectively. (orig.)

  12. Kafka versus RabbitMQ

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbelaere, Philippe; Esmaili, Kyumars Sheykh

    2017-01-01

    Publish/subscribe is a distributed interaction paradigm well adapted to the deployment of scalable and loosely coupled systems. Apache Kafka and RabbitMQ are two popular open-source and commercially-supported pub/sub systems that have been around for almost a decade and have seen wide adoption. Given the popularity of these two systems and the fact that both are branded as pub/sub systems, two frequently asked questions in the relevant online forums are: how do they compare against each other...

  13. Effects of Buprenorphine, Methylnaltrexone, and Their Combination on Gastrointestinal Transit in Healthy New Zealand White Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Flores, Manuel; Singh, Bhupinder; Walsh, Courtney A; Brooks, Elizabeth P; Taylor, Lacic; Mitchell, Lisa M

    2017-03-01

    Among the many analgesic agents available, buprenorphine appears to be the analgesic used most often in rabbits. Unfortunately, deleterious side effects of opioids, such as gastrointestinal stasis and anorexia, may discourage the use of these agents. Methylnaltrexone is a peripheral opioid antagonist that ameliorates opioid-induced gastrointestinal stasis in others species yet preserves the analgesic effects of buprenorphine. We evaluated whether methylnaltrexone reversed buprenorphine-induced gastrointestinal stasis in 8 healthy male New Zealand White rabbits. To measure gastrointestinal transit time, each rabbit received 20 barium-filled spheres through an orogastric tube. Rabbits then received 4 treatments in random order: buprenorphine (0.05 mg/kg SC), methylnaltrexone (1 mg/kg SC), both agents combined (B+M), or normal saline (control) every 12 h for 2 d. Fecal production was measured every 6 h, and water and food consumption, and body weight, were measured daily, for 5 d after each treatment. The time to appearance of the first sphere was significantly longer for buprenorphine group than for control and methylnaltrexone groups. Daily fecal output was lowest for buprenorphine and B+M, intermediate for control, and highest for methylnaltrexone. Water and food consumption were lower for groups buprenorphine and B+M than for control and methylnaltrexone. Body weight was not affected. In conclusion, treatment with buprenorphine 0.05 mg/kg BID for 2 d in healthy rabbits decreased food and water consumption, prolonged gastrointestinal transit time and decreased the fecal output. Coadministration of methylnaltrexone at 1 mg/kg did not alleviate these negative side effects.

  14. A novel oxysterol promotes bone regeneration in rabbit cranial bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokugo, Akishige; Sorice, Sarah; Parhami, Farhad; Yalom, Anisa; Li, Andrew; Zuk, Patricia; Jarrahy, Reza

    2016-07-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have played a central role in the development of regenerative therapies for bone reconstruction. However, the high cost and side-effect profile of BMPs limits their broad application. Oxysterols, naturally occurring products of cholesterol oxidation, are promising osteogenic agents alternative to BMPs. The osteogenic capacity of these non-toxic and relatively inexpensive molecules has been documented in rodent models. We studied the impact of Oxy49, a novel oxysterol analogue, on the osteogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Moreover, we evaluated the capacity for in vivo bone regeneration with Oxy49 in rabbit cranial bone defects. We found that rabbit BMSCs treated with Oxy49 demonstrated differentiation along osteogenic pathways, and that complete bone regeneration occurred when cranial defects were treated with Oxy49. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Oxy49 has the ability to induce osteogenic differentiation in rabbit BMSCs with an efficacy comparable to that of BMP-2 and to promote significant bone regeneration in cranial defects. Oxysterols may be a viable novel agent in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Behavioral fever in newborn rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satinoff, E.; Mcewen, G. N., Jr.; Williams, B. A.

    1976-01-01

    New Zealand white rabbit pups aged 12 to 72 hr were divided into three groups and given an intraperitoneal injection of Pseudomonas polysaccharide, a saline vehicle alone, and no treatment, respectively. The animals injected with pyrogen and maintained at an ambient temperature of 32 C for 2 hr did not develop fever. When placed in a thermally graded alleyway, the animals injected with pyrogen selected gradient positions that represented significantly higher temperatures than controls injected with saline. Further stay at selected positions for 5 min caused a considerable increase in the rectal temperature of the pyrogen-injected pups but not that of controls. The results support the hypothesis that newborn rabbits will develop a fever by behavioral means after a single injection of an exogenous pyrogen if the opportunity for thermoregulatory behavior is present. No fever develops if the pups must rely solely on internal thermoregulatory mechanisms. The behavioral system for producing a fever is mature at birth, but an adequate system of internal reflexes does not appear to develop for some days.

  16. Anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effects of extract from the seed of Gossypium herbaceum L. in Alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzzaman, Rifat; Ghaffar, Maida

    2017-01-01

    Anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effects of seed of Gossypium herbaceum L (GH) and its aqueous and ethanol extracts were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Normal, Alloxan-induced diabetic and treated groups of rabbit were examined for their serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, creatinine and urea levels. Water/food intake and toxic effect of test substances were also observed in treated rabbits. Effect of test agents on architecture of pancreatic β-cells was evaluated histopathologically in rabbits. GH powder, its aqueous (GHA) and ethanol (GHE) extract significantly (Pdiabetic rabbits. GHA and Glimepiride (a reference drug) partially blocked such effect of the Alloxan in treated rabbits. Further GH, GHA and GHE did not cause any change in food/water intakes and on liver, spleen, kidney, lung and heart in treated rabbits. Phytochemical study of GH and its extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Histopathological examination showed the protective effect of GH, GHA and GHE against Alloxan-induced destruction of β-cells of pancreas in diabetic rabbits. Data indicated that GH and its aqueous and ethanol extracts have promising anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effects. GH and GHE could be effective tool against the development, progression and complication of Diabetes mellitus.

  17. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  18. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  19. A Review of Rabbit Diseases in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed A Mohammed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Promising approaches of the Egyptian governmental as well as non-governmental society to rabbit industry to overcome the unemployment of youth in the society required more efforts from scientific institutes to help in development of such industry. Epidemiological studies are of outmost importance to highlight disease nature and to help in meantime implement of successful preventive and control measures. The aim of this paper is to review the situation of rabbit diseases of economic impact in Egypt (1952 to 2013. The review will highlight the viral infection of rabbit hemorrhagic disease, bacterial disease of colibacillosis, clostridiosis, salmonellosis, pasteurellosis, staphylococcosis and listeriosis and parasitic infection of coccidiosis and mange.

  20. Immune reconstitution following rabbit antithymocyte globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkan, S; Luan, Y; Dhillon, N; Allam, S R; Montague, T; Bromberg, J S; Ames, S; Lerner, S; Ebcioglu, Z; Nair, V; Dinavahi, R; Sehgal, V; Heeger, P; Schroppel, B; Murphy, B

    2010-09-01

    Depletional induction therapies are routinely used to prevent acute rejection and improve transplant outcome. The effects of depleting agents on T-cell subsets and subsequent T-cell reconstitution are incompletely defined. We used flow cytometry to examine the effects of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) on the peripheral T-cell repertoire of pediatric and adult renal transplant recipients. We found that while rATG effectively depleted CD45RA+CD27+ naïve and CD45RO+CD27+ central memory CD4+ T cells, it had little effect on CD45RO+CD27- CD4+ effector memory or CD45RA+CD31-, CD45RO+CD27+ and CD45RO+CD27- CD8+ T cell subsets. When we performed a kinetic analysis of CD31+ recent thymic emigrants and CD45RA+/RO+ T cells, we found evidence for both thymopoiesis and homeostatic proliferation contributing to immune reconstitution. We additionally examined the impact of rATG on peripheral CD4+Foxp3+ T cells. We found that in adults, administration of rATG-induced peripheral expansion and new thymic emigration of T cells with a Treg phenotype, while CD4+Foxp3+ T cells of thymic origin predominated in children, providing the first evidence that rATG induces Treg in vivo. Collectively our data indicate that rATG alters the balance of regulatory to memory effector T cells posttransplant, providing an explanation for how it positively impacts transplant outcome. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  1. Antibodies to ovine herpesvirus 2 glycoproteins decrease virus infectivity and prevent malignant catarrhal fever in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Cristina W; Knowles, Donald P; Taus, Naomi S; O'Toole, Donal; Nicola, Anthony V; Aguilar, Hector C; Li, Hong

    2015-02-25

    Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) is the etiological agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of many species in the order Artiodactyla. Development of a vaccine is critical to prevent mortality. Because OvHV-2 has not been cultured in vitro, SA-MCF research is hindered by the lack of in vitro tools to study viral constituents and specific host immune responses. As an alternative, in this study the neutralizing activity of antibodies against OvHV-2 glycoproteins gB and gH/gL was evaluated in vivo using rabbits. OvHV-2-specific antibodies were developed in rabbits by immunization using biolistic delivery of plasmids expressing the genes of interest. A lethal dose of OvHV-2 was incubated with the antisera and then nebulized into rabbits. Virus neutralization was assessed by measuring infection parameters associated with the virus infectious dose. Anti-gB or anti-gH/gL antibodies alone blocked infection in five out of six rabbits (83%), while a combination of anti-gB and anti-gH/gL antibodies protected all six rabbits (100%) from infection. These results indicate that antibodies to OvHV-2 gB and gH/gL are capable of neutralizing virions, and consequently, reduce virus infectivity and prevent SA-MCF in rabbits. Thus, OvHV-2 gB and gH/gL are suitable targets to be tested in a SA-MCF vaccine aimed at stimulating neutralizing antibody responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of sirolimus in rabbit arteries using liquid chromatography separation and tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Rodila, Ramona; Watson, Pamela; Ji, Qin; El-Shourbagy, Tawakol A

    2007-10-01

    Sirolimus, an effective immunosuppressive agent, is used for drug eluting stents. During stent development, an analytical method for the determination of sirolimus in tissue needs to be established. Normally, tissue samples are homogenized and then analyzed against the calibration standards prepared in a tissue homogenate. This approach provides insufficient control of the homogenization process. In this paper, tissue quality control samples were introduced for the optimization of the homogenization process during method development, but also allowance for the performance evaluation of the entire analytical process. In addition, a new approach using rabbit blood as a homogenization medium was developed to stabilize sirolimus in rabbit tissue homogenates. Calibration standards and quality controls were prepared by spiking different sirolimus working solutions into rabbit blood. Homogenization quality control samples were prepared by injecting other sirolimus working solutions into empty test tubes and pre-cut arteries within pre-defined masses. A high-throughput homogenization procedure was optimized based on the specific chemical properties of sirolimus. The linear dynamic range was between 49.9 pg/mL and 31.9 ng/mL to accommodate the expected artery homogenate concentrations. Additionally, quality controls in rabbit blood were also used in the extraction to support the calibration standards. The accuracy and precision of the quality controls in rabbit blood reflect the extraction performance and the accuracy and precision of the homogenization tissue quality controls reflect the overall performance of the method. The mean bias was between -4.5 and 0.2% for all levels of quality controls in the blood and between 4.8 and 14.9% for all levels of the homogenization tissue quality controls. The CVs of all concentration levels were < or =5.3% for the quality controls in blood and < or =9.2% for the homogenization tissue quality controls. The method was successfully

  3. Rabbit muscle proteomics: a great leap forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, André Martinho

    2013-08-01

    The rabbit is an important species as both a production animal and as a model organism in physiology, pharmaceutical, and numerous other studies. Similar to other species, the rabbit skeletal muscle proteome has been characterized, first using 2DE mapping and more recently using high-throughput shotgun proteomics. This article is a commentary on "Shotgun proteomics analysis of the sarcoplasmic reticulum preparations from rabbit skeletal muscle" (Z. Liu et al., Proteomics, 2013, 13, 2335-2338). Herein, we present the reasons why the manuscript is of high relevance to three major fields: farm animal, rabbit, and muscle/meat proteomics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. TOXIC EFFECTS OF CYPERMETHRIN IN FEMALE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. ULLAH, M. AHMAD, N. AHMAD, M. Z. KHAN1 AND I. AHMAD

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the fetotoxic effects of cypermethrin (CY in female rabbits with low and high doses. For this purpose, 32 adult female rabbits were divided in to four equal groups A, B, C and D. Rabbits of groups A, B and C were treated with different levels of CY at the dose rate of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally, while the group D served as a control and was given equal volume of normal saline intraperitoneally. The clinical signs exhibited by the rabbits treated with CY included salivation, licking of different body parts, muscular tremors, ataxia and convulsions. There was a significant difference in the numbers of CL and number of fetuses which mean the early embryonic death and post implantation loses at the high dose. There were microscopic changes in the ovaries and uteri of animals treated with CY.

  5. Knowledge of reproduction management practices among rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-four (44) commercial rabbit farmers from two urban centers (Abeokuta and Ijebu-Ode) in Ogun State were studied in this research. Majority (63.64%) are small-scale farmers with a stock size of between 20 and 50 animals. About 27% of the farmers have a stock size of 52-100 rabbits while only 9.09% have a stock size ...

  6. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  7. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits: Serological screening and histopathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrini, Giovanni; Ricci, Emanuele; Cantile, Carlo; Mannella, Riccardo; Mancianti, Francesca; Paci, Gisella; D'Ascenzi, Carlo; Perrucci, Stefania

    2017-02-01

    Serological prevalence of E. cuniculi infection was assessed in 183 rabbits from central Italy. In seropositive deceased rabbits, histopathological lesions were also evaluated. Sera from 118 rabbits from 6 intensive farms, 10 rabbits from 6 family farms, 16 rabbits from a zoo, 30 rabbits from 5 research laboratories and 9 pet rabbits from 9 different owners, were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were statistically analysed. Tissue samples from brain and kidney of 10 deceased rabbits were formalin-fixed and subsequently analysed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Anti-E. cuniculi antibodies were found in 129/183 (70.5%) analysed sera. At statistical analysis, E. cuniculi seropositivity was significantly higher (prabbits. At histology, different degrees of pathological lesions were found in serological positive (9) deceased animals. In three rabbits deceased after showing neurological signs, the severity of the lesions was interpreted as a likely cause for their death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Endotoxemia accelerates diaphragm dysfunction in ventilated rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Yu, Tao; Pan, Chun; Longhini, Federico; Liu, Ling; Huang, Yingzi; Guo, Fengmei; Qiu, Haibo

    2016-12-01

    Ventilators may induce diaphragm dysfunction, and most of the septic population who are admitted to the intensive care unit require mechanical ventilation. However, there is no evidence that sepsis accelerates the onset of ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction or affects the microcirculation. Our study investigated whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia accelerated diaphragm dysfunction in ventilated rabbits by evaluating microcirculation, lipid accumulation, and diaphragm contractility. After anesthesia and tracheostomy, 25 invasively monitored and mechanically ventilated New Zealand white rabbits were randomized to control (n = 5), controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) (n = 5), pressure support ventilation (PSV; n = 5), CMV or PSV with LPS-induced endotoxemia (CMV-LPS and PSV-LPS, respectively; n = 5 for each). Rabbits were anesthetized and ventilated for 24 h, except the control rabbits (30 min). Diaphragmatic contractility was evaluated using neuromechanical and neuroventilatory efficiency. We evaluated the following at the end of the protocol: (1) diaphragm microcirculation; (2) lipid accumulation; and (3) diaphragm muscular fibers structure. Diaphragm contractility, microcirculation, lipid accumulation, and fiber structures were severely compromised in endotoxemic animals after 24 h compared to nonendotoxemic rabbits. Moreover, a slight but significant increase in lipid accumulation was observed in CMV and PSV groups compared with controls (P rabbits, affects the microcirculation, and results in diaphragmatic lipid accumulation and contractility impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  10. Therapeutic trials for a rabbit model of EBV-associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome (HPS): effects of vidarabine or CHOP, and development of Herpesvirus papio (HVP)-negative lymphomas surrounded by HVP-infected lymphoproliferative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K; Joko, H; Koirala, T R; Onoda, S; Jin, Z-S; Munemasa, M; Ohara, N; Oda, W; Tanaka, T; Oka, T; Kondo, E; Yoshino, T; Takahashi, K; Yamada, M; Akagi, T

    2003-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS), which is often associated with fatal infectious mononucleosis or T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD), is a distinct disease characterized by high mortality. Treatment of patients with EBV-AHS has proved challenging. To develop some therapeutic interventions for EBV-AHS, we examined the effectiveness of an antiviral agent (vidarabine) or chemotherapy (CHOP), using a rabbit model for EBV-AHS. Fourteen untreated rabbits were inoculated intravenously with cell-free virions of the EBV-like virus Herpesvirus papio (HVP). All of the rabbits died of HVP-associated (LPD) and hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) between 21 and 31 days after inoculation. Furthermore, three HVP-infected rabbits treated with vidarabine died between days 23 and 28 after inoculation, and their clinicopathological features were no different from those of untreated rabbits, indicating that this drug is not effective at all to treat HVP-induced rabbit LPD and HPS. Three of the infected rabbits that were treated with one course, with an incomplete set of three courses, or with three full courses of CHOP treatment died of HVP-induced LPD and HPS with a bleeding tendency and/or with opportunistic infections. They died on the 26th, 62nd and 105th day after virus inoculation, respectively. CHOP treatment transiently suppressed the HVP-induced LPD and contributed to the prolonged survival time of two infected rabbits. However, it did not remove all of the HVP-infected cells from the infected rabbits, and residual HVP-infected lymphocytes caused recurrences of rabbit LPD and HPS. The most interesting finding of this experiment was observed in the infected rabbit with the longest survival time of 105 days: HVP-negative lymphomas surrounded by HVP-induced LPD developed in the larynx and ileum of this rabbit, causing an obstruction of the lumen. We concluded that these were not secondary lymphomas caused by CHOP treatment, because no suspicious

  11. Microwave-Induced Chemotoxicity of Polydopamine-Coated Magnetic Nanocubes

    KAUST Repository

    Julfakyan, Khachatur

    2015-08-06

    Polydopamine-coated FeCo nanocubes (PDFCs) were successfully synthesized and tested under microwave irradiation of 2.45 GHz frequency and 0.86 W/cm2 power. These particles were found to be non-toxic in the absence of irradiation, but gained significant toxicity upon irradiation. Interestingly, no increase in relative heating rate was observed when the PDFCs were irradiated in solution, eliminating nanoparticle (NP)-induced thermal ablation as the source of toxicity. Based on these studies, we propose that microwave-induced redox processes generate the observed toxicity. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  12. Microwave-Induced Chemotoxicity of Polydopamine-Coated Magnetic Nanocubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julfakyan, Khachatur; Fatieiev, Yevhen; Alsaiari, Shahad; Deng, Lin; Ezzeddine, Alaa; Zhang, Dingyuan; Rotello, Vincent M.; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2015-01-01

    Polydopamine-coated FeCo nanocubes (PDFCs) were successfully synthesized and tested under microwave irradiation of 2.45 GHz frequency and 0.86 W/cm2 power. These particles were found to be non-toxic in the absence of irradiation, but gained significant toxicity upon irradiation. Interestingly, no increase in relative heating rate was observed when the PDFCs were irradiated in solution, eliminating nanoparticle (NP)-induced thermal ablation as the source of toxicity. Based on these studies, we propose that microwave-induced redox processes generate the observed toxicity. PMID:26287162

  13. Microwave-Induced Chemotoxicity of Polydopamine-Coated Magnetic Nanocubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khachatur Julfakyan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Polydopamine-coated FeCo nanocubes (PDFCs were successfully synthesized and tested under microwave irradiation of 2.45 GHz frequency and 0.86 W/cm2 power. These particles were found to be non-toxic in the absence of irradiation, but gained significant toxicity upon irradiation. Interestingly, no increase in relative heating rate was observed when the PDFCs were irradiated in solution, eliminating nanoparticle (NP-induced thermal ablation as the source of toxicity. Based on these studies, we propose that microwave-induced redox processes generate the observed toxicity.

  14. Performance of rabbits fed diets containing graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chinchilla x New Zealand white) weaned rabbits with average initial weights of 540g to evaluate the performance of rabbits fed diets containing graded ... Only ash content was affected by the processing method in the result of nutrient digestibility.

  15. Simple suture and anchor in rabbit hips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Filho, Fernando Cal; Guarniero, Roberto; de Godoy Júnior, Rui Maciel; Pereira, César Augusto Martins; Matos, Marcos Almeida; Garcia, Lucas Cortizo

    2012-01-01

    Objective Using biomechanical studies, this research aims to compare hip capsulorrhaphy in rabbits, carried out with two different techniques: capsulorrhaphy with simple sutures and with anchors. Method Thirteen New Zealand Albino (Oryctolaguscuniculus) male rabbits, twenty-six hip joints, were used. First, a pilot project was performed with three rabbits (six hip joints). This experiment consisted of ten rabbits divided into two groups: group 1 underwent capsulorrhaphy on both right and left hips with simple suture using polyglycolic acid absorbable thread, and group 2 underwent capsulorrhaphy with titanium anchors. After a four-week postoperative period, the animals were euthanized and the hip joints were frozen. On the same day of the biomechanical studies, after the hip joints were previously unfrozen, the following parameters were evaluated: rigidity, maximum force, maximum deformity and energy. Results There was no relevant statistical difference in rigidity, maximum force, maximum deformity and energy between the simple suture and anchor groups. Conclusion Through biomechanical analyses, using parameters of rigidity, maximum force, maximum deformity and energy, it has been shown that capsulorrhaphy with simple suture and with anchors has similar results in rabbit hip joints. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Comparative Study. PMID:24453618

  16. Rabbit meat processing: historical perspective to future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In past centuries, because rabbits are relatively small, animals slaughtered for consumption were generally eaten immediately. However, since a single rabbit would offer little more product than could be consumed at one sitting, little effort was devoted to developing preserved rabbit products (such as salted or dried meat, sausages, etc.). For this reason, although there is a rich history of recipes using rabbit meat in the Mediterranean area, there are few traditional further-processed prod...

  17. Use of fibrin adhesive to reduce post-surgical adhesion reformation in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, H; Minai, M; Yoshida, T; Satoh, K

    1999-01-01

    Following surgery on fallopian tubes, the development of adhesions is a natural consequence of wound healing and may result in infertility. Using a rabbit model, we evaluated the anti-adhesive properties of a sponge-like equine collagen sheet (TachoComb), which is coated on one side with human fibrinogen and bovine thrombin. TachoComb is applied by affixing the sheet over the area of perforation or bleeding and acts as a haemostatic agent, capable of sealing perforations to prevent leakage. In our rabbit model, adhesions were induced by mechanical and chemical irritants during laparotomy. After a 1-month recovery period, adhesions were lysed using microsurgical techniques and TachoComb, or physiological saline applied. Evaluation of adhesion reformation was determined after a minimum of 10 days. TachoComb significantly reduced the area of adhesion reformation compared with rabbits treated using physiological saline only. Our study demonstrated that TachoComb is effective not only as a haemostatic agent, but is also capable of reducing adhesion reformation.

  18. Spermatological Parameters of Extended Rabbit Semen in 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    These problems range from nutritional challenges to availability of assisted reproductive techniques, most especially artificial insemination (AI) technique. Despite the use of AI in the large rabbit farms of several European countries, rabbit AI has certainly not become a common practice in the rabbit meat producing areas of.

  19. Energy partitioning for growth by rabbits fed groundnut and stylo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty eight crossbred (California X New Zealand White) rabbits were used to evaluate energy partitioning of rabbits fed forages supplemented with concentrate. The rabbits were randomly allocated to three treatments consisting of sole Stylosanthes hamata (stylo),sole Arachis hypogea (groundnut) haulms and 50:50 mixture ...

  20. Performance characteristics of Weaner rabbits fed Moringa oleifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the utilization of Moringa oleifera (MO) and Moringa stenopetala (MS) by weaner rabbit. In a twelve week feeding trial, forty eight weaner rabbits of about five weeks old were allotted into three treatments with each treatment consisting of sixteen rabbits in a completely randomized ...

  1. Effect of genotype on growth traits of rabbits | Oke | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genotype effect on growth traits of rabbits were investigated in a randomised complete block design using one hundred and twenty - 10-week-old breeding rabbits. The breeds of rabbits used were New Zealand white, Dutch, chinchilla and were characterized using body weight (BW), heart girth (HG), shoulder to tail (ST), ...

  2. Determination of the Tetramer-Dimer Equilibrium Constant of Rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... derivatives of rabbit hemoglobin. The constant has been found to be the same for all the derivatives of rabbit hemoglobin, implying that the ligand bound on the heme has no significant effect on the tetramer-dimer dissociation of rabbit hemoglobin. African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences Vol.

  3. Problems and prospects of rabbit production in Nigeria - a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is apparent that in many areas in developing countries, rabbit production could be an effective means of converting forages and by-products into high quality animal protein for human consumption. The study provides a benchmark for the understanding of prospects of rabbit production in Nigeria. Keywords: Rabbit ...

  4. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Rabbit Testicular Lipid Peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cigarette smoke on oxidative status of liver and testis was evaluated. Three groups of male weaned rabbits (1.0 – 1.5kg) were used. Group 1, the basal control group consisted of 2 rabbits which were sacrificed immediately after one week acclimatization (week O). Group 2 – (S) group consisted of 6 rabbits.

  5. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.124 Quarantine of diseased rabbits. If live rabbits, which are... inspection shall be made, and all rabbits found to be, or which are suspected of being, affected with the...

  6. Performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed urea treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of varying levels of urea treated and untreated cowpea husk on the performance of weaner rabbits. Thirty-two mongrel weaner rabbits of both sexes, 6 – 8 weeks old with an average weight of 822g were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments with four rabbits per ...

  7. A Preliminary internet survey of pet rabbit owners’ characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Oxley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to conduct a preliminary survey to investigate basic ownership factors, frequency of microchipping and insurance and views of pet rabbit owners  n these areas and general rabbit management. More specifically, we aimed to investigate whether owners possess insurance, whether their rabbits are microchipped, and owners’ views on the recommendations relating to rabbits (e.g. recommended enclosure sizes and the law. A questionnaire was designed and promulgated through social media sites and rabbit forums. A total of 1183 responses were received. Just over 29% of respondents sourced their rabbits through rescue centres. 73.9% (867/1174 of owners stated that they had no pet insurance for their rabbits. Concerning microchips, 78.3% (919/1173 of rabbits were not microchipped, while 21.7% (254/1173 were. This preliminary study found that the majority of individuals are of the opinion that the relevant law is insufficiently publicised. A more detailed study would be beneficial to investigate and provide further insight into rabbit owners and their views and concerns for rabbits. The results of such a study could help formulate rabbit-related information and guidelines which in turn could have a direct impact on pet rabbit welfare.

  8. General intravenous anesthesia for brachial plexus surgery in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, P; Rutowski, R; Kielbowicz, Z; Kuryszko, J; Kielbowicz, M

    2013-01-01

    The rabbit is a good experimental model for brachial plexus surgery. The risks of death during anesthesia were significantly greater in rabbits than cats or dogs. This article presents the protocol of injectable anesthesia for a short surgical procedure, safe for the rabbit patient and convenient for the surgeon.

  9. Performance and digestibility of weaner rabbits fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weaner crossbred rabbits were allocated to five treatment groups in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of 100, 75, 50 and 25% levels of soybean cheese waste/maize offal diet (SBW). 100% rabbit meal served as control. Each rabbit received chopped Bracharia decumbens hay ad libitum. Water was ...

  10. Amino acid and mineral composition of meat from rabbits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty one weaned composite breeds of rabbits (males and females) were randomly allotted to nine treatment groups with nine rabbits per treatment. Each treatment had three replicates with three rabbits per replicate. Processed tallow meal was included in the diets as a source of protein which was set at 16 % CP.

  11. Performance evaluation and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 32 weaned rabbits (56 days old; 586 ± 60.31g body weight) were selected to investigate the effect of dietary growth promoters on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of rabbits. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 8) including a basal diet (control), ...

  12. Hematology and Serum Biochemistry of Rabbits Fed Dried Sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were within the normal range for rabbits. The sweet orange fruit pulp meal based diets were nutritionally adequate to meet rabbit requirements for accretion and safe consumption at 25% level of maize replacement. This shows that sweet orange fruit pulp meal is a possible feed resource for rabbit production.

  13. Ovarian lesions in 44 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERTRAM, Christof Albert; KLOPFLEISCH, Robert; MÜLLER, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    The clinical and pathological records of 44 domestic, female rabbits with an age ranging from 6–124 months (median age: 63.5 month) were assessed retrospectively for ovarian lesions. Included were all rabbits that underwent an ovariohysterectomy with a subsequent pathological examination of the genital tract between March 1997 and June 2016. Pathological examination revealed ovarian lesions in 12 of the 44 rabbits including follicular cysts (n=7), cystic rete ovarii (n=3), widespread ovarian necrosis with dystrophic calcification (n=2), ovarian adenoma (n=1). Clinical examination including radiographs only suggested ovarian disorders in two cases of ovarian necrosis with dystrophic calcification and in two cases of cystic rete ovarii. Clinical significance was only conclusive in a case of cystic rete ovarii. PMID:29057758

  14. Rabbit tissue model (RTM) harvesting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Marelyn

    2002-01-01

    A method for creating a tissue model using a female rabbit for laparoscopic simulation exercises is described. The specimen is called a Rabbit Tissue Model (RTM). Dissection techniques are described for transforming the rabbit carcass into a small, compact unit that can be used for multiple training sessions. Preservation is accomplished by using saline and refrigeration. Only the animal trunk is used, with the rest of the animal carcass being discarded. Practice exercises are provided for using the preserved organs. Basic surgical skills, such as dissection, suturing, and knot tying, can be practiced on this model. In addition, the RTM can be used with any pelvic trainer that permits placement of larger practice specimens within its confines.

  15. Pneumonic Tularemia in Rabbits Resembles the Human Disease as Illustrated by Radiographic and Hematological Changes after Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Douglas S.; Smith, Le'Kneitah; Dunsmore, Tammy; Trichel, Anita; Ortiz, Luis A.; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Barry, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Background Pneumonic tularemia is caused by inhalation of the gram negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis. Because of concerns that tularemia could be used as a bioterrorism agent, vaccines and therapeutics are urgently needed. Animal models of pneumonic tularemia with a pathophysiology similar to the human disease are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these potential medical countermeasures. Principal Findings Rabbits exposed to aerosols containing Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4 developed a rapidly progressive fatal pneumonic disease. Clinical signs became evident on the third day after exposure with development of a fever (>40.5°C) and a sharp decline in both food and water intake. Blood samples collected on day 4 found lymphopenia and a decrease in platelet counts coupled with elevations in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alanine aminotransferase, cholesterol, granulocytes and monocytes. Radiographs demonstrated the development of pneumonia and abnormalities of intestinal gas consistent with ileus. On average, rabbits were moribund 5.1 days after exposure; no rabbits survived exposure at any dose (190–54,000 cfu). Gross evaluation of tissues taken at necropsy showed evidence of pathology in the lungs, spleen, liver, kidney and intestines. Bacterial counts confirmed bacterial dissemination from the lungs to the liver and spleen. Conclusions/Significance The pathophysiology of pneumonic tularemia in rabbits resembles what has been reported for humans. Rabbits therefore are a relevant model of the human disease caused by type A strains of F. tularensis. PMID:21931798

  16. Pneumonic tularemia in rabbits resembles the human disease as illustrated by radiographic and hematological changes after infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S Reed

    Full Text Available Pneumonic tularemia is caused by inhalation of the gram negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis. Because of concerns that tularemia could be used as a bioterrorism agent, vaccines and therapeutics are urgently needed. Animal models of pneumonic tularemia with a pathophysiology similar to the human disease are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these potential medical countermeasures.Rabbits exposed to aerosols containing Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4 developed a rapidly progressive fatal pneumonic disease. Clinical signs became evident on the third day after exposure with development of a fever (>40.5°C and a sharp decline in both food and water intake. Blood samples collected on day 4 found lymphopenia and a decrease in platelet counts coupled with elevations in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alanine aminotransferase, cholesterol, granulocytes and monocytes. Radiographs demonstrated the development of pneumonia and abnormalities of intestinal gas consistent with ileus. On average, rabbits were moribund 5.1 days after exposure; no rabbits survived exposure at any dose (190-54,000 cfu. Gross evaluation of tissues taken at necropsy showed evidence of pathology in the lungs, spleen, liver, kidney and intestines. Bacterial counts confirmed bacterial dissemination from the lungs to the liver and spleen.The pathophysiology of pneumonic tularemia in rabbits resembles what has been reported for humans. Rabbits therefore are a relevant model of the human disease caused by type A strains of F. tularensis.

  17. Expression and immunolocalisation of TpFABP as a candidate antigen for the serodiagnosis of rabbit Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deying; Chen, Lin; Xie, Yue; Wu, Xuhang; Nong, Xiang; Peng, Xi; Lai, Weimin; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    The larval stage of Taenia pisiformis, also known as Cysticercus pisiformis, is the causative agent of cysticercosis and the cause of severe health problems in rabbits that negatively impacts on husbandry production. To date, there is no fast detection method to identify early infections in rabbits. In the present study, a new dot-ELISA-based on an endogenous antigen fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) was developed for the detection of cysticercosis, and its potential was then evaluated using test serum samples. Immunolocalisation showed that T. pisiformis FABP (TpFABP) localised to the parenchyma of the bladder wall of the cysticercus and perinuclear cytoplasm of parenchyma of the adult parasite. After cloning and expression, recombinant TpFABP (rTpFABP) protein was used for serodiagnosis of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits by dot-ELISA. The antibody was detected 14 days post-infection in rabbits experimentally infected with T. pisiformis. Based on the necropsy results, the sensitivity and specificity of 169 serum samples tested by rTpFABP dot-ELISA were found to be 98.2% (54/55) and 92.1% (105/114), respectively. These data suggest that the dot-ELISA developed in this study has potential for detection of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits. © D. Yang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2013.

  18. Pneumonic tularemia in rabbits resembles the human disease as illustrated by radiographic and hematological changes after infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Douglas S; Smith, Le'kneitah; Dunsmore, Tammy; Trichel, Anita; Ortiz, Luis A; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Barry, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Pneumonic tularemia is caused by inhalation of the gram negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis. Because of concerns that tularemia could be used as a bioterrorism agent, vaccines and therapeutics are urgently needed. Animal models of pneumonic tularemia with a pathophysiology similar to the human disease are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these potential medical countermeasures. Rabbits exposed to aerosols containing Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4 developed a rapidly progressive fatal pneumonic disease. Clinical signs became evident on the third day after exposure with development of a fever (>40.5°C) and a sharp decline in both food and water intake. Blood samples collected on day 4 found lymphopenia and a decrease in platelet counts coupled with elevations in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alanine aminotransferase, cholesterol, granulocytes and monocytes. Radiographs demonstrated the development of pneumonia and abnormalities of intestinal gas consistent with ileus. On average, rabbits were moribund 5.1 days after exposure; no rabbits survived exposure at any dose (190-54,000 cfu). Gross evaluation of tissues taken at necropsy showed evidence of pathology in the lungs, spleen, liver, kidney and intestines. Bacterial counts confirmed bacterial dissemination from the lungs to the liver and spleen. The pathophysiology of pneumonic tularemia in rabbits resembles what has been reported for humans. Rabbits therefore are a relevant model of the human disease caused by type A strains of F. tularensis.

  19. Comparison of a rabbit model of bacterial endocarditis and an in vitro infection model with simulated endocardial vegetations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, E; Coyle, E A; Kaatz, G W; Zervos, M J; Rybak, M J

    2000-07-01

    Animal models are commonly used to determine the efficacy of various antimicrobial agents for treatment of bacterial endocarditis. Previously we have utilized an in vitro infection model, which incorporates simulated endocardial vegetations (SEVs) to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of various antibiotics. In the present study, we compared four experimental rabbit endocarditis protocols to an in vitro infection model in an effort to determine if these models are comparable. We have evaluated the activity of clinafloxacin, trovafloxacin, sparfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin in rabbit models against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. In vitro models were performed simulating the antibiotic pharmacokinetics obtained in the in vivo studies. Models were dosed the same as rabbit models, and SEVs were evaluated at the same time the rabbit vegetations were examined. Clinafloxacin and trovafloxacin were evaluated against methicillin-susceptible (MSSA1199) and -resistant (MRSA494) strains of S. aureus. Ciprofloxacin was studied against MSSA1199 and MSSA487. Sparfloxacin and clinafloxacin were evaluated against Enterococcus faecium SF2149 and Enterococcus faecalis WH245, respectively. We found that reductions in SEV bacterial density obtained in the in vitro model were similar to those obtained in rabbit vegetations, indicating that the SEV model may be a valuable tool for assessing antibiotic potential in the treatment of bacterial endocarditis.

  20. Penelitian jumlah penggunaan bating agent pada penyamakan kulit sarung tangan (fashion glove dari kulit kelinci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchtar Lutfi

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to identify the quatity of bating agent used in tanning rabbit skins to be glove leather, to make use rabbit skins which can not be tanned to fur rabbit skin leather. The materials used in this research were of 40 pieces of lokal salt preservated rabbit skins originated from Yogyakarta having quality III and IV. They were grouped into four and the groups consisted of ten pieces each were tanned to be fashion glove leather using 4% formaline as pretanning agent and followed by chrome tanning agent as the retanning agent. Before carrying out both tanning processes bating was done on them using Pancreol Bate as bating agent. The quantity of bating agent added was varried as 0,65%, 1,2%, 1,8% and 2,4%. The process used was of usually carried - out by IRDLAI. The leather produced were tested on their sotfness, with sheepskin glove leather was used as the measuring- rod; their tensile strength resistance and flexibility with SII. 0061 – 74 (Quality and test method for goatsheep skin glove and garment leather as the standard of comparison. The test results were statistically evaluated. A conclusion can be down from this research that by using 0,6% Pancreol Bate on bating process, soft glove leathers having good tensile strength and flexibility which fulfill the requirements of SII. 0061 - 74 can be produced.

  1. Rabbit model for Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, I W; Chiu, B; Viira, E; Fong, M W; Jang, D; Mahony, J

    1997-01-01

    A rabbit model was established for Chlamydia pneumoniae infection that may be helpful to understand the pathogenesis of disease in humans. Twelve, pathogen-free, 1-month-old New Zealand White rabbits were inoculated with 1.0 x 10(7) to 5.0 x 10(7) CFU of purified C. pneumoniae (ATCC strain VR 1310) via the nasopharynx (1 rabbit died immediately postinoculation, and 11 were available for study). Five controls were inoculated with the carrier buffer. Ten of the 11 study rabbits demonstrated serological evidence of acute infection (immunoglobulin G antibodies, 1:8 to > 1:16), with the weakest response at 7 days and the strongest response at 28 days, whereas none of the controls showed any seroconversion. Study animals were sacrificed in batches of three, on days 7, 14, 21, and 28, but controls were sacrificed on days 7 and 28. Two-thirds of the animals demonstrated evidence of bronchiolitis and pneumonia on days 7 and 14 and resolution by day 21. Two study rabbits demonstrated, on histology, early and intermediate lesions of atherosclerosis: one animal (day 7) showed the accumulation of foamy macrophages (fatty streak) in the arch of the aorta, and the other animal (day 14) showed spindle cell proliferation of smooth muscle cells (intermediate lesion). Focal periaortitis was seen in the same animal (day 7). C. pneumoniae elementary bodies were demonstrated by immunocytochemical stain in the lungs (n = 2), liver (n = 3), spleen (n = 5), and aorta (n = 2), one of which corresponded to the intermediate lesion. C. pneumoniae was cultured from the lungs (n = 2), liver (n = 2), spleen (n = 2), and aortic arch (n = 1). All histopathological, immunocytochemical, and cultural studies were negative in the controls. Hence, the rabbit provides a useful animal model for the study of C. pneumoniae infection and its complications, particularly atherosclerosis.

  2. The Genetic Structure of Domestic Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Miguel; Afonso, Sandra; Geraldes, Armando; Garreau, Hervé; Bolet, Gerard; Boucher, Samuel; Tircazes, Aurélie; Queney, Guillaume; Nachman, Michael W.; Ferrand, Nuno

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the genetic structure of domestic species provides a window into the process of domestication and motivates the design of studies aimed at making links between genotype and phenotype. Rabbits exhibit exceptional phenotypic diversity, are of great commercial value, and serve as important animal models in biomedical research. Here, we provide the first comprehensive survey of nucleotide polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium (LD) within and among rabbit breeds. We resequenced 16 genomic regions in population samples of both wild and domestic rabbits and additional 35 fragments in 150 rabbits representing six commonly used breeds. Patterns of genetic variation suggest a single origin of domestication in wild populations from France, supporting historical records that place rabbit domestication in French monasteries. Levels of nucleotide diversity both within and among breeds were ∼0.2%, but only 60% of the diversity present in wild populations from France was captured by domestic rabbits. Despite the recent origin of most breeds, levels of population differentiation were high (FST = 17.9%), but the majority of polymorphisms were shared and thus transferable among breeds. Coalescent simulations suggest that domestication began with a small founding population of less than 1,200 individuals. Taking into account the complex demographic history of domestication with two successive bottlenecks, two loci showed deviations that were consistent with artificial selection, including GPC4, which is known to be associated with growth rates in humans. Levels of diversity were not significantly different between autosomal and X-linked loci, providing no evidence for differential contributions of males and females to the domesticated gene pool. The structure of LD differed substantially within and among breeds. Within breeds, LD extends over large genomic distances. Markers separated by 400 kb typically showed r2 higher than 0.2, and some LD extended up to 3,200 kb

  3. Rabbit biocontrol and landscape-scale recovery of threatened desert mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedler, Reece D; Brandle, Robert; Read, John L; Southgate, Richard; Bird, Peter; Moseby, Katherine E

    2016-08-01

    Funding for species conservation is insufficient to meet the current challenges facing global biodiversity, yet many programs use expensive single-species recovery actions and neglect broader management that addresses threatening processes. Arid Australia has the world's worst modern mammalian extinction record, largely attributable to competition from introduced herbivores, particularly European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and predation by feral cats (Felis catus) and foxes (Vulpes vulpes). The biological control agent rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) was introduced to Australia in 1995 and resulted in dramatic, widespread rabbit suppression. We compared the area of occupancy and extent of occurrence of 4 extant species of small mammals before and after RHDV outbreak, relative to rainfall, sampling effort, and rabbit and predator populations. Despite low rainfall during the first 14 years after RHDV, 2 native rodents listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the dusky hopping-mouse (Notomys fuscus) and plains mouse (Pseudomys australis), increased their extent of occurrence by 241-365%. A threatened marsupial micropredator, the crest-tailed mulgara (Dasycercus cristicauda), underwent a 70-fold increase in extent of occurrence and a 20-fold increase in area of occupancy. Both bottom-up and top-down trophic effects were attributed to RHDV, namely decreased competition for food resources and declines in rabbit-dependent predators. Based on these sustained increases, these 3 previously threatened species now qualify for threat-category downgrading on the IUCN Red List. These recoveries are on a scale rarely documented in mammals and give impetus to programs aimed at targeted use of RHDV in Australia, rather than simply employing top-down threat-based management of arid ecosystems. Conservation programs that take big-picture approaches to addressing threatening processes over large spatial scales should be prioritized to maximize

  4. Sensitivity of rabbit fibrochondrocytes to mycoplasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Carlos Manuel de Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cell culture from rabbit meniscus (fibrochondrocytes-FcrC was infected for 24 hours with different inocula (10² to 10(7 Colony Forming Units-CFU of Mycoplasma hominis PG-21, M. pneumoniae FH and 1428 or M. arthritidis PG-6. The severity of the different obtained cytophatic effects-CPE was inoculum, Mycoplasma species and strain dependant. These bacteria were recovered from all infected FcrC and the SP4 medium for mycoplasmas also caused toxic effect on the FcrC. It was concluded that rabbit fibrochondrocytes were sensitive to mycoplasma infection, as well as to the SP4 mycoplasma medium.

  5. BIORESORBABLE POLYMERIC MENISCAL PROSTHESIS: STUDY IN RABBITS

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Tulio Pereira; de Rezende Duek, Eliana Aparecida; Amatuzzi,Marco Martins; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To induce growth of a neomeniscus into the pores of a prosthesis in order to protect the knee joint cartilage. Methods: 70 knees of 35 New Zealand rabbits were operated. The rabbits were five to seven months old, weighed 2 to 3.8 kilograms, and 22 were male and 13 were female. Each animal underwent medial meniscectomy in both knees during a single operation. A bioabsorbable polymeric meniscal prosthesis composed of 70% polydioxanone and 30% L-lactic acid polymer was implanted in on...

  6. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Bretlau, P

    1994-01-01

    The ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit is described following vascular perfusion-fixation of live, anesthetized and artificially respirated healthy animals. A new and improved technique of fixation is employed that includes a pressure feedback controlled peristaltic pump and an o......The ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit is described following vascular perfusion-fixation of live, anesthetized and artificially respirated healthy animals. A new and improved technique of fixation is employed that includes a pressure feedback controlled peristaltic pump...

  7. Trichostatin A (TSA) improves the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies cloned embryos, but not rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Hong; Miao, Yi-Liang; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Huang, Jun-Cheng; Lei, Zi-Li; Yang, Ji-Wen; Han, Zhi-Ming; Song, Xiang-Fen; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Da-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    The interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) technique for therapeutic cloning gives great promise for treatment of many human diseases. However, the incomplete nuclear reprogramming and the low blastocyst rate of iSCNT are still big problems. Herein, we observed the effect of TSA on the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies and rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos. After treatment with TSA for 6 hr during activation, we found that the blastocyst rate of rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos was more than two times higher than that of untreated embryos; however, the blastocyst rate of TSA-treated rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos decreased. We also found evident time-dependent histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos, but not in rabbit-human cloned embryos from fusion to 6 hr after activation. Our results suggest that TSA-treatment does not improve blastocyst development of rabbit-human iSCNT embryos and that abnormal histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in iSCNT embryos may account for their poor blastocyst development. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  9. Efficacy of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor agonist in the treatment of virus-associated haemophagocytic syndrome in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Chuan; Lan, Bau-Shin; Chen, Yi-Ling; Chang, Yao; Chuang, Huai-Chia; Su, Ih-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Virus-associated haemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS) is a fatal complication of viral infections, such as Epstein-Barr virus and H5N1 influenza, that results from macrophage activation and pro inflammatory cytokine injuries. The high comorbidity and mortality of current therapy urgently demands an ideal agent based on VAHS pathogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) agonists, regulators of metabolic syndrome, can exhibit immunomodulatory effects on macrophage activation and cytokine secretion. In this study, we adopted rosiglitazone, a PPAR-gamma agonist, for VAHS control in a Herpesvirus papio (HVP)-infected rabbit model. Various doses of rosiglitazone were orally administered to rabbits on day 7 or day 20 after intravenous challenge with 5 x 10(7) copies of HVP. The rabbits that received 4 mg/day rosiglitazone had significantly increased survival when treated at an early stage of infection (P<0.01), whereas a higher dose (8 mg/day) was required at the advanced stage of the disease (P<0.05). All rosiglitazone-treated rabbits had significantly improved laboratory parameters and plasma tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels. Importantly, rosiglitazone could also inhibit viral replication in vitro and in vivo. PPAR agonists could represent a potentially new agent for the therapy of VAHS.

  10. Possible interaction between myxomatosis and calicivirosis related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease affecting the European rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchandeau, S; Bertagnoli, S; Peralta, B; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Letty, J; Reitz, F

    2004-11-06

    Serological data on myxoma virus, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus and RHD-like viruses in juvenile rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) trapped in 1995, 1996 and 1997 in two areas of France were analysed. For each disease, the effects of bodyweight, year, month and seropositivity for the other disease were modelled by using logistic regressions. In one area, a model including RHD seropositivity was selected to explain the myxoma virus seropositivity. Models including myxoma virus seropositivity were selected to explain the RHD seropositivity in both areas, and the odds of a rabbit being seropositive to both viruses were 5.1 and 8.4 times higher than the odds of a rabbit being seronegative to myxoma virus and seropositive to RHD. The year and bodyweight had significant effects for myxomatosis in one area and for RHD in both areas.

  11. An individual-based model of rabbit viral haemorrhagic disease on European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E.; Sharples, Colin M.; Bell, Diana J.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    We developed an individual-based model of Rabbit Viral Hemorrhagic Disease (RVHD) for European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.), representing up to 1000 rabbits in four hectares. Model output for productivity and recruitment matched published values. The disease was density-dependent and virulence affected outcome. Strains that caused death after several days produced greater overall mortality than strains in which rabbits either died or recovered very quickly. Disease effect also depended on time of year. We also elaborated a larger scale model representing 25 km2 and 100,000+ rabbits, split into a number of grid-squares. This was a more traditional model that did not represent individual rabbits, but employed a system of dynamic equations for each grid-square. Disease spread depended on probability of transmission between neighboring grid-squares. Potential recovery from a major population crash caused by the disease relied on disease virulence and frequency of recurrence. The model's dependence on probability of disease transmission between grid-squares suggests the way that the model represents the spatial distribution of the population affects simulation. Although data on RVHD in Europe are lacking, our models provide a basis for describing the disease in realistic detail and for assessing influence of various social and spatial factors on spread.

  12. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is

  13. Eyeblink conditioning in the developing rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kevin L; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S

    2012-05-01

    Eyeblink classical conditioning in pre-weanling rabbits was examined in the present study. Using a custom lightweight headpiece and restrainer, New Zealand white littermates were trained once daily in 400 ms delay eyeblink classical conditioning from postnatal days (PD) 17-21 or PD 24-28. These ages were chosen because eyeblink conditioning emerges gradually over PD 17-24 in rats [Stanton et al., (1992) Behavioral Neuroscience, 106(4):657-665], another altricial species with neurodevelopmental features similar to those of rabbits. Consistent with well-established findings in rats, rabbits trained from PD 24-28 showed greater conditioning relative to littermates trained from PD 17-21. Both age groups displayed poor retention of eyeblink conditioning at retraining 1 month after acquisition. These findings are the first to demonstrate eyeblink conditioning in the developing rabbit. With further characterization of optimal conditioning parameters, this preparation may have applications to neurodevelopmental disease models as well as research exploring the ontogeny of memory. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Enhanced Phenylephrine Contractions in Rabbit Carotid Arteries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carotid arteries were isolated from rabbits and cut into 2mm rings, suspended in 20ml organ baths and bubbled with 95% O2, 5% CO2 and isometric ... There were no significant differences in PE contractions following exposure to intact erythrocytes and ghosts from subjects with different Hb genotypes; however, exposure ...

  15. ALANINE - VALINE DYNAMICS IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    [15N]-alanine and [15N]–valine dynamics were studied in 29 -30 days pregnant New-Zealand rabbits. Over the experimental period, there was no detectable significant difference of mean ± SD of alanine concentrations within the sampling intervals in maternal, umbilical venous and arterial blood samples suggesting that ...

  16. Measures For Achieving Sustainable Rabbit Production In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to ascertain ways of achieving sustainable rabbits production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study population involved 120 respondents comprising 40 students and 80 farmers. Two sets of structured questionnaire designed with a 4-point Likert type rating scale ...

  17. Postanaesthetic tracheal strictures in three rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grint, N J; Sayers, I R; Cecchi, R; Harley, R; Day, M J

    2006-07-01

    Within an 11-day period, three rabbits were anaesthetized for neutering. All were endotracheally intubated with 12 cm long, 2.5 mm (inner diameter [ID]) polyvinylchloride (PVC) tubes. All rabbits developed clinical signs of dyspnoea and upper respiratory tract obstruction, 17-21 days later. One rabbit was found dead; the other two were treated, but one was euthanized and one died. At necropsy examination, focal chronic inflammation and significant localized narrowing of the tracheal lumen was found in all cases. The affected sites corresponded to the position of the bevel of the endotracheal tube (ETT) during anaesthesia. Histopathology could not differentiate between a traumatic or chemical cause for the narrowing. Possible causes include trauma by the bevel of the ETT when turning the rabbit or preparing the surgical site or a chemical burn from incorrect disinfection or inadequate rinsing of the tubes. Iatrogenic tracheitis should be considered as a cause of dyspnoea, when clinical signs arise 2-3 weeks after anaesthesia.

  18. Ficus mucoso and Senna occidentalis in rabbits.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: A total of 20 domestic rabbits divided into 4 groups of 5 animals per group were used in this study to assess the haematinic potencies of the aqueous crude extracts of Ficus mucoso and Senna occidentalis and this was then compared with that of a proprietary haematinic, Haematopan B12®. Group A animals ...

  19. Muscle weakness causes joint degeneration in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan Youssef, A; Longino, D; Seerattan, R; Leonard, T; Herzog, W

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of botulinum toxin type-A (BTX-A) induced quadriceps weakness on micro-structural changes in knee cartilage of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were divided randomly into an experimental and a sham control group. Each group received a unilateral single quadriceps muscle injection either with saline (sham control; n=4) or BTX-A (experimental; n=11). BTX-A injection produced significant quadriceps muscle weakness (Pmuscle mass (Pknee cartilage, assessed with the Mankin grading system, were the same for the injected and non-injected hind limbs of the experimental group animals. Sham injection had no effect on joint degeneration but all control animals showed some degenerative changes in the knee. Degenerative changes of the retro-patellar cartilage were more severe in the experimental compared to sham control group rabbits (P0.05). Quadriceps muscle weakness caused increased degeneration in the retro-patellar cartilage of NZW rabbits, providing evidence that muscle weakness might be a risk factor for the onset and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Future work needs to delineate whether muscle weakness directly affects joint degeneration, or if changes in function and movement execution associated with muscle weakness are responsible for the increased rate of OA onset and progression observed here.

  20. Ultrastructural researches on rabbit myxomatosis. Lymphnodal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, P S; Simoni, P

    1977-07-01

    Ultrastructural examination of head and neck lymph nodes in rabbits with spontaneous subacute myxomatosis showed fusion of immature reticuloendothelial cells which lead to the formation of polykarocytes. There was no ultrastructural evidence of viral infection of these polykaryocytes. Histiosyncytial lymphadenitis can be considered a specific lesion of myxomatosis.

  1. Immunostimulant Effect of Egyptian Propolis in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Somya A.; Mohamed, Amira H.; Soufy, Hamdy; Nasr, Soad M.; Mahran, K. M.

    2012-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of ethanolic extract of Egyptian propolis given alone or in combination with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine on rabbits challenged with a virulent strain of Pasteurella multocida. Fifty-six New-Zealand rabbits, 6–8 weeks old and non-vaccinated against pasteurellosis, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. The first group was kept as a control for the experiment. The other groups received different treatments with propolis extract, inactivated vaccine, or both. The experiment continued for seven weeks during which clinical signs, body weight, and mortality rate were monitored, and blood samples were collected weekly for evaluating the leukogram, serum biochemistry, and immune response in all groups of animals. At the end of the seventh week, the animals were subjected to challenge with a virulent strain of Pasteurella multocida. Two weeks later, tissue specimens were collected from different organs for histopathological examination. Results showed that rabbits of the groups treated with both propolis and the vaccine by different routes appeared healthy after challenge. It has been concluded that alcoholic extract of propolis administrated in combination with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine has no adverse effects on the general health conditions and enhances immune response in rabbits. PMID:22654648

  2. Immunostimulant Effect of Egyptian Propolis in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somya A. Nassar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of ethanolic extract of Egyptian propolis given alone or in combination with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine on rabbits challenged with a virulent strain of Pasteurella multocida. Fifty-six New-Zealand rabbits, 6–8 weeks old and non-vaccinated against pasteurellosis, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. The first group was kept as a control for the experiment. The other groups received different treatments with propolis extract, inactivated vaccine, or both. The experiment continued for seven weeks during which clinical signs, body weight, and mortality rate were monitored, and blood samples were collected weekly for evaluating the leukogram, serum biochemistry, and immune response in all groups of animals. At the end of the seventh week, the animals were subjected to challenge with a virulent strain of Pasteurella multocida. Two weeks later, tissue specimens were collected from different organs for histopathological examination. Results showed that rabbits of the groups treated with both propolis and the vaccine by different routes appeared healthy after challenge. It has been concluded that alcoholic extract of propolis administrated in combination with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine has no adverse effects on the general health conditions and enhances immune response in rabbits.

  3. histopathological changes in female rabbits adminstered

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    2016-03-23

    Mar 23, 2016 ... generalised cell necrosis and erosion of the villi of the small intestine. All the rabbits that survived gained weight, which is .... photometer, (AAS, Unicam Solar 969 - Unicam), (Haswell, 1991). Phytochemical screening ..... Haswell SJ (1991). Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; Theory, Design and Applications.

  4. International Conference on Immunogenetics of the Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-09

    crowded cell cultures and is removed by extensive dialysis of the CCSup. We concluded that the GM present in rabbit lymphoid cell cultures maintained in...inbred species. We were confronted with the expected marked decline in fertility and fecundity, but the persistence of hetero- zygosis for blood group

  5. Anesthetic protocol for videolaparoscopic surgery in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbinotto, Rosi Pereira; Trindade, Manoel Roberto Maciel; Meyer, Fabíola Schons; Muller, Ana Lucia Letti; Rosa, Arlindo da; Nunes, André Gorgen; da Silva, Rodrigo

    2010-02-01

    To describe the anesthetic protocol and the intubation technique without visualizing the trachea in rabbits, in order to enable the videolaparoscopic surgical procedure. The experiment was performed on 33 female rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), aged from 5 to 7 months. It consisted of general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation by manual palpation of the trachea of the rabbits, without using the laryngoscope, orally, for later videolaparoscopic surgical access to the abdominal cavity. The mean values and standard deviation of vital parameters of the animals were 223.8 + or - 15.61 beats per minute for heart rate; 35 + or - 9 movements per minute for respiratory rate; 96.94 + or - 0.99% of oxymetry and 42.82 + or - 4.02 mmHg for capnometry; 16.7 + or - 4.3 minutes for pneumoperitoneum (duration of surgery) and 1 hour and 14 + or - 8.52 minutes for time of observation (from induction to recovery from anesthesia). All animals were intubated in at most three attempts. No animals were lost after the introduction of this anesthetic technique. This protocol proved adequate, safe and easy to perform, on rabbits submitted to videolaparoscopic surgery.

  6. Ocular hypotensive effects of a Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaruddin MI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Irfan Kamaruddin,1,2 Momoko Nakamura-Shibasaki,1 Yu Mizuno,1 Yoshiaki Kiuchi1 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia Purpose: Ripasudil is a novel Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor that is used to treat ocular hypertension. However, the comparison of the intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering effects between ripasudil alone and other ocular hypotensive drugs has not been studied thoroughly. The purpose of this study is to examine the ocular hypotensive effects of 0.4% ripasudil, 2% pilocarpine, 0.5% timolol and 0.1% dorzolamide in rabbits. We also studied the IOP changes when 0.4% ripasudil was combined with 2% pilocarpine, 0.5% timolol or 0.1% dorzolamide. Methods: One drop of saline solution, 0.4% ripasudil, 0.5% timolol, 2% pilocarpine or 1% dorzolamide or a combination of these agents was applied topically to the left eyes of eight healthy albino rabbits. Posttreatment changes in the IOP of albino rabbits were monitored using a rebound tonometer over a 5-h time course. Changes in IOP after application of saline served as the control. One-way analysis of variance and Dunnett’s post hoc tests were used for statistical analyses. Results: After topical instillation, 0.4% ripasudil resulted in significant decreases in IOP at 0.5 and 1 h compared with the control group. Treatment with timolol, pilocarpine or dorzolamide had no significant effect on IOP. Treatment with timolol, pilocarpine or dorzolamide in combination with ripasudil resulted in significant reductions in IOP at 1 h. However, none of these agents enhanced the IOP-lowering effects of ripasudil. Conclusion: Ripasudil has stronger IOP-lowering effects than timolol, pilocarpine or dorzolamide hypotensive agents in our rabbit model. Addition of timolol, pilocarpine or dorzolamide did not enhance

  7. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  8. Crossbreeding effects on rabbit reproduction from four maternal lines of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, M; Sánchez, J P; Mínguez, C; Baselga, M

    2016-07-01

    Litter size is essential for an efficient production of rabbit meat. A diallel cross between four maternal lines was carried out and the analysis of the components of litter size has been already done. This paper presents the analysis of litter size traits themselves (total born (TB), number born alive (NBA), number weaned (NW)) and kindling interval (KI), that complete the analysis of the reproductive performance. The 16 genetic groups were distributed in four Spanish farms. The V line was present in all farms in order to be used as reference group. A total of 34 546 parities from 7111 does, were analysed. The crossbreeding parameters were estimated according to Dickerson model. The differences between lines performance were of low magnitude and not significant for litter size traits. The LP line showed the shortest KI followed by H respect to lines A and V. These differences reflected the differences between direct and maternal genetic effects. The differences between the average of all crosses and line V were found to be significant and seemed to be important, being 0.46 for TB, 0.56 for NBA, 0.75 for NW and -2.21 days for KI. The differences between reciprocal crosses for litter size were of low magnitude and non-significant, which indicate that the maternal effects are not important between these lines. In general, the lines did not show significant differences in direct and maternal genetic effects for TB, NBA and NW but there were some significant differences for KI, which ranged from 1.54 to 6.85 days in direct effects and from 0.63 to 3.38 days for maternal effects. A positive and, in some cases, relevant heterosis was found. The largest heterosis was for TB in the HV cross (1.05 rabbits), followed by the AH (0.74 rabbits), AV (0.57 rabbits) and LH (0.55 rabbits) crosses. For NBA, significant heterosis was found in HV (1.11 rabbits) and AV (0.49 rabbits) and for NW in AV (0.90 rabbits), LH (0.70 rabbits) and LV (0.58 rabbits). Favourable and significant

  9. In vivo characterization of rabbit anti-mouse thymocyte globulin: a surrogate for rabbit anti-human thymocyte globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, Melanie C; Neff, Kathleen S; Luong, Michael; Smith, Karen A; Culm-Merdek, Kerry; Richards, Susan M; Williams, John M; Perricone, Michael; Garman, Richard D

    2009-07-27

    Polyclonal rabbit anti-human thymocyte globulin (Thymoglobulin) is used clinically for immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation; however, it is difficult to fully characterize the effects of this agent in humans. A surrogate rabbit anti-murine thymocyte globulin (mATG) was generated analogously to the commercial product Thymoglobulin and in vivo activities were evaluated, including pharmacokinetics, T-cell depletion, dose response and kinetics, depletion/sparing of T-cell subsets or other leukocyte populations, and depletion in different lymphoid organs. Within 1 day, T cells are depleted by mATG in the blood, spleen, lymph node, and bone marrow down to doses of 1 mg/kg. Although mATG binds and depletes thymocytes in vitro, there is no thymocyte depletion in vivo at any dose level, suggesting decreased antibody accessibility to the thymus. After two doses of mATG given 3 days apart, T-cell reconstitution begins as early as day 9 and returns to basal levels by day 21 and 29 for CD4 and CD8 T cells, respectively. There is also preferential depletion of naïve T cells that results in increased ratios of regulatory and memory T cells within 1 day after mATG administration. Depletion of natural killer-T cells, natural killer cells, plasma cells, and plasmablasts occurs, but is modest and more transient compared with T cells. B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, hematopoetic stem cells, and bone marrow stromal cells seem resistant to mATG depletion. These studies characterize the depletive effects of mATG in normal mice and provide insight into mechanisms of action of Thymoglobulin.

  10. Comparison of a Rabbit Model of Bacterial Endocarditis and an In Vitro Infection Model with Simulated Endocardial Vegetations

    OpenAIRE

    Hershberger, Ellie; Coyle, Elizabeth A.; Kaatz, Glenn W.; Zervos, Marcus J.; Rybak, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Animal models are commonly used to determine the efficacy of various antimicrobial agents for treatment of bacterial endocarditis. Previously we have utilized an in vitro infection model, which incorporates simulated endocardial vegetations (SEVs) to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of various antibiotics. In the present study, we compared four experimental rabbit endocarditis protocols to an in vitro infection model in an effort to determine if these models are comparable. We have evaluated the...

  11. Appropriate handling of pet rabbits: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, A G; Dickens, G J E

    2016-10-01

    Many rabbits show fear behaviours when lifted off the ground. Estimates from owner surveys suggest that around 60% of pet rabbits struggle when lifted and fear-related aggression is common. This article integrates information from both laboratory and pet rabbit studies to formulate a list of recommendations for appropriate handling of rabbits. Reduction of the frequency of the stressor can be achieved by educating owners on alternative management practices to reduce the need to carry their rabbits. However, in some situations, it is unavoidable that a rabbit is lifted. Amelioration of the stress in these instances can be achieved by a 2 pronged strategy. First, the population of rabbits can be made more resilient to infrequent stressors by selectively breeding for confident rabbits and by better socialisation of unweaned kits, and, where possible, training of individual animals to permit handling. Secondly, any unavoidable lifting can be made less stressful by educating veterinary staff in appropriate methods of holding rabbits during both consultations and inpatient care. Better understanding of appropriate interactions with rabbits will improve welfare. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  12. Poikilocytosis in Rabbits: Prevalence, Type, and Association with Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Mary M.; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Burton, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are a popular companion animal, food animal, and animal model of human disease. Abnormal red cell shapes (poikilocytes) have been observed in rabbits, but their significance is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and type of poikilocytosis in pet rabbits and its association with physiologic factors, clinical disease, and laboratory abnormalities. We retrospectively analyzed blood smears from 482 rabbits presented to the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1990 to 2010. Number and type of poikilocytes per 2000 red blood cells (RBCs) were counted and expressed as a percentage. Acanthocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 150/482 (31%) rabbits and echinocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 127/482 (27%) of rabbits, both healthy and diseased. Thirty-three of 482 (7%) rabbits had >30% acanthocytes and echinocytes combined. Mild to moderate (>0.5% of RBCs) fragmented red cells (schistocytes, microcytes, keratocytes, spherocytes) were found in 25/403 (6%) diseased and 0/79 (0%) healthy rabbits (P = 0.0240). Fragmentation and acanthocytosis were more severe in rabbits with inflammatory disease and malignant neoplasia compared with healthy rabbits (Prabbits. Our findings support the need to carefully document poikilocytes in research investigations and in clinical diagnosis and to determine their diagnostic and prognostic value. PMID:25402479

  13. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times. In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed. The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level. PMID:270526

  14. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F

    1977-12-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times.In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed.The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level.

  15. Live Attenuated Mutants of Francisella tularensis Protect Rabbits against Aerosol Challenge with a Virulent Type A Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Le'Kneitah P.; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Santiago, Araceli E.; Mann, Barbara J.; Barry, Eileen M.

    2014-01-01

    Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of tularemia. No licensed vaccine is currently available for protection against tularemia, although an attenuated strain, dubbed the live vaccine strain (LVS), is given to at-risk laboratory personnel as an investigational new drug (IND). In an effort to develop a vaccine that offers better protection, recombinant attenuated derivatives of a virulent type A strain, SCHU S4, were evaluated in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Rabbits vaccinated via scarification with the three attenuated derivatives (SCHU S4 ΔguaBA, ΔaroD, and ΔfipB strains) or with LVS developed a mild fever, but no weight loss was detected. Twenty-one days after vaccination, all vaccinated rabbits were seropositive for IgG to F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Thirty days after vaccination, all rabbits were challenged with aerosolized SCHU S4 at doses ranging from 50 to 500 50% lethal doses (LD50). All rabbits developed fevers and weight loss after challenge, but the severity was greater for mock-vaccinated rabbits. The ΔguaBA and ΔaroD SCHU S4 derivatives provided partial protection against death (27 to 36%) and a prolonged time to death compared to results for the mock-vaccinated group. In contrast, LVS and the ΔfipB strain both prolonged the time to death, but there were no survivors from the challenge. This is the first demonstration of vaccine efficacy against aerosol challenge with virulent type A F. tularensis in a species other than a rodent since the original work with LVS in the 1960s. The ΔguaBA and ΔaroD SCHU S4 derivatives warrant further evaluation and consideration as potential vaccines for tularemia and for identification of immunological correlates of protection. PMID:24614653

  16. Predictors of early mortality after rabbit antithymocyte globulin as first-line treatment in severe aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Elias H; Lima, Carlos B L; Dias, Danielle S P; Clé, Diego V; Bonduel, Mariana M; Sciuccati, Gabriela B; Medeiros, Larissa A; Oliveira, Michel M; Salvino, Marco A; Garanito, Marlene P; Blum Fonseca, Patricia B; Saad, Sara Teresinha O; Calado, Rodrigo T; Scheinberg, Phillip

    2017-11-01

    Despite being recommended as first-line immunosuppressive therapy in severe aplastic anemia (SAA), horse antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is still unavailable in many countries outside the USA. Rabbit ATG is more lymphocytoxic than horse ATG, and this might result in a higher incidence of severe infections and early mortality. This study was designed to identify the risk factors for early mortality and overall survival (OS) after rabbit ATG in patients with SAA. We retrospectively reviewed 185 patients with SAA who underwent rabbit ATG and cyclosporine. The incidence of death in 3 months following rabbit ATG therapy was 15.1% (28/185). Early mortality was mainly related to infectious complications, despite adequate antibiotic and/or antifungal treatment. Age > 35 years (odds ratio [OR] 5.06, P = 0.001) and baseline absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≤ 0.1 × 109/L (OR 7.64, P mortality after immunosuppressive therapy with this agent. Hematological response at 6 months was observed in only 29.7% of all patients. OS at 1 year after rabbit ATG was 75.3%; and age > 35 years (OR 1.88, P = 0.03), baseline ANC ≤ 0.1 × 109/L (OR 2.65, P mortality. Alternative strategies are needed for the treatment of SAA patients in countries were horse ATG is unavailable, particularly for those at high risk for early mortality after rabbit ATG due to a higher age and very low pre-treatment neutrophil count.

  17. Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibition alters gene expression and improves isoniazid-mediated clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in rabbit lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvakumar Subbian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB treatment is hampered by the long duration of antibiotic therapy required to achieve cure. This indolent response has been partly attributed to the ability of subpopulations of less metabolically active Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb to withstand killing by current anti-TB drugs. We have used immune modulation with a phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4 inhibitor, CC-3052, that reduces tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α production by increasing intracellular cAMP in macrophages, to examine the crosstalk between host and pathogen in rabbits with pulmonary TB during treatment with isoniazid (INH. Based on DNA microarray, changes in host gene expression during CC-3052 treatment of Mtb infected rabbits support a link between PDE4 inhibition and specific down-regulation of the innate immune response. The overall pattern of host gene expression in the lungs of infected rabbits treated with CC-3052, compared to untreated rabbits, was similar to that described in vitro in resting Mtb infected macrophages, suggesting suboptimal macrophage activation. These alterations in host immunity were associated with corresponding down-regulation of a number of Mtb genes that have been associated with a metabolic shift towards dormancy. Moreover, treatment with CC-3052 and INH resulted in reduced expression of those genes associated with the bacterial response to INH. Importantly, CC-3052 treatment of infected rabbits was associated with reduced ability of Mtb to withstand INH killing, shown by improved bacillary clearance, from the lungs of co-treated animals compared to rabbits treated with INH alone. The results of our study suggest that changes in Mtb gene expression, in response to changes in the host immune response, can alter the responsiveness of the bacteria to antimicrobial agents. These findings provide a basis for exploring the potential use of adjunctive immune modulation with PDE4 inhibitors to enhance the efficacy of existing anti-TB treatment.

  18. Agent Building Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    AgentBuilder is a software component developed under an SBIR contract between Reticular Systems, Inc., and Goddard Space Flight Center. AgentBuilder allows software developers without experience in intelligent agent technologies to easily build software applications using intelligent agents. Agents are components of software that will perform tasks automatically, with no intervention or command from a user. AgentBuilder reduces the time and cost of developing agent systems and provides a simple mechanism for implementing high-performance agent systems.

  19. The rabbit meat quality after different feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this present work was to evaluation the effect of feeding on selected chemical and physical parameters rabbit meat. For testing was used rabbits incurred by the crossing of two breeds: the mother - Nitriansky králik and father - Nemecký obrovitý strakoš. Rabbits came from domestic breeding and were 8 weeks old separated from the mother. We created two groups: group A was fed by feed wheat and group B was fed by granulated fodder Králik gold forte. During all the time of fattening, rabbits were fed with hay, respectively green fodder. Rabbits were slaughtered at the age of 19 weeks. After slaughtering was dissection obtained fresh rabbit meat for analysis. From chemical parameters were determined: dry matter, fat, protein, ash, energy value and biogenic amines as putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. From physical parameter was measured pH of meat. The initial value of pH in group A was 6.12 and after 48 hours was 6.38 and in group B was 7.32 and 6.40, respectively.Dry matter in group A was 24.86 g.100 g-1 and in group B was 24.70 g.100 g-1, content of fat was 1.44 g.100g-1 and 1.33 g.100 g-1, protein was 20.94 g.100 g-1 and 21.12 g.100 g-1, ash was 1.18 g.100 g-1 and 1.25 g.100 g-1, energy value was 461.89 kJ.100 g-1 and 440.27 kJ.100 g-1, respectively. Statistical evaluation of all results we found statistically significant differences (p <0.05 only between the groups A and B only in biogenic amine - spermidine. Experiment was shown a high correlation between biogenic amines putrescine and tyramine, putrescine and spermine, cadaverine and tyramine. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  20. A bladder diverticulum model in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Süleyman; Kuzdan, Özgür; Özaydın, Seyithan; Başdaş, Cemile Beşik; Özaydın, İpek; Erdoğan, Cankat; Sander, Serdar

    2016-10-01

    Shuttling of some of the bladder volume into the bladder diverticulum (BD) can cause urinary retention, lower urinary tract dysfunction, infection, and stone formation. This experimental study is the first to create a rabbit BD to study micturition physiology (urodynamics and pathology) that mimics clinical findings. The study included 16 New Zealand adult male rabbits in the BD group and 16 sham-operated controls. BD creation consisted of a lower midline laparotomy and bladder entry via the spacing between the detrusor muscle fibers and the mucosa, posterolaterally from the bladder wall. The detrusor was excised to provide a mucosal prolapsus, creating a narrow BD neck (Figure). The sham group underwent bladder exposure with a midline incision. All rabbits underwent urodynamic study preoperatively and postoperatively, consisting of postmicturition residue (PMR), maximum bladder capacity (MBC), voiding detrusor pressure (VPdet), filling detrusor pressure (FPdet), compliance, and urine flow (Qflow). The animals were then sacrificed and their bladders assessed for pathology and stone formation. Preoperative MBC, Pdet, and Qmax were within reference ranges. No animals had PMR or urinary tract infections (UTIs). The BD group showed urodynamic and pathologic bladder changes, including decreased (28%) cystometric bladder capacity and compliance (Sham: 26.8 ± 0.4; BD: 4.46 ± 1.08, p = 0.0001) and increased post-void residual PMR (8.3 ± 2.4 mL). Pathology revealed increased bladder detrusor thickness correlated with urodynamic findings of increased filling detrusor pressures (Sham: 1.58 ± 0.2; BD: 4.89 ± 0.93, p = 0.0001). Urodynamics revealed intermittent BD bladder contraction during the filling phases. Eight BD group rabbits had UTIs; five had stone formation (4-9 mm). In the literature, it has not been determined whether lower urinary tract disorders (LUTD) could cause diverticula, or if a congenital diverticula could be reason for LUTD. Anatomical

  1. The Oct4 promoter-EGFP transgenic rabbit: a new model for monitoring the pluripotency of rabbit stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mingru; Fang, Zhenfu; Jiang, Weihua; Xing, Fengying; Jiang, Manxi; Kong, Pengcheng; Li, Yao; Zhou, Xiaomei; Tang, Lan; Li, Shangang; Chen, Xuejin

    2013-01-01

    The rabbit has long been used as a laboratory animal model for developing reproductive and stem cell-related technologies, as well as for studying human disease. The Oct4 transcription factor plays a crucial role in the maintenance and regulation of pluripotency in embryos and stem cells. We constructed a reporter plasmid containing the gene encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the rabbit Oct4 promoter (prOG) and transfected it into E14 mouse stem cells and rabbit ESCs. In addition, prOG transgenic fibroblasts were derived and prOG transgenic rabbits were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The pattern of expression of ectopic EGFP was similar in E14 mouse stem cells whether under the control of the rabbit (prOG) or mouse Oct4 promoter (pmOG). EGFP expression was observed in rabbit ESCs following prOG transfection. Both prOG transgenic SCNT embryos and F1 prOG transgenic embryos derived from adult transgenic rabbits expressed green fluorescence at the morula and blastocyst stages. EGFP was clearly detected in gonads isolated from fetuses at 27 dpc. The prOG transgenic rabbit represents a new model for studying the derivation and maintenance of rabbit pluripotent cells, and for investigating rabbit embryo development.

  2. Quantification of in-stent restenosis parameters in rabbits by micro-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langheinrich, A.C.; Zoerb, C.; Jajima, J.; Lommel, D.; Rau, W.S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Justus-Liebig Univ. of Giessen (Germany); Walker, G. [Dept. of Cardiology, Justus-Liebig Univ. of Giessen (Germany); Mueller, K.M. [Dept. of Pathology, Ruhr Univ. of Bochum (Germany); Bohle, R.M. [Dept. of Pathology, Justus-Liebig Univ. of Giessen (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: The well-defined model of angioplasty and stent implantation in the rabbit aorta is useful in experimental studies of restenosis. This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of Micro-CT for quantification of in-stent restenosis in a rabbit aortic in-stent restenosis model. Material and Methods: To induce in-stent restenosis seven female New Zealand rabbits underwent balloon dilation and denudation prior to stenting the abdominal aorta. After six weeks on atherogenic diet, animals were killed and the aorta was perfused with contrast agent. Micro-CT morphometric analysis of balloon and stent injured arteries obtained by 700 transverse sections (voxel size 10 {mu}m) was compared to conventional histological analysis. Results: Intimal hyperplasia was present in stented and balloon injured arteries with a moderate intimal area assessed by Micro-CT and conventional histology (3.91{+-}0.5 mm{sup 2} vs. 4.18{+-}0.42; r=0.9). High significant correlations between Micro-CT image analysis and conventional histomorphometry were obtained for lesion size, size of media, size of lumen and stent area (r=0.84 to 0.96). Conclusion: Micro-CT is feasible for quantitative information about restenosis following balloon angioplasty and stent implantation and has the potential to become a standard technique in many laboratories which will augment serial histology as the reference method for ex-vivo studies of restenosis. (orig.)

  3. Molecular epidemiology of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus in Australia: when one became many.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Mutze, Greg; Peacock, David; Strive, Tanja; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J; Holmes, Edward C

    2014-02-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) was introduced into Australia in 1995 as a biological control agent against the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We evaluated its evolution over a 16-year period (1995-2011) by examining 50 isolates collected throughout Australia, as well as the original inoculum strains. Phylogenetic analysis of capsid protein VP60 sequences of the Australian isolates, compared with those sampled globally, revealed that they form a monophyletic group with the inoculum strains (CAPM V-351 and RHDV351INOC). Strikingly, despite more than 3000 rereleases of RHDV351INOC since 1995, only a single viral lineage has sustained its transmission in the long-term, indicative of a major competitive advantage. In addition, we find evidence for widespread viral gene flow, in which multiple lineages entered individual geographic locations, resulting in a marked turnover of viral lineages with time, as well as a continual increase in viral genetic diversity. The rate of RHDV evolution recorded in Australia -4.0 (3.3-4.7) × 10(-3) nucleotide substitutions per site per year - was higher than previously observed in RHDV, and evidence for adaptive evolution was obtained at two VP60 residues. Finally, more intensive study of a single rabbit population (Turretfield) in South Australia provided no evidence for viral persistence between outbreaks, with genetic diversity instead generated by continual strain importation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Lens Capsule Perforation Without Inflammation in 4 Rabbits From Intravitreal Injection Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farman, Cindy; Schuetz, Chris; Lorget, Florence; Bantseev, Vladimir; Calise, David; Thackaberry, Evan A

    2017-09-01

    Historically, it was thought that lens protein was sequestered, and injury to the lens capsule causing release of lens material into the eye would always result in ocular inflammation. Currently, it is believed that lens antigens are recognized as self, subject to normal T-cell tolerance. Three different single-dose intravitreal injection/implantation studies of 4 different test materials, ranging from 4 to 6 weeks in length, were performed in New Zealand White rabbits. The test materials included polymer microspheres, polymer rods, a solvent, and a hydrogel. Intravitreal injection/implantation procedures were performed on day 1, and indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit-lamp biomicroscopy examinations were performed by board-certified veterinary ophthalmologists periodically throughout the course of each study. None of the affected animals received corticosteroids or other immunomodulatory agents during the course of the studies. Four rabbits had perforation of the posterior lens capsule during the injection/implantation procedure on day 1, visible on clinical ophthalmic examination as lens capsule alterations described as "lens hits" and/or incipient posterior cataracts. Findings on slit-lamp biomicroscopy examination were limited to vitreous cells in 2 of the animals, although not centered on the area of lens capsule disturbance. Histologically, there was no evidence of inflammation in association with extruded lens protein material in any of the affected eyes. These results indicate that iatrogenic damage to the lens capsule during aseptically performed intravitreal injections/implantations does not appear to induce inflammation in rabbits.

  5. Dietary supplementation of butyrate in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Radaelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The UE restrictions imposed on the antibiotic utilization in animal husbandry have increased the interest on alternative additives capable of improving animal digestive health. Among the numerous tested products, short chain fatty acids stimulated intestinal mucus production at different level and intestinal cells proliferation in rats (Meslin et al., 2001; Moreau et al., 2003. Short and medium chain fatty acids could also modulate intestinal microflora: in rabbits, the antimicrobial activity of caprilic and capric acids was proved on various strains of Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli (Marounek et al., 2002. The present trial aimed to evaluate the effect of butyrate inclusion and level on growth performance, health status, digestive physiology and slaughter traits in growing rabbits.

  6. Fusiform aneurysm model in rabbit carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinald, Nicoleta; Fournier, Benjamin; Naveau, Adrien; Couty, Ludovic; Lemitre, Mathilde; Seguier, Sylvie; Coulomb, Bernard; Gogly, Bruno; Lafont, Antoine; Durand, Eric

    2010-01-01

    To develop a reproducible and accessible model of elastase-induced fusiform aneurysm in carotid rabbit arteries. Elastase, at a concentration of 1-30 U, was incubated into the lumen of carotid rabbit arteries. Four weeks later, angiography, histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry and zymography were performed. The optimal concentration of elastase in this model was 3 U according to the balance between mortality and thrombosis rates. Indeed, at 3 U, external carotid diameter increased from 1.9 +/- 0.1 to 3.1 +/- 0.4 mm (p < 0.0001) associated with degradation of elastic fibers, matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion, apoptosis and macrophage infiltration. Our study underlines that abdominal aortic aneurysm can be reliably duplicated in an elastase-induced aneurysm in carotid artery, a much more accessible vessel. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Lactate metabolism in the fetal rabbit lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, M.J.; Brown, D.J.; Dooley, M.

    1986-05-01

    Lactate is frequently overlooked as a potential substrate for the fetal lung, even though it is present in the fetal circulation in concentrations as high as 8 mM. These high concentrations, coupled with the relatively low levels of glucose in the fetal blood, may indicate that lactate can substitute for glucose in pulmonary energy generation and phospholipid synthesis. A series of experiments was therefore undertaken in order to investigate the role of lactate in perinatal pulmonary development. Explants from 30 day gestation fetal rabbit lungs were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer supplemented with 3 mM (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose and varying levels of lactate. In the absence of medium lactate, fetal rabbit lung explants were capable of producing lactate at a rate of approximately 200 etamoles/mg protein/hour. The addition of lactate to the bathing medium immediately reduced net lactate production and above 4 mM, fetal rabbit lung explants became net utilizers of lactate. Media lactate concentrations of 2.5 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM also decreased glucose incorporation into total tissue disaturated phosphatidylcholine by approximately 20%, 35%, and 45%, respectively. Glucose incorporation into surfactant phosphatidylcholine was also reduced by approximately 50%, when lactate was present in the incubation medium at a concentration of 5 mM. Additional experiments also revealed that fetal lung lactate dehydrogenase activity was almost twice that found in the adult rabbit lung. These data indicate that lactate may be an important carbon source for the developing lung and could be a significant component in the manufacture of surfactant phosphatidylcholine during late gestation.

  8. Usefulness of high-resolution sonography in early diagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Don Gil; Chung, Il Gyu; Phyun, Lae Hyun; Pyeun, Yong Seon [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Tae; Lee, Me Jeong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-15

    To determine the role of high-resolution sonography in the early diagnosis of experimentally induced clonorchiasis in rabbits. We performed sonographic examination weekly in 22 lightly-infected rabbits (10 rabbits infected with 10 metacercariae, 6 rabbits infected with 20 metacercariae, and 6 rabbits infected with 40 metacercariae), and 10 heavily-infected rabbits (500 metacercariae). The sonographic criterion of diagnosis with dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts. We sacrificed lightly-infected rabbits and counted numbers of adult worms of clonorchis sinensis 9 weeks after infection. Sonographic abnormalities were found 3 weeks after infection in 2 lightly-infected rabbits and 5 heavily-infected rabbits. On sonography at 9 weeks after infection, we observed dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts in 11 (65%) of 17 lightly-infected rabbits and all of 10 heavily-infected rabbits. High-resolution sonography is very useful in early diagnosis of rabbits clonorchiasis.

  9. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Maseghe Mwachaka; Hassan Saidi; Paul Ochieng Odula; Pamela Idenya Mandela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of ...

  10. Toxicity of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    de Azavedo, J C; Arbuthnott, J P

    1984-01-01

    Strains of Staphylococcus aureus associated with toxic shock syndrome produce toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST 1), which is lethal to conventional rabbits and acts synergistically with gram-negative lipopolysaccharide. The lethal effect of TSST 1 was examined in specific-pathogen-free rabbits on the basis that these rabbits, being less colonized by gram-negative bacteria, would be less susceptible than conventional animals. Although there was no significant difference in mortality between s...

  11. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J; Tittensor, A. M.; Fox, A P; Sanders, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in suffici...

  12. Field Trial of a Pasteurella multocida Extract Vaccine in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Suckow, Mark A; Haab, Rudolph W; Miloscio, Lawrence J; Guilloud, Norman B

    2008-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a bacterial pathogen that can cause significant disease and subsequent effects on research activities involving rabbits. Although several vaccines have been tested under laboratory conditions, field trials of vaccines for the control of P. multocida in rabbits are few. We used a potassium thiocyanate extract (PTE) produced from P. multocida serotype D:3,12,15 to vaccinate Pasteurella-free rabbits at their introduction into a colony having endemic infection with P. mul...

  13. Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Excitability Score in Rabbit fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    of excitability score shows that rabbit on diet 1 and 2 had a lower value which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than rabbits on ... heat stress in poultry (Minka et al. .... An excitability score of 4 was recorded in 70.00 ± 5.50 % in rabbit. Table 1: Composition of Experimental Diets. Ingredients. Dietary Treatment. T1. T2. T3. T4.

  14. BIORESORBABLE POLYMERIC MENISCAL PROSTHESIS: STUDY IN RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Tulio Pereira; de Rezende Duek, Eliana Aparecida; Amatuzzi, Marco Martins; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To induce growth of a neomeniscus into the pores of a prosthesis in order to protect the knee joint cartilage. Methods: 70 knees of 35 New Zealand rabbits were operated. The rabbits were five to seven months old, weighed 2 to 3.8 kilograms, and 22 were male and 13 were female. Each animal underwent medial meniscectomy in both knees during a single operation. A bioabsorbable polymeric meniscal prosthesis composed of 70% polydioxanone and 30% L-lactic acid polymer was implanted in one side. The animals were sacrificed after different postoperative time intervals. The femoral condyles and neomeniscus were subjected to histological analysis. Histograms were used to measure the degradation and absorption of the prosthesis, the growth of meniscal tissue in the prosthesis and the degree of degradation of the femoral condyle joint cartilage. Results: The data obtained showed that tissue growth histologically resembling a normal meniscus occurred, with gradual absorption of the prosthesis, and the percentages of chondrocytes on the control side and prosthesis side. Conclusion: Tissue growth into the prosthesis pores that histologically resembled the normal rabbit meniscus was observed. The joint cartilage of the femoral condyles on the prosthesis side presented greater numbers of chondrocytes in all its layers. PMID:27022549

  15. Sodium nitroprusside induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qian; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by a slowly progressing degradation of the matrix and destruction of articular cartilage. Apoptosis of chondrocyte is accounted for the mechanism of OA. Nitric oxide (NO), as a stimulus, has been shown to induce chondrocyte apoptosis by activating the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), increasing the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inhibiting the proteoglycan synthesis and type II collagen expression. In this study, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was administered to be the NO donor to explore the mechanism of NO-induced apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes obtained from six weeks old New Zealand rabbits. CCK-8 assay revealed the inhibitory effect of SNP on cell viability. We used flow cytometry (FCM) to assess the form of cell death by Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining, and evaluate the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). We found that the SNP induced chondrocyte apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner and an observable reduction of ΔΨm. In conclusion, our findings indicate that SNP induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes via a mitochondria-mediated pathway.

  16. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  17. Neuroprotective effects of sildenafil in experimental spinal cord injury in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Kara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotective agents such as methylprednisolone and sildenafil may limit damage after spinal cord injury. We evaluated the effects of methylprednisolone and sildenafil on biochemical and histologic changes after spinal cord injury in a rabbit model. Female New Zealand rabbits (32 rabbits were allocated to 4 equal groups: laminectomy only (sham control or laminectomy and spinal trauma with no other treatment (trauma control or treatment with either methylprednisolone or sildenafil. Gelsolin and caspase-3 levels in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma were determined, and spinal cord histology was evaluated at 24 hours after trauma. There were no differences in mean cerebrospinal fluid or plasma levels of caspase-3 between the groups or within the groups from 0 to 24 hours after injury. From 0 to 24 hours after trauma, mean cerebrospinal fluid gelsolin levels significantly increased in the sildenafil group and decreased in the sham control and the trauma control groups. Mean plasma gelsolin level was significantly higher at 8 and 24 hours after trauma in the sildenafil than other groups. Histologic examination indicated that general structural integrity was better in the methylprednisolone in comparison with the trauma control group. General structural integrity, leptomeninges, white and grey matter hematomas, and necrosis were significantly improved in the sildenafil compared with the trauma control group. Caspase-3 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood were not increased but gelsolin levels were decreased after spinal cord injury in trauma control rabbits. Sildenafil caused an increase in gelsolin levels and may be more effective than methylprednisolone at decreasing secondary damage to the spinal cord. 

  18. The effect of recombinant hirudin on rabbit ear flaps with venous insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Duzgun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of recombinant hirudin, which is the most powerful antithrombotic agent, on flaps with venous insufficiency was investigated. Oedema and congestion are frequent on flaps, causing necrosis unpredictably. Venous insufficiency and thrombosis are experimentally and clinically more frequent than arterial occlusion. Twenty-one adult New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Skin flaps (3 × 6 cm were elevated on a 1-cm-wide pedicle on rabbit ears. The artery, nerve, and vein were exposed and examined with the aid of a surgical microscope. Venous insufficiency was established by cutting the vein and nerve. In the control group, no additional surgical or medical procedures were performed and the ear flap was inset to its original location. Subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; 320 IU/kg was administered to a second group of rabbits after the same surgery, and recombinant hirudin (2 μg was administered via the pedicle artery 5 minutes after the vein and nerve were bound and cut in a third group of rabbits. Compared with control and LMWH groups on day 3 and 7, the hirudin-treated group had less hair loss, lower oedema scores and less haematoma formation. Furthermore, a lower size of necrotic areas and an increase in the circulating area on day 7 was found in the hirudin-treated group. In addition, angiography revealed new vessel development (neovascularisation only in the hirudin group. On histologic sections, hirudin-treated animals had lower oedema, inflammation and congestion scores than animals in the other two groups. Thus, when administered into the ear flap through the pedicle as a pure recombinant preparation, hirudin increased flap survival by its antithrombotic effects and by accelerating neoangiogenesis. Recombinant hirudin may be used in clinical practice to treat flaps with venous problems and to increase survival rates.

  19. Effects of pulsed magnetic field on healing of tibial bone lesion in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Haghdoos Abargouei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of non-invasive physical agents on wound and bone fracture healing have been considered by investigators of different medical fields. Several studies have been conducted about the effects of magnetic field on bone fracture healing. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pulsed magnetic fields on healing of tibial bone lesion in rabbits. Methods: This experimental study was performed in Shahid Beheshti University of medical sciences in 2014. Eight New Zealand male rabbits were divided into control (with bone lesion and experimental (with bone lesion and under pulsed magnetic field therapy groups. A 4×10 cm bone lesion with 2 mm depth was made by surgery on both tibias of each rabbit. One month after surgery, the rabbits in the experimental group underwent 75 Hz pulsed magnetic field therapy with 4 mT intensity in lesion site for 30 days and 4 hours a day. Forty, 50 and 60 days after surgery, bone healing was evaluated with digital radiographs and bone density was measured in lesion sites. Data were analyzed using T- test. Findings: Mean relative bone density in lesion sites was 138.50, 150.73 and 168.30 for 8 bit grey scale in the experimental group during three consecutive imaging and showed %17.89, %15.46 and %16.59 increase in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: With regards to the results, it seems that pulsed magnetic field therapy improves healing of bone fracture through increasing bone density in fracture site and can be used after orthopedic surgeries.

  20. In vivo quantification by SPECT of [{sup 123}I] ADAM bound to serotonin transporters in the brains of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, X.-X. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Hwang, J.-J. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, J.-F. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chi-Mei Foundation Medical Center, Yungkang City 710, Taiwan (China); Chen, J.-C. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: jcchen@ym.edu.tw; Chou, Y.-T. [Institute of Physiology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Tu, K.-Y. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Mackey Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan 104 (China); Wey, S.-P. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan 333 (China); Ting Gann [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Tao- Yuan 335, Taiwan (China)

    2004-11-01

    Background: A novel radioiodine ligand [{sup 123}I] ADAM (2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine) has been suggested as a promising serotonin transporter (SERT) imaging agent for the central nervous system. In this study, the biodistribution of SERTs in the rabbit brain was investigated using [{sup 123}I] ADAM and mapping images of the same animal produced by both single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and microautoradiography. A semiquantification method was adopted to deduce the optimum time for SPECT imaging, whereas the input for a simple fully quantitative tracer kinetic model was provided from arterial blood sampling data. Methods: SPECT imaging was performed on female rabbits postinjection of 185 MBq [{sup 123}I] ADAM. The time-activity curve obtained from the SPECT images was used to quantify the SERTs, for which the binding potential was calculated from the kinetic modeling of [{sup 123}I] ADAM. The kinetic data were analyzed by the nonlinear least squares method. The effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) on rabbits were also evaluated. After scanning, the same animal was sacrificed and the brain was removed for microautoradiography. Regions-of-interest were analyzed using both SPECT and microautoradiography images. The SPECT images were coregistered manually with the corresponding microautoradiography images for comparative study. Results: During the time interval 90-100 min postinjection, the peak specific binding levels in different brain regions were compared and the brain stem was shown to have the highest activity. The target-to-background ratio was 1.89{+-}0.02. Similar studies with fluoxetine and PCA showed a background level for SERT occupation. Microautoradiography demonstrated a higher level of anatomical details of the [{sup 123}I] ADAM distribution than that obtained by SPECT imaging of the rabbit brain. Conclusion: SPECT imaging of the rabbit brain with

  1. Abstracts of the 24th Hungary conference on rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    24TH Conference on rabbit production Kaposvár, Hungary. 30th May, 2012

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some 100 guests took part in the 24th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production in Kaposvár, organised by the University of Kaposvár, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Seventeen papers were presented, both by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered all fields of rabbit production (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition, meat quality and pathology. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  2. PHARMACOKINETIC VARIATIONS OF OFLOXACIN IN NORMAL AND FEBRILE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AHMAD, H. RAZA, G. MURTAZA AND N. AKHTAR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of experimentally Escherichia coli-induced fever (EEIF on the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin was evaluated. Ofloxacin was administered @ 20 mg.kg-1 body weight intravenously to a group of eight healthy rabbits and compared these results to values in same eight rabbits with EEIF. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ofloxacin in normal and febrile rabbits were determined by using two compartment open kinetic model. Peak plasma level (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-α in normal and febrile rabbits did not differ (P>0.05. However, area under first moment of plasma concentration-time curve (AUMC0-α in febrile rabbits was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that in normal rabbits. Mean values for elimination rate constant (Ke, elimination half life (t1/2β and apparent volume of distribution (Vd were significantly (P<0.05 lower in febrile rabbits compared to normal rabbits, while mean residence time (MRT and total body clearance (Cl of ofloxacin did not show any significant difference in the normal and febrile rabbits. Clinical significance of the above results can be related to the changes in the volume of distribution and elimination half life that illustrates an altered steady state in febrile condition; hence, the need for an adjustment of dosage regimen in EEIF is required.

  3. Human Handling Promotes Compliant Behavior in Adult Laboratory Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swennes, Alton G; Alworth, Leanne C; Harvey, Stephen B; Jones, Carolyn A; King, Christopher S; Crowell-Davis, Sharon L

    2011-01-01

    Routine laboratory procedures can be stressful for laboratory animals. We wanted to determine whether human handling of adult rabbits could induce a degree of habituation, reducing stress and facilitating research-related manipulation. To this end, adult New Zealand white rabbits were handled either frequently or minimally. After being handled over 3 wk, these rabbits were evaluated by novel personnel and compared with minimally handled controls. Evaluators subjectively scored the rabbits for their relative compliance or resistance to being scruffed and removed from their cages, being transported to a treatment room, and their behavior at all stages of the exercise. Upon evaluation, handled rabbits scored significantly more compliant than nontreated controls. During evaluation, behaviors that the rabbits displayed when they were approached in their cages and while being handled outside their cages were recorded and compared between study groups. Handled rabbits displayed behavior consistent with a reduction in human-directed fear. This study illustrates the potential for handling to improve compliance in laboratory procedures and reduce fear-related behavior in laboratory rabbits. Such handling could be used to improve rabbit welfare through the reduction of stress and exposure to novel stimuli. PMID:21333162

  4. Effect of feed restriction on performance of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment assessed the effect of feed restriction in rabbits on performance and economic viability of the activity. Sixty New Zealand White rabbits, weaned at 33 days and slaughtered at 81 days of age, were used. The design was of randomized blocks with four treatments and five replications. The treatments were, as follows: 1 - free feeding, 2 - feed restriction from 35 to 40 days of age (50 g/d/rabbit, 3 - feed restriction from 54 to 61 days of age (90 g/d/rabbit and 4 - feed restriction from 33 to 40 days (50 g/d/rabbit and from 54 to 61 days of age (90 g/d/rabbit. There was no difference in the performance and carcass parameters, indicating that there was compensatory growth in the rabbits that suffered feed restriction. The best gross margin was obtained with feed restriction from 54 to 61 days age. Feed restriction in growing rabbits can be adopted at different ages because it does not interfere negatively in the performance and carcass parameters. In two periods and from 51 to 61 days, feed restriction was more economically viable for the sale of live and slaughtered rabbits, respectively.

  5. Progressive Vascular Functional and Structural Damage in a Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Model in Preterm Rabbits Exposed to Hyperoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Julio; Richter, Jute; Nagatomo, Taro; Salaets, Thomas; Quarck, Rozenn; Wagennar, Allard; Wang, Hongmei; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen; Deprest, Jan; Toelen, Jaan

    2016-10-24

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is caused by preterm neonatal lung injury and results in oxygen dependency and pulmonary hypertension. Current clinical management fails to reduce the incidence of BPD, which calls for novel therapies. Fetal rabbits have a lung development that mimics humans and can be used as a translational model to test novel treatment options. In preterm rabbits, exposure to hyperoxia leads to parenchymal changes, yet vascular damage has not been studied in this model. In this study we document the early functional and structural changes of the lung vasculature in preterm rabbits that are induced by hyperoxia after birth. Pulmonary artery Doppler measurements, micro-CT barium angiograms and media thickness of peripheral pulmonary arteries were affected after seven days of hyperoxia when compared to controls. The parenchyma was also affected both at the functional and structural level. Lung function testing showed higher tissue resistance and elastance, with a decreased lung compliance and lung capacity. Histologically hyperoxia leads to fewer and larger alveoli with thicker walls, less developed distal airways and more inflammation than normoxia. In conclusion, we show that the rabbit model develops pulmonary hypertension and developmental lung arrest after preterm lung injury, which parallel the early changes in human BPD. Thus it enables the testing of pharmaceutical agents that target the cardiovascular compartment of the lung for further translation towards the clinic.

  6. Intracutaneous DNA Vaccination with the E8 Gene of Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus Induces Protective Immunity against Virus Challenge in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jiafen; Han, Ricai; Cladel, Nancy M.; Pickel, Martin D; Christensen, Neil D.

    2002-01-01

    The cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV)-rabbit model has been used in several studies for testing prophylactic and therapeutic papillomavirus vaccines. Earlier observations had shown that the CRPV nonstructural genes E1, E2, and E6 induced strong to partial protective immunity against CRPV infection. In this study, we found that CRPV E8 immunization eliminated virus-induced papillomas in EIII/JC inbred rabbits (100%) and provided partial protection (55%) against virus challenge in outbred...

  7. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  8. Efficacy of silk fibroin-nano silver against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in a rabbit model of sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Minghui; Chen, Zhongchun; Guo, Yongwei; Chen, Xin; Zhao, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus biofilms contribute significantly to the recalcitrant nature of chronic rhinosinusitis. In previous studies, it has been shown that silk fibroin-nano silver solution can eliminate S. aureus biofilms in vitro, which suggests a potential role of this novel agent in the treatment of biofilm-associated diseases, such as sinusitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of silk fibroin-nano silver solution as a topical anti-biofilm agent in a rabbit model of sinusitis. Biofilm-associated sinusitis models were established in 24 New Zealand White rabbits by gelatin sponge placement and S. aureus inoculation through a hole drilled into the anterolateral wall of the right maxillary sinus. After 4 weeks, indwelling catheters were placed into the maxillary sinus. Different concentrations of silk fibroin-nano silver solution or normal saline were irrigated slowly into the maxillary sinus via the indwelling catheters. After 7 days of irrigation, the rabbits were sacrificed. The sinus mucosa was harvested and examined for biofilm biomass as well as morphological integrity of the epithelium by scanning electron microscopy. Silk fibroin-nano silver solution was found to be most effective in reducing the biomass of the S. aureus biofilms at a concentration of 384 mg/L, followed by the concentration of 153.6 mg/L, when compared with saline. After treatment with 384 mg/L silk fibroin-nano silver solution, the biofilms were completely eliminated and the injured epithelium was almost restored with regenerated cilia on the surface. Silk fibroin-nano silver solution was found to be an effective topical agent against S. aureus biofilms in the rabbit model of sinusitis, and its effect was concentration-dependent.

  9. The Biological Effects of Sex Hormones on Rabbit Articular Chondrocytes from Different Genders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, Shwu Jen; Kuo, Shyh Ming; Lin, Yen Ting; Yang, Shan-Wei

    2014-01-01

    ...-estradiol and testosterone) on rabbit articular chondrocytes from different genders. We cultured primary rabbit articular chondrocytes from both genders with varying concentration of sex hormones...

  10. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-08-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.

  11. Coccidian and nematode infections influence prevalence of antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses in European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Pacios, Isabel; Serrano, Emmanuel; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among several parasites in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is crucial to host fitness and to the epidemiology of myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease. These diseases have caused significant reductions in rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula. Most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these viruses individually, and little is known about interactions between these viruses and other parasites. Taking advantage of an experimental restocking program in Spain, the effects of coccidian and nematode infections on the probability of having detectable antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses were tested in European wild rabbits. For 14 mo, we monitored rabbit abundance and parasite loads (coccidia and nematodes) in three reintroduced rabbit populations. While coccidian and nematode loads explained seasonal antibody prevalences to myxoma virus, the pattern was less clear for rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Contrary to expectations, prevalence of antibody to myxoma virus was inversely proportional to coccidian load, while nematode load seemed to play a minor role. These results have implications for viral disease epidemiology and for disease management intended to increase rabbit populations in areas where they are important for ecosystem conservation.

  12. Biochemical and functional abnormalities in hypercholesterolemic rabbit platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalal, K.B.; Ebbe, S.; Mazoyer, E.; Carpenter, D.; Yee, T. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This study was designed to elucidate changes in rabbit platelet lipids induced by a cholesterol rich diet and to explore the possible correlation of these lipid changes with platelet abnormalities. Pronounced biochemical alterations were observed when serum cholesterol levels of 700-1000 mg% were reached. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) platelets contained 37% more neutral lipids and 16% less phospholipids than the controls. Lysolecithin, cholesterol esters and phosphatidylinositol (PI) levels were increased in HC platelets, and the levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC) were decreased. The cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio of lipidemic platelets increased from 0.55 +/- 0.011 to 0.89 +/- 0.016 (P less than 0.01) in eight weeks. HC platelets had 90% more arachidonic acid (AA) in the PI than normal platelets. No significant changes in AA of PC were observed. Platelet function was monitored by the uptake and release of (14C)serotonin in platelet rich plasma (PRP), using varying concentrations of collagen as an aggregating agent. The uptake of (14C)serotonin in HC and normal platelets ranged from 78-94%. The percent of (14C)serotonin released from normal and HC platelets was proportional to the concentration of collagen. However, lipidemic platelets were hyperreactive to low concentrations of collagen. Incorporation of 50 microM acetylsalicylic acid into the aggregating medium suppressed the release of (14C)serotonin in normal PRP by more than 90%, but had only a partial effect on lipidemic PRP.

  13. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic fertilizers and pet or fancy animals. Consumption of rabbit meat is considered very low, due partly to low meat supply and inavailability of marketing. In some tourist areas, such as Lembang (West Java, Tawangmangu (Central Java, Sarangan and Batu (East Java rabbit meat is a specific food. Attempt to create and drive rabbit markets will simultaneously increase meat production to fulfill the demand and meet economic scale of farming. Hence, this will give significant impact to the farmers’ welfare. Availability of good quality meat, dissemination and diversification of meat products, production efficiency toward competitive price along with its proper marketing strategy will drive consumers’ preferences to consume more rabbit meat. Market driving needs to be created in order to promote rabbit meat products by establishing food outlets. This program has been developed by a farmers group in Magelang, Central Java. During the period of 2006 – 2007 the food outlets had increased to 5 outlets, and in 2012 become 9 outlets. This market driving will also have an impact on changing orientation of rabbit farming from traditional to a small and medium economic scale that will influence the production efficiency.

  14. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Tittensor, A M; Fox, A P; Sanders, M F

    1989-10-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in sufficient numbers for transmission to occur throughout the year, but the observed seasonal pattern of the disease appeared to be influenced by seasonal mass movements of these fleas. However other factors were also important including the timing and success of the main rabbit breeding season, the proportion of rabbits which had recovered from the disease and the timing and extent of autumn rabbit mortality from other causes. Significantly more males than females, and more adults and immatures than juveniles, were observed to be infected by myxomatosis. Only 25-27% of the total populations were seen to be infected during outbreaks. Using two independent methods of calculation, it was estimated that between 47 and 69% of infected rabbits died from the disease (much lower than the expected 90-95% for fully susceptible rabbits with the partly attenuated virus strains that predominated). Thus it was estimated that 12-19% of the total rabbit populations were known to have died directly or indirectly from myxomatosis. Although the effects of myxomatosis were much less than during the 1950s and 1960s, it continued to be an important mortality factor. It may still have a regulatory effect on rabbit numbers, with autumn/winter peaks of disease reducing the numbers of rabbits present at the start of the breeding season.

  15. Achieving consistent multiple daily low-dose Bacillus anthracis spore inhalation exposures in the rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy E Barnewall

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Repeated low-level exposures to Bacillus anthracis could occur before or after the remediation of an environmental release. This is especially true for persistent agents such as Bacillus anthracis spores, the causative agent of anthrax. Studies were conducted to examine aerosol methods needed for consistent daily low aerosol concentrations to deliver a low-dose (less than 106 colony forming units (CFU of B. anthracis spores and included a pilot feasibility characterization study, acute exposure study, and a multiple fifteen day exposure study. This manuscript focuses on the state-of-the-science aerosol methodologies used to generate and aerosolize consistent daily low aerosol concentrations and resultant low inhalation doses. The pilot feasibility characterization study determined that the aerosol system was consistent and capable of producing very low aerosol concentrations. In the acute, single day exposure experiment, targeted inhaled doses of 1 x 102, 1 x 103, 1 x 104, and 1 x 105 CFU were used. In the multiple daily exposure experiment, rabbits were exposed multiple days to targeted inhaled doses of 1 x 102, 1 x 103, and 1 x 104 CFU. In all studies, targeted inhaled doses remained fairly consistent from rabbit to rabbit and day to day. The aerosol system produced aerosolized spores within the optimal mass median aerodynamic diameter particle size range to reach deep lung alveoli. Consistency of the inhaled dose was aided by monitoring and recording respiratory parameters during the exposure with real-time plethysmography. Overall, the presented results show that the animal aerosol system was stable and highly reproducible between different studies and multiple exposure days.

  16. Surface Ig on rabbit lymphocytes. Rabbit B and T cells are distinct populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, B J; Catty, D; Manten-Slingerland, R; Jansen, J T; Veldhuis, Dick H.; Roholl, P; Ballieux, R E

    1979-01-01

    Rabbit peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were analyzed by immunofluorescence using anti-T cell conjugates and anti-Fab, anti-a1 allotype, anti-IgM and anti-IgA conjugates. In addition, T cells were demonstrated by rosetting with papain-treated homologous erythrocytes. Control experiments, using

  17. Agility: Agent - Ility Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Craig

    2002-01-01

    ...., object and web technologies). The objective of the Agility project is to develop an open agent grid architecture populated with scalable, deployable, industrial strength agent grid components, targeting the theme 'agents for the masses...

  18. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir FACT SHEET What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  19. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response

  20. [Association between single nucleotide polymorphism of MC4R gene and carcass traits in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mei-Shan; Chen, Shi-Yi; Lai, Song-Jia; Deng, Xiao-Song; Chen, Yun; Wan, Jie

    2008-12-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding sequence of melanoeortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene were detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing method in Harbin white rabbit, Tianfu black rabbit, Belgian hare, ZIKA rabbit, and California rabbit breeds. A-->G conversion mutation at base position 237 was found with high frequency in Harbin white rabbit, Belgian hare, and Zika rabbit and low frequency in Tianfu black rabbit and California rabbit. The allele A was pre-dominant allele for each of meat rabbit breeds. AA genotype frequency was higher than AG genotype in the five studied rabbit breeds. GLM analysis for the effect of genotypes on performance traits demonstrated that AG genotype was significantly associated with body weight, eviscerated weight and feed conversion efficiency (P0.05). It was concluded from the results that MC4R gene could be a candidate modifier gene that affects or controls body weight and carcass traits of rabbit.

  1. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (GI.2) is replacing endemic strains of RHDV in the Australian landscape within 18 months of its arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Jackie E; Hall, Robyn N; Peacock, David; Kovaliski, John; Piper, Melissa; Mourant, Roslyn; Huang, Nina; Campbell, Susan; Gu, Xingnian; Read, Andrew; Urakova, Nadya; Cox, Tarnya; Holmes, Edward C; Strive, Tanja

    2017-11-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2; Lagovirus GI.2) is a pathogenic calicivirus that affects European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and various hare (Lepus) species. GI.2 was first detected in France in 2010 and subsequently caused epidemics in wild and domestic lagomorph populations throughout Europe. In May 2015 GI.2 was detected in Australia. Within 18 months of its initial detection GI.2 had spread to all Australian states and territories and rapidly became the dominant circulating strain, replacing Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV/GI.1) in mainland Australia. Reconstruction of the evolutionary history of 127 Australian GI.2 isolates revealed that the virus arrived in Australia at least several months before its initial description and likely circulated unnoticed in wild rabbit populations in the east of the continent prior to its detection. GI.2 sequences isolated from five hares clustered with sequences from sympatric rabbit populations sampled contemporaneously, indicating multiple spillover events into hares rather than an adaptation of the Australian GI.2 to a new host. Since the presence of GI.2 in Australia may have wide ranging consequences for rabbit biocontrol, particularly with the release of the novel biocontrol agent GI.1a/RHDVa-K5 in March 2017, ongoing surveillance is critical to understanding the interactions of the various lagoviruses in Australia, and their impact on host populations.IMPORTANCE This study describes the spread and distribution of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease virus 2 (GI.2) in Australia since its first detection in May 2015. Within the first 18 months following its detection, RHDV2 spread from east to west across the continent and became the dominant strain in all mainland states of Australia. This has important implications for pest animal management and for owners of pet and farmed rabbits, as there is currently no effective vaccine available in Australia for GI.2. The closely related RHDV (GI.1) is used to

  2. Induction of Apoptosis In Vivo in the Rabbit Brain with Focused Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vykhodtseva, Natalia I.; McDannold, Nathan; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2006-05-01

    Discrete lesions in the rabbit brains were created at substantially lowered acoustic power levels when FUS exposures were combined with ultrasound contrast agent. In histology, the lesions exhibited numerous red blood cell extravasations and destruction of blood vessels, presumably caused by inertial cavitation. As early as at 4 h after sonication, the lesions lost many cells, and remaining cells exhibited both necrotic and apoptotic features. Overall, it appeared that apoptosis dominated; the average number of apoptotic cells/microscopic field was high: 32.3+/-13.2 compared to the number of necrotic cells: 5.1+/-3.4. In summary, it was found that sonication combined with an ultrasound contrast agent could produce lesions that are dominated by apoptosis. Apoptosis was presumably produced mostly via ischemia after cavitation-induced damage and/or destruction of the vasculature.

  3. Comparison of colchicine, dapsone, triamcinolone, and diphenhydramine therapy for the treatment of brown recluse spider envenomation: a double-blind, controlled study in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Dirk M; Miller, Scott D; Young, Russell J; Eggers, Jeff; McGlasson, David; Schmidt, William H; Bush, Anneke

    2005-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of dapsone, diphenhydramine, colchicine, and intralesional triamcinolone in the treatment of brown spider bites. We used a purified venom that reproducibly produces a large eschar. To mimic real-life circumstances, all agents were administered following a 2-hour delay after envenomation. The animals were evaluated for the presence of coagulopathy to determine if the incidence of systemic findings correlated with the type of treatment. In a research laboratory, 60 New Zealand white rabbits each received an intradermal injection of 20 microg of purified Loxosceles reclusa venom. The rabbits were divided into 5 groups of 12; a control group and 4 groups treated with a drug (either colchicine, triamcinolone, diphenhydramine, or dapsone). Measured end points included maximum eschar size as well as histologic grading of depth, inflammation, and thrombosis. Treatment with colchicine, triamcinolone, diphenhydramine, or dapsone. Maximum eschar size as well as histologic grading of depth, inflammation, and thrombosis. There was no significant difference with respect to eschar size (1-way analysis of variance, P = .003). There was no significant difference between any treatment with respect to presence or absence of ulcer, necrosis, large vessel vasculitis, or small vessel vasculitis. The only outcome of significance was that triamcinolone offered protection from thrombosis (chi2 likelihood ratio, P = .04). We also noted evidence of coagulopathy in all of the envenomated animals. The rabbits had grossly elevated activated partial thromboplastin time results, which were corrected with 1:1 mixing with normal rabbit plasma, suggesting an acquired factor deficiency. We did not detect an individual factor deficiency or a lupus anticoagulant. In a rabbit model, none of the agents tested (dapsone, diphenhydramine, colchicine, and intralesional triamcinolone) had an effect on eschar size. Triamcinolone appeared to offer some protection against histologic

  4. Fortification of cassava peel meals in balanced diets for rabbits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diets were fortified with palm oil for energy and soyabean and palm kernel cake for protein. Each diet was fed to four replicates of rabbits consisting of one rabbit per replicate and water was supplied ad libitum. Feed intake, weight-gain and feed cost/unit weight-gain were significantly affected by dietary treatments ...

  5. Performance of growing rabbits fed graded levels of sugarcane peel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty five growing rabbits of mixed breeds and average weight of 894g were used in a seven week feeding trial. Five experimental diets were formulated in which sugarcane peels (SCP) was included at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels to replace maize offal. The rabbits were balanced for weight and allotted to the treatments ...

  6. Immunogenic Response of Rabbits to Monovalent and Polyvalent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slide agglutination and indirect haemagglutination tests were used for detecting and measuring specific antibodies against the strains used. Antisera against polyvalent immunogens protected 83-100% of rabbits against A1, A7 and 50% of rabbits against A2 challenge while the lowest protection (16- 33%) was seen in ...

  7. Haematological profile in salt loaded experimental rabbits treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the haematological profile of salt loaded rabbits treated with Acalypha wilkesiana ethanolic leaf extract. Twenty-four rabbits were randomized into four groups (A - D) of six animals each. Group A-C were fed salt-loaded diet for 35 days, subsequently group B were treated with extract for 7 days. Group C ...

  8. Response of growing rabbits to graded levels of fermented and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No significant (P>0.05) difference was observed in daily feed intake of rabbits as a result of dietary inclusion level or processing type of PPM. Better (P<0.05) feed efficiency was recorded in rabbits fed PPM at 12.5% dietary inclusion level than those fed at 25%. Fermentation enhanced the nutritional value of feedstuff and ...

  9. Rabbit droppings as an organic fertilizer in earthen ponds, to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    Preliminary results obtained in Cameroon pointed to the promising effect of rabbit manure as a water fertilizer for Oreochromis niloticus ponds and as a food-source for the catfish Heterobranchus longifilis (Breine et al., 1995). (Franco, 1991), using dried rabbit dung to feed tilapia O. niloticus in mesocosms, reported that the ...

  10. The reservoir status of rabbits for the maintenance of Ehrlichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reservoir status of rabbits for a strain of Ehrlichia ruminantium was investigated using six experimental and four controlled rabbits. Each of the experimental animals was intraperitoneally inoculated with 1.5 ml of infective blood from a febrile goat. The effect of the parasite on body weight, packed cell volume, total protein ...

  11. Doe productivity indices and sire effects of a heterogeneous rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IJAAAR

    forest zone. Animal, housing and reproductive management. Rabbits for this study were obtained from composite populations reared in Ibadan,. Osogbo and Ile-Ife in Southwestern Nigeria. The heterogeneous rabbit stocks are products of non-specific crosses of New Zealand White,. California, Chinchilla and Flemish Giant.

  12. Biochemical polymorphism in New Zealand white x Chinchilla rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated diversity within New Zealand white and Chinchilla rabbit crosses using four structural protein loci: Hemoglobin (Hb), Albumin (Alb), Transferin (Tf) and Carbonic anhydrase (CA). Blood (4mls) was sampled from a total of 49 rabbits through ocular venipuncture. The samples collected were analysed using ...

  13. Tear film break-up time in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojia E; Markoulli, Maria; Zhao, Zhenjun; Willcox, Mark D P

    2013-01-01

    Rabbits have a longer inter-blink time (approximately 10 minutes) compared with humans (five to eight seconds), suggesting that rabbits have a much more stable tear film. Using fluorescein, the tear break-up time of rabbits has been reported to be similar to that of humans. This study set out to measure the tear break-up time in rabbits using non-invasive methods and to establish the pattern of tear break-up compared to humans. The tear break-up time was measured and the pattern of tear break-up was observed in six New Zealand White rabbits on two separate occasions using both the Keeler Tearscope-plus(TM) and a slitlamp biomicroscope. The mean rabbit tear break-up time was 29.8 ± 3.4 (SD) minutes. This contrasts with the reports of human tear break-up time of eight to 30 seconds. The tear breaking spread very slowly and was often restricted to the area of the initial break. Rabbit tears have a significantly higher tear break-up time than humans and this aligns with previously demonstrated differences in inter-blink time between rabbits and humans. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of tear stability may lead to novel ways of increasing human tear film stability. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2012 Optometrists Association Australia.

  14. Comparison of radiation effects on weight of rabbits after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, investigated the effects of radiation on weight change in rabbit following consumption of diets mixed with fresh and thermoxidised palm oil, common diets among the people in the tropics. Two groups of rabbits each were fed with normal diets (Control group 1), Fresh palm oil diets (FPOD) and thermoxidised palm ...

  15. Optimum rabbit density over fish ponds to optimise Nile tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although previous studies have suggested that rabbit excreta can be used as high-quality manure for sustaining plankton production due to their gradual nutrient release, integrated rabbit–fish production systems are still not widely used. Between 2006 and 2010 optimal rabbit densities for sustainable integrated rabbit–Nile ...

  16. Characterization of a Heterogeneous Population of Rabbits for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to describe prolificacy and litter characteristics of a Nigerian heterogeneous population of rabbits. Data on 535 kits sired by 10 bucks and 48 does across three parities were used to characterize this population of rabbits for prolificacy, pre-weaning litter traits and kit survival under on-station ...

  17. Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding graded levels of cassava leaf meal (CLM) on genital tract morphometry and haematology of twenty 8-week old male rabbits weighing between 815 to 910g. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments viz: T (control), T , T and T with CLM inclusion ...

  18. Supplemental value of avizyme in diets of rabbits containing graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance, nutrient retention and hematological parameters of rabbits fed graded levels of wheat offal supplemented with Avizyme were studied. A total of 24, 9-week old New Zealand rabbits were fed for 49 days (7 weeks) on four experimental diets. Avizyme was added at the rate of 1 g kg-1 of wheat offal based ...

  19. Wildlife of southern forests habitat & management (Chapter 15): Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Dickson

    2003-01-01

    Rabbits, or lagomorphs, resemble rodents. But unlike rodents they have relatively large hind legs, large ears, a short fluffy tail, and 2 sets of upper incisors. Like rodents their incisors grow continually. They can either walk or hop, and are fleet and elusive when evading predators. They normally are silent but are capable of several different vocalizations. Rabbits...

  20. Growth Indices and Apparent Nutrient Digestibility in Rabbits Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of moringa leaf meal, growth performance and nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed graded levels of moringa leaf meal (MLM) were investigated. The MLM was incorporated in rabbit diet at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels as replacement for soyabean meal (SBM) which constituted treatments ...

  1. Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leaf meal diets. Rabbits were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% CLM replaced with LLM for ...

  2. Microhabitat Characteristics of sites used by swamp rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick A. Zollner; Winston P. Smith; Leonard A. Brennan

    2000-01-01

    The swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus) is one of the least studied North American lagomorphs; a better understanding of the habitat types it uses will improve management of this species. We studied microhabitat characteristics of sites associated with specific behaviors of the swamp rabbit. During spring-summer (15 April-1 October) and fall-winter (...

  3. Growth Performance and Nutrients Digestibility of Weanling Rabbits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of various levels of sesame seed meal inclusion on the performance and apparent nutrient digestibility of weanling rabbits. Sixteen, (New Zealand White) rabbits of mixed sexes were used for the experiment. They were weighed and randomly allotted to four dietary ...

  4. Growth response and nutrient digestibility of pre-pubertal rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the growth response and nutrient digestibility in rabbit bucks fed cottonseed cake (CSC)-based diets supplemented with vitamin E. 64 weanling rabbit bucks, aged five to six weeks and weighing averagely 511.28 g were involved in the study. The bucks were randomly allocated to eight ...

  5. Effects of Charcoal Inclusion on the Performance of Growing Rabbits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to study the effects of charcoal inclusion in the diet of growing rabbits fed Acacia pod meal (APM) diet. Eighteen (18) growing rabbits of mixed breeds (give the crosses) and sexes with an average initial weight of 5202±0.25g were used for this study in a completely randomized design, ...

  6. Spontaneous Lung Lesions in Aging Laboratory Rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, T K; Griffith, J W; Chroneos, Z C; Izer, J M; Willing, L B; Peng, X

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous age-related lesions of laboratory rabbits are not well documented in the contemporary scientific literature. A retrospective study of diagnostic necropsies of 36 rabbits >2 years of age found a number of common lung lesions. Fibromuscular intimal hyperplasia affected medium and to a lesser extent large pulmonary arteries and was present to a variable extent in all 36 rabbits >2 years of age. The lesions were characterized by fragmentation and/or reduplication of the internal elastic lamina (IEL), proliferation of smoothelin+/alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)+/vimentin- smooth muscle cells and fewer smoothelin-/α-SMA+/vimentin+ myofibroblasts, and intimal deposition of collagen without thrombosis, embolism, or evidence of pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary emphysema, present in 30/36 rabbits, was characterized by the loss of alveolar septa; most affected rabbits did not have clinical signs of respiratory disease. In 8/13 rabbits of the inbred EIII/JC audiogenic strain, we identified a unique syndrome of granulomatous pneumonia containing hyaline brown to gray, globular to ring-like acellular material that was Alcian blue and periodic acid-Schiff positive. The material was immunoreactive for surfactant protein-A and had the ultrastructural appearance of multilamellar vesicles, suggesting a genetic defect in surfactant metabolism. Additionally, we found small benign primary lung tumors (fibropapillomas, 5 rabbits) not previously described. Other findings included heterotopic bone (5 rabbits), subacute to chronic suppurative bronchopneumonia, pyogranulomatous pneumonia with plant material, and pulmonary artifacts from barbiturate euthanasia solution.

  7. Cutaneous lymphomas in European pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, J M; von Bomhard, W; Wise, A G; Maes, R K; Kiupel, M

    2012-09-01

    Cutaneous lymphoma is a common skin neoplasm of pet rabbits in Europe but is rarely reported in pet rabbits in North America. These neoplasms have not been previously characterized, nor has the cause for the apparent predilection for cutaneous lymphoma in European pet rabbits compared with North American pet rabbits been investigated. In this retrospective study, the authors morphologically and immunohistochemically characterized 25 cutaneous lymphomas in European pet rabbits according to the World Health Organization classification. Tumors were classified as diffuse large B cell lymphomas, with 14 lymphomas exhibiting a centroblastic/centrocytic subtype and 11 tumors exhibiting a T cell-rich B cell subtype. To investigate a potential viral etiology of these lymphomas, 3 diffuse large B cell and 3 T cell-rich B cell lymphomas were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction for retroviral and herpesviral genes. Neither virus was detected. In contrast to other domestic animals, cutaneous lymphomas in European pet rabbits were highly pleomorphic and frequently contained multinucleated giant cells. Unexpectedly, the second most common subtype was T cell-rich B cell lymphoma, a subtype that is rare in species other than horses. Based on a limited number of samples, there was no support for a viral etiology that would explain the higher incidence of lymphoma in European pet rabbits compared with American pet rabbits. Further investigation into genetic and extrinsic factors associated with the development of these tumors is warranted.

  8. Connections of the vestibular nuclei in the rabbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Epema

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis descnbes the afferent, efferent and intrinsic connections of the vestibular nuclei in the Dutch belted rabbit. Different anatomical tracing techniques were used to study these projections. A description of the vestibular complex was added, since recent data for the rabbit

  9. Performance and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an 84 days feeding trial, the effect of feeding bacterial protein meal (BPM) either as a replacement for fish meal or for groundnut cake meal in growing rabbits was examined. A total of 20 growing rabbits having an initial body weight of 617.2 (standard error 25) g were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments. A control ...

  10. the assessment of fasciola gigantica infection in the rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the rabbit was assessed as a laboratory host for the helminthes parasite, Fasciola gigantica. Three groups of rabbits were Infected experimentally with 5, 10 end 15 metacercariae of F. gigantica respectively. Clinical signs found included pale mucous membrane, progressive emaciation and rough hair coat.

  11. Performance characteristics of growing rabbits fed diet based on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial using twenty four cross bred 8-9 weeks old rabbits was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding cerelac waste - CW (a by-product of the infant food industry considered as waste) on the performance and organ characteristics of growing rabbits. Three experimental diets were formulated with diet 1 serving ...

  12. Tolerance study of aqueous extract of Mitracarpus scaber in rabbits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was to evaluate the cardiac safety of Mitracarpus scaber (Rubiaceae) in rabbit. In this study, different batches of rabbits were injected with increasing doses of aqueous extract of Mitracarpus scaber (encoded) and changes in the activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), lactate deshydrogenase ...

  13. Incomplete bone regeneration of rabbit calvarial defects using different membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Schou, S

    1998-01-01

    The present study describes the use of a degradable and a non-degradable material for guided bone regeneration. Forty rabbits were divided into 5 groups. Bicortical defects 15 mm in diameter were prepared in rabbit calvaria. A titanium microplate was placed over the defect to prevent collapse...

  14. Response of weaner rabbits to diets containing graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-week study was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding graded levels of cooked velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens) on growth performance and blood of weaner rabbits. 24, 6 week-old hybrid (Chinchilla x New Zealand white) weaner rabbits with initial average weight of 0.52 kg were housed in a hutch which ...

  15. Rabbit management and occurrences of mange mite infestations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Morogoro Municipality between September and December 2015 to explore the rabbit farming and assess the common health problems with a focus on epidemiology of mange infestation. A total of 18 rabbit farms with 622 animals from 9 wards were investigated. A questionnaire ...

  16. Environmental bacteria associated with an institutional rabbit house ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bacteriological investigation of microorganisms of public health importance associated with rabbit houses was undertaken to determine the occurrence of bacteria in rabbit house in Ibadan. A total of 144 swab samples were collected from which 160 bacterial isolates were recovered. E. coli, (20%) showed the highest ...

  17. Growth response and nutrient digestibility of pre- pubertal rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR 'JIDE AMAO

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... A study was conducted to investigate the growth response and nutrient digestibility in rabbit bucks fed cottonseed cake (CSC)-based diets supplemented with vitamin E. 64 weanling rabbit bucks, aged five to six weeks and weighing averagely 511.28 g were involved in the study. The bucks were randomly.

  18. Effect of Garlic on Perfusion Scintigraphy of Rabbit's Lungs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study of the effect of garlic on rabbit's lungs, with the aid of perfusion scintigraphy, after experimentally-induced pulmonary embolism. Methods: Twelve adult rabbits were anesthetized. Prepared macroaggregated albumin- technetium 99m (99mTc-MAA) radiopharmaceutical was injected into the ear vein at a ...

  19. Resveratrol Protects Rabbits Against Cholesterol Diet-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    lipidaemia. Lipidaemia is enhanced by formation of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and hyperglycaemia. The aim of these experiments was to investigate the protective effect of resveratrol co-administered with cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidaemia in rabbits. Thirty rabbits divided into six groups of five animal (group= ...

  20. Growth and Reproductive Performance of Rabbits Fed Mistletoe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten (10) rabbit does of mixed breeds aged between 5 – 6 months were used to study the effect of feeding mistletoe on feed intake, body weight and reproductive performance of rabbits. Following a pre - treatment period of two weeks during which the does were allowed to acclimatize to the environment, they were randomly ...

  1. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract on stressed rabbit plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract has been shown to have antioxidant and lipid lowering effects in animal studies. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx on the lipid profile of rabbits subjected to stress. The rabbits were stressed by suspension for 2 minutes, twice ...

  2. Castration causes progressive reduction of length of the rabbit penis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding of the alterations of the penile size in hypogonadism is important in clinical examination of hypogonadic patients. The aim of this study was to describe the changes in the rabbit penile length after castration. Fifteen adult male rabbits were used for the study. Nine of these were castrated under local anesthesia ...

  3. Growth indices and economic implications of weaned rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the performance and economic implications of rabbits fed Leucaena leucocephala leaf protein concentrate (LLPC) as protein source to replace soybean meal in rabbit diet. Five experimental diets were formulated in which LLPC replaced soybean meal at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% (representing 0, 1.20, 2.40, ...

  4. Occurrence of Gastrointestinal Helminths in rabbits with special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to detect Giardia spp. as zoonotic helminth as Giardiosis has been recognised as the one of the important parasitic diarrhoea among children as cross transmission may occur between human and rabbits. Other helminths in rabbits may causes ill health and sometimes proved fatal. Faecal samples ...

  5. Evolutionary morphology of the rabbit skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Kraatz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The skull of leporids (rabbits and hares is highly transformed, typified by pronounced arching of the dorsal skull and ventral flexion of the facial region (i.e., facial tilt. Previous studies show that locomotor behavior influences aspects of cranial shape in leporids, and here we use an extensive 3D geometric morphometrics dataset to further explore what influences leporid cranial diversity. Facial tilt angle, a trait that strongly correlates with locomotor mode, significantly predicts the cranial shape variation captured by the primary axis of cranial shape space, and describes a small proportion (13.2% of overall cranial shape variation in the clade. However, locomotor mode does not correlate with overall cranial shape variation in the clade, because there are two district morphologies of generalist species, and saltators and cursorial species have similar morphologies. Cranial shape changes due to phyletic size change (evolutionary allometry also describes a small proportion (12.5% of cranial shape variation in the clade, but this is largely driven by the smallest living leporid, the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis. By integrating phylogenetic history with our geometric morphometric data, we show that the leporid cranium exhibits weak phylogenetic signal and substantial homoplasy. Though these results make it difficult to reconstruct what the ‘ancestral’ leporid skull looked like, the fossil records suggest that dorsal arching and facial tilt could have occurred before the origin of the crown group. Lastly, our study highlights the diversity of cranial variation in crown leporids, and highlights a need for additional phylogenetic work that includes stem (fossil leporids and includes morphological data that captures the transformed morphology of rabbits and hares.

  6. Assessing Ulcerative Pododermatitis of Breeding Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Joan M.; de la Fuente, L. Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Sore hocks are a health and welfare problem in rabbits housed in cages with mesh floors. Footrests are used to prevent them. They occupy part of the mesh floor of the cage but allow droppings to fall and also protect the rabbit’s feet. In this study we evaluated the use of footrests on 664 commercial farms visited in Spain and Portugal, and the rates of sick animals during 2001–2012; the attention given by producers to animal care was evident as 28% of farms with footrests in 2001 increased to 75% in 2012. Abstract Rabbits in conventional farms are housed in wire net cages with mesh floors to separate them from droppings. In time, lacerations appear on the legs of adult rabbits causing ulcerative pododermatitis or sore hocks, a severe health and welfare problem. Pain causes behavioral changes; productivity is reduced and the most seriously affected animals die or are culled. In this study we evaluated the attention producers have given to this problem and its prevention by installing footrests in cages. We made 2,331 visits to 664 commercial farms in Spain and Portugal between 2001 and 2012, and evaluated morbidity by examining 105,009 females and 10,722 males. The study highlights that the rate of farms with footrests increased from 27.8% in 2001 to 75.2% in 2012. Prevalence of sore hocks in does in 2001 was 11.4%, decreasing to 6.3% in 2012; prevention of ulcerative pododermatitis was associated (P < 0.001) with the presence of footrests. Overall, prevalence was 4.87 ± 0.26 on farms with footrests and 13.71 ± 0.32 without (P < 0.01). PMID:26487404

  7. Inhalation toxicity of sulfuryl fluoride in rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrandt, D L; Nitschke, K D

    1989-04-01

    The inhalation toxicity of the structural fumigant sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) was evaluated in rats and rabbits. Exposures for a preliminary 2-week study were 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, to 0, 100, 300, or 600 ppm SO2F2. Nine of ten rats at 600 ppm died or were moribund between the second and sixth exposures. Extensive kidney lesions were present in all rats exposed to 600 ppm, whereas only minimal renal changes were noted in rats at 300 ppm. Upper and lower respiratory tissues were inflamed in the single rat that survived the 2-week exposure to 600 ppm. Rabbits exposed to 600 ppm SO2F2 were hyperactive and one animal had a convulsion. Exposure to 300 or 600 ppm for 2 weeks resulted in vacuolation and/or malacia in the cerebrum of all rabbits and most of these rabbits also had moderate inflammation of nasal tissues; a few rabbits at 600 ppm had inflammation of the trachea or bronchi. A subsequent 13-week study evaluated rats and rabbits exposed to 0, 30, 100, or 300 ppm SO2F2 (337 ppm TWA for rabbits). Rabbits initially were exposed to a high concentration of 600 ppm; however, convulsions were noted in two animals after nine exposures and the concentration subsequently was reduced to 300 ppm. Vacuolation and/or malacia were observed in the cerebrum of all rabbits at the highest concentration; one rabbit exposed to 100 ppm also had cerebral vacuolation. Rabbits at the highest concentration, as well as one rabbit exposed to 100 ppm, had inflammation of the nasal tissues. Rats exposed to 300 ppm SO2F2 for 13 weeks had mottled incisor teeth, minimal renal effects, pulmonary histiocytosis, inflammation of nasal tissues, and cerebral vacuolation. Also, rats exposed to 100 ppm SO2F2 for 13 weeks had mottled teeth. Fluoride toxicity was suggested by mottled teeth in rats as well as elevation of serum fluoride levels in rats and rabbits exposed to SO2F2 for 13 weeks. Although repeated exposure of rats and rabbits to 100-600 ppm SO2F2 resulted in toxicity of the kidneys (rats only

  8. Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, & Other Mathematical Explorations

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Keith

    2011-01-01

    How does mathematics enable us to send pictures from space back to Earth? Where does the bell-shaped curve come from? Why do you need only 23 people in a room for a 50/50 chance of two of them sharing the same birthday? In Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, and Other Mathematical Explorations, Keith Ball highlights how ideas, mostly from pure math, can answer these questions and many more. Drawing on areas of mathematics from probability theory, number theory, and geometry, he explores a wide range of concepts, some more light-hearted, others central to the development of the field and used dai

  9. [History of the rabbit and ancient DNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreille, O; Mounolou, J C; Monnerot, M

    1997-01-01

    Present populations of Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are organized into two well defined groups A and B according to their mitochondrial DNA sequences. Group A is restricted to the South Western part of the Iberian Peninsula while group B is found everywhere else. Domestic breeds belong to the latter. As evidenced from data on ancient bones (up to 12,000 years BP) the mitochondrial type B1, predominant in domestic animals, originated from Spain. B1 animals were introduced in France by man between late Roman times and Middle Ages.

  10. Assessing Ulcerative Pododermatitis of Breeding Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Rosell, Joan M.; de la Fuente, L. Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Sore hocks are a health and welfare problem in rabbits housed in cages with mesh floors. Footrests are used to prevent them. They occupy part of the mesh floor of the cage but allow droppings to fall and also protect the rabbit’s feet. In this study we evaluated the use of footrests on 664 commercial farms visited in Spain and Portugal, and the rates of sick animals during 2001–2012; the attention given by producers to animal care was evident as 28% of farms with footrests in 2...

  11. [Secretion of ochratoxin A in rabbit milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtier, P; Baradat, C; Alvinerie, M

    1977-01-01

    The excretion of ochratoxin A in rabbit female was examined after a single intravenous administration of toxin. For the highest dose (4 mg par kg), the level in milk reached 1 ppm. The mammary excretion was also studied while plasma concentration of ochratoxin A was constant; the percentages of protein bound toxin in plasma and milk were determined. The likeness of theoretical and experimental ratio between mycotoxin levels in milk and plasma ultrafiltrates allowed to conclude in favour of the passage through the blood-milk barrier by nonionic passive diffusion of the free toxin. In conclusion, authors discussed about the sanitary problem concerning the presence of ochratoxin A in domestical animal milks.

  12. Cutaneous melanomas in rabbits: rare but often fatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hammer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An adult male dwarf rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus was presented to the veterinarian due to hind limb lameness. The rabbit was in a reduced body condition. Clinical examination and cytology identified a cutaneous melanoma in the inguinal region. Whole body radiographs identified multifocal radio-opaque masses in both lungs which where assumed to be lung metastases. The animal was euthanized due to the poor prognosis. Necropsy confirmed a malignant, melanotic melanoma with pulmonary and hepatic metastases. Histopathologically, the primary tumor and the metastases were composed of epitheloid cells which showed infiltrative growth. The rabbit was diagnosed with metastatic, cutaneous, melanotic melanoma. Melanomas in rabbits can be recognized as highly malignant independent on their pigmentation status. Pulmonary tropism seems to be a distinct feature of this tumor type in rabbits and indicates that a comprehensive diagnostic workup is necessary to avoid anesthesia-related incidents.

  13. GROWTH ANALYSIS IN RABBIT USING GOMPERTZ NON-LINEAR MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Setiaji

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to compare the growth curve of rabbit. Three breeds of rabbit,namely Indonesian Local Rabbit (IL, Flamish Giant (FG and Rex (R were used in the study.Individual body weights of each breed was measured from birth to 63 days of age with 3-days interval.Those periodical data were separated into different sex, be then it was averaged to analysis growthpattern. Growth curve parameters were estimated to fit growth data. There was no difference in bodyweight between sexs within breed. Indonesian local rabbit had the lowest body weight. The resultsshowed that growth curve paramaters among three breeds were significantly different (P<0.05 for bothsexes. FG had the highest value of asymptotic mature weight, followed by R and IL. In conclusion,Gompertz model was excellent fit for the growth data in rabbit with a high coefficient determination (R2= 0.999.

  14. Histological analysis of femoral bones in rabbits administered by amygdalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kováčová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanogenic glycosides are present in several economically important plant foods. Amygdalin, one of the most common cyanoglucoside, can be found abundantly in the seeds of apples, bitter almonds, apricots, peaches, various beans, cereals, cassava and sorghum. Amygdalin has been used for the treatment of cancer, it shows killing effects on cancer cells by release of cyanide. However, its effect on bone structure has not been investigated to date. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine a possible effect of amygdalin application on femoral bone microstructure in adult rabbits. Four month old rabbits were randomly divided into two groups of three animals each. Rabbits from E group received amygdalin intramuscularly at a dose 0.6 mg.kg-1 body weight (bw (group E, n = 3 one time per day during 28 days. The second group of rabbits without amygdalin supplementation served as a control (group C, n = 3. After 28 days, histological structure of femoral bones in both groups of rabbits was analysed and compared. Rabbits from E group displayed different microstructure in middle part of the compact bone and near endosteal bone surface. For endosteal border, an absence of the primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was typical. This part of the bone was formed by irregular Haversian and/or by dense Haversian bone tissues. In the middle part of substantia compacta, primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was observed. Cortical bone thickness did not change between rabbits from E and C groups. However, rabbits from E group had a significantly lower values of primary osteons' vascular canals and secondary osteons as compared to the C group. On the other hand, all measured parameters of Haversian canals did not differ between rabbits from both groups. Our results demonstrate that intramuscular application of amygdalin at the dose used in our study affects femoral bone microstructure in rabbits.

  15. Atorvastatin delays the glucose clearance rate in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Daxin; Wang, Yanli; Gao, Shoucui; Wang, Xiaojing; Sun, Wentao; Bai, Liang; Cheng, Gong; Chu, Yonglie; Zhao, Sihai; Liu, Enqi

    2015-05-01

    The administration of statin might increase the risk of new-onset diabetes in hypercholesterolemic patients based on the recent clinical evidence. However, the causal relationship must be clarified and confirmed in animal experiments. Therefore, we mimicked hypercholesterolemia by feeding rabbits a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) and performed 16 weeks of atorvastatin administration to investigate the effect of statin on glucose metabolism. The intravenous glucose tolerance test showed that plasma glucose levels in the statin-treated rabbits were consistently higher and that there was a slower rate of glucose clearance from the blood than in HCD rabbits. The incremental area under the curve for glucose in the statin-treated rabbits was also significantly larger than in the HCD rabbits. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the intravenous insulin tolerance test. The glucose-lowering ability of exogenous insulin was not impaired by statin treatment in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The administration of a single dose of statin did not affect glucose metabolism in normal rabbits. The statin also significantly increased the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase and decreased plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the hypercholesterolemic rabbits, whereas it did not affect plasma levels of glucose and insulin. The current results showed that atorvastatin treatment resulted in a significant delay of glucose clearance in hypercholesterolemic rabbits, and this rabbit model could be suitable for studying the effects of statin on glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Confirmation and phylogenetic analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in free-living rabbits from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bildt, M. W. G.; van Bolhuis, G. H.; van Zijderveld, F.; van Riel, D.; Drees, J. M.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Kuiken, T.

    2006-01-01

    The number of free-living European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the Netherlands has declined dramatically in recent years. Although rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) infection has been implicated as a possible cause of this decline, the definitive diagnosis has not been reported. We

  17. High rabbit abundance proves detrimental to the population growth rate in European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. extensive breeding enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruiz-Aizpurua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. is a key prey species in Mediterranean ecosystems that has declined in its natural ranges as a result of diseases and loss of habitat. This situation has led to the production of wild rabbits in enclosures in which they can acclimate and breed. The efficiency of these enclosures as extensive breeding systems is defined by their population growth rate (PGR. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of rabbit abundance on the PGR. This has been done by creating general linear models to explain autumn and spring PGR with the use of rabbit abundance estimates, enclosure size, aerial predation and previous PGR as possible explanatory variables. Rabbit abundance and enclosure size negatively affected the autumn PGR, while only rabbit abundance affected the spring PGR in the best-fit models. It is suggested that maintaining rabbit densities at fewer than 30 rabbits per hectare might help to optimise the efficiency inside enclosures.

  18. Early innate immunity determines outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pulmonary infection in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary infection of humans by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), results in active disease in 5-10% of individuals, while asymptomatic latent Mtb infection (LTBI) is established in the remainder. The host immune responses that determine this differential outcome following Mtb infection are not fully understood. Using a rabbit model of pulmonary TB, we have shown that infection with the Mtb clinical isolate HN878 (a hyper-virulent W-Beijing lineage strain) leads to progressive cavitary disease similar to what is seen in humans with active TB. In contrast, infection with Mtb CDC1551 (a hyper-immunogenic clinical isolate) is efficiently controlled in rabbit lungs, with establishment of LTBI, which can be reactivated upon treatment with immune-suppressive drugs. We hypothesize that the initial interaction of Mtb with the cells of the host response in the lungs determine later outcome of infection. Results To test this hypothesis, we used our rabbit model of pulmonary TB and infected the animals with Mtb HN878 or CDC1551. At 3 hours, with similar lung bacillary loads, HN878 infection caused greater accumulation of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the lungs, compared to animals infected with CDC1551. Using whole-genome microarray gene expression analysis, we delineated the early transcriptional changes in the lungs of HN878- or CDC1551-infected rabbits at this time and compared them to the differential response at 4 weeks of Mtb-infection. Our gene network and pathway analysis showed that the most significantly differentially expressed genes involved in the host response to HN878, compared to CDC1551, at 3 hours of infection, were components of the inflammatory response and STAT1 activation, recruitment and activation of macrophages, PMN, and fMLP (N-formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine)-stimulation. At 4 weeks, the CDC1551 bacillary load was significantly lower and the granulomatous

  19. Comparison of the efficacy of HI6 and 2-PAM against soman, tabun, sarin, and VX in the rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplovitz, I.; Stewart, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    This study compared the efficacy of H16 and 2-PAM against nerve agent (soman tabun sarin and VX) -induced lethality in the atropinesterase-free rabbits pretreated with vehicle (controls) or pyridostigmine. Treatment was administered at signs or 2 min after agent challenge and consisted ofoxime (l00umol/lkg) + atropine 13 mg(kg) (alone or together with diazepam). Twenty-four-h LD50 values were calculated for soman- and tabun-intoxicated animals, whereas 24-h survival was noted in animals given 10 LD50s of sarin or VX. In pyridostigmine and control rabbits intoxicated with soman and treated with oxime + atropine (alone or together with diazepam), HI6 was 35 times more effective than 2-PAM. In contrast 1116 was less effective than 2-PAM against tabun poisoning. In pyridostigmine-pretreated animals exposed to tabun, efficacy was increased more than 3-fold when compare to tabun-challenged animals treated with atropine + H16 alone. Both oximes were highly effective against satin and VX. These findings suggest that Hifi could replace 2-PAM as therapy for nerve agent poisoning because it is superior to 2-PAM against soman, and when used in pyridostigmine-pretreated animals it affords excellent protection against all four nerve agents when used in combination with atropine (alone or together with diazepam) therapy.

  20. Increased virulence of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus associated with genetic resistance in wild Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, Peter; Cooke, Brian D.; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ronald; Holmes, Edward C.; Strive, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    The release of myxoma virus (MYXV) and Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia with the aim of controlling overabundant rabbits has provided a unique opportunity to study the initial spread and establishment of emerging pathogens, as well as their co-evolution with their mammalian hosts. In contrast to MYXV, which attenuated shortly after its introduction, rapid attenuation of RHDV has not been observed. By studying the change in virulence of recent field isolates at a single field site we show, for the first time, that RHDV virulence has increased through time, likely because of selection to overcome developing genetic resistance in Australian wild rabbits. High virulence also appears to be favoured as rabbit carcasses, rather than diseased animals, are the likely source of mechanical insect transmission. These findings not only help elucidate the co-evolutionary interaction between rabbits and RHDV, but reveal some of the key factors shaping virulence evolution. PMID:25146599

  1. Analysis of gene expression in rabbit muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Gálová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the demand for high quality food. Meat and meat products may be considered as irreplaceable in human nutrition. Breeding livestock to higher content of lean meat and the use of modern hybrids entails problems with the quality of meat. Analysing of livestock genomes could get us a great deal of important information, which may significantly affect the improvement process. Domestic animals are invaluable resources for study of the molecular architecture of complex traits. Although the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL responsible for economically important traits in domestic animals has achieved remarkable results in recent decades, not all of the genetic variation in the complex traits has been captured because of the low density of markers used in QTL mapping studies. The genome wide association study (GWAS, which utilizes high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, provides a new way to tackle this issue. New technologies now allow producing microarrays containing thousands of hybridization probes on a single membrane or other solid support. We used microarray analysis to study gene expression in rabbit muscle during different developmental age stages. The outputs from GeneSpring GX sotware are presented in this work. After the evaluation of gene expression in rabbits, will be selected genes of interest in relation to meat quality parameters and will be further analyzed by the available methods of molecular biology and genetics.

  2. Effect of freezing on rabbit cultured chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R Filgueiras

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of freezing on chondrocytes maintained in culture, aiming the establishment of a cell bank for future application as heterologous implant. Chondrocytes extracted from joint cartilage of nine healthy New Zealand White rabbits were cultivated and frozen with the cryoprotector 5% dimethylsulfoxide for six months. Phenotypic and scanning electron microscopy analyses were carried out to identify morphological and functional differences between fresh and thawed cells. After enzymatic digestion, a total of 4.8x10(5cells per rabbit were obtained. Fresh chondrocytes showed a high mitotic rate and abundant matrix was present up to 60 days of culture. Loss of phenotypic stability was notable in the thawed chondrocytes, with a low labeling of proteoglycans and weak immunostaining of type II collagen. The present study showed important loss of chondrocyte viability under the freezing conditions. For future in vivo studies of heterologous implant, these results suggests that a high number of cells should be implanted in the host site in order to achieve an adequate number of viable cells. Furthermore, the chondrocytes should be implanted after two weeks of culture, when the highest viability rate is found

  3. Assessing Ulcerative Pododermatitis of Breeding Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Joan M; de la Fuente, L Fernando

    2013-04-17

    Rabbits in conventional farms are housed in wire net cages with mesh floors to separate them from droppings. In time, lacerations appear on the legs of adult rabbits causing ulcerative pododermatitis or sore hocks, a severe health and welfare problem. Pain causes behavioral changes; productivity is reduced and the most seriously affected animals die or are culled. In this study we evaluated the attention producers have given to this problem and its prevention by installing footrests in cages. We made 2,331 visits to 664 commercial farms in Spain and Portugal between 2001 and 2012, and evaluated morbidity by examining 105,009 females and 10,722 males. The study highlights that the rate of farms with footrests increased from 27.8% in 2001 to 75.2% in 2012. Prevalence of sore hocks in does in 2001 was 11.4%, decreasing to 6.3% in 2012; prevention of ulcerative pododermatitis was associated (P < 0.001) with the presence of footrests. Overall, prevalence was 4.87 ± 0.26 on farms with footrests and 13.71 ± 0.32 without (P < 0.01).

  4. Assessing Ulcerative Pododermatitis of Breeding Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan M. Rosell

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits in conventional farms are housed in wire net cages with mesh floors to separate them from droppings. In time, lacerations appear on the legs of adult rabbits causing ulcerative pododermatitis or sore hocks, a severe health and welfare problem. Pain causes behavioral changes; productivity is reduced and the most seriously affected animals die or are culled. In this study we evaluated the attention producers have given to this problem and its prevention by installing footrests in cages. We made 2,331 visits to 664 commercial farms in Spain and Portugal between 2001 and 2012, and evaluated morbidity by examining 105,009 females and 10,722 males. The study highlights that the rate of farms with footrests increased from 27.8% in 2001 to 75.2% in 2012. Prevalence of sore hocks in does in 2001 was 11.4%, decreasing to 6.3% in 2012; prevention of ulcerative pododermatitis was associated (P < 0.001 with the presence of footrests. Overall, prevalence was 4.87 ± 0.26 on farms with footrests and 13.71 ± 0.32 without (P < 0.01.

  5. Seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic rabbits in Durango State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in rabbits is of public health importance because rabbit meat is consumed by humans, and rabbits are preyed upon by cats that then shed environmentally resistant oocysts. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 429 domestic rabbits in Durango State, Mexico using the mo...

  6. The effects of Ethanol Extract of Propolis (EEP on the experimentally induced Candida keratitis in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahangari AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Propolis (bee glue is a resinous substance obtained from bee hives living on various plant sources. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP on the experimentally induced Candidial keratitis in rabbits."n"nMethods: The alcoholic extract of propolis was prepared by 80% ethyl alcohol. After suppressing the immune system of 24 male rabbits, experimental Candida albicans keratitis was induced in the animals under local anesthesia and sterile conditions. The animals were later divided into four groups including the control or glycerin group and a nystatin and two 500 and 1000µg/ml EEP groups. Treatment continued for 21 days and after sacrificing the animals by humane methods, histopathological samples of the rabbits' eyes were prepared."n"nResults: Keratitis was developed in the eyes of all rabbits a week after the yeast inoculation. In the control group in which animals received glycerin, keratitis persisted until day 21. Clinical signs of keratitis disappeared in the Nystatin and 1000µg/ml EEP groups after 14 and 21 days, respectively. The clinical signs of keratitis partially ameliorated in the animals receiving 500µg/ml EEP. Histopathological examination revealed no differences between groups receiving nystatin or 1000µg/ml EEP."n"nConclusion: It is concluded that, ethanol extract of propolis could completely treat Candida albicans keratitis in 1000µg/ml concentrations. This extract can be used as a safe antifungal agent

  7. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Matatagui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs. The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13, and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR. Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved.

  8. Impact of Pregnancy on Zonisamide Pharmacokinetics in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal M. Matar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is associated with various physiological changes which may lead to significant alterations in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. The present study was aimed to investigate the potential effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetic profile of zonisamide (ZNM in the rabbit. Seven female rabbits were used in this study. The pregnant and nonpregnant rabbits received ZNM orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg and blood samples were collected from the animals just before receiving the drug and then serially for up to 24 h. The plasma samples were analyzed using tandem mass spectrometric method. Following a single oral dose of ZNM to the rabbits, the mean values of ZNM plasma concentrations at different times were consistently low in pregnant compared to nonpregnant rabbits. The mean values of ZNM’s Cmax and AUC0-∞ were significantly (P<0.05 decreased, whereas the CL/F exhibited substantial increase (P<0.05 in pregnant compared to nonpregnant rabbits. Tmax, t1/2abs, t1/2el, MRT, and Vd/F showed no significant differences between the two groups. The present study demonstrates that pregnancy decreased ZNM plasma concentrations in rabbits and that the decrease could be due to decreased extent of gastrointestinal absorption, induced hepatic metabolism, or enhanced renal elimination of the drug.

  9. Comparison of rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory non-clinical safety testing of human pharmaceutical compounds typically requires embryo fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) testing in two species, (one rodent and one non-rodent, usually the rat and the rabbit). The question has been raised whether under some conditions EFDT testing could be limited to one species, or whether the need for testing in a second species could be decided on a case by case basis. As part of an RIVM/CBG-MEB/HESI/US EPA consortium initiative, we built and queried a database of 379 EFDT studies conducted for marketed and non-marketed pharmaceutical compounds. The animal models (rat and rabbit) were assessed for their potential for adverse developmental and maternal outcomes. The database was analyzed for the prevalence of EFDT incidence and the nature and severity of adverse findings in the two species. Some manifestation of EFDT in either one or both species (rat and rabbit) was demonstrated for 282 compounds (74%), and EFDT was detected in only one species (rat or rabbit) in almost a third (31%, 118 compounds), with approximately 58% rat and 42% rabbit studies identifying an EFDT signal among the 379 compounds tested. For 24 compounds (6%), fetal malformations were observed in one species (rat or rabbit) in the absence of any EFDT in the second species. In general, growth retardation, fetal variations, and malformations were more prominent in the rat, whereas embryo-fetal death was observed more often in the rabbit. Discor

  10. Comparing rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental adverse effect level (dLOAEL). For the vast majority of cases (83% based on AUC of n=283), dLOAELs in rats and rabbits were within the same order of magnitude (less than 10-fold different) when compared based on available data on AUC and Cmax exposures. For 13.5% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 3.5% of compounds the rat was more sensitive when compared based on AUC exposures. For 12% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 1.3% of compounds the rat was more sensitive based on Cmax exposures. When evaluated based on human equivalent dose (HED) conversion using standard factors, the rat and rabbit were equally sensitive. The relative extent of embryo-fetal toxicity in the presence of maternal toxicity was not different between species. Overall effect severity incidences were distributed similarly in rat and rabbit studies. Individual rat and rabbit strains did not show a different general distribution of systemic exposure LOAELs as compared to all strains combined for each species. There were no apparent species differences in the occurrence of embryo-fetal variations. Based on power of detection and given differences in the nature of developmental effects betwe

  11. Incidence of Spontaneous Ocular Lesions in Laboratory Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holve, Dana L; Mundwiler, Karen E; Pritt, Stacy L

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory rabbits are commonly used for ocular drug and device studies. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of spontaneous ocular lesions in laboratory rabbits with respect to sex, breed, and supplier. We retrospectively evaluated ophthalmic examination records of rabbits screened between April 2008 and April 2010. These 1840 records represented 572 black Dutch belted (DB), 1022 New Zealand white (NZW), and 246 NZW × New Zealand red F1 crosses (WRF1). Rabbits were between 6 and 16 wk of age and had been received from 5 suppliers. Ocular structures evaluated were the cornea, lens, iris and vitreous with respect to sex, breed and supplier. A total of 177 rabbits (9.6%) and 233 eyes (6.3%) were effected. Of total rabbits, 15.3% males and 7.3% females were affected. The most common structure affected was the cornea in 5.7% of rabbits, (DB 11.7%, NZW 3.0%, and NZR 3.3%). The lens at 3.6% was second most common (DB 2.1%, NZW 4.6%, and NZR 3.3%). Both iris (0.2%) and vitreous (0.3%) were not significantly affected. Significant sex-breeder-supplier combinations were: cornea DB supplier D, supplier D females, supplier D males, DB males and NZR females; and lens: NZW females; and at least one affected ocular structure: NZW supplier D, supplier D females, DB males, NZW females, and NZR females. Breed, sex, and supplier were significant variables of ocular lesions in laboratory rabbits. Investigators should consider each of these variables when choosing rabbits for ocular studies. PMID:22330351

  12. Instant RabbitMQ messaging application development how-to

    CERN Document Server

    Keig, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Written in a practical, concise style, this book is complete with hands-on examples and the right amount of theory to get you started developing messaging applications with RabbitMQ.Although the examples in this book are written in Node.js, a server side JavaScript platform for building fast scalable network applications no knowledge of RabbitMQ or Node.js is required. If you want to build scalable message based applications using RabbitMQ, then this book is for you!

  13. (-)-anipamil retards atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B F; Mortensen, A; Hansen, J F

    1995-01-01

    differences were found in serum lipids (i.e., VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL) in the study period among the three groups. Plasma anipamil at the end of the study was 0.23 +/- 6, and 202 +/- 19 ng/ml, respectively, in the three treatment groups. The degree of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta was significantly lower......Calcium antagonists have been reported to limit atherosclerosis in cholesterol fed rabbits. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil on the spontaneous development of atherosclerosis in homozygote WHHL rabbits. From the age of 7 weeks, three groups...... (p atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta in WHHL rabbits....

  14. Rabbit antibodies reacting with brush border of rodent renal tubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireton, H. J. C.; McGiven, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    The immunofluorescent staining characteristics of antibodies against rat and mouse kidney tubule brush border, produced in rabbits immunized with microsomal or mitochondrial fractions of rat kidney, were compared with those of human antibodies against mitochondria obtained from patients with biliary cirrhosis. With the rabbit antisera, brush border staining was confined to the epithelium of the proximal renal tubules while the human antimitochondrial sera stained proximal and distal tubules. Absorptions with a mitochondrial fraction prepared from rat liver inhibited the human serum activity but had no effect on brush border activity in the rabbit serum which was inhibited only by the rat kidney subcellular fractions. PMID:4931856

  15. The Social Nature of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehrig, Angelika N

    2016-01-01

    Increasing concerns regarding the wellbeing of laboratory animals have caused biomedical research stakeholders to reconsider traditional housing of laboratory species and to provide social companionship for social species. European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are commonly individually housed in research facilities despite the occurrence of social groups in the wild. Here we review the current literature to provide a comprehensive description of the social behaviors and preferences of rabbits in the wild and in captivity. The implications of these studies regarding social housing of laboratory rabbits are discussed. PMID:27931309

  16. Anatomy and Surgical Approaches to the Rabbit Nasal Septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Karam W; Chang, John C; Kuan, Edward C; Wong, Brian J F

    2017-09-01

    The rabbit is the primary animal model used to investigate aspects of nasal surgery. Although several studies have used this model, none has provided a comprehensive analysis of the surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal fossae and septum. To describe and optimize the surgical anatomy and approach to the rabbit nasal vault and septal cartilage. In an ex vivo animal study conducted at an academic medical center, preliminary cadaveric dissections were performed on rabbit head specimens to establish familiarity with relevant anatomy and rehearse various approaches. Live Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (3.5-4.0 kg) were used to further develop this surgical technique developed here. Access of the nasal vault was gained through a midline nasal dorsum incision and creation of an osteoplastic flap with a drill. Submucosal resection was performed with preservation of the mucoperichondrium. All rabbits were monitored daily for 4 weeks in the postoperative period for signs of infection, pain, and complications. The study was conducted from June 1, 2014, to December 1, 2014. Surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal vault and harvest septal cartilage. Four Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (Western Organ Rabbit Co), ranging in age from 9 to 12 months and weighing between 3.5 and 4.0 kg, were used in this study. Initial dissections demonstrated the feasibility of harvesting septal cartilage while preserving the mucoperichondrial envelope. Access to the nasal vault through this 3-osteotomy approach allowed for maximal exposure to the nasal cavity bilaterally while maintaining the integrity of the mucoperichondrium following septal cartilage harvest. The maximum amount of bulk, en bloc, cartilage harvested was 1.0 × 2.5 cm. Following surgical dissection, all animals maintained adequate airway patency and support to midface structures. Furthermore, all specimens preserved the integrity of the

  17. Diurnal rhythm of mitosis in rabbit corneal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogle, J A; Yoza, B K; Neufeld, A H

    1980-01-01

    Incorporation of 3H-thymidine by rabbit corneal epithelium during the course of a one-hour incubation in vitro varies according to the time of day, suggesting a diurnal rhythm of mitotic activity. Adrenergic decentralization of the cornea does not affect this rhythm. Furthermore, there is no diurnal variation in the basal or sympathomimetically-stimulated cyclic AMP production by freshly excised rabbit corneas, incubated in vitro. Therefore, the diurnal rhythm of corneal epithelial mitotsis in the rabbit is not paced by catecholamines.

  18. Prolactin daily rhythm in suckling male rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebollar Pilar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the 24-h changes in plasma prolactin levels, and dopamine (DA, serotonin (5HT, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and taurine concentration in median eminence and adenohypophysis of newborn male rabbits. Methods Animals were kept under controlled light-dark cycles (LD 16:8, lights on at 08:00 h, housed in individual metal cages, and fed ad libitum with free access to tap water. On day 1 after parturition, litter size was standardized to 8–9 to assure similar lactation conditions during the experiment. Groups of 6–7 suckling male rabbits were killed by decapitation on day 11 of life at six different time points during a 24-h period. Results Plasma prolactin levels changed significantly throughout the day, showing a peak at the beginning of the active phase (at 01:00 h and a second maximum during the first part of the resting phase (at 13:00 h. Median eminence DA concentration also changed significantly during the day, peaking at the same time intervals as plasma prolactin. A single maximum (at 13:00 h was found for adenohypophysial DA concentration. Individual adenohypophysial DA concentrations correlated significantly with their respective plasma prolactin levels. A maximum in median eminence 5HT concentration occurred at 21:00 h whereas adenohypophysial 5HT peaked at 13:00 h. Median eminence 5HT concentration and circulating prolactin correlated inversely. In the median eminence, GABA concentration attained maximal values at 21:00 h, whereas it reached a maximum at 13:00 h in the pituitary gland. Median eminence GABA concentration correlated inversely with circulating prolactin. In the median eminence, taurine values varied in a bimodal way showing two maxima, at the second half of the rest span and of the activity phase, respectively. In the adenohypophysis, minimal taurine levels coincided with the major plasma prolactin peak (at 01:00 h. Circulating prolactin and adenohypophysial taurine levels

  19. Knowledge and attitudes of 52 UK pet rabbit owners at the point of sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, J L; Mullan, S M

    2011-04-02

    The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of pet rabbit owners at the time of buying their rabbit(s) and to investigate factors influencing the planned husbandry and housing of their rabbit(s). A questionnaire was used to assess the impact of demographics, knowledge and attitudes on the likelihood that respondents would neuter their rabbit(s), feed them an appropriate diet, house them in appropriately sized housing and provide them with an appropriate companion. Knowledge and attitudes were significant factors in whether respondents planned to neuter their rabbit(s) and provide them with an appropriate companion. The attribution of secondary emotions to rabbits was associated with plans to feed a mix-type diet. The majority of owners had carried out prior research into pet rabbits, but owners had a limited knowledge of the needs of rabbits, particularly with respect to their diet and social needs. Respondents who had decided to purchase a rabbit on the day were less likely to intend to get their rabbit neutered than those who had taken more time to decide to buy a rabbit.

  20. Tricolemoma em coelho Tricholemmoma in a rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Duro de Oliveira

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Tricolemoma é um raro tumor benigno, composto por células epiteliais claras derivadas da bainha externa da raiz do folículo piloso. Esses tumores têm sido descritos no homem e raramente em cães. No presente relato, descreve-se a ocorrência de um tricolemoma, de 1cm de diâmetro em um coelho adulto, cujas características histológicas são muito semelhantes às descritas para esses tumores em cães.Tricholemmoma is a rare benign tumor composed of clear epithelial cells derived from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. The tumor has been described in man and rarely in dogs. This report deals with the occurrence of a tricholemmoma , with a diemeter of 1cm, in an adult rabbit. The histologic features are similar to those described in such tumors in dogs.

  1. Inhibitory effect of polysulfated heparin endostatin onalkali burn induced corneal neovascularization in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Na Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate anti-angiogenic effects of polysulfated heparin endostatin (PSH-ES on alkali burn induced corneal neovascularization (NV in rabbits. METHODS: An alkali burn was made on rabbit corneas to induce corneal NV in the right eye of 24 rabbits. One day after burn creation, a 0.2 mL subconjunctival injection of 50 μg/mL PSH-ES, 50 μg/mL recombinant endostatin (ES, or normal saline was administered every other day for a total of 14d (7 injections. Histology and immunohistochemisty were used to examine corneas. Corneal NV growth was evaluated as microvessel quantity and corneal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression was measured by immunohistochemical assay. RESULTS: Subconjunctival injection of ES and PSH-ES resulted in significant corneal NV suppression, but PSH-ES had a more powerful anti-angiogenic effect than ES. Mean VEGF concentration in PSH-ES treated corneas was significantly lower than in ES treated and saline treated corneas. Histological examination showed that corneas treated with either PSH-ES or ES had significantly fewer microvessels than eyes treated with saline. Additionally corneas treated with PSH-ES had significantly fewer microvessels than corneas treated with ES. CONCLUSION: Both PSH-ES and recombinant ES effectively inhibit corneal NV induced by alkali burn. However, PSH-ES is a more powerful anti-angiogenic agent than ES. This research has the potential to provide a new treatment option for preventing and treating corneal NV.

  2. Effects of K-115, a rho-kinase inhibitor, on aqueous humor dynamics in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Tomoyuki; Mizuno, Ken; Kaneko, Yoshio; Ohta, Masayuki; Koide, Takashi; Tanabe, Sohei

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the topical instillation of K-115, a selective Rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, on intraocular pressure (IOP), ocular distribution, and aqueous humor dynamics in experimental animals. Kinase inhibition by K-115 was measured by biochemical assay. IOP was monitored using a pneumatonometer in albino rabbits and monkeys after topical instillation of K-115. The ocular distribution of [(14)C]K-115 was determined by whole-head autoradiography. The aqueous flow rate was determined by fluorophotometry. The total outflow facility and uveoscleral outflow were measured by two-level constant pressure perfusion and perfusion technique using fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, respectively. Biochemical assay showed that K-115 had selective and potent inhibitory effects on ROCKs. In rabbits, topical instillation of K-115 significantly reduced IOP in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum IOP reduction was observed 1 h after topical instillation, which was 8.55 ± 1.09 mmHg (mean ± SE) from the baseline IOP at 0.5%. In monkeys, maximum IOP reduction was observed 2 h after topical instillation, which was 4.36 ± 0.32 mmHg from the baseline IOP at 0.4%, and was significantly stronger than that of 0.005% latanoprost. Whole-head autoradiography showed that the radioactivity level was maximum at 15 min after instillation of [(14)C]K-115 in the ipsilateral eye. Single instillation of 0.4% K-115 showed no effect on aqueous flow rate or uveoscleral outflow, but significantly increased conventional outflow facility by 2.2-fold compared to vehicle-treated eyes in rabbits. These results indicated that K-115 ophthalmic solution, a selective and potent ROCK inhibitor, is a novel and potent antiglaucoma agent.

  3. A histopathologic and immunologic study of the course of syphilis in the experimentally infected rabbit. Demonstration of long-lasting cellular immunity.

    OpenAIRE

    Baker-Zander, S.; Sell, S.

    1980-01-01

    Inoculation of the causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum into the testes of rabbits initiated the following sequence of events: 1) a rapid proliferation of organisms in the interstitial tissues of the testes, reaching a maximum at about 10-11 days after infection; 2) systemic spread of organisms primarily in the lymphoid organs; 3) a prompt immune response manifested by hyperplasia of T cell domains in draining lymph nodes and spleen, blast transformation responses of lymphoid cells...

  4. Prolactin-induced alpha-lactalbumin activity in mammary explants from pregnant rabbits. A role for epidermal growth factor and glucocorticoids.

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran, L.; Topper, Y J

    1984-01-01

    Exogenous prolactin alone can induce alpha-lactalbumin activity in rabbit mammary explants. Under these conditions, exogenous corticosol has no effect. However, low levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) can markedly inhibit the induction by prolactin, and this inhibitory effect, in turn, can be prevented by cortisol. The steroid can, in fact, convert EGF from a potent inhibitor into an agent which enhances the induction. None of the other growth factors tested inhibits induction of alpha-la...

  5. Evaluation of the effects of glimepiride (Amaryl) and repaglinide (novoNorm) on atherosclerosis progression in high cholesterol-fed male rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Najah R; Al-Amran, Fadhil; Hussein, Mohammad A A; Rezeg, Fadhil A

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the blood vessel wall, characterized in early stages by endothelial dysfunction, recruitment and activation of monocyte/macrophages. Glimepiride is one of the third generation sulphonylurea drugs, useful for control of diabetes mellitus type two and it may exert anti inflammatory activity, by induction of nitric oxide production or through selective suppression of the cyclooxygenase pathway. Repaglinide is a new hypoglycemic agent, and a member of the carbamoylmethyl benzoic acid family. Some results from the literature demonstrate that repaglinide has favorable effects on the parameters of antioxidative balance. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of glimepiride and repaglinide on atherosclerosis via interfering with the inflammatory and oxidative pathways. Twenty four local domestic male rabbits were involved in this study. The animals were randomly divided into four groups; Group I rabbits fed normal chow (oxiod) diet for 10 weeks. Group II rabbits were fed with 1% cholesterol enriched diet. Group III rabbits were fed with 1% cholesterol enriched diet together with Glimepiride (0.1 mg/kg once daily before morning feed). Group IV rabbits were fed with 1% cholesterol enriched diet together with Repaglinide (0.3 mg/kg once daily before morning feed). Blood samples were collected before (0 time) and every two weeks of experimental diets for measurement of serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high sensitive C - reactive protein (hsCRP), Interleukin - 6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) levels. At the end of 10 weeks, the aorta was removed for measurement of aortic Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and aortic intimal thickness. Glimepiride and repaglinide treatment did show significant effect on lipid parameters compared with induced untreated group (P Glimepiride and repaglinide may reduce atherosclerosis

  6. Recombinant anti-monkey CD3 immunotoxin depletes peripheral lymph node T lymphocytes more effectively than rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin in naïve baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamala, Isaac; Matar, Abraham J; Farkash, Evan; Wang, Zhirui; Huang, Christene A; Sachs, David H

    2013-12-01

    T cell depletion is an important procedure for both experimental and therapeutic immune modulation. Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), which is a commonly used T cell depletion antibody in clinical organ and cell transplantation protocols, is effective in temporarily depleting peripheral blood T lymphocytes but only moderately effective in depleting peripheral lymph node T cells which comprise the majority of T lymphocytes. A recombinant anti-CD3 immunotoxin, A-dmDT390-scfbDb (C207), has been developed and shown in an initial study to retain the lymph node depleting properties of conjugated CD3 immunotoxin. This agent could potentially be used synergistically with or as a replacement for rabbit ATG in preclinical primate models of transplantation. We directly compared the peripheral blood and lymph node depleting abilities of this recombinant anti-CD3 immunotoxin and rabbit ATG in naïve animals at clinically tolerated doses. Baboons were treated with a full course of either rabbit ATG (n=2) or CD3 immunotoxin (n=3). Peripheral blood and lymph node T lymphocytes were measured before and following treatment. Peripheral blood CD3+ cells fell below 100cells/μL in every animal. In the two animals receiving ATG, CD3+ cells represented 53% and 68% of lymph node cells two days following a full course of rabbit ATG. In contrast, CD3+ cells represented 3%, 5%, and 38% in lymph nodes following a full course of CD3-IT. Thus, recombinant anti-monkey CD3 immunotoxin showed improved peripheral lymph node T lymphocyte depletion to rabbit ATG and spared other immune cells. © 2013.

  7. Repeated high-dose (5 × 10(8) TCID50) toxicity study of a third generation smallpox vaccine (IMVAMUNE) in New Zealand white rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree, Julia A; Hall, Graham; Rees, Peter; Vipond, Julia; Funnell, Simon G P; Roberts, Allen D

    2016-07-02

    Concern over the release of variola virus as an agent of bioterrorism remains high and a rapid vaccination regimen is desirable for use in the event of a confirmed release of virus. A single, high-dose (5×10(8) TCID50) of Bavarian Nordic's IMVAMUNE was tested in a Phase-II clinical trial, in humans, as a substitute for the standard (1×10(8) TCID50), using a 2-dose, 28-days apart regimen. Prior to this clinical trial taking place a Good Laboratory Practice, repeated high-dose, toxicology study was performed using IMVAMUNE, in New Zealand white rabbits and the results are reported here. Male and female rabbits were dosed twice, subcutaneously, with 5×10(8) TCID50 of IMVAMUNE (test) or saline (control), 7-days apart. The clinical condition, body-weight, food consumption, haematology, blood chemistry, immunogenicity, organ-weight, and macroscopic and microscopic pathology were investigated. Haematological investigations indicated changes within the white blood cell profile that were attributed to treatment with IMVAMUNE; these comprised slight increases in neutrophil and monocyte numbers, on study days 1-3 and a marginal increase in lymphocyte numbers on day 10. Macroscopic pathology revealed reddening at the sites of administration and thickened skin in IMVAMUNE, treated animals. After the second dose of IMVAMUNE 9/10 rabbits seroconverted, as detected by antibody ELISA on day 10, by day 21, 10/10 rabbits seroconverted. Treatment-related changes were not detected in other parameters. In conclusion, the subcutaneous injection of 2 high-doses of IMVAMUNE, to rabbits, was well tolerated producing only minor changes at the site of administration. Vaccinia-specific antibodies were raised in IMVAMUNE-vaccinated rabbits only.

  8. ATB0/ASCT2 expression in residual rabbit bowel is decreased after massive enterectomy and is restored by growth hormone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avissar, Nelly E; Ziegler, Thomas R; Toia, Liana; Gu, Liang; Ray, Edward C; Berlanga-Acosta, Jorge; Sax, Harry C

    2004-09-01

    Two weeks after 70% enterectomy, glutamine (Gln) transport is downregulated in rabbit residual bowel due to a decrease in system B(0) activity. Providing epidermal growth factor (EGF) and growth hormone (GH) restores Gln transport by increasing systems A and B(0,+) activities. We hypothesized that changes in Na(+)-dependent broad-spectrum neutral amino acid transporter (ATB(0)/ASCT2) protein and mRNA expression correlate with system B(0) activity. New Zealand White rabbits underwent 70% jejunoileal resection or no resection. Resected rabbits immediately received parenteral EGF, GH, both, or neither agent for 2 wk. Tissues harvested from jejunum, ileum, and colon were subjected to Western and Northern blot analyses for ATB(0)/ASCT2 protein and mRNA. In all tissues, ATB(0)/ASCT2 mRNA was reduced by approximately 50% in resected rabbits compared with nonresected controls. Similar reductions in protein amount occurred in the ileum and cecum. None of the growth factor treatments restored ATB(0)/ASCT2 protein, but GH treatment increased ATB(0)/ASCT2 mRNA abundance 250% in the residual ileum. Because changes in the ATB(0)/ASCT2 protein amount paralleled those in the system B(0) activity in this model, it is likely that this is the protein responsible for this transport system. The increase in mRNA abundance in rabbits treated with GH for 2 wk may be a harbinger of subsequent increases in transporter protein and activity. Unlike reported upregulation of transporters in human colon after small bowel resection, ATB(0)/ASCT2 protein and mRNA expression in rabbit colon are decreased, suggesting different regulatory pathways.

  9. Evaluation of the safety and pharmacokinetics of the multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib during embryo-fetal development in rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyna, S; Haznedar, J; Morris, D; Freshwater, K; Peng, G; Sukbuntherng, J; Chmielewski, G; Matsumoto, D

    2009-06-01

    Angiogenesis plays a key role in embryo-fetal development and, based on nonclinical safety data, the majority of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted antiangiogenic agents used in cancer therapy are not recommended during pregnancy. We investigated the effects of sunitinib (an oral inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases [RTKs] including VEGF-receptors) on embryo-fetal development. Presumed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand White rabbits received repeated daily oral doses of sunitinib (0-30 mg/kg/day), during the major period of organogenesis. Clinical/physical examinations were performed throughout the gestation phase, and blood samples were collected to determine systemic exposure. Necropsy (including uterine examination) was performed on all animals and fetal morphology was examined. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was 1-5 mg/kg/day for maternal toxicity and 3 mg/kg/day for developmental toxicity in rats; 1 and 0.5 mg/kg/day, respectively, in rabbits. Embryo-fetal toxicity included decreases in the number of live fetuses and increases in the numbers of resorptions and post-implantation/complete litter losses; these were observed at doses of > or =5 mg/kg/day in rats and 5 mg/kg/day in rabbits. Malformations included fetal skeletal malformations (generally thoracic/lumbar vertebral alterations) in rats and cleft lip/palate in rabbits. These developmental effects were observed at approximately 5.5- (rats) and approximately 0.3-times (rabbits) the human systemic exposure at the approved sunitinib dose (50 mg/day). Similar effects have been reported with the prototype monoclonal antibody bevacizumab. As is typically observed for potent inhibitors of RTKs involved in angiogenesis, sunitinib was associated with embryo-fetal developmental toxicity in rats and rabbits at clinically relevant dose levels. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Variation in relative palatability of different forages fed to rabbits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P < 0.01) in relative palatability index (RPI) were detected among the diferent forages offered. Based on their RPI rabbits preferred in descending order of magnitude Centrosema pubescens, Calopogonium mucunoides and Elaeis guineensi ...

  11. Got milk? A pheromonal message for newborn rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Minmin

    2004-01-01

    A substance in rabbit milk, 2-methylbut-2-enal (2MB2), has been identified as a pheromone that triggers stereotypical searching behavior from rabbit pups. Pups respond to the odor of 2MB2 solutions in concentration-dependent manner, but fail to respond to 20 other volatile components in rabbit milk and 20 additional odorants. The effectiveness of 2MB2 generalizes across strains and breeds of rabbits, but is ineffective in closely related species. Finally, pup responsiveness to 2MB2 is innate and does not require learning. This study, for the first time, identifies a mammary pheromone that provides sufficient sensory cue for nipple attachment by newborns. In addition to contributing to our understanding of pheromonal communication, it provides an advantageous model system for neurobiologists. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Injectable biocomposites for bone healing in rabbit femoral condyle defects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Jianheng; Mao, Kezheng; Liu, Zhengsheng; Wang, Xiumei; Cui, Fuzhai; Guo, Wenguang; Mao, Keya; Yang, Shuying

    2013-01-01

    .... In vivo bone formation capacity was investigated by means of implanting the scaffolds with rhBMP-2 or without rhBMP-2 respectively into a critical size defect model in the femoral condyle of rabbit...

  13. Photodynamic therapy for implanted VX2 tumor in rabbit brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Feng, Hua; Lin, Jiangkai; Zhu, Gang; Chen, Zhi; Li, Cong-yan

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect and the safety of single photodynamic therapy (PDT) with hematoporphyrin derivative produced in China, 60 New Zealand adult rabbits with VX2 tumor implanted into the brain were divided randomly into non-PDT-group and PDT-group. 36 rabbits of the PDT-group were performed photodynamic therapy. The survival time, neurological deteriorations, intracranial pressure (ICP), histology, pathology, tumor volume and brain water content were measured. Other 12 rabbits were received hematoporphyrin derivative and light irradiation of the normal brain. The ICP, histology, pathology, and brain water content were measured. The result indicated that Simple PDT may elongate the average survival time of the rabbits with VX2 tumors significantly; kill tumor cells; cause transient brain edema and increase ICP, but it is safe to be used in treating brain tumor.

  14. Effect of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural retinal cell densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Maseghe Mwachaka

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In this rabbit model, monocular deprivation resulted in activity-dependent changes in cell densities of the neural retina in favour of the non-deprived eye along with reduced cell densities in the deprived eye.

  15. The role of rabbit meat as functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Szendro, Zsolt

    2011-07-01

    Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functional food ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functional foods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview of the studies performed on the strategies adopted to improve the functional value of rabbit meat. Dietary manipulation has been seen to be very effective in increasing the levels of essential FA, EPA, DHA, CLA, branched chain FA, vitamin E, and selenium in rabbit meat. Dietary fortification with vitamin E or natural products such as oregano essential oil, chia seed oil, and Spirulina platensis microalga seem promising in improving the oxidative stability of rabbit meat while also adding functional ingredients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inclusion of BPM in diet V reduced the skin weight significantly (p0.05) affected. It was concluded that BPM can completely (to 100 %) replace FM and GNC in the diet of growing rabbits. BPM also ...

  17. Response of weaner rabbits to diets containing graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... Measurements taken were average daily weight gain, final live weight, feed and protein intake .... matured and dry bean seeds were boiled in excess volume of water .... production, and thus enhanced rabbit meat production.

  18. THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT OF SARCOPTIC MANGE IN RABBIT WITH IVERMECTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyjit Mitra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoptic mange infected non-descriptive rabbits were successfully treated with Ivermectin @ 400 µg / kg body weight sub-cutaneously once weekly for 4 weeks resulted complete recovery within a month in Kalyani area, West Bengal, India.

  19. Copper toxicosis in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, C J; Kim, D Y; Hanks, B C; Evans, T J

    2013-11-01

    Six 12- to 14-month-old New Zealand White rabbits were diagnosed with copper toxicosis. These rabbits were part of a group of 110 purchased and shipped overnight for research purposes. On arrival, the group experienced an abrupt diet change. Eight died over 3 weeks and 6 were submitted for postmortem examination. Microscopic findings included severe centrilobular to midzonal hepatocellular necrosis with rhodanine stain-positive copper granules in the remaining hepatocytes. Mild periportal fibrosis and biliary hyperplasia, hemoglobinuric nephrosis, and splenic erythrophagocytosis were also observed. Hepatic copper concentrations were elevated, ranging from 319 to 997 ppm. Clinical disease was not previously observed in younger rabbits gradually transitioned from the supplier's copper-supplemented diet. Copper toxicosis likely occurred in these rabbits from a combination of (1) increased duration of copper supplementation leading to increased hepatocellular stores and (2) stress leading to anorexia and release of hepatocellular copper stores similar to chronic copper toxicosis as described in sheep.

  20. Neurogenic cardiomyopathy in rabbits with experimentally induced rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesdangsakonwut, S; Sunden, Y; Yamada, K; Nishizono, A; Sawa, H; Umemura, T

    2015-05-01

    Cardiomyopathies have been rarely described in rabbits. Here we report myocardial necrosis of the ventricular wall in rabbits with experimentally induced rabies. Myocardial lesions were found only in rabbits with brain lesions, and the severity of the cardiac lesions was proportional to that of the brain lesions. Neither the frequency nor the cumulative dose of anesthesia was related to the incidence or the severity of the myocardial lesions. The myocardial lesions were characterized by degeneration and/or necrosis of myocardial cells and were accompanied by contraction band necrosis, interstitial fibrosis, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The brain lesions due to rabies virus infection were most prominent in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, brainstem, and medulla. Rabies virus antigen was not found in the hearts of any rabbits. Based on these findings, the myocardial lesions were classified as neurogenic cardiomyopathy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Proliferative enteropathy involving Lawsonia intracellularis infection in rabbits (Oryctlagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Watarai, Masahisa; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Omata, Yoshitaka; Furuoka, Hidefumi

    2008-04-01

    Five rabbits suffering from diarrhea were diagnosed with proliferative enteropathy (PE). Histopathology revealed a thickened mucosa consisting of hyperplastic intestinal epithelium and infiltration of inflammatory cells mainly consisted of macrophages. In the affected epithelial cytoplasm, numerous curved bacillus-like organisms were observed in the Warthin-Starry silver stain and electron microscopy observation. In polymerase chain reactions, Lawsonia intracellularis-specific DNA fragment were amplified from affected ileal tissue extracted DNA in each case and present 5 cases were confirmed to be L. intracellularis infection. Serum collected from the affected rabbit was immunohistochemically reactive with L. intracellularis in tissue sections from pigs with porcine proliferative enteropathy, as well as with tissue sections from the five affected rabbits. Thus, serum obtained from the affected rabbit may be applicable to immunohistochemical detection for L. intracellularis infection in other species.

  2. Bottom's Semiology: The Duck-Rabbit and Magritte's Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoff, Ann E.

    1993-01-01

    Explores how a dyadic understanding of perception cancels the validity it might have as a model for the linguistic process. Discusses commonly misunderstood exhibits in the gallery of perception studies--the duck-rabbit and Magritte's pipe. (RS)

  3. problems and prospects of rabbit production in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Bajopas Volume 3 Number 2 December, 2010. Bayero Journal ... and raffia palm. Limitations to rabbit production in developing .... In tropical Africa, feeds commonly ..... South extension part 2, New Delhi 49,. India. ... Economic importance and.

  4. Group B Streptococcal Colonization and Bacteremia in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Lembet

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We evaluated the effect of maternal administration of ampicillin/sulbactam on colonization and bacteremia in newborn rabbits after intracervical inoculation of mothers with group B streptococci (GBS.

  5. Combined Low-Frequency Ultrasound and Urokinase-Containing Microbubbles in Treatment of Femoral Artery Thrombosis in a Rabbit Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Zhu

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the thrombolytic effect of low-frequency ultrasound combined with targeted urokinase-containing microbubble contrast agents on treatment of thrombosis in rabbit femoral artery; and to determine the optimal combination of parameters for achieving thrombolysis in this model. A biotinylated-avidin method was used to prepare microbubble contrast agents carrying urokinase and Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS peptides. Following femoral artery thrombosis in New Zealand white rabbits, microbubble contrast agents were injected intravenously, and ultrasonic exposure was applied. A 3 × 2 × 2 factorial table was applied to categorize the experimental animals based on different levels of combination of ultrasonic frequencies (Factor A: 1.6 MHz, 2.2 MHz, 2.8 MHz, doses of urokinase (Factor B: 90,000 IU/Kg, 180,000 IU/Kg and ultrasound exposure time (Factor C: 30 min, 60 min. A total of 72 experimental animals were randomly divided into 12 groups (n = 6/group. Doppler techniques were used to assess blood flow in the distal end of the thrombotic femoral artery during the 120 minutes thrombolysis experiment. The rate of recanalization following thrombolysis was calculated, and thrombolytic efficacy was evaluated and compared. The thrombolytic recanalization rate for all experimental subjects after thrombolytic therapy was 68.1%. The optimal parameters for thrombolysis were determined to be 1 an ultrasound frequency of 2.2 MHz and 2 a 90,000 IU/kg dose of urokinase. Ultrasound exposure time (30 min vs. 60 min had no significant effect on the thrombolytic effects. The combination of local low-frequency ultrasound radiation, targeted microbubbles, and thrombolytic urokinase induced thrombolysis of femoral artery thrombosis in a rabbit model. The ultrasonic frequency of 2.2 MHz and urokinase dose of 90,000 IU/kg induced optimal thrombolytic effects, while the application of either 30 min or 60 min of ultrasound exposure had similar effects.

  6. Inhalation of honey reduces airway inflammation and histopathological changes in a rabbit model of ovalbumin-induced chronic asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Honey is widely used in folk medicine to treat cough, fever, and inflammation. In this study, the effect of aerosolised honey on airway tissues in a rabbit model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma was investigated. The ability of honey to act either as a rescuing agent in alleviating asthma-related symptoms or as a preventive agent to preclude the occurrence of asthma was also assessed. Methods Forty New Zealand white rabbits were sensitized twice with mixture of OVA and aluminium hydroxide on days 1 and 14. Honey treatments were given from day 23 to day 25 at two different doses (25% (v/v) and 50% (v/v) of honey diluted in sterile phosphate buffer saline. In the aerosolised honey as a rescue agent group, animals were euthanized on day 28; for the preventive group, animals were further exposed to aerosolised OVA for 3 days starting from day 28 and euthanized on day 31. The effects of honey on inflammatory cell response, airway inflammation, and goblet cell hyperplasia were assessed for each animal. Results Histopathological analyses revealed that aerosolised honey resulted in structural changes of the epithelium, mucosa, and submucosal regions of the airway that caused by the induction with OVA. Treatment with aerosolised honey has reduced the number of airway inflammatory cells present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and inhibited the goblet cell hyperplasia. Conclusion In this study, aerosolised honey was used to effectively treat and manage asthma in rabbits, and it could prove to be a promising treatment for asthma in humans. Future studies with a larger sample size and studies at the gene expression level are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which aerosolised honey reduces asthma symptoms. PMID:24886260

  7. Pygmy rabbit surveys on state lands in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan; Lienkaemper, George

    2007-01-01

    The pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis) is classified by the federal government as a species of concern (i.e., under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for consideration as a candidate for listing as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act) because of its specialized habitat requirements and evidence of declining populations. The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) lists pygmy rabbits as “sensitive-vulnerable,” meaning that protective measures are needed if sustainable populations are to be maintained over time (Oregon Natural Heritage Program, 2001). The Oregon Natural Heritage Program considers this species to be threatened with extirpation from Oregon. Pygmy rabbits also are a species of concern in all the other states where they occur (NatureServe, 2004). The Washington population, known as the Columbia Basin pygmy rabbit, was listed as endangered by the federal government in 2003. Historically, pygmy rabbits have been collected from Deschutes, Klamath, Crook, Lake, Grant, Harney, Baker, and Malheur Counties in Oregon. However, the geographic range of pygmy rabbit in Oregon may have decreased in historic times (Verts and Carraway, 1998), and boundaries of the current distribution are not known. Not all potentially suitable sites appear to be occupied, and populations are susceptible to rapid declines and local extirpation (Weiss and Verts, 1984). In order to protect and manage remaining populations on State of Oregon lands, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife needs to identify areas currently occupied by pygmy rabbits, as well as suitable habitats. The main objective of this survey was document to presence or absence of pygmy rabbits on state lands in Malheur, Harney, Lake, and Deschutes counties. Knowledge of the location and extent of pygmy rabbit populations can provide a foundation for the conservation and management of this species in Oregon. The pygmy rabbit is just one of a suite of species of concern

  8. Taskable Reactive Agent Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Karen

    2002-01-01

    The focus of Taskable Reactive Agent Communities (TRAC) project was to develop mixed-initiative technology to enable humans to supervise and manage teams of agents as they perform tasks in dynamic environments...

  9. The use of rabbits in atherosclerosis research. Diet and drug intervention in different rabbit models exposed to selected dietary fats and the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in atherosclerosis research. One of the most popular laboratory animal species in this field of research is the rabbit. The rabbit fulfils most of the criteria for an animal model for human atherosclerosis. Three rabbit models were established and u...

  10. Human and rabbit eye responses to chemical insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeberg, F E; Nixon, G A; Reer, P J; Weaver, J E; Bruce, R D; Griffith, J F; Sanders, L W

    1986-11-01

    Groups of eight human volunteers and eight albino rabbits, under controlled laboratory conditions, were exposed in one eye without subsequent rinsing to the same concentrations and volumes of four prototype consumer products: fabric softener, shampoo, hand soap, and laundry detergent. Dose volume was 0.10 or 0.01 ml. The dose concentrations were selected to produce moderate effects with recovery within 24 to 48 hr. Two irritation scales were employed with both human and animal subjects: the Draize scale by a technician and a medical scale used with slit lamp examination by an ophthalmologist. Eyes were examined by both graders before and after dosing at specified intervals until recovery. Mean and maximum irritation scores are presented for each grading time, method, and exposure, as are the mean hours to recovery (clearing) for each exposure. Recovery times for human eyes were consistent with those reported previously for accidental human exposures to similar materials. Correlation coefficients for time to clear, comparing human vs rabbit for each dose volume-species combination across the four test products, were 0.72, 0.1 ml-human vs 0.01 ml-rabbit; 0.66, 0.01 ml-human vs 0.01 ml-rabbit; 0.40, 0.01 ml-human vs 0.1 ml-rabbit; 0.35, 0.1 ml-human vs 0.1 ml-rabbit. Thus, recovery time obtained under conditions of the "Low-Volume" test (0.01 ml-rabbit) better correlates with human eye recovery time (either dose volume) than does recovery time under Draize test conditions (0.10 ml-rabbit).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Organ culture stability of the intervertebral disc: rat versus rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Dongrim; Choe, Hyeonghun; Ramakrishnan, Prem S; Jang, Keewoong; Kurriger, Gail L; Zheng, Hongjun; Lim, Tae-Hong; Martin, James A

    2013-06-01

    There is a need to develop mechanically active culture systems to better understand the role of mechanical stresses in intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Motion segment cultures that preserve the native IVD structure and adjacent vertebral bodies are preferred as model systems, but rapid ex vivo tissue degeneration limits their usefulness. The stability of rat and rabbit IVDs is of particular interest, as their small size makes them otherwise suitable for motion segment culture. The goal of this study was to determine if there are substantial differences in the susceptibility of rat and rabbit IVDs to culture-induced degeneration. Lumbar IVD motion segments were harvested from young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand White rabbits and cultured under standard conditions for 14 days. Biochemical assays and safranin-O histology showed that while glycosaminoglycan (GAG) loss was minimal in rabbit IVDs, it was progressive and severe in rat IVDs. In the rat IVD, GAG loss was concomitant with the loss of notochordal cells and the migration of endplate (EP) cells into the nucleus pulposus (NP). None of these changes were evident in the rabbit IVDs. Compared to rabbit IVDs, rat IVDs also showed increased matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and sharply decreased collagen type I and II collagen expression. Together these data indicated that the rabbit IVD was dramatically more stable than the rat IVD, which showed culture-related degenerative changes. Based on these findings we conclude that the rabbit motion segments are a superior model for mechanobiologic studies. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  12. Cholesterol enhances classical conditioning of the rabbit heart rate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Bernard G; Smith-Bell, Carrie A; Darwish, Deya S; Wang, Desheng; Burhans, Lauren B; Gonzales-Joekes, Jimena; Deci, Stephen; Stankovic, Goran; Sparks, D Larry

    2007-07-19

    The cholesterol-fed rabbit is a model of atherosclerosis and has been proposed as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease. Feeding rabbits cholesterol has been shown to increase the number of beta amyloid immunoreactive neurons in the cortex. Addition of copper to the drinking water of cholesterol-fed rabbits can increase this number still further and may lead to plaque-like structures. Classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response in cholesterol-fed rabbits is retarded in the presence of these plaque-like structures but may be facilitated in their absence. In a factorial design, rabbits fed 2% cholesterol or a normal diet (0% cholesterol) for 8 weeks with or without copper added to the drinking water were given trace classical conditioning using a tone and periorbital electrodermal stimulation to study the effects of cholesterol and copper on classical conditioning of heart rate and the nictitating membrane response. Cholesterol-fed rabbits showed significant facilitation of heart rate conditioning and conditioning-specific modification of heart rate relative to normal diet controls. Consistent with previous research, cholesterol had minimal effects on classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response when periorbital electrodermal stimulation was used as the unconditioned stimulus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant increase in the number of beta amyloid positive neurons in the cortex, hippocampus and amygdala of the cholesterol-fed rabbits. Supplementation of drinking water with copper increased the number of beta amyloid positive neurons in the cortex of cholesterol-fed rabbits but did not produce plaque-like structures or have a significant effect on heart rate conditioning. The data provide additional support for our finding that, in the absence of plaques, dietary cholesterol may facilitate learning and memory.

  13. Rabbit meat processing: historical perspective to future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In past centuries, because rabbits are relatively small, animals slaughtered for consumption were generally eaten immediately. However, since a single rabbit would offer little more product than could be consumed at one sitting, little effort was devoted to developing preserved rabbit products (such as salted or dried meat, sausages, etc.. For this reason, although there is a rich history of recipes using rabbit meat in the Mediterranean area, there are few traditional further-processed products. Nowadays, even though the processing industry is pushing more and more towards the introduction of more attractive products (i.e. ready meals, ready-to-cook, etc. for consumers with little time for meal preparation, most rabbit meat worldwide is still sold as whole carcass or cut-up parts. This review analyses the main strength and weakness factors regarding the use of rabbit meat to manufacture further processed products. Bearing in mind these considerations, it then describes the more promising processing technologies for raw meat materials to obtain added-value products (marinated, formed, emulsified, coated, etc. by exploiting rabbit meat’s intrinsic characteristics, such as high protein/low fat content coupled with a balanced n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio, low cholesterol and heme-iron content. Major trends in meat product formulation (modulation of lipid content and composition, use of novel antioxidants and salt reduction are also discussed by highlighting strategies to provide healthier meat products meeting current nutritional needs. Finally, major packaging solutions for rabbit meat and meat products (ordinary and modified atmosphere, vacuum are considered.

  14. Biomechanical Measurement of Rabbit Cornea by a Modified Scheimpflug Device

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Zhang; Jianjun Gu; Xiaoxiao Zhang; Bin Yang; Zheng Wang; Danying Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To explore the probability and variation in biomechanical measurements of rabbit cornea by a modified Scheimpflug device. Methods. A modified Scheimpflug device was developed by imaging anterior segment of the model imitating the intact eye at various posterior pressures. The eight isolated rabbit corneas were mounted on the Barron artificial chamber and images of the anterior segment were taken at posterior pressures of 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 mmHg by the device. The repeatability an...

  15. Antiadhesive Property of Photoreactive Azidophenyl Low-Molecular-Weight Chitosan in Rabbit Laminotomy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Won Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly developed photoreactive azidophenyl chitosan (P-ALMC has characteristics of a transformable gel type and its outer layer could be sealed up like a film after UV radiation. We aim to evaluate the antiadhesive properties of P-ALMC through comparing it with hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose membrane (HA-CMC in a rabbit laminotomy model. Laminotomies were performed at the L3-4, L4-5, and L5-6 levels in 41 rabbits and each level was randomly assigned to either receive saline (group I, HA-CMC (group II, or P-ALMC (group III. The extent of peridural fibrosis, density of fibroblasts and inflammatory cells, and dural thickness were evaluated at 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively. In the groups II and III, the extents of peridural fibrosis and dural thickness were significantly smaller than those in group I (P<0.001 and no differences between groups II and III were found at the postoperative 6 and 12 weeks. There were no differences of cell density among groups. P-ALMC showed effective antiadhesive properties comparable to HA-CMC and could be one of the candidates as an anti-adhesive agent for spine surgery even further study is required to identify the effectiveness of its unique characteristics as mechanical barrier.

  16. The use of ozonized oil in the treatment of dermatophitosis caused by Microsporum canis in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vasquez Daud

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone is effective against most microorganisms due to its high oxidant power. Low concentrations and short-term contact are sufficient to inactivate bacteria, mold, yeast, parasites, seaweeds, protozoa and fungi. Microsporum canis is an important agent of dermatophitosis in human and animal. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy of ozonized oil over Microsporum canis in rabbits. Eighteen male New Zealand white rabbits, weight ranging from 2 to 3.2 kg were depilated in the cranial dorso-lateral and right caudal, and cranial and left caudal regions. The regions were inoculated with Microsporum canis, excepting the right caudal region, and were denominated TM, O, OM and M, respectively. After seven days, the treatment of lesions in TM began with 0.12g of terbinaphine 1% cream; in OM and O with 0.12g of ozonized oil; all animals were treated once a day for 28 days. Region M was not treated. Material was collected from those regions for cultivation in Sabouraud agar at day 28 of treatment. In the evolution of the treatment with terbinaphine, of 14 contaminated regions with Microsporum canis ten evolved to cure. With the ozonized oil, of 15 contaminations, four were cured. Clinically, that is, the macroscopic evaluation of lesions showed improvement in the TM and OM treated regions. We can conclude that there was statistical evidence of the protection action of the oil against the dermatophyte.

  17. The use of ozonized oil in the treatment of dermatophitosis caused by microsporum canis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Fernanda Vasquez; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko; Navarini, Alessandra; Mímica, Lycia Mara Jenné

    2011-01-01

    The ozone is effective against most microorganisms due to its high oxidant power. Low concentrations and short-term contact are sufficient to inactivate bacteria, mold, yeast, parasites, seaweeds, protozoa and fungi. Microsporum canis is an important agent of dermatophitosis in human and animal. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy of ozonized oil over Microsporum canis in rabbits. Eighteen male New Zealand white rabbits, weight ranging from 2 to 3.2 kg were depilated in the cranial dorso-lateral and right caudal, and cranial and left caudal regions. The regions were inoculated with Microsporum canis, excepting the right caudal region, and were denominated TM, O, OM and M, respectively. After seven days, the treatment of lesions in TM began with 0.12g of terbinaphine 1% cream; in OM and O with 0.12g of ozonized oil; all animals were treated once a day for 28 days. Region M was not treated. Material was collected from those regions for cultivation in Sabouraud agar at day 28 of treatment. In the evolution of the treatment with terbinaphine, of 14 contaminated regions with Microsporum canis ten evolved to cure. With the ozonized oil, of 15 contaminations, four were cured. Clinically, that is, the macroscopic evaluation of lesions showed improvement in the TM and OM treated regions. We can conclude that there was statistical evidence of the protection action of the oil against the dermatophyte.

  18. Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Pasteurella multocida Strains Isolated from Rabbits in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Sebastiana Porfida Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is responsible for a wide range of diseases in domestic animals. In rabbits, the agent is related to nasal discharge, pneumonia, otitis media, pyometra, orchitis, abscess, and septicemia. One hundred and forty rabbits with respiratory diseases from four rabbitries in São Paulo State, Brazil were evaluated for the detection of P. multocida in their nasal cavities. A total of twenty-nine animals were positive to P. multocida isolation, and 46 strains were selected and characterized by means of biochemical tests and PCR. P. multocida strains were tested for capsular type, virulence genes, and resistance profile. A total of 45.6% (21/46 of isolates belonged to capsular type A, and 54.34% (25/46 of the isolates were untypeable. None of the strains harboured toxA or pfhA genes. The frequency of the other twenty genes tested was variable, and the data generated was used to build a dendrogram, showing the relatedness of strains, which were clustered according to origin. Resistance revealed to be more common against sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole, followed by erythromycin, penicillin, and amoxicillin.

  19. Scintigraphic imaging with {sup 99m}Tc- exorphin C in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertay, T. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical School, Dokuz Eyluel University, Inciralti (Turkey)]. E-mail: turkan.ertay@deu.edu.tr; Uenak, P. [Department of Nuclear Applications, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Ege University, Bornova (Turkey); Tasci, C. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical School, Dokuz Eyluel University, Inciralti (Turkey); Zihnioglu, F. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Durak, H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical School, Dokuz Eyluel University, Inciralti (Turkey)

    2005-06-01

    Exorphin C is a peptide with five amino acids [(Tyr-Pro-Ile-Ser-Leu) Trifluoroacetate salt] (Sigma) that has an affinity to opioid receptor-expressing tissues and tumors. Exorphin-C was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc using glucoheptonate (GH) as bifunctional chelating agent. Then, we investigated its radiopharmaceutical potential as opioid receptor-expressing tissue on rabbits. Quality controls were performed by ITLC, paper electrophoresis and HPLC. Labeling efficiency was higher than 98%. The compound was stable for at least 5 h at room temperature. Scintigraphic imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-GH-exorphin C ({sup 99m}Tc-GE) was performed on male Albino rabbits. Static images were obtained from anterior projection using a Camstar XR/T gamma camera at several time intervals. Although a significant amount of activity was seen in the brain, less activity was seen on receptor saturation studies at 30 min. Slight hepatobiliary excretion was seen, though the main excretion route was renal. After saturating, the receptor hepatobiliary excretion was not seen; the only excretion route was renal.

  20. Efficacy of a capsule conjugate vaccine against inhalational anthrax in rabbits and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Donald J; Joyce, Joseph; Caulfield, Michael; Cook, James; Hepler, Robert; Wang, Su; Vietri, Nicholas J; Ruthel, Gordon; Shoop, Wesley; Pitt, Louise; Leffel, Elizabeth; Ribot, Wilson; Friedlander, Arthur M

    2012-01-20

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is recognized as one of the most serious bioterrorism threats. The current human vaccines are based on the protective antigen component of the anthrax toxins. Concern about possible vaccine resistant strains and reliance on a single antigen has prompted the search for additional immunogens. Bacterial capsules, as surface-expressed virulence factors, are well-established components of several licensed vaccines. In a previous study we showed that an anthrax vaccine consisting of the B. anthracis poly-γ-D-glutamic acid capsule covalently conjugated to the outer membrane protein complex of Neisseria meningitidis serotype B protected mice against parenteral B. anthracis challenge. Here we tested this vaccine in rabbits and monkeys against an aerosol spore challenge. The vaccine induced anti-capsule antibody responses in both species, measured by ELISA and a macrophage opsono-adherence assay. While rabbits were not protected against a high aerosol challenge dose, significant protection was observed in monkeys receiving the capsule conjugate vaccine. The results confirm that the capsule is a protective immunogen against anthrax, being the first non-toxin antigen shown to be efficacious in monkeys and suggest that addition of capsule may broaden and enhance the protection afforded by protective antigen-based vaccines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Erythrocyte migration and gap formation in rabbit blood clots in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, T; Yazama, F; Horiuchi, T; Yamada, M

    2008-04-01

    Thrombolytic agents must be carried by the blood circulation to thrombi to exert their functions. Structural gaps exist between blood vessels and thrombi or in the area surrounding thrombi. Therefore, information about fundamental gap formation at thrombotic areas is critically important for thrombolytic therapy. We previously reported that t-PA accelerates the activities of bovine erythrocytes and hemoglobin (Hb) towards bovine plasminogen activation. Here, we examined gap generation by observing morphological changes during thrombolytic processes in rabbit blood clots deformation of erythrocytes from blood clots and Hb transfer from erythrocytes to serum in vitro. Rabbit venous blood samples (1 ml) were stored under sterile conditions in glass tubes at 37 degrees C for 2, 24, 48 h, 1, and 2 weeks. We examined clot diameter, erythrocyte diameter and number as well as Hb volume in the serum, as well as histological changes in the clots. The diameter of blood clots did not change until 2 weeks after sampling. Erythrocyte diameter decreased within 48 h and at 2 weeks after sampling at the clot surface (p erythrocytes in the serum started to increase starting from 24 h after sampling (p erythrocyte envelope became disrupted and cytoplasm started to flow through pores into the serum at 24 h. The results indicated that blood clots are reduced due to clot retraction, erythrocyte dissociation and cytoplasm leakage without a distinct fibrinolytic reaction. These results indicated that gaps start to form between 2 and 24 h after blood clotting.

  2. Pheno- and genotypic characterization of Pasteurella multocida isolated from cats, dogs and rabbits from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana Porfida; Moreno, Luisa Zanolli; Felizardo, Maria Roberta; de Gobbi, Débora Dirani Sena; Filsner, Pedro Henrique de Lima Nogueira; de Moura Gomes, Vasco Tulio; Moreno, Marina; Moreno, Andrea Micke

    2016-04-01

    Pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of many diseases of economic importance in veterinary medicine and is characterized by high zoonotic potential. Pet animals can be infected and play a major role as carriers. This study aimed to characterize the genetic diversity of P. multocida isolated from dogs, cats and rabbits, and to evaluate their antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. A total of 620 animals were studied; 51 were positive for P. multocida and 92 strains were isolated. 60.9% of the strains belonged to the capsular type A, while the remaining were classified as non-typeable. The hgbA, ptfA, sodC, tadD and hsf2 genes were more frequent among the rabbit strains. Sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole presented the highest resistance rate, followed by erythromycin. PFGE clustered strains according to host species. Our results indicate that P. multocida from companion animals carry several virulence factors and are resistant to antimicrobials commonly used in human and veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibition of prolyl 4-hydroxylase reduces scar hypertrophy in a rabbit model of cutaneous scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Injoong; Mogford, Jon E; Witschi, Claudia; Nafissi, Mehdi; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2003-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars result from excessive collagen deposition at sights of healing dermal wounds and can be functionally and cosmetically problematic. Pharmacological regulation of collagen synthesis and deposition is a direct approach to the control of scar tissue formation. We tested the ability of the phenanthrolinone derivative FG-1648 (in 0.5% Carbopol 971 PNF gel, pH 6.5), a prolyl 4-hydroxylase inhibitor, to reduce hypertrophic scar formation in a rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model. New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two treatment groups (n = 12 wounds per group with an equal number of controls): low-dose group: 0.5% FG-1648; high-dose group: 1% FG-1648. Left ears were used for treatment and right ear for control. Four 7-mm dermal ulcer wounds were made on each ear. The inhibitor was topically applied to the wound at the time of wounding and once daily up to postoperative day 7. Wounds were harvested at postoperative day 28 and scar hypertrophy quantified by measurement of the scar elevation index. All wounds showed complete healing. Treatment of wounds with 1% prolyl 4-hydroxylase inhibitor decreased the scar elevation index by 26% compared to control wounds (p < 0.01). Wounds treated with 0.5% FG-1648 inhibitor showed no difference in scar elevation compared to control wounds. These results suggest that inhibition of prolyl 4-hydroxylase may be a suitable agent for topical treatment for the prevention of hypertrophic scar tissue.

  4. [Preparation and evaluation of microbubble ultrasound contrast agent with N-carboxymethyl chitosan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Feng; Chen, Su-Xia; Liu, Tian-Jun; Sun, Hong-Fan

    2006-08-01

    To prepare microbubble, made of N-carboxymethyl chitosan, as ultrasound contrast agent and evaluate its characteristics and acoustic effects in vivo. Oil-Water-Oil multiple emulsion/solvent evaporation method was used to prepare the microbubble contrast agent. Both optical micrography and scanning electron micrography were performed to determine the bubble size and morphology. The acoustic effect of the N-carboxymethyl chitosan echo contrast agent was evaluated in vivo in rabbit. Liver echo images were recorded with ultrasound machine before and after intravenous bolus injecting 0.5 ml of the agent. The novel N-carboxymethyl chitosan echo contrast agent was formulated as lyophilized product, with a mean diameter of 2-3 microm and a shell thickness of 250-300 nm. Its size is relatively uniform. The imaging effect was remarkably enhanced with the ultrasonic contrast agent when applied in rabbit livers. It is feasible to prepare excellent microbubble ultrasound contrast agent with N-carboxymethyl chitosan as membrane components.

  5. Thiopental Sodium Anesthesia Following Premedication of Rabbits with Vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Asfari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits are widely used as laboratory animals for experimental surgery. Anesthesia of rabbits may present complications unless the method is easy to apply and safe to use. In present study, effects of different dosages of vitamin C on thiopental sodium induced anesthesia in 25 male New Zealand white rabbits were studied. In the animals that had not received vitamin C treatment before thiopental sodium induced general anesthesia, return mean time of front limb pedal, corneal and ear pinch reflexes were 6.40 ± 1.67, 6.60 ± 2.96 and 8.00 ± 2.58 minutes, respectively. Pre-treatment of rabbits with 30 and 240 mg kg-1 (IV of vitamin C followed by thiopental sodium 20 mg kg-1 (IV resulted in significant (P < 0.05 increase in front limb pedal reflex return mean time to 13.00 ± 2.24 and ear pinch to 11.60 ± 4.16 minutes, respectively. There was also significant (P < 0.05 decrease in the heart rate following induction of anesthesia in the animals pre-treated with 30 and 90 mg kg-1 (IV vitamin C and no change in the animals pre-treated with 240 mg kg-1 (IV vitamin C. Serum analysis indicated a significant (P < 0.05 increase in blood glucose. These results suggest that premedication of rabbits with vitamin C despite potentiating of thiopental sodium anesthesia in rabbits is not dose dependent.

  6. Rumours about wildlife pest introductions: European rabbits in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibes-Mateos, Miguel

    2017-03-01

    Rumours associated with wildlife are frequent, although they have received little attention in the scientific literature. Studying rumours is important because of their relevance not only in a broad theoretical sense but also in environmental management. The goal of this study is to explore the complexity of the relationships between humans and wildlife through a thematic analysis of rumours associated with allegedly introduced European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) that cause crop damage in Spain. For this purpose, potential rumours were identified using the Google search engine. Data analysis consisted of reading and re-reading Web-based texts to identify main themes, ideas and topics with the assistance of NVivo 10 software. The analysis identified three main themes: (1) the reviewed websites referred to allegedly introduced rabbits which differed from native rabbits; (2) differences were based on alleged observations of unnatural behaviour, physiology or physical appearance of introduced rabbits; (3) rumours were frequently used in the context of the rabbit management conflict; e.g. farmers accused hunters of releasing harmful rabbits. This study suggests that the analysis of wildlife-release rumours sheds light on the position of parties involved in conflicts associated with the (alleged) introduction of wildlife species. It stresses the importance of rumours in conservation and environmental management, and opens the door to future research.

  7. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic rabbits of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Débora Costa Viegas; Santos, André de Souza; da Silva, Luana Thamires Rapôso; de Melo, Renata Pimentel Bandeira; da Silva, José Givanildo; Júnior, José Wilton Pinheiro; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to conduct a serosurvey of toxoplasmosis in domestic rabbits of Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and tissue fragments (brain, heart and diaphragm) were collected from 150 and 54 rabbits from the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, respectively. The serum samples were subjected to serological analysis (Modified Agglutination Test - MAT) and the tissue samples were assessed by PCR and histopathological analysis. Data collected through questionnaires were subjected to analysis of risk factors. According to the MAT and the PCR results, 6.7% (10/150; CI 3.2%-11.9%) of the rabbits were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies and 9.25% (5/54) of the tissue fragments were positive for T. gondii DNA, respectively. Lesions associated with T. gondii infection, mainly characterized by granuloma, mononuclear cell infiltrates, degeneration areas and necrosis in brain and heart, were detected in the histopathological analysis. The risk factors associated with T. gondii infection identified in the present study were homemade food (odds ratio = 39.00) and contact between cats and rabbits (odds ratio = 52.00). This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in rabbits of Northeastern Brazil. The management problems identified in the present study must be corrected to reduce the frequency of positive animals in herds of rabbits.

  8. Mycobacterial Infections in Rabbits: From the Wild to the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazuria, R; Juste, R A; Elguezabal, N

    2017-08-01

    Tuberculous mycobacterial diseases such as leprosy and tuberculosis are ancient diseases that currently continue threatening human health in some countries. Non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections cause a series of well-defined pathological entities, as well as some opportunistic diseases that have also increased worldwide, being more common among immunocompromised patients but rising also in immunocompetent individuals. Reports on natural infections by mycobacteria in rabbits are scarce and mainly involve NTM such as Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium in pigmy rabbits in the United States and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in wild rabbits in Europe. Rabbits have been used as laboratory animals through the years, both to generate immunological reagents and as infection models. Mycobacterial infection models have been developed in this animal species showing different susceptibility patterns to mycobacteria in laboratory conditions. The latent tuberculosis model and the cavitary tuberculosis model have been widely used to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms and to evaluate chemotherapy and vaccination strategies. Rabbits have also been used as bovine paratuberculosis infection models. This review aimed to gather both wildlife and experimental infection data on mycobacteriosis in rabbits to assess their role in the spread of these infections as well as their potential use in the experimental study of mycobacterial pathogenesis and treatment. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Measurement of Tear Production in English Angora and Dutch Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi; Rafiee, Siamak Mashhady; Ghaffari, Masoud Selk; Masouleh, Mohammad N; Jamshidian, Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal values for tear production tests in different breeds of domestic rabbits. Healthy adult rabbits (n = 60; 120 eyes) of 2 different breeds (English angora and Dutch; n = 15 of each sex and breed) were used in this study. Tear production was measured by using the 1-min Schirmer tear test (STT), phenol red thread test (PRTT), and endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPTT). In addition, horizontal palpebral fissure length was evaluated as a measure of ocular adnexal dimensions. Tear production (mean ± 1 SD) in English angora rabbits was 5.4 ± 1.6 mm/min according to the STT, 25.0 ± 2.7 mm in 15 s for the PRTT, and 18.8 ± 2.1 mm/min by the EAPTT; in Dutch rabbits, these values were 4.6 ± 1.2 mm/min, 23.6 ± 2.3 mm in 15 s, and 16.9 ± 1.7 mm/min, respectively. Only the EAPTT revealed a significant difference in tear production between English Angora and Dutch rabbits. These results provide reference values for tear production in English Angora and Dutch rabbits according to 3 different quantitative tear film assessment methods.

  10. Health survey of 167 pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkitaipale, J; Harcourt-Brown, F M; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O

    2015-10-24

    Only a limited amount of information is available about health status of pet rabbits. The aim of this study was to obtain data about the health status of pet rabbits considered healthy by the owners in Finland. Physical examination and lateral abdominal and lateral skull radiography were performed on 167 pet rabbits of which 118 (70.7 per cent) had abnormal findings in at least one examination. The most common findings were acquired dental disease (n=67, 40.1 per cent), vertebral column deformities and degenerative lesions (n=52, 31.1 per cent), skin disorders (n=28, 16.8 per cent) and eye disorders (n=12, 7.2 per cent). Vertebral column angulating deformities were significantly more common in dwarf lop rabbits (P≤0.001). The prevalence of health disorders was significantly higher in rabbits over three years of age of which 51 (82.3 per cent) had findings in at least one examination (PRabbits as prey animals hide their illness, which cause difficulties to owners to recognise health problems. Because of the high prevalence of clinical and radiological findings in apparently healthy pet rabbits, regular physical examinations are advised, especially for animals over three years old. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Deliberate introduction of the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, into Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, F

    2010-04-01

    The European rabbit was brought to Australia as a companion animal by early settlers. It sometimes escaped, but failed to survive in the Australian bush. In 1879 wild rabbits were deliberately sent to Victoria to provide game for wealthy settlers to shoot. They soon spread all over Australia, except in the tropics, and became Australia's major animal pest. After careful testing in Australian wildlife and in humans, control by myxoma virus was introduced at various sites between 1937 and 1950, spreading all over the Murray-Darling Basin in 1950. Within one year mutations in the virus had led to slightly less virulence, and these continued for the next 50 years. In the early 21st Century testing viruses obtained from wild rabbits showed that the majority of these viruses were more virulent than the virus used to initiate the epidemic. In 1995 another virus specific for European rabbits, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, escaped from areas in which field trials were being carried out and spread around Australia. It was more successful than myxomatosis for rabbit control in arid regions.

  12. Sex effect in mutual olfactory relationships of individually caged rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Finzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the sex influence on sniffing behavior of rabbits, sets of three rabbits each were located for seven days in contiguous cages divided by a metal wall with holes that prevented the neighboring rabbits to see each other. A buck was located in the central cage, with a doe at each side. Rabbit behavior was video recorded to observe animals sniffing with the muzzle near the wall. The bucks displayed an olfactory preference towards one of the two does, which decreased in few days. The significance was p  0.05. The interest of bucks towards the does was also characterized by a frenetic scratching of the separation wall, contemporary with intense sniffing, displayed only for the first 35 min of the first day. The sniffing behavior of does at the central cage housing the male was not so marked as in bucks, and it progressively changed across the trial (p < 0.01. In conclusion, rabbits establish a transitory sex-oriented olfactory relationship with the conspecifics housed in contiguous cages, which looks no longer necessary once the rabbits have recognized each other.

  13. Partial ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatwell, K; Mancinelli, E; Hedley, J; Keeble, E; Kovalik, M; Yool, D A

    2013-06-01

    Six lop rabbits were presented with clinical signs of otitis media or externa. The presence of disease was confirmed by computerized tomography examination, with two rabbits suffering from bilateral disease. The rabbits were anaesthetized and underwent surgery of the affected bulla. Rabbits with bilateral disease had a minimum of 2 weeks between procedures. A single vertical incision was made over the base of the vertical canal, which was bluntly dissected free from surrounding tissue. The ventral portion of the vertical canal was removed and a lateral bulla osteotomy was performed. The mucosa at the base of the dorsal vertical canal was apposed and the aural cartilage sutured to form a blind-ending pouch open at the pretragic incisure. Histopathological samples taken from the dorsal margin of the vertical canal yielded subtle and non-specific changes in the six samples submitted. All rabbits were discharged within 48 hours of surgery. The cosmetic outcome was excellent with animals retaining visually normal aural anatomy. The partial ear canal ablation/lateral bulla osteotomy procedure is quick and has a good cosmetic result when performed in rabbits. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  14. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: virus persistence and adaptation in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwensow, Nina I; Cooke, Brian; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Peacock, David; Fickel, Joerns; Sommer, Simone

    2014-11-01

    In Australia, the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been used since 1996 to reduce numbers of introduced European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) which have a devastating impact on the native Australian environment. RHDV causes regular, short disease outbreaks, but little is known about how the virus persists and survives between epidemics. We examined the initial spread of RHDV to show that even upon its initial spread, the virus circulated continuously on a regional scale rather than persisting at a local population level and that Australian rabbit populations are highly interconnected by virus-carrying flying vectors. Sequencing data obtained from a single rabbit population showed that the viruses that caused an epidemic each year seldom bore close genetic resemblance to those present in previous years. Together, these data suggest that RHDV survives in the Australian environment through its ability to spread amongst rabbit subpopulations. This is consistent with modelling results that indicated that in a large interconnected rabbit meta-population, RHDV should maintain high virulence, cause short, strong disease outbreaks but show low persistence in any given subpopulation. This new epidemiological framework is important for understanding virus-host co-evolution and future disease management options of pest species to secure Australia's remaining natural biodiversity.

  15. Mobile Agents Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rosane Maria; Chaves, Magali Ribeiro; Pirmez, Luci; Rust da Costa Carmo, Luiz Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need to filter and retrieval relevant information from the Internet focuses on the use of mobile agents, specific software components which are based on distributed artificial intelligence and integrated systems. Surveys agent technology and discusses the agent building package used to develop two applications using IBM's Aglet…

  16. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...

  17. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in

  18. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...

  19. Agents modeling agents in information economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

  20. Antidiabetic and renoprotective effect of Fagonia cretica L. methanolic extract and Citrus paradise Macfad. juice in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sairah H. Kamran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fagonia cretica is a medicinal herb reported to have flavanoids of potential therapeutic value and Citrus paradisi is a fruit, whose juice is of great therapeutic value due to its anti-hyperglycemic effects. Aims: To determine anti-hyperglycemic and renal protective effect of methanolic extract of Fagonia cretica and Citrus paradisi juice (grapefruit juice in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Methods: Diabetes was induced in rabbits by alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg, i.p.. The therapies including Fagonia cretica methanolic extract (500 mg/kg, Citrus paradisi juice (7 mL/kg and sitagliptin (10 mg/kg were administered (p.o. to diabetic groups for 14 days. The biochemical parameters, glucose, creatinine, urea, bilirubin, albumin, total protein, globulins and albumin/globulin ratio were estimated. Results: Fagonia cretica extract and grapefruit juice therapy significantly (p<0.05 reduced glucose levels in diabetic rats. Fagonia cretica extract was more effective anti-hyperglycemic agent than Citrus paradisi juice and sitagliptin. Significant (p<0.05 improvement in kidney function was observed in treated groups, the plant extract showing significant improvement as compared to the other two treatments. The histopathological results verified improvement in structural damage of kidney, liver and pancreas with these treatments. Conclusions: Fagonica cretica and Citrus paradisi juice therapy markedly improved hyperglycemia and kidney functions in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

  1. Spreading pattern of contrast medium in the high thoracic epidural space in rabbits: the effect of neck flexion and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Lim, Young Jin; Hong, Deok-Man; Jeon, Yun-Seok; Park, Hee Pyoung; Jeon, Young-Tae; Shin, Soon Young; Han, Sun Sook

    2010-08-01

    Neck flexion has been shown to increase cranial spread of contrast agent when a small fixed volume was injected into the high thoracic epidural space. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of volume of contrast medium on its distribution through the high thoracic epidural space during neck extension and flexion using the rabbit model. An epidural catheter was introduced into the epidural space of New Zealand white rabbits with the tip located at the T3-4 intervertebral level. The neck was extended or flexed (n = 8 for each group), and the contrast medium was injected with the volume increasing by increments of 0.1 ml/kg, up to 0.3 ml/kg. The spread of contrast medium was determined by counting the number of vertebral body units using lateral epidurographic images. In both groups, the total spread of contrast medium was similar, increasing continuously with injected volume. The cranial spread was greater in the flexion group than the extension group. However, the caudal spread was greater in the extension than in the flexion group. In the extension group, the contrast medium spread caudally about twice as far as it spread cranially, but there was no statistically significant difference between cranial and caudal spread in the flexion group. In the high thoracic epidural space of rabbit, the contrast medium of varying doses showed limited cranial spread. The flexion of the neck increased cranial spread and extension of the neck increased caudal spread.

  2. Deficiency of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Protects Against Atherosclerosis in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jifeng; Niimi, Manabu; Yang, Dongshan; Liang, Jingyan; Xu, Jie; Kimura, Tokuhide; Mathew, Anna V; Guo, Yanhong; Fan, Yanbo; Zhu, Tianqing; Song, Jun; Ackermann, Rose; Koike, Yui; Schwendeman, Anna; Lai, Liangxue; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva; Fan, Jianglin; Chen, Y Eugene

    2017-06-01

    CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein) plays an important role in lipoprotein metabolism; however, whether inhibition of CETP activity can prevent cardiovascular disease remains controversial. We generated CETP knockout (KO) rabbits by zinc finger nuclease gene editing and compared their susceptibility to cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis to that of wild-type (WT) rabbits. On a chow diet, KO rabbits showed higher plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol than WT controls, and HDL particles of KO rabbits were essentially rich in apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein E contents. When challenged with a cholesterol-rich diet for 18 weeks, KO rabbits not only had higher HDL cholesterol levels but also lower total cholesterol levels than WT rabbits. Analysis of plasma lipoproteins revealed that reduced plasma total cholesterol in KO rabbits was attributable to decreased apolipoprotein B-containing particles, while HDLs remained higher than that in WT rabbits. Both aortic and coronary atherosclerosis was significantly reduced in KO rabbits compared with WT rabbits. Apolipoprotein B-depleted plasma isolated from CETP KO rabbits showed significantly higher capacity for cholesterol efflux from macrophages than that from WT rabbits. Furthermore, HDLs isolated from CETP KO rabbits suppressed tumor necrosis factor-α-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and E-selectin expression in cultured endothelial cells. These results provide evidence that genetic ablation of CETP activity protects against cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Influence of Plantago ovata husk (dietary fiber) on the bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic parameters of metformin in diabetic rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    D?ez, Raquel; Garc?a, Juan Jos?; Diez, Mar?a Jos?; Sierra, Matilde; Sahagun, Ana M.; Fern?ndez, N?lida

    2017-01-01

    Background Metformin is an oral hypoglycemic agent frequently used in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the dietary fiber Plantago ovata husk on the pharmacokinetics of this drug when included in the diet, as well as when administered at the same time as metformin. Methods Six groups of 6 rabbits were used. Groups 1 to 3 were fed with standard chow and groups 4 to 6 with chow supplemented with fiber (3.5 mg/kg/day). Groups 1 and 4 received met...

  4. SCM-198 attenuates early atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits via modulation of the inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfei; Guo, Wei; Wen, Yadan; Xiong, Qinghui; Liu, Hongrui; Wu, Jian; Zou, Yunzeng; Zhu, Yizhun

    2012-09-01

    GPx in the aorta. In a rabbit atherosclerotic model, SCM-198 dose-dependently ameliorated the progression of atherosclerotic lesions and vascular dysfunction accompanied by the suppression of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress. These findings suggested that SCM-198 might be a potential agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative study of the association of Ketamine to Dexmedetomidine, Medetomidine or Xylazine in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanne Anunciação Silva Dantas Lima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Lima D.A.S.D., Souza A.P., Borges O.M.M., Santana V.L., Araújo A.L., Figueirêdo L.C.M., Nóbrega Neto P.I. & Lima W.C. [Comparative study of the association of Ketamine to Dexmedetomidine, Medetomidine or Xylazine in rabbits.] Estudo comparativo da associação de Cetamina à Dexmedetomidina, Medetomidina ou Xilazina em coelhos. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária 36(1:35-41, 2014. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Veterinária, Centro de Saúde e Tecnologia Rural, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Av. Universitária, s/n, Patos, PB 58708-110, Brasil. E-mail: dayannevet@yahoo.com.br There are a variety of different anesthetic techniques that aim to overcome the various problems of anesthesia in rabbits, such as handling stress and apnea during induction with inhalational anesthetic agents, reducing the risks of the procedure. The objective of this study was to compare the anesthetic effects promoted by ketamine associated/mixed with three different agonists α2 -adrenergics in rabbits. Were used 6 healthy animals, (SRD mixed breed, weighing 2.42+0.36 kg, submerged to treatments called GCX, GCD and GCM. The fixed-dose ketamine (15 mg/kg combined with xylazine (10 mg/kg was administered intramuscularly in the GCX, the dexmedetomidine (0.05 mg/ kg in GCD and medetomidine (0.25 mg/kg in the GCM. Were evaluated the heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (ƒ, rectal temperature (RT, oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2 , mean arterial pressure (MAP, glucose (GLI, variables electrocardiography (Pms, PmV, PRms, QRSms, RmV, QTms, RRms, latency, able anesthetic and recovery period. The records of the variables were initiated before drug administration (basal and every 5 minutes after taking them for 50 minutes. Data were subjected to ANOVA followed by the Tukey test (P<0.05, for the clinical variables, and the “t” test of Student (P<0.05 for the other variables. More stable HR and MAP, respectively were obtained in the GCD and the

  6. Preservation of structure and immunoreactivity at the vitreoretinal interface of the rabbit eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Bruce A; Bernstein, Steven A; Bartels, Stephen P

    2009-02-01

    The vitreous body is implicated in the etiology and pathology of a variety of retinal conditions. Many such conditions are treated surgically to remove the posterior vitreous from the inner limiting lamina (ILL) of the retina, and there is current interest in the adjunct use of enzymes for this purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of these agents in future preclinical studies, improved preservation and assessment methods were developed to establish a baseline histological profile of the vitreous and retina of the rabbit, to identify and distinguish artifactual vitreoretinal separation from authentic posterior vitreous detachment, and to preserve structural integrity while maintaining antigenicity for immunohistochemical analysis. Two pigmented rabbits each underwent perfusion with one of three fixatives, either: (1) 10% neutral buffered formalin + cetylpyridinium chloride (NBF/CPC), (2) acid-ethanolic formalin + CPC (AEF/CPC), or (3) formaldehyde-glutaraldehyde + CPC (FG/CPC). An eye fixed in NBF/CPC by immersion, from an additional rabbit, was also included for comparison. Eyes were processed whole through paraffin infiltration. Treatments were assessed by immunohistochemical labeling for retinal and cortical vitreous (CV) markers. In contrast to immersion fixation, perfusion with either NBF/CPC or AEF/CPC maintained vitreous adherence to the ILL during histological processing. NBF/CPC proved best for highlighting intralaminar structure and for labeling type II collagen in the CV, particularly with antigen retrieval. AEF/CPC caused condensation of fibrillar elements in the CV. Collagen XVIII in the ILL was observed with AEF/CPC exclusively. Only retinal vessels near the optic nerve head were labeled for type IV collagen. The labeling of glia was useful for distinguishing between cellular and extracellular elements. GF/CPC hindered detection of collagen II and disrupted posterior segment structure. Expression of type II collagen extended from the ONH directly to CV

  7. [The correlations between polymorphism of growth hormone receptor gene and butcher traits in rabbit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao-Song; Wan, Jie; Chen, Shi-Yi; Wang, Yan; Lai, Song-Jia; Jiang, Mei-Shan; Xu, Min

    2008-11-01

    Five rabbit populations (Belgian hare, Tianfu black rabbit, Great line of Zika rabbit, Harbin white rabbit, and California rabbit) were used to analyze the polymorphism of growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene by PCR-SSCP. Results indicated that there were two mutation sites (C705T and C810T) in the 5 populations. The least square analyses showed that the live weight, visceraste weight, and slaughter percentage of AA and MM genotypes were significantly lower than BB and NN genotypes (P0.05). It suggested that GHR gene may be a candidate gene responsible for butcher trait in rabbit.

  8. Wound-healing and potential anti-keloidal properties of the latex of Calotropis procera (Aiton) Asclepiadaceae in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderounmu, A O; Omonisi, A E; Akingbasote, J A; Makanjuola, M; Bejide, R A; Orafidiya, L O; Adelusola, K A

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis Procera (CP) has been used in the management of toothache, fresh skin burns, gum bleeding as well as others to make it qualify as a medicinal plant. This study was designed to assess its wound-healing property in rabbits and its potentials for anti keloidal activity.Fresh latex of Calotropis were obtained and evaluated phytochemically. Fifteen male rabbits were used and four excisional wounds were created on each rabbit. The rabbits were divided into five groups of three each. Group 1 was the negative control and received no treatment. The wounds of group 2 animals were treated with 2mL of Calotropis latex; group 3 with 2mL honey; and group 4 with a mixture of 1ml honey and 1 mL of the latex. The animals in group 5 were given 2mg triamcinolone intramuscularly. All the groups had their wounds treated daily for 21 days. The wounds' diameters were measured on the day of wound creation, thereafter on days 7, 14 and 21 post wound creation. Biopsies of the wounds were taken on days 3 and 21 and viewed histologically. Phytochemical study of the latex revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins and alkaloids. The wounds were found to be significantly (pCalotropis latex revealed the presence of florid granulation tissues on day 3 while there was a marked reduction in quantity and size of collagen fibres on day 21 post wound creation which was comparable with what was seen for the triamcinolone-treated group.The general effect of Calotropis latex on wound-healing was noted. Likewise it's similarity to that of triamcinolone, an anti-keloidal agent; this makes it a probable candidate for future anti-keloidal study using a suitable model.

  9. The Efficiency of Vascular Embolization Using Alginate Gel : An Experimental Study in Rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woo Baek; Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Ki [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Daegu Catholic University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of poly-L-guluronic alginate (PGA) gel in vascular embolization with angiography simulation. To prepare a gel-forming PGA from no guluronate-rich Laminaria japonica, a new acid hydrolysis method was employed with a lower HCL concentration (0.03 M) and a shorter treatment time (5 min). The obtained PGAs were selected based on gel stability and viscosity. Glass aneurysm model was used to simulate gel embolization in vitro. Then, finally, the PGA was used to embolize the renal vascular system by using a rabbit model and angiography. Glass aneurysm model was made to simulate gel embolization procedure. PGA solution was injected from pump through 2-way catheter. Subsequent injection of CaCl{sub 2} successfully formed gels inside aneurysm model that conforming to its inner contour. In rabbit model, first, renal artery and aorta leading to the right kidney were ligated to block blood flow, then conventional contrast agent was injected through aorta to check the arterial patency to the left kidney. In sequential artery injection method, PGA and CaCl{sub 2} were injected through renal artery sequentially via a single catheter. Re-injection of contrast agent after removing ligated aorta showed blood flow to the right kidney but no flow in the left kidney. This result demonstrated a complete blocking of blood flow due to gel formation in vascular bed of the left kidney. Instillation of calcium alginate into aneurysm model and arterial system in vivo produced an embolization that better fills and conforms to the contour of aneurysms or blocking vascular bed completely. Therefore, PGA was effective endovascular occlusion materials and provide an efficiency of vascular angiography.

  10. Infrastructure features outperform environmental variables explaining rabbit abundance around motorways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planillo, Aimara; Malo, Juan E

    2018-01-01

    Human disturbance is widespread across landscapes in the form of roads that alter wildlife populations. Knowing which road features are responsible for the species response and their relevance in comparison with environmental variables will provide useful information for effective conservation measures. We sampled relative abundance of European rabbits, a very widespread species, in motorway verges at regional scale, in an area with large variability in environmental and infrastructure conditions. Environmental variables included vegetation structure, plant productivity, distance to water sources, and altitude. Infrastructure characteristics were the type of vegetation in verges, verge width, traffic volume, and the presence of embankments. We performed a variance partitioning analysis to determine the relative importance of two sets of variables on rabbit abundance. Additionally, we identified the most important variables and their effects model averaging after model selection by AICc on hypothesis-based models. As a group, infrastructure features explained four times more variability in rabbit abundance than environmental variables, being the effects of the former critical in motorway stretches located in altered landscapes with no available habitat for rabbits, such as agricultural fields. Model selection and Akaike weights showed that verge width and traffic volume are the most important variables explaining rabbit abundance index, with positive and negative effects, respectively. In the light of these results, the response of species to the infrastructure can be modulated through the modification of motorway features, being some of them manageable in the design phase. The identification of such features leads to suggestions for improvement through low-cost corrective measures and conservation plans. As a general indication, keeping motorway verges less than 10 m wide will prevent high densities of rabbits and avoid the unwanted effects that rabbit populations

  11. Mass transport properties of the rabbit aortic wall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Bailey

    Full Text Available Uptake of circulating macromolecules by the arterial wall may be a critical step in atherogenesis. Here we investigate the age-related changes in patterns of uptake that occur in the rabbit. In immature aortas, uptake was elevated in a triangle downstream of branch ostia, a region prone to disease in immature rabbits and children. By 16-22 months, uptake was high lateral to ostia, as is lesion prevalence in mature rabbits and young adults. In older rabbits there was a more upstream pattern, similar to the disease distribution in older people. These variations were predominantly caused by the branches themselves, rather than reflecting larger patterns within which the branches happened to be situated (as may occur with patterns of haemodynamic wall shear stress. The narrow streaks of high uptake reported in some previous studies were shown to be post mortem artefacts. Finally, heparin (which interferes with the NO pathway had no effect on the difference in uptake between regions upstream and downstream of branches in immature rabbits but reversed the difference in older rabbits, as does inhibiting NO synthesis directly. Nevertheless, examination of uptake all around the branch showed that changes occurred at both ages and that they were quite subtle, potentially explaining why inhibiting NO has only minor effects on lesion patterns in mature rabbits and contradicting the earlier conclusion that mechanotransduction pathways change with age. We suggest that recently-established changes in the patterns of haemodynamic forces themselves are more likely to account for the age-dependence of uptake patterns.

  12. Intraocular toxicity and pharmacokinetics of candesartan in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Lim, Dae Won; Park, Hyun Jun; Shin, Jong Hun; Lee, Seung Min; Oum, Boo Sup

    2011-05-02

    To investigate the intravitreal toxicity and pharmacokinetics of candesartan, a selective type 1 angiotensin II receptor blocker, in rabbit eyes. For the toxicity study, 15 white rabbits were divided into three groups (five rabbits each). Different candesartan doses, namely 0.5, 1, and 2 mg in 0.1 mL, were injected into the vitreous of the right eye in each of the five rabbits. The vehicle solution was injected into the left eye as a control. ERG was recorded at 1, 3, and 7 days after injection. Retinal histology was examined by light microscope and transmission electron microscope. For pharmacokinetics analysis, one eye of each of the 30 rabbits received an intravitreal injection of candesartan (1 mg/0.1 mL). The concentration of candesartan in the vitreous was measured by a liquid chromatograph-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours after injection. No significant difference in ERG was found between the study and the control eyes of the 0.5-mg group. The dark-adapted b-wave amplitudes decreased significantly at -10-dB intensities of stimulation in the 1-mg group. The b-wave amplitudes were significant at all intensities in the 2-mg group. Histologic studies revealed normal retinal morphology and structures in all eyes. The half-life of candesartan was 6.8 hours in the rabbit eyes. Intravitreal injection of 0.5 mg candesartan would be safe in the rabbit eyes. The half-life of candesartan was short in the vitreous, and modification of the delivery method would be required to extend the action duration for clinical applications.

  13. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  14. Reliability In A White Rabbit Network

    CERN Document Server

    Lipiński, M; Wlostowski, T; Prados, C

    2011-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a time-deterministic, low-latency Ethernet-based network which enables transparent, subns accuracy timing distribution. It is being developed to replace the General Machine Timing (GMT) system currently used at CERN and will become the foundation for the control system of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI. High reliability is an important issue inWR’s design, since unavailability of the accelerator’s control system will directly translate into expensive downtime of the machine. A typical WR network is required to lose not more than a single message per year. Due toWR’s complexity, the translation of this real-world-requirement into a reliability-requirement constitutes an interesting issue on its own – a WR network is considered functional only if it provides all its services to all its clients at any time. This paper defines reliability in WR and describes how it was addressed by dividing it into sub-domains: deterministic packet delivery, data resilience...

  15. ANATOMIC STUDIES ABOUT RABBIT SPERMATICS WAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN BERGHES

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to bring some completions of male genital anatomy in rabbits, in particular related to vascularisatia it. Data from literature are brief and last time the species is used as a laboratory experimental model with application in human surgery. To study were used 10 animals that were purchased from the private sector. Prior to making dissection vascular formations were injected with a contrast material prepared in the laboratory of anatomy of the faculty. Dissection was performed using the magnifying glass stereomicroscopica and appropriate instrumentation surgery high fineness. Were achieved after pictures and pieces of dissection were performed schemes. Formation to describe the terminology used in NAV ed. 2002 After dissection found that epididyme is intimately attached to the edge epididymis testicularis, channel epididymis presents a many flecsuosis branch of different sizes, thickness of the channel increases from epididimar cones related to deferential channel, number eferente cones is variable (between 6 and 8 cones, and tail origin epidydimis and deferential channel is dressed in adipose tissue forming the body fat of testicularis. Testicular arteries originate from the abdominal aorta, right testicular artery, the right of the fifth lumbar vertebrae left testicular artery and the right of the sixth lumbar vertebra: epididimara artery skull emerges from the testicular artery and the caudal artery of the internal iliac .

  16. Direct venous spinal reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid: a new concept with serial magnetic resonance cisternography in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biceroglu, Huseyin; Albayram, Sait; Ogullar, Sabri; Hasiloglu, Zehra Isik; Selcuk, Hakan; Yuksel, Odhan; Karaaslan, Burak; Yildiz, Can; Kiris, Adem

    2012-04-01

    For nearly 100 years it has been believed that the main reabsorption of CSF occurs in arachnoid projections into the superior sagittal sinus, but a significant number of experiments and cases conflict with this hypothesis. According to recently published studies, CSF is permanently produced and absorbed in the whole CSF system. Clusters of arachnoidal villi, which are speculated to have a role in the reabsorption of CSF, have recently been revealed in the dorsal root of the spinal nerves. Huge absorptive surface areas of microvessels have been suggested to serve a putative role in reabsorption. The authors' aim was to observe direct venous connections between the subarachnoid space and the perispinal veins. Eleven adult (6 months old) New Zealand white male rabbits weighing approximately 3.0 kg each were used in this experiment. After obtaining precontrast MR cisternography images, subarachnoid access was gained percutaneously via a cisternal approach by using a 20-gauge intravenous indwelling cannula. One rabbit died as a result of brainstem trauma during percutaneous cannulation before contrast administration, but contrast agent was still injected to see the possible MR imaging results of spinal CSF reabsorption after death. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 15, 60, 120, and 180 minutes after the administration of contrast agent. After intramuscular injections of anesthetic, 2 rabbits died 120 and 150 minutes after contrast injection, but the MR imaging study at 180 minutes after contrast injection was still performed. Direct connections between the subarachnoid space and the perispinal veins were observed in all rabbits during serial MR cisternography. The enhancement power was not affected by the amount of injected contrast agent or by cervical or lumbar penetration but was increased at higher contrast concentrations or upon seizure (physical activity). Extracranial reabsorption of CSF has been finally proved with direct radiological confirmation of

  17. Abstratcs of the 5th American Rabbit Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    5th American Rabbit Congress Toluca, Estado de México, Mexico, September 8-11, 2014

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The 5th American Rabbit Congress was held in Toluca, Mexico State, Mexico from September 8th to the 11th, 2014. Research works representing 14 countries were accepted to take part at the congress, including papers from Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Cuba, Egypt, France, Hungary, Italy, México, Uruguay, the USA and Venezuela. These research works highlight the enormous interest, effort and commitment of the scientific community that bonds the trinomium of Research+Innovation+Technology Transfer, in favour of the integral development of rabbit rearing as an important primary activity that generates permanent employment, as well as healthy and nutritive meals for their respective countries for the XXI Century World. One major impact at this 5th American Rabbit Congress was the participation of Argentina, Brazil and China. The latter country’s report was presented by Laping Wu and Dong Wang (2014, showing that from 2005 to 2010, meat production of swine, beef and poultry underwent average growth of 2.6%, whereas rabbit meat production reported an annual average growth of 6.29%, reaching an annual volume of 761 000 tons, positioning China as the world’s main rabbit meat producer. This data highlights the great potential of rabbit production, both as an economic activity and a key strategy in the fight against hunger and poverty in many countries all over the world. During the congress, scientific works were presented related with the fields of Ethology, Housing & Welfare; Genetics; Reproduction; Digestive Physiology and Basic Nutrition; Feed Evaluation and Feeding; Pathology & Hygiene, Meat Quality, Safety & Dining; Management, Social & Economy. Furthermore, the meeting of the AB-WRSA chaired by the AB-WRSA founder, Dr. Steven Lukefahr, also took place at this congress, in which the new board of the American Branch was elected and the proposal put forward for the next American Rabbit Congress to be held in Costa

  18. Formalizing Properties of Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    of any possible agent. For example, consider the task of getting a particular star to go supernova at a particular time. The star either will go... supernova or not, independent of what the agent does. 45 We define an independent task to be a task where if one agent succeeds in a given set of initial...Scott Reilly, Lonnie Chrisman. Siegfried Bocionek and David Zabowski for their comments. 48 A Z primer This appendix contains a short introduction to the

  19. Technetium-99m Labeled Duramycin: A Novel Molecular Imaging Agent to Detect Apoptosis in Cardiovascular Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Farhan

    Apoptosis underlines atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction/reperfusion (IR) injury. An imaging agent targeting apoptosis would increase the specificity of non-invasive imaging of apoptosis in these pathologies. Duramycin binds to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on the surface of apoptotic cells and can thus target apoptosis. In this study, technetium-99m labeled duramycin (TcD) was used to image both atherosclerosis and IR injury in rabbits using SPECT/CT. Rabbits were inflicted with atherosclerotic damage, IR injury, or were unmanipulated (control). Also, to assess for detection of therapeutic changes, a cardioprotective agent (minocycline) was used in IR rabbits. TcD, 99mTc-Annexin A5 (positive control), and linear TcD (Duramycin without the binding head to PE) were all imaged using SPECT/CT. Aortic or heart samples were collected with their respective organ samples for gamma counting and histopathology. After correlating the imaging, sample gamma counts, and the histopathology, TcD is a feasible imaging agent for apoptosis in atherosclerotic and IR injury.

  20. Mix-breeding with HEV-infected swine induced inapparent HEV infection in SPF rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Wang, Lin; Xia, Junke; Zhang, Yulin; Zeng, Hang; Liu, Peng; Zou, Qinghua; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Studies have shown that swine HEV (sHEV) and rabbit HEV (rHEV) can experimentally infect rabbits and swine, respectively. However, no published data have documented isolating sHEV strains from rabbits in natural environment so far. To clarify the possibility of natural cross-species transmission of sHEV to rabbits, the pigs with HEV infection were farmed along with SPF rabbits in the same enclosed space. Five of 10 rabbits had seroconversion for anti-HEV antibody from the third week after mix-breeding. However, HEV RNA remained undetectable in feces, serum, liver and bile of the ten rabbits; and no obvious elevation of ALT was observed. The results possibly suggested that sHEV might lead to an inapparent infection of SPF rabbits by fecal-oral route. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Keratan sulfate and dermatan sulfate proteoglycans associate with type VI collagen in fetal rabbit cornea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takahashi, T; Cho, HI; Kublin, CL; Cintron, C

    1993-01-01

    .... Because certain cytochemical data suggested that proteoglycans are associated with type VI collagen in the fetal rabbit cornea, we developed polyclonal antibodies specific to the core proteins of rabbit corneal KSPG...

  2. Comparative observation of skeletal-dental abnormalities in wild, domestic, and laboratory rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Ayako; Hori, Yutaka; Ichihara, Nobutsune; Asari, Masao; Wiggs, Robert B

    2007-12-01

    Dietary habits must be considered as one of the major potential factors resulting in acquired malocclusions in rabbits. Although the dentition of the wild rabbit and the domesticated laboratory rabbit are basically identical, dietary habits are noticeably different. Therefore, the prevalence of tooth problems between these lagomorph species were investigated anatomically and radiographically. Mean measurements of the skull and dental arches suggested that wild rabbits have slightly shorter and wider skulls and dental arches compared with domestic laboratory rabbits. Root elongation of incisors and check teeth, and periodontal disease were more frequently observed in domestic laboratory rabbits. Diagnostic radiographs from domestic pet rabbits showed relatively higher crowns, severe root elongation, and advanced periodontitis. These results do not provide definitive evidence that dietary habits cause malocclusions, however they suggest that diet is a major factor in the initiation of malocclusions in rabbits.

  3. Handling and diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezierski, T; Mekking, P; Wiepkema, P R

    1993-07-01

    Atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits by feeding them a 2% cholesterol diet (CHOL) during a 5-week period. Twelve rabbits were fed with increasing amounts of CHOL food until the ad libitum level was reached, whereas in 24 other rabbits the food was limited to the amount eaten by the lowest consumer of the group to reduce individual variability in total amount of food consumed. Twice a day, half of the rabbits were handled carefully, the other half had normal laboratory practice contact with their caretaker. Feed intake and amount of atherosclerosis were determined for all experimental animals, while for the handled animals behavioural parameters and changes were recorded daily and per animal. On average the handled and non-handled rabbits took the same amount of food per week, although there were large individual differences. The handled animals showed some behavioural adaptation to being handled. Handling had no influence on atherosclerosis size; this latter measure was only roughly determined by the amount of CHOL food eaten.

  4. Placental transfer of radioactive salts in the pregnant rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schachner, E.; Shani, J.; Shechtman, M.; Pfeiffer, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The risks of radionuclidic contamination due to the easy transfer of water-soluble ions from the circulation of the pregnant woman to her fetus, encouraged us to study whether the ease of penetration of such ions is size-dependent. Three radiochemicals--/sup 22/NaCl, /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4/Na and /sup 201/TlCl were injected i.v. into pregnant rabbits on the 16th day of their pregnancy, and the rabbits were killed 15, 30, 60 or 120 min later. From each rabbit the blood, heart, kidney, liver and muscle were sampled and counted as well as placenta, amniotic fluid and some fetuses. At 15 and 60 min hearts and livers were excised from selected fetuses and blood clearance, organ-to-muscle and fetus-to-placenta ratios were calculated. The results indicate that the transplacental transfer of the small radionuclide /sup 22/Na+ is faster than that of 99mTcO4- and /sup 201/Tl+, reaching equilibrium about 3 h after its injection to the pregnant rabbit. /sup 201/Tl+ demonstrated a high localization in the pregnant rabbits' and fetuses' heart and kidneys, with a similar myocardial retention in both groups. Due to the concentration of /sup 201/Tl+, in spite of its large diameter, into the fetuses' heart muscle, careful consideration should be taken when injecting /sup 201/TlCl into pregnant women for myocardial imaging.

  5. Hypolipidemic effect of arborium plus in experimentally induced hypercholestermic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Devarakonda; Rajesh, Enjamoori; Raghava, Doonaboina; Raghavan, Tangaraj Vijaya; Surulivel, Mukanthan Karupiah Munirajan

    2010-06-01

    Hypercholesteremia is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. The present study highlights the efficacy of the ayurvedic herbal formulation Arborium Plus [Hyppophae ramnoides L. fruit juice (S) and Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Linn flower juice (R) in a 1:4 ratio] on triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), atherogenic index (AI), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs CRP) in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Four groups of rabbits were subjected to different treatments for 8 weeks: control group, CHOL group (1% w/w cholesterol for 8 weeks), S+R group (1% w/w cholesterol and Arborium Plus for 8 weeks), and A group (1% w/w cholesterol and atorvastatin for 8 weeks). The results showed significant increases in TG, TC, LDL, AI, and hs CRP in hypercholesterolemic rabbits which was significantly reduced in Arborium Plus-treated hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The data demonstrated that the Arborium Plus formulation was associated with hypolipidemic effects in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  6. Creating a Long-Term Diabetic Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianpu Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to create a long-term rabbit model of diabetes mellitus for medical studies of up to one year or longer and to evaluate the effects of chronic hyperglycemia on damage of major organs. A single dose of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg was given intravenously to 20 young New Zealand White rabbits. Another 12 age-matched normal rabbits were used as controls. Hyperglycemia developed within 48 hours after treatment with alloxan. Insulin was given daily after diabetes developed. All animals gained some body weight, but the gain was much less than the age-matched nondiabetic rabbits. Hyperlipidemia, higher blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were found in the diabetic animals. Histologically, the pancreas showed marked beta cell damage. The kidneys showed significantly thickened afferent glomerular arterioles with narrowed lumens along with glomerular atrophy. Lipid accumulation in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes appeared as vacuoles. Full-thickness skin wound healing was delayed. In summary, with careful management, alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits can be maintained for one year or longer in reasonably good health for diabetic studies.

  7. Vaccine breaks: Outbreaks of myxomatosis on Spanish commercial rabbit farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, K P; Nicieza, I; de Llano, D; Gullón, J; Inza, M; Petralanda, M; Arroita, Z; Parra, F

    2015-08-05

    Despite the success of vaccination against myxoma virus, myxomatosis remains a problem on rabbit farms throughout Spain and Europe. In this study we set out to evaluate possible causes of myxoma virus (MYXV) vaccine failures addressing key issues with regard to pathogen, vaccine and vaccination strategies. This was done by genetically characterising MYXV field isolates from farm outbreaks, selecting a representative strain for which to assay its virulence and measuring the protective capability of a commercial vaccine against this strain. Finally, we compare methods (route) of vaccine administration under farm conditions and evaluate immune response in vaccinated rabbits. The data presented here show that the vaccine tested is capable of eliciting protection in rabbits that show high levels of seroconversion. However, the number of animals failing to seroconvert following subcutaneous vaccination may leave a large number of rabbits unprotected following vaccine administration. Successful vaccination requires the strict implication of workable, planned, on farm programs. Following this, analysis to confirm seroconversion rates may be advisable. Factors such as the wild rabbit reservoir, control of biting insects and good hygienic practices must be taken into consideration to prevent vaccine failures from occurring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Controlled doe exposure as biostimulation of buck rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-De Lara, R; Noguez-Estrada, J; Rangel-Santos, R; García-Muñiz, J G; Martínez-Hernández, P A; Fallas-López, M; Maldonado-Siman, E

    2010-12-01

    Female exposure of males could be a low-cost biostimulation option that benefits AI in commercial rabbit operations by improving buck rabbits reproductive performance. The objective of the study was to evaluate exposure of buck rabbits to females as a biostimulation option to improve reproductive potential. Treatments were: exposure (biostimulated) or not (control) of bucks to does. Bucks were New Zealand White, 15-month-old, sexually experienced and fertile. Experimental design was completely random with nine replications, experimental unit was one buck. Doe exposure was permanent using replacement pubertal does housed in an adjacent wire-mesh cage and changed for new ones every other week. Semen collection lasted 14 weeks (late winter and early spring) twice a week with two ejaculates at each collection. Analyses of variance were under a mixed model: treatments, ejaculate number and season were fixed and rabbit random effects and buck weight at each collection as covariable. Biostimulated bucks showed greater (Pdoe exposed bucks (treatment × ejaculate number, PDoe exposure is a biostimulation method that improves sexual drive and sperm production and quality of buck rabbits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Representation in dynamical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ronnie; Ward, Robert

    2009-04-01

    This paper extends experiments by Beer [Beer, R. D. (1996). Toward the evolution of dynamical neural networks for minimally cognitive behavior. In P. Maes, M. Mataric, J. Meyer, J. Pollack, & S. Wilson (Eds.), From animals to animats 4: Proceedings of the fourth international conference on simulation of adaptive behavior (pp. 421-429). MIT Press; Beer, R. D. (2003). The dynamics of active categorical perception in an evolved model agent (with commentary and response). Adaptive Behavior, 11 (4), 209-243] with an evolved, dynamical agent to further explore the question of representation in cognitive systems. Beer's environmentally-situated visual agent was controlled by a continuous-time recurrent neural network, and evolved to perform a categorical perception task, discriminating circles from diamonds. Despite the agent's high levels of discrimination performance, Beer found no evidence of internal representation in the best-evolved agent's nervous system. Here we examine the generality of this result. We evolved an agent for shape discrimination, and performed extensive behavioral analyses to test for representation. In this case we find that agents developed to discriminate equal-width shapes exhibit what Clark [Clark, A. (1997). The dynamical challenge. Cognitive Science, 21 (4), 461-481] calls "weak-substantive representation". The agent had internal configurations that (1) were understandably related to the object in the environment, and (2) were functionally used in a task relevant way when the target was not visible to the agent.

  10. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  11. Biocompatibility of Bletilla striata Microspheres as a Novel Embolic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShiHua Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have prepared Chinese traditional herb Bletilla striata into microspheres as a novel embolic agent for decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of Bletilla striata microspheres (BSMs. After a thermal test of BSMs in vitro, the cell biocompatibility of BSMs was investigated in mouse fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells using the methyl tetrazolium (MTT assay. In addition, blood biocompatibility was evaluated. In vivo intramuscular implantation and renal artery embolization in rabbits with BSMs were used to examine the inflammatory response. The experimental rabbits did not develop any fever symptoms after injection of BSMs, and BSMs exhibited no cytotoxicity in cultured mouse fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Additionally, BSMs exhibited high compatibility with red blood cells and no hemolysis activity. Intramuscular implantation with BSMs resulted in a gradually lessened mild inflammatory reaction that disappeared after eight weeks. The occlusion of small renal vessels was associated with a mild perivascular inflammatory reaction without significant renal and liver function damage. In conclusion, we believe that BSMs exhibit high biocompatibility and are a promising embolic agent.

  12. Contrast ultrasound imaging of the aorta alters vascular morphology and circulating von Willebrand factor in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brendon W; Simpson, Douglas G; Sarwate, Sandhya; Miller, Rita J; Blue, James P; Haak, Alexander; O'Brien, William D; Erdman, John W

    2012-05-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are intravenously infused microbubbles that add definition to ultrasonic images. Ultrasound contrast agents continue to show clinical promise in cardiovascular imaging, but their biological effects are not known with confidence. We used a cholesterol-fed rabbit model to evaluate these effects when used in conjunction with ultrasound (US) to image the descending aorta. Male New Zealand White rabbits (n = 41) were weaned onto an atherogenic diet containing 1% cholesterol, 10% fat, and 0.11% magnesium. At 21 days, rabbits were exposed to contrast US at 1 of 4 pressure levels using either the UCA Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, Inc, North Billerica, MA) or a saline control (n = 5 per group). Blood samples were collected and analyzed for lipids and von Willebrand factor (vWF), a marker of endothelial function. Animals were euthanized at 42 days, and tissues were collected for histologic analysis. After adjustment for pre-exposure vWF, high-level US (in situ [at the aorta] peak rarefactional pressure of 1.4 or 2.1 MPa) resulted in significantly lower vWF 1 hour post exposure (P = .0127; P(adj) < .0762). This difference disappeared within 24 hours. Atheroma thickness in the descending aorta was lower in animals receiving the UCA compared to animals receiving saline. Contrast US affected the descending aorta, as evidenced by two separate outcome measures. These results may be a first step in elucidating a previously unknown biological effect of UCAs. Further research is warranted to characterize the effects of this procedure.

  13. Transfection of the Human Heme Oxygenase Gene Into Rabbit Coronary Microvessel Endothelial Cells: Protective Effect Against Heme and Hemoglobin Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, N. G.; Lavrovsky, Y.; Schwartzman, M. L.; Stoltz, R. A.; Levere, R. D.; Gerritsen, M. E.

    1995-07-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is a stress protein and has been suggested to participate in defense mechanisms against agents that may induce oxidative injury such as metals, endotoxin, heme/hemoglobin, and various cytokines. Overexpression of HO in cells might therefore protect against oxidative stress produced by certain of these agents, specifically heme and hemoglobin, by catalyzing their degradation to bilirubin, which itself has antioxidant properties. We report here the successful in vitro transfection of rabbit coronary microvessel endothelial cells with a functioning gene encoding the human HO enzyme. A plasmid containing the cytomegalovirus promoter and the human HO cDNA complexed to cationic liposomes (Lipofectin) was used to transfect rabbit endothelial cells. Cells transfected with human HO exhibited an ≈3.0-fold increase in enzyme activity and expressed a severalfold induction of human HO mRNA as compared with endogenous rabbit HO mRNA. Transfected and nontransfected cells expressed factor VIII antigen and exhibited similar acetylated low-density lipoprotein uptake (two important features that characterize endothelial cells) with >85% of cells staining positive for each marker. Moreover, cells transfected with the human HO gene acquired substantial resistance to toxicity produced by exposure to recombinant hemoglobin and heme as compared with nontransfected cells. The protective effect of HO overexpression against heme/hemoglobin toxicity in endothelial cells shown in these studies provides direct evidence that the inductive response of human HO to such injurious stimuli represents an important tissue adaptive mechanism for moderating the severity of cell damage produced by these blood components.

  14. Dietary cholesterol modulates the excitability of rabbit hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Desheng; Schreurs, Bernard G.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has shown high dietary cholesterol can affect learning and memory including rabbit eyeblink conditioning and this effect may be due to increased membrane cholesterol and enhanced hippocampal amyloid beta production. This study investigated whether dietary cholesterol modulates rabbit hippocampal CA1 neuron membrane properties known to be involved in rabbit eyeblink conditioning. Whole-cell current clamp recordings in hippocampal neurons from rabbits fed 2% cholesterol or normal ...

  15. Effect of aguamiel (agave sap) on hematic biometry in rabbits and its antioxidant activity determination

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Silos-Espino; José Luis Moreno Hernández-Duque; Fidel Guevara-Lara; Juan Florencio Gómez-Leyva; Luis Lorenzo Valera-Montero; Alejandro Nava-Cedillo; Catarino Perales-Segovia; Clara Lourdes Tovar-Robles

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we analysed the effect of aguamiel (sap from Agave salmiana) on haematic biometry in rabbits as well as its antioxidant activity with the objective of determining its nutritional value. Nine male Landrace 55-day-old rabbits were sorted into three groups of three rabbits each, which had access to fresh aguamiel, boiled aguamiel and water instead of aguamiel. Commercial rabbit food was supplied ad libitum to each experimental unit. Fresh aguamiel promoted weight increases of about...

  16. ApoE knockout rabbits: A novel model for the study of human hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Manabu; Yang, Dongshan; Kitajima, Shuji; Ning, Bo; Wang, Chuan; Li, Shen; Liu, Enqi; Zhang, Jifeng; Eugene Chen, Y; Fan, Jianglin

    2016-02-01

    Rabbits are one of the best animal models for the study of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Although many transgenic rabbits have been created, the development of gene knockout (KO) rabbits has been impossible due to the lack of rabbit embryonic stem cells. We along with others recently generated KO rabbits using genome editing techniques. In the current study, we characterized the lipoprotein profiles of apoE KO rabbits on both chow and cholesterol diets and investigated their susceptibility to a diet-induced atherosclerosis. We analyzed plasma lipids and lipoproteins of apoE KO rabbits and compared them with those of wild-type rabbits. On a chow diet, homozygous (but not heterozygous) apoE KO rabbits showed mild hyperlipidemia and, when challenged with a cholesterol diet, they showed greater susceptibility to diet-induced hyperlipidemia than did the wild-type rabbits and their plasma total cholesterol levels were remarkably increased (1070 ± 61 mg/dL in apoE KO vs. 169 ± 79 mg/dL in the wild type, p rabbits was caused by elevated remnant lipoproteins. Interestingly, increased remnant lipoproteins in apoE KO rabbits were predominated by apoB-48 and rich in both apoA-I and apoA-IV contents. Furthermore, apoE KO rabbits developed greater aortic atherosclerosis than wild-type rabbits when fed with a cholesterol diet for 10 weeks. To our knowledge, this is the first report of generating KO rabbits for the study of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. ApoE KO rabbits should be a useful model for the study of human hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The development of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in Britain.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J; Sanders, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The presence of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in a sample of wild rabbits from one area in England was reported in 1977. Rabbits from three other areas in Great Britain have been tested subsequently, and all cases showed similar resistance to a moderately virulent strain of myxoma virus. Rabbits from one area also showed a significant degree of resistance to a fully virulent strain of virus. It is concluded that genetic resistance to myxomatosis is widespread in wild rabbit populations in...

  18. Meningeal hyperaemia and myocarditis in a caged rabbit with encephalitozoonosis: Case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Davinson Chuka Anyogu; Shodeinde Vincent Shoyinka; Augustus Uchechukwu Amadi

    2017-01-01

    Over the years, encephalitozoonosis in rabbits has raised serious concern owing to the subclinical nature of the infection in most rabbits and the danger of zoonosis in immunocompromised persons. The disease has been diagnosed by clinical signs, histopathological examination and detection of the antibody in serum. The lesions have been described mainly in the brain, kidney and liver of infected rabbits. The present report documented additional lesions seen in a male rabbit presented to ...

  19. Granulomatous enteritis following oral inoculation of newborn rabbits with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis of bovine origin.

    OpenAIRE

    Mokresh, A H; Butler, D G

    1990-01-01

    To assess the rabbit as a model for the study of paratuberculosis infection, two groups of newborn rabbits were orally inoculated at one to two days of age with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (ATCC 19698 or field strain 22206) and compared to uninoculated controls. Nine of thirteen rabbits (69%) inoculated with ATCC 19698, and all three rabbits inoculated with 22206, experienced episodes of intermittent diarrhea starting four months after inoculation. Multifocal granulomas containing acid-fas...

  20. Rabbit Production in Selected Urban Areas of Southern Ghana: Status and Implications for Policy and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DY Osei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to elicit information on rabbit keeping in 26 urban areas of southern Ghana. The average age of the rabbit keepers was 44.3 years, and 95.5% of the keepers had formal education. Most of the producers got into rabbit keeping for money to meet urgent family needs, while household consumption was a major factor influencing the decision for rearing rabbits. Personal savings was the main source of income for the establishment of the rabbit enterprises. The major breeds of rabbits kept were the California White, New Zealand White and crossbreds of varied genetic variations. Backyard, small-scale and medium-scale commercial rabbit holdings were held by 18.2, 51.7 and 30.2% of the keepers respectively. The average rabbit population per farm was 77.8, with an average of 8.4 bucks, 21.6 does. Young rabbits formed 70.0% of the rabbit population. Owners of rabbitries usually cared for their animals as hired labour was expensive and often not available. High cost of feed was the most significant constraint to rabbit keeping, and mange was the most common disease affecting the rabbits. Marketing of rabbits was not organized, and this served as a disincentive to expanding the holdings. The rabbits were mostly sold either life or as fresh carcasses at the farm gate. To ensure a rapid growth of the rabbit industry, research should be undertaken to address the identified constraints to production while appropriate policies are put in place to enhance the growth of the industry. Keywords: rabbit keeping, socio-economic characteristics, farming technologies   Animal Production 14(2:131-139

  1. Effects of myxoma virus and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus on the physiological condition of wild European rabbits: Is blood biochemistry a useful monitoring tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacios-Palma, Isabel; Santoro, Simone; Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) are the major viral diseases that affect the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). These diseases arrived in Europe within the last decades and have caused wild rabbit populations to decline dramatically. Both viruses are currently considered to be endemic in the Iberian Peninsula; periodic outbreaks that strongly impact wild populations regularly occur. Myxoma virus (MV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) alter the physiology of infected rabbits, resulting in physical deterioration. Consequently, the persistence and viability of natural populations are affected. The main goal of our study was to determine if blood biochemistry is correlated with serostatus in wild European rabbits. We carried out seven live-trapping sessions in three wild rabbit populations over a two-year period. Blood samples were collected to measure anti-MV and anti-RHDV antibody concentrations and to measure biochemical parameters related to organ function, protein metabolism, and nutritional status. Overall, we found no significant relationships between rabbit serostatus and biochemistry. Our main result was that rabbits that were seropositive for both MV and RHDV had low gamma glutamyltransferase concentrations. Given the robustness of our analyses, the lack of significant relationships may indicate that the biochemical parameters measured are poor proxies for serostatus. Another explanation is that wild rabbits might be producing attenuated physiological responses to these viruses because the latter are now enzootic in the study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of dimethandrolone 17beta-undecanoate (DMAU) as an oral male hormonal contraceptive: induction of infertility and recovery of fertility in adult male rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attardi, Barbara J; Engbring, Jean A; Gropp, David; Hild, Sheri Ann

    2011-01-01

    Dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU: 7α,11β-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone 17β-undecanoate) is a potent orally active androgen with progestational activity that is in development for therapeutic uses in men. We hypothesized that because of its dual activity, DMAU might have potential as a single-agent oral hormonal contraceptive. To test this possibility, adult male rabbits (5/group) of proven fertility were treated orally with vehicle or DMAU at 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg/d for 12 or 13 weeks. Semen and blood samples were collected every other week through week 30. Sperm were decreased (P rabbits at 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg/d at weeks 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 compared to week 0 (prior to treatment). The percentage of forward progressive motile sperm in those rabbits that still had measurable sperm was also reduced by DMAU treatment at 2.5 mg/kg/d at weeks 14, 16, 18, and 20 and at 5.0 mg/kg/d at week 18 (P rabbit had reduced sperm numbers and motility. A mating trial was performed at week 15. The number of bred males that were fertile was 4 of 4 in the vehicle-treated group and 4 of 5, 0 of 4, and 2 of 5 in the 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg/d DMAU treatment groups. By week 22, sperm numbers and forward progressive motility increased, and they returned to pretreatment levels in all DMAU-treated rabbits by week 30. All bred males were fertile at week 31. Serum levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were significantly suppressed in DMAU (1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 mg/kg/d)-treated rabbits during the 12-week dosing interval, but were comparable to pretreatment levels after cessation of dosing. These data indicate that DMAU suppressed the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in severe oligospermia in the majority of rabbits in the 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg/d dosing groups. Infertility was observed when sperm numbers decreased to about 10% of pretreatment levels. In rabbits dosed with DMAU at 10.0 mg/kg/d, no effect on sperm numbers or

  3. [Mitomycin C toxicity in rabbit corneal endothelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Rosa Bet de Moraes; Gregório, Elisa Aparecida

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate corneal endothelium alterations after applying mitomycin C to the sclera using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, correlating alterations with time, concentration, and evaluation methods. The corneal endothelium of both eyes of 32 albino rabbits was evaluated and distributed into four groups of 8. Mitomycin C was applied under a scleral flap in the right eye for 5 minutes. Mitomycin C concentrations were 0.5 mg/ml for G1 and G2 and 0.2 mg/ml for G3 and G4. Examinations were performed 15 days after application to G1 and G3, and 30 days after application to G2 and G4. Four cornea in each group were prepared for transmission electron microscopy and four for scanning electron microscopy. Left eyes of all animals were used as controls. Transmission electron microscopy showed corneal endothelium alterations in all groups: rarefied cytoplasm, dilation and fragmentation of rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, Golgi apparatus with cisternal dilation, reduced vacuoles, and irregularities of internal membrane more noticeable in G1 and G2. Scanning electron microscopy revealed alterations in all groups except G1: changes in the shape and size of cells and longer filopodial projections. 1 - Corneal endothelium alterations were seen at both 0.5 and 0.2 mg/ml concentrations and at 15 and 30 days after mytomicin C application; 2 - Alterations were more intense with higher mytomicin C concentration by transmission electron but not by scanning electron microscopy; 3 - The alterations correlated with time by scanning electron microscopy but not by transmission electron microscopy.

  4. Bicarbonate secretion by rabbit proximal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S K; Smith, P L

    1986-10-01

    Stripped segments of proximal colon (1-6 cm distal to the ampulla caecalis coli) were studied in vitro in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions using the pH-stat technique. With glucose and HCO3-CO2 present in the serosal bathing solution only, proximal colon alkalinizes the luminal bathing solution at a rate of 2.1 +/- 0.2 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2 (n = 36). With HCO3-CO2 present in the luminal bathing solution alone, proximal colon does not significantly acidify or alkalinize the serosal bathing solution. Addition of glucose (10 mM) to the luminal bathing solution abolished luminal alkalinization. Removal of HCO3 and CO2 from the serosal bathing solution or replacement of O2 with N2 also abolished luminal alkalinization. Acetazolamide (0.1 mM) added to both bathing solutions did not alter the rate of luminal alkalinization. Ion-replacement studies revealed that the alkalinization process was highly dependent on the presence of Na in the bathing solutions and much less dependent on the presence of Cl. Furthermore, ouabain (0.1 mM) significantly reduced luminal alkalinization. As in rabbit ileum, serosal epinephrine (0.1 mM) did not alter luminal alkalinization but increased serosal alkalinization by a Na-dependent mechanism. These results suggest that luminal alkalinization results from a Na-dependent, active transcellular HCO3 transport process and that a Na-dependent HCO3 absorptive process is activated by adrenergic stimuli.

  5. Cutaneous lesions in pet rabbits following subcutaneous administration of a novel bivalent vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleri, Paolo; Di Girolamo, Nicola; Vögtlin, Andrea; Fileccia, Ivan; Hoop, Richard; Bongiovanni, Laura

    2014-12-01

    A novel bivalent vaccine to protect against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease is commercially available for pet rabbits. To describe the appearance of cutaneous lesions arising in pet rabbits positive for myxoma virus (MV) by RT-PCR evaluation shortly after vaccination. Four pet rabbits presenting with papular, crusting skin lesions ~10 days after vaccination. Histological evaluation of formalin-fixed skin biopsies obtained from lesional skin (case 1). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) evaluation of paraffin-embedded tissue from skin biopsies (case 1) and crusts obtained from the lesion surface (cases 2-4) for myxoma virus are reported as cycle threshold (Ct ) values. Lesions affecting the ear pinna, dorsal aspect of the nose, vulva and/or conjunctiva are reported. Histopathological findings included severe ulcerative, necrotizing dermatitis and intralesional cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in myxoma cells. DNA was amplified from all the paraffin-embedded skin biopsies (Ct  = 34-35) and crusts (Ct  = 20-24). Although a wild virus challenge cannot be definitively excluded, veterinarians and pet-owners should be aware that cutaneous lesions have been observed after vaccination with this novel vaccine in low numbers of rabbits. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  6. Pharmacological activation of Kv11.1 in transgenic long QT-1 rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Bahrke, Sophia; Wu, Kezhong

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic rabbits expressing pore mutants of K(V)7.1 display a long QT syndrome 1 (LQT1) phenotype. Recently, NS1643 has been described to increase I(Kr).We hypothesized that NS1643 would shorten the action potential duration (APD(90)) in LQT1 rabbits. Transgenic LQT1 rabbits were compared...

  7. 9 CFR 3.61 - Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... live rabbits. 3.61 Section 3.61 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... and Transportation of Rabbits Transportation Standards § 3.61 Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall offer for transportation or...

  8. 7 CFR 70.56 - Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified with official identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified... AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Identifying and Marking Products § 70.56 Grading...

  9. Isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii from guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) and rabbits from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from a feral guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) and domestic rabbits from Brazil for the first time. Serum and brains from 10 guinea fowl and 21 rabbits from Brazil were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 2 of 10 fowl and 2 of 21 rabbit...

  10. Development of a Zealand white rabbit deposition model to study inhalation anthrax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-28

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits as a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits.

  11. Growth Development in Pre-Pubertal Female Rabbits Fed Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of crude oil (Bonny Light Grade) on the growth potential of young female rabbits. Forty pre-pubertal female rabbits within the age bracket of 16-17 weeks were used for this study. These forty young rabbits were randomly allocated to five dietary treatment group (A-E) with the ...

  12. Does myxomatosis still regulate numbers of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) in the United Kingdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, R C; Ross, J; Fox, A P

    1993-03-01

    Myxomatosis now kills a much smaller proportion of rabbit populations than in the past, while remaining an important regulatory factor, as shown experimentally. On two separate occasions, experimental reduction of the prevalence of the disease (by reducing infestations of the main vector, the rabbit flea) led to significant increases in numbers of rabbits surviving the winter.

  13. The effects of Vitamin C on Xylazine anaesthesia in rabbits | Kisani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of vitamin C on zylazine anaesthesia in rabbits. Ten apparently healthy rabbits of both sexes, aged 6 months and weighing 0.8-1.3 kg were grouped into two of five each. Xylazine at a dose of 4 mg/kg was administered intramuscularly to rabbits in both groups. Ten minutes ...

  14. Protein and energy value of maize and millet milling wastes for rabbits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-six mixed rabbits were utilized to determine the protein and energy value s of maize milling waste (MZMW) and millet waste (MLMW). Parts of these wastes were autoclaved (AMZMW and AMLMW) and also fed to test rabbits. There was a significant higher (P<0.05) feed intake by rabbits on the MLMW and AMLMW ...

  15. Blood chemistry and relative organ weights of rabbits fed neem leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) based diets on blood and relative organ weight characteristics of rabbits. In the first experiment, 36 rabbit bucks aged 7 to 8 months were distributed into four dietary groups, T1 , T2 T3 and T4 of 9 rabbits using completely randomized design.

  16. Effect of stunning methods on quality of rabbit carcass and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different stunning methods on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of rabbit carcass and meat. Thirty six mature rabbits of mixed breeds and sexes with average weight of 1.5 – 2.0kg were used. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four experimental ...

  17. Unicortical critical size defect of rabbit tibia is larger than 8 mm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Hjørting-Hansen, E

    1994-01-01

    unicortical trephine defects was tested in Copenhagen White rabbit tibia using 3 different membranes. The critical-size defect in Copenhagen White rabbit tibia is larger than 8 mm, because control defects 8 mm in diameter healed spontaneously. However, it is anatomically not possible to create defects larger...... than 8 mm in an adult Copenhagen White rabbit tibia....

  18. Autologous anti-metatype immune response in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, E W; Moore, J K; Weidner-McGufficke, K M; Denzin, L K; Bedzyk, W D; Voss, V H

    1992-02-01

    Rabbits hyperimmunized with fluorescyl-conjugated KLH exhibited bound ligand associated with a high affinity circulating IgG anti-fluorescein population. After cessation of immunogen administration the liganded complexes were eventually spontaneously cleared from the circulation. Individual rabbits synthesized autologous anti-metatype antibodies specific for ligand-antibody complexes. Autologous anti-metatype antibodies reacted optimally with autologous liganded anti-fluorescein antibodies. However, cross reactivity was noted with allogenic rabbit liganded antibodies from three affinity-purified pools. An autologous anti-metatype response, reminiscent of autoanti-idiotype responses, has important implications concerning in vivo clearance of antigen-antibody complexes and may serve as a model to study immune complex diseases.

  19. Dissociative anesthetic combination reduces intraocular pressure (IOP in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewaldo de Mattos-Junior

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of three anesthetic combinations, ketamine-midazolam, ketamine-xylazine and tiletamine-zolazepam, on IOP in rabbits. In a experimental, blind, randomized, crossover study, six rabbits were anesthetized with each of 3 treatments in random order. Groups KM (ketamine, 30 mg/kg + midazolam, 1 mg/kg; KX (ketamine, 30 mg/kg + xylazine, 3 mg/kg; and TZ (tiletamine + zolazepam, 20 mg/kg. The drugs were mixed in the same syringe injected intramuscularly (IM into the quadriceps muscle. IOP was measured before drug administration (baseline and at 5-minute intervals for 30 minutes. The data were analyzed by a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test. All groups had significant decreases in IOP compared to baseline (p 0.05. Administration of either ketamine-midazolam, ketamine-xylazine, or tiletamine-zolazepam similarly decrease IOP in rabbits within 30 minutes of injection.

  20. Bone changes caused by experimental Solanum malacoxylon poisoning in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Aguirre

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the bone changes observed after a daily oral administration of the calcinogenic plant Solanum malacoxylon (syn. S. glaucophyllum (Sm during 9 days. The Sm-poisoned rabbits had an increase of bone resorption in the endosteal surface of the cortical zone and also in the surface covered by osteoblasts of the primary and secondary spongiosa of the trabecular bone compartment. Moreover, the epiphyseal growth plates in long bones appeared narrower than in the control rabbits, with reduction of the proliferative and hyperthrophic chondrocyte zones. The electron microscopic study revealed a significant decrease of proteoglycans in the hyperthrophic chondrocyte zone evidenced by a significant reduction of rutenium red positive granules in the poisoned rabbit. Altogether, these data suggest that cell differentiation may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Sm-induced bone lesions.

  1. Spatial patch occupancy patterns of the Lower Keys marsh rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Mitchell J.; Hughes, Phillip T.; Nichols, James D.; Morkill, Anne; Anderson, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Reliable estimates of presence or absence of a species can provide substantial information on management questions related to distribution and habitat use but should incorporate the probability of detection to reduce bias. We surveyed for the endangered Lower Keys marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris hefneri) in habitat patches on 5 Florida Key islands, USA, to estimate occupancy and detection probabilities. We derived detection probabilities using spatial replication of plots and evaluated hypotheses that patch location (coastal or interior) and patch size influence occupancy and detection. Results demonstrate that detection probability, given rabbits were present, was population trends of Lower Keys marsh rabbits from historical data and to guide management decisions for species recovery. The sampling and analytical methods we used may be useful for researchers and managers of other endangered lagomorphs and cryptic or fossorial animals occupying diverse habitats.

  2. Two independent anion transport systems in rabbit mandibular salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1986-01-01

    Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion in the foll......Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion...... stimulated secretion by about 30%, but when infused in addition to furosemide (0.1 mmol/l), it inhibited by about 20%. Amiloride (1.0 mmol/l) caused no inhibition. The results suggest that there are at least three distinct carriers in the rabbit mandibular gland. One is a furosemide-sensitive Na-coupled Cl...

  3. Chemotherapy-induced pulmonary hypertension: role of alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchoux, Benoît; Günther, Sven; Quarck, Rozenn; Chaumais, Marie-Camille; Dorfmüller, Peter; Antigny, Fabrice; Dumas, Sébastien J; Raymond, Nicolas; Lau, Edmund; Savale, Laurent; Jaïs, Xavier; Sitbon, Olivier; Simonneau, Gérald; Stenmark, Kurt; Cohen-Kaminsky, Sylvia; Humbert, Marc; Montani, David; Perros, Frédéric

    2015-02-01

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is an uncommon form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) characterized by progressive obstruction of small pulmonary veins and a dismal prognosis. Limited case series have reported a possible association between different chemotherapeutic agents and PVOD. We evaluated the relationship between chemotherapeutic agents and PVOD. Cases of chemotherapy-induced PVOD from the French PH network and literature were reviewed. Consequences of chemotherapy exposure on the pulmonary vasculature and hemodynamics were investigated in three different animal models (mouse, rat, and rabbit). Thirty-seven cases of chemotherapy-associated PVOD were identified in the French PH network and systematic literature analysis. Exposure to alkylating agents was observed in 83.8% of cases, mostly represented by cyclophosphamide (43.2%). In three different animal models, cyclophosphamide was able to induce PH on the basis of hemodynamic, morphological, and biological parameters. In these models, histopathological assessment confirmed significant pulmonary venous involvement highly suggestive of PVOD. Together, clinical data and animal models demonstrated a plausible cause-effect relationship between alkylating agents and PVOD. Clinicians should be aware of this uncommon, but severe, pulmonary vascular complication of alkylating agents. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Teaching Tourism Change Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stilling Blichfeldt, Bodil; Kvistgaard, Hans-Peter; Hird, John

    2017-01-01

    course that is part of a Tourism Master’s program, where a major challenge is not only to teach students about change and change agents, but to teach them how change feels and ho w to become change agents. The c hange management course contains an experiment inspired by experiential teaching literature...... change in tourism in the future....

  5. Agents in domestic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glenn Meerstra; Wouter Langerak; Leo van Moergestel; Niels van Nieuwenburg; John-Jules Meyer; Ing. Erik Puik; Franc Pape; Daniël Telgen

    2013-01-01

    Athor supplied : "This paper describes an agent-based architecture for domotics. This architecture is based on requirements about expandability and hardware independence. The heart of the system is a multi-agent system. This system is distributed over several platforms to open the possibility to

  6. Change Agent Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  7. FELASA recommendations for the health monitoring of mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig and rabbit colonies in breeding and experimental units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mähler Convenor, M; Berard, M; Feinstein, R; Gallagher, A; Illgen-Wilcke, B; Pritchett-Corning, K; Raspa, M

    2014-07-01

    The microbiological quality of experimental animals can critically influence animal welfare and the validity and reproducibility of research data. It is therefore important for breeding and experimental facilities to establish a laboratory animal health monitoring (HM) programme as an integrated part of any quality assurance system. FELASA has published recommendations for the HM of rodent and rabbit colonies in breeding and experimental units (Nicklas et al. Laboratory Animals, 2002), with the intention of harmonizing HM programmes. As stated in the preamble, these recommendations need to be adapted periodically to meet current developments in laboratory animal medicine. Accordingly, previous recommendations have been revised and shall be replaced by the present recommendations. These recommendations are aimed at all breeders and users of laboratory mice, rats, Syrian hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits as well as diagnostic laboratories. They describe essential aspects of HM, such as the choice of agents, selection of animals and tissues for testing, frequency of sampling, commonly used test methods, interpretation of results and HM reporting. Compared with previous recommendations, more emphasis is put on the role of a person with sufficient understanding of the principles of HM, opportunistic agents, the use of sentinel animals (particularly under conditions of cage-level containment) and the interpretation and reporting of HM results. Relevant agents, testing frequencies and literature references are updated. Supplementary information on specific agents and the number of animals to be monitored and an example of a HM programme description is provided in the appendices. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Bisphenol A exposure enhances atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Fang

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an environmental endocrine disrupter. Excess exposure to BPA may increase susceptibility to many metabolic disorders, but it is unclear whether BPA exposure has any adverse effects on the development of atherosclerosis. To determine whether there are such effects, we investigated the response of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL rabbits to 400-µg/kg BPA per day, administered orally by gavage, over the course of 12 weeks and compared aortic and coronary atherosclerosis in these rabbits to the vehicle group using histological and morphometric methods. In addition, serum BPA, cytokines levels and plasma lipids as well as pathologic changes in liver, adipose and heart were analyzed. Moreover, we treated human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs with different doses of BPA to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in BPA action(s. BPA treatment did not change the plasma lipids and body weights of the WHHL rabbits; however, the gross atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic arch was increased by 57% compared to the vehicle group. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed marked increases in advanced lesions (37% accompanied by smooth muscle cells (60% but no significant changes in the numbers of macrophages. With regard to coronary atherosclerosis, incidents of coronary stenosis increased by 11% and smooth muscle cells increased by 73% compared to the vehicle group. Furthermore, BPA-treated WHHL rabbits showed increased adipose accumulation and hepatic and myocardial injuries accompanied by up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and inflammatory and lipid metabolism markers in livers. Treatment with BPA also induced the expression of ER stress and inflammation related genes in cultured HUVECs. These results demonstrate for the first time that BPA exposure may increase susceptibility to atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits.

  9. Ultrasound features of kidneys in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Dimitrov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the normal sonographic features of rabbit kidneys with regard to their use in diagnostic imaging of renal lesions in this species. Materials: Twelve sexually mature clinically healthy New Zealand White rabbits weighing 2.8 kg to 3.2 kg were examined after anaesthesia. Methods: A diagnostic ultrasound system with microconvex multifrequency 6.5 MHz probe was used. The animals were positioned in dorsal recumbency. The transabdominal paravertebral imaging approach was used. Longitudinal and transverse scans of the kidneys were obtained. Six rabbits were sacrificed, their kidneys removed and studied in isotonic liquid medium. Results: The shape of kidneys was elliptical. The fibrous capsule was visualized as a straight hyperechoic band. The fatty capsule was hyperechoic and with irregular borders. The cortex exhibited a heterogeneous echogenicity. The acoustic density of the cortex was lower than that of the liver. The echoicity of the medulla was lower as compared to the cortex and the structures of the kidney pelvis. The latter appeared as a centrally located hyperechoic structure. The post mortem examination showed that kidneys were oval and hyperechoic. The kidney pelvis was seen as a centrally located longitudinal finding, and the renal hilum – as a centrally located hyperechoic finding. Conclusions: The transabdominal paravertebral approach was a good method for visualization of rabbit kidneys. The dorsal recumbency of the subjects allowed the visualization. The in vivo results corresponded to those from the post mortem study. The rabbit kidney was oval in shape. The hypoechoic peripheral zone is occupied by the cortex and the medulla, while the hyperechoic central zone – by the kidney pelvis. The cortex was less echoic than the liver parenchyma. The kidney pelvic cavity had a lower acoustic density than its walls, due to the presence of peripelvic adipose tissue. The present results could be used in the interpretation

  10. Population structure in Tunisian indigenous rabbit ascertained using molecular information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Ben Larbi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic structure of domestic species provides a window into the process of domestication. This study attempts to offer an insight into the prevailing genetic status of Tunisian indigenous rabbit breeds using molecular markers. Thirty-six microsatellite loci were used to provide a comprehensive insight into the genetic status and relationship among 12 Tunisian indigenous rabbit populations. A total of 264 rabbits from villages of the Tozeur and Kebili regions were studied. Standard statistics parameters of genetic variability within and between populations were calculated. The observed heterozygosity, unbiased expected heterozygosity and the effective number of alleles were used to assess the genetic variation of each indigenous breed. Results show a high genetic diversity and observed heterozygosity ranged between 0.3 and 0.5, which implies that there is an abundant genetic variation stored in Tunisian indigenous rabbit breeds. Significant population differentiation was observed (Fst=0.11, which means that most of the genetic variation resides within breeds. The percentage of individuals correctly classified to their population was 85%. Breeds with more than one breeder origin were divided into subgroups, due to differences in gene frequencies between breeders, which in some cases creates a genetic differentiation even higher than that observed between distinct breeds. The current study is the first detailed analysis of the genetic diversity of Tunisian indigenous rabbit populations. The data generated here provides valuable information about the genetic structure of the 12 rabbit populations and this can be used to designate priorities for their conservation.

  11. Respiratory and cardiovascular effects of buprenorphine in conscious rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafford, Heidi L; Schadt, James C

    2008-07-01

    To quantify the respiratory and cardiovascular effects of intravenous or subcutaneous buprenorphine in conscious rabbits. Prospective experimental trial. Eight healthy, young adult New Zealand white rabbits (four female). Rabbits were instrumented with intraabdominal arterial and venous catheters and diaphragmatic electromyographic electrodes 2 weeks before experiments. Arterial blood pressure, arterial blood gases, heart rate and respiratory rate were monitored during experiments. Buprenorphine (0.06 mg) was administered either intravenously or subcutaneously to conscious rabbits. Respiratory and cardiovascular parameters were compared to baseline at 10 and 22 minutes after intravenous buprenorphine administration, and at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after subcutaneous buprenorphine administration. Buprenorphine administration, at a dose of approximately 0.02 mg kg(-1), did not change blood pressure or heart rate. However, respiratory rate decreased from 252 +/- 26 to 39 +/- 26 breaths minute(-1) (mean +/- SD), and from 306 +/- 38 to 90 +/- 38 breaths minute(-1) following intravenous and subcutaneous administration of buprenorphine, respectively. Subsequent to intravenous and subcutaneous buprenorphine, arterial oxygen tension decreased from 88 +/- 4 to 72 +/- 4 mmHg (11.7 +/- 0.5 to 9.6 +/- 0.5 kPa) and from 87 +/- 3 to 77 +/- 3 mmHg (11.6 +/- 0.4 to 10.3 +/- 0.4 kPa), respectively. Buprenorphine, by either route of administration, increased arterial carbon dioxide tension from 36 to 41 mmHg (4.8-5.5 kPa) and increased the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient from 15 to > or =20 mmHg (2 to > or =2.7 kPa). Buprenorphine administration decreased respiratory rate and produced mild hypoxemia in conscious rabbits. While these changes were well tolerated by healthy animals, caution should be exercised when administering buprenorphine to rabbits predisposed to respiratory depression.

  12. Protective Effect of Egyptian Propolis against Rabbit Pasteurellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somia A. Nassar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to study the protective effect of ethanolic extract of propolis given subcutaneously (S/C either alone or in combination with inactivated formalized Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida vaccine in rabbits challenged with virulent P. multocida strain. Twenty-eight New-Zealand rabbits, 6–8 weeks old and not vaccinated against pasteurellosis, were randomly divided into four equal groups. Group (1 was kept as nonvaccinated control. Group (2 was injected S/C with propolis. Group (3 was vaccinated (S/C with P. multocida vaccine only. Group (4 was injected with vaccine mixed with propolis as adjuvant. Groups (2, 3, and 4 received the same doses of propolis and vaccine after 4 weeks as a booster dose. The experiment continued for six weeks during which clinical signs, body weight, and mortality rate were recorded. Blood samples were collected every 2 weeks of treatment for evaluating the erythrogram and biochemical parameters. At the end of six weeks, all groups were subjected to challenge with a virulent strain of P. multocida. Two weeks later, tissue specimens were collected from different organs for histopathological investigation. Results showed that before challenge all rabbits of different groups were apparently healthy and had good appetite. After challenge, control group (1 showed acute form of the disease, 100% mortality rate, and severe histopathological changes. Rabbits of groups (2 and 3 showed less severe clinical signs, mortality rate, and histopathological changes than control. Rabbits of group (4 were apparently healthy with normal histological picture. In conclusion, an ethanolic extract of propolis injected alone or combined with formalized inactivated P. multocida vaccine improved general health conditions, liver and kidney functions in addition to reduction of the severity of adverse clinical signs, mortality rates, and histopathological changes associated with challenge of rabbits with P. multocida

  13. Protective Effect of Egyptian Propolis against Rabbit Pasteurellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Somia A.; Mohamed, Amira H.; Nasr, Soad M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to study the protective effect of ethanolic extract of propolis given subcutaneously (S/C) either alone or in combination with inactivated formalized Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) vaccine in rabbits challenged with virulent P. multocida strain. Twenty-eight New-Zealand rabbits, 6–8 weeks old and not vaccinated against pasteurellosis, were randomly divided into four equal groups. Group (1) was kept as nonvaccinated control. Group (2) was injected S/C with propolis. Group (3) was vaccinated (S/C) with P. multocida vaccine only. Group (4) was injected with vaccine mixed with propolis as adjuvant. Groups (2, 3, and 4) received the same doses of propolis and vaccine after 4 weeks as a booster dose. The experiment continued for six weeks during which clinical signs, body weight, and mortality rate were recorded. Blood samples were collected every 2 weeks of treatment for evaluating the erythrogram and biochemical parameters. At the end of six weeks, all groups were subjected to challenge with a virulent strain of P. multocida. Two weeks later, tissue specimens were collected from different organs for histopathological investigation. Results showed that before challenge all rabbits of different groups were apparently healthy and had good appetite. After challenge, control group (1) showed acute form of the disease, 100% mortality rate, and severe histopathological changes. Rabbits of groups (2 and 3) showed less severe clinical signs, mortality rate, and histopathological changes than control. Rabbits of group (4) were apparently healthy with normal histological picture. In conclusion, an ethanolic extract of propolis injected alone or combined with formalized inactivated P. multocida vaccine improved general health conditions, liver and kidney functions in addition to reduction of the severity of adverse clinical signs, mortality rates, and histopathological changes associated with challenge of rabbits with P. multocida strain

  14. The rabbit as an infection model for equine proliferative enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Francesca; Allen, Andrew L; Pusterla, Nicola; Vannucci, Fabio A; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J; Ball, Katherine R; Thompson, Julie; Dowling, Patricia M; Hamilton, Don L; Gebhart, Connie J

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the susceptibility of rabbits to Lawsonia intracellularis obtained from a case of clinical equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). This is a preliminary step toward developing a rabbit infection model for studying pathogenesis and therapy of EPE in horses. Nine does were equally assigned to 3 groups. Animals in 2 groups (Group 1 and Group 2) were orally inoculated with different doses of cell-cultured L. intracellularis. Controls (Group 3) were sham-inoculated. Feces and blood were collected before the rabbits were infected and at 7, 14, and 21 days post-infection (DPI). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were measured using an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) and fecal samples were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). A doe from each group was euthanized at 7, 14, and 21 DPI for collection and evaluation of intestinal samples. Tissues were stained by routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) method and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with L. intracellularis-specific mouse monoclonal antibody. At 14 DPI, serologic responses were detected in both infected groups, which maintained high titers through to 21 DPI. Lawsonia intracellularis DNA was detected in the feces of Group 2 on 7 DPI and in both infected groups on 14 DPI. Gross lesions were apparent in Group 1 and Group 2 on 14 DPI. Immunohistochemistry confirmed L. intracellularis antigen within cells of rabbits in Group 1 and Group 2 on 7, 14, and 21 DPI. No lesions, serologic response, shedding, or IHC labeling were found in Group 3 rabbits. This study describes an EPE rabbit model that simulates natural infection, as typical lesions, immune response, and fecal shedding were present.

  15. In-vitro effects of PDE5 inhibitor and statin treatment on the contractile responses of experimental MetS rabbit's cavernous smooth muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Erden

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hypercholesterolaemia promotes erectile dysfunction through increased superoxide formation and decreased nitric oxide bioactivity in cavernosal tissue. The role of nitric oxide on erectile function is well known. Statins have lipid lowering properties and can modulate endothelial nitric oxide bioavailability. Sildenafil, enhances smooth muscle relaxation in corpus cavernosum. We invastigated in-vitro effects of sildenafil and rosuvastatin on nonadrenergic, non-cholinergic and nitric oxide mediated cavernosal smooth musle relaxation in metabolic syndrome rabbits, since alterations in this pathway are recognised in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic erectile dysfunction. Methods: Ten male rabbits were fed a standart diet as control group, fourty male rabbits were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet for 12 weeks. Hypercholesterolemic group were divided for without treatment, rosuvastatin treatment, sildenafil teratment, and rosuvastatin + sildenafil treatment (N = 10 per groups. Results: Serum levels of cholesterol and glucose were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group (p < 0.05. After theraphy no differences were found among the groups in relaxation responses to sodium nitroprusside. The relaxation responses to carbachol and EFS were significantly reduced in metabolic syndrome group to control group (p < 0.05, but there were no differences between the other groups and control group. There was a significantly lower in-vitro relaxation response in the metabolic syndrome rabbits than in controls and the others (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Both agents improve in-vitro relaxation responses of erectile tissue from metabolic syndrome rabbits to endothelial non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic and nitric oxide. This finding supports to the results of other clinical studies with these drugs.

  16. The Alpha-1A Adrenergic Receptor in the Rabbit Heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Croft Thomas

    Full Text Available The alpha-1A-adrenergic receptor (AR subtype is associated with cardioprotective signaling in the mouse and human heart. The rabbit is useful for cardiac disease modeling, but data on the alpha-1A in the rabbit heart are limited. Our objective was to test for expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart. By quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR on mRNA from ventricular myocardium of adult male New Zealand White rabbits, the alpha-1B was 99% of total alpha-1-AR mRNA, with <1% alpha-1A and alpha-1D, whereas alpha-1A mRNA was over 50% of total in brain and liver. Saturation radioligand binding identified ~4 fmol total alpha-1-ARs per mg myocardial protein, with 17% alpha-1A by competition with the selective antagonist 5-methylurapidil. The alpha-1D was not detected by competition with BMY-7378, indicating that 83% of alpha-1-ARs were alpha-1B. In isolated left ventricle and right ventricle, the selective alpha-1A agonist A61603 stimulated a negative inotropic effect, versus a positive inotropic effect with the nonselective alpha-1-agonist phenylephrine and the beta-agonist isoproterenol. Blood pressure assay in conscious rabbits using an indwelling aortic telemeter showed that A61603 by bolus intravenous dosing increased mean arterial pressure by 20 mm Hg at 0.14 μg/kg, 10-fold lower than norepinephrine, and chronic A61603 infusion by iPRECIO programmable micro Infusion pump did not increase BP at 22 μg/kg/d. A myocardial slice model useful in human myocardium and an anthracycline cardiotoxicity model useful in mouse were both problematic in rabbit. We conclude that alpha-1A mRNA is very low in rabbit heart, but the receptor is present by binding and mediates a negative inotropic response. Expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart differ from mouse and human, but the vasopressor response is similar to mouse.

  17. Pathophysiology of acute acid injury in rabbit esophageal epithelium.

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando, R C; Powell, D. W.; Carney, C N

    1981-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the pathophysiology of reflux esophagitis, we sought the early sequence of changes in mucosal structure and function in acutely acid-damage rabbit esophagus. Using a perfused catheter technique esophageal potential difference (PD) profiles were obtained in anesthetized rabbits before, during, and after perfusion of the lower one-half of the esophagus with phosphate-buffered saline or 80 mM NaCl. When acid perfusion reduced the lower esophageal PD by 40-50% or ...

  18. SEMEN QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF NEW ZEALAND WHITE RABBIT BUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Błaszczyk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits have been extensively used as a model for large animals and humans. All the reproduction techniques employed with farm animals can be performed with the low-cost rabbit model, and certain placental membrane characteristics make them especially relevant for studies of human teratology. The purpose of this study was to assess semen quality of New Zealand White rabbits. The material represents semen samples collected from adult rabbits (n=30. The semen was obtained by means of artificial vagina. All samples were analyzed using CASA Sperm VisionTM system. To assessed spermatozoa morphology (the length and the width of head and tail; presence of abnormal spermatozoa we used QuickPhoto Micro system. Received data were statistically analyzed. Our research showed decrease of semen parameters value after one hour storage in 37°C. Correlation analysis showed negative correlation between presence of spermatozoa with separated flagellum and CASA parameters value e.g. motility, progressive motility, DAP, DCL, DSL, VAP, VCL, VSL, ALH and BCF. From among 3000 analyzed spermatozoa 14.2% posed abnormal forms. We observed negative influence of semen storage on its quality. Also negative correlations between all types of tail defect and motility of spermatozoa were detectedRabbits have been extensively used as a model for large animals and humans. All the reproduction techniques employed with farm animals can be performed with the low-cost rabbit model, and certain placental membrane characteristics make them especially relevant for studies of human teratology. The purpose of this study was to assess semen quality of New Zealand White rabbits. The material represents semen samples collected from adult rabbits (n=30. The semen was obtained by means of artificial vagina. All samples were analyzed using CASA Sperm VisionTM system. To assessed spermatozoa morphology (the length and the width of head and tail; presence of abnormal spermatozoa we used Quick

  19. Characterisation of wild rabbit commercial game farms in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro González-Redondo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to characterise the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus commercial game farms in Spain using variables related to structure, management and marketing. To this end, a structured survey was administered in 2009 to 21 privately-owned farms. This subsector was an average age of 13. The average size of the breeding stock of the farms was 431 does and 64 bucks. Eighty-five percent of the farms kept all or part of the breeding stock in cages and 38.1% used artificial insemination. All the farms carried out breeder self-replacement, 4.8% by buying wild rabbits from other farms, whereas 38.1% captured wild rabbits for this purpose. Nineteen percent of the wild rabbit game farms also produced other game species, mainly red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa, pheasant (Phasianus colchicus and quail (Coturnix coturnix. Fourteen percent of the farms supplied wild rabbits to be used as prey to be released in programmes for the conservation of endangered predators, and 38.1% supplied breeding rabbits to be used by other farms to replace culled animals. Eighty-six percent of the farms offered the service of transporting the animals from the farm to the hunting grounds to their clients, and 14.3% advised customers on how to successfully release and restock hunting grounds. Seventy-six percent of the farms marketed their products throughout Spain, and 38.1% exported wild rabbits to neighbouring countries, mainly Portugal and France. Forty-three percent of the farms advertised themselves in hunting magazines, 19.1% promoted themselves by attending livestock and game fairs, and 38.1% had their own websites. In conclusion, this alternative rabbit production system constitutes a well-established subsector in Spain, despite being only 2 decades old. It also seems that it has not yet reached its development maturity. It shows wide diversity in terms of farm size and structure, as well as marketing and promotional activities.

  20. myo-Inositol homeostasis in foetal rabbit lung

    OpenAIRE

    Bleasdale, John E.; Maberry, Mark C.; Quirk, J. Gerald

    1982-01-01

    In several species, lung maturation is accompanied by a decline in the phosphatidylinositol content of lung surfactant and a concomitant increase in its phosphatidylglycerol content. To examine the possibility that this developmental change is influenced by the availability of myo-inositol, potential sources of myo-inositol for the developing rabbit lung were investigated. On day 28 of gestation the myo-inositol content of foetal rabbit lung tissue (2.3±0.5μmol/g of tissue) was not significan...

  1. Lithium absorption by the rabbit gall-bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    1991-01-01

    Lithium (Li+) absorption across the low-resistance epithelium of the rabbit gall-bladder was studied in order to elucidate possible routes and mechanisms of Li+ transfer. Li+ at a concentration of 0.4 mM in both mucosal and serosal media did not affect isosmotic mucosa-to-serosa fluid absorption...... was elicited from the mucosal side and was not accounted for by compensatory Li+ absorption; water and Na+ absorption rates decreased nearly in parallel. The effects of 0.4 mM amiloride and of substitution with 20 mM Li+ were only partly additive. It is concluded that Li+ absorption in the rabbit gall...

  2. Chondromalacia induced by patellar subluxation in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, B.N.; Møller-Larsen, F.; Frich, Lars Henrik

    1989-01-01

    A unilateral patellar malalignment was induced in 20 young and 20 mature rabbits by lateral displacement of the tibial tuberosity, the other knee serving as osteotomized in situ control. At 6 weeks, all the knees appeared macroscopically normal, but histologically definite cartilage degeneration...... was found on the experimental side. At 3 months, macroscopic changes occurred in 5 of 10 mature rabbits, and histologic cartilage degeneration was found in all the experimental knees, most pronounced in mature animals, and particularly in joint facets submitted to high pressure. This experimental model...

  3. Nutritional impact on health and performance in intensively reared rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Blas Beorlegui, Juan Carlos de

    2012-01-01

    The present work summarizes research related to the definition of nutrient recommendations for feeds used in the intensive production of rabbit's meat. Fibre is the main chemical constituent of rabbit diets that typically contain 320 to 360 and 50 to 90 g/kg of insoluble and soluble fibre, respectively. Instead, the dietary contents of cereal grains (∼120 to 160 g/kg), fat (15 to 25 g/kg) and protein concentrates (150 to 180 g/kg) are usually low with respect to other intensively reared monog...

  4. Comparison of toxicity effects of ropivacaine, bupivacaine, and lidocaine on rabbit intervertebral disc cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xian-Yi; Xiong, Li-Ming; Yang, Shu-Hua; Shao, Zeng-Wu; Xie, Mao; Gao, Fei; Ding, Fan

    2014-03-01

    It has been shown that bupivacaine, the most commonly used local anesthetic to relieve or control pain in interventional spine procedures, is cytotoxic to intervertebral disc (IVD) cells in vitro. However, some other common local anesthetics, such as ropivacaine and lidocaine, are also frequently used in the treatment of spine-related pain, and the potential effects of these agents remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various local anesthetics on rabbit IVD cells in vitro and further compare the cytotoxicity of ropivacaine, bupivacaine, lidocaine, and saline solution control. Controlled laboratory study. Rabbit annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were isolated from Japanese white rabbits. Both AF and NP cells at the second generation maintained in monolayer were exposed to various concentrations of local anesthetics (eg, bupivacaine) or different durations of exposure and evaluated for cell viability by use of cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). In addition, to compare the cytotoxicity of ropivacaine, bupivacaine, lidocaine, and saline solution control in commercial concentration, the viability was analyzed by flow cytometry after 60-minute exposure, and the morphologic changes were observed by the phase-contrast microscopy. Apoptosis and necrosis of IVD cells were confirmed by using fluorescence microscopy with double staining of Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide. Rabbit IVD cell death demonstrated a time and dose dependence in response to bupivacaine and lidocaine. However, ropivacaine only exerted a significant time-dependent effect on IVD cells. There was no significant difference in IVD viability after treatment with different doses of ropivacaine. In addition, the results showed that lidocaine was the most toxic of the three local anesthetics and that ropivacaine presented less cytotoxicity than lidocaine and bupivacaine. Fluorescence microscopy also confirmed that the short-term toxic effect of local

  5. A comparison of ketamine-midazolam and ketamine-medetomidine combinations for induction of anaesthesia in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grint, Nicola J; Murison, Pamela J

    2008-03-01

    To compare ketamine-midazolam (KMZ) and ketamine-medetomidine (KMT) anaesthesia in rabbits using anaesthetic induction, maintenance and recovery data. Randomized, prospective, blinded clinical trial. Fifty rabbits (25 male, 25 female) of different breeds undergoing ovariohysterectomy or castration. Rabbits were 12.7 +/- 9.8 months old with body mass 2.24 +/- 0.61 kg. Randomized, prospective, blinded clinical trial. Ketamine (15 mg kg(-1)) and midazolam (3 mg kg(-1)) or medetomidine (0.25 mg kg(-1)) were administered by intramuscular (IM) injection. Ten minutes after IM injection, blind intubation of the trachea was attempted. The time taken, the number of attempts and a subjective score of the ease of intubation were recorded. Isoflurane (range 0-3.6%) in 100% oxygen was delivered via a Jackson Rees modification of an Ayre's T-piece non-rebreathing system. Carprofen (3 mg kg(-1)) and dextrose saline (5 mL kg(-1) hour(-1)) were administered intravenously (IV). During surgery heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and arterial oxygen saturation of haemoglobin (SpO(2)) were monitored. Times to extubation and first head lift were recorded. Group KMT received atipamezole (0.5 mg kg(-1)) IM 30 minutes after discontinuation of isoflurane. Activity was scored at 30, 60 and 120 minutes after volatile agent discontinuation. Mean time to loss of righting reflex (LRR), body mass, RR and vaporizer setting were compared using a two-tailed t-test. Median values for all other data were compared using a Mann-Whitney test. Mean time to LRR (+/-SD) was significantly shorter with KMT (1.64 +/- 0.55 minutes) compared with KMZ (2.28 +/- 0.66 minutes). Intubation was not possible in seven rabbits (three with KMT, four with KMZ) and three with KMT developed laryngospasm. Mean HR, SpO(2) and vaporizer settings were all significantly lower in group KMT. KMT has a faster onset of action and a greater isoflurane-sparing effect when compared with KMZ. Rabbits with KMT were more prone to

  6. The effect of calcium channel blockers and calmodulin inhibitors on the macrophage factor-stimulated synthesis of collagenase by rabbit chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, J C; Gathright, C E; Wagner, L E

    1988-08-01

    Macrophages and monocytes secrete a factor(s) which can stimulate the synthesis of collagenase in synovial cells and in chondrocytes. Incubation of rabbit chondrocytes with macrophage conditioned medium (MCM) and with the calcium channel blockers, nifedipine, verapamil or diltiazem (up to 200 microM) had no effect on collagenase synthesis. However, TMB-8 (8-[N,N-diethylamino]-octyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate hydrochloride), an inhibitor of internal calcium movement, did inhibit the process with an IC50 of approximately 130 microM. The calmodulin antagonists, trifluoperazine, chlorpromazine and calmidazolium (R-24571) were effective inhibitors of the process with IC50's of 40 microM, 18 microM and 3.5 microM, respectively. Collagenase activity itself was not affected by these agents. The data suggests that calmodulin and/or internal calcium movement may play a role in the macrophage factor-stimulated synthesis of collagenase in rabbit chondrocytes.

  7. Impact of myxomatosis in relation to local persistence in wild rabbit populations: the role of waning immunity and the reproductive period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouchet, David; Guitton, Jean-Sébastien; Marchandeau, Stéphane; Pontier, Dominique

    2008-02-21

    Many diseases are less severe when they are contracted in early life. For highly lethal diseases, such as myxomatosis in rabbits, getting infected early in life can represent the best chance for an individual to survive the disease. For myxomatosis, early infections are attenuated by maternal antibodies. This may lead to the immunisation of the host, preventing the subsequent development of the lethal form of the disease. But early infection of young individuals requires specific demographic and epidemiological contexts, such as a high transmission rate of the pathogen agent. To investigate other factors involved in the impact of such diseases, we have built a stochastic model of a rabbit metapopulation infected by myxomatosis. We show that the impact of the pathogen agent can be reduced by early infections only when the agent has a long local persistence time and/or when the host subpopulations are highly connected. The length of the reproductive period and the duration of acquired immunity are also important factors influencing the persistence of the pathogen and thus, the impact of the disease. Besides confirming the role of classical factors in the persistence of a pathogen agent, such as the size of the subpopulation or the degree of connectivity, our results highlight novel factors that can modulate the impact of diseases whose severity increase with age.

  8. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  9. Poly-ε-caprolactone mesh as a scaffold for in vivo tissue engineering in rabbit esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diemer, Pernille; Markoew, S.; Le, Dang Quang Svend

    2015-01-01

    -ε-caprolactone mesh in rabbit esophagus. Twenty female rabbits had a window of 0.6 × 1 cm cut in the abdominal part of the esophagus. The defect was covered with a poly-ε-caprolactone mesh. The rabbits were killed on postoperative day 28–30, and mesh with surrounding esophagus was removed for histological examination....... Fifteen rabbits survived the trial period. Six had no complications and had the mesh in situ. They all had ingrowth of epithelial and smooth muscle cells and an almost completely degraded mesh. Nine rabbits developed pseudo-diverticula. It proved possible to engineer both epithelial and smooth muscle...

  10. Novel bivalent vectored vaccine for control of myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spibey, N; McCabe, V J; Greenwood, N M; Jack, S C; Sutton, D; van der Waart, L

    2012-03-24

    A novel, recombinant myxoma virus-rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) vaccine has been developed for the prevention of myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD). A number of laboratory studies are described illustrating the safety and efficacy of the vaccine following subcutaneous administration in laboratory rabbits from four weeks of age onwards. In these studies, both vaccinated and unvaccinated control rabbits were challenged using pathogenic strains of RHD and myxoma viruses, and 100 per cent of the vaccinated rabbits were protected against both myxomatosis and RHD.

  11. Experimental study on the toxicity of povidone-iodine solution in brain tissues of rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shu-Hua; Wang, Yu; Gao, Hai-Bin; Zhao, Kun; Hou, Yu-Chen; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether Povidone-iodine was toxic to brain tissues by rinsing the cerebral cortex of New Zealand rabbits with Povidone-iodine Solution of different concentrations. Methods: 12 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups (Group A, B, C and D, 3 rabbits each group). In each group, the left cerebral cortex of rabbits was rinsed with physiological saline after the craniotomy; in Group A and B, the right cerebral cortex of rabbits was also locally rinsed with Po...

  12. Rabbit production in low-input systems in Africa: situation, knowledge and perspectives – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Oseni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High poverty levels continue to plague much of Africa despite several intervention strategies aimed to stem the tide. The role of small livestock like rabbits as a tool in poverty alleviation programmes has been acknowledged for decades and successful national rabbit projects have clearly been demonstrated in Africa. With rising poverty levels across Africa, the need to rejuvenate such national rabbit projects for long-term sustainability becomes apparent. This presentation focuses on the status of rabbit production in Africa, with special attention to smallholder rabbit project development and its connection with poverty alleviation issues in the continent and with an emphasis on the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and barriers to the system. A special case is made for the sustainable development of smallholder, low-input rabbit production systems in Africa on account of their popularity, low investment requirements and low economic risks, as well as their contributions to family nutrition, income generation and gender empowerment. Successful rabbit projects in several countries across Africa were identified and the reasons for success, as well as lessons learned, are discussed. In all, several cases standout: the National Rabbit Project of Ghana, the Heifer Project International Rabbit Project in Cameroon, and CECURI Rabbit Project in Benin Republic. Other fast-paced and moderately developed rabbit industries (e.g. in Egypt, Tunisia and Algeria are recognised. Critical constraints to rabbit project development (e.g. non-implementation of sustainable models for low-input rabbit units and absence of client-focused research and development programmes are noted. Prospects for the development of sustainable smallholder rabbit production models are discussed, which include the following: a paradigm shift among researchers to focus on innovative research related to the development of sustainable backyard rabbit production systems; upscaling of

  13. 7 CFR 70.13 - Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products General § 70.13 Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified...

  14. Invocation Receptivity in Female of Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The target of this work was verified effect of transport females in the car for advance state of receptivity in young females broiler rabbits. We used nulliparous females of broiler hybrid HYCOLE (age 4-5 months, weight 3.5-3.8 kg. Experiment was realizated twice. First in half of November (31 females, second in half of February (32 females. Females was layed individually in boxes. After they were transported by car 1 hour (50 km. Before and after experiment we detected state of receptivity in females with coloration of vulva. The state of receptivity was determited from 1 for 4 colour of vulva. ( 1 – anemic coloration of vulva, 2- pink, 3 – red, 4- violet. We detected positive state of transport, on the receptivity. In November before transport was average of receptivity 1.87, after transport 2.25. The state of receptivity will be improve in 12 females (38.71 %. Improve from 1 to 2 was detected in 4 females, from 2 to 3 in 8 females. Improved from 2 to 4 , or from 3 to 4 wasn´t noticed in this group. The state of receptivity wasn´t changed in 19 females (61.29 %. In the state of receptivity 1 stayed 2 females, in the state 2 stayed 15 females, in the state 3 stayed 2 females and in the state 4 wasn´t any female. In February after the end of experiment, state of receptivity was improved with transport in the car from 2.19 to 2.65. The state of receptivity was improved in 13 females  (40.63 %.  Improve from 1 to 2 we detected in 1 female, from 2 to 3 we detected in 8 females, from 2 to 4 we detected in 2 females, from 3 to 4 in 2 females. In 19 females (59.38% we don´t noticed change state of receptivity. In the state of receptivity 1 were 2 females, in 2 were 11 females, in 3 were 5 females, in 4 was 1 female.

  15. Ontogeny of rabbit proximal tubule urea permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    QUIGLEY, RAYMOND; LISEC, AMBER; BAUM, MICHEL

    2014-01-01

    Urea transport in the proximal tubule is passive and is dependent on the epithelial permeability. The present study examined the maturation of urea permeability (Purea) in in vitro perfused proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) from rabbit renal cortex. Urea transport was lower in neonatal than adult PCT at both 37 and 25°C. The PCT Purea was also lower in the neonates than the adults (37°C: 45.4 ± 10.8 vs. 88.5 ± 15.2 × 10−6 cm/s, P 0.05). The activation energy for PCT Purea was not different between the neonatal and adult groups. BLMV Purea was determined by measuring vesicle shrinkage, due to efflux of urea, using a stop-flow instrument. Neonatal BLMV Purea was not different from adult BLMV Purea at 37°C [1.14 ± 0.05 × 10−6 vs. 1.25 ± 0.05 × 10−6 cm/s; P = not significant (NS)] or 25°C (0.94 ± 0.06 vs. 1.05 ± 0.10 × 10−6 cm/s; P = NS). There was no effect of 250 μM phloretin, an inhibitor of the urea transporter, on Purea in either adult or neonatal BLMV. The activation energy for urea diffusion was also identical in the neonatal and adult BLMV. These findings in the BLMV are in contrast to the brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) where we have previously demonstrated that urea transport is lower in the neonate than the adult. Urea transport is lower in the neonatal proximal tubule than the adult. This is due to a lower rate of apical membrane urea transport, whereas basolateral urea transport is the same in neonates and adults. The lower Purea in neonatal proximal tubules may play a role in overall urea excretion and in developing and maintaining a high medullary urea concentration and thus in the ability to concentrate the urine during renal maturation. PMID:11353675

  16. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  17. Biocompatibility of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(acrylic acid) interpenetrating network hydrogel by intrastromal implantation in rabbit cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Luo Luo; Vanchinathan, Vijay; Dalal, Roopa; Noolandi, Jaan; Waters, Dale J.; Hartmann, Laura; Cochran, Jennifer R.; Frank, Curtis W.; Yu, Charles Q.; Ta, Christopher N.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the biocompatibility of a poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(acrylic acid) (PEG/PAA) interpenetrating network hydrogel designed for artificial cornea in a rabbit model. PEG/PAA hydrogel measuring 6 mm in diameter was implanted in the corneal stroma of twelve rabbits. Stromal flaps were created with a microkeratome. Randomly, six rabbits were assigned to bear the implant for 2 months, two rabbits for 6 months, two rabbits for 9 months, one rabbit for 12 months, and one rabbit for 16 m...

  18. Rabbit models for the study of human atherosclerosis: from pathophysiological mechanisms to translational medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianglin; Kitajima, Shuji; Watanabe, Teruo; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Jifeng; Liu, Enqi; Chen, Y. Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in the study of human diseases. Using appropriate animals is critical not only for basic research but also for the development of therapeutics and diagnostic tools. Rabbits are widely used for the study of human atherosclerosis. Because rabbits have a unique feature of lipoprotein metabolism (like humans but unlike rodents) and are sensitive to a cholesterol diet, rabbit models have not only provided many insights into the pathogenesis and development of human atherosclerosis but also made a great contribution to translational research. In fact, rabbit was the first animal model used for studying human atherosclerosis, more than a century ago. Currently, three types of rabbit model are commonly used for the study of human atherosclerosis and lipid metabolism: (1) cholesterol-fed rabbits, (2) Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits, analogous to human familial hypercholesterolemia due to genetic deficiency of LDL receptors, and (3) genetically modified (transgenic and knock-out) rabbits. Despite their importance, compared with the mouse, the most widely used laboratory animal model nowadays, the use of rabbit models is still limited. In this review, we focus on the features of rabbit lipoprotein metabolism and pathology of atherosclerotic lesions that make it the optimal model for human atherosclerotic disease, especially for the translational medicine. For the sake of clarity, the review is not an attempt to be completely inclusive, but instead attempts to summarize substantial information concisely and provide a guideline for experiments using rabbits. PMID:25277507

  19. Dose effects of corticosteroids on the development of osteonecrosis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Goro; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Irisa, Takahiko; Miyanishi, Keita; Nishida, Kenjiro; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2008-12-01

    The relationship between dose of corticosteroids and the prevalence of osteonecrosis (ON) has not been established. We examined the dose effects of corticosteroids on the development of ON in a rabbit model. Rabbits were injected once intramuscularly with 1 (12 rabbits), 5 (12 rabbits), 20 (20 rabbits), and 40 (25 rabbits) mg/kg of methylprednisolone acetate (MPSL) into the right gluteus medius muscle. Four weeks after the MPSL injection, the proximal and distal parts of both the femora and humeri were histopathologically examined for the presence of ON. Hematological examinations were performed before and after the corticosteroid injection. In rabbits with 1, 5, 20, and 40 mg/kg MPSL, the incidence of ON was 0, 42%, 70%, and 96%, respectively. The dose of MPSL showed a significant association with the incidence of ON. Histologically, reparative tissues around the ON sites were observed in the rabbits with 5 mg/kg MPSL, but not observed in rabbits with 20 and 40 mg/kg MPSL. On hematological examination, hyperlipidemia and thrombocytopenia were most apparent in the rabbits receiving 40 mg/kg MPSL. The study suggested that the dose of corticosteroids plays an important role in the development of ON in rabbits. The repair process was also found to be influenced by the dose of corticosteroids. Corticosteroid-induced hyperlipidemia and thrombocytopenia seemed to be associated with the incidence of ON.

  20. Glomerular filtration rate determination by computed tomography in two pet rabbits with renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, Graham; Langlois, Isabelle; Alexander, Kate

    2017-03-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 3-year-old and a 7-year-old spayed female rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were evaluated because of digestive stasis associated with renal asymmetry. CLINICAL FINDINGS Neoplasia of the right kidney was diagnosed via cytologic analysis in the 3-year-old rabbit. Ureterolithiasis of the left kidney was diagnosed via abdominal ultrasonography in the 7-year-old rabbit. To evaluate whether unilateral nephrectomy was indicated, evaluation of glomerular filtration rate by dynamic CT (CT-GFR) was performed on both rabbits. On the basis of the functional and morphological CT-GFR results, radical nephrectomy was recommended for the rabbit with renal neoplasia whereas a more conservative approach was recommended for the other rabbit. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The rabbit with renal neoplasia underwent radical nephrectomy without complication. The rabbit with ureterolithiasis underwent ureteral stent placement, and the renal pelvic dilatation resolved. Both rabbits maintained unremarkable serum urea and creatinine concentrations after surgery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE GFR is a highly useful and reliable variable for the evaluation of renal function but is difficult to assess with routine clinical laboratory tests. The CT-GFR technique described here was quickly performed, was technically suitable for rabbits, and provided clinically relevant information. Studies are required to establish reference values for CT-GFR in rabbits.

  1. Epidemiology of viral haemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis in a free-living population of wild rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Villafuerte, R; Osácar, J J; Lucientes, J

    2002-06-22

    From January 1993 to June 1996, the epidemiology of myxomatosis and viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) was studied in a free-living population of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Spain by means of serological surveys and radiotracking. Myxomatosis was endemic and associated with the breeding period. Its serological pattern was characterised by a 100 per cent prevalence of antibodies in adult rabbits and a rapid increase in antibodies in young rabbits in their first year. No mortality from myxomatosis was detected in adults, and mortality in young rabbits could not be estimated because of interference by predators and scavengers and the deaths of many radiotagged rabbits inside their burrows. VHD was also an endemic disease associated with the breeding period. Adults had a higher prevalence of antibodies against VHD than young rabbits, reaching values of 80 to 90 per cent. During the study, there was an increase in rabbit numbers as a result of a decrease in mortality from predation which was associated with an increase in mortality due to VHD and in the prevalence of antibodies to VHD. Mortality from VHD was lower in rabbits with VHD antibodies than in seronegative rabbits, but some mortality from the disease was also detected in seropositive rabbits. The annual mean mortality rate due to VHD in adult rabbits was estimated to be 21.8 per cent.

  2. Immunization of rabbits with cottontail rabbit papillomavirus E1 and E2 genes: protective immunity induced by gene gun-mediated intracutaneous delivery but not by intramuscular injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, R; Reed, C A; Cladel, N M; Christensen, N D

    2000-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that gene gun-based intracutaneous vaccination of rabbits with a combination of, but not with individual papillomavirus E1, E2, E6 and E7 genes provided complete protection against cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) infection. In the present study, we tested whether vaccination of inbred and outbred rabbits with a combination of CRPV E1 and E2 genes could provide complete protection against virus infection. In the first experiment, gene gun-based intracutaneous vaccination with E1 and E2 genes prevented papilloma formation in the majority of inbred rabbits and promoted systemic papilloma regression in one non-protected rabbit. In contrast, needle-mediated intramuscular injection of E1 and E2 genes did not prevent papilloma formation nor promoted systemic papilloma regression, indicating an absence of strong protective immunity. In the second experiment, six outbred rabbits were immunized by gene gun-based intracutaneous administration of the E1 and E2 genes. Prevention of papilloma formation or systemic papilloma regression was observed in three vaccinated rabbits. Papillomas persisted on the remaining three rabbits, but were significantly smaller than that on control rabbits. These results suggested that gene gun-based intracutaneous vaccination with the combination of papillomavirus E1 and E2 genes induced strong protective antivirus immunity but may be insufficient for complete protection in an outbred population.

  3. Serologic and hematologic response of rabbits to Anaplasma marginale-infected bovine erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerault, T E; Mazzola, V; Roby, T O; Ilemobade, A A

    1978-04-01

    New Zeland White rabbits inoculated with Anaplasma marginale-infected bovine erythrocytes produced specific humoral antibodies to this parasite. Specific antibody production as measured by the card and complement-fixation (CF) tests was maximal in 7 to 21 days after inoculation; however, none of the rabbits became infected. Geometric mean CF titers of rabbits inoculated with RBC from cattle with acute anaplasmosis were significantly higher (P less than 0.001) than those of rabbits given RBC from normal cattle. Significant difference was not seen between geometric mean CF titers of rabbits given RBC from carrier cattle and those of rabbits given RBC from normal cattle. It is concluded, therefore, that rabbit inoculations cannot effectively be substituted for calf inoculations to determine the anaplasmosis status of carrier cattle.

  4. Intra-arterial infusion of leptin does not affect blood pressure in salt-loaded rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Mukhallad A; Talafih, Khalid; Mohamad, Mohamad M J; Khabaz, Mohammad Nidal

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this research is to see the effect of intra-arterial infusion of leptin on blood pressure of salt loaded rabbits in vivo. Increased blood pressure was produced in rabbits by giving diets containing 8% sodium chloride for 5 weeks. Leptin in different concentrations was infused intra-arterially into rabbits fed on high salt diets and the response was compared in rabbits fed with low salt diets. High salt diets produced significant increase in blood pressure. In rabbits fed with low salt diet, leptin infused intra-arterially caused an increase in blood pressure while infusion of leptin into rabbits fed with high salt diets does not affect the blood pressure. In conclusion, salt loading to rabbits abolishes the effect ofleptin on cardiovascular system. This may indicate that leptin effect on sympathetic activity is altered by high salt diets in these animals.

  5. Serological survey of hepatitis E virus infection in farmed and pet rabbits in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bartolo, Ilaria; De Sabato, L; Marata, A; Martinelli, N; Magistrali, C F; Monini, M; Ponterio, E; Ostanello, F; Ruggeri, F M

    2016-05-01

    The recent identification in rabbits of hepatitis E viruses (HEV) related to viruses infecting humans raises the question of the role of this species as possible HEV reservoir. A serological survey on rabbit HEV infection was conducted in Italy during 2013-2014, including both farmed and pet rabbits. We found an anti-HEV antibody seroprevalence of 3.40 % in 206 farmed rabbits (collected on 7 farms) and 6.56 % in 122 pets. RNA was extracted from IgG-positive sera and analyzed by HEV-specific real-time RT-PCR. None of the samples were positive, confirming that no viremia was present in the presence of IgG. Only one serum sample from a farmed rabbit was positive for IgM, but no HEV RNA was detected in it. Pet rabbit feces were also tested for HEV RNA, with negative results. This finding suggests that HEV is circulating in rabbits in Italy.

  6. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  7. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  8. Performance characteristics of weaner rabbits on cassava peel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight-week trial was conducted to determine the optimum level of substitution of dried cassava peel meal (DCPM) for maize in rabbit diets balanced for varying energy, nitrogen and fibre contents. Six experimental diets were compounded such that DCPM replaced maize at 0%, 50%, 62.5%, 75%, 87.5% and 100% levels ...

  9. Haematological and serum biochemical response of growing rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... assess haematological and serum biochemical response of growing rabbits exposed to varied levels of dietary ... the diets. Serum total protein, albumin and albumin-globulin ratio significantly (P < 0.05) decreased with increase in the dietary fumonisin levels. Serum total ... Digestible energy (Kcal/Kg). 2555.

  10. The Effect of Soaked Cassava Peels on Weanling Rabbits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    origin (meat, milk, egg and fish) because of its higher biological value than ... inclusion of cassava peel meal obtained from sun-dried water-soaked peels, from effect on growth when fed to weanling rabbits. Materials and Methods. Fresh cassava peels sufficient ... components of the gastrointestinal tract were taken using a ...

  11. Cross Reactivities of Rabbit Anti-Chicken Horse Radish Peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    ABSTRACT. The cross reactivities of rabbit anti chicken horse radish peroxidase (conjugate) was tested with sera of Chicken, Ducks, Geese, Guinea fowl, Hawks, Pigeons and Turkeys in indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Sera from mammalian species (Bat, Equine and swine) were used as.

  12. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity study with y-cyclodextrin in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.; Smits-van Prooije, A.E.; Bär, A.

    1998-01-01

    In a standard embryotoxicity/teratogenicity study, γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) was administered to groups of 16, artificially inseminated New Zealand White rabbits at dietary concentrations of 0, 5, 10, or 20%. A comparison group received a diet containing 20% lactose. Treatment started on day 0 of

  13. Nonvisual complex spike signals in the rabbit cerebellar flocculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkelman, B.H.; Belton, Tim; Suh, Minah; Coesmans, Michiel; Morpurgo, Menno M; Simpson, John I

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the well-known signals of retinal image slip, floccular complex spikes (CSs) also convey nonvisual signals. We recorded eye movement and CS activity from Purkinje cells in awake rabbits sinusoidally oscillated in the dark on a vestibular turntable. The stimulus frequency ranged from

  14. Potential Vaccine Targets against Rabbit Coccidiosis by Immunoproteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongyan; Dong, Ronglian; Qiu, Baofeng; Jing, Jin; Zhu, Shunxing; Liu, Chun; Jiang, Yingmei; Wu, Liucheng; Wang, Shengcun; Miao, Jin; Shao, Yixiang

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify antigens for a vaccine or drug target to control rabbit coccidiosis. A combination of 2-dimensional electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and mass spectrometric analysis were used to identify novel antigens from the sporozoites of Eimeria stiedae . Protein spots were recognized by the sera of New Zealand rabbits infected artificially with E. stiedae . The proteins were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) analysis in combination with bioinformatics. Approximately 868 protein spots were detected by silver-staining, and a total of 41 immunoreactive protein spots were recognized by anti- E. stiedae sera. Finally, 23 protein spots were successfully identified. The proteins such as heat shock protein 70 and aspartyl protease may have potential as immunodiagnostic or vaccine antigens. The immunoreactive proteins were found to possess a wide range of biological functions. This study is the first to report the proteins recognized by sera of infected rabbits with E. stiedae , which might be helpful in identifying potential targets for vaccine development to control rabbit coccidiosis.

  15. Enhancement of Sexual Libido and Sperm Production in rabbits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood testosterone was sampled three times during the study - at the beginning, midway and during the last week of the study. ... These results indicate that the administration of 6.25mg of clomiphene citrate would improve sperm production more in the Chinchilla breed of rabbits than in their Dutch-belted counterparts ...

  16. Performance of weaner rabbits fed Panicum maximum, Centrosema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen Crossbred Weaner rabbits aged eight weeks made up of 8 males and 8 females with initial average weight of 650 ± 21.76 g were subjected to four dietary treatments namely Panicum maximum plus Poultry growers mash (T1), Centrosema pubescens plus Poultry growers mash (T2) Sida acuta plus Poultry growers ...

  17. Cross reactivities of rabbit anti-chicken horse radish peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cross reactivities of rabbit anti chicken horse radish peroxidase (conjugate) was tested with sera of Chicken, Ducks, Geese, Guinea fowl, Hawks, Pigeons and Turkeys in indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Sera from mammalian species (Bat, Equine and swine) were used as negative ...

  18. Closing capacity of segmental radius defects in rabbits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, E.W.H.; Spauwen, P.H.M.; Mikos, A.G.; Jansen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the research of synthetic bone graft substitutes, the relevance for bone regeneration can be confirmed in a critical-sized model. In this study the rabbit radial defect was investigated as an ingenious model of critical size, due to its defect immobilizing intact ulna. In addition, the influence

  19. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Saidi, Hassan; Odula, Paul Ochieng; Mandela, Pamela Idenya

    2015-01-01

    To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of the retina were taken and imported into FIJI software for analysis. Neural retinal cell densities of deprived eyes were reduced along with increasing period of deprivation. The percentage of reductions were 60.9% (P < 0.001), 41.6% (P = 0.003), and 18.9% (P = 0.326) for ganglion, inner nuclear, and outer nuclear cells, respectively. In non-deprived eyes, cell densities in contrast were increased by 116% (P < 0.001), 52% (P < 0.001) and 59.6% (P < 0.001) in ganglion, inner nuclear, and outer nuclear cells, respectively. In this rabbit model, monocular deprivation resulted in activity-dependent changes in cell densities of the neural retina in favour of the non-deprived eye along with reduced cell densities in the deprived eye.

  20. Haematological and serum biochemical response of growing rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... 1996). Consumption of F. verticillioides culture materials have induced Equine leucoencephalomalacia (ELEM), Por- cine pulmonary edema and ... Forty-eight, 49-day old New Zealand white x Chinchilla male rabbits weighing averagely 757.50 ± 0.50 g were assigned randomly by weight, to the 4 diets in a ...