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Sample records for chemomechanical caries removal

  1. Influence of chemomechanical caries removal methods on dentine

    OpenAIRE

    Hamama, Hamdi Hosni Hamdan Eldesouki

    2014-01-01

    Chemomechanical caries excavation is an excellent example of conservative caries removal methods due to its ability to reliably preserve a greater thickness of caries-affected dentine (CAD). Chemomechanical caries removal (CMCR) agents dissolve the denatured collagen fibrils leaving the sound and partially degraded fibrils intact. Also, one of the main advantages of the CMCR method is its characteristic visual excavation end point sign, after this point, the solution fails to become turbid. C...

  2. Comparison of mechanical and chemomechanical methods of caries removal in deciduous and permanent teeth: A SEM study

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    A Avinash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanical method of caries removal is associated with the removal of sound tooth structure, production of pain, heat, annoying sounds, and vibrations. Chemomechanical caries removal method is based on removal of only carious dentin leaving sound dentin intact. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of mechanical and chemomechanical methods of caries removal in deciduous and permanent teeth. Study Design: A total of 30 carious teeth including 15 deciduous and 15 permanent teeth having dentinal caries selected randomly and cut into two halves through center of the lesion, were subjected to caries removal by mechanical (Group A, and chemomechanical methods (Group B. Time taken for removal of caries was noted with stopwatch. Samples were prepared and seen under the scanning electron microscope for the presence of bacterial colonies. Data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS Software. Results: No significant difference was found for the presence of bacterial colonies in both groups of deciduous and permanent teeth; however, time taken for caries removal by the chemomechanical method was twice than the mechanical method. Conclusion: despite the insignificant presence of bacterial colonies and twice time taken as compared to mechanical method, chemomechanical method was easy to introduce, was painless, did not form smear layer and conserved the sound tooth structure.

  3. Efficacy of chemomechanical caries removal in reducing cariogenic microbiota: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammari, Michelle Mikhael; Moliterno, Luiz Flávio Martins; Hirata Júnior, Raphael; Séllos, Mariana Canano; Soviero, Vera Mendes; Coutinho Filho, Wagner Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of chemochemical methods (Carisolv™ and Papacárie®) versus the manual method (excavators) in reducing the cariogenic microbiota in dentine caries of primary teeth. Forty-six healthy children (5 to 9 years old) having at least one primary tooth with a cavitated dentine carious lesion were included in the study. The teeth presented no clinical or radiographic signs of pulpal involvement. The sample of 74 teeth was randomly divided into three different groups: Papacárie® (n = 25), Carisolv™ (n = 27) and Manual (n = 22). Samples of carious and sound dentine were collected with sterile excavators before and after caries removal in the three groups. The dentine samples were transferred to glass tubes containing a 1mL thioglycollate medium used as a carrier and enriched for microbiological detection of mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp, after incubation for 6h at room temperature. The minimum detection value for colony forming units (CFU) was 3.3 x 102 CFU/ml, and the results were converted into scores from 0 to 4. A significant difference was observed in relation to the microbiological scores before and after caries removal for all methods (Wilcoxon test; p < 0.001). The use of chemomechanical methods for caries removal did not improve the reduction of cariogenic microorganisms in dentine caries lesions, in comparison with manual excavation. PMID:25141016

  4. Efficacy of chemomechanical caries removal in reducing cariogenic microbiota: a randomized clinical trial

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    Michelle Mikhael AMMARI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of chemochemical methods (Carisolv™ and Papacárie® versus the manual method (excavators in reducing the cariogenic microbiota in dentine caries of primary teeth. Forty-six healthy children (5 to 9 years old having at least one primary tooth with a cavitated dentine carious lesion were included in the study. The teeth presented no clinical or radiographic signs of pulpal involvement. The sample of 74 teeth was randomly divided into three different groups: Papacárie® (n = 25, Carisolv™ (n = 27 and Manual (n = 22. Samples of carious and sound dentine were collected with sterile excavators before and after caries removal in the three groups. The dentine samples were transferred to glass tubes containing a 1mL thioglycollate medium used as a carrier and enriched for microbiological detection of mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp, after incubation for 6h at room temperature. The minimum detection value for colony forming units (CFU was 3.3 x 102 CFU/ml, and the results were converted into scores from 0 to 4. A significant difference was observed in relation to the microbiological scores before and after caries removal for all methods (Wilcoxon test; p < 0.001. The use of chemomechanical methods for caries removal did not improve the reduction of cariogenic microorganisms in dentine caries lesions, in comparison with manual excavation.

  5. Randomized controlled clinical trial of long-term chemo-mechanical caries removal using PapacarieTM gel

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    Lara Jansiski MOTTA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Compare the effectiveness of PapacarieTM gel for the chemo-mechanical removal of carious lesions on primary teeth to conventional caries removal with a low-speed bur with regard to execution time, clinical aspects and radiographic findings. Material and Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial with a split-mouth design was carried out. The sample was composed of 20 children aged four to seven years, in whom 40 deciduous teeth were randomly divided into two groups: chemo-mechanical caries removal with PapacarieTM and removal of carious dentin with a low-speed bur. Each child underwent both procedures and served as his/her own control. Restorations were performed with glass ionomer cement. The time required to perform the procedure was also analyzed. The patients underwent longitudinal clinical and radiographic follow-up of the restorations. Results: No statistically significant difference between groups was found regarding the time required to perform the procedures and the radiographic follow up. Statistically significant differences between groups were found in the clinical evaluation at 6 and 18 months after treatment. Conclusion: PapacarieTM is as effective as the traditional method for the removal of carious dentin on deciduous teeth, but offers the advantages of the preservation of sound dental tissue as well as the avoidance of sharp rotary instruments and local anesthesia.

  6. A comparative study of the clinical efficiency of chemomechanical caries removal using Carisolv® and Papacarie® - A papain gel

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, J.; Nayak, M.; K L Prasad; Gupta, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical efficiency of chemomechanical caries removal using Carisolv® and Papacarie® - a papain gel. Materials and Methods: The Carisolv® system for caries removal, consisting of a solvent gel and a specially designed hand instrument, was compared to Papacarie - a papain gel. The outcome variables were: time taken for complete caries removal and volume of carious tissue excavated. Forty patients in the age-group of 20-40 years, havi...

  7. Marginal Micro-leakage of Self-etch and All-in One Adhesives to Primary Teeth, with Mechanical or Chemo-Mechanical Caries Removal

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    Nouzari A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Chemo-mechanical caries removal is an effective alternative to the traditional rotary drilling method. One of the factors that can influence micro-leakage is the method of caries removal. Objectives: To compare the micro-leakage of resin composite in primary dentition using self-etch and all-in one adhesives following conventional and chemo-mechanical caries removal. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human primary anterior teeth with class III carious lesions were collected. The selected teeth were divided randomly into two groups each consisting of 30 teeth. In group1 carious lesions were removed using Carisolv multi mix gel. In group 2, caries was removed using round steel burs in a slow–speed hand piece. Then, the specimens in each group were randomly divided into two subgroups (A and B of 15 and treated by either Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB or Scotch bond. All prepared cavities were filled with a resin composite (Estellite. All the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 hours and then thermocycled in 5ºC and 55ºC water with a dwell time of 20 seconds for 1500 cycles. The specimens were immersed in 1% methylene blue solution for 24 hours, removed, washed and sectioned mesiodistally. The sectioned splits were examined under a stereomicroscope to determine the micro-leakage scores. The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis Test in SPSS version 21. Results: There were no significant differences between micro-leakage scores among the four groups (p = 0.127. Score 0 of micro-leakage was detected for 60% of the specimens in group 1-A (Carisolv + CSEB, 73% of the group 2-A (hand piece + CSEB, 80% of the group 1-B (Carisolv + Scotch bond, and 93% of the group 2-B in which caries was removed using hand piece and bonded with Scotch bond . Conclusions: Although caries removal using hand piece bur along with using Scotch bond adhesive performed less micro-leakage, it would seems that the use of Carisolv

  8. Effect of Carisolv Chemo-Mechanical Caries Removal Technique on Early Childhood Caries Treatment%研究伢碘微创凝胶去龋技术在儿童龋齿治疗中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈玥

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究伢碘微创凝胶去龋技术在儿童龋齿治疗中的疗效。方法:选取80例儿童龋齿患者,随机分为观察组和对照组各40例,对观察组应用伢碘微创凝胶去龋技术进行治疗,对照组的治疗采用传统的磨牙技术,观察和比较两组患儿的龋齿治疗效果。结果:观察组治疗的总体效果优于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);龋齿继发率观察组明显少于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论:在儿童龋齿治疗中采用伢典微创凝胶去龋技术效果良好,值得临床推广。%Objective:To analyze the effect of carisolv chemo-mechanical caries removal technique on early childhood caries treatment. Methods:80 cases early childhood caries were divided into treatment group and control group with 40 cases. Control group were treated by conventional teeth grinding. Treatment group was treated by carisolv chemo-mechanical caries removal technique. The effect of Childhood Caries treatment between two groups was observed and compared. Results:The general effect of the treatment was better than control group, the difference was statistical significance (p<0.05). Compared with control group, the secondary caries in treatment group were lower, difference was statistical significance (p<0.05). Conclusion:Carisolv chemo-mechanical caries removal technique showed significant effect in early childhood caries treatment, worth clinical promotion.

  9. Assessment of chemomechanical removal of carious lesions using Papacarie Duo ™: Randomized longitudinal clinical trial

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    Simone Ferreira Borges Matsumoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemomechanical removal of carious lesions consists of the dissolution of carious tissue by the application of a natural or synthetic agent, followed by atraumatic mechanical removal. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of Papacarie Duo ® gel in the chemomechanical removal of carious lesions in primary teeth in comparison to the traditional method (low-speed bur. Settings and Design: A randomized clinical trial was conducted with 20 children between 5 and 8 years of age. Materials and Methods: Two teeth were treated in each child (split-mouth design, with the randomization of two methods: Group 1 - chemomechanical caries removal with Papacarie Duo™; and Group 2 - removal of carious dentin tissue using a low-speed bur. Both methods involved restoration with glass ionomer cement and follow up. The following aspects were evaluated: time required for the procedure; pain (face evaluation scale; rtention of the restorative material in the cavity; and the presence of secondary caries after 30 days. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-squared test, Student′s t-test, and Wilcoxon test. Results: No statistically significant differences between methods were found regarding time required for the procedure (P = 0.13, the occurrence of pain (P = 0.585, or restoration status at the 30-day clinical evaluation (P = 0.713. Conclusion: The findings of the present study demonstrate that the two methods achieve similar results. The advantages of minimally invasive treatment, such as chemomechanical caries removal with Papacarie Duo™, are its ease of use, patient comfort, and the fact that it causes less damage to dental tissue.

  10. [Biological evaluation of means for chemomechanical removal of carious dentine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechina, G N; Vinnichenko, Iu A; Rudenko, O E

    2007-01-01

    Biological evaluation of the 1st domestically developed and produced preparation for chemomechanical removal of carious dentine Caricleans (firm "VladMiVa", Belgorod) was performed in the CRIS with the use of express techniques of the hemolytic activity (HA) and cytotoxic effect (CTE). It was established that according to HA data both gels of the Caricleans preparation were nontoxic. CTE of 2 gels was also determined on 2 cells lines - LECH (lung embryon cell human) and HeLa; higher sensitivity was received on HeLa cells, the toxic effect of gel #2 of the Caricleans preparation was higher. The received results allowed the authors come to the conclusion that taking into account high sensitivity, high specificity and high cost of the CTE-test not to recommend its use for evaluation of the preparations for short-term action in stomatology. PMID:17690636

  11. Evaluation of the methodologies used in clinical trials and effectiveness of chemo-mechanical caries removal with CarisolvTM Avaliação das metodologias utilizadas nos ensaios clínicos e efetividade da remoção químico-mecânica de tecido cariado com Carisolv®

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    Marcela Marquezan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aims to discuss the methodologies applied in clinical trials published about CarisolvTM, in order to assess the best scientific evidence concerning chemo-mechanical caries removal. Papers concerning the use of CarisolvTM were sought using a search strategy. The titles and abstracts of all the reports identified through the search were analyzed by a single reviewer. The inclusion criterion involved: clinical trials having CarisolvTM in one of the study groups. Then, those that fulfilled the inclusion criterion underwent methodology assessment and data extraction. Only 12 papers met the inclusion criterion. It was observed that none of these studies complied with all the evaluated research methodological principles required in order to have power of evidence generation. CarisolvTM proved to be effective in caries removal. Appointment mean time was greater, but the perceived time was shorter than that using conventional techniques due to patients' perception of more comfort and a reduction of anesthesia needs. There were no adverse effect in long-term assessments. In studies with microbiological evaluation of the remaining dentine, it was observed that both the conventional and chemo-mechanical methods produced statistically significant reduction on counts of viable microorganisms.Esta investigação objetiva discutir as metodologias aplicadas em ensaios clínicos publicados sobre Carisolv®, para verificar a melhor evidência científica concernente à remoção químico-mecânica de tecido cariado. Artigos referentes ao uso de Carisolv® foram procurados utilizando-se uma estratégia de busca. Os títulos e resumos de todos os estudos identificados pela procura foram analisados por um único revisor. O critério de inclusão envolveu: ensaios clínicos contendo o sistema Carisolv® em um dos grupos de estudo. Os estudos que preencheram o critério de inclusão foram submetidos à avaliação de metodologia e extração de dados

  12. Chemochemical caries removal: a review of the techniques and latest developments

    OpenAIRE

    Beeley, J A; Yip, H K; Stevenson, A.

    2000-01-01

    Chemomechanical caries removal involves the chemical softening of carious dentine followed by its removal by gentle excavation. The reagent involved is generated by mixing amino acids with sodium hypochlorite; N-monochloroamino acids are formed which selectively degrade demineralised collagen in carious dentine. The procedure requires 5-15 minutes but avoids the painful removal of sound dentine thereby reducing the need for local anaesthesia. It is well suited to the treatment of deciduous te...

  13. A comparative microbiological study to assess caries excavation by conventional rotary method and a chemo-mechanical method

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    Rajesh T Anegundi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of Papacαrie® for caries removal as compared to the conventional method with respect to microbial flora, time, the amount of tissue removal, child′s behavior, pain perception, and preference of treatment. Materials and Methods: Sixty primary molars of 30 children of age 4-9 years were selected randomly and divided into two groups of 30 teeth each: Group A treated by conventional method and group B with Papacαrie® method. Results: Comparatively, no statistical difference was seen in microbial growth, total bacterial count, and lactobacilli count in both the groups ( P = 0.36. The mean cavity entrance size with group A was 0.98133 mm and group B was 0.26083 mm ( P < 0.001. The mean preparation time for group A was 4.7 Mins (minutes and group B was 17.96 min s ( P < 0.001. Majority of kids of both group A and B scored 3 (Frankl Behavior Rating Scale before and after the treatment showing no statistical difference in their behavioral score ( P = 1. In group A 50% of children experienced no pain as compared to 86.7% in group B ( P = 0.01. There was no statistical difference in the preference of treatment ( P = 0.12. Conclusion: Thus, the Chemo mechanical caries removal method can be considered as an effective method to control pain and preserve sound tooth structure during caries excavation.

  14. Comparsion of the efficacy of chemomechanical and mechanical methods of caries removal in the reduction of streptococcus mutans and lactobacillus spp in carious dentine of primary teeth Comparação da eficácia dos métodos químico-mecânico e mecânico de remoção de cárie na redução de streptococcus mutans e lactobacillus spp da dentina criada de dentes decíduos

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    Gisele Quariguasi Tobias Lima

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The methods of caries removal have been the subject of many studies over the last years. At present, methods involving the least tissue invasion have been outstanding in the field of surgical-restorative treatment. In this context, the Carisolv™ system has appeared as a less traumatic and less invasive approach, particularly in pedodontics. Thus, the objective of the present study was to carry out a comparative analysis of the dentinal structure of primary molars before and after the removal of carious tissue by mechanical (low speed drills and conventional dentinal curettes and chemomechanical (Carisolv™ kit procedures based on quantitative culture for cariogenic bacteria to determine the number of bacteria present in the carious dentine after both treatments. Sixty primary molars from children ranging in age from 4 to 8 years, with active occlusal caries in dentine, were divided into two groups (A and B of 30 teeth each, with group A having been treated by the chemomechanical technique and group B by the mechanical technique. Dentin samples were placed in glass vials containing 1 mL thioglycolate broth and submitted to culture to determine the number of S. mutans and Lactobacillus per mg of decayed dentine. The results did not reveal significant differences between the two methods of caries removal; however, the chemomechanical method was more efficient in completely eliminating S. mutans (p=0.02. In summary, the present results confirm previous studies showing that the two methods are comparable in reducing Lactobacillus, but Carisolv™ is more effective in the elimination of S. mutans.Os métodos de remoção de cárie têm sido objeto de muitos estudos nos últimos anos. Atualmente, aqueles que determinam mínima invasão tecidual têm se sobressaído no campo do tratamento cirúrgico-restaurador. Neste contexto, surgiu o sistema Carisolv™ como uma abordagem menos traumática, com destaque na odontopediatria e menos invasiva. Desta

  15. Critical appraisal. 2015 Update: Approaches to Caries Removal.

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    Browning, William D

    2015-01-01

    Every day in the United States and around the world, complete caries removal in vital, asymptomatic teeth with deep caries lesions ends in unavoidable exposure of the pulp. As a result, the complexity and cost of treatment increase dramatically, and many patients are left with extraction as their only viable option. This Critical Appraisal updates a previous appraisal (2013). Since that review three, systematic reviews of the literature and one large, randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) have been published. Thus, newer, higher quality evidence is available that supports alternative treatments designed to preserve the vitality of the tooth and thus avoid extraction. PMID:26179343

  16. Comparsion of the efficacy of chemomechanical and mechanical methods of caries removal in the reduction of streptococcus mutans and lactobacillus spp in carious dentine of primary teeth Comparação da eficácia dos métodos químico-mecânico e mecânico de remoção de cárie na redução de streptococcus mutans e lactobacillus spp da dentina criada de dentes decíduos

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele Quariguasi Tobias Lima; Eurípedes Gomes de Oliveira; João Inácio Lima de Souza; Valério Monteiro Neto

    2005-01-01

    The methods of caries removal have been the subject of many studies over the last years. At present, methods involving the least tissue invasion have been outstanding in the field of surgical-restorative treatment. In this context, the Carisolv™ system has appeared as a less traumatic and less invasive approach, particularly in pedodontics. Thus, the objective of the present study was to carry out a comparative analysis of the dentinal structure of primary molars before and after the re...

  17. Selective removal of natural occlusal caries by coupling near-infrared imaging with a CO II laser

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    Tao, You-Chen; Fried, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    Laser removal of dental hard tissue can be combined with optical, spectral or acoustic feedback systems to selectively ablate dental caries and restorative materials. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging has considerable potential for the optical discrimination of sound and demineralized tissue. Last year we successfully demonstrated that near-IR images can be used to guide a CO2 laser ablation system for the selective removal of artificial caries lesions on smooth surfaces. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that two-dimensional near-infrared images of natural occlusal caries can be used to guide a CO2 laser for selective removal. Two-dimensional NIR images were acquired at 1310-nm of extracted human molar teeth with occlusal caries. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) was also used to acquire depth-resolved images of the lesion areas. An imaging processing module was developed to analyze the NIR imaging output and generate optical maps that were used to guide a CO2 laser to selectively remove the lesions at a uniform depth. Post-ablation NIR images were acquired to verify caries removal. Based on the analysis of the NIR images, caries lesions were selectively removed with a CO2 laser while sound tissues were conserved. However, the removal rate varied markedly with the severity of decay and multiple passes were required for caries removal. These initial results are promising but indicate that the selective removal of natural caries is more challenging than the selective removal of artificial lesions due to varying tooth geometry, the highly variable organic/mineral ratio in natural lesions and more complicated lesion structure.

  18. Selective removal of dental caries with a diode-pumped Er:YAG laser

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    Yan, Ruth; Chan, Kenneth H.; Tom, Henry; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Selective removal of caries lesions with high precision is best accomplished using lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates utilizing small spot sizes. Conventional flash-lamp pumped Er:YAG lasers are poorly suited for this purpose, but new diode-pumped Er:YAG lasers have become available operating at high pulse repetition rates. The purpose of this study was to measure the ablation rate and selectivity of sound and demineralized enamel and dentin for a 30 W diode-pumped Er:YAG laser operating with a pulse duration of 20-30-μs and evaluate it's potential for the selective removal of natural occlusal lesions on extracted teeth. Microradiography was used to determine the mineral content of the demineralized enamel and dentin of 300-μm thick sections with natural caries lesions prior to laser ablation. The ablation rate was calculated for varying mineral content. In addition, near-IR reflectance measurements at 1500-1700- nm were used to guide the laser for the selective ablation of natural occlusal caries lesions on extracted teeth.

  19. Partial caries removal in primary teeth: association of clinical parameters with microbiological status.

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    Lula, E C O; Almeida, L J S; Alves, C M C; Monteiro-Neto, V; Ribeiro, C C C

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between clinical characteristics of carious dentin and bacterial colonization after partial caries removal is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to compare microbial counts between categories of carious dentin color, consistency and humidity, and to evaluate the correlation between these characteristics and the presence of cariogenic microorganisms in deep cavities (2/3 or more of the dentin thickness) submitted to partial caries removal. Sixteen primary teeth were submitted to the removal of all carious tissue from the lateral walls of the cavity, whereas carious tissue of the pulp wall was removed superficially. Dentin in the pulp wall was classified according to color, consistency and humidity immediately after cavity preparation and 3-6 months after cavity sealing and a tissue sample was collected on the same occasion for microbiological evaluation. Before sealing, Streptococcus mutans (p = 0.033) and Lactobacillus spp. (p = 0.048) counts were higher in cavities with humid dentin compared to cavities with dry dentin. A negative correlation was observed between carious dentin consistency and S. mutans count during this phase (r(s) = -0.571; p = 0.020). Arrest of dentinal caries lesions was observed after sealing, which was characterized by a reduction of bacterial counts and changes in dentin color, consistency and humidity, irrespectively of baseline dentin characteristics. The clinical characteristics of carious dentin change after the period of cavity sealing and cannot be applied as absolute indicators to limit the excavation of carious dentin when minimally invasive techniques are used. PMID:21576960

  20. Chemo-mechanical modification of cottonwood for Pb(2+) removal from aqueous solutions: Sorption mechanisms and potential application as biofilter in drip-irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosa, Ahmed; El-Ghamry, Ayman; Trüby, Peter; Omar, Mahmoud; Gao, Bin; Elnaggar, Abdelhamid; Li, Yuncong

    2016-10-01

    Using biomass (e.g. crop residues) and its derivatives as biosorbents have been recognized as an eco-friendly technique for wastewater decontamination. In this study, mechanically modified cottonwood was further activated with KOH to improve its sorption of Pb(2+). In addition, its potential as a biofilter to safeguard radish (Raphanus sativus, L.) against Pb-stress was evaluated in a gravity-fed drip irrigation system. Physiochemical properties of the chemo-mechanically activated cottonwood (CMACW) and the mechanically activated cottonwood (MACW) before and after sorption process were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), digital selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). After activation, several sorption mechanisms (i.e. precipitation, electrostatic outer- and inner-sphere complexation) were responsible for the higher sorption capacity of CMACW as compared with MACW (8.55 vs. 7.28 mg g(-1)). Sorption kinetics and isotherms fitted better with the pseudo-second-order and Langmuir models as compared with the pseudo-first-order and Freundlich models, respectively. In the gravity-fed drip irrigation system, the CMACW biofilter reduced the accumulation of Pb in radish roots and shoots and avoided reaching the toxic limits in some cases. Soil types had a significant effect on Pb(2+) bioavailability because of the difference in sorption ability. Findings from this study showed that CMACW biofilter can be used as a safeguard for wastewater irrigation. PMID:27393935

  1. Serial removal of caries lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces using near-IR image-guided IR laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Tom, Henry; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have established that caries lesions can be imaged with high contrast without the interference of stains at near-IR wavelengths greater than 1300-nm. It has been demonstrated that computer controlled laser scanning systems utilizing IR lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates can be used for serial imaging and selective removal of caries lesions. In this study, we report our progress towards the development of algorithms for generating rasterized ablation maps from near-IR reflectance images for the removal of natural lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces. An InGaAs camera and a filtered tungsten-halogen lamp producing near-IR light in the range of 1500-1700-nm were used to collect crosspolarization reflectance images of tooth occlusal surfaces. A CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3- μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs was used for image-guided ablation.

  2. Ablation rate, caries removal, and restoration using Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers and air abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joel M.

    1998-04-01

    This study evaluated the ablation rate in dentin and enamel of the Nd:YAG laser (1 - 2W, 10Hz) and the Er:YAG laser (1 - 2.5W, 10Hz), compared to the high-speed drill, low-speed drill and air abrasion (fine and extra-fine particle size). Subsequently, the effectiveness of caries removal and restoration in enamel of the Nd:YAG laser at the same powers and pulse repetition rate was compared to the high-speed drill, low-speed drill, and air abrasion. Enamel and dentin of 1mm thick mid-coronal sections from extracted third molars were ablated by Er:YAG laser ((lambda) equals 2.94 micrometer), Nd:YAG laser ((lambda) equals 1.06 micrometer) both with air/water spray, high-speed drill with 300 carbide bur, and low-speed drill with $1/4 round bur and air abrasions at 160 psi, with fine air abrasion at 50 micrometer and extra fine at 27 micrometer particle size. Removal (ablation) rate defined as dentin or enamel thickness divided by time required for perforation of the samples was determined for lasers, drills and air abrasion. Multifactor randomized ANOVA (p less than 0.05) considered removal rate as a function of treatment conditions. Removal Rate (micrometers per second) Enamel Dentin High-speed drill 273 +/- 47.34 493 +/- 1.73 Low-speed drill 0 42 +/- 14.25 Nd:YAG 2W 0 103 +/- 37 Er:YAG 2W 35 +/- 10 348 +/- 101 Air abrasion/fine 220 +/- 27 433 +/- 99 Air abrasion/extra fine 151 +/- 13 203 +/- 30 Er:YAG laser at 2W 10Hz ablated both enamel and dentin faster than the low-speed drill but slower than the high-speed drill, while the Nd:YAG laser at identical power and pulse rate did not ablate healthy enamel but was capable of removing dentin. To determine caries removal rate in enamel, extracted superficial carious molars (n equals 35) that included minimal explorer penetration and radiographic confirmation of caries extent were selected. Samples were randomly distributed into treatment groups: high-speed drill (HS), low-speed drill (LS), Nd:YAG laser (L), Nd:YAG with air

  3. Assessment of the frequency of routine removal of dental plaque prior to caries diagnosis by dentists in three cities in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Heitor Cunha Moreira; Julio Eduardo do Amaral Zenkner; Eduardo Machado; Rachel de Oliveira Rocha; Luciano Casagrande; Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rosing

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of routine use of dental prophylaxis prior to visual inspection, in order to diagnose caries, by dentists with different lapses of time after graduating time. One hundred and fifty one Brazilian dentists were interviewed in 3 Brazilian cities to determine if they usually remove dental plaque prior to visual inspection for caries diagnosis. The dentists were stratified according to year of graduation. The association between the lapse of time a...

  4. Single ricin detection by AFM chemomechanical mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research reports a method of detecting ricin molecules immobilized on chemically modified gold (Au;111) surface by chemomechanically mapping the molecular interactions with a chemically modified Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) tip. AFM images resolved the different fold-up conformations of single...

  5. 伢典微创凝胶去龋治疗儿童龋齿疗效研究%Research on Curative Effect of Carisolv Minimally Invasive Gel Caries Re-moval in Treatment of Dental Caries in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑秀超

    2016-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effect of carisolv minimally invasive gel caries removal in treatment of dental caries in children. Methods 136 cases of children with dental caries admitted and treated in our department from September 2013 to September 2015 were selected and randomly divided into two groups with 68 cases in each, the observation group adopted carisolv minimally invasive gel caries removal treatment, the control group adopted conventional dental drill to remove the necrotic tissue, and the curative effects were compared between the two groups. Results The pain degree in the observation group was obviously better than those in the control group, P<0.05, and the incidence rate of complications in the observa-tion group was 2.9%, which was obviously better than those in the control group, P<0.05. Conclusion Carisolv minimally invasive gel caries removal in treatment of dental caries in children is a technique with small trauma and few complications.%目的:探讨伢典微创凝胶去龋治疗儿童龋齿的效果。方法整群选取该院2013年9月—2015年9月收治的龋齿患儿136例,随机分为2组各68例,观察组采用伢典微创凝胶治疗,对照组采用常规牙钻去腐,比较两组疗效。结果观察组疼痛程度明显优于对照组(P<0.05),观察组并发症发生率为2.9%,明显优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论伢典微创凝胶是治疗儿童龋齿的一种创伤性小、并发症少的技术。

  6. Image-guided removal of occlusal caries lesions with a λ= 9.3-μm CO2 laser using near-IR transillumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Leon C.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that near-IR transillumination is well suited for imaging deep occlusal lesions. The purpose of this study was to determine if near-IR images can be used to guide a CO2 laser for the selective removal of natural occlusal lesions on extracted teeth. Near-IR occlusal transillumination images of extracted human teeth with natural occlusal caries lesions were acquired using an InGaAs camera and near-IR light at wavelengths from 1290 to 1470-nm from a filtered tungsten halogen source. A CO2 laser operating at 9.3-μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs and a pulse repetition rate of 100-300-Hz was used for caries removal. Optical Coherence tomography was used to confirm lesion presence and serial scans were used to assess selective removal. Teeth were also sectioned for histological examination using polarized light microscopy. This study suggests that near-infrared transillumination is a promising method for the image guided laser ablation of occlusal caries lesions but the use of serial near-IR transillumination imaging for monitoring lesion removal was limited.

  7. Clinical effect of photodynamic therapy on primary carious dentin after partial caries removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Pierre Adriano Moreno; Lima, Leonardo Abrantes; Rodrigues, Fernanda Cristina Nogueira; Leitão, Tarcisio Jorge; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa

    2016-05-20

    This study was conducted to assess the clinical effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the decontamination of the deep dentin of deciduous molars submitted to partial removal of carious tissue. After cavity preparation, dentin samples were taken from the pulp wall of nineteen deciduous molars before and after PDT application. Remaining dentin was treated with 0.01% methylene blue dye followed by irradiation with an InGaAlP diode laser (λ - 660 nm; 40 mW; 120 J/cm2; 120 s). Dentin samples were microbiologically assessed for the enumeration of total microorganisms, Lactobacillus spp. and mutans streptococci. There was no significant difference in the number of colony-forming units (CFU) for any of the microorganisms assessed (p > 0.05). Photodynamic therapy, using 0.01% methylene blue dye at a dosimetry of 120 J/cm2 would not be a viable clinical alternative to reduce bacterial contamination in deep dentin. PMID:27223131

  8. Evaluation of the caries risk profile with removable partial denture prothesis%可摘局部义齿修复后患龋风险预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽娜; 王志峰; 李传花; 蓝菁

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore a potential association between the caries risk and removable partial denture restoration.Methods:Data were obtained from 180 patients treated with RPDs.Various caries risk factors were collected by oral examination and questionnaires were evaluated by using a computer-based program(Cariogram).According to the reports,all patients were divided into the higher caries risk group and the lower caries risk group.Statistical analysis was carried out.Results:There was no significant difference between the two groups about the secretion rate and buffer capacity.But the higher caries risk group possessed more mutans streptococci counts,high plaque index and high-carbonhydrate diets,comparing with lower caries risk group (P<0.05).The caries average was much more in higher risk group.Conclusion:Rigid oral hygiene protocols and regular recall should be a part of the routine care of RPD wearers.Data were in favor of an association between caries risk and the insertion of RPDs and supported the notion that increasing quantity of mutans streptcocci maked the tooth more susceptible to caries.There was no clear evidence of buffering capacity or secretion rate for increasing the risk of caries.%目的:评估可摘局部义齿修复后与患龋风险大小的关系,为临床工作提供一定的理论指导.方法:记录临床行可摘局部义齿修复的180例患者.在试戴义齿完成后进行口腔检查、口腔健康问卷调查和龋病活跃性实验检测,所得结果由Cariogram系统进行龋危预测,根据预测结果受试者被分为高风险患龋组和低风险患龋组,评估患龋的风险因素并进行统计学分析.结果:两组受试者的唾液流量和缓冲能力差异不明显,但高风险患龋组变形链球菌计数、菌斑指数普遍较高且饮食习惯不良者较多,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);高风险患龋组龋均明显多于低风险组.结论:临床工作中可通过口腔卫生宣教、定期复查

  9. Endodoncia preventiva: Protección pulpar mediante la técnica de eliminación de la caries en etapas (stepwise excavation Preventive endodontics: pulp protection using stepwise caries removal procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Castellanos-Cosano

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento de la caries dentinaria profunda en dientes permanentes se ha venido realizando, generalmente, mediante la remoción completa y en una sola sesión de la dentina cariada, incluyendo la dentina blanda desmineralizada, sin tener en cuenta el potencial regenerador de la pulpa dental. Una complicación frecuentemente ligada a esta actitud es la exposición pulpar intraoperatoria que, en muchos casos, termina en tratamiento de conductos. Varios estudios han demostrado que la eliminación de la caries dentinaria profunda por etapas, en dos visitas con varios meses de diferencia, protege a la pulpa, disminuyendo la frecuencia de exposiciones pulpares, a la vez que permite la formación de dentina terciaria, con la consiguiente disminución del porcentaje de casos que requieren tratamiento endodóncico. En este artículo se analiza el estado del conocimiento y la evidencia científica sobre este tema.The treatment of deep dentine carious lesions in permanent teeth has included, generally, complete removal of affected dentin in a single session, including soft demineralized dentin, regardless of the regenerative potential of dental pulp. One complication often linked to this attitude is the pulp exposure, in many cases ending in root canal treatment. Several studies have shown that the elimination of deep dentine caries in stages, in two visits to several months apart, protects the pulp, reducing the frequency of pulp exposures, while allowing the development of tertiary dentin, with the consequent decrease in the percentage of cases requiring endodontic treatment. This article discusses the state of knowledge and scientific evidence on this topic.

  10. 3种不同龋病治疗方法对儿童牙科畏惧症的影响%Influence of different caries treatments on children′s dental fear and anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧民; 汪俊; 陈曦; 冯希平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the influence of three different caries treatments,including traditional application of rotary instru-ments,atraumatic restorative treatment(ART)and chemo-mechanical method,on children′s dental fear and anxiety.Methods Ninety pediatric patients aged 5-1 2 years who suffered from dental caries were randomly divided into different treatment groups:conventional bur caries group,ART group and chemo-mechanical caries removal group.Dental fear during the treatments was assessed using Facial Image Scale (FIS).Chi square test was performed with SPSS1 9.0 statistical software.Results The degrees of fear among three groups were significantly different.The group using traditional method had higher rate of fear than other two groups.Conclusions The Atrau-matic restorative treatment and the chemo-mechanical technique are more effective in easing children′s dental fear and anxiety and a-chieving better physical and psychological health of children.%目的:比较3种不同龋病治疗方法对儿童牙科畏惧症的影响。方法选择乳磨牙患Ⅱ度龋的90例患儿,随机分为不同龋病治疗组:传统车针去龋组、非创伤性修复(atraumatic restorative treatment,ART)组、化学-机械去龋组。运用面部表情分级法(Facial Image Scale,FIS)比较3组患儿的畏惧程度。采用SPSS19.0软件包进行卡方检验统计学处理。结果3组畏惧程度有显著性差异(P<0.05),传统去龋组的畏惧程度高于其他两组,其与 ART组之间的差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论非创伤性修复法和化学-机械去龋法可较为有效地缓解儿童牙科畏惧。

  11. A study of a laser fluorescence device for assessing caries removal in primary teeth in vitro%激光龋齿检测仪评价乳牙去腐净的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江浩; 秦满

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of using laser fluorescence device for assessing caries removal in primary teeth in vitro. Methods 8 primary molars with approximal caries were collected, and caries were removed in vitro. The laser fluorescence readings of dentin before and after caries removal were recorded. To judge the degree of caries removal by caries detector, polarizing microscope and dental microhardness tester. The correlation of DIAGNO-dent reading with Viker's Hardness was analyzed. The feasibility of using laser fluorescence for assessing caries removal was explored. Results The average Viker's Hardness of dentin after caries removal with staining was (46.99± 12.44) HV, and the average Viker's Hardness of normal control was (67.39±16.59) HV. There was significant difference between the two groups (P0.05). And there was significant difference between the laser fluorescence readings before and after the caries removal without staining (P<0.05). It was observed by polarizing microscope that there was no caries residue in sample, no matter stain or not. Conclusion The laser fluorescence could not distinguish stained dentin from caries, and is not suitable for assessing caries removal.%目的 用体外研究的方法探索激光龋齿检测仪评价乳牙去腐净的可行性.方法 选取患邻面中龋的乳磨牙8颗为研究对象,测量去腐前后激光龋齿检测仪读数,利用龋蚀检测液、硬组织硬度仪和偏光显微镜对腐质是否去净进行评判,分析激光龋齿检测仪读数与其相关性,探索激光龋齿检测仪在评价去腐洁净度中的应用.结果 去腐后色素沉着处牙本质硬度为(46.99±12.44) HV;健康位点备洞后洞缘的牙本质硬度为(67.39±16.59) HV,二者间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).去腐前DIAGNOdent读数与去腐后色素沉着处DIAGNOdent读数差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);而与去腐后无色素沉着处DIAGNOdent读数差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).

  12. Rampant Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Although dental caries in the pediatric and adolescent population has consistently declined in the United States, it is still the most common childhood disease. Dental problems are the number one reason for missing school next to the common cold. Dental caries are an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by…

  13. Engineering Autonomous Chemomechanical Nanomachines Using Brownian Ratchets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavella, Gabriel

    Nanoscale machines which directly convert chemical energy into mechanical work are ubiquitous in nature and are employed to perform a diverse set of tasks such as transporting molecules, maintaining molecular gradients, and providing motion to organisms. Their widespread use in nature suggests that large technological rewards can be obtained by designing synthetic machines that use similar mechanisms. This thesis addresses the technological adaptation of a specific mechanism known as the Brownian ratchet for the design of synthetic autonomous nanomachines. My efforts were focused more specifically on synthetic chemomechanical ratchets which I deem will be broadly applicable in the life sciences. In my work I have theoretically explored the biophysical mechanisms and energy landscapes that give rise to the ratcheting phenomena and devised devices that operate off these principles. I demonstrate two generations of devices that produce mechanical force/deformation in response to a user specified ligand. The first generation devices, fabricatied using a combination nanoscale lithographic processes and bioconjugation techniques, were used to provide evidence that the proposed ratcheting phenomena can be exploited in synthetic architectures. Second generation devices fabricated using self-assembled DNA/hapten motifs were constructed to gain a precise understanding of ratcheting dynamics and design constraints. In addition, the self-assembled devices enabled fabrication en masse, which I feel will alleviate future experimental hurdles in analysis and facilitate its adaptation to technologies. The product of these efforts is an architecture that has the potential to enable numerous technologies in biosensing and drug delivery. For example, the coupling of molecule-specific actuation to the release of drugs or signaling molecules from nanocapsules or porous materials could be transformative. Such architectures could provide possible avenues to pressing issues in biology and

  14. Influence of Carisolv caries removal on 155 children's dental fear%Carisolv去腐对155例牙科畏惧症患儿影响的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤根兄; 李静; 吴国英; 周淑

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较Carisoly去腐和传统车针去腐对牙科畏惧症患儿的影响.方法 选择门诊龋齿患儿300例,其中采用Carisoly去腐155例,传统车针去腐145例,比较2组患儿的CFSS-DS评分值、术中行为分级、疼痛情况和去腐时间.结果 2组患儿CFSS-DS评分值治疗前无显著性差异,治疗后有显著性差异;2组患儿术中行为分级、疼痛率和去腐时间均有显著性差异.结论 Carisoly去腐可有效缓解儿童对牙科的畏惧,值得临床推广.%Objective To compare the influence of Carisolv and traditional bur caries removal on the childrens dental fear. Methods 300 children patients with dental caries were choosen.and devided into two groups; 155 patients with Carisolv caries removal and 145 patients traditional bur caries removal. The CFSS-DS,behavioral measure,the state of pain and treatment time were compared between the two groups. Results The average CFSS-DS scores had no significant differences before treatment,while there were significant differences after treatment. There were significant differences with behavioral measure,the incidence rate of pain and treatment time between the two groups. Conclusions The Carisolv removal of caries can effectively relieve DF in children,and future appliance is suggested.

  15. Dental caries: Therapeutic possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Perić Tamara; Marković Dejan; Živković Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and preve...

  16. Stimuli-responsive chemomechanical actuation: a hybrid materials approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzar, Lauren D; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-02-18

    Dynamic materials that can sense changes in their surroundings and functionally respond by altering many of their physical characteristics are primed to be integral components of future "smart" technologies. A fundamental reason for the adaptability of biological organisms is their innate ability to convert environmental or chemical cues into mechanical motion and reconfiguration on both the molecular and macroscale. However, design and engineering of robust chemomechanical behavior in artificial materials has proven a challenge. Such systems can be quite complex and often require intricate coordination between both chemical and mechanical inputs and outputs, as well as the combination of multiple materials working cooperatively to achieve the proper functionality. It is critical to not only understand the fundamental behaviors of existing dynamic chemomechanical systems but also apply that knowledge and explore new avenues for design of novel materials platforms that could provide a basis for future adaptive technologies. In this Account, we explore the chemomechanical behavior, properties, and applications of hybrid-material surfaces consisting of environmentally sensitive hydrogels integrated within arrays of high-aspect-ratio nano- or microstructures. This bio-inspired approach, in which the volume-changing hydrogel acts as the "muscle" that reversibly actuates the microstructured "bones", is highly tunable and customizable. Although straightforward in concept, the combination of just these two materials (structures and hydrogel) has given rise to a far more complex set of actuation mechanisms and behaviors. Variations in how the hydrogel is physically integrated within the structure array provide the basis for three fundamental mechanisms of actuation, each with its own set of responsive properties and chemomechanical behavior. Further control over how the chemical stimulus is applied to the surface, such as with microfluidics, allows for generation of more

  17. Dentinal composition and Knoop hardness measurements of cavity floor following carious dentin removal with Carisolv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mozammal; Nakamura, Yukio; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Yamada, Yoshishige; Jayawardena, Jayanetti Asiri; Matsumoto, Koukichi

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the dentinal composition and Knoop hardness measurements of the cavity floor following the removal of carious dentin by the Carisolv chemo-mechanical caries removal system, in vitro. The carious dentin of 25 extracted human teeth was removed by using Carisolv for one minute with instruments and excavation that was performed until the gel was clear. Caries removal with a sharp explorer was verified according to the color and hardness of the lesion, then, by means of DIAGNOdent. Atomic analysis of treated cavities was performed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and the Knoop hardness number (KHN) of the cavity floor was determined. Surface characteristics were observed by the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Adjacent sound dentin was used as a control reference. No significant differences were found between the quantities of calcium content (Ca weight %), phosphorus content (P weight %) and the Ca/P weight ratio of Carisolv cavities with that of the adjacent, sound dentin (psound dentin. SEM analysis revealed an extremely rough or irregular surface, and there remained a minimal debris-like smear layer; most of the dentinal tubules were opened. The results indicated that Carisolv does not produce any adverse side effects on dentinal compositions of the treated cavities. The possibility of remaining residual softened dentin was also minimal in this study. PMID:12877418

  18. Caries preventive efficiency of therapeutic complex accomponying orthodontic treatment of children with initial dental caries.

    OpenAIRE

    Denga A.E.

    2013-01-01

    The use of orthodontic non-removable appliance in orthodontic treatment inter¬feres with the process of teeth mineralization, worsens level of oral cavity hygiene, stimulates development of caries process. The situation is complicated when a patient has an initial tooth decay. The aim of this study was to determine genetic characteristics of children with initial caries and clinical evaluation of effectiveness of the developed caries preventive therapeutic complex accompanying treatment of j...

  19. An Improved Design for Chemomechanical Sensors: A Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor with a Mechanical Boss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Bates

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Stimuli-responsive hydrogels can be used to convert miniature pressure sensors into novel chemomechanical sensors via confinement of the hydrogel sample between a porous membrane and a piezoresistive diaphragm. Chemomechanical sensors could prove beneficial in a variety of applications, including continuous monitoring of bioreactors and biomedical systems. In this study, one hydrogel composition with a high sensitivity to changes in pH was tested in two different chemomechanical sensors in order to compare the data obtained from each sensor design. In the first and older chemomechanical sensor design, a prefabricated hydrogel sample is loaded into the sensor chamber using a screw-on cap. In the newer sensor design, a thinner hydrogel is synthesized in situ and is held in place by a silicon boss that is mechanically connected to a piezoresistive diaphragm. The newer design results in a decreased chemomechanical sensor response time (by 60 times, and maintains a high sensitivity to changes in environmental stimuli.

  20. Caries risk assessment models in caries prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Amila Zukanović

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this research was to assess the efficiency of different multifactor models in caries prediction. Material and methods. Data from the questionnaire and objective examination of 109 examinees was entered into the Cariogram, Previser and Caries-Risk Assessment Tool (CAT) multifactor risk assessment models. Caries risk was assessed with the help of all three models for each patient, classifying them as low, medium or high-risk patients. The development of new caries lesions ...

  1. Health promotion and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Maltz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene, among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  2. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-01-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface. PMID:27445272

  3. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-07-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface.

  4. Chemomechanical effect in ion-implanted magnesium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter reports the results of an investigation into the way in which ion implantation has been observed to alter the chemomechanical sensitivity of MgO surfaces. Samples of single crystal brace 100 brace habit MgO were implanted to doses of approx. 1014 and 3.33 x 1015 Ti+ cm-2 at 300 keV. Rather than measure the hardness directly a dislocation etch-pitting technique was used to monitor both the hardness of the surface and the anomalous indentation creep effects. Testing was carried out under the environments of moist air (ambient conditions) and the n-hexadecane, the latter being chosen as one known to produce a large chemomechanical effect in MgO. Indentations were made at a load of 10 gf on a (001) MgO surface. Figures show typical micrographs of etch-pitted indentations on the unimplanted and implanted MgO specimens indented both in air and under n-hexadecane for dwell times of 5 and 300 sec. For the unimplanted specimens the 300-sec dwell-time indentations in both air and n-hexadecane show more extensive dislocation motion than those made in air, for the approx. 1014Ti+ cm-2 implanted specimen under both environments for both dwell times, the indentation rosettes are much smaller than those in unimplanted MgO. The results are discussed. (author)

  5. Endodoncia preventiva: Protección pulpar mediante la técnica de eliminación de la caries en etapas (stepwise excavation) Preventive endodontics: pulp protection using stepwise caries removal procedure

    OpenAIRE

    L. Castellanos-Cosano; J. Martín-González; C. Calvo-Monroy; F.J. López-Frías; E. Velasco-Ortega; J.M. Llamas-Carreras; J.J. Segura-Egea

    2011-01-01

    El tratamiento de la caries dentinaria profunda en dientes permanentes se ha venido realizando, generalmente, mediante la remoción completa y en una sola sesión de la dentina cariada, incluyendo la dentina blanda desmineralizada, sin tener en cuenta el potencial regenerador de la pulpa dental. Una complicación frecuentemente ligada a esta actitud es la exposición pulpar intraoperatoria que, en muchos casos, termina en tratamiento de conductos. Varios estudios han demostrado que la eliminación...

  6. An experimental and constitutive investigation on the chemo-mechanical behaviour of a clay

    OpenAIRE

    Witteveen, Paul Joost; Ferrari, Alessio; LALOUI, Lyesse

    2013-01-01

    Engineering issues for which the understanding of the chemo-mechanical behaviour of soils is relevant include wellbore stability problems, the sali-nification of groundwater and nuclear waste storage, etc. However, despite the vast number of situations in which couplings between chemistry and mechanics occur, the available constitutive models rely on limited experimental evidence. This paper presents the results of an experimental program on the chemo-mechanical behaviour of a non-swelling il...

  7. Dental caries vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Shivakumar K; Vidya S; Chandu G

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from c...

  8. PRIMARY CARIES: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Primary caries is an initial lesions produced by direct extension from an external surface. Dental caries is called as tooth decay or a cavity is a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid which than dematerializes the hard tooth structure like enamel, dentin and cementum. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries by acid production. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment...

  9. PRIMARY CARIES: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary caries is an initial lesions produced by direct extension from an external surface. Dental caries is called as tooth decay or a cavity is a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid which than dematerializes the hard tooth structure like enamel, dentin and cementum. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries by acid production. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment and prevention of it. A review of some patents on dental caries is also provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.

  10. Chemo-mechanical control of neural stem cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geishecker, Emily R.

    Cellular processes such as adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation are controlled in part by cell interactions with the microenvironment. Cells can sense and respond to a variety of stimuli, including soluble and insoluble factors (such as proteins and small molecules) and externally applied mechanical stresses. Mechanical properties of the environment, such as substrate stiffness, have also been suggested to play an important role in cell processes. The roles of both biochemical and mechanical signaling in fate modification of stem cells have been explored independently. However, very few studies have been performed to study well-controlled chemo-mechanotransduction. The objective of this work is to design, synthesize, and characterize a chemo-mechanical substrate to encourage neuronal differentiation of C17.2 neural stem cells. In Chapter 2, Polyacrylamide (PA) gels of varying stiffnesses are functionalized with differing amounts of whole collagen to investigate the role of protein concentration in combination with substrate stiffness. As expected, neurons on the softest substrate were more in number and neuronal morphology than those on stiffer substrates. Neurons appeared locally aligned with an expansive network of neurites. Additional experiments would allow for statistical analysis to determine if and how collagen density impacts C17.2 differentiation in combination with substrate stiffness. Due to difficulties associated with whole protein approaches, a similar platform was developed using mixed adhesive peptides, derived from fibronectin and laminin, and is presented in Chapter 3. The matrix elasticity and peptide concentration can be individually modulated to systematically probe the effects of chemo-mechanical signaling on differentiation of C17.2 cells. Polyacrylamide gel stiffness was confirmed using rheological techniques and found to support values published by Yeung et al. [1]. Cellular growth and differentiation were assessed by cell counts

  11. Tumour angiogenesis as a chemo-mechanical surface instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giverso, Chiara; Ciarletta, Pasquale

    2016-03-01

    The hypoxic conditions within avascular solid tumours may trigger the secretion of chemical factors, which diffuse to the nearby vasculature and promote the formation of new vessels eventually joining the tumour. Mathematical models of this process, known as tumour angiogenesis, have mainly investigated the formation of the new capillary networks using reaction-diffusion equations. Since angiogenesis involves the growth dynamics of the endothelial cells sprouting, we propose in this work an alternative mechanistic approach, developing a surface growth model for studying capillary formation and network dynamics. The model takes into account the proliferation of endothelial cells on the pre-existing capillary surface, coupled with the bulk diffusion of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The thermo-dynamical consistency is imposed by means of interfacial and bulk balance laws. Finite element simulations show that both the morphology and the dynamics of the sprouting vessels are controlled by the bulk diffusion of VEGF and the chemo-mechanical and geometric properties at the capillary interface. Similarly to dendritic growth processes, we suggest that the emergence of tree-like vessel structures during tumour angiogenesis may result from the free boundary instability driven by competition between chemical and mechanical phenomena occurring at different length-scales.

  12. Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashita, Yumiko; Kitamura, Masayasu; Saito, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC) is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional ...

  13. Caries risk assessment models in caries prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Zukanović

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this research was to assess the efficiency of different multifactor models in caries prediction. Material and methods. Data from the questionnaire and objective examination of 109 examinees was entered into the Cariogram, Previser and Caries-Risk Assessment Tool (CAT multifactor risk assessment models. Caries risk was assessed with the help of all three models for each patient, classifying them as low, medium or high-risk patients. The development of new caries lesions over a period of three years [Decay Missing Filled Tooth (DMFT increment = difference between Decay Missing Filled Tooth Surface (DMFTS index at baseline and follow up], provided for examination of the predictive capacity concerning different multifactor models. Results. The data gathered showed that different multifactor risk assessment models give significantly different results (Friedman test: Chi square = 100.073, p=0.000. Cariogram is the model which identified the majority of examinees as medium risk patients (70%. The other two models were more radical in risk assessment, giving more unfavorable risk –profiles for patients. In only 12% of the patients did the three multifactor models assess the risk in the same way. Previser and CAT gave the same results in 63% of cases – the Wilcoxon test showed that there is no statistically significant difference in caries risk assessment between these two models (Z = -1.805, p=0.071. Conclusions. Evaluation of three different multifactor caries risk assessment models (Cariogram, PreViser and CAT showed that only the Cariogram can successfully predict new caries development in 12-year-old Bosnian children.

  14. Cariësmanagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.M. van Gemert-Schriks; J.P. van Amerongen

    2010-01-01

    Within modern dentistry, a change from invasive to non-invasive strategies for the treatment of dental caries seems to be apparent. The foundation of non-invasive care is old, but is now interpreted differently as a result of new insights. Caries is a dynamic and multi-factorial process that takes p

  15. Caries og drikkevandets kvalitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Bardow, Allan; Bruvo, Maja;

    2011-01-01

    Drikkevandskvaliteten har stor betydning for forekomsten af caries blandt 15 årige skolebørn, også selv om de bruger fluoridholdigt tandpasta. Ud over den kendte effekt af fluorid har vi vist, at calcium også har en væsentlig betydning. Begge ioner forebygger caries. Denne viden har væsentlig...

  16. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  17. Exploration of a Chemo-Mechanical Technique for the Isolation of Nanofibrillated Cellulosic Fiber from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch as a Reinforcing Agent in Composites Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireana Yusra A. Fatah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of sulphuric acid hydrolysis and high-pressure homogenization as an effective chemo-mechanical process for the isolation of quality nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC. The cellulosic fiber was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB using acid hydrolysis methods and, subsequently, homogenized using a high-pressure homogenizer to produce NFC. The structural analysis and the crystallinity of the raw fiber and extracted cellulose were carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The morphology and thermal stability were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and thermogravimetric (TGA analyses, respectively. The FTIR results showed that lignin and hemicellulose were removed effectively from the extracted cellulose nanofibrils. XRD analysis revealed that the percentage of crystallinity was increased from raw EFB to microfibrillated cellulose (MFC, but the decrease for NFC might due to a break down the hydrogen bond. The size of the NFC was determined within the 5 to 10 nm. The TGA analysis showed that the isolated NFC had high thermal stability. The finding of present study reveals that combination of sulphuric acid hydrolysis and high-pressure homogenization could be an effective chemo-mechanical process to isolate cellulose nanofibers from cellulosic plant fiber for reinforced composite materials.

  18. Caries activity indicators. A review.

    OpenAIRE

    Wyne A; Guile E

    1993-01-01

    Caries activity is the sum total of new carious lesions and the enlargement of existing cavities during a given time. An objective evaluation of caries activity requires clinical examination of quantification of factors associated with the pathogenesis of caries. Caries activity tests have been in use in dental research and clinical dentistry for years. They are useful in establishing categories of risk for caries, and for targeting specific preventive measures to these groups. They are even ...

  19. Caries Risk Assessment and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    SJ Pourhashemi

    2000-01-01

    Over 20 years, several analytical approaches have been designed to predict caries in children."nCaries Risk Assessment is a recently developed technique concern to caries prediction."nThis procedure involves three stages as follows:"n1- Determination and assessment of the dental caries risk factors."n2- Examination and evaluation of each individual child to be specifically diagnosed the level of 3- caries risk e.g. high, moderate and low risk."n3- Recommendation of pr...

  20. Abstract: Probiotics and dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Söderling, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Caries is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world. Dental caries can be defined as destruction of the tissues of the tooth by bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates. In this respect, some bacteria are considered more caries-promoting than others, as an example Streptococcus mutans. A common feature for caries-promoting bacteria is that they are acidogenic and aciduric. The most common bacteria used as probiotics, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, are, in theory, caries...

  1. Analysis of the Clinical Effect of Minimally Invasive Technology for Remov-ing the Necrotic Tissues in the Treatment of Dental Caries%微创去腐技术在龋齿治疗的临床效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由力; 韩冰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical effect of minimally invasive technology for removing the necrotic tissues in the treat-ment of dental caries. Methods 70 cases with dental caries admitted in our hospital from June 2012 to June 2013 were selected and divided into two groups, the study group and the control group. The study group were treated by the minimally invasive tech-nology for removing the necrotic tissues, while the control group were given the traditional treatment. And the clinical effect of the two groups was compared and analyzed. Results After treatment, the differences in the average treatment time, painless rate, clini-cal total effective rate between the study group and the control group were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Minimally invasive technology for removing the necrotic tissues has significant effect on dental caries, which can effectively reduce the pain of the patients with low recurrence rate, so it is worthy of further clinical popularization and application.%目的:分析微创去腐技术在龋齿治疗的临床效果。方法抽取2012年6月—2013年6月期间该院收治的龋齿患者70例,分为两组,研究组患者行微创去腐技术治疗,对照组患者采用传统疗法,对比分析两组临床治疗的效果。结果治疗后,研究组平均治疗的时间、无疼痛率、临床总有效率等,与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论应用微创去腐技术治疗龋齿的临床效果较为显著,能够有效减轻患者的疼痛感,且复发率低,值得在临床上进一步推广应用。

  2. Xilitol and dental caries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Marten Titus

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries is a widespread multifactoral disease. The main sympthons are minaral loss from tooth enemal and dentine, eventually leading to total destruction of the teeth, pain, impairment of mastication and problems with facial esthetics. ... Zie: Summary

  3. Fluoride and dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, George E.

    1998-01-01

    Fluorine was probably discovered by the chemist Scheele in 1771, and eventually isolated in 1886 by Moissan. Its presence in bones and teeth was initially disputed but eventually confirmed in the middle of the eighteenth century. In this article the author discusses the few epidemiological studies which confirm the relationship between fluoride concentration in drinking water, mottled enamel and the incidence of dental caries and also describes the Maltese scene in regards the caries level in...

  4. Microbiological analysis after complete or partial removal of carious dentin using two different techniques in primary teeth: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Singhal

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Results suggest the use of partial caries removal in a single session as compared to complete caries removal as a part of treatment of deep lesions in deciduous teeth in order to reduce the risk of pulp exposure. Partial caries removal using ART can be preferred for community settings as public health procedure for caries management.

  5. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF DENTAL CARIES: A CHANGE IN THERAPEUTIC APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Malhotra; Hegde, Mithra N

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is an infectious, communicable disease, which causes destruction of teeth by acid-forming bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries progression or reversal is determined by the balance between protective and pathological factors in the mouth. There have been revolutions in every field and dentistry is no exception to it, these changes have led to a change in concept from the conventional surgical approach of removing dental decay and cutting of tooth structure to the medical model...

  6. Chemomechanical Origin of Hydrogen Trapping at Grain Boundaries in fcc Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Marchand, Daniel; McDowell, David L.; Zhu, Ting; Song, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement of metals is widely observed, but its atomistic origins remain little understood and much debated. Combining a unique identification of interstitial sites through polyhedral tessellation and first-principles calculations, we study hydrogen adsorption at grain boundaries in a variety of face-centered cubic metals of Ni, Cu, γ -Fe , and Pd. We discover the chemomechanical origin of the variation of adsorption energetics for interstitial hydrogen at grain boundaries. A general chemomechanical formula is established to provide accurate assessments of hydrogen trapping and segregation energetics at grain boundaries, and it also offers direct explanations for certain experimental observations. The present study deepens our mechanistic understanding of the role of grain boundaries in hydrogen embrittlement and points to a viable path towards predictive microstructure engineering against hydrogen embrittlement in structural metals.

  7. Chemomechanical Origin of Hydrogen Trapping at Grain Boundaries in FCC Metals

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiao; Marchand, Daniel; McDowell, David L.; Zhu, Ting; Song, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement of metals is widely observed, but its atomistic origins remain little understood and much debated. Combining a unique identification of interstitial sites through polyhedral tessellation and first-principles calculations, we study hydrogen adsorption at grain boundaries in a variety of face-centered cubic metals of Ni, Cu, gamma-Fe and Pd. We discover the chemomechanical origin of variation of adsorption energetics for interstitial hydrogen at grain boundaries. A genera...

  8. A Chemo-Mechanical model of delithiation in high-capacity anode materials

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Sulin

    2014-01-01

    We present a chemo-mechanical model to investigate the delithiation-induced phase transformation, morphological evolution, stress generation, void nucleation, and growth in high-capacity anode materials such as silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge). The model couples lithium (Li) diffusion with large elasto-plastic deformation by solving a set of coupled phase field and mechanical equilibrium equations using the finite element method, which leads to the coevolution of the Li concentration, stress d...

  9. Chemo-mechanical modeling of tumor growth in elastic epithelial tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratsun, Dmitry A.; Zakharov, Andrey P.; Pismen, Len

    2016-08-01

    We propose a multiscale chemo-mechanical model of the cancer tumor development in the epithelial tissue. The epithelium is represented by an elastic 2D array of polygonal cells with its own gene regulation dynamics. The model allows the simulation of the evolution of multiple cells interacting via the chemical signaling or mechanically induced strain. The algorithm includes the division and intercalation of cells as well as the transformation of normal cells into a cancerous state triggered by a local failure of the spatial synchronization of the cellular rhythms driven by transcription/translation processes. Both deterministic and stochastic descriptions of the system are given for chemical signaling. The transformation of cells means the modification of their respective parameters responsible for chemo-mechanical interactions. The simulations reproduce a distinct behavior of invasive and localized carcinoma. Generally, the model is designed in such a way that it can be readily modified to take account of any newly understood gene regulation processes and feedback mechanisms affecting chemo-mechanical properties of cells.

  10. Adolescent rampant caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent rampant caries is a new and growing challenge in Conservative Dentistry. It has the same etiology and pattern as that of nursing bottle syndrome. Herein, a case is presented in which the main cause of rampant caries is the patient′s habit of keeping cariogenic food in her mouth and going to sleep. Educating this etiology and introduction of preventive strategies not only assists in meeting the special oral needs of the adolescent population, but also helps to establish lifelong healthful habits.

  11. Genetics and caries: prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rezende Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries remains the most prevalent non-contagious infectious disease in humans. It is clear that the current approaches to decrease the prevalence of caries in human populations, including water fluoridation and school-based programs, are not enough to protect everyone. The scientific community has suggested the need for innovative work in a number of areas in cariology, encompassing disease etiology, epidemiology, definition, prevention, and treatment. We have pioneered the work on genetic studies to identify genes and genetic markers of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic value. This paper summarizes a presentation that elaborated on these initial findings.

  12. A clinical study on relationship of dental caries and removable partial denture of the aged patients%老年患者基牙龋病与可摘局部义齿关系的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李行懿; 陈娜; 刘聪

    2011-01-01

    Objective To characterize (patterns of caries after placing RPD. Methods A total of 95 patients were included in this study. A clinical examination of caries lesions on abutment teeth was conducted by me. Results The incidence of caries on abutment teeth and on nonabutment teeth were respectively 23. 67% and 3. 45%. ( P < 0.05). 27.49% of abutment teeth had new caries on the posterior oral cavity, onlyl3.89% of that on the anterior oral cavity. (P<0. 05). The incidence of caries on proximal surfaces adjacent to dentures was 25. 72% , under denture rests was 9. 33% , on root surfaces was 3. 02% , on tooth surfaces in contact with denture clasps was 1. 36% . The incidence of caries on abutment teeth of three groups classified by the oral hygienic habit were respectively 8. 91% 、24. 09%、44. 29% (P<0.01). Conclusion RPD wearers had more caries incidence. Abutment teeth had a higher of incidence of caries than nonabutment teeth. On the posterior oral cavity, abutment teeth had more caries incidence. Proximal surfaces adjacent to dentures abutment teeth had more caries incidence. Proximal surfaces adjacent to dentures were at highest risk of being decayed, surfaces under denture rests were next. The incidence of root caries on abutment teeth significantly increased. The incidence of caries on tooth surfaces in contact with denture clasps was not high.%目的 观察老年患者戴用可摘局部义齿2-3年后的龋病发病情况及其临床特点.方法 对95例戴用可摘局部义齿2-3年患者的基牙和非基牙的龋齿发病情况进行检查.结果 基牙龋齿发病率23.67%高于非基牙3.45%(P<0.05).口腔后部基牙龋齿发病率27.49%高于口腔前部基牙13.89%(P<0.05).基牙邻接面龋发病率25.72%,支托窝龋发病率9.33%,根面龋发病率3.02%,卡环龋发病率1.36%.口腔卫生习惯优、良、差三级的基牙龋齿发病率分别为8.91%、24.09%、44.29%,差异有显著性(P<0.01).结论 患者戴用可摘局部义齿后易患龋

  13. Oxygen reduction reaction induced pH-responsive chemo-mechanical hydrogel actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cunjiang; Yuan, Peixi; Erickson, Evan M; Daly, Christopher M; Rogers, John A; Nuzzo, Ralph G

    2015-10-28

    We describe and characterize elementary designs for electrochemical micro- and macro-scale chemomechanical hydrogel actuators. The actuation of a pH-sensitive cross-linked polyacrylic acid (PAA) hydrogel is driven in the model devices through the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) occurring at the electrodes of an embedded Au mesh micro-electrochemical array. Proton consumption by the ORR at the cathode of the embedded electrochemical cell leads to the formation of a localized pH gradient that in turn drives the strain response in the composite actuators. The dynamics result from the ionization of the carboxylic acid moieties of the PAA network in the high pH region, yielding an osmotic pressure that drives a volumetric expansion due to water imbibition. This system actuates both stably and reversibly; when the electrochemically-induced ORR is halted, the localized pH gradient dissipates due to diffusive mixing, which in turn relaxes the induced strains. Two approaches to the fabrication of hydrogel actuators were examined in this work. The first method adopted a design based on small flagella (∼0.2 mm × 1.5 mm × 60 μm, width × length × height) in which the actuating PAA structures are molded atop a set of fixed electrodes mounted on a supporting substrate. These hydrogel actuators show fast, large-amplitude, and largely reversible responses in the ORR mediated chemomechanical dynamics. We also investigated larger hydrogel actuators (∼4.5 mm × 11 mm × 1 mm, width × length × height), based on an autonomous design that embeds an open mesh stretchable micro-electrode array within the hydrogel. The significant and design-dependent impacts of mass transfer on the chemomechanical dynamics are evidenced in each case, a feature examined to elucidate more efficient mesoscopic design rules for actuators of this form. PMID:26323563

  14. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF DENTAL CARIES: A CHANGE IN THERAPEUTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is an infectious, communicable disease, which causes destruction of teeth by acid-forming bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries progression or reversal is determined by the balance between protective and pathological factors in the mouth. There have been revolutions in every field and dentistry is no exception to it, these changes have led to a change in concept from the conventional surgical approach of removing dental decay and cutting of tooth structure to the medical model which deals with interception of disease at different stages and possible reversal of the disease process. The key to medical paradigm is determination of caries risk in an individual and effective early detection of initial carious lesions. There are various equipments available in market which uses different principles for diagnosing caries susceptibility in an individual. In the years of thorough research different agents have been investigated for their role in caries prevention and reversal. There is a separate treatment plan for managing patients falling in different risk category. This article outlines the need for the medical management of dental caries and how it can be a viable option in dental decay management.

  15. Nature vs. nurture in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, I D

    1994-10-01

    Why are some people more resistant to dental caries than others? Certainly diet plays a part, but are there hereditary factors that affect caries development? This report explores genetic components that appear related to caries resistance and susceptibility. PMID:7844299

  16. Caries detection in dental radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caries, or the decay of teeth are difficult to automatically detect in dental radiographs because of the small area of the image that is occupied by the decay. Images of dental radiographs has distinct regions of homogeneous gray levels, and therefore naturally lead to a segmentation based automatic caries detection algorithm. This paper describes a method for caries detection based on a multiclass, area independent thresholding and segmenting scheme. This multiclass thresholding algorithm is an extension of the uniform error threshold, an area independent, distribution free thresholding method used for images of only two classes of objects. The authors first consider the problem of caries detection and the image features that characterize the presence of caries. Next, the uniform error threshold is reviewed, and the general multiclass uniform error threshold algorithm is presented. This algorithm is used to automatically detect caries in dental radiographs

  17. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision-making process for the correct prevention and management of dental caries. Multiple risk factors and indicators have been proposed as targets in the assessment of risk of future disease, varying sometimes based on the age group at which they...... are targeted. Multiple reviews and systematic reviews are available in the literature on this topic. This chapter focusses primarily on results of reviews based on longitudinal studies required to establish the accuracy of caries risk assessment. These findings demonstrate that there is a strong body...... for prediction purposes, as measured until now in the literature, is at best questionable in schoolchildren, adolescents and adults. That is not to say these additional factors should not be assessed to help understand the strength of their associations with the disease experience in a particular...

  18. Laser methods of caries prophylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Dergunova, Elvira I.; Kazmina, Svetlana G.

    1996-01-01

    Low intensive laser irradiation is widely used for the treatment of many stomatological diseases. The caries static activity of HNL light and infrared lasers, its influence on the activation of microcirculation of the pulp enzyme system and on the increase of enamel permeability became clear. These data allow us to suppose that the low intensive laser irradiation may potent the activity of the initial caries by the increase of teeth stability to the factors provoking the caries.

  19. Caries preventive efficiency of therapeutic complex accomponying orthodontic treatment of children with initial dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denga A.E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of orthodontic non-removable appliance in orthodontic treatment inter¬feres with the process of teeth mineralization, worsens level of oral cavity hygiene, stimulates development of caries process. The situation is complicated when a patient has an initial tooth decay. The aim of this study was to determine genetic characteristics of children with initial caries and clinical evaluation of effectiveness of the developed caries preventive therapeutic complex accompanying treatment of jaw facial anomalies (JFA. 47 children aged 12-14 with initial tooth decay participated in the examination. Complex diagnostics, including molecular genetic studies was carried out. Therapeutic complex for children, of the main group included remineralizing, adaptogenic, biogenic agents, which increase non-specific resistance, as well as infiltration ICON therapy before fixing braces. Caries preventive complex accompanying JFA treatment in children with primary tooth decay developed with regard to revealed genetic disorders of amelogenesis, 2-nd of phase detoxification, collagen formation, functional responses in the oral cavity, state of hard tissues of teeth and periodontal tissues enabled to preserve existing carious process, normalize periodontal and hygienic indices at all stages of treatment.

  20. Caries diagnosis using laser fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Souza-Campos, Dilma H.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2000-03-01

    Caries prevention is a goal to be achieved by dentist in order to promote health. There are several methods used to detect dental caries each one presenting advantages and disadvantages, especially regarding hidden occlusal caries. The improvement of laser technology has permitted the use of laser fluorescence for early diagnosis of hidden occlusal caries. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the use of 655 nm laser light on the detection of hidden occlusal caries. Forty molar teeth from patients of both sexes which ages ranging from 10 - 18 years old were used on this study. Following manufacture's instructions regarding the use of the equipment, the teeth had their occlusal surface examined with the DIAGNOdent. Twenty six of 40 teeth had hidden occlusal caries detected by the DIAGNOdent. However only 17 of these 26 teeth showed radiographic signs of caries the other 9 teeth showed no radiological signs of the lesion. Radiographic examination was able to identify 34,61% of false negative cases. This means that many caries would be left untreated due to the lack of diagnosis using both visual and radiographic examination. The use of the DIAGNOdent was effective in successfully detecting hidden occlusal caries.

  1. Caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejàre, I; Axelsson, S; Dahlén, G;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria. ...... hampered the synthesis of results. There is a great need to standardize study design, outcome measures and reporting of data in studies on caries risk assessment. The accuracy of prediction models should be validated in at least one independent population.......OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria....... Abstracts and full-text articles were assessed independently by two reviewers. The quality of studies was graded according to the QUADAS tool. The quality of evidence of models and single predictors was assessed using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Ninety original articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria...

  2. The Marketplace for New Caries Management Products: Dental Caries Detection and Caries Management by Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Berg Joel H

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The number of new technologies emerging each year in the realm of dental caries management is growing at an exponential rate. Examining the patent literature, one can see that this growth rate will likely continue, with the outcome that dentistry will see an expanded growth in managing dental caries by risk assessment with medicinal therapeutic interventions. Restorative dentistry solutions, treating the results of dental caries, will continue to grow, while technologies to identify ...

  3. Nutrition and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie C

    2003-04-01

    Promotion of sound dietary practices is an essential component of caries management, along with fluoride exposure and oral hygiene practices. Scientific discoveries have lead to better understanding of the caries process, the ever-expanding food supply, and the interaction between the two. Fermentable carbohydrates interact dynamically with oral bacteria and saliva, and these foods will continue to be a major part of a healthful diet. Dental health professionals can serve their patients and the public by providing comprehensive oral health care and by promoting lifestyle behaviors to improve oral and general health within the time constraints of their practice. Dietary advice given should not contradict general health principles when providing practical guidance to reduce caries risk. The following principles should guide messages: * Encourage balanced diets based on moderation and variety as depicted by the Food Guide Pyramid and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to provide a sound approach. Avoid references to "bad" foods and focus on "good" diets that include a variety of foods. * Give examples of how combining and sequencing foods can enhance mastication, saliva production, and oral clearance at each eating occasion. Combining dairy foods with sugary foods, raw foods with cooked, and protein-rich foods with acidogenic foods are all good examples. Suggest that eating and drinking be followed by cariostatic foods such as xylitol chewing gum. * Drink water to satisfy thirst and hydration needs as often as possible. Restrict consumption of sweetened beverages to meal and snack times when they can be combined with other cariostatic foods. * When a patient reports excessive dietary intake of a fermentable carbohydrate to the point of displacing other important foods in the diet, identify alternatives that will help the patient maintain or achieve a healthy body weight, oral health status, and a nutrient-dense intake. PMID:12699234

  4. Dental caries: Strategies to control this preventable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rugg-Gunn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man’s most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth’s resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: ‘automatic’, ‘home care’ and ‘professional care’: the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Conclusion. Dental caries is preventable – individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this.

  5. Caries selective ablation: the handpiece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Thomas; Rechmann, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas

    1995-05-01

    Caries selective ablation is fixed to a window of fluences predicted by the ablation thresholds of carious and healthy dentin, respectively. The aim of the study was to develop a dental handpiece which guarantees homogeneous fluence at the irradiated tooth surface. Furthermore the point of treatment should be cooled down without energy losses due to the cooling system. We suggest the direct coupling of the laser radiation into a laminar stream of liquid, which acts in turn as a lengthened beam guide. The impacts of the laser radiation and of the cooling medium fall exactly into the same point. Hot ablation debris is removed out of the crater by the flush of the water jet. Fluences are constant if the handpiece is used in contact mode or at a distance. Normally the surface of a bare fiber working in contact mode is destroyed after a few shots. Coupling the laser radiation into a stream of liquid prevents this destruction. Putting together the benefits of this special handpiece short overall treatment times seem to be possible. High average power can be applied to the tooth without the threat of thermal damage. Furthermore no time consuming cutting of the fiber prolongs the treatment time.

  6. Incidence of dental caries in chronic urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur Surrinder; Ghosh Srabani; Kanwar A; Gauba A

    1991-01-01

    Three hundred patients of chronic urticaria were screened for dental affections. Sixty two (20.66%) patients were detected to have dental caries. Among the control group which com-prised of 100 patients, 20% had dental caries. There was thus no increased incidence of dental caries among patients with urticaria. Only 2 patients had remission of urticaria following treat-ment of caries. Dental caries therefore is probably not a cause of chronic urticaria.

  7. INCIDENCE OF SECONDARY ROOT CARIES LESIONS IN PATIENTS REFERRED FOR TREATMENT IN THE FACULTY OF DENTAL MEDICINE – SOFIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Marinova-Takorova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the presented study was to determine the incidence of secondary root caries lesions in patients referred for treatment in the Faculty of Dental Medicine – Sofia. Material/Methods: The subjects who took part in the study were patients referred for treatment of caries lesions in the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Sofia. They were interviewed for smoking, presence of systematic diseases and medications and debris and plaque were removed from natural teeth prior to examination. Dental examination was carried out with a dental mirror and a probe. Decayed, missed and filled teeth (DMFT were recorded. Root caries lesions, restorations of those lesions and secondary caries lesions were recorded separately. Results: A total number of 603 patients were examined. The frequency of appearance of root caries in the investigated population was 33.5% (202 patients. The whole number of root caries lesions was 857. Three hundred forty three (41.4% of those lesions were restored. Presence of secondary caries lesions was observed in 138 cases (39.1%. Conclusions: Based on the data obtained from the presented study it may be concluded that most of the root caries lesions remain untreated (58.8%. Secondary carious was diagnosed in 39.1% of the root caries restorations. The patients with secondary caries lesions presented with higher incidence of concomitant diseases and lower incidence of smoking.

  8. An aptamer-functionalized chemomechanically modulated biomolecule catch-and-release system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Ankita; McGregor, Lynn M.; Liu, Ya; Harris, Valerie; Nan, Hanqing; Mujica, Maritza; Vasquez, Yolanda; Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Ma, Yongting; Aizenberg, Michael; Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.; Aizenberg, Joanna; He, Ximin

    2015-05-01

    The efficient extraction of (bio)molecules from fluid mixtures is vital for applications ranging from target characterization in (bio)chemistry to environmental analysis and biomedical diagnostics. Inspired by biological processes that seamlessly synchronize the capture, transport and release of biomolecules, we designed a robust chemomechanical sorting system capable of the concerted catch and release of target biomolecules from a solution mixture. The hybrid system is composed of target-specific, reversible binding sites attached to microscopic fins embedded in a responsive hydrogel that moves the cargo between two chemically distinct environments. To demonstrate the utility of the system, we focus on the effective separation of thrombin by synchronizing the pH-dependent binding strength of a thrombin-specific aptamer with volume changes of the pH-responsive hydrogel in a biphasic microfluidic regime, and show a non-destructive separation that has a quantitative sorting efficiency, as well as the system's stability and amenability to multiple solution recycling.

  9. Chemomechanical Polymers as Sensors and Actuators for Biological and Medicinal Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Strongin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the chemical environment can trigger large motions in chemomechanical polymers. The unique feature of such intelligent materials, mostly in the form of hydrogels, is therefore, that they serve as sensors and actuators at the same time, and do not require any measuring devices, transducers or power supplies. Until recently the most often used of these materials responded to changes in pH. Chemists are now increasingly using supramolecular recognition sites in materials, which are covalently bound to the polymer backbone. This allows one to use a nearly unlimited variety of guest (or effector compounds in the environment for a selective response by automatically triggered size changes. This is illustrated with non-covalent interactions of effectors comprising of metal ions, isomeric organic compounds, including enantiomers, nucleotides, aminoacids, and peptides. Two different effector molecules can induce motions as functions of their concentration, thus representing a logical AND gate. This concept is particularly fruitful with effector compounds such as peptides, which only trigger size changes if, e.g. copper ions are present in the surroundings. Another principle relies on the fast formation of covalent bonds between an effector and the chemomechanical polymer. The most promising application is the selective interaction of covalently fixed boronic acid residues with glucose, which renders itself not only for sensing, but eventually also for delivery of drugs such as insulin. The speed of the responses can significantly increase by increasing the surface to volume ratio of the polymer particles. Of particular interest is the sensitivity increase which can be reached by downsizing the particle volume.

  10. Radiation caries: a therapeutical option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is showed a clinical report about radiation caries. As the tooth destruction was, mainly, of the majority of the teeth, was made a therapy where, besides avoiding the osteoradiomielite, also is possible to reability the patient. (author)

  11. [The impact of childhood caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Carlos; Abarca, Marcelo; Bouferrache, Kahina; Gehri, Mario; Bodenmann, Patrick; Pop, Sabina

    2012-04-01

    The early childhood caries affect primary dentition before the eruption of the permanent teeth. It is set to extended use of a bottle containing fermentable carbohydrates. The early childhood caries is not only a dental disease: it is a social, cultural and behavioral condition that reflects the practices and beliefs around the child. Swiss data indicate that in aged 2 children, one of for could be affected by this devastating oral disease, mainly in vulnerable populations. The primary care physician has an important role in the screening of preschool children, in determining the risk level of the child for early childhood caries. Physicians can advise families, especially pregnant women, about preventive measures and behavior, leading to a dramatic drop of early childhood caries prevalence. PMID:22545498

  12. Fluoride varnishes and enamel caries

    OpenAIRE

    De Bruyn, Hugo

    1987-01-01

    Topical fluoride applications have the aim of increasing the fluoride uptake in enamel and consequently reducing caries. In the early ‘60s fluoride varnishes were introduced because they had a long contact period with the enamel which resulted in a higher fluoride uptake than from other topical applications. Recently the importance of small amounts of fluoride in caries prevention and remineralization has been stressed and the importance of large arnounts of fluoride acquired in the teeth is ...

  13. A pedoprosthetic rehabilitation in patients with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Apurva; Pandey, Ramesh; Pandey, Neelisha; Jain, Eesha

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is a rapid form of dental caries. ECC is the most common chronic childhood disease that can compromise a child's self-esteem, nutritional intake, oral development and quality of life, subsequently leading to malocclusion and psychological problems. The restoration of severely decayed primary teeth is often a difficult procedure that offers a great challenge to paediatric dentists. The present case series document the clinical management of patients suffering from severe early childhood caries using removable partial prosthesis restoring their masticatory function and aesthestics. The ultimate aim of the treatment was to improve psychological and physiological development leading to better functioning of the stomatognathic system. PMID:23843409

  14. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. PMID:26662487

  15. Microbiological analysis after complete or partial removal of carious dentin using two different techniques in primary teeth: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Deepak Kumar; Acharya, Shashidhar; Thakur, Arun Singh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The management of deep carious lesions can be done by various techniques but residual caries dilemma still persists and bacterial reduction in cavities treated by either partial or complete caries removal techniques is debatable. So the objective of the present randomized clinical trial was to compare microbial counts in cavities submitted to complete caries removal and partial caries removal using either hand instruments or burs before and after 3 weeks of restoration. Materials ...

  16. Microbiological analysis after complete or partial removal of carious dentin using two different techniques in primary teeth: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Kumar Singhal; Shashidhar Acharya; Arun Singh Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Background: The management of deep carious lesions can be done by various techniques but residual caries dilemma still persists and bacterial reduction in cavities treated by either partial or complete caries removal techniques is debatable. So the objective of the present randomized clinical trial was to compare microbial counts in cavities submitted to complete caries removal and partial caries removal using either hand instruments or burs before and after 3 weeks of restoration. Materi...

  17. A Predictive Model for Root Caries Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, André V; Preisser, John S; Puranik, Chaitanya P; Chung, Yunro; Bader, James D; Shugars, Daniel A; Makhija, Sonia; Vollmer, William M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to find the set of risk indicators best able to predict root caries (RC) incidence in caries-active adults utilizing data from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT). Five logistic regression models were compared with respect to their predictive performance for incident RC using data from placebo-control participants with exposed root surfaces at baseline and from two study centers with ancillary data collection (n = 155). Prediction performance was assessed from baseline variables and after including ancillary variables [smoking, diet, use of removable partial dentures (RPD), toothbrush use, income, education, and dental insurance]. A sensitivity analysis added treatment to the models for both the control and treatment participants (n = 301) to predict RC for the control participants. Forty-nine percent of the control participants had incident RC. The model including the number of follow-up years at risk, the number of root surfaces at risk, RC index, gender, race, age, and smoking resulted in the best prediction performance, having the highest AUC and lowest Brier score. The sensitivity analysis supported the primary analysis and gave slightly better performance summary measures. The set of risk indicators best able to predict RC incidence included an increased number of root surfaces at risk and increased RC index at baseline, followed by white race and nonsmoking, which were strong nonsignificant predictors. Gender, age, and increased number of follow-up years at risk, while included in the model, were also not statistically significant. The inclusion of health, diet, RPD use, toothbrush use, income, education, and dental insurance variables did not improve the prediction performance. PMID:27160516

  18. Chlorhexidine solutions, gels and varnishes in caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, H

    1992-01-01

    To combat dental caries, a chemical has been sought that possesses stronger antimicrobial properties than fluoride in support of its physicochemical tooth-protecting properties. These searches have led to several agents, of which chlorhexidine (CH) appears most effective. To reduce local side effects of the well-known 0.2% CH mouthwash, a 0.05% CH gluconate + 0.04% NaF solution, pH 5.9, has been developed. Use of this combination over a 2-year period resulted in a 53% reduction in caries increment and a 75% reduction in gingival bleeding, i.e. a clear duality of prevention of oral disease (Luoma et al. 1978). Staining of teeth was minimal and easily removable in about one third of the subjects. To lessen the contribution of patients, chlorhexidine gels, without but more especially with fluoride have been professionally administered. Reductions in salivary mutans streptococci after short periods of gel applications have been found to persist longer than reductions after brief periods of mouthwashing. Reductions of approximal caries increment by about 50% in children, and root surface caries in adults have been obtained through use of CH gels. The effect on root surface caries in adults was equal to that obtained through use of local fluoride applications. Dental CH varnish seems promising, especially because a very short contact time with a tooth may be sufficient to reduce mutans streptococci. No simultaneous effects against caries and gingivitis of CH gels or varnishes has been reported. Comparisons of CH solutions, gels and varnishes, with or without fluoride, in relation to their potentials for preventing oral disease in subjects at risk remain to be accomplished. PMID:1298965

  19. Salivary Biomarkers for Caries Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Lihong; Shi, Wenyuan

    2013-01-01

    Saliva contains various microbes and host biological components that could be used for caries risk assessment. This review focuses on the research topics that connect dental caries with saliva, including both the microbial and host components within saliva.

  20. Microstructural characterization of the chemomechanical behavior of asphalt in terms of aging and fatigue performance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert Grover

    The study of asphalt chemo-mechanics requires a basic understanding of the physical properties and chemical composition of asphalt and how these properties are linked to changes in performance induced by chemical modifications. This work uniquely implements the framework of chemo-mechanics by investigating two types of chemical modification processes, natural (oxidative aging) and synthetic (chemical doping) as they relate not only to macro-scale properties of asphalt binder but also to the asphalt microstructure and nanorheology. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and the extraction of nano-scale engineering properties, i.e. elastic modulus, relaxation modulus, and surface energy, as a method to predict performance related to the fatigue characteristics of asphalt binders by modeling intrinsic material flaws present amongst phase interfaces. It was revealed that oxidative aging induces substantial microstructural changes in asphalt, including variations in phase structure, phase properties, and phase distribution. It has also been shown that certain asphalt chemical parameters have a consistent and measureable effect on the asphalt microstructure that is observed with AFM. In fact, particular phases that emerged via chemical doping revealed a surprising correlation between oxidative aging and the saturates chemical parameter of asphalt in terms of how they explicitly impact durability and performance of asphalt. By implementing a crack initiation model---which requires measureable microstructural characteristics as an input parameter---it was found that microstructural flaws (depending on the extremity) can have a more profound impact on asphalt performance than the properties of the material located between the flaws. It was also discovered by comparing the findings to performance data in the Strategic Highway Research Program's (SHRP's) Materials Reference Library (MRL), that the crack initiation model

  1. Disparities in Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronzio Cynthia R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite remarkable reduction in the prevalence of dental caries in the United States, dental caries is still a highly prevalent disease among children who are socially disadvantaged (racial/ethnic minority, poor, rural, immigrants. Consequently, caries sequelae such as dental pain, need for dental treatment under general anesthesia, and future orthodontic treatment, are also concentrated among the most socially disadvantaged children. To make the situation more appalling, those children who need treatment the most are the ones least likely to visit the dentist. Low income children are less likely to visit the dentist in part because of family's competing needs for limited resources, shortage of pediatric dentists, and dentists not taking uninsured or publicly insured patients. In the same vein, if these children do not have access to dental care, they are deprived from effective caries preventive measures that are dentist-dependent such as sealants and professionally applied fluoride. Dentistry has done well at devising caries preventive and treatment strategies; but these strategies have missed the most needed segment of society: disadvantaged children. The challenge now is to develop innovative strategies to reach these children.

  2. On the initial propagation of dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Fabregas, Rene; Rubinstein, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    A multi-dimensional model for dental caries is applied to study the shape of caries lesions in a realistic tooth geometry and to examine the rate of progress of caries. An upgraded model, taking into account the outer prismless enamel layer, is derived and solved. The model demonstrates the importance of this layer in delaying the onset of caries. The conclusions are discussed in light of experimental results.

  3. Early prevention of dental caries in children

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedeva S.N.; Kharitonova T.L.; Kazakova L.N.

    2011-01-01

    Early prevention of dental caries in children plays an important role in the preservation of dental health. This article explains the necessity of early prevention of dental caries in children. The most effective methods of prevention of dental caries are beginning hygiene care and respect for the recommendations dentist since the first teeth. It is shown that the use of conservative therapy is very effective in the treatment of early forms of dental caries

  4. The Dental Caries Pandemic and Disparities Problem

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Understanding caries etiology and distribution is central to understanding potential opportunities for and likely impact of new biotechnologies and biomaterials to reduce the caries burden worldwide. This review asserts the appropriateness of characterizing caries as a "pandemic" and considers static and temporal trend reports of worldwide caries distribution. Oral health disparities within and between countries are related to sugar consumption, fluoride usage, dental care, and social determi...

  5. Current possibilities in occlusal caries management

    OpenAIRE

    Hrvoje Jurić

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that affects most populations throughout the world and it is still the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth are the most vulnerable sites for dental caries due to their anatomy. Therefore, the aim of the following article is to summarize current knowledge on occlusal caries development and the possibilities of its prevention. Although the overall caries rate today has fallen for populations in industriali...

  6. International Caries Detection and Assessment System: A new paradigm in detection of dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Shivakumar K; Prasad Sumanth; Chandu G

    2009-01-01

    A new emphasis on caries measurement and management is required for the dental community. The dental professionals need new approaches in caries detection, its assessment, and management. The future of research, practice, and education in Cariology requires the development of an integrated definition of dental caries, and uniform systems for measuring the caries process. Keeping this in view, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) has presented a new paradigm for the...

  7. Caries Resistance as a Function of Age in an Initially Caries-free Population

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, A.; Goldberg, D.; Marrs, C F; Weyant, R. J.; Marazita, M.L.; SRINIVASAN, U.; Zhang, L; Crout, R.; McNeil, D.W.; Foxman, B.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia Study, we examined variability in susceptibility to dental caries among children and adolescents in rural Appalachia. Among 210 participants who were caries-free at the initial visit, age at the baseline visit can be used as a proxy for the degree of caries resistance; probability of caries development at the tooth level decreased as age at the baseline visit increased. Participants who stayed caries-free for a longer period du...

  8. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen;

    2012-01-01

    Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To the authors' knowledge, no one has quantified the prevalence of QOC, so this quantification was the authors' objective in conducting this study...

  9. Caries og de nye nationale indkaldeintervaller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Bruun, Gitte; Bakhshandeh, Azam

    2015-01-01

    obligatorisk at gøre under de nye retningslinjer. Det gennemgås, hvilke behandlinger der er relevante for patienten i forhold til de tre cariesdiagnoser: Caries dentalis progressiva superficialis (CS), Caries dentalis progressiva media (CM) og Caries dentalis progressiva profunda (CP). Diagnoserne angiver...

  10. Can coffee prevent caries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila Namboodiripad P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the anti-carious effect of coffee in humans. Coffee represents one of the most consumed products by the population. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 1000 individuals, of both sexes, who consumed only coffee as a beverage and who visited the Out-Patient Department of KLE Society′s Institute of Dental Sci-ences, with a dental complaint and no history of any major illness, were considered as subjects. The patients′ histories with regard to the coffee intake, such as, period of consumption, frequency of consumption, whether taken with milk or wihout milk, with sugar or without sugar, and the brand make, was noted. History of the type of diet, consumption of sweets, periodic-ity of brushing, and whether they had undergone fluoride applications were also noted. A thousand patients who consumed beverages other than coffee were taken as the control. Results: The results showed that coffee most consumed was roasted coffee, and the frequency on an average was about three cups per day, for an average period of 35 years. The Decayed/Missing/Filled Surface (DMFS scores varied from 2.9, in subjects who drank black coffee, to 5.5 in subjects who consumed coffee together with sweeteners and creaming agents. The DMFS score was 3.4 in subjects who consumed coffee together with milk but no sugar. The DMFS score of the control subjects was 4, indicating that coffee if consumed alone had anticaries action, but in the presence of additives the antibacterial and anticaries action was totally minimized. Conclusion: Thus coffee can help in prevention of dental caries if consumed without additives.

  11. Cavity lining after excavating caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Göstemeyer, Gerd; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    . STUDY SELECTION: From 128 studies, three randomized trials (89/130 patients or teeth), all treating primary teeth, were included. The trials had high risk of bias. All trials compared no lining versus calcium hydroxide lining after selective caries removal followed by adhesive restoration. Follow-up was...... quality of evidence was very low. CONCLUSIONS: Strong recommendations for using cavity liners are unsubstantiated, but firm evidence for omitting lining is also unavailable. Our findings apply only to primary teeth and calcium hydroxide liner. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Whilst lining is frequently performed...... in dental practice, very few randomized clinical trials investigated this issue. The three trials included in this review treated deciduous teeth and did not find lining with calcium hydroxide beneficial. Lining is not supported by sufficient clinical evidence....

  12. [Cause of secondary caries and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiping

    2014-04-01

    Secondary caries is a disease that occurs on the tooth after the filling has been used for a period of time. Secondary caries is also the main reason for the replacement of dental restorations. Regardless of the material used for fillings, secondary caries cannot be completely avoided. The proportion of secondary caries is very high after filling in permanent teeth or primary teeth. Secondary caries mainly occurs because of the formation of micro cracks after filling. When the micro crack width exceeds 50 microm, saliva will enter the micro cracks between the filling and tooth tissue. The cariogenic bacteria in the saliva will grow when the environment of micro cracks is appropriate, thereby producing secondary caries. The prevention of secondary caries includes micro crack control, fluoride use, teeth cleaning, tooth decay and gum disease treatment, and regular checkups. PMID:24881200

  13. Validation of Visual Caries Activity Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedes, R S; Piovesan, C; Ardenghi, T M;

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive and construct validity of a caries activity assessment system associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in primary teeth. A total of 469 children were reexamined: participants of a caries survey performed 2 yr before (follow-up rate...... of 73.4%). At baseline, children (12-59 mo old) were examined with the ICDAS and a caries activity assessment system. The predictive validity was assessed by evaluating the risk of active caries lesion progression to more severe conditions in the follow-up, compared with inactive lesions. We also...... assessed if children with a higher number of active caries lesions were more likely to develop new lesions (construct validity). Noncavitated active caries lesions at occlusal surfaces presented higher risk of progression than inactive ones. Children with a higher number of active lesions and with higher...

  14. Validation of Visual Caries Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, R.S.; Piovesan, C.; Ardenghi, T.M.; Emmanuelli, B.; Braga, M.M.; Ekstrand, K.R.; Mendes, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive and construct validity of a caries activity assessment system associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in primary teeth. A total of 469 children were reexamined: participants of a caries survey performed 2 yr before (follow-up rate of 73.4%). At baseline, children (12-59 mo old) were examined with the ICDAS and a caries activity assessment system. The predictive validity was assessed by evaluating the risk of active caries lesion progression to more severe conditions in the follow-up, compared with inactive lesions. We also assessed if children with a higher number of active caries lesions were more likely to develop new lesions (construct validity). Noncavitated active caries lesions at occlusal surfaces presented higher risk of progression than inactive ones. Children with a higher number of active lesions and with higher caries experience presented higher risk of developing new lesions. In conclusion, the caries activity system associated with the ICDAS presents predictive and construct validity in primary teeth in the assessment of occlusal caries lesions, but predictive validity was not observed in smooth surfaces. PMID:24713370

  15. Diagnosis of Dentin Caries – Ultraviolet Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunov Ts.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The technology advance in recent years determines the need of construction of modern appliances for early diagnosis of dental caries, which are categorized by great precision, non-invasiveness, easy usage and wide availability. Such non-invasive and accurate tool for diagnostics of caries is Caries Detector (LED, Bulgarian product by “Optica Laser”. The detector emits a specific wavelength of near ultraviolet light, which causes fluorescence to porphyrins - metabolic products of the life cycle of caries-inducing bacteria. The purpose of the study is piloting a new diagnostic tool for detection and monitoring of caries excavation based on fluorescence - LED UV caries detector of company “Optica laser”. Subjected to examination by caries indicator dye and UV caries detector were sixty permanent teeth with deep dentine caries. Two methods were used to assess the dentin caries - UV fluorescence detector of “Optica Laser” and staining with caries indicator - dye (Sable ™ Seek®. It was found that among all sixty teeth, the fields, closed by margins of carious process overlap. Fifty-four of tested teeth has shown bigger field of images with staining method and six - smaller in comparison to the fluorescent method. Ultraviolet fLuorescence caries detector of “Optica Laser” company is affordable and easy applicable method for controlled excavation of dentine caries. The detector can be used in daily dental practice equally with other methods. The unit has a number of advantages - non-invasiveness, lack of interaction with tooth structures, speed, reliability, efficiency, predictability and repeatability of results.

  16. Microbiological analysis after complete or partial removal of carious dentin using two different techniques in primary teeth: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Deepak Kumar; Acharya, Shashidhar; Thakur, Arun Singh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The management of deep carious lesions can be done by various techniques but residual caries dilemma still persists and bacterial reduction in cavities treated by either partial or complete caries removal techniques is debatable. So the objective of the present randomized clinical trial was to compare microbial counts in cavities submitted to complete caries removal and partial caries removal using either hand instruments or burs before and after 3 weeks of restoration. Materials and Methods: Primary molars with acute carious lesions in inner half of dentine and vital pulp were randomly divided into three groups of 14 each: Group A: Partial caries removal using hand instruments atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) only; Group B: Partial caries removal using bur; Group C: Complete caries removal using bur and caries detector dye. Dentine sample obtained after caries removal and 3 weeks after restoration, were subjected to microbial culture and counting (colony-forming units [CFU]/mg of dentine) for total viable bacterial count, Streptococcus spp., mutans streptococci, Lactobacillus spp. Results: Three techniques of caries removal showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in all microorganisms studied after 3 weeks of evaluation, but there was no statistically significant difference in percentage reduction of microbial count among three groups. Conclusion: Results suggest the use of partial caries removal in a single session as compared to complete caries removal as a part of treatment of deep lesions in deciduous teeth in order to reduce the risk of pulp exposure. Partial caries removal using ART can be preferred for community settings as public health procedure for caries management. PMID:26962313

  17. Update on nonsurgical, ultraconservative approaches to treat effectively non-cavitated caries lesions in permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra; de Souza Borges, Juliane; de Araujo, Larissa Sgarbosa Napoleao; Machado, Claudia Tavares; Dos Santos, Alex Jose Souza; de Assunçao Pinheiro, Isauremi Vieira

    2011-04-01

    Dental caries on tooth surfaces is still a problem in many industrialized countries. For many years, dentistry was influenced by a mechanical approach characterized by the use of high-speed rotary cutting instruments, and dentists predominantly used surgical methods to address caries. This included radical removal of diseased portions of the tooth, along with material-driven geometric extensions to areas that were assumed to be caries-resistant. This concept of extension for prevention was introduced by G. V. Black and influenced dentists for more than 120 years. Recently, a new paradigm of operative conservatism, sometimes referred to as "minimally invasive dentistry," has gained popularity. This paradigm is designed to promote maximum preservation of healthy dental structures over a lifetime. The aim of this review is to discuss the efficacy of current nonsurgical treatments for non-cavitated caries lesions in permanent teeth. Based on results obtained from clinical trials, this review evaluates treatments such as consumption of CPP-ACP added gums, resin infiltration and fissure sealing. Although in a few cases an invasive approach is needed to arrest caries progression, the non-surgical approach generally provides potential benefits that include conserving structure by delaying intervention or minimizing the operative procedure. All current non-invasive methods are effective in treating non-cavitated caries lesions. The adoption of non-invasive approaches in the management of these lesions can preserve dental tissues, thus increasing tooth longevity. PMID:21494394

  18. Caries management by risk assessment: A review on current strategies for caries prevention and management

    OpenAIRE

    Maheswari, S. Uma; Raja, Jacob; Kumar, Arvind; Seelan, R. Gnana

    2015-01-01

    The current trend in treating dental caries is using nondestructive risk-based caries management strategies rather than focusing on the restorative treatment alone. Currently, there have been many changes in understanding of the multifaceted nature of caries process and its management. Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) which is an evidence-based approach focuses on determining many factors causing the expression of disease and take corrective action. The clinicians can ascertain w...

  19. Caries risk assessment in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    impaired specificities. No combinations proved clinically useful values according to Yuoden's index. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of the present study, the computer-based Cariogram did not perform better than a caries risk assessment scheme based on past caries experience and caries progression...... baseline examination, including radiographs and salivary tests. An individual caries risk profile was computed and the patient was placed in one of five risk categories. After 3 years, 982 patients (75.8%) were re-examined and caries increment for each patient was calculated. The outcome was expressed as...... sensitivity, specificity and predictive values and compared with a risk assessment scheme used in Public Dental Service. RESULTS: The drop-outs displayed more risk factors and a significantly higher caries burden at baseline compared with those that remained in the project (p < 0.05). There was a strong...

  20. DENTAL CARIES LEADING TO PREMATURE LOSS OF BABY TEETH- IMPLICATIONS AND MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Bahuguna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a destructive process causing decalcification of the tooth enamel and leading to continued destruction of enamel and dentin, and cavitation of the tooth. Dental caries can occur soon after eruption of the primary teeth, starting at 6 months of age. Primary teeth are present for a reason. One key reason is that they save space for the permanent tooth, which will erupt into its position when the deciduous / primary tooth is lost normally. If a primary tooth (baby or milk tooth, has to be removed early due to say, an abscess which is mostly a result of dental caries, a space maintainer may be recommended to save the space. If the space is not preserved, the other teeth may drift causing difficult to treat crowding and orthodontic problems. These "spacers" are placed temporarily, and are not permanent. They are removed when the new tooth (usually a bicuspid erupts or the abutment teeth get loose.

  1. Caries risk assessment in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To summarise the findings of recent systematic reviews (SR) covering caries risk assessment in children, updated with recent primary studies. METHODS: A search for relevant papers published 2012-2014 was conducted in electronic databases. The systematic reviews were quality assessed with......, while the rest displayed a high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present summary of literature, it may be concluded: (1) a caries risk assessment should be carried out at the child's first dental visit and reassessments should be done during childhood (D); (2) multivariate models display a better...... the AMSTAR tool and the primary publications according to the Cochrane handbook. The quality was rated as low, moderate, or high risk of bias. The findings were descriptively synthesised and the quality of evidence was graded according to GRADE. For the recommendations of practice, the SIGN scores...

  2. Parity & Untreated Dental Caries in US Women

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, S.L.; Ickovics, J.R.; Yaffee, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    While parity (number of children) reportedly is related to tooth loss, the relationship between parity and dental caries has not been extensively investigated. We used path analysis to test a theoretical model that specified that parity influences dental caries levels through dental care, psycho- social factors, and dental health damaging behaviors in 2635 women selected from the NHANES III dataset. We found that while increased parity was not associated with a greater level of total caries (...

  3. Current possibilities in occlusal caries management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Jurić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that affects most populations throughout the world and it is still the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth are the most vulnerable sites for dental caries due to their anatomy. Therefore, the aim of the following article is to summarize current knowledge on occlusal caries development and the possibilities of its prevention. Although the overall caries rate today has fallen for populations in industrialized countries, the rate of occlusal surface caries has not decreased. This may be explained with fact that topically applied fluorides and their mode of action prevent caries better on smooth than on occlusal surfaces. As we know, tooth decay of first permanent molars causes a great deal of different short and long term difficulties for patients. Therefore, there is a continuous need for implementation of programs for caries prevention in permanent teeth. Nowadays, we like to treat our patients by minimally invasive methods. A very important step in our effective preventive treatment is sealing pits and fissures as a cornerstone of occlusal caries management. Reliable assessment of caries activity is also very important for defining treatment needs and plans. A very important decision, which should be made during occlusal caries management, is the selection of restorative material according to the treatment plan. Conclusion. Current possibilities in occlusal caries prevention and management are very effective. Therefore, dentists today do not have any excuse for avoiding the philosophy of Minimally Invasive Dentistry, especially when we talk about caries management of occlusal surfaces in permanent molars.

  4. Snacking Habits and Caries in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, I; Lif Holgerson, P.; Kressin, N.R.; Nunn, M.E.; Tanner, A C

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is caused by a combination of infection and diet. This disease, if left untreated, may lead to pain, and impair the quality of life, nutritional status and development of young children. The objective was to investigate the association between snacking and caries in a population at high risk of dental caries. American preschool children (n = 1,206) were recruited in the offices of paediatricians. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene, breast-feeding, use of bott...

  5. Early childhood caries: a New Zealand perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bach K; Manton DJ

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries, primarily a preventable disease, remains the most common chronic disease of childhood and one of the most common reasons for hospital admissions for children in New Zealand. The most vulnerable children are shouldering the burden of the disease, with Maori and Pacific children having greater experience and severity of dental caries. Early childhood caries has deleterious effects on a child’s oral and general health and significant numbers of preschool-aged children experience p...

  6. Vitamin D and Dental Caries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, R J; Rabbani, R; Loewen, G; Moffatt, M E

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between vitamin D status and dental caries in Canadian school-aged children participating in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). The CHMS was a national cross-sectional study involving physical assessments, laboratory analysis, and interviews. Analysis was restricted to data for 1,017 children 6 to 11 y of age. Outcome variables included the presence of caries and overall total caries score (dmft/DMFT index). Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured from serum samples obtained from participants. Bivariate analysis, logistic regression for the presence of caries, and multiple linear regression for total caries scores were used. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Overall, 56.4% of children experienced caries, and the mean dmft/DMFT score was 2.47 (95% CI 2.09 to 2.84). The unadjusted odds of children with 25(OH)D levels ≥75 nmol/L having experienced caries was 0.57 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.82), while the odds for caries at the ≥50 nmol/L level was 0.56 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.89). After controlling for other covariates, backward logistic regression revealed that the presence of caries was significantly associated with 25(OH) levels caries scores were also associated with 25(OH)D concentrations caries and lower serum vitamin D. Improving children's vitamin D status may be an additional preventive consideration to lower the risk for caries. PMID:26553883

  7. Caries risk assessment: why, when and how?

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsen, Grethe Marie; Hunstad, Marie Nøvik

    2011-01-01

    This literature study reviewed papers on caries risk assessment on patients` above 18 years published between 2000 and 2010. In the present study three different methods are discussed: The Cariogram, CAMBRA ( Caries Management By Risk Assessment) and the UIT – method (University of Tromsø). The purpose of caries risk assessments are to find out which risk level the patient has and try to lower the risk. By evaluating the protective and pathologic factors involved in the carious disease the de...

  8. Palmistry: A tool for dental caries prediction!

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Madan; Arun Rathnam; Neeti Bajaj

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dermatoglyphics can prove to be an extremely useful tool for preliminary investigations in conditions with a suspected genetic base. Since caries is a multifactorial disease with the influence of genetic pattern, early prediction for high-risk children can help in using effective and efficient caries preventive measures that are a part of the pedodontist arsenal. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to determine the genetic aspect involved in the occurrence of dental carie...

  9. Laser prophylaxis and treatment of primary caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmina, Svetlana G.; Kunin, Anatoly A.; Dergunova, Elvira I.

    1995-04-01

    The light of He-Ne laser is widely used for the treatment of many stomatological diseases. The caries static activity of a helium-neon laser (HNL) light, its influence ont he activation of microcirculation of the pulpenzyme system and on the increase of enamel permeability became clear nowadays. These data allow to suppose that the Ne-Ne light may potent the activity of the initial caries by the increase of teeth stability to the factors provoking the caries.

  10. Health promotion and dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa Maltz; Juliana Jobim Jardim; Luana Severo Alves

    2010-01-01

    The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene), among o...

  11. Risk factors in dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emamie

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available   Since 3 decades ago, dental equipments and technologies as well as materials have been greatly improved and numerous effective treatment modalities have been discovered. As a result, the number of survived teeth have been greatly increased and many studies have been conducted in this regard. Fluride therapy is found as an effective treatment modality and can reduce dental caries up to 60%, due to recent evidences.

  12. The Effect of Fragaria vesca Extract on Smear Layer Removal: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Davoudi, Amin; Razavi, Sayed Alireza; Mosaddeghmehrjardi, Mohammad Hossein; Tabrizizadeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Successful endodontic treatment depends on elimination of the microorganisms through chemomechanical debridement. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry) extract (FVE) on the removal of smear layer (SL). Methods and Materials: In this analytical-observational study, 40 extracted mandibular and maxillary human teeth were selected. After canal preparation with standard step-back technique, the teeth were randomly divided...

  13. The relationship between diet and Dental Caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental caries is a disease of multifactorial etiology and results from a complex interaction between both cariogenic and protective influences acting on the teeth. Though diet plays a major role in the causation of dental caries it has been a common mistake to over-simplify the relationship. Dietary manipulation is also extremely difficult to achieve thus limiting its role in the prevention of caries. Accordingly, alternative preventive measures such as the use of fissure sealants and fluoride which enhance the resistance of the host to disease and are of proven efficacy are more likely to be successful in the control and prevention of dental caries. (author)

  14. Dental Caries Vaccine – A Possible Option?

    OpenAIRE

    KT, Shanmugam; KMK, Masthan; N, Balachander; Jimson, Sudha; R, Sarangarajan

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is an irreversible microbial disease of the calcified tissues of the teeth and it has a multifactorial origin. In India, the dental caries prevalence in 35-44 year olds was reported to be 80-95% in a DCI survey. Among the elderly in the 65-74 years age group, the DCI survey reported the caries prevalence to be about 70%, while the present survey reported it to be 51- 95% in various states. Surveys which were done on school children in India showed a carie prevalence of approxima...

  15. Dental Caries Vaccine – A Possible Option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    KT, Shanmugam; KMK, Masthan; N, Balachander; Jimson, Sudha; R, Sarangarajan

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is an irreversible microbial disease of the calcified tissues of the teeth and it has a multifactorial origin. In India, the dental caries prevalence in 35-44 year olds was reported to be 80-95% in a DCI survey. Among the elderly in the 65-74 years age group, the DCI survey reported the caries prevalence to be about 70%, while the present survey reported it to be 51- 95% in various states. Surveys which were done on school children in India showed a carie prevalence of approximately 58%.Among the U.S. population, a survey showed an incidence of 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries and an incidence of 45.3% in children 23. In countries like Brazil and China, it is reaching epidemic proportions. Thus, more effective public-health measures are needed to combat dental caries. Mutans streptococci is one of the main microorganisms which are associated with the aetiology of dental caries. Preclinical studies of immunological interventions have shown that the disease can be interrupted. Clinical trials have indicated that a mucosal immune response to Streptococcus mutans crucial antigens can influence the pathogenesis of dental caries. The dental caries vaccine, when it is used in appropriate individuals at the appropriate time, can reduce the reemergence of the disease. PMID:23905153

  16. Caries Epidemiology and Community Dentistry: Chances for Future Improvements in Caries Risk Groups. Outcomes of the ORCA Saturday Afternoon Symposium, Greifswald, 2014. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splieth, Christian H; Christiansen, Jette; Foster Page, Lyndie A

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the first part of the outcomes of the ORCA Saturday Afternoon Symposium 2014 dealing with 'caries epidemiology and community dentistry: chances for future improvements in caries risk groups'. After the caries decline in many countries, there are remaining pockets of higher caries levels, mostly in the primary dentition and/or linked to a low socio-economic status (SES). The review into the evidence of caries-preventive measures clearly points to the use of fluorides, especially toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste and collective measures such as water fluoridation. In contrast to several unsuccessful high-risk approaches, community and public health programmes seem to be able to ensure a population-wide access and compliance in risk groups. Their simple and evidence-based measures mostly combine regular plaque removal and fluoride applications via toothbrushing, at least for children and adolescents. For the future, the common risk factor approach which addresses associations between oral health, social deprivation, diet, hygiene, smoking, alcohol use and stress should lead to combined efforts with other community health and education specialists. Further engagement with public policy, community leaders and administration is needed in order to strengthen healthy choices and behaviour, e.g. in 'healthy' schools and kindergartens. It seems advisable that these population programmes also aim at improving upstream factors. PMID:26752628

  17. Non-operative anti-caries agents and dental caries increment among adults at high caries risk: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Chaffee, Benjamin W.; Cheng, Jing; Featherstone, John DB

    2015-01-01

    Background Consensus guidelines support non-operative preventives for dental caries management; yet, their use in practice is far from universal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of non-operative anti-caries agents in caries prevention among high caries risk adults at a university clinic where risk-based caries management is emphasized. Methods This retrospective observational study drew data from the electronic patient records of non-edentulous adult patients deeme...

  18. Early caries naked-eyed examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of its potential for dental diagnostics, noninvasive optical methods have been the object of research for the last years. Different techniques (spectroscopy, microscopy, and tomography) are used to discriminate between caries and sound enamel. The main aim of this paper is to determine a simple way to see incipient caries with the naked eye

  19. Multimodal imaging system for dental caries detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rongguang; Wong, Victor; Marcus, Michael; Burns, Peter; McLaughlin, Paul

    2007-02-01

    Dental caries is a disease in which minerals of the tooth are dissolved by surrounding bacterial plaques. A caries process present for some time may result in a caries lesion. However, if it is detected early enough, the dentist and dental professionals can implement measures to reverse and control caries. Several optical, nonionized methods have been investigated and used to detect dental caries in early stages. However, there is not a method that can singly detect the caries process with both high sensitivity and high specificity. In this paper, we present a multimodal imaging system that combines visible reflectance, fluorescence, and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging. This imaging system is designed to obtain one or more two-dimensional images of the tooth (reflectance and fluorescence images) and a three-dimensional OCT image providing depth and size information of the caries. The combination of two- and three-dimensional images of the tooth has the potential for highly sensitive and specific detection of dental caries.

  20. Palmistry: A tool for dental caries prediction!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Madan

    2011-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: Handprints of caries-free children, especially females, showed maximum ulnar loops. The caries group showed maximum occurrence of whorls (r=2:1, which were more prevalent in females on the left hand 3rd digit than in males where the whorls were found on the right hand 3 rd digit, and also low total ridge count, especially in males.

  1. The role of chlorhexidine in caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio-Gold, Jaana

    2008-01-01

    The use of chlorhexidine for caries prevention has been a controversial topic among dental educators and clinicians. In several reviews, it has been concluded that the most persistent reduction of mutans streptococci have been achieved by chlorhexidine varnishes, followed by gels and, lastly, mouth rinses. Also, the evidence for using different chlorhexidine modes or a combination of chlorhexidine-fluoride therapy for caries prevention has been "suggestive but incomplete". Variable study designs and lack of data in high-risk children and adults support the need to continue conducting randomized, well-controlled clinical trials and to search for a practical, effective mode of antimicrobial treatment that augments the known effect of fluoride treatments. Currently, the only chlorhexidine-containing products marketed in the United States (US) are mouthrinses containing 0.12 percent chlorhexidine. Based on the available reviews, chlorhexidine rinses have not been highly effective in preventing caries, or at least the clinical data are not convincing. Due to the current lack of long-term clinical evidence for caries prevention and reported side effects, chlorhexidine rinses should not be recommended for caries prevention. Due to the inconclusive literature and sparse clinical data on gels and varnishes, their use for caries prevention should also be studied further to develop evidence-based recommendations for their clinical role in caries prevention. Since dental caries is a disease with a multifactoral etiology, it is currently more appropriate to use other established, evidence-based prevention methods, such as fluoride applications, diet modifications and good oral hygiene practices. Recent findings also indicate that the effect of an antimicrobial agent for reducing the levels of mutans streptococci or plaque reduction may not always correlate with eventual caries reduction. The clinically important outcome is proven reductions in caries. Many advances in the

  2. Evaluation of caries-affected dentin with optical coherence tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia Soares de Azevedo; Luciana Cardoso Espejo Trung; Maria Regina Lorenzetti Simionato; Anderson Zanardi de Freitas; Adriana Bona Matos

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of demineralization of artificially induced caries-affected human dentin by an in vitro microbiological method. The occlusal surfaces of 6 human molar teeth were abraded until a flat surface was obtained, and the enamel was removed to expose the occlusal dentin surface. These teeth were sectioned in 12 halves in the vestibular-lingual direction and divided into 3 groups according to the period length of the microbiological essay (n = 4): G1...

  3. An in vitro comparison of a combined FOTI/Visual examination of occlusal caries with other caries diagnostic methods and the effect of stain on their diagnostic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K.R.; Côrtes, D.F.; Ellwood, R.P.

    Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain......Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain...

  4. Concomitant caries and calculus formation from in situ dentin caries model [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/VnGedU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico B de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the possibility of the concomitant formation of calculus deposits and caries from in situ dentin caries model for short time periods. Six volunteers wore palatal removal appliances with four polished dentin specimens protected from intra-oral mechanical forces for up to 14 days. Each volunteer applied a 50% sucrose solution (four times a day on the specimens and performed a daily mouthwash with 0.05% NaF. Samples were removed after 2, 5, 9 and 14 days in situ. Demineralization was analyzed by stereomicroscopy and SEM (secondary electrons and backscattered electrons modes and calculus was analyzed by energy dispersive spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. Seventeen samples, at least one sample from each volunteer, presented dental calculus on both carious and non-carious ones, detected in all time intervals. Ca/P ratios of dental calculus ranged from 1.1 to 1.7. Some large calculus deposits on carious surfaces were confirmed by fluorescence. In conclusion, concomitant caries and calculus formation can be found in dentin caries formed in situ. This has important repercussions on the study of surface phenomena on the interface between hard dental tissues and dental plaque.

  5. Visual Inspection for Caries Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, T; Piovesan, C; Braga, M M;

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to perform a systematic review including a meta-analysis to evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting carious lesions and to identify possible sources of heterogeneity among the studies included. Two reviewers searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and other sources through...... July 2014 to identify published and nonpublished studies in English. Studies of visual inspection were included that 1) assessed accuracy of the method in detecting caries lesions; 2) were performed on occlusal, proximal, or free smooth surfaces in primary or permanent teeth; 3) had a reference...

  6. Selective ablation of pit and fissure caries from occlusal surfaces using λ=355-nm laser pulses and air-abrasion demonstrated using PS-OCT and near-IR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Steven T.; Fan, Kenneth; Fried, Daniel

    2006-02-01

    Several past studies have suggested that lasers with and without added chromophores can be used for the selective removal of dental caries from stained pit and fissures in preparation for composite sealant placement with minimal damage to sound, unstained tooth structure. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is a new nondestructive imaging technology that can be used to acquire images of caries lesions in occlusal surfaces. PSOCT is ideally suited to measure the caries depth and severity before and after selective removal from occlusal surfaces. In this study, λ=355-nm laser pulses of 5-ns duration at irradiation intensities ranging from 0.5-1.3 J/cm2 were scanned across tooth surfaces to selectively remove decayed enamel with and without the addition of India ink. PS-OCT images were acquired before and after removal. The laser removal was also compared to air abrasion in order to compare selectivity of these two conservative caries removal technologies.

  7. Proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography in the artificial caries activity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluating the diagnostic ability of dental caries detection using digital subtraction in the artificial caries activity model. Digital radiographs of five teeth with 8 proximal surfaces were obtained by CCD sensor (Kodak RVG 6100 using a size no.2). The digital radiographic images and subtraction images from artificial proximal caries were examined and interpreted. In this study, we proposed novel caries detection method which could diagnose the dental proximal caries from single digital radiographic image. In artificial caries activity model, the range of lesional depth was 572-1,374 μm and the range of lesional area was 36.95-138.52 mm2. The lesional depth and the area were significantly increased with demineralization time (p<0.001). Furthermore, the proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography showed high detection rate compared to the proximal caries examination using simple digital radiograph. The results demonstrated that the digital subtraction radiography from single radiographic image of artificial caries was highly efficient in the detection of dental caries compared to the data from simple digital radiograph.

  8. Proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography in the artificial caries activity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hoon; Lee, Gi Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Kyung Soo; Jin, Hyun Seok; Hong, Kyung Won; Oh, Berm Seok; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluating the diagnostic ability of dental caries detection using digital subtraction in the artificial caries activity model. Digital radiographs of five teeth with 8 proximal surfaces were obtained by CCD sensor (Kodak RVG 6100 using a size no.2). The digital radiographic images and subtraction images from artificial proximal caries were examined and interpreted. In this study, we proposed novel caries detection method which could diagnose the dental proximal caries from single digital radiographic image. In artificial caries activity model, the range of lesional depth was 572-1,374 {mu}m and the range of lesional area was 36.95-138.52 mm{sup 2}. The lesional depth and the area were significantly increased with demineralization time (p<0.001). Furthermore, the proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography showed high detection rate compared to the proximal caries examination using simple digital radiograph. The results demonstrated that the digital subtraction radiography from single radiographic image of artificial caries was highly efficient in the detection of dental caries compared to the data from simple digital radiograph.

  9. Caries risk assessment in chilean adolescents and adults and its association with caries experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Andrés Giacaman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cariogram is a computer program that uses an algorithm to assess caries risk. Although the use of Cariogram has recently increased, little information is available regarding its effectiveness in adults. This study aimed to determine whether caries risk from Cariogram relates to caries experience in adults. One hundred and eighty Cariogram files were completed from patients aged ten to fifty-six years (mean: 23.28 years. Seven factors from the software were included from patient records to complete the Cariogram: caries experience, diet (content and frequency, stimulated salivary flow, hygiene index, related diseases and fluoride usage. The percentages of "chances of avoiding new lesions" (caries risk were obtained from Cariogram, and the subjects were classified into five risk groups. Results were compared for each variable with ANOVA, and a correlation between caries and Cariogram variables was calculated by Pearson's correlation coefficient. A multivariate regression model was also used. Only three patients were classified as low risk, and none were classified as very low risk. Thus, only the four upper quintiles were considered for the analysis, and the lower quintile was not considered in the study. Neither DMFT nor the number of lesions were significantly different among the Cariogram's risk categories (p > 0.05. Only diet content was significantly correlated with caries experience (p = 0.006. Caries lesions failed to correlate with any Cariogram variable (p > 0.05. Age, not sex or caries risk scores, showed a strong and positive association with DMFT (p < 0.01. Caries risk from Cariogram appears to be unrelated with caries experience or caries lesions in a high-caries adult population.

  10. Incidence of Caries in Babies After 15 Months of an Educative/Preventive Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice KUHN

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate an educative/preventive program to control caries disease in 160 babies, ages ranging from 1 to 21 months. Method: The selected children, healthy and without caries, were examined once every three months during 15 months. In each appointment, the biofilm was removed with gauze and a baby’s toothbrush, according to the child’s age. After visual examination, the number of teeth and eventual alterations were recorded. Mothers were guided to perform suitable preventive activities through personal orientation, posters and slides. There were educational lectures at the beginning of the research, as well as every six months. The oral examination and the hygiene training of the mothers were conducted at the health units, community centers and a university. Aiming to verify the changes in the feeding and hygiene habits, questionnaires were applied at the beginning of the study and 12 months later. Results: The majority of the mothers hadn’t completed elementary school and the family income ranged from 1 to 3 minimum salaries. After 15 months, the drop-out rate was 23.8%. The incidence of caries, which was 7.3% in the 122 babies, evaluated with an average of 0.25 teeth with caries. Including the black spots, the incidence of caries was 9.8%, with an average of 0.4 teeth with caries. Conclusion: The educative/preventive program contributed to a lower caries incidence, and it stimulated the adoption of healthier habits. There was a decrease of 33% in night time bottle-feeding, and an increase of 20.9% in oral hygiene.

  11. Measuring Dental Caries in the Mixed Dentition by ICDAS

    OpenAIRE

    Mare Saag; Tero Vahlberg; Jana Olak; Sisko Honkala; Riina Runnel; Eino Honkala; Kauko K. Mäkinen

    2011-01-01

    Caries has traditionally been assessed with WHO criteria including only obvious caries lesions. ICDAS has been developed to detect also the enamel caries lesions. This study aims to study caries and the associations of the number of caries lesions between the permanent and primary molars with ICDAS in the mixed dentition of the first and second grade primary school children. The clinical examinations of 485 children were conducted by four examiners with high reproducibility (inter- and intrae...

  12. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Species Associated with Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Mitzi R.; Paster, Bruce J.; Leys, Eugene J.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.; Kenyon, Sarah G.; Galvin, Jamie L.; Boches, Susan K.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Griffen, Ann L.

    2002-01-01

    Although substantial epidemiologic evidence links Streptococcus mutans to caries, the pathobiology of caries may involve more complex communities of bacterial species. Molecular methods for bacterial identification and enumeration now make it possible to more precisely study the microbiota associated with dental caries. The purpose of this study was to compare the bacteria found in early childhood caries (ECC) to those found in caries-free children by using molecular identification methods. C...

  13. Early childhood caries update: A review of causes, diagnoses, and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Hakan; Dülgergil, Coruh T; Dalli, Mehmet; Hamidi, Mehmet Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries (decay) is an international public health challenge, especially amongst young children. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a serious public health problem in both developing and industrialized countries. ECC can begin early in life, progresses rapidly in those who are at high risk, and often goes untreated. Its consequences can affect the immediate and long-term quality of life of the child's family and can have significant social and economic consequences beyond the immediate family as well. ECC can be a particularly virulent form of caries, beginning soon after dental eruption, developing on smooth surfaces, progressing rapidly, and having a lasting detrimental impact on the dentition. Children experiencing caries as infants or toddlers have a much greater probability of subsequent caries in both the primary and permanent dentitions. The relationship between breastfeeding and ECC is likely to be complex and confounded by many biological variables, such as mutans streptococci, enamel hypoplasia, intake of sugars, as well as social variables, such as parental education and socioeconomic status, which may affect oral health. Unlike other infectious diseases, tooth decay is not self-limiting. Decayed teeth require professional treatment to remove infection and restore tooth function. In this review, we give detailed information about ECC, from its diagnosis to management. PMID:23633832

  14. Lactotransferrin Gene Polymorphism Associated with Caries Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doetzer, Andrea D; Brancher, João A; Pecharki, Giovana D; Schlipf, Nina; Werneck, Renata; Mira, Marcelo T; Riess, Olaf; Bauer, Peter; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a common multifactorial disease, resulting from the interaction of biofilm, cariogenic diet and host response over time. Lactotransferrin (LTF) is a main salivary glycoprotein, which modulates the host immune-inflammatory and antibacterial response. Although a genetic component for caries outcome has been identified, little is known over the genetic aspects underlying its susceptibility. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between LTF polymorphisms and caries susceptibility. Six hundred seventy seven 12-year-old students were selected: 346 with (DMFT ≥ 1) and 331 without caries experience (DMFT = 0). Also, individuals concentrating higher levels of disease (polarization group, DMFT ≥ 2, n = 253) were tested against those with DMFT ≤ 1 (n = 424). Along with clinical parameters, three representative LTF tag SNPs (rs6441989, rs2073495, rs11716497) were genotyped and the results were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Allele A for tag SNP rs6441989 was found to be significantly less frequent in the polarization group, conferring a protective effect against caries experience [AA + AG × GG (OR: 0.710, 95% CI: 0.514-0.980, p = 0.045)], and remained significantly associated with caries protection in the presence of gingivitis (p = 0.020) and plaque (p = 0.035). These results might contribute to the understanding of the genetic control of caries susceptibility in humans. PMID:25998152

  15. Snacking habits and caries in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, I; Holgerson, P Lif; Kressin, N R; Nunn, M E; Tanner, A C

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is caused by a combination of infection and diet. This disease, if left untreated, may lead to pain, and impair the quality of life, nutritional status and development of young children. The objective was to investigate the association between snacking and caries in a population at high risk of dental caries. American preschool children (n = 1,206) were recruited in the offices of paediatricians. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene, breast-feeding, use of bottle and snacking were collected by questionnaire. Plaque presence, the number of teeth and their caries status (deft) were scored. The children sampled were 61% Black, 27% White and 10% Asian. Of the 1- to 2-, 2- to 3- and 3- to 4-year-old children, 93.8, 82.4 and 77.3% were caries free, and their mean caries scores were 0.16, 0.58 and 0.93, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modelling revealed plaque presence, lowest income, descriptors for tooth exposure time (number of teeth and age) and cariogenic challenge (total intake of sugar-containing snacks and chips/crisps, and chips intake with a sugar-containing drink) to be associated with more caries. These differences were also found in univariate analyses; in addition, children who continued breast-feeding after falling asleep had significantly higher deft values than those who did not. PLS modelling revealed that eating chips clustered with eating many sweet snacks, candies, popcorn and ice cream. We conclude that, in addition to the traditional risk indicators for caries - presence of plaque, sugar intake and socioeconomic status -, consumption of chips was associated with caries in young children. PMID:20720422

  16. Caries dental en escolares del Distrito Federal

    OpenAIRE

    IRIGOYEN-CAMACHO MARÍA ESTHER

    1997-01-01

    Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de la prevalencia y la severidad de caries dental, así como las necesidades de tratamiento de la población escolar del Distrito Federal examinada en la encuesta de caries dental que se llevó a cabo en 1988 con la finalidad de obtener datos basales sobre caries en los escolares al inicio del Programa Nacional de Fluoruración de la Sal en México. Material y métodos. La población de estudio fue seleccionada empleando un marco muestral basado en el listado de ...

  17. Contemporary aspects of caries prevention in children

    OpenAIRE

    Alimani - Jakupi, Jetmire; Iljovska, Snezana; Pavlevska, Meri; Naskova, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the trends of the caries dispersion in the developed countries in the last 40 years, show signifi cantly diminished values of CIA (caries index average) from11 to 4. But, the situati on in the developing countries is completely diff erent. The caries goes upwards, and CIA is increased for 5 points in the last 20 years. (WHO 2000) The purposel of our study would be to suggest a strategy for preventive dental protecti on which will be applied on the whole territory of the countr...

  18. Caries risk assessment in chilean adolescents and adults and its association with caries experience

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Andrés Giacaman; Paulina Miranda Reyes; Valeria Bravo León

    2013-01-01

    Cariogram is a computer program that uses an algorithm to assess caries risk. Although the use of Cariogram has recently increased, little information is available regarding its effectiveness in adults. This study aimed to determine whether caries risk from Cariogram relates to caries experience in adults. One hundred and eighty Cariogram files were completed from patients aged ten to fifty-six years (mean: 23.28 years). Seven factors from the software were included from patient records to co...

  19. Sugar Alcohols, Caries Incidence, and Remineralization of Caries Lesions: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkinen, Kauko K.

    2010-01-01

    Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remi...

  20. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS

    OpenAIRE

    Carta, Giovanna; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Cocco, Fabio; Sale, Silvana; Lingström, Peter; Campus, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33) randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS) index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate ...

  1. Early Childhood Caries and Caries Experience in Permanent Dentition: A 15-year Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, A Rainer; Becker, Natascha; Jöhren, Hans-Peter; Zimmer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, caries of young people has been declining since the late 1980s, while the prevalence of early childhood caries has remained steady. Data from a number of regional studies suggest a current prevalence between 10% and 15%. However, there is a dearth of longitudinal observational study data on the risk of caries in the permanent teeth of persons who as children had to undergo comprehensive treatment for caries under intubation general anesthesia. The aim of this study was to compare caries experience in the permanent teeth of patients who had to undergo surgical treatment under general anesthesia as a result of non-compliance with caries treatment in early childhood with the experience of patients who did not develop caries at a young age. Analysis of the data revealed that severe caries experience during early childhood resulted in a more severe caries experience during adulthood (difference: 14.8 DMFS; p = 0.001). This increase in caries experience applied to both untreated and treated carious surfaces, and was also apparent in relation to tooth extractions. When compared with persons whose first teeth had been caries-free, patients with severe childhood caries experience tended to show poorer dental hygiene in relation to smooth (p < 0.06) and interproximal (p < 0.04) surfaces. Patients who had been non-compliant as young children were not found to suffer from dental anxiety as young adults. Patients in the treatment and control groups differed with regard to dental health. Aside from being statistically relevant, these differences also have implications for clinical dental practice. PMID:26915485

  2. Improved ability of biological and previous caries multimarkers to predict caries disease as revealed by multivariate PLS modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Ericson Thorild; Källestål Carina; Johansson Ingegerd; Nordlund Åke; Sjöström Michael; Strömberg Nicklas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental caries is a chronic disease with plaque bacteria, diet and saliva modifying disease activity. Here we have used the PLS method to evaluate a multiplicity of such biological variables (n = 88) for ability to predict caries in a cross-sectional (baseline caries) and prospective (2-year caries development) setting. Methods Multivariate PLS modelling was used to associate the many biological variables with caries recorded in thirty 14-year-old children by measuring the ...

  3. Adjunct methods for caries detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari; Dahlén, Gunnar;

    2012-01-01

    scientific evidence for diagnostic accuracy regarding fiber-optic methods and quantitative light-induced fluorescence (+OOO). The electrical methods and laser fluorescence could be useful adjuncts to visual-tactile and radiographic examinations, especially on occlusal surfaces in permanent and primary molars......Abstract Objective. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of adjunct methods used to detect and quantify dental caries. Study design. A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Abstracts and full text articles were assessed...... independently by two reviewers. The study characteristics were compiled in tables and quality graded according to the QUADAS tool. The level of evidence for each diagnostic technology (fiber-optic methods, fluorescence methods, electrical methods) was based on studies of high or moderate quality according to...

  4. Natural products and caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lei; Li, Jiyao; He, Libang; Zhou, Xuedong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is considered as the most common polymicrobial oral disease in the world. With the aim of developing alternative approaches to reduce or prevent the decay, numerous papers showed the potential anticaries activity of a number of natural products. The natural products with anticaries effects are selected from e.g. food, beverages, flowers or traditional herbs. Most of the effective components are proven to be polyphenol compounds. Many of the natural products are studied as antibacterial agents, while some of them are found to be effective in shifting the de-/remineralization balance. However, the mechanisms of the anticaries effects are still unclear for most of the natural products. In the future, more efforts need to be made to seek novel effective natural products via in vitro experiment, animal study and in situ investigations, as well as to enhance their anticaries effects with the help of novel technology like nanotechnology. PMID:25871417

  5. Exploration of a Chemo-Mechanical Technique for the Isolation of Nanofibrillated Cellulosic Fiber from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch as a Reinforcing Agent in Composites Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Ireana Yusra A. Fatah; Abdul Khalil, H. P. S.; Md. Sohrab Hossain; Astimar A. Aziz; Yalda Davoudpour; Rudi Dungani; Amir Bhat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of sulphuric acid hydrolysis and high-pressure homogenization as an effective chemo-mechanical process for the isolation of quality nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). The cellulosic fiber was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) using acid hydrolysis methods and, subsequently, homogenized using a high-pressure homogenizer to produce NFC. The structural analysis and the crystallinity of the raw fiber and extracted cellulose ...

  6. Probiotics in the prevention of dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johany Duque de Estrada Riverón

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have the potential to provide significant benefits to human health, so we decided to investigate the probiotics species that may have preventive action against dental caries mainly in children in order to determine if there can be created a preventive medicine, made from probiotics found in the oral cavity. Oral probiotics that have shown promising activities in the prevention of dental caries are: Streptococcus salivarius (strain K12, BGH01 Lactobacillus salivarius, BGH089 gasseri Lactobacillus, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus oligofermentans. In vitro studies on the use of probiotics for the prevention of dental caries have shown interesting results, but in vivo they are not very encouraging. It is necessary to deepen in the therapeutic effects of probiotics strains already discovered in order to obtain from them an effective preventive agent against dental caries and so ensuring a better quality of life, especially in children.

  7. The Microbial Ecology of Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Bowden, G. H. W.

    2011-01-01

    The microbial ecology of caries is complex and incorporates mechanisms common to the natural colonization of the host and to plaque accumulation at sites that do not develop caries lesions. It is not simply accumulation of plaque in the oral cavity but also the ecology of oral bacteria among the host population and the ecology of organisms in the lesion. In these three habitats odontopathogens and other oral bacteria can undergo genotypic change, which may produce phenotypes more virulent or ...

  8. Ameloglyphics and predilection of dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    H C Girish; Sanjay Murgod; C J Manasa Ravath; Hegde, Ramesh B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is an infectious disease of microbiologic origin resulting in destruction and loss of tooth structure and is related to every speciality of dentistry. Many studies have been carried out to identify the causative factors, methods of prevention, and treatment of dental caries. Ameloglyphics is the study of enamel rod end patterns. These patterns have been found to be unique to individual teeth of the same individual and also to different individuals. A possible correla...

  9. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Maria Areias; Benedita Sampaio-Maia; Hercilia Guimaraes; Paulo Melo; David Andrade

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. METHODS: A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. RESULTS: Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of ...

  10. Dental caries - A complete changeover (Part I)

    OpenAIRE

    Usha Carounanidy; Sathyanarayanan R

    2009-01-01

    In spite of a knowledge explosion in cariology science, dental caries still remains a misunderstood phenomenon by the clinicians. In order to effectively use the wide range of preventive and management strategies, it is imperative to look beyond those black and white spots that manifest on the tooth surfaces. This paper focuses on the revised versions of the etiopathogenesis and definition of dental caries disease in the present century.

  11. Dental caries - A complete changeover (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Carounanidy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a knowledge explosion in cariology science, dental caries still remains a misunderstood phenomenon by the clinicians. In order to effectively use the wide range of preventive and management strategies, it is imperative to look beyond those black and white spots that manifest on the tooth surfaces.This paper focuses on the revised versions of the etiopathogenesis and definition of dental caries disease in the present century.

  12. Diagnosis of caries by spectral analysis of laser-induced plasma sparks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemz, Markolf H.

    1994-12-01

    A picosecond Nd:YLF laser system was used to remove sound and carious enamel by the mechanism of plasma-induced ablation. The plasma spark was optically imaged onto the entrance pupil of a spectrometer. The spectra were scanned between 400 - 700 nm with a typical resolution of 0.2 nm. Calcium in neutral and singly ionized states and the sodium doublet at 589 nm were observed. The second harmonic of the laser wavelength was generated in an external BBO crystal, thereby converting about 10 (mu) J of the pulse energy to radiation at 527 nm. The amplitude of the diffuse reflected second harmonic was used as a reference signal for normalization of the spectra. Several sound and artificial caries regions of different teeth were investigated. The spectra obtained from caries always showed a strong decrease in amplitude of all mineral lines, if compared to sound enamel. These results can be explained by the demineralization process of dental decay. Thus, caries infected teeth are easily distinguished from sound probes, enabling a computer controlled caries removal in the near future. The possible setup of such an automated system is discussed.

  13. Evaluation of caries-affected dentin with optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Soares de Azevedo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of demineralization of artificially induced caries-affected human dentin by an in vitro microbiological method. The occlusal surfaces of 6 human molar teeth were abraded until a flat surface was obtained, and the enamel was removed to expose the occlusal dentin surface. These teeth were sectioned in 12 halves in the vestibular-lingual direction and divided into 3 groups according to the period length of the microbiological essay (n = 4: G1, 7 days; G2, 14 days; and G3, 21 days. The surfaces of all specimens were protected by an acid-resistant nail varnish, except for a window where the caries lesion was induced by a Streptoccocus mutans biofilm in a batch-culture model supplemented with 5% sucrose. The specimens were then analyzed by optical coherence tomography (OCT with a super-luminescent light diode (Λ = 930 nm with 6.0-µm lateral and longitudinal resolution (in the air. Qualitative and quantitative results (images and average dentin demineralization, respectively were obtained. The mean demineralization depths were (µm 235 ± 31.4, 279 ± 14, and 271 ± 8.3 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In addition, no significant change was observed in the lesion mean depth from 7 days of cariogenic challenge on. In conclusion, OCT was shown to be an efficient and non-invasive method to detect the depths of lesions caused by demineralization. Further, a seven-day demineralization time was considered sufficient for caries-affected dentin to be obtained.

  14. Evaluation of caries-affected dentin with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Cynthia Soares de; Trung, Luciana Cardoso Espejo; Simionato, Maria Regina Lorenzetti; Freitas, Anderson Zanardi de; Matos, Adriana Bona

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of demineralization of artificially induced caries-affected human dentin by an in vitro microbiological method. The occlusal surfaces of 6 human molar teeth were abraded until a flat surface was obtained, and the enamel was removed to expose the occlusal dentin surface. These teeth were sectioned in 12 halves in the vestibular-lingual direction and divided into 3 groups according to the period length of the microbiological essay (n = 4): G1, 7 days; G2, 14 days; and G3, 21 days. The surfaces of all specimens were protected by an acid-resistant nail varnish, except for a window where the caries lesion was induced by a Streptoccocus mutans biofilm in a batch-culture model supplemented with 5% sucrose. The specimens were then analyzed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) with a super-luminescent light diode (Λ = 930 nm) with 6.0-µm lateral and longitudinal resolution (in the air). Qualitative and quantitative results (images and average dentin demineralization, respectively) were obtained. The mean demineralization depths were (µm) 235 ± 31.4, 279 ± 14, and 271 ± 8.3 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In addition, no significant change was observed in the lesion mean depth from 7 days of cariogenic challenge on. In conclusion, OCT was shown to be an efficient and non-invasive method to detect the depths of lesions caused by demineralization. Further, a seven-day demineralization time was considered sufficient for caries-affected dentin to be obtained. PMID:22031053

  15. Effect of milk and yogurt on streptococcus sobrinus counts and caries score in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghasempour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An anti-cariogenic diet containing probiotics can be effective in caries prevention. This animal study compared the effects of milk and yogurt on Streptococcus sobrinus counts and caries score. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 male rats were infected with S. sobrinus (27,607 and divided into three groups. Group A and B received 200 mL of milk and 100 g of yogurt per day, respectively, and a control group received 2.5 mL of NCP number 2 diet twice daily for 21 days. After killing the animals, their lower left jaws were removed and sonicated to quantify the colonies of S. sobrinus. Dental caries was scored using Keyes technique. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon-Signed Rank tests. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The mean (±standard error of the mean of S. sobrinus colonies in the milk, yogurt and control groups were determined at 119666.67 (±20733, 46416.666 (±12846 and 163,250 (±33493, respectively. Microbial counts decreased in the yogurt group compared with the milk and control groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.000; respectively. There were significant differences between caries scores of smooth surfaces in the milk and yogurt groups compared with the control group (P = 0.000 and P = 0.000, respectively. Both milk and yogurt significantly reduced caries score of fissured surfaces compared with controls (P = 0.004 and P = 0.000, respectively. Conclusion: Considering the limitations of this study, yogurt administration reduces S. sobrinus counts. In addition, yogurt and milk regimens reduce the caries scores of smooth and fissured surfaces.

  16. Sugar alcohols, caries incidence, and remineralization of caries lesions: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Kauko K

    2010-01-01

    Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol >/= xylitol > sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials. PMID:20339492

  17. Sugar Alcohols, Caries Incidence, and Remineralization of Caries Lesions: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauko K. Mäkinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol≥xylitol>sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials.

  18. Evaluation of pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate levels of saliva in caries-free, minimal caries and nursing caries children: An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate of saliva in caries free, minimal caries and nursing caries children and to evaluate the relationship of these on the caries activity of children. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 school children of age group between 4 and 12 years were selected and divided into three equal groups: Group I, Group II and Group III, consisting of 25 subjects each. Group I included caries-free...

  19. Factors associated with early childhood caries in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Hoffmeister

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The high prevalence of caries in this young group is concerning. The factors associated with caries identified in this study could help in the design of preventive interventions at early ages.

  20. Implications of caries diagnostic strategies for clinical management decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baelum, Vibeke; Hintze, Hanne; Wenzel, Ann;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In clinical practice, a visual-tactile caries examination is frequently supplemented by bitewing radiography. This study evaluated strategies for combining visual-tactile and radiographic caries detection methods and determined their implications for clinical management decisions in a...

  1. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Farges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo.

  2. The early childhood caries prevention program in Palau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, A Keith

    2003-03-01

    Early Childhood Caries is a significant public health problem in Palau. Data have shown that nearly 80% of children ages 3-5 years of age in Palau experience dental caries and a significant number of these children require general anesthesia to treat or remove painful or infected carious teeth. In response to this growing problem, the Division of Oral Health has systematically developed a prevention program in collaboration with the Maternal and Child Health Unit under the Ministry of Health. The core program involves integrating preventive oral health services into all regular prenatal and postnatal care programs and improving the capacities of health professionals to provide such services. The program promotes the idea that oral health is an important component to overall health and all efforts are made to integrate oral health into broader public health initiatives. Both health and process outcomes are being monitored by an oral health surveillance system, while preliminary data show improved oral health among young children. This paper takes a closer look at the development of the Palau program. PMID:16276951

  3. Occlusal Caries Management: Preferences among Dentists in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopperud, Simen E; Tveit, Anne B; Opdam, Niek J M; Espelid, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to measure variations in the threshold for operative treatment of occlusal caries in permanent teeth and the use of dental materials, compared with results from a similar study conducted in Norway in 1995. In 2009, a precoded questionnaire was sent electronically to 3,654 dentists with E-mail addresses in the member register of the Norwegian Dental Association. The questions were related to caries, treatment strategies and choice of dental materials. Replies were obtained from 61.3% respondents after two reminders. Restorative treatment of occlusal lesions confined to enamel was proposed by 12% of the dentists, compared with 18% in 1995 (p risk of restoring occlusal enamel lesions operatively. The authors conclude that especially young dentists appear to be more reluctant to remove tooth substance in 2009 compared with 1995. Composite is the dominating material of choice in 2009 and seems to have substituted the use of most other filling materials in occlusal restorations in permanent teeth. PMID:26839953

  4. Chemo-mechanical modeling of low-pH concretes: Application to the calculation of storage facilities for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work concerns to design a tool able to simulate the chemo-mechanical behavior of low-pH concretes used in radioactive waste storage, from early age to a long-term. This tool consists of a phenomenological hydration model and an original chemical evolution model. The first model is used for short-term. It can predict the development of hydration at early age and its consequences. But taking into account that this model has been developed for applications at a young age, it is based on a fixed stoichiometry of hydrates and does not take into account the specificities of low-pH cements (chemical evolution at the long-term by reaction of residual silica). Thus, a chemical evolution model at the long-term is proposed. This model is based on a variable stoichiometry of hydrates. For this, it uses the calcium mass balance for describing calcium exchange between the various hydrates and anhydrous. This equation includes the kinetics of exchanges which are based on the difference in the thermodynamic equilibrium, of the microstructure and temperature. Finally, a coupling with mechanical properties evolution was performed to simulate the mechanical behavior of the radioactive waste storage facility. (author)

  5. Risk factors for caries - control and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Hasanagić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate a prevalence of caries, filled permanentand extracted permanent teeth, as well as caries risk factors inschool children aged 7, 9 and 11.Methods. The survey included 800 children (296 children aged7; 254 children aged 9 and 250 children aged 11 from the MostarMunicipality, 400 of them living in both rural and urban areas.A dental mirror and standard light of dental chair were used forexamination. The DMF index (Dental Caries, Missing Teeth andFilled Teeth was determined, as well as failure in keeping teethhygiene, sugar intake with food, and incidence of oral cavity infection.Results. The dental state of permanent teeth in children aged 7and 9 has shown significant difference between the children fromrural and urban areas (p < 0,001. Out of 2,698 and 2,790 permanentteeth in children aged 11 from rural and urban areas, 1,086(40,25 % and 884 (31.68 % had caries, respectively (p < 0.01.The difference between these groups of children has been foundin relation to the index of oral hygiene too (p < 0.05.Conclusion. An identification of risk groups for getting caries wasvery important and could help health and social structures to maintaintheir programs in order to improve oral health.

  6. Restorative Treatment Thresholds for Proximal Caries in Dental PBRN

    OpenAIRE

    Kakudate, N.; Sumida, F.; Matsumoto, Y.; Manabe, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Gilbert, G.H.; Gordan, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess caries treatment thresholds among Japanese dentists and to identify characteristics associated with their decision to intervene surgically in proximal caries lesions within the enamel. Participants (n = 189) were shown radiographic images depicting interproximal caries and asked to indicate the lesion depth at which they would surgically intervene in both high- and low-caries-risk scenarios. Differences in treatment thresholds were then assessed via chi-squa...

  7. Total antioxidant capacity of saliva and dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi Motamayel, Fatemeh; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Hendi, Seyedeh Sareh; Kasraei, Shahin; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Saliva has many functions in the oral cavity and is the first line defense against dental caries. Oxidative stress can affect initiation and progression of many inflammatory and infectious diseases such as dental caries. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of saliva and dental caries. Study Design: 100 healthy high school students (50 female and 50...

  8. Salivary Antimicrobial Peptide Expression and Dental Caries Experience in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Renchuan; Jurevic, Richard J.; Coulton, Kimberly K.; Tsutsui, Marjorie T.; Roberts, Marilyn C.; Kimball, Janet R.; Wells, Norma; Berndt, Jeffery; Dale, Beverly A.

    2005-01-01

    Dental caries is a major worldwide oral disease problem in children. Although caries are known to be influenced by dietary factors, the disease results from a bacterial infection; thus, caries susceptibility may be affected by host factors such as salivary antimicrobial peptides. This study aimed to determine a possible correlation between caries prevalence in children and salivary concentrations of the antimicrobial peptides human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3), the cathelicidin LL37, and the alpha...

  9. Microbial Risk Markers for Childhood Caries in Pediatricians’ Offices

    OpenAIRE

    Kanasi, E.; Johansson, I; Lu, S.C.; Kressin, N.R.; Nunn, M.E.; Kent, R; Tanner, A.C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries in pre-school children has significant public health and health disparity implications. To determine microbial risk markers for this infection, this study aimed to compare the microbiota of children with early childhood caries with that of caries-free children. Plaque samples from incisors, molars, and the tongue from 195 children attending pediatricians’ offices were assayed by 74 DNA probes and by PCR to Streptococcus mutans. Caries-associated factors included visible plaque, ...

  10. Good Manufacturing Practices production and analysis of a DNA vaccine against dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ya-ping; Li, Yu-hong; Zhang, Ai-Hua; Bi, Lan; Fan, Ming-wen

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To prepare a clinical-grade anti-caries DNA vaccine pGJA-P/VAX and explore its immune effect and protective efficacy against a cariogenic bacterial challenge. Methods: A large-scale industrial production process was developed under Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) by combining and optimizing common unit operations such as alkaline lysis, precipitation, endotoxin removal and column chromatography. Quality controls of the purified bulk and final lyophilized vaccine were conducted accordi...

  11. 21 CFR 872.1740 - Caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caries detection device. 872.1740 Section 872.1740...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1740 Caries detection device. (a) Identification. The caries detection device is a device intended to show the existence of decay in a patient's...

  12. 21 CFR 872.1745 - Laser fluorescence caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laser fluorescence caries detection device. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1745 Laser fluorescence caries detection device. (a) Identification. A laser fluorescence caries detection device is a laser,...

  13. Pattern of dental caries in Mulago Dental School clinic, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kutesa, Annet; Mwanika, Andrew; Wandera, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Information on dental caries among patients attending Mulago Hospital is scarce. Yet knowledge of the pattern of caries can be used to plan preventive and treatment interventions. This study describes the pattern of dental caries (in terms of age group, tooth and tooth surface and gender) among patients attending the Public Health Dental Officers School Clinic, Mulago Hospital.

  14. The caries process and its effect on the pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of the caries process and its effect on the pulp is presented in the context that caries does develop in various rates of progression. Early in the caries process, the pulp reflects changes within lesion activity. Thus, the early pulp response is reversible. Later, the rate of c...

  15. Comparative studies of modern methods for caries detection and quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Xie-Qi

    2001-01-01

    In clinical dentistry proper treatment of caries lesions is highly dependent on diagnostic accuracy. Aim The present dissertation aimed at the evaluation and comparisons between several modem methods for caries detection and quantification. Methods The employed methods for detection and quantification of caries lesions may be divided into two categories, namely laser fluorescence based methods and radiographic methods. Laser fluorescence The performance of the...

  16. A retrospective analysis of caries treatment and development in relation to assessed caries risk in an adult population in Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Söderström, Ulf; Johansson, Ingegerd; Sunnegårdh-Grönberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Public Dental Service of Västerbotten County (Sweden) recommends using population-based prevention strategies combined with an individual strategy for high-risk patients to manage caries. To facilitate this management strategy, all patients are evaluated for their risk of developing caries in the coming year using defined criteria. Using caries risk scoring over a seven-year period, the present study evaluates prophylactic measures, caries development, and non-operative treatm...

  17. Evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kaur; K S Kwatra; Kamboj, P.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free ...

  18. Radiation caries - an evil eye of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of patients with head and neck cancer, it is also associated with several undesired side effects such as radiation caries which is a common, yet serious, complication. The radiotherapy field of exposure frequently includes the salivary glands, oral mucosa, and jaws, thus, leading to various side effects including hyposalivation, mucositis, and taste loss. Irradiated patients are also at increased risk for the development of a rapid, rampant carious process known as radiation caries. Lesions tend to develop four weeks after completion of radiotherapy and affect atypical areas of teeth, such as the lingual surface, incisal edges, and cusp tips. The aim of this paper is to review the clinical features, prevention and management of radiation caries. (author)

  19. Fluoride Importance in Controlling Caries and Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s. Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience.

  20. Probiotics for caries prevention and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S; Keller, M K

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of the microbiota for restoring and maintaining health is a growing issue in medical science. A search for relevant clinical trials on the use of probiotic bacteria as a potential and clinically applicable anti-caries measure was performed. According to predetermined criteria, papers...... were selected and key data on study design, sample size, intervention, duration, and results were extracted. Two animal and 19 human studies were retrieved. Most studies were short-term and restricted to microbiological endpoints, and only 3 human studies reported a caries endpoint. A high degree of...... heterogeneity among the included investigations hampered the analysis. Significant reductions of mutans streptococci in saliva or plaque following daily intake of probiotic lactobacilli or bifidobacteria were reported in 12 out of 19 papers, whereas 3 reported an increase of lactobacilli. Three caries trials in...

  1. Detection and monitoring of early caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretty, I A; Ekstrand, K R

    2016-01-01

    co-workers from 2013 and this still represents the current state of the science in relation to caries detection and monitoring. The review described among others, visible detection systems, image-based detection systems and point-measurement approaches. RESULTS: The current evidence base suggests...... that while there are numerous devices or technology-enabled detection systems, the use of a careful, methodical visual inspection of clean, dry teeth, supplemented where indicated by radiographic views, remains the standard of care in caries detection and diagnostics. Further, it is possible by means...... to the clinician and the patient for whom it may be a useful educational and motivational tool. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations are presented that can be adopted and adapted to local circumstances and that are both substantiated by evidence and promote a clear, simple and consistent approach to caries...

  2. Diet and Caries-associated Bacteria in Severe Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, C A; Kent, R.; Loo, C. Y.; Hughes, C. V.; Stutius, E.; Pradhan, N.; Dahlan, M.; Kanasi, E.; Arevalo Vasquez, S.S.; Tanner, A.C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Frequent consumption of cariogenic foods and bacterial infection are risk factors for early childhood caries (ECC). This study hypothesized that a short diet survey focused on frequency of foods, categorized by putative cariogenicity, would differentiate severe ECC (S-ECC) from caries-free children. Children’s diets were obtained by survey and plaque bacteria detected by PCR from 72 S-ECC and 38 caries-free children. S-ECC children had higher scores for between-meal juice (p < 0.01), solid-re...

  3. Caries Prevalence and Caries Associated Measures in Children Living in a Rural Romanian Village

    OpenAIRE

    Kaveh, Babak; Witkowska, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed with the aim to investigate the caries prevalence and associated factors in 6 to 15 year old school children living in a village outside Cluj-Napoca, Romania. All children were offered to be included and examined for dental caries according to World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria. Caries was scored at the tooth and surface levels D/d=decayed, M/m=missing, F/f=filled, T/t=tooth, S/s=surface (DMFT/DMFS/dmft/dmfs) for the permanent and deciduous dentitio...

  4. Genotypic Diversity of Streptococcus mutans in Caries-Free and Caries-Active Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    R.C. Poli-Frederico; Garcia, J.E.; Ferreira, F. B. A.; Maciel, S. M.; Segura, V. G.; M.R. Rodrigues; Pieralisi, F. J. S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the genotypic diversity of S. mutans in caries-free and caries-active preschool children in Brazil. Design. Twenty-eight preschool children were examined regarding caries experience by the dmft index. DNA from 280 isolates of S. mutans was extracted. S. mutans evaluated using to the PCR method, with primers for the glucosyltransferase gene. The genetic diversity of S. mutans isolates was analyzed by arbitrary primed-PCR (AP-PCR) reactions. The...

  5. Enamel remineralization: controlling the caries disease or treating early caries lesions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Aparecido Cury

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The emphasis currently given to new technologies for enamel remineralization suggests that the changes in the understanding of the dental caries disease, which occurred in the last century, were either not yet adopted or were forgotten. Just like in the past, when the disease was "treated" by restoring cavities, there is presently a misunderstanding on the concept of incipient lesion remineralization. The aim of this paper was to review some concepts about caries, the natural phenomenon of enamel remineralization and the effect of fluoride (F on it, and also to discuss the clinical relevance of remineralizing products recently launched in the marketplace aiming to "treat early caries lesions".

  6. Evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free and caries-active children were evaluated. Results: Results showed that 90% of subjects in the caries-free group and 30% of subjects in the caries-active group had normal level of hydration value of less than 60 s and the difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Normal flow rate of stimulated saliva was found in 90% of the subjects in caries-free group and 33.3% subjects in the caries active group and difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Adequate salivary pH was found in 100% subjects in caries-free group and 30% in caries-active group and the difference was statistically very highly significant. Conclusion: To conclude, within limitations of this study, it became clear that normal level of hydration and higher values for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity of saliva lead to good oral health and a reduced caries occurrence. Increased salivary viscosity plays a role in increasing caries incidence. Salivary biochemical indicators like calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase also play their respective role in determining caries susceptibility of an individual. These salivary parameters can be used as diagnostic tool for caries risk assessment.

  7. Understanding and managing dental caries: a medical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Steve

    2007-01-01

    This article has taken a medical approach toward the understanding and managing of dental caries. Caries has been defined as a point in a person's life when there is an imbalance between protective and pathologic factors such that the process of demineralization of tooth structure by acid from bacteria in the tooth biofilm exceeds the patient's ability to remineralized tooth structure. The patient diagnosed with caries is out of balance. Caries is a diagnosis of a person. People have caries, teeth have lesions. Caries lesion detection, classification, and analysis are done at the level of the tooth surface. Caries is a process in time. Today we establish a diagnosis. For the future we establish a prediction. Patients can be diagnosed as caries active, caries balanced, or caries undetermined. For an improved treatment plan, future risk and prognosis assessments are accomplished by classifying all patients as either low, moderate, or high risk. A combination of diagnosis and risk or prognosis assessment leads to five treatment groups, each with an appropriate protocol for managing the disease process. The five protocols follow from the use of the four-step medical model for caries management. In the end, there are two treatment plans for these patients: a restorative therapy plan that treats the holes and a disease management plan that treats the disease. Surgical treatment does not manage the disease. Today we are managing tooth decay with medicine instead of a drill. PMID:18051341

  8. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles for caries control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Birkedal, Henrik; Olsen, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    Caries is caused by acid production in biofilms on dental surfaces. Preventing caries therefore involves control of microorganisms and/or the acid produced. Here, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles are presented as a new approach to caries control. The particles are made by co-precipitation ......Caries is caused by acid production in biofilms on dental surfaces. Preventing caries therefore involves control of microorganisms and/or the acid produced. Here, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles are presented as a new approach to caries control. The particles are made by co......, and the pH always remained above 5.5. Hence, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles show potential for applications in caries control....

  9. Relation Between Past and Present Dietary Sugar Intake and Dental Caries in A High Caries Population

    OpenAIRE

    T Malek Mohammadi; Kay EJ; A Hajizamani

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate relationship between re-ported dietary habits and dental caries in five and six-year-old children referred for dental extractions.Materials and Methods: Two hundred children were examined using standard caries di-agnostic criteria. The numbers of decayed, missing and filled deciduous teeth were re-corded. A food frequency table was completed by the parents of each child and analyzedthrough weighting the cariogenic potentialby the ...

  10. Diabetes Enhances Dental Caries and Apical Periodontitis in Caries-Susceptible WBN/KobSlc Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and a...

  11. Effect of caries preventive measures directed to expectant mothers on caries experience in their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanata, Régia Luzia; Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima; Pereira, José Carlos; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Lauris, José Roberto P; Barbosa, Sílvia Helena

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine the effectiveness of caries preventive measures started during pregnancy on the caries experience of first-time mothers and their infants. Eighty-one pregnant women with low social background were selected on the basis of the presence of active carious lesions and were randomly divided into control (38) and experimental (43) groups. The initial dental status (DMFS and white spot lesions) was established through clinical examination. The prophylactic measures were repeated during pregnancy and 6 and 12 months after delivery. Both groups received primary care intervention. They were instructed in relation to the etiologic factors of dental caries and received oral hygiene kits. Oral hygiene instructions were reinforced through interactive brushing. The experimental group also received antimicrobial treatment (topical application of NaF and iodine solution immediately after prophylaxis and 3 and 5 days later) and restorative care using glass ionomer cement. By the time the children were 2 years of age, 33.3% of the infants in the control group and 14.7% in the experimental group had caries activity. A significant difference in caries prevalence was observed between children with and without visible dental plaque. The mean number of tooth surfaces with carious lesions (including areas of demineralization) was higher among the children in the control group compared to the experimental group (6.3 x 3.2), however, with no statistical significance. Maternal caries increase was a significant factor influencing the caries experience of the children. These data support the evidence of an association between caries prevalence in young children and clinical (dental plaque) and maternal factors. PMID:12964648

  12. Antibody Response to Actinomyces Antigen and Dental Caries Experience: Implications for Caries Susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Martin; Owen, Willis L; Avery, Kevin T

    2005-01-01

    Fluoridated dentifrices reduce dental caries in subjects who perform effective oral hygiene. Actinomyces naeslundii increases in teeth-adherent microbial biofilms (plaques) in these subjects, and a well-characterized serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response (Actinomyces antibody [A-Ab]) is also increased. Other studies suggest that a serum IgG antibody response to streptococcal d-alanyl poly(glycerophosphate) (S-Ab) may indicate caries experience associated strongly with gingival health...

  13. Effect of chemo-mechanical disintegration on sludge anaerobic digestion for enhanced biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Pray, S Saji; Yogalakshmi, K N; Kumar, S Adish; Yeom, Ick-Tae; Banu, J Rajesh

    2016-02-01

    The effect of combined surfactant-dispersion pretreatment on dairy waste activated sludge (WAS) reduction in anaerobic digesters was investigated. The experiments were performed with surfactant, Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the range of 0.01 to 0.1 g/g suspended solids (SS) and disperser with rpm of 5000-25,000. The COD (chemical oxygen demand) solubilization, suspended solids reduction, and biogas generation increased for an energy input of 7377 kJ/kg total solids (TS) (12,000 rpm, 0.04 g/g SS, and 30 min) and were found to be 38, 32, and 75 %, higher than that of control. The pretreated sludge improved the performance of semicontinuous anaerobic digesters of 4 L working volume operated at four different SRTs (sludge retention time). SRT of 15 days was found to be appropriate showing 49 and 51 % reduction in SS and volatile solids (VS), respectively. The methane yield of the pretreated sample was observed to be 50 mL/g VS removed which was observed to be comparatively higher than the control (12 mL/g VS removed) at optimal SRT of 15 days. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to be reported and not yet been documented in literature. PMID:26416122

  14. Good Manufacturing Practices production and analysis of a DNA vaccine against dental caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping YANG; Yu-hong LI; Ai-hua ZHANG; Lan BI; Ming-wen FAN

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To prepare a clinical-grade anti-caries DNA vaccine pGJA-P/VAX and explore its immune effect and protective efficacy against a cariogenic bacterial challenge.Methods: A large-scale industrial production process was developed under Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) by combining and optimizing common unit operations such as alkaline lysis, precipitation, endotoxin removal and column chromatography. Quality controls of the purified bulk and final lyophilized vaccine were conducted according to authoritative guidelines. Mice and gnotobiotic rats were intranasally immunized with clinical-grade pGJA-P/VAX with chitosan. Antibody levels of serum IgG and salivary SlgA were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and caries activity was evaluated by the Keyes method. pGJA-P/VAX and pVAX1 prepared by a laboratory-scale commercial kit were used as controls.Results: The production process proved to be scalable and reproducible. Impurities including host protein, residual RNA, genomic DNA and endotoxin in the purified plasmid were all under the limits of set specifications. Intranasal vaccination with clinical-grade pGJA-P/ VAX induced higher serum IgG and salivary SlgA in both mice and gnotobiotic rats. While in the experimental caries model, the enamel (E), dentinal slight (Ds), and dentinal moderate (Dm) caries lesions were reduced by 21.1%, 33.0%, and 40.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The production process under GMP was efficient in preparing clinical-grade pGJA-P/VAX with high purity and intended effectiveness, thus facilitating future clinical trials for the anti-caries DNA vaccine.

  15. Dental caries from a molecular microbiological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Nyvad; W. Crielaard; A. Mira; N. Takahashi; D. Beighton

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries results from an imbalance of the metabolic activity in the dental biofilm. The microbial communities of teeth have traditionally been studied by standard cultural approaches. More recently, cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene have been used to characterize the microbial composi

  16. The oral microbiome in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzycka, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common chronic and multifactorial diseases affecting the human population. The appearance of a caries lesion is determined by the coexistence of three main factors: acidogenic and acidophilic microorganisms, carbohydrates derived from the diet, and host factors. Socio-economic and behavioral factors also play an important role in the etiology of the disease. Caries develops as a result of an ecological imbalance in the stable oral microbiom. Oral microorganisms form dental plaque on the surfaces of teeth, which is the cause of the caries process, and shows features of the classic biofilm. Biofilm formation appears to be influenced by large scale changes in protein expression over time and under genetic control Cariogenic microorganisms produce lactic, formic, acetic and propionic acids, which are a product of carbohydrate metabolism. Their presence causes a decrease in pH level below 5.5, resulting in demineralization of enamel hydroxyapatite crystals and proteolytic breakdown of the structure of tooth hard tissues. Streptococcus mutans, other streptococci of the so-called non-mutans streptococci group, Actinomyces and Lactobacillus play a key role in this process. Dental biofilm is a dynamic, constantly active metabolically structure. The alternating processes of decrease and increase of biofilm pH occur, which are followed by the respective processes of de- and remineralisation of the tooth surface. In healthy conditions, these processes are in balance and no permanent damage to the tooth enamel surface occurs. PMID:25115106

  17. Declining caries trends: are we satisfied?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D. Lagerweij; C. van Loveren

    2015-01-01

    WHO data suggest that all over the world the prevalence of caries has declined at the end of the previous and in the first decade of the present century. This decline started wherever the use of effective fluoride toothpaste became commonplace. Even though the decline is considerable with a 90 % red

  18. Caries experience in schoolchildren in Bucharest, Romania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funieru, Cristian; Twetman, Svante; Funieru, Elena;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence and experience of dental caries among children from public middle schools in Bucharest in relation to socioeconomic status and access to school-based dental care. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from 1,595 schoolchild...

  19. Need for new caries detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas A.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    1999-05-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) continues to be a major problems for adults as well as children, even though great advances have been made in preventive methods in the last 20 years. New methods for the management of caries will work best if lesions can be detected at an early stage and chemical rather than physical intervention can take place, thereby preserving the natural tooth structure and helping the saliva to heal, or remineralize, the areas of early decay. Clinical detection of caries in the US relies on visual examination, tactile with hand held explorer, and conventional radiographs, all of which are inadequate for the occlusal (biting) surfaces of the teeth where most of the decay now occurs. The dentist often has to explore by drilling with a dental bur to confirm early decay in these areas. New method that can determine the extent and degree of subsurface lesions in these surfaces non-destructively are essential for further advances in the clinical management of dental caries. Optical methods, which exploit the differences between sound and carious enamel and dentin, show great promise for the accurate detection of these lesions. Two or three- dimensional images, which include a measure of severity will be needed.

  20. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J;

    2012-01-01

    significant differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant...... difference was seen between infiltration and sealing (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01417832)....

  1. The relationship between the color of carious dentin stained with a caries detector dye and bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Yukiteru; Shimizu, Ayako; Narimatsu, Masahiro; Kinomoto, Yoshifumi; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2005-01-01

    This in vitro study aimed to design a method for the objective evaluation of carious dentin using numerical values. This study also investigated the relationship between the color of carious dentin stained with a caries detector dye using this objective method and the rate of bacterial detection as detected by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In 15 molars with occlusal dentin caries and three extracted sound molars, dentin was removed in multiple steps with 300 microm removed each step. Before and after every removal, images of a color-matching sticker and carious surfaces stained with a caries detector dye were acquired simultaneously using a CCD camera and dentinal tissue samples were removed with a round bur. Next, corrected L*, a* and b* values of the carious surfaces (CIE 1976 L*a*b* color system) were calculated from the color changes of the stickers in the images. In addition, bacterial DNA in the dentinal tissue was detected by PCR. From evaluations of the receiver operating characteristic curves for the L*, a* and b* values, the L* value was determined to be a more useful parameter than a* or b* for detecting bacterial infection using the caries detector dye. The bacterial detection rates of carious dentin decreased as the L* values of carious dentin stained with the dye increased. When the L* values were more than 60, the dentin had no bacterial infection. This study clarified the relationship between the colors of lesions stained with a caries detector dye and the rates of bacterial detection. PMID:15765962

  2. ROC analysis of acid demineralized artificial caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is designed to determine the artificial incipient proximal caries lesion detectability by dentists on Ektaspeed Plus film using ROC analysis. Sixteen premolars and 30 molars, which have 52 proximal caries-like demineralized lesions using acid-gel technique were added to 20 sound premolars and 30 sound molars to make 24 plaster blocks. Each block with 4 teeth and 6 contacting proximal surfaces was placed in an optical bench to take 12 bitewing radiographs with Ektaspeed Plus film. Thirty-six dentists acted as observers to evaluated the proximal lesions using five rating scales for ROC analysis. They were also asked to determine the presence or absence of the proximal caries. The true status of the proximal caries was established by the consensus of three oral and maxillofacila radiologists. For evaluation of intra-observer agreement, 9 dentist reread the radiographs at an interval of 1 month. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the intra-observer agreement was 0.746 (good agreement). Ten observer's data set were degenerated. The mean area under ROC curve from 26 observers was 0.806 and standard deviation was 0.061. The sensitivity and the specificity of the binary response were 0.17 (SD=0.11) and 0.78 (SD=0.17) respectively. The binary response only reveal a single values of sensitivity and the specificity. The ROC analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy in caries detection, which producing estimates of sensitivities for all specifities, yield more comprehensive measures of diagnostic performance than single values for sensitivity and specificity.

  3. Caries dental en escolares del Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRIGOYEN-CAMACHO MARÍA ESTHER

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de la prevalencia y la severidad de caries dental, así como las necesidades de tratamiento de la población escolar del Distrito Federal examinada en la encuesta de caries dental que se llevó a cabo en 1988 con la finalidad de obtener datos basales sobre caries en los escolares al inicio del Programa Nacional de Fluoruración de la Sal en México. Material y métodos. La población de estudio fue seleccionada empleando un marco muestral basado en el listado de las escuelas primarias y los jardines de niños registrados por la Secretaría de Educación Pública en 1988. En el examen de la cavidad bucal de los escolares se utilizaron los criterios diagnósticos señalados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados. Un total de 4 475 escolares de 5 a 12 años de edad participaron en el estudio. La prevalencia de caries dental en la población alcanzó 90.5%. El índice de necesidades de tratamiento fue elevado (79.6%. El promedio de los índices de caries en los escolares de 12 años de edad fue CPOD= 4.42 (desviación estándar -DE- 3.2 y CPOS= 6.53 (DE 4.8. Conclusiones. Los resultados de la encuesta subrayan la pertinencia de un programa preventivo de amplia cobertura, como el de fluoruración de la sal. Además, muestran que se requiere elaborar estrategias para mejorar el acceso de la población escolar a los servicios odontológicos del sistema de salud en México.

  4. Mechanical benefits of conservative restoration for dental fissure caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongpu; Zheng, Keke; Li, Eric; Li, Wei; Li, Qing; Swain, Michael V

    2016-01-01

    The principle of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) is to limit removal of carious tooth tissue while maximizing its repair and survival potential. The objective of this study is to explore the fracture resistance of a permanent molar tooth with a fissure carious lesion along with three clinical restoration procedures, namely one traditional and two conservative approaches, based upon MID. The traditional restoration employs extensive surgical removal of enamel and dentine about the cavity to eliminate potential risk of further caries development, while conservative method #1 removes significantly less enamel and infected dentine, and conservative method #2 only restores the overhanging enamel above the cavity and leaves the infected and affected dentine as it was. An extended finite element method (XFEM) is adopted here to analyze the fracture behaviors of both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) modeling of these four different scenarios. It was found that the two conservative methods exhibited better fracture resistance than the traditional restorative method. Although conservative method #2 has less fracture resistance than method #1, it had significantly superior fracture resistance compared to other restorations. More important, after cavity sealing it may potentially enhance the opportunity for remineralization and improved loading bearing capacity and fracture resistance. PMID:26298801

  5. Breaking the Chain of Early Childhood Caries Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine Strickland

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dental disease can have devas-tating effects on children who lack access to dental care. The US was shocked to learn of the recent death of a child from a caries related infection. The bio-logical basis of dental caries risk is usually considered interims of individual behavior. The role of the family and other more complex units of social organization in determining caries risk are not often appreciated. The transmission of caries causing bacteria from mothers (or other care givers having extensive contact with the child has been well docu-mented. In addition the age at which children are vulnerable to colonization with caries causing organisms is known. Despite the fact that the dental and scientific communities possess knowledge concerning the routs of caries transmission, efforts to implement preventive programs specifically targeting the reduction of caries transmission have been inconsistent. Working with and motivating families to prevent caries transmission should be the shared objective of researchers and clinicians. Armed with the available know-ledge, caries should not the thought of as an inevitable part of life. The goal of this essay is to challenge readers to empower people at risk to make decisions that enable them to break the chain of caries infection.

  6. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna CARTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33 randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1 personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization, (2 life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits, and (3 oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency. An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA. Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2, whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4 and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6. Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83–3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13–1.82, respectively. The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified.

  7. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Giovanna; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Cocco, Fabio; Sale, Silvana; Lingström, Peter; Campus, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33) randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS) index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1) personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization), (2) life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits), and (3) oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency). An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA). Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2), whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4) and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6). Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83-3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13-1.82, respectively). The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified. PMID:26892361

  8. Caries progression of white spot lesions sealed with an unfilled resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Godoy, F; Summitt, J B; Donly, K J

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluated the artificial caries resistance provided to white spot lesions by sealing with an unfilled resin. Twenty extracted molar teeth were coated with an acid-resistant varnish (ARV), except for two 5 mm x 2 mm enamel windows (mesial and distal), and immersed for 5 weeks in an acidified gel brought to a pH of 4.2 with lactic acid. White spot lesions (not frank caries) were created in each window. The teeth were removed from the gel, rinsed and dried. One window was divided into two equal parts; one half was covered with the ARV (Group 1); the other half was not covered (Group 2). The other window was treated with 37% phosphoric acid for 20 sec, rinsed with water for 20 sec, dried and sealed with Prisma Universal Bond 2 Adhesive (Group 3). The teeth were reimmersed in the acidified gel for 40 days until frank caries was induced in Group 2. Specimens were then removed from the gel, rinsed, and sectioned occlusogingivally. Sections were polished to approximately 100 microns, imbibed in water, and analyzed using polarized light microscopy. Depth of demineralization was evaluated in the varnished, sealed and frankly carious areas. The mean (SD) lesion depths were as follows: Group 1 (under ARV) 366 microns (103 microns); Group 2 (frank caries) 746 microns (219 microns); Group 3 (under sealed area) 298 microns (111 microns). ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls procedure were used to compare group means. The mean depths of demineralization under the ARV (Group 1) and the unfilled resin sealant (Group 2) were significantly less than for the unprotected enamel (Group 2) (p > 0.0001). Results indicate the potential effectiveness of sealing white spot lesions with an unfilled resin to prevent further demineralization. PMID:9484106

  9. Prevalence of dental caries and caries-related risk factors in premature and term children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Resende Nogueira Cruvinel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the prevalence of enamel defects and dental caries and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely-born children and term children. Eighty children were examined, 40 born prematurely (G1 and 40 born term (G2, in the age group between 5 and 10 years. The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were recorded on a questionnaire. The teeth were examined for presence of deficiencies of the enamel and caries that were registered. The caries were registered, focusing on the indices dmft (decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth. The results showed that 75% of the total sample had enamel defects. The logistic regression model showed that other risk factors such as per capita family income, educational level, dietary and hygiene habits, fluoride exposure, trauma, and diseases had no correlation with enamel defects and caries. A smaller value of total DMFT (0.95 was found in the group of premature children in comparison to the term children (2.07 p = 0.0164. There was no difference concerning the permanent dentition between the two groups (p = 0.9926. One concludes that prematurity can't be a predisposing factor for the presence of dental caries.

  10. Relation Between Past and Present Dietary Sugar Intake and Dental Caries in A High Caries Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Malek Mohammadi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate relationship between re-ported dietary habits and dental caries in five and six-year-old children referred for dental extractions.Materials and Methods: Two hundred children were examined using standard caries di-agnostic criteria. The numbers of decayed, missing and filled deciduous teeth were re-corded. A food frequency table was completed by the parents of each child and analyzedthrough weighting the cariogenic potentialby the frequency of consumption, and summing the two scores.Results: The mean number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft was 7.1 (SD=3.29. There was no statistically significant correlation between the reported dietary intake and the caries rate in the study population P=0.07.Use of bottles with sugared drinks during infancy was associated with increased caries levels (P<0.01.Conclusion: Poor infant feeding practices promote caries in childhood. A method of diet assessment which would evaluate diet-related health education is required.

  11. Dental caries status of Chinese children in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, P M; Vieira, E

    1979-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dental health status of a representative sample of Johannesburg Chinese schoolchildren, all 250 attending the only Chinese school in the city. In 18 preschoolchildren, 3--5 years old, 16.7% were caries-free, mean dmft was 7.1 +/- 5.8 and labial caries was present in 33.3%. In 165 primary schoolchildren aged 5--16 years, the mean dmft was 590 +/- 3.2 with 20% of the primary dentition caries-free and the mean DMFT was 2.4 +/- 1.9 4.8% of the primary schoolchildren were caries-free. In 67 high school pupils of 11--17 years, 4.5% were caries-free and the mean DMFT score was 7.1 +/- 3.9. Caries prevalences among the Chinese were similar to corresponding groups of children of Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom and Malaysia. PMID:287589

  12. The effect of airflow on site-specific electrical conductance measurements used in the diagnosis of pit and fissure caries in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, D N; Kidd, E A; Wilson, R F

    1997-01-01

    There has been renewed interest in the electronic diagnosis of occlusal caries using measurement of conductance or impedance. One of two previously manufactured electronic caries detectors (the Vanguard electronic caries detector, Massachusetts Manufacturing Corporation, Cambridge, Mass., USA) had a probe tip with an integral air supply. Airflow is essential for removing superficial moisture and preventing surface conduction to the gingival margin. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of airflow on electronic diagnosis of occlusal caries using a prototype electronic caries meter (ECM II. LODE, Groningen, The Netherlands) fitted with a flow meter. Stable conductance readings were taken at 76 discrete sites on 32 extracted teeth with no visible signs of cavitation, at 3 airflows: 5, 7.5 and 10 litres/min. The stable conductance scale was a continuous scale from -0.45 to 13.25 and set by the manufacturer. Histological validation was carried out on macroradiographs of sections cut to include each sample site. The histological picture was compared with the stable conductance readings taken at various airflows. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using different conductance readings to differentiate sound and carious sites, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves constructed. Of the sites, 32% had enamel and dentine caries and 33% had enamel caries. The ROC curves showed airflow to be highly relevant. An airflow of 5 litres/min was shown to be inadequate and led to large numbers of false-positive diagnoses. A minimum airflow of 7.5 litres/min was required to achieve optimum sensitivity (92%) and specificity (87%) for dentine caries diagnosis. PMID:9118182

  13. Effect of Dental Caries on Children Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Malek Mohammadi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined the hypothesis that severe dental caries may affect growth and development in preschool children. Methods: The study examined 218 children with severe caries using standard diagnostic criteria. All children were weighed and measured and a food frequency questionnaire was completed for each. Six months subsequent to tooth extraction, 131 of the children were followed up and underwent repeat measurement of height, weight, dental health and food intake. For each child, body mass index (BMI was calculated, and all measurements were converted into standard deviation scores and compared to the UK 1990 growth reference. Results: In the six months period after having their decayed teeth extracted the children’s BMIs had increased by 0.654. Two-sided t-tests for paired data showed this difference to be significant (P< 0.01. Conclusion: Treatment of gross dental disease appears to promote "catch-up" growth and normalisation of body mass index.

  14. Caries prevalence in skeletal series: is it possible to compare?

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Wesolowski

    2006-01-01

    Because of the relationship with subsistence, dental caries is a central issue in paleopathological research. Usually, comparisons between caries prevalence exhibited in different skeletal series are made. Dietary variation is the most common explanation for cavities prevalence. The aim of this paper is to verify if it is possible to compare caries prevalence reported on papers for archaeological skeletal series. Another goal is to determine if other factors besides diet are implicated in den...

  15. Inhibition of caries in hamsters treated with staphylococcin 1580.

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, R J; Morhart, R E; Marquez, C; Adams, B. O.

    1986-01-01

    Littermate hamsters were infected orally with cariogenic Streptococcus mutans NS-50S and maintained on a high-sucrose diet to induce dental caries. Individual groups of animals were treated by single daily instillation of staphylococcin 1580 (100 micrograms) in the cheek pouches. Other groups were treated similarly with bacitracin (60 or 120 U) or saline. After 35 days on the caries test regimen, animals treated with staphylococcin 1580 had 49 or 60% less caries than the saline controls in tw...

  16. School dietary habits and incidence of dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Monteagudo S??nchez, Celia; T??llez, Francisco; Heras Gonz??lez, Leticia; Ib????ez-Peinado, Diana; Mariscal Arcas, Miguel; Olea Serrano, F??tima

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: healthy dietary habits are considered to improve oral health and tooth quality. Caries treatment comprises tooth restoration with dental composites and sealants, almost all (> 90%) of which contain bisphenol A (BPA). Study hypotheses were: a) breakfast and oral hygiene habits are important factors in dental caries development; and b) dental caries treatment with epoxy-resins entails a risk of oral exposure to monomers migrating from the polymeric material...

  17. GWAS of Dental Caries Patterns in the Permanent Dentition

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, J. R.; Feingold, E; Wang, X.; M. Lee; TCuenco, K.; Weeks, D E; Weyant, R.J.; Crout, R.; McNeil, D.W.; Marazita, M L

    2013-01-01

    The importance of susceptibility genes in the risk for dental caries has been clearly established. While many candidate caries genes have been proposed, to date, few of them have been rigorously validated through observational and experimental studies. Moreover, most genetic epidemiological studies have analyzed global caries phenotypes that ignore the possibility that genes may exert differential effects across tooth surfaces of the dentition. Therefore, we performed genome-wi...

  18. Sugar sweetened beverages and childhood dental caries : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Yuerong; 杜月蓉

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries on primary and permanent teeth is a common chronic disease worldwide with negative effects on children`s quality of life, both in the present and future. Sugar intake is a risk factor for caries. However, the association between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and dental caries is unclear. Methods A systematic review of relevant literature was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Library and ScienceDirect to locate every journal article in English assessing the as...

  19. DENTAL CARIES- A WIDELY GROWING DISEASE OF TEETH

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries called as tooth decay is basically a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid. This acid then dematerializes the hard tooth structure. They are produced when demineralization amount exceeds the remineralization amount. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment, prevention and risk factors associated with it. A review o...

  20. Classification and management of dental caries. New concepts.

    OpenAIRE

    Sathyanarayanan R; Carounnanidy U

    2002-01-01

    There has been a tremendous change in the understanding of carious lesion in all aspects from pathogenesis to prevention. The profession has also seen a revolutionary change in the material science and technology. In spite of these changes, the caries classification provided by Dr. G. V. Black remains unchanged, deterring the radical changes needed in the understanding of caries as a disease process. This article propose a new classification of dental caries to suit the present day changes in...

  1. Dental caries prevalence and treatment levels in Arizona preschool children.

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, J. M.; Altman, D S; Robertson, D C; O'Sullivan, D.M.; Douglass, J M; Tinanoff, N

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of dental caries in a large group of preschool children, to determine the extent to which the children received dental treatment, to examine the association between demographic and socioeconomic factors and the prevalence of caries, and to compare these findings with those from previous studies of preschool populations in the United States. METHODS: Dental caries exams were performed on 5171 children ages 5 months through 4 years, and a parent or other car...

  2. Obesity and dental caries: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva; Ana Maria Baptista Menezes; Flavio Fernando Demarco; Fabiana Vargas-Ferreira; Marco Aurelio Peres

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. METHODS A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. RESULTS Initially, 537 references were found; after checking t...

  3. Effects of Laser Irradiation on Caries Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Esmaeilzadeh; Hossein Bagheri; Yashar Rezaei

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although dental caries is a preventable disease, it is still common and remains a public health problem. One of the potentially effective preventive measures is the use of lasers. The purpose of this study was to review the studies about use of laser irradiation on the inhibition of carious lesions and the effectiveness of different commercial laser type (Nd:YAG, CO2, and Argon).METHODS: A literature search included journal databases, existing systematic reviews, and studies ide...

  4. Caries prevalence among schoolchildren in Zagreb, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Dukić, Walter; Delija, Barbara; Lulić Dukić, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in schoolchildren aged 7-14 years from Zagreb. Methods Dental examinations based on the World Health Organization criteria were performed on 1168 children in the period 2009-2010. The teeth were clinically examined with standard dental instruments using visual-tactile method under standard dental light. We recorded the clinical indexes of decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT and dmft; upper-case letters refer to permane...

  5. Genetic mapping of high caries experience on human chromosome 13

    OpenAIRE

    Erika C Küchler; Deeley, Kathleen; Ho, Bao; Linkowski, Samantha; Meyer, Chelsea; Noel, Jacqueline; Kouzbari, M Zahir; Bezamat, Mariana; José M Granjeiro; Antunes, Leonardo S; Antunes, Livia Azeredo; de Abreu, Fernanda Volpe; Marcelo C. Costa; Tannure, Patricia N; SEYMEN, Figen

    2013-01-01

    Background Our previous genome-wide linkage scan mapped five loci for caries experience. The purpose of this study was to fine map one of these loci, the locus 13q31.1, in order to identify genetic contributors to caries. Methods Seventy-two pedigrees from the Philippines were studied. Caries experience was recorded and DNA was extracted from blood samples obtained from all subjects. Sixty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 13q31.1 were genotyped. Association between caries experie...

  6. Radiographic caries diagnosis and restorative treatment decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is concerned with a single diagnostic technique: the bitewing radiograph, and the way it is used by dentists to decide on patient treatment need for interproximal caries. The variation in caries diagnosis and treatment decisions using bitewing radiographs is described and the radiographic criteria of choice for minimizing over and undertreatment according to a norm are investigated. Three possible diagnostic strategies in interproximal caries diagnosis using a decision analysis approach are described and evaluated, and the effect of the reported diagnostic behaviour and knowledge of practicing Dutch dentists in their use of bitewing radiographs for the diagnosis and treatment of interproximal caries is described and analyzed. (Auth.)

  7. Breaking the Chain of Early Childhood Caries Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Maxine Strickland; Kenneth Markowitz

    2011-01-01

    Dental disease can have devas-tating effects on children who lack access to dental care. The US was shocked to learn of the recent death of a child from a caries related infection. The bio-logical basis of dental caries risk is usually considered interims of individual behavior. The role of the family and other more complex units of social organization in determining caries risk are not often appreciated. The transmission of caries causing bacteria from mothers (or other care givers having ex...

  8. Radiographic diagnoses and treatment decisions on approximal caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineral loss which represents a threshold value for radiographic diagnosis, cannot be defined exactly. For clinical use 10% mineral loss in the direction of the X-ray beam may constitute a border line lesion for radiographic detection, and caries lesions without cavitation seemed to be beyond this diagnostic threshold. The degree of caries estimated by using radiographs is fairly closely related to the depth of the tissue changes recorded in the prepared cavity. Radiographic examinations more often lead to underestimation than overestimation of the degree of caries. Radiographic caries diagnoses made at different degrees of penetration toward the pulp showed insignificant variations with respect to quality, but the observers were more confident of caries being present (used more strict criterion) when they scored caries in inner dentin. Consensus on diagnostic criteria and improved diagnostic quality are considerably more important to the quality of therapeutic decisions on approximal caries than viewing conditions and film density. A semi-radiopaque material in Class II fillings seems to offer advantages compared to amalgam in respect of the diagnosis of secondary caries and marginal defects. There is a danger that dentists will restore approximal caries lesions too early and before these can be diagnosed in dentin radiographically

  9. Obesity and dental caries: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. METHODS A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. RESULTS Initially, 537 references were found; after checking the titles and abstracts by two independent researchers, twenty-eight articles were selected for complete reading. Ten of them that assessed the primary and/or permanent dentition observed a positive association between obesity and dental caries and one study found an inverse association. According to the Downs & Black classification, thirteen articles with good scientific evidence were found. CONCLUSIONS The present review did not find sufficient evidence regarding the association between obesity and dental caries, and it did not clarify the possible role of diet and other possible effect modifiers on this association.

  10. Role of saliva in caries models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, W M; Higham, S M

    1995-11-01

    The crucial role played by the actions of saliva in controlling the equilibrium between de- and remineralization in a cariogenic environment is demonstrated by the effects on caries incidence of salivary dysfunction and by the distribution of sites of caries predilection to those were salivary effects are restricted. However, of the several properties of saliva which may confer protective effects, it is not certain which are most important. A distinction can be made between static protective effects, which act continuously, and dynamic effects, which act during the time-course of the Stephan curve. Evidence implicates salivary buffering and sugar clearance as important dynamic effects of saliva to prevent demineralization; of these, the buffering of plaque acids may predominate. Enhanced remineralization of white spot lesions may also be regarded as dynamic protective effects of saliva. Fluoride in saliva (from dentifrices, ingesta, etc.) may promote remineralization and (especially fluoride in plaque) inhibit demineralization. The design of experiments using caries models must take into account the static and dynamic effects of saliva. Some models admit a full expression of these effects, while others may exclude them, restricting the range of investigations possible. The possibility is raised that protective effects of saliva and therapeutic agents may act cooperatively. PMID:8615945

  11. New method to detect caries via fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, J.; Frentzen, M.; Thoms, M.

    2007-07-01

    Caries, a common and widespread infectious disease, has to be detected as early as possible. Based on the need for an easy and handy tool for preventing invasive treatment a new fluorescence camera system has been developed. Using this camera the so-called porphyrins, metabolic products of oral pathogenic bacteria can be visualized. Thereby fluorophores are excited at a wavelength of 405nm by the built-in GaN-LEDs. Healthy and diseased dental hard tissues fluoresce in the green and in the red spectral range, respectively, thus allowing differentiation by coulor. To prove the reliability of this fluorescence camera system, freshly extracted teeth were examined. Three different methods of analysis were verified and compared to give information about the lesions (sensitivity & selectivity): The extent of the fluorescence area, the integral of the red/green ratio of the lesion and the maximum red/green ratio in the area of interest. Histological sections of the teeth served as reference. In addition, the camera was compared to a tip probe sensor already available on the market. In total, our results show that regarding the three different algorithms of analysis, the maximum of the red/green ratio is a preferential method to evaluate carious lesions. Sound tissue, enamel caries and dentin caries can be clearly distinguished. The new fluorescence camera is a handy, efficient and fast device in order to detect lesions and seems to be superior to the tip probe sensor regarding the positioning. Further studies are required.

  12. Microbiological analysis after complete or partial removal of carious dentin in primary teeth: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lula, E C O; Monteiro-Neto, V; Alves, C M C; Ribeiro, C C C

    2009-01-01

    Since viable bacteria can persist in tooth cavities regardless of the technique used for caries removal, the objective of the present randomized clinical trial was to examine the microflora of primary teeth treated by complete or partial removal of carious dentin. Deciduous molars with acute carious lesions in the inner half of dentin and vital pulp were randomly divided into two groups of 16: complete removal, in which the carious dentin was completely removed with the help of a caries detector dye, and partial removal, in which the carious dentin was completely removed from the dentinoenamel junction and lateral walls, while the necrotic carious dentin from the cavity floor was only removed superficially. Dentin samples were obtained with a sterile No. 3 bur after caries removal and 3-6 months after protection with calcium hydroxide cement and restoration of the cavities with resin composite. The samples were stored in thioglycolate. Decimal dilutions were then prepared and seeded for the enumeration of Streptococcus spp., mutans streptococci, Lactobacillus spp. and total microorganisms. Before sealing, a larger number of microorganisms was detected in teeth submitted to partial caries removal compared to the complete removal group. However, after sealing the level of colonization was similar in the two groups for all microorganisms studied. The results suggest that persistence of bacteria does not seem to be a reason for reopening of cavities in deciduous teeth after partial caries removal. PMID:19648746

  13. Influence of different variables on the inter-municipality variation in caries experience in Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K.R.; Christiansen, M.E.C.; Qvist, V.

    Caries experience, adolescents, explanatory role, fluoride, socio-economic factors, structural factors......Caries experience, adolescents, explanatory role, fluoride, socio-economic factors, structural factors...

  14. A Review on Traditional Caries Diagnostic Systems and Introduction of New International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Malek Mohammadi T.; Hajizamani A.

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infection disease that manifests itself through demineralization of dental tissues and cavitations in the tooth structure. The diagnosis of dental caries poses challenges due to the complex interaction of multiple endogenous causal factors. Naturally, visual and visual-tactile examinations have been the most commonly used diagnostic aids in caries examination for many years. A major drawback in common dental examination was the use of varied diagnostic criteria by v...

  15. Studies on strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from caries-active and caries-free individuals in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Holbrook, W. Peter; Magnúsdóttir, Margrét O.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dental caries has been strongly associated with mutans streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus. Many studies have linked these organisms to the carious process and counts of mutans streptococci have been used to monitor caries risk. The high levels of caries generally found in Iceland have enabled several studies to be performed on the variation within strains of S. mutans. Methods: This paper reports some studies showing phenotypic differences between stra...

  16. Dental caries, salivary parameters and plaque scores as ‎caries risk predictors among 12 year old school children – A ‎follow up study

    OpenAIRE

    Mamata Hebbal; Anil V Ankola; Sharada C Metgud

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Dental caries is a disease with multifactorial etiology and many other factors ‎influence indirectly. The important factors are Streptococci mutans, Lactobacilli counts, saliva ‎flow rate, buffering capacity and past caries experience.‎Objective: To find the association between caries increment and various risk factors: Caries ‎experience, dental plaque, salivary flow rate, buffering capacity, Streptococcus mutans and ‎Lactobacilli counts.‎Method: Dental caries and plaque scores...

  17. Inequalities of caries experience in Nevada youth expressed by DMFT index vs. Significant Caries Index (SiC) over time

    OpenAIRE

    Mobley Connie; Dounis Georgia; Ditmyer Marcia; Schwarz Eli

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background With the increasingly polarized distribution of dental caries among children and adolescents, the usual DMFT measure has become a less meaningful population descriptor. To re-focus on identifying the high caries prevalence group the Significant Caries Index (SiC) was created. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence and severity of dental caries in Nevada youth over a period of eight years and to compare its expression by means of DMFT and SiC; analyze the car...

  18. A chemo-mechanical free-energy-based approach to model durotaxis and extracellular stiffness-dependent contraction and polarization of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Vivek B; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Xiao

    2016-02-01

    We propose a chemo-mechanical model based on stress-dependent recruitment of myosin motors to describe how the contractility, polarization and strain in cells vary with the stiffness of their surroundings and their shape. A contractility tensor, which depends on the distribution of myosin motors, is introduced to describe the chemical free energy of the cell due to myosin recruitment. We explicitly include the contributions to the free energy that arise from mechanosensitive signalling pathways (such as the SFX, Rho-Rock and MLCK pathways) through chemo-mechanical coupling parameters. Taking the variations of the total free energy, which consists of the chemical and mechanical components, in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics provides equations for the temporal evolution of the active stress and the contractility tensor. Following this approach, we are able to recover the well-known Hill relation for active stresses, based on the fundamental principles of irreversible thermodynamics rather than phenomenology. We have numerically implemented our free energy-based approach to model spatial distribution of strain and contractility in (i) cells supported by flexible microposts, (ii) cells on two-dimensional substrates, and (iii) cells in three-dimensional matrices. We demonstrate how the polarization of the cells and the orientation of stress fibres can be deduced from the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the contractility tensor. Our calculations suggest that the chemical free energy of the cell decreases with the stiffness of the extracellular environment as the cytoskeleton polarizes in response to stress-dependent recruitment of molecular motors. The mechanical energy, which includes the strain energy and motor potential energy, however, increases with stiffness, but the overall energy is lower for cells in stiffer environments. This provides a thermodynamic basis for durotaxis, whereby cells preferentially migrate towards stiffer regions of the

  19. The Comparison of Dentine Thickness Under Proximal Caries Between Bitewing Radiographs and Tooth Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravi K

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Carious lesions are usually found by dentists, using bitewing radiographs, and according to the depth of the lesions, the treatment plan is designed. At the present, this technique is the most accepted one and is used generally. But it is not a perfect technique and there are some errors in determining of depth of proximal carious lesions. These errors are mainly related to the use of new high-speed films with broad density and lower voltages. In this study, dentin thickness under proximal caries in bitewing radiography was compared with its real thickness, in tooth structure. Twenty-four teeth samples with proximal caries were used. Before and after removal of carious lesions bitewing radiographs were taken and then each tooth was sectioned occlusogingivally and the thickness of dentine under proximal caries and on bitewing radiographs were measured under microscope with 0.01 mm accuracy. Mean value of dentine thickness in tooth structure was 41% of its mean thickness in bitewing radiographs, showing 59% difference (reduction. Therefore, more care should be taken in using standard technique and interpreting of bitewing radiographs by clinicians. Clinical examinations also should be performed in ideal conditions, and patients should be clinically and radiographically examined every six months.

  20. [Dental caries of the developmental age as a civilization disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcicka, Anna; Zalewska, Magdalena; Czerech, Ewa; Jabłoński, Robert; Grabowska, Stanisława Zyta; Maciorkowska, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    According to the definition of the World Health Organization (WHO), dental caries is a local pathological process of the extrasomatic background, leading to enamel decalcification, decomposition of dental hard tissue, and in consequence to formation of a dental cavity. Morbidity of dental caries increases with age, reaching 100% of children, aged from 6 to 7. Poland is one of few European countries where the incidence of dental caries in children did not decrease, despite recommendations of WHO for 2000 year, aimed at the decrease in the incidence of dental caries among 6-year-old children to the level of 50%. The recommendation of WHO for 2015 year is to reduce the incidence of dental caries to 30% among 6-year-olds, i.e., 70% of 6 year-old children should be free of dental caries. Apart from genetic conditioning, inappropriate health behaviors, nutritional habits and gastroesophageal reflux disease influence the development of dental caries. Consumption of 'fast food' and drinking sweetened beverages of low pH contribute markedly to the development of dental caries, decreasing simultaneously consumption of pro healthy foods, including milk and cereals. Taking into consideration perspective clinical examinations of children and adolescents, evaluating the relationship between dental caries and nutritional habits as well as environmental conditioning, the study shows current data about factors, contributing to the incidence of dental caries in children, collected from the literature. The attention was paid to the relationship between dental caries and gastroesophageal reflux disease and the necessity of its early diagnostics and proper treatment. PMID:23484402

  1. A study of influence of sugars on the modulations of dental plaque pH in children with rampant caries, moderate caries and no caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utreja D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is undertaken to find out the pH of resting plaque in children with no caries, moderate caries and rampant caries and to determine the modulations of plaque pH with different sugar solution rinses viz: sucrose, glucose and fructose. The study was carried out on forty five children, in the age group of 3-10 years (25 males and 20 females. The child was given 10 ml of test solution and was asked to rinse and swish it in the mouth for a period of 30 sec. Plaque samples were taken from 20 different spots after 5, 10, 20 and 30 min of the rinse and pH values of all the samples were determined. Results show that there was a statistically significant (P<0.05 difference between the pH values of plaque at different intervals of time with sucrose, fructose and glucose solution rinse in children with moderate caries, rampant caries as compared to the caries free group. Sucrose was found to be highly cariogenic in all the children with a greater potentiating effect in moderate and rampant caries. Glucose also appeared to have a cariogenic role while fructose had the least of it all.

  2. EFFECT OF FLUORIDE MOUTHRINSING ON CARIES LESION DEVELOPMENT IN SHARK ENAMEL - AN INSITU CARIES MODEL STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OGAARD, B; ROLLA, G; DIJKMAN, T; RUBEN, J; ARENDS, J

    1991-01-01

    Shark enamel consists of nearly pure fluorapatite and has been shown to demineralize in an in situ caries model. The present study was conducted to investigate whether additional fluoride supplementation in the form of mouthrinsing would inhibit lesion development in shark enamel. The study slabs of

  3. Dental caries, restorations and extractions by dental caries in first permanent molars. Clinical and radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research analyse by clinical and radiographic study, dental caries, restorations and extractions in 1.600 first permanent molars, from 400 children, both sexes, aged 5 to 13 years old, assisted in the Children's Clinic, Faculdade de Odontologia de Aracatuba, UNESP, in 1994. (author)

  4. Estimation of caries experience by multiple imputation and direct standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, A.A.; Buuren, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Valid estimates of caries experience are needed to monitor oral population health. Obtaining such estimates in practice is often complicated by nonresponse and missing data. The goal of this study was to estimate caries experiences in a population of children aged 5 and 11 years, in the presence of

  5. Estimation of Caries Experience by Multiple Imputation and Direct Standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, A. A.; van Buuren, S.

    2014-01-01

    Valid estimates of caries experience are needed to monitor oral population health. Obtaining such estimates in practice is often complicated by nonresponse and missing data. The goal of this study was to estimate caries experiences in a population of children aged 5 and 11 years, in the presence of

  6. Fluorine profiling after application of various anti-caries gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two newly developed caries-preventing gels were tested together with Elmex on pre-school children over a time of 3 years. Proton-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry (PIGE) was used to measure the fluorine profiles in milk teeth (incisors). In accordance with the clinical statement the results allow to produce a new anti-caries drug. (orig.)

  7. Protective effect of milk against in vitro caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibby, B G; Huang, C T; Zero, D; Mundorff, S A; Little, M F

    1980-10-01

    Additions of milk solids to laboratory "cakes" made of sucrose and starch reduced in vitro (Orofax) "caries" and the dissolution of granular enamel, but increased the amounts of fermentation acids produced. Withdrawal of the milk component of ice cream, yogurt, and chocolate milk resulted in increased Orofax "caries". PMID:6932412

  8. DENTAL CARIES AND MALNUTRITION IN CHILDREN BELOW AGE OF FIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Prospective and cross sectional study was conducted in city, Fazilka, Punjab. It covered a sample of 440 children under age of five years. Sample selected by random multi stage sampling method. Selection done from schools, anganwadi and slum areas. It was found that dental caries affected 11.6% ( 51/440) of children. Dental caries were significantly, ( p

  9. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Duijster; G.H.W. Verrips; C. van Loveren

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to ex

  10. [Dental carie as chronic disease, a new therapeutic approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Trentesaux, Thomas; Sandrin-Berthon, Brigitte; Stuckens, Chantal; Hamel, Olivier; Hervé, Christian

    2011-01-01

    For many decades, oral health has been improving considerably in France. Caries indicators have decreased strongly. However, some "high risk" populations accumulate the majority of tooth decay. For them, health education and public health policies are inefficient. Tooth decay starts early and continues throughout their lives. Describing dental caries as a chronic pathology enables us to envisage alternative therapies, such as therapeutic patient education.

  11. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Loveren, C. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to e

  12. Early Childhood Caries (ECC): an infectious transmissible oral disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Poureslami; W.E. van Amerongen

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries in babies and toddlers is called Early Childhood Caries (ECC). It is an infectious and transmissible die-to-bacterial disease. Detailed knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents facilitates a more comprehensive approach toward prevention. Mutans streptoc

  13. Update on Early Childhood Caries since the Surgeon General's Report

    OpenAIRE

    Tinanoff, Norman; Reisine, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The 2000 Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health (SGROH) included a limited discussion of the condition known as Early Childhood Caries (ECC). Because of its high prevalence, its impact on young children's quality of life and potential for increasing their risk of caries in the permanent dentition, ECC is arguably one of the most serious and costly health conditions among young children.

  14. Fluorine profiling after application of various anti-caries gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschau, H.-E.; Plier, F.; Otto, G.; Wyrwich, C.; Treide, A.

    1990-04-01

    Two newly developed caries-preventing gels were tested together with Elmex R on pre-school children over a time of 3 years. Proton-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry (PIGE) was used to measure the fluorine profiles in milk teeth (incisors). In accordance with the clinical statement the results allow to produce a new anti-caries drug.

  15. Comparison of the Effect of Xylitol Gum- and Masticchewing on the Remineralization Rate of Caries-like Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Biria

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The use of sugar-free chewing gums has been reported to be highly effective in the prevention of dental caries. This study carried out to compare the effect of mastic gum and a xylitol chewing gum on remineralization of caries-like lesions.Materials and Methods: In this cross-over, single blinded, in situ study, first, artificial caries-like lesions were created in six extracted human premolars. Then axial sections were cut from each tooth to the thickness of approximately 100 microns. Fifteen adult subjects participated in the study. Lower removable appliances with rectangular boxes in the lingual surfaces were fabricated for them. One tooth section was placed in each of these boxes. The appliances were worn for two separate periods of three weeks each. The subjectschewed five sticks of gum (mastic gum and or xylitol chewing gum per day, each for 20 minutes. In the second period, the sections were replaced with new ones and the participants were instructed to change their gums. The sections were examined by polarized light microscope and the difference between the size of demineralized areas before and after intervention were recorded. Paired t-test and LSD test served for statistical analyses.Results: The decrease in demineralized surfaces in both groups was statistically significant(mastic gum: P=0.018, xylitol gum: P0.05.Conclusion: Chewing both mastic gum and xylitol chewing gum improved the remineralization of caries-like lesions but their effects were similar.

  16. Caries prevalence in skeletal series: is it possible to compare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Wesolowski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the relationship with subsistence, dental caries is a central issue in paleopathological research. Usually, comparisons between caries prevalence exhibited in different skeletal series are made. Dietary variation is the most common explanation for cavities prevalence. The aim of this paper is to verify if it is possible to compare caries prevalence reported on papers for archaeological skeletal series. Another goal is to determine if other factors besides diet are implicated in dental cavity prevalence explanation. Twenty six papers about dental health with caries prevalences published from 1999 to 2004 were analyzed for completeness. This assessment includes carious lesion diagnosis and characteristics, age, sex and size characteristics of samples, and prevalence calculation method. The majority of the analyzed papers do not provide adequate information in the topics listed above. Only very few implicated factors other than diet as a contributor to caries lesions development.

  17. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Khandelwal, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual. PMID:25422590

  18. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  19. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Areias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. METHODS: A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. RESULTS: Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of non-Down syndrome siblings. This difference in the DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth essentially reflects data obtained from treated teeth, for which 91% of children with Down syndrome had never had a tooth treated vs. 67% of siblings. This result was statistically significant, whereas results for decayed and lost teeth did not differ between Down syndrome children and their unaffected siblings. Additionally, in Down syndrome children, a delayed eruption of the second molar occurs. Down syndrome children and their siblings have similar oral hygiene habits, but a higher percentage of Down syndrome children visit a dentist before the age of three years, in comparison to their siblings. Bruxism was also more common in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Portuguese children with Down syndrome have lower caries rates than children without Down syndrome. This reduced prevalence may be associated with the parents' greater concern about oral health care in Down syndrome children, resulting in their taking them sooner to visit a dentist, as well as to a higher bruxism prevalence and delayed tooth eruption.

  20. Genetic influences in caries and periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassell, T M; Harris, E L

    1995-01-01

    Deciphering the relative roles of heredity and environmental factors ("nature vs. nurture") in the pathogenesis of dental caries and diseases of the periodontium has occupied clinical and basic researchers for decades. Success in the endeavor has come more easily in the case of caries; the complex interactions that occur between host-response mechanisms and putative microbiologic pathogens in periodontal disease have made elucidation of genetic factors in disease susceptibility more difficult. In addition, during the 30-year period between 1958 and 1987, only meager resources were targeted toward the "nature" side of the nature/nurture dipole in periodontology. In this article, we present a brief history of the development of genetic epistemology, then describe the three main research mechanisms by which questions about the hereditary component of diseases in humans can be addressed. A critical discussion of the evidence for a hereditary component in caries susceptibility is next presented, also from a historical perspective. The evolution of knowledge concerning possible genetic ("endogenous", "idiotypic") factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease is initiated with an analysis of some foreign-language (primarily German) literature that is likely to be unfamiliar to the reader. We identify a turning point at about 1960, when the periodontal research community turned away from genetics in favor of microbiology research. During the past five years, investigators have re-initiated the search for the hereditary component in susceptibility to common adult periodontal disease; this small but growing body of literature is reviewed. Recent applications of in vitro methods for genetic analyses in periodontal research are presented, with an eye toward a future in which persons who are at risk--genetically predisposed--to periodontal disease may be identified and targeted for interventive strategies. Critical is the realization that genes and environment

  1. An artifical neural network for detection of simulated dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kositbowornchai, S. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Oral Diagnosis; Siriteptawee, S.; Plermkamon, S.; Bureerat, S. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Chetchotsak, D. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Industrial Engineering

    2006-08-15

    Objects: A neural network was developed to diagnose artificial dental caries using images from a charged-coupled device (CCD)camera and intra-oral digital radiography. The diagnostic performance of this neural network was evaluated against a gold standard. Materials and methods: The neural network design was the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) used to classify a tooth surface as sound or as having dental caries. The depth of the dental caries was indicated on a graphic user interface (GUI) screen developed by Matlab programming. Forty-nine images of both sound and simulated dental caries, derived from a CCD camera and by digital radiography, were used to 'train' an artificial neural network. After the 'training' process, a separate test-set comprising 322 unseen images was evaluated. Tooth sections and microscopic examinations were used to confirm the actual dental caries status.The performance of neural network was evaluated using diagnostic test. Results: The sensitivity (95%CI)/specificity (95%CI) of dental caries detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography were 0.77(0.68-0.85)/0.85(0.75-0.92) and 0.81(0.72-0.88)/0.93(0.84-0.97), respectively. The accuracy of caries depth-detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography was 58 and 40%, respectively. Conclusions: The model neural network used in this study could be a prototype for caries detection but should be improved for classifying caries depth. Our study suggests an artificial neural network can be trained to make the correct interpretations of dental caries. (orig.)

  2. Association of parental stress and early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ebrahim Jabbarifar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Little research has been carried out on whether the parental stress affects children′s oral health in general and dental caries in particular. This study aimed to investigate the association be-tween parental stress and early childhood caries (ECC. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed that included 250 children of 4-6 year-old; 127 ones attended the pediatric department of Isfahan School of Dentistry who had early childhood caries and a comparison group of 123 caries free children attended five kindergartens and pre-schools in Isfahan city. Clinical examinations were conducted to evaluate the caries status. The parents of the two study groups completed the self-administrated long form of the Parenting Stress Index questionnaire. De-tails of their socio-demographic status were gathered too. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5. The nonparametric Mantel-Haenszel test for correlation statistics was used to determine bivariate associations between total parenting stress and their domains scores in the two groups; i.e., those with early childhood caries and the caries free group. Results: Mean score of PSI in the early childhood caries and caries free group were 286.66 ± 66.26 and 273.87 ± 31.03, respectively. There was not any significant relationship between total parental stress and ECC. The scores of the following domains of PSI demonstrated significant differences between ECC and CF groups: child reinforcement, child distractibility, child deficit attention, life stress and relationship with spouse (P = 0.01, 0.01, 0.001, 0.005 respectively. Conclusion: Findings of this study did not show any significant association between total parenting stress score and prevalence of early childhood caries.

  3. An artifical neural network for detection of simulated dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objects: A neural network was developed to diagnose artificial dental caries using images from a charged-coupled device (CCD)camera and intra-oral digital radiography. The diagnostic performance of this neural network was evaluated against a gold standard. Materials and methods: The neural network design was the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) used to classify a tooth surface as sound or as having dental caries. The depth of the dental caries was indicated on a graphic user interface (GUI) screen developed by Matlab programming. Forty-nine images of both sound and simulated dental caries, derived from a CCD camera and by digital radiography, were used to 'train' an artificial neural network. After the 'training' process, a separate test-set comprising 322 unseen images was evaluated. Tooth sections and microscopic examinations were used to confirm the actual dental caries status.The performance of neural network was evaluated using diagnostic test. Results: The sensitivity (95%CI)/specificity (95%CI) of dental caries detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography were 0.77(0.68-0.85)/0.85(0.75-0.92) and 0.81(0.72-0.88)/0.93(0.84-0.97), respectively. The accuracy of caries depth-detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography was 58 and 40%, respectively. Conclusions: The model neural network used in this study could be a prototype for caries detection but should be improved for classifying caries depth. Our study suggests an artificial neural network can be trained to make the correct interpretations of dental caries. (orig.)

  4. Caries-preventive Effect of Supervised Toothbrushing and Sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, L A; Leal, S C; Mulder, J; Creugers, N H J; Frencken, J E

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of 3 caries-preventive measures on high- and low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial covered 242 schoolchildren, 6 to 7 y old, from low socioeconomic areas. At baseline, caries risk was assessed at the tooth surface level, through a combination of ICDAS II (International Caries Detection and Assessment System) and fissure depth codes. High-caries risk occlusal surfaces were treated according to daily supervised toothbrushing (STB) at school and 2 sealants: composite resin (CR) and atraumatic restorative treatment-high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (ART-GIC). Low-caries risk occlusal surfaces received STB or no intervention. Evaluations were performed after 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 y. A cavitated dentine carious lesion was considered a failure. Data were analyzed according to the proportional hazard rate regression model with frailty correction, Wald test, analysis of variance, and t test, according to the jackknife procedure for calculating standard errors. The cumulative survival rates of cavitated dentine carious lesion-free, high-caries risk occlusal surfaces were 95.6%, 91.4%, and 90.2% for STB, CR, and ART-GIC, respectively, over 3 y, which were not statistically significantly different. For low-caries risk occlusal surfaces, no statistically significant difference was observed between the cumulative survival rate of the STB group (94.8%) and the no-intervention group (92.1%) over 3 y. There was neither a difference among STB, CR, and ART-GIC on school premises in preventing cavitated dentine carious lesions in high-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars nor a difference between STB and no intervention for low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y. PMID:26116491

  5. Prevalence of candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesion of early childhood caries (ECC) according to sampling site

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefidgar, Seyed Ali Asghar; Eyzadian, Haniyeh; Gharakhani, Samaneh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans may have cariogenic potential but its role in caries etiology has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine candida albicans in supragingival dental plaque and infected dentine of cervical and proximal in early childhood caries (ECC).

  6. How do dental students determine patients' caries risk level using the Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doméjean, Sophie; Léger, Stéphanie; Rechmann, Peter; White, Joel M; Featherstone, John D B

    2015-03-01

    Research has demonstrated the validation of specific caries risk assessment (CRA) systems, but little is known about how dental practitioners assign a caries risk level to their patients. The aim of this study was to explore dental students' decision making in caries risk assignment when using the Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system. Multiple correspondence analysis and chi-squared automated interaction detector analysis were performed on data collected retrospectively for a period of six years (2003-09) at the University of California, San Francisco predoctoral dental clinic. The study population consisted of 12,952 patients from six years of age through adult who received a baseline CRA during the period, were new to CAMBRA, and had not received any prior CAMBRA recommendations. The results showed variation in decision making and risk level assignment, illustrated by the range of percentages for the three scores (low, moderate, and high/extreme caries risk) when CRA was assigned for the first time. For those first-time CRAs, decision making was mainly based on four factors: cavities or caries lesions into dentin on radiograph, restorations during the last three years due to caries, visible heavy plaque, and interproximal lesions into enamel (by radiographs). This study's findings provide important data regarding one group of CAMBRA users and thus contribute to the development of knowledge about the implementation of caries risk assessment in contemporary dental practice. PMID:25729021

  7. Occlusal caries detection using polarized Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, I.; Bulou, A.

    2008-02-01

    The tooth enamel, because of its hydroxyapatite composition, must present a Raman spectrum with strong polarization anisotropy. Carious lesions of the enamel will produce an alteration of local symmetry and will increase much more scattering of light. This will reduce the anisotropy of the Raman spectra. Because of the difference between high sensitivity to polarization of the 959 cm -1 Raman peak in sound enamel and low sensitivity in carried enamel, Raman polarized spectroscopy could be a useful method to early detect teeth caries.

  8. Treatment of nursing bottle caries with ribbond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Jindal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ribbond is a biocompatible, esthetic material made from high-strength polyethylene fiber. Lenowoven polyethylene ribbon (Ribbond has been used successfully for tooth splinting, replacement of missing teeth, reinforcement of provisional acrylic resin fixed partial dentures, and orthodontic retention. This article presents the application of this polyethylene ribbon - RIBBOND - for the treatment of nursing bottle caries. To conclude we suggest that this combined technique of polyethylene fibers and composite material could be a very efficient alternative procedure to conventional treatment plans in pedodontic practice, with excellent esthetics and functional results.

  9. Validation of the CDA CAMBRA caries risk assessment--a six-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doméjean, Sophie; White, Joel M; Featherstone, John D B

    2011-10-01

    The present manuscript presents the results of a six-year retrospective study validating caries risk assessment in a caries management by risk assessment program in a large predominantly adult patient population seeking dental care. CRA was successful in accurately identifying patients at high caries risk. Caries risk assessment in a CAMBRA program is a good clinical tool for everyday dental practice. PMID:22132582

  10. Carious dentine removal: current approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Coeli de Farias Sales

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentistry is renewed day after day through the results of qualified researches. The approach as regards carious dentin removal is goingthrough questioning and innovation. The scope of this study was to perform a literature review in the sense of elucidating questions pertaining to the problem of whether or not it is necessary to completely remove carious dentin, and the possibility of performing restoration in a single session, in addition to a discussion about which type of material should be applied in this type of substrate. After analyzing the referenced articles, it was concluded that the stepwise treatment controls caries progression; there is a trend in the literature to partially remove the carious dentin in deep lesions and perform definitive restoration; Calcium hydroxide cement is a classical liner in these situations, while glass ionomer cement and resinous materials are other possibilities of materials that can be in close contact with the remaining dentin.

  11. Caries dental en escolares del Distrito Federal Dental caries in school children in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA ESTHER IRIGOYEN-CAMACHO

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de la prevalencia y la severidad de caries dental, así como las necesidades de tratamiento de la población escolar del Distrito Federal examinada en la encuesta de caries dental que se llevó a cabo en 1988 con la finalidad de obtener datos basales sobre caries en los escolares al inicio del Programa Nacional de Fluoruración de la Sal en México. Material y métodos. La población de estudio fue seleccionada empleando un marco muestral basado en el listado de las escuelas primarias y los jardines de niños registrados por la Secretaría de Educación Pública en 1988. En el examen de la cavidad bucal de los escolares se utilizaron los criterios diagnósticos señalados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados. Un total de 4 475 escolares de 5 a 12 años de edad participaron en el estudio. La prevalencia de caries dental en la población alcanzó 90.5%. El índice de necesidades de tratamiento fue elevado (79.6%. El promedio de los índices de caries en los escolares de 12 años de edad fue CPOD= 4.42 (desviación estándar –DE– 3.2 y CPOS= 6.53 (DE 4.8. Conclusiones. Los resultados de la encuesta subrayan la pertinencia de un programa preventivo de amplia cobertura, como el de fluoruración de la sal. Además, muestran que se requiere elaborar estrategias para mejorar el acceso de la población escolar a los servicios odontológicos del sistema de salud en México.Objective. To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the dental treatment necessities of school children in Mexico City. The studied population was surveyed for dental caries in 1988 to obtain data necessary for the National Program of Salt Fluoridation in Mexico. Material and methods. The population was selected with a sample frame based on a list of Kindergardens and primary schools registered at the Ministry of Public Education in 1988. The oral cavity examination was based on diagnostic criteria marked by the

  12. Improved ability of biological and previous caries multimarkers to predict caries disease as revealed by multivariate PLS modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericson Thorild

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is a chronic disease with plaque bacteria, diet and saliva modifying disease activity. Here we have used the PLS method to evaluate a multiplicity of such biological variables (n = 88 for ability to predict caries in a cross-sectional (baseline caries and prospective (2-year caries development setting. Methods Multivariate PLS modelling was used to associate the many biological variables with caries recorded in thirty 14-year-old children by measuring the numbers of incipient and manifest caries lesions at all surfaces. Results A wide but shallow gliding scale of one fifth caries promoting or protecting, and four fifths non-influential, variables occurred. The influential markers behaved in the order of plaque bacteria > diet > saliva, with previously known plaque bacteria/diet markers and a set of new protective diet markers. A differential variable patterning appeared for new versus progressing lesions. The influential biological multimarkers (n = 18 predicted baseline caries better (ROC area 0.96 than five markers (0.92 and a single lactobacilli marker (0.7 with sensitivity/specificity of 1.87, 1.78 and 1.13 at 1/3 of the subjects diagnosed sick, respectively. Moreover, biological multimarkers (n = 18 explained 2-year caries increment slightly better than reported before but predicted it poorly (ROC area 0.76. By contrast, multimarkers based on previous caries predicted alone (ROC area 0.88, or together with biological multimarkers (0.94, increment well with a sensitivity/specificity of 1.74 at 1/3 of the subjects diagnosed sick. Conclusion Multimarkers behave better than single-to-five markers but future multimarker strategies will require systematic searches for improved saliva and plaque bacteria markers.

  13. Terahertz pulsed imaging study of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Altan, Hakan; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç

    2015-07-01

    Current diagnostic techniques in dentistry rely predominantly on X-rays to monitor dental caries. Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) has great potential for medical applications since it is a nondestructive imaging method. It does not cause any ionization hazard on biological samples due to low energy of THz radiation. Even though it is strongly absorbed by water which exhibits very unique chemical and physical properties that contribute to strong interaction with THz radiation, teeth can still be investigated in three dimensions. Recent investigations suggest that this method can be used in the early identification of dental diseases and imperfections in the tooth structure without the hazards of using techniques which rely on x-rays. We constructed a continuous wave (CW) and time-domain reflection mode raster scan THz imaging system that enables us to investigate various teeth samples in two or three dimensions. The samples comprised of either slices of individual tooth samples or rows of teeth embedded in wax, and the imaging was done by scanning the sample across the focus of the THz beam. 2D images were generated by acquiring the intensity of the THz radiation at each pixel, while 3D images were generated by collecting the amplitude of the reflected signal at each pixel. After analyzing the measurements in both the spatial and frequency domains, the results suggest that the THz pulse is sensitive to variations in the structure of the samples that suggest that this method can be useful in detecting the presence of caries.

  14. Pencegahan primer pada anak yang berisiko karies tinggi (Primary prevention in children with high caries risk)

    OpenAIRE

    Ami Angela

    2005-01-01

    Oral and dental health has got improvement tremendously over the last century but the prevalence of dental caries in children has remained a significant clinical problem. Caries risk varies between individuals according to each subject’s balance between factors exposing to and protecting from caries attack. It is important to assess the risk of caries for all patients on a routine basis. Caries risk is divided into three levels: high, moderate, and low. Thereby, the dental professional is bet...

  15. Cariogram – A Multi-factorial Risk Assessment Software for Risk Prediction of Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Anup N; Preeti Vishnani

    2014-01-01

    For years, Swedish researchers have recognized caries risk assessment as an important part of routine dental practice for caries management. This paper reviews a new way of illustrating the caries risk profi le of an individual through a computer program, the Cariogram, which was described by Professor Bratthal in 1976. Cariogram is a risk as well as a prediction model. It presents a ‘weighted’ of the input data related to caries such as caries experience, related disease, diet, fl u...

  16. Trajectory Patterns of Dental Caries Experience in the Permanent Dentition to the Fourth Decade of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Broadbent, J. M.; Thomson, W.M.; Poulton, R.

    2008-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic, cumulative disease, but no studies have investigated longitudinal patterns of caries experience. The objective of this study was to identify and describe developmental trajectories of caries experience in the permanent dentition to age 32. Longitudinal caries data for 955 participants in a longstanding birth cohort study were analyzed by trajectory analysis. Three caries experience trajectories were identified by the SAS macro PROC TRAJ; these were categorized as “...

  17. Validation of Visual Caries Activity Assessment: A 2-yr Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    R.S. Guedes; Piovesan, C.; Ardenghi, T.M.; Emmanuelli, B.; Braga, M.M.; Ekstrand, K.R.; F.M. Mendes

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive and construct validity of a caries activity assessment system associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in primary teeth. A total of 469 children were reexamined: participants of a caries survey performed 2 yr before (follow-up rate of 73.4%). At baseline, children (12-59 mo old) were examined with the ICDAS and a caries activity assessment system. The predictive validity was assessed by evaluating the risk of active caries le...

  18. Impact of caries onset on number and distribution of new lesions in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Roos; Declerck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2012 Background.  Caries in preschool children remains an important public health issue. Aim.  To determine (i) which teeth and tooth surfaces are most susceptible to dental caries by age 3, (ii) where do caries lesions develop during 2-year follow-up, and (iii) to evaluate the impact of caries onset on the distribution of new caries experience. Design.  One thousand and fifty seven consecutively born children were recruited in Flanders (Belgium)....

  19. Supragingival plaque microbial analysis in reflection to caries experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannaa Alaa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries develops as a result of the metabolism of carbohydrates by cariogenic bacteria present in a complex biofilm. The present study aimed to examine if bacteria in pooled supragingival plaque samples quantified using a “checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization” based panel of caries-related bacteria, could reflect the caries experience in a manner similar to saliva samples analysed using a chair-side method in a previous investigation. Methods A total of 86 mothers and their children aged 4–6 years and 12–16 years old participated. Caries experience (DMFT/dmft; Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth for permanent and primary teeth was registered clinically and radiographically. Caries was recorded at the D3 level (caries into dentine. The D/d component was divided into three categories. A pooled supragingival plaque sample per participant was obtained from posterior approximal sites. Analyses of 15 bacterial species were performed using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridisation technique. Results No significant relationships were found between the bacterial scores and DMFT/dmft nor D/d groups. Conclusions Unlike the saliva samples and the chair-side method, interproximal pooled plaque samples analysed using the “checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique” did not reveal any significant relations between the bacterial counts and the caries experience.

  20. Risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braúna, Ana Paula Vasques Sales; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de; Resende, Vera Lúcia Silva; Castilho, Lia Silva de

    2016-06-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities who were treated at a clinical reference service for patients with special needs in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. This is a retrospective cohort study that evaluated 401 dental charts of individuals without dental caries or restorations in their first dental appointment. The dependent variable was the time of occurrence of new dental caries or restorations and was measured in months. Gender, age, International Code of Diseases (ICD), mother´s education, sugar consumption, use of fluoride toothpaste, oral hygiene, mouth breathing, reports of xerostomia, gingival status, use of psychotropic or asthma drugs, and history of asthma were covariates. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the raw and adjusted hazard ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals. The average time that individuals remained free of dental caries/restoration was equal to 107.46 months (95%CI 95.41 to 119.51), with a median of caries-free children up to 94 months. For each point increase in the scale of sucrose consumption, the increase in caries risk was 1.07 (95%CI 1.01 to 1.15). Sucrose consumption was the only risk factor for dental caries found in this group of individuals with developmental disabilities. PMID:27305514

  1. Elevated incidence of dental caries in a mouse model of cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A Catalán

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dental caries is the single most prevalent and costly infectious disease worldwide, affecting more than 90% of the population in the U.S. The development of dental cavities requires the colonization of the tooth surface by acid-producing bacteria, such as Streptococcus mutans. Saliva bicarbonate constitutes the main buffering system which neutralizes the pH fall generated by the plaque bacteria during sugar metabolism. We found that the saliva pH is severely decreased in a mouse model of cystic fibrosis disease (CF. Given the close relationship between pH and caries development, we hypothesized that caries incidence might be elevated in the mouse CF model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We induced carious lesions in CF and wildtype mice by infecting their oral cavity with S. mutans, a well-studied cariogenic bacterium. After infection, the mice were fed a high-sucrose diet for 5 weeks (diet 2000. The mice were then euthanized and their jaws removed for caries scoring and bacterial counting. A dramatic increase in caries and severity of lesions scores were apparent in CF mice compared to their wildtype littermates. The elevated incidence of carious lesions correlated with a striking increase in the S. mutans viable population in dental plaque (20-fold increase in CF vs. wildtype mice; p value < 0.003; t test. We also found that the pilocarpine-stimulated saliva bicarbonate concentration was significantly reduced in CF mice (16 ± 2 mM vs. 31 ± 2 mM, CF and wildtype mice, respectively; p value < 0.01; t test. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Considering that bicarbonate is the most important pH buffering system in saliva, and the adherence and survival of aciduric bacteria such as S. mutans are enhanced at low pH values, we speculate that the decrease in the bicarbonate content and pH buffering of the saliva is at least partially responsible for the increased severity of lesions observed in the CF mouse.

  2. Relationship between dental caries status and anemia in children with severe early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ru-Shing; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Huang, Shun-Te

    2013-06-01

    Severe early childhood caries (SECC) is a public health problem among preschool children. Malnutrition is a condition commonly prevalent in children with SECC. This study investigated the nutritional status among preschool children with SECC. Children with SECC (n = 101) aged 2-5 years from the Division of Pediatric Dentistry in an academic hospital in Southern Taiwan were recruited for our cross-sectional study. The nutritional status of the children was assessed based on anthropometric measurements and clinical tests. By applying the criteria established by the World Health Organization, we found that 9% and 46% of the children with SECC were diagnosed as being anemic and iron deficient, respectively. Using national standards for the body mass index, 30% of children with SECC were classified as underweight. The relationship between the caries status of the children and anemia was examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis (p nutritional status of children with SECC. PMID:23684139

  3. Epidemiological studies of dental caries in groups of Swedish children

    OpenAIRE

    Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    1986-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study the extent and distribution of dental caries was studied in 817 children, 4, 8 and 13 years old in three areas inSweden. The importance of dietary habits, sugar intake, social conditions, professional dental care, oral hygiene and the use of fluorides on caries prevalence was analyzed. In a subsample, con­sisting of 88 8-year-olds and 91 13-year-olds the net caries increment during aone-year period was studied.In this longitudinal study, the salivary levels of lacto...

  4. Caries Experience Evidenced in Children having Dental Fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    A, Tuli; U, Rehani; A, Aggrawal

    2009-01-01

    Background and objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries in children aged 8-13 years having dental fluorosis and to determine the correlation between the grades of dental fluorosis and caries. Material and methods: 451 school children in the age group of 8-13 years were selected for the study and were divided into six age groups. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to Dean’s criteria Index of fluorosis, and dental caries according to WHO...

  5. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment...... process, additional methods could aid the dentist in reaching a more appropriate treatment decision in some cases. The ICDAS, including the activity assessment system or the Nyvad system, seems to be the best option to reach final diagnoses for managing lesions. The radiographic method is the most...

  6. Caries set fra et økologisk perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries affects the majority of the Danish population. Its aetiology is multi-factorial, but a pH-induced change in the homeostasis of the oral biofilm leading to overgrowth of acid-tolerating bacteria is a key event. A non-invasive concept for prevention and management is emerging based on...... the common risk factor approach. There is strong evidence that tooth brushing twice a day with fluoridated toothpaste is the most cost-effective way to prevent and control caries development. Physicians need to consider that a number of drugs may affect the saliva flow rate, which increases the caries...

  7. Risk indicators and risk predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Pereira da Silva Tagliaferro; Gláucia Maria Bovi Ambrosano; Marcelo de Castro Meneghim; Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk indicators of high caries level at baseline (HCLB) based on cross-sectional data and predictors of high caries increment (HCI) based on a 7-year-follow-up examination in 6-8-year-old schoolchildren. Two hundred and six schoolchildren were examined in 1997 and in 2004 by the same two calibrated dentists, in Piracicaba, Brazil. At baseline, dental caries, presence of sealants, fluorosis, and oral hygiene status were recorded. The children's parents...

  8. The Contribution of Dietary Factors to Dental Caries and Disparities in Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Mobley, Connie; Marshall, Teresa A.; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Frequent consumption of simple carbohydrates, primarily in the form of dietary sugars is significantly associated with increased dental caries risk. Malnutrition (under or over nutrition) in children is often a consequence of inappropriate infant and childhood feeding practices and dietary behaviors associated with limited access to fresh, nutrient dense foods substituting instead, high-energy low cost and nutrient poor sugary and fatty foods. Lack of availability of quality food stores in ru...

  9. Defectos del esmalte, caries en dentición primaria, fuentes de fluoruro y su relación con caries en dientes permanentes Enamel defects, caries in primary dentition and fluoride sources: relationship with caries in permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alicia Vallejos-Sánchez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Explorar la relación entre la presencia de defectos del esmalte (DE, la experiencia de caries en la dentición temporal, y la exposición a diversas fuentes de fluoruros, con la presencia de caries en la dentición permanente de niños con dentición mixta. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 713 sujetos de 6-9 años de edad de 4 escuelas de Campeche, México, mediante un cuestionario dirigido a las madres, y un examen clínico bucal a los niños. La variable dependiente fue la prevalencia de caries en la dentición permanente. Resultados: El promedio de dientes temporales cariados, extraídos y obturados (ceod y dientes permanentes cariados, perdidos y obturados (CPOD fue de 2,48 (2,82 (ceod > 0 = 58,9% y 0,40 (0,98 (CPOD > 0 = 18,2%, respectivamente. El índice SiC (índice de caries significativa, calculado en la dentición temporal fue de 5,85 para los niños de 6 años de edad. En el análisis de regresión logística multivariado permanecieron significativas, después de ajustar por variables de exposición a fluoruros, la mayor edad (odds ratio [OR] = 2,99, el ceod > 0 (OR = 5,46, la menor escolaridad de la madre (OR = 1,57 y una interacción entre sexo y defectos del esmalte. Conclusiones: Las caries en la dentición temporal y permanente fueron relativamente menores que las observaciones publicadas por otros estudios en México. Los resultados confirmaron que la caries en la dentición temporal se asoció fuertemente con la caries en la dentición permanente. No hubo una relación significativa entre las fuentes de fluoruro y la caries dental en la dentición permanente.Objective: To examine the relationship between the presence of enamel defects, dental caries in primary teeth, and exposure to various fluoride technologies and the presence of dental caries in permanent teeth in children with mixed dentition. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 713 children aged 6-9 years old

  10. Estimation of Remnant Dentin Thickness under Proximal Caries Using Digital Bitewing Radiography: An In-Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Afsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In restorative dentistry, it is essential to estimate the amount of remnant tooth structure after caries removal to make the best treatment plan. The present study was aimed to determine whether there is a correlation between the real thickness of remnant dentin under carious lesion and the radiographical measurement from photostimulable phosphor plates (PSPs. Methods: a whole number of 68 unrestored permanent human molar and premolar teeth with 82 proximal carious surfaces were mounted in an artificial arch. Digital bitewing radiographs with PSPs were taken, carious lesions were removed and radiographic imaging was repeated. Teeth were sectioned mesiodistally in two parts and thickness of remnant tooth structure to pulp was measured. Measurements of remnant dentin under caries from radiographic images and teeth structures were compared. Result: The mean measurements of remnant dentin on primary radiographs were statistically different from the measurements on teeth structures. The mean thickness of remnant dentin on tooth structure was around 30% less than what measured on radiographic image. Conclusion: The real thickness of remnant dentin under caries is about 70% of its thickness measured on digital bitewing radiographs prepared by PSPs as image receptor.

  11. Teeth Caries Decay in MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray based visualization techniques were for many years the only way to asses structure and state of the human teeth. MRI has been used in the research of the healthy and decayed teeth during last decade. Several papers were presented showing usefulness of spin echo and gradient echo imaging, Single Point Imaging, SPRITE and STRAFI techniques for visualization of the dental surface geometry as well as for distinction between soft tissue (pulp) and mineralized tissue (enamel, dentine and root cement) in the extracted teeth. Recently, MRI was used for estimation of the facial bone structure, in preparation to implantation, localization of the tumor in the facial bone tissue, and in detection of the osteoporosis. The aim of this work was to investigate potential of MRI for detection and estimation of the caries, on the level of laboratory pre-clinical tests. This work was done within the project to develop original, MRI based diagnostic technique for dentistry needs. MRI experiments were performed on the 5 decayed extracted human teeth (impossible conservative therapy), obtained at Dept. of Dental Surgery MUS. After extraction teeth were stored in saline. MRI measurements were done in MR Tomography Lab INP. Prior to the experiment, tooth was degassed to minimize magnetic susceptibility artifacts. A 3D spin echo pulse sequence on the 4.7 T research MRI system, equipped with Maran DRX console, and dedicated home-built probe head, was used to obtain three dimensional (256x128x128) images of the teeth. Corresponding resolution was 60x120x160 mm3. High intensity signal from water penetrated into the porous decayed regions of tooth, contrasted with lack of signal from mineralized tooth tissue, allow for visualization of the presence and extent of caries. Among the 5 measured teeth, MRI allows for detection of the caries in two most decayed tooth. High intensity signal from water penetrated into the porous decayed regions of tooth, contrasted with lack of signal from

  12. Comparative evaluation of predictive value of three caries activity tests-snyder, lactobacillus count and cariostat in mixed dentition children with and without caries

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, Krishnan; Kunjappan, Shiji; Ramesh, Maya; Shankar, S.; Reddy, Subba

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Dental caries is a disease with multifactorial etiology. Early detection and preventive measures are essential for caries control. Caries activity tests are one of the methods of early detection, but all these are based on microbiological study. Aims: Compare the sensitivity and specificity of Snyder test (ST), lactobacillus count (LBC) and Cariostat in mixed dentition children with and without caries. Materials and Methods: 90 healthy mixed dentition children (79 boys and 11 gi...

  13. Exploration of Human Salivary Microbiomes—Insights into the Novel Characteristics of Microbial Community Structure in Caries and Caries-Free Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jianye; Jiang, Nan; Wang, Shaoguo; Hu, Xiaopan; Jiao, Kangli; He, Xiangyi; Li, Zhiqiang; WANG, JIZENG

    2016-01-01

    Recently, high-throughput sequencing has improved the understanding of the microbiological etiology of caries, but the characteristics of the microbial community structure in the human oral cavity with and without caries are not completely clear. To better understand these characteristics, Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing was utilized to analyze 20 salivary samples (10 caries-free and 10 caries) from subjects from the same town in Dongxiang, Gansu, China. A total of 5,113 OTUs (Opera...

  14. Association between knowledge of caries preventive practices, preventive oral health habits of parents and children and caries experience in children resident in sub-urban Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Folayan, Morenike O; Kolawole, Kikelomo A; Oyedele, Titus; Chukumah, Nneka M; Onyejaka, Nneka; Agbaje, Hakeem; Oziegbe, Elizabeth O; Osho, Olusegun V

    2014-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to assess the association between children and parents’ knowledge of caries preventive practices, the parents’ caries preventive oral health behaviours and children’s caries preventive oral health behaviour and caries experience. Method Three hundred and twenty four participants aged 8–12 years, 308 fathers and 318 mothers were recruited through a household survey conducted in Suburban Nigeria. A questionnaire was administered to generate informati...

  15. Inhibition of salivary amylase by black tea in high-caries and low-caries index children: A comparative in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Arya, Vishal; Taneja, Lavina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dental caries is a universal disease. Dietary modification is important in reducing the occurrence of dental caries. Tea which is so frequently consumed with cariogenic starch rich food is proposed to have anticariogenic potential. The various mechanism has been proposed for same and one being inhibition of salivary amylase activity. Aim: To determine the effect of 1.5% black tea decoction on salivary amylase activity in children with high caries and no caries. Materials and Met...

  16. Caries risk indicators in preschool children : Maternal and family conditions in pregnancy and early childhood and dental caries development in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Caries risk indicators in preschool children. Maternal and family conditions in pregnancy and early childhood and dental caries development in preschool children. Caries prevalence in preschool children in Norway has decreased during the last thirty years, and the distribution of the disease has become skewed with a smaller proportion having many lesions and a greater proportion having no lesions. Early identification of children at risk of developing caries is desirable so that preventiv...

  17. Laser induced fluorescence of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, S.; Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Significant differences between the optical spectra taken from sound regions of teeth and carious regions have been observed. These differences appear both in absorption and in laser induced fluorescence spectra. Excitation by the 488 nm line of an argon ion laser beam showed a peak in the emission intensity around 553 nm for the sound dental material while the emission peak from the carious region was red-shifted by approximately 40 nm. The relative absorption of carious region was significantly higher at 488 nm; however its fluorescence intensity peak was lower by an order of magnitude compared to the sound tooth. Implications of these results for a safe, reliable and early detection of dental caries are discussed.

  18. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries. PMID:26192983

  19. Caries inhibition by fluoride-releasing primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, L J; Donly, K J

    1993-10-01

    This study evaluated the caries inhibition of dentin primers with the addition of fluoride. Two standardized Class V preparations were placed in 20 molars, the gingival margin placed below the cementoenamel junction and the occlusal margin placed in enamel. Two dentin primers (Syntac and ScotchPrep) were placed in equal numbers of 20 preparations, according to manufacturer's instructions. Ammonium fluoride (10% by weight) was then added to these primers and they were placed in the remaining 20 preparations, opposing the non-fluoridated primer of the same system. All teeth were then restored with a non-fluoridated resin composite. All teeth were subjected to an artificial caries challenge (pH 4.2) for 5 days. Sections of 100 microns were obtained, photographed under polarized light microscopy, then demineralized areas were quantitated by digitization. Results demonstrated the mean areas (mm2 +/- S.D.) demineralization at 0.25 mm, 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm from the restoration margin to be: Syntac/fluoride (1.44 +/- 0.49, 1.68 +/- 0.54, 3.72 +/- 0.74); Syntac (1.99 +/- 0.58, 1.50 +/- 0.35, 2.98 +/- 1.26); ScotchPrep/fluoride (1.23 +/- 0.68, 1.55 +/- 0.64, 3.08 +/- 1.16); ScotchPrep (1.90 +/- 0.83, 1.71 +/- .038, 3.36 +/- 0.62). A paired t-test indicated primers with fluoride to demonstrate significantly less demineralization 0.25 mm from the restoration margin (P < 0.07). PMID:7880460

  20. Dental caries imaging using hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Jian, Lin; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    We report the development of a polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging technique based on a picosecond (ps) laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator system for label-free imaging of dental caries. In our imaging system, hyperspectral SRS images (512×512 pixels) in both fingerprint region (800-1800 cm-1) and high-wavenumber region (2800-3600 cm-1) are acquired in minutes by scanning the wavelength of OPO output, which is a thousand times faster than conventional confocal micro Raman imaging. SRS spectra variations from normal enamel to caries obtained from the hyperspectral SRS images show the loss of phosphate and carbonate in the carious region. While polarization-resolved SRS images at 959 cm-1 demonstrate that the caries has higher depolarization ratio. Our results demonstrate that the polarization resolved-hyperspectral SRS imaging technique developed allows for rapid identification of the biochemical and structural changes of dental caries.

  1. Natural root caries: a histologic and microradiographic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefel, J S; Clarkson, B H; Heilman, J R

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain information about the detailed histopathology of naturally occurring root caries. Fifty extracted human teeth exhibiting some degree of root caries were sectioned longitudinally and examined with transmitted light, polarized light and microradiography. The occurrence of the histological zones of dentinal caries was tabulated and revealed a lesion body in all cases. Light microscopy showed the same basic features as microradiography and was most useful when the sections were imbibed in quinoline. A structureless area below the main body of the lesion was observed in 77% of the cases when using quinoline. This fluid more clearly defined the extent of the lesion and may show a "phenolic reaction" when using polarized light microscopy. Partial radiopaque surface layers were observed in almost 80% of the sections. This study has described the detailed histopathology of root caries, and aids in the development of model systems to evaluate this emerging dental health problem. PMID:3930671

  2. Optimal drinking water composition for caries control in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruvo, M.; Ekstrand, K.; Arvin, Erik;

    2008-01-01

    Apart from the well-documented effect of fluoride in drinking water on dental caries, little is known about other chemical effects. Since other ions in drinking water may also theoretically influence caries, as well as binding of fluoride in the oral environment, we hypothesized that the effect of...... drinking water on caries may not be limited to fluoride only. Among 22 standard chemical variables, including 15 ions and trace elements as well as gases, organic compounds, and physical measures, iterative search and testing identified that calcium and fluoride together explained 45% of the variations in...... the numbers of decayed, filled, and missing tooth surfaces (DMF-S) among 52,057 15-year-old schoolchildren in 249 Danish municipalities. Both ions had reducing effects on DMF-S independently of each other, and could be used in combination for the design of optimal drinking water for caries control in...

  3. Association of Child Temperament with Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Jabin, Zohra; Chaudhary, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psychological variable may affect early childhood caries (ECC), but this aspect has not been explored satisfactorily. This study evaluates the child temperament as a risk predictor for ECC.

  4. Selective removal of carious human dentin using a nanosecond pulsed laser operating at a wavelength of 5.85 μ m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Kita, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Kazushi; Yasuo, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Kazuyo; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-05-01

    Less invasive methods for treating dental caries are strongly desired. However, conventional dental lasers do not always selectively remove caries or ensure good bonding to the composite resin. According to our previous study, demineralized dentin might be removed by a nanosecond pulsed laser operating at wavelengths of around 5.8 μm. The present study investigated the irradiation effect of the light on carious human dentin classified into "remove," "not remove," and "unclear" categories. Under 5.85-μm laser pulses, at average power densities of 30 W/cm2 and irradiation time of 2 s, the ablation depth of "remove" and "not remove," and also the ablation depth of "unclear" and "not remove," were significantly different (p<0.01). The ablation depth was correlated with both Vickers hardness and Ca content. Thus, a nanosecond pulsed laser operating at 5.85 μm proved an effective less-invasive caries treatment.

  5. Reemergencia de la caries dental en adolescentes Re-emerging of dental caries in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Franco Cortés

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las inequidades en la cobertura de los programas preventivos y en el acceso a la atención podrían afectar los indicadores de salud bucal de los adolescentes. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio descriptivo fue determinar la prevalencia y la historia de caries de los adolescentes de Medellín; evaluar la tendencia de los indicadores y en consecuencia evaluar una posible reemergencia de este problema. Materiales y métodos: Los datos se obtuvieron mediante un examen clínico dental en una muestra estratificada aleatoria de 1292 adolescentes en el año 2005; los examinadores fueron previamente entrenados y calibrados (Kappa > 0,65. Se realizaron pruebas chi cuadrado, Kruskal - Wallis y de Mann - Whitney (α = 5%. Resultados y Conclusiones: Los valores promedio y desviación estándar del índice CPOD y el Índice Significante de Caries fueron 4,5±2,8 y 2,8±3,3 y 11,3 y 6,2 en los jóvenes de 17 años de colegios públicos y privados respectivamente. Estos resultados indican un incremento en la prevalencia de caries para este grupo poblacional y además de ello la polarización del problema en un grupo reducido de jóvenes cuyas características deben estudiarse cuidadosamente. Las autoridades de salud deberán enfocar la atención y la intervención sobre ambos problemas.Introduction: inequities in coverage of preventive programs and access to care may affect the indicators of oral health of adolescents. Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the prevalence and history of dental caries among adolescents of Medellin; to evaluate the tendency of the indicators, and to evaluate possible re-emerging of these problem. Materials and methods: Data were obtained from dental examinations of a stratified randomized sample of 1292 students in 2005, performed by trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa > 0.65. Chi - square, Kruskal - Wallis, and Mann - Whitney tests were used (α = 5%. Results and conclusions: The

  6. Dental Caries in Rats Associated with Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Klinke, Thomas; Guggenheim, Bernhard; Klimm, Wolfgang; Thurnheer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In addition to occasional opportunistic colonization of the oral mucosa, Candida albicans is frequently found in carious dentin. The yeast’s potential to induce dental caries as a consequence of its pronounced ability to produce and tolerate acids was investigated. Eighty caries-active Osborne-Mendel rats were raised on an ampicillin-supplemented diet and exposed to C. albicans and/or Streptococcus mutans, except for controls. Throughout the 28-day test period, the animals were offered the mo...

  7. Factors Used for Caries Prediction in First Infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves; Leonardo dos Santos ANTUNES; Maria da Encarnação Perez Requejo da COSTA

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the early presence of caries cavitation and active white spots (AWS) in maxilary anterior teeth in the primary dentition associating them with other factors (diet, fluor exposure, precocious ocorrence of mutans streptococci, oral hygiene) with the purpose of predict future caries lesion in posterior primary teeth. Method: The examination of the charts was done by the evaluation including anamnesis and clinical examination recorder in 250 files (young children with 18 -...

  8. Efficiency of caries risk assessment in young adults using Cariogram

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Esra Uzer; Gokay, Necmi; Ates, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate the caries risk in young adults using Cariogram and (2) compare the efficiency of Cariogram with the regression risk models created using the same variables in Cariogram by examining the actual caries progression over a 2-year period. Methods: This study included 100 subjects that were either twenty or twenty-one years-old. Data on general health, diet, oral hygiene and use of fluoride were obtained. Saliva analyses were performed, includ...

  9. Social indicators of dental caries among Sierra Leonean schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nörmark, S

    1993-06-01

    Most of the caries of African child populations is found in limited fractions of that population. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the caries situation of Sierra Leonean schoolchildren in relation to demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables, in order to develop an appropriate index for prediction of caries. A total of 610 students from primary class 1 (mean age: 7 yr) and secondary form 1 (mean age 15 yr) were dentally examined by three examiners and interviewed by their teachers. Intra- and interexaminer reproducibilities were 82 and 70%, and interinterviewer reliability was 67-100% for the individual questions. Urban students had more caries than rural. In class 1, dmfs+DMFS was 4.1 and 1.8, respectively; in form 1, DMFS was 5.3 and 3.5. Two tribes (the Fulas and the Madingos) had higher caries means than the rest, especially in class 1, where dmfs+DMFS was 6.5 and 2.4, respectively. Form 1 students with literate parents had a higher caries mean, and class 1 pupils with defective school uniforms a lower mean. The apparently high-risk groups did not consume more sweet snacks or clean their teeth less frequently. There was clearly more caries among the quartiles of children with most visible plaque on molars, but all social and demographic subgroups had similar amounts of plaque. Multivariate analyses of class 1 children showed that pupils living in urban areas, Fulas and Madingos, and children wearing complete school uniforms had caries significantly more frequently, other factors being equal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8322004

  10. Caries prevalence in older persons with and without dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellefsen, Birita; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E;

    2008-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of coronal and root caries in a memory clinic-based population of elderly patients with and without a diagnosis of dementia and to examine the influence of age, sex, social relations, social position, and functional ability.......To examine the prevalence of coronal and root caries in a memory clinic-based population of elderly patients with and without a diagnosis of dementia and to examine the influence of age, sex, social relations, social position, and functional ability....

  11. Medication Caries: Another Form of “Snacking”

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Bruce K.; Simunovic, Marko

    1989-01-01

    The use of fluoride, frequent brushing and flossing, regular dental examinations, and limiting the ingestion of sweet snacks between meals are of primary importance in preventing dental caries. Because many commonly used medications have high concentrations of sucrose, the child with a chronic illness who needs medication on a long-term basis is at higher risk both for caries formation and for compliations of tooth decay. To minimize this risk most medication should be considered equivalent t...

  12. Enzymes, Dentinogenesis and Dental Caries: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Markku Larmas; Sándor, George K. B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Search in PubMed with keywords “enzymes, dentinogenesis, and dental caries” revealed only 4 items, but when combined with “enzymes, osteogenesis, and osteoporosis” as high as 404 items resulted. Dental caries was associated with an order of magnitude fewer studies than the chronic bone disease, osteoporosis. This observation motivated this review. Material and Methods A comprehensive review of the available literature on role of enzymes in dentinogenesis and dental caries ...

  13. Role of TRAV locus in low caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briseño-Ruiz, Jessica; Shimizu, Takehiko; Deeley, Kathleen; Dizak, Piper M; Ruff, Timothy D; Faraco, Italo M; Poletta, Fernando A; Brancher, João A; Pecharki, Giovana D; Küchler, Erika C; Tannure, Patricia N; Lips, Andrea; Vieira, Thays C S; Patir, Asli; Koruyucu, Mine; Mereb, Juan C; Resick, Judith M; Brandon, Carla A; Letra, Ariadne; Silva, Renato M; Cooper, Margaret E; Seymen, Figen; Costa, Marcelo C; Granjeiro, José M; Trevilatto, Paula C; Orioli, Iêda M; Castilla, Eduardo E; Marazita, Mary L; Vieira, Alexandre R

    2013-09-01

    Caries is the most common chronic, multifactorial disease in the world today; and little is still known about the genetic factors influencing susceptibility. Our previous genome-wide linkage scan has identified five loci related to caries susceptibility: 5q13.3, 13q31.1, 14q11.2, 14q 24.3, and Xq27. In the present study, we fine mapped the 14q11.2 locus to identify genetic contributors to caries susceptibility. Four hundred seventy-seven subjects from 72 pedigrees with similar cultural and behavioral habits and limited access to dental care living in the Philippines were studied. An additional 387 DNA samples from unrelated individuals were used to determine allele frequencies. For replication purposes, a total of 1,446 independent subjects from four different populations were analyzed based on their caries experience (low versus high). Forty-eight markers in 14q11.2 were genotyped using TaqMan chemistry. Transmission disequilibrium test was used to detect over transmission of alleles in the Filipino families, and Chi-square, Fisher's exact and logistic regression were used to test for association between low caries experience and variant alleles in the replication data sets. We finally assessed the mRNA expression of TRAV4 in the saliva of 143 study subjects. In the Filipino families, statistically significant associations were found between low caries experience and markers in TRAV4. We were able to replicate these results in the populations studied that were characteristically from underserved areas. Direct sequencing of 22 subjects carrying the associated alleles detects one missense mutation (Y30R) that is predicted to be probably damaging. Finally, we observed higher expression in children and teenagers with low caries experience, correlating with specific alleles in TRAV4. Our results suggest that TRAV4 may have a role in protecting against caries. PMID:23657505

  14. Early childhood caries in Switzerland: a marker of social inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Abarca, Marcelo; Bodenmann, Patrick; Gehri, Mario; Madrid, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Early childhood caries (ECC) is a marker of social inequalities worldwide because disadvantaged children are more likely to develop caries than their peers. This study aimed to define the ECC prevalence among children living in French-speaking Switzerland, where data on this topic were scarce, and to assess whether ECC was an early marker of social inequalities in this country. Methods The study took place between 2010 and 2012 in the primary care facility of Lausanne Children’s Ho...

  15. Occlusal Caries Depth Measurements Obtained by Five Different Imaging Modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Kamburoğlu, Kıvanç; Hakan KURT; Kolsuz, Eray; ÖZTAŞ, Bengi; Tatar, İlkan; Çelik, Hakan Hamdi

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of occlusal caries depth measurements obtained from different imaging modalities. The study comprised 21 human mandibular molar teeth with occlusal caries. Teeth were imaged using film, CCD, two different cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) units and a microcomputer tomography (micro-CT). Thereafter, each tooth was serially sectioned, and the section with the deepest carious lesion was scanned using a high-resolution scanner. Eac...

  16. Caries prevalence and restorative dental services in some Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speake, J D

    1980-08-01

    Caries prevalence rates at eight and eleven years of age were estimated according to WHO criteria in six Pacific Island countries and territories during the period 1975 to 1977. The components of the dental caries index (DIMF(T)) on a country or territory basis were examined and the dental care index calculated. Factors influencing the delivery of dental services in the region are discussed. PMID:6934741

  17. Early Maternal Psychosocial Factors Are Predictors for Adolescent Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, S.; Lee, W; Albert, J.M.; Singer, L.T.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the role of early maternal enabling and psychosocial factors on subsequent adolescent caries experience. In this retrospective cohort study of 224 adolescents, we hypothesized that the causal pathway between early maternal enabling factors (education, cognitive abilities, psychological distress) and adolescent caries experience (DMFT) at age 14 yrs is mediated by maternal psychosocial factors (stress, coping, social support) and adolescent dental behavior/access....

  18. Sociodemographic Variation of Caries Risk Factors in Toddlers and Caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, G.J.; R. Jackson; Fontana, M

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. Dental caries is the most common chronic childhood disease, with numerous identified risk factors. Risk factor differences could indicate the need to target caregiver/patient education/preventive care intervention strategies based on population and/or individual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate caries risk factors differences by race/ethnicity, income, and education. Methods. We enrolled 396 caregiver-toddler pairs and administered a 105-item questionnair...

  19. Association of Environmental Cadmium Exposure with Pediatric Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer Lynn; Schwartz, Joel David; Wright, Robert O.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. Objectives: We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6–12 years of age. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We ...

  20. Identification of microbial and proteomic biomarkers in early childhood caries

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas C. Hart; Corby, Patricia M.; Milos Hauskrecht; Ok Hee Ryu; Richard Pelikan; Michal Valko; Oliveira, Maria B.; Hoehn, Gerald T.; Bretz, Walter A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a univariate and multivariate analysis of genomic microbial data and salivary mass-spectrometry proteomic profiles for dental caries outcomes. In order to determine potential useful biomarkers for dental caries, a multivariate classification analysis was employed to build predictive models capable of classifying microbial and salivary sample profiles with generalization performance. We used high-throughput methodologies including multiplexed microbial ...

  1. Efficacy of Miswak (Salvadorapersica) in Prevention of Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    F Ezoddini

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The rate of tooth decay and periodontal diseases today is still high, regardless of progress in oral and dental hygiene. The traditional toothbrush or chewing stick called "Miswak" has been used since ancient times. Many significant effects of Miswak such as antibacterial, anti-caries and antiperiopathic effects have been recognized today. Tooth care is a very important issue and both prevention and treatment of dental caries could be very helpful in maintaining good pe...

  2. Dental caries experience among indigenous children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Érica M; Cavalcanti, Laysa C; Firmino, Ramon T; Ribeiro, Gustavo L; Granville-Garcia, Ana F; Menezes, Valdenice A

    2015-06-01

    Investigations into the oral health status of indigenous populations are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate caries experience and associated factors among 342 indigenous children and adolescents aged 5-15 years of the Xukuru community in the municipality of Pesqueira, Brazil. A cross-sectional census study was carried out using the criteria of the World Health Organization to determine caries experience. Examinations were performed by two calibrated dentists and a questionnaire was administered to parents/caregivers addressing socio-demographic data, diet and oral hygiene habits. Logistic regression analysis were performed, with dmft and DMFT as the dependent variables (P Caries experience (dmft/DMFT) was high in both the primary and permanent dentition (75.6% and 62.9%, respectively). Mean dmft and DMFT indices were 3.11 and 2.21, respectively. Caries experience in the primary dentition was associated with children residing in villages far from urban areas (P = 0.016), while caries in the permanent dentition was associated with older children (P caries experience, which was associated with age and group of villages. Public policies are needed to improve the oral health status of this population. PMID:26062861

  3. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak PA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prathibha Anand Nayak,1 Ullal Anand Nayak,2 Vishal Khandelwal3 1Department of Periodontics, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 2Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 3Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Index Dental College and Hospital, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India Abstract: Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual. Keywords: xylitol, caries preventive effect, oral flora 

  4. Laboratory Studies of Nonlinear Optical Signals for Caries Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrer, E; Panayotov, I V; Slimani, A; Tardivo, D; Gillet, D; Levallois, B; Fejerskov, O; Gergely, C; Cuisinier, F J G; Tassery, H; Cloitre, T

    2016-05-01

    Multiphoton confocal microscopy and nonlinear spectroscopy are used to investigate the caries process in dentin. Although dentin is a major calcified tissue of the teeth, its organic phase comprises type I collagen fibers. Caries drive dentin demineralization and collagen denaturation. Multiphoton microscopy is a powerful imaging technique: the biological materials are transparent to infrared frequencies and can be excited to penetration depths inaccessible to 1-photon confocal microscopy. The laser excitation greatly reduces photodamage to the sole focal region, and the signal-to-noise ratio is improved significantly. The method has been used to follow pathologic processes involving collagen fibrosis or collagen destruction based on their 2-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF) emission and second harmonic generation (SHG). Combining multiphoton imaging with nonlinear spectroscopy, we demonstrate that both 2PEF and SHG intensity of human dentin are strongly modified during the tooth caries process, and we show that the ratio between SHG and 2PEF signals is a reliable parameter to follow dental caries. The ratio of the SHG/2PEF signals measured by nonlinear optical spectroscopy provides valuable information on the caries process, specifically on the degradation of the organic matrix of dentin. The goal is to bring these nonlinear optical signals to clinical application for caries diagnosis. PMID:26826107

  5. Factors Used for Caries Prediction in First Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Azeredo Alves ANTUNES

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the early presence of caries cavitation and active white spots (AWS in maxilary anterior teeth in the primary dentition associating them with other factors (diet, fluor exposure, precocious ocorrence of mutans streptococci, oral hygiene with the purpose of predict future caries lesion in posterior primary teeth. Method: The examination of the charts was done by the evaluation including anamnesis and clinical examination recorder in 250 files (young children with 18 - 36 months attended at the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic from a public University Dental School of Rio de Janeiro in 2000 - 2003. Results: After data analysis, the result agree with other studies: the early experience of caries in anterior primary teeth was the best predictor of caries cavitation in deciduos molares (74,49%, other risks factors also have been significance in the prediction. After carie, the second most important variable was anterior teeth with white spots (58,82%, followed by high consuption of sugar (54% and natural breastfeeding after 12 months of age (49,59%. Conclusion: This way this study could establish that dental caries is the best predictor, so preventive operatives shoud be done in early primary dentition.

  6. Community water fluoridation and caries prevention: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Giuseppe; Piscopo, Maria R; Pizzo, Ignazio; Giuliana, Giovanna

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to critically review the current role of community water fluoridation in preventing dental caries. Original articles and reviews published in English language from January 2001 to June 2006 were selected through MEDLINE database. Other sources were taken from the references of the selected papers. For the past 50 years community water fluoridation has been considered the milestone of caries prevention and as one of the major public health measures of the 20th century. However, it is now accepted that the primary cariostatic action of fluoride occurs after tooth eruption. Moreover, the caries reduction directly attributable to water fluoridation have declined in the last decades as the use of topical fluoride had become more widespread, whereas enamel fluorosis has been reported as an emerging problem in fluoridated areas. Several studies conducted in fluoridated and nonfluoridated communities suggested that this method of delivering fluoride may be unnecessary for caries prevention, particularly in the industrialized countries where the caries level has became low. Although water fluoridation may still be a relevant public health measure in poor and disadvantaged populations, the use of topical fluoride offers an optimal opportunity to prevent caries among people living in both industrialized and developing countries. PMID:17333303

  7. Dietary habits and dental caries in a population of Spanish schoolchildren with low levels of caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Majem, L; García Closas, R; Ramón, J M; Manau, C; Cuenca, E; Krasse, B

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between current dietary habits and dental caries in schoolchildren from an area of Spain on which the prevalence of caries was low. The results of an epidemiological study conducted on a random sample of 893 children from the cities of Girona and Figueres are presented. The method of dietary interview consisted of a food-frequency questionnaire. This showed a positive relationship between dental caries and consumption of ice cream, pastries, cakes, sliced bread, on the one hand, and sugar-free chewing gum and sugar-free candies, on the other. A protective effect of skimmed milk and artificial sweeteners was also observed. Results reflect the role of certain foods in caries development, but also the outcome of selective dietary counseling to high-risk children. PMID:8281564

  8. Genome-wide Association Studies of Pit-and-Fissure- and Smooth-surface Caries in Permanent Dentition

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Z.; Shaffer, J.R.; X. Wang; Feingold, E; Weeks, D. E.; Lee, M.; Cuenco, K.T.; Wendell, S.K.; Weyant, R. J.; Crout, R.; McNeil, D.W.; Marazita, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    While genetics clearly influences dental caries risk, few caries genes have been discovered and validated. Recent studies have suggested differential genetic factors for primary dentition caries and permanent dentition caries, as well as for pit-and-fissure- (PF) and smooth- (SM) surface caries. We performed separate GWAS for caries in permanent-dentition PF surfaces (1,017 participants, adjusted for age, sex, and the presence of Streptococcus mutans) and SM surfaces (1,004 participants, adju...

  9. Parental influences on dental caries development in preschool children. An overview with emphasis on recent Norwegian research

    OpenAIRE

    Wigen, Tove I; Wang, Nina J.

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of Norwegian preschool children with dental caries experience has decreased during the last decades and the caries distribution has become skewed. Some children develop caries in early life, and caries may affect body weight, growth and quality of life in children. The social environment influences child development, including the risk for developing dental caries. The purpose of this paper was to summarize knowledge from the literature regarding parental influence on caries de...

  10. Sealing caries in primary molars: randomized control trial, 5-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, N P T; Evans, D J P; Stirrups, D R

    2011-12-01

    The Hall Technique (HT) is a method for managing carious primary molars. Decay is sealed under pre-formed metal crowns without any caries removal, tooth preparation, or local anesthesia. The aim of this study was to compare HT clinical/radiographic failure rates with General Dental Practitioners' (GDPs) standard (control) restorations. We conducted a split-mouth, randomized control trial (132 children, aged 3-10 yrs, GDPs n = 17) in Scotland. There were 264 study teeth with initial lesions, 42% of which were radiographically > half-way into dentin, and 67% of which had Class II restorations. Teeth were randomized to HT (intervention) or GDPs' usual treatment (control). Annual clinical/radiographic follow-up data were recorded. Ninety-one patients (69%) had 48 months' minimum follow-up. At 60 months, 'Major' failures (irreversible pulpitis, loss of vitality, abscess, or unrestorable tooth) were recorded: HT, 3 (3%); control restorations, 15 (16.5%) (p = 0.000488; NNT 8); and 'Minor' failures (reversible pulpitis, restoration loss/wear/fracture; or secondary caries): HT, 4 (5%); control restorations, 38 (42%) (p < 0.000001; NNT 3). Overall, there were follow-up data for 130 patients (2-60 mos): 'Major' failures: HT, 3 (2%); control restorations, 22 (17%) (p = 0.000004; NNT 7); and 'Minor' failures, HT, 7 (5%); control restorations, 60 (46%) (p < 0.000001; NNT 3). Sealing in caries by the Hall Technique statistically, and clinically, significantly outperformed GDPs' standard restorations in the long term (Trial registration no. ISRCTN 47267892). PMID:21921249

  11. Metatranscriptomics reveals overall active bacterial composition in caries lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea Simón-Soro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying the microbial species in caries lesions is instrumental to determine the etiology of dental caries. However, a significant proportion of bacteria in carious lesions have not been cultured, and the use of molecular methods has been limited to DNA-based approaches, which detect both active and inactive or dead microorganisms. Objective: To identify the RNA-based, metabolically active bacterial composition of caries lesions at different stages of disease progression in order to provide a list of potential etiological agents of tooth decay. Design: Non-cavitated enamel caries lesions (n=15 and dentin caries lesions samples (n=12 were collected from 13 individuals. RNA was extracted and cDNA was constructed, which was used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene. The resulting 780 bp polymerase chain reaction products were pyrosequenced using Titanium-plus chemistry, and the sequences obtained were used to determine the bacterial composition. Results: A mean of 4,900 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene with an average read length of 661 bp was obtained per sample, giving a comprehensive view of the active bacterial communities in caries lesions. Estimates of bacterial diversity indicate that the microbiota of cavities is highly complex, each sample containing between 70 and 400 metabolically active species. The composition of these bacterial consortia varied among individuals and between caries lesions of the same individuals. In addition, enamel and dentin lesions had a different bacterial makeup. Lactobacilli were found almost exclusively in dentin cavities. Streptococci accounted for 40% of the total active community in enamel caries, and 20% in dentin caries. However, Streptococcus mutans represented only 0.02–0.73% of the total bacterial community. Conclusions: The data indicate that the etiology of dental caries is tissue dependent and that the disease has a clear polymicrobial origin. The low proportion of mutans streptococci

  12. Gene-environment Interactions in the Etiology of Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, G; Ermis, R B; Calapoglu, N S; Celik, E U; Türel, G Y

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that can be conceptualized as an interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of AMELX, CA6, DEFB1, and TAS2R38 gene polymorphism and gene-environment interactions on caries etiology and susceptibility in adults. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buccal mucosa, and adults aged 20 to 60 y were placed into 1 of 2 groups: low caries risk (DMFT ≤ 5; n = 77) and high caries risk (DMFT ≥ 14; n = 77). The frequency of AMELX (+522), CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) single-nucleotide polymorphisms was genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Environmental risk factors examined in the study included plaque amount, toothbrushing frequency, dietary intake between meals, saliva secretion rate, saliva buffer capacity, mutans streptococci counts, and lactobacilli counts. There was no difference between the caries risk groups in relation to AMELX (+522) polymorphism (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). The distribution of CA6 genotype and allele frequencies in the low caries risk group did not differ from the high caries risk group (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). Polymorphism of DEFB1 (G-20A) was positively associated, and TAS2R38 (A49P) negatively associated, with caries risk (χ(2) test, P = 0.000). There were significant differences between caries susceptibility and each environmental risk factor, except for the saliva secretion rate (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.000). Based on stepwise multiple linear regression analyses, dental plaque amount, lactobacilli count, age, and saliva buffer capacity, as well as DEFB1 (G-20A), TAS2R38 (A49P), and CA6 (T55M) gene polymorphism, explained a total of 87.8% of the variations in DMFT scores. It can be concluded that variation in CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) may be associated with caries experience in Turkish adults with a high level of dental plaque, lactobacilli count

  13. Dentine microhardness after different methods for detection and removal of carious dentine tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Brandão Mollica

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There are several methods for identifying carious dentinal tissue aiming to avoid removal of healthy dentinal tissue. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to test different methods for the detection of carious dentinal tissue regarding the amount of carious tissue removed and the remaining dentin microhardness after caries removal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The dentin surfaces of 20 bovine teeth were exposed and half of the surface was protected with nail polish. Cariogenic challenge was performed by immersion in a demineralizing solution for 14 days. After transverse cross-section of the crown, the specimens were divided into four groups (n=10, according to the method used to identify and remove the carious tissue: "Papacárie", Caries-detector dye, DIAGNOdent and Tactile method. After caries removal, the cross-sectional surface was included in acrylic resin and polished. In a microhardness tester, the removed dentin thickness and the Vickers microhardness of the following regions were evaluated: remaining dentin after caries removal and superficial and deep healthy dentin. RESULTS: ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05 were performed, except for DIAGNOdent, which did not detect the presence of caries. Results for removed dentin thickness were: "Papacárie" (424.7±105.0; a, Caries-detector dye (370.5±78.3; ab, Tactile method (322.8±51.5; bc. Results for the remaining dentin microhardness were: "Papacárie" (42.2±10.5; bc, Caries-detector dye (44.6±11.8; abc, Tactile method (24.3±9.0; d. CONCLUSIONS: DIAGNOdent did not detect the presence of carious tissue; Tactile method and "Papacárie" resulted in the least and the most dentinal thickness removal, respectively; Tactile method differed significantly from "Papacárie" and Caries-detector dye in terms of the remaining dentin microhardness, and Tactile method was the one which presented the lowest microhardness values.

  14. Caries en una población militar española Dental caries in a Spanish military population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mombiedro Sandoval

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia de caries de la población militar española de la base "General Almirante" Marines, Valencia. Material y método: Estudio descriptivo transversal para el que se seleccionó una muestra de 387 militares para un IC del 95%. En el gabinete dental de la base se realizó la exploración oral siguiendo los criterios de la OMS (1997, 4ª edición. Un solo profesional experimentado con un explorador patrón llevó a cabo la encuesta entre diciembre del 2003 y julio del 2004. Resultados: El índice de dientes con caries, ausentes y obturados (CAO-D fue de 4,05. El 23% de la muestra estaba libre de caries. Presentaban caries sin tratar el 40% de los explorados, siendo significativamente superior el porcentaje en la tropa y en los que referían no cepillarse de forma regular. El índice de restauración (% O/ CAO-D fue del 60%. La población de tropa presentó con significación estadística mas caries y menos dientes con caries tratada (A,O que el grupo de oficiales y suboficiales. Conclusiones: Casi la mitad de la población encuestada precisa tratamiento por caries. Estrategias de asistencia basadas en políticas preventivas de diagnostico precoz y de asistencia personalizada en función del riesgo individual de caries, adaptadas al medio militar, pudieran ser la clave para poder desplegar en un futuro tropas que no ocasionen emergencias en futuras operaciones.Object: The target of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries in a population of Spanish military personnel at the "General Almirante " base at Marines (Valencia. Material and Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was made of a sample of 387 military personnel, (95% CI. The oral examinations were conducted at the dental clinic at the base, in accordance with the WHO (1997, 4th ed. criteria, by a single dentist calibrated against an experienced examiner. The survey was conducted between December 2003 and July 2004. Results: The decayed, missed and

  15. Detection method of proximal caries using line profile in digital intra-oral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how to detect proximal caries using line profile and validate linear measurements of proximal caries lesions by basic digital manipulation of radiographic images. The X-ray images of control group (15) and caries teeth (15) from patients were used. For each image, the line profile at the proximal caries-susceptible zone was calculated. To evaluate the contrast as a function of line profile to detect proximal caries, a difference coefficient (D) that indicates the relative difference between caries and sound dentin or intact enamel was measured. Mean values of D were 0.0354 ± 0.0155 in non-caries and 0.2632 ± 0.0982 in caries (p<0.001). The mean values of caries group were higher than non-caries group and there was correlation between proximal dental caries and D. It is demonstrated that the mean value of D from caries group was higher than that of control group. From the result, values of D possess great potentiality as a new detection parameter for proximal dental caries.

  16. Detection method of proximal caries using line profile in digital intra-oral radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Kim, Gyu Tae; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Min Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Hoon [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how to detect proximal caries using line profile and validate linear measurements of proximal caries lesions by basic digital manipulation of radiographic images. The X-ray images of control group (15) and caries teeth (15) from patients were used. For each image, the line profile at the proximal caries-susceptible zone was calculated. To evaluate the contrast as a function of line profile to detect proximal caries, a difference coefficient (D) that indicates the relative difference between caries and sound dentin or intact enamel was measured. Mean values of D were 0.0354 {+-} 0.0155 in non-caries and 0.2632 {+-} 0.0982 in caries (p<0.001). The mean values of caries group were higher than non-caries group and there was correlation between proximal dental caries and D. It is demonstrated that the mean value of D from caries group was higher than that of control group. From the result, values of D possess great potentiality as a new detection parameter for proximal dental caries.

  17. Reemergencia de la caries dental en adolescentes Re-emerging of dental caries in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Franco Cortés; I.C. Guzmán Zuluaga; A.M. Gómez Restrepo; C.M. Ardila Medina

    2010-01-01

    Introducción: las inequidades en la cobertura de los programas preventivos y en el acceso a la atención podrían afectar los indicadores de salud bucal de los adolescentes. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio descriptivo fue determinar la prevalencia y la historia de caries de los adolescentes de Medellín; evaluar la tendencia de los indicadores y en consecuencia evaluar una posible reemergencia de este problema. Materiales y métodos: Los datos se obtuvieron mediante un examen clínico denta...

  18. Quantitative detection of Streptococcus mutans and bacteria of dental caries and no caries groups in permanent teeth from a north China population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhan-yong; WANG Jian-qiu; ZHOU Yan; ZHAO Dong; XIAO Bai

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) is the prime pathogen of dental caries.There are few reports that studied the relationship between S.mutans,bacteria and dental caries in permanent teeth when compared to those in primary teeth.This study aimed to detect S.mutans and bacteria of dental caries and non-caries groups in permanent teeth from a north China population by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and compare the relationship between the number of these bacteria and the prevalence of dental caries in permanent teeth.Methods Human saliva samples were collected from 142 subjects with permanent teeth.According to their dental tooth (DT),142 subjects were divided into a dental caries group (DT≥1) and a non-caries group (DT=0).With specific primers for S.mutans and 16S rRNA,the total number of S.mutans and total bacteria of 142 saliva samples were detected by real-time PCR and statistically analyzed.Results There was no significant difference between the detection rates of S.mutans (P=0.118) and medians of S.mutans (P=0.115).The ratio of S.mutans to total bacteria in people with dental caries was significantly higher than in those without caries (P <0.001),but the total number of bacteria in people with dental caries was significantly lower than in those without caries (P <0.001).Conclusions S.mutans had different effects on caries in the permanent teeth of several individuals from a north China population.The ratios of S.mutans to total bacteria in saliva detected by real-time PCR with Sm479F/R and 16S RNA primers were closely associated with the prevalence of dental caries in the same population.These assays may be useful for the assessment of an individual's risk of dental caries.

  19. The occurrence of dental caries is associated with atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Glodny

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that marginal periodontitis is a risk factor for developing atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether caries may also be associated with atherosclerosis. METHODS: The computed tomography data sets of 292 consecutive patients, 137 women and 155 men with a mean age of 54.1±17.3 years, were analyzed. Caries were quantified based on the number of decayed surfaces of all the teeth, and periodontitis was quantified on the basis of the horizontal bone loss in the jaw. The presence of chronic apical periodontitis (CAP was assessed, and the aortic atherosclerotic burden was quantified using a calcium scoring method. RESULTS: The patients with <1 caries surfaces/tooth had a lower atherosclerotic burden (0.13±0.61 mL than patients with ≥1 caries surfaces/tooth. The atherosclerotic burden was greater in patients with a higher number of lesions with pulpal involvement and more teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. In the logistical regression models, age (Wald 49.3, number of caries per tooth (Wald 26.4, periodontitis (Wald 8.6, and male gender (Wald 11 were found to be independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. In the linear regression analyses, age and the number of decayed surfaces per tooth were identified as influencing factors associated with a higher atherosclerotic burden, and the number of restorations per tooth was associated with a lower atherosclerotic burden. CONCLUSION: Dental caries, pulpal caries, and chronic apical periodontitis are associated positively, while restorations are associated inversely, with aortic atherosclerotic burden. Prospective studies are required to confirm these observations and answer the question of possible causality.

  20. Inequalities of caries experience in Nevada youth expressed by DMFT index vs. Significant Caries Index (SiC over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobley Connie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasingly polarized distribution of dental caries among children and adolescents, the usual DMFT measure has become a less meaningful population descriptor. To re-focus on identifying the high caries prevalence group the Significant Caries Index (SiC was created. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence and severity of dental caries in Nevada youth over a period of eight years and to compare its expression by means of DMFT and SiC; analyze the caries trends in the population and their underlying factors, and determine whether Nevada youth were at risk for significantly high levels of dental caries. Methods Retrospective data was analyzed from a series of sequential, standardized oral health surveys across eight years (2001/2002-2008/2009 that included over 62,000 examinations of adolescents 13-19 years of age, attending public/private Nevada schools. Mean Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth index (DMFT and Significant Caries Index (SiC were subsequently computed for each academic year. Descriptive statistics were reported for analysis of comparative DMFT and SiC scores in relation to age, gender, racial background, and residence in a fluoridated/non-fluoridated community. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the differential impact of the variables on the probability of being in the high caries prevalence group. Results Comparison of students' mean DMFT to National (NHANES data confirmed that dental caries remains a common chronic disease among Nevada youth, presenting higher prevalence rates and greater mean scores than the national averages. Downward trends were found across all demographics compared between survey years 1 and 6 with the exception of survey year 3. An upward trend began in survey year six. Over time, the younger group displayed an increasing proportion of cariesfree individuals while a decreasing proportion was found among older examinees. As expected, the mean SiC score was

  1. Nanocatalysts promote Streptococcus mutans biofilm matrix degradation and enhance bacterial killing to suppress dental caries in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lizeng; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Dongyeop; Li, Yong; Hwang, Geelsu; Naha, Pratap C; Cormode, David P; Koo, Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Dental biofilms (known as plaque) are notoriously difficult to remove or treat because the bacteria can be enmeshed in a protective extracellular matrix. It can also create highly acidic microenvironments that cause acid-dissolution of enamel-apatite on teeth, leading to the onset of dental caries. Current antimicrobial agents are incapable of disrupting the matrix and thereby fail to efficiently kill the microbes within plaque-biofilms. Here, we report a novel strategy to control plaque-biofilms using catalytic nanoparticles (CAT-NP) with peroxidase-like activity that trigger extracellular matrix degradation and cause bacterial death within acidic niches of caries-causing biofilm. CAT-NP containing biocompatible Fe3O4 were developed to catalyze H2O2 to generate free-radicals in situ that simultaneously degrade the biofilm matrix and rapidly kill the embedded bacteria with exceptional efficacy (>5-log reduction of cell-viability). Moreover, it displays an additional property of reducing apatite demineralization in acidic conditions. Using 1-min topical daily treatments akin to a clinical situation, we demonstrate that CAT-NP in combination with H2O2 effectively suppress the onset and severity of dental caries while sparing normal tissues in vivo. Our results reveal the potential to exploit nanocatalysts with enzyme-like activity as a potent alternative approach for treatment of a prevalent biofilm-associated oral disease. PMID:27294544

  2. Caries Risk Assessment Among School Children in Davangere City Using Cariogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kemparaj

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Cariogram can be a reliable tool in caries prediction. It can aid in identifying different risk groups in a community and developing preventive strategies for reducing caries risk in children.

  3. Clinical consequences of untreated dental caries evaluated using PUFA index in orphanage children from India

    OpenAIRE

    Shanbhog, Raghavendra; Godhi, Brinda S; Nandlal, Bhojraj; Kumar, Shruti S; Raju, Veena; S Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Background: To determine the prevalence and severity of oral condition related to untreated dental caries with PUFA index and to relate period of institutional stay, oral hygiene practice and diet of orphan children to caries experience ratio.

  4. Dental caries and its association with sociodemographics, erosion, and diet in schoolchildren from southeast Brazil.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Auad, Sheyla Marcia

    2009-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of caries in a sample of Brazilian schoolchildren, test associotions between caries, sociodemographics, and erosion, and investigate potential dietary factors common to both conditions.

  5. Longitudinal associations between children’s dental caries and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Chankanka, Oitip; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Levy, Steven M.; Marshall, Teresa A.; Warren, John J; Broffitt, Barbara; Kolker, Justine L.

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is a common disease in children of all ages. It is desirable to know whether children with primary, mixed and permanent dentitions share risk factors for cavitated and non-cavitated caries.

  6. Caries risk assessment in school children using a reduced Cariogram model without saliva tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Isberg, Per-Erik; Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the caries predictive ability of a reduced Cariogram model without salivary tests in schoolchildren.......To investigate the caries predictive ability of a reduced Cariogram model without salivary tests in schoolchildren....

  7. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMantia, Nicole R.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluorescence (QLF). In order for image-guided laser ablation to be feasible, chemical and physical modification of tooth surfaces due to laser irradiation cannot greatly reduce the contrast between sound and demineralized dental hard tissues. Sound and demineralized surfaces of 48 extracted human molar teeth with non-cavitated lesions were examined. Images were acquired before and after laser irradiation using visible and near-IR reflectance and QLF at several wavelengths. Polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography was used to confirm that lesions were present. The highest contrast was attained at 1460-nm and 1500-1700-nm, wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption. The reflectance did not decrease significantly after laser irradiation for those wavelengths.

  8. Maintenance of pulpal vitality in a tooth with deep caries: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Maria Lourdes de Andrade; Tavares, Warley Luciano Fonseca; Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Deep caries can induce severe inflammatory reactions. However, inflamed pulp can heal if the demineralization process is interrupted and inactivated sufficiently early. The aim of this case report is to describe the use of stepwise excavation to treat a mature permanent tooth that exhibited deep caries and apical periodontitis. A 12-year-old girl was experiencing lingering pain lasting for a few minutes in the mandibular left second molar when drinking cold water. Clinical and radiographic examinations suggested that a conservative therapeutic approach could be successful. The tooth was anesthetized and isolated, and the unsupported enamel was removed. The remaining affected dentin was left on the pulpal floor, which was protected by a thin layer of calcium hydroxide cement. The tooth was sealed with temporary cement. Three months later, pulpal sensitivity was reduced. The pulp was found to be healthy at a 9-month follow-up examination. The cavity was definitively restored with glass ionomer cement and composite resin applied with the sandwich technique. At the 4-year follow-up, the tooth remained functional, presenting standard color and satisfactory restoration. The periodontal tissues were healthy, and radiographic images indicated that the width of the periodontal ligament space was normal. This case demonstrates that clinical diagnosis should prevail over radiographic findings, even in cases where a radiographic widening of the periodontal ligament space suggests irreversible pulpal damage. PMID:27367630

  9. A pilot study of dentists' assessment of caries detection and staging systems applied to early caries: PEARL Network findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Van P; Schenkel, Andrew B; Penugonda, Bapanaiah; Wolff, Mark S; Zeller, Gregory G; Wu, Hongyu; Vena, Don; Grill, Ashley C; Curro, Frederick A

    2016-01-01

    The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II) and the Caries Classification System (CCS) are caries stage description systems proposed for adoption into clinical practice. This pilot study investigated clinicians' training in and use of these systems for detection of early caries and recommendations for individual tooth treatment. Patient participants (N = 8) with a range of noncavitated lesions (CCS ranks 2 and 4 and ICDAS II ranks 2-4) identified by a team of calibrated examiners were recruited from the New York University College of Dentistry clinic. Eighteen dentists-8 from the Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network and 10 recruited from the Academy of General Dentistry-were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: 5 dentists used only visual-tactile (VT) examination, 7 were trained in the ICDAS II, and 6 were trained in the CCS. Lesion stage for each tooth was determined by the ICDAS II and CCS groups, and recommended treatment was decided by all groups. Teeth were assessed both with and without radiographs. Caries was detected in 92.7% (95% CI, 88%-96%) of the teeth by dentists with CCS training, 88.8% (95% CI, 84%-92%) of the teeth by those with ICDAS II training, and 62.3% (95% CI, 55%-69%) of teeth by the VT group. Web-based training was acceptable to all dentists in the CCS group (6 of 6) but fewer of the dentists in the ICDAS II group (5 of 7). The modified CCS translated clinically to more accurate caries detection, particularly compared to detection by untrained dentists (VT group). Moreover, the CCS was more accepted than was the ICDAS II, but dentists in both groups were open to the application of these systems. Agreement on caries staging requires additional training prior to a larger validation study. PMID:27148652

  10. Spectral characteristics of caries-related autofluorescence spectra and their use for diagnosis of caries stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sung-Ae; Jung, Kyeong-Hoon; Ko, Ching-Chang; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify factors useful for diagnosis of the caries stage from laser-induced autofluorescence (AF) spectra. Affected teeth were accurately staged and allocated to four groups: sound, stage II, stage III, or stage IV. A 405-nm laser was used to produce AF spectra. The spectrum factors analyzed were spectrum slope at 550 to 600 nm, spectral area from 500 and 590 nm, and intensity ratio of peaks 625 and 667 nm (625/667 nm). DIAGNOdent was used as control measurement. AF spectra of sound teeth had a peak near 500 nm followed by a smooth decline to 800 nm. As caries progressed, some specimens in stages II to IV showed one or two peak(s) near 625 and 667 nm. Slopes at 550 to 600 nm and areas under the curve at 500 to 590 nm were significantly different (p<0.001) for each stage. Two-peak ratios were also significantly different (p<0.001) except for stage III and stage IV. DIAGNOdent readings for sound and stage II and stage III and IV were not significantly different. Among the studied factors, the spectrum slope at 550 to 600 nm and area under curve at 500 to 590 nm could be useful treatment decision-making tools for carious lesions.

  11. The Contribution of Dietary Factors to Dental Caries and Disparities in Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie; Marshall, Teresa A.; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Frequent consumption of simple carbohydrates, primarily in the form of dietary sugars is significantly associated with increased dental caries risk. Malnutrition (under or over nutrition) in children is often a consequence of inappropriate infant and childhood feeding practices and dietary behaviors associated with limited access to fresh, nutrient dense foods substituting instead, high-energy low cost and nutrient poor sugary and fatty foods. Lack of availability of quality food stores in rural and poor neighborhoods, food insecurity, and changing dietary beliefs resulting from acculturation including changes in traditional ethnic eating behaviors, can further deter healthful eating and increase risk for Early Childhood Caries and obesity. America is witnessing substantial increases in children and ethnic minorities living in poverty, widening the gap in oral health disparities noted in the Surgeon General's Report, Oral Health in America. Dental and other care providers can educate and counsel pregnant women, parents and families to promote healthy eating behaviors and should advocate for governmental policies and programs that decrease parental financial and educational barriers to achieving healthy diets. For families living in poverty, however, greater efforts are needed to facilitate access to affordable healthy foods, particularly in urban and rural neighborhoods in order to effect positive changes in children's diets and advance the oral components of general health. PMID:19945075

  12. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles for caries control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Birkedal, Henrik; Olsen, Jakob; Skovgaard, Jonas; Sutherland, Duncan S; Wejse, Peter L; Nyvad, Bente; Meyer, Rikke L

    2016-01-01

    Caries is caused by acid production in biofilms on dental surfaces. Preventing caries therefore involves control of microorganisms and/or the acid produced. Here, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles are presented as a new approach to caries control. The particles are made by co-precipitation and designed to bind to bacteria in biofilms, impede biofilm build-up without killing the microflora, and release phosphate ions to buffer bacterial acid production if the pH decreases below 6. Analysis of biofilm formation and pH in a five-species biofilm model for dental caries showed that treatment with particles or pure osteopontin led to less biofilm formation compared to untreated controls or biofilms treated with osteopontin-free particles. The anti-biofilm effect can thus be ascribed to osteopontin. The particles also led to a slower acidification of the biofilm after exposure to glucose, and the pH always remained above 5.5. Hence, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles show potential for applications in caries control. PMID:26923119

  13. Oratest: A new concept to test caries activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries activity tests are based on the concept of a specific odontogenic infection, the principle causative organism being streptococci mutans. Their predominance is attributed to its acidogenic and aciduric nature after a selective growth advantages over the other non- acid tolerant organisms. Many studies on caries activity are aimed at finding relevant microorganisms. Till date, the ideal method to evaluate in terms of sensitivity, specialization and reliability has not been found. Many of these caries activity tests require extensive work up time and additional equipment. Rosenberg et al. in 1989 developed Oratest, a simple, economical, non- invasive and less time-consuming test for estimating the oral microbial level. The test is simple and consists of rinsing the mouth with 10 ml of sterile milk, 3 ml of which is mixed with 0.12 ml of 0.1% methylene blue dye and observed for colour change. The present study sample consists of twenty five children with dental caries and twenty five controls, free of caries, gingivitis and other oral ailments. This study is being conducted in the department of Oral Pathology & Microbiology and is in the preliminary phase so further results are awaited.

  14. Caries Experience and Salivary Parameters among Overweight Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele B. Diniz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by excess body fat, which can lead to other health problems, including insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, sleep apnea, asthma, heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Currently, obesity and dental caries are major public health concerns and dietary habits are a very important common component of their etiological factors, showing some correlation with the sociodemographic characteristics of individuals presenting these diseases. In relation to caries experience, the literature suggests a correlation between obesity and dental caries in children and adolescents, in primary and/or permanent dentition, though divergent results exist regarding assessment based on the method recommended by the WHO (1997, i.e., restricted to carious lesions with cavitation. Some studies indicate greater prevalence of proximal carious lesions in obese adolescents compared with those with normal weight. Salivary changes, such as the concentrations of phosphate, sialic acid, proteins and immunoglobulins and in peroxidase activity could explain the increased probability of obese children presenting greater risk of dental caries. Thus, it is important to consider the contribution of salivary parameters in caries experience of overweight children and adolescents and the implementation of preventive measures in this population.

  15. Dermatoglyphics: A genetic marker of early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Anitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is an accepted fact that genetics plays an important role in determination of palmar dermatoglyphic patterns. Since caries is a multifactorial disease with the influence of genetic pattern, this study was undertaken to explore the possibility of dermatoglyphics as a noninvasive and early predictor of dental caries in children, so as to initiate preventive oral health measures at an early age. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 200 children aged between 4 and 5 years. The dmfs score was evaluated. The experimental group (Group 1, comprised of 100 children with early childhood caries (ECC with dmfs >5. The control group (Group 2 comprised of 100 children with dmfs score of 0. Results: An increased frequency of ulnar loops in caries-free children and whorls in children with ECC was observed. Low mean atd angle and low mean. Total ridge count was observed in the ECC group. Conclusion: There is definite variation in dermatoglyphics between the ECC and caries-free group, indicating that dermatoglyphic patterns can be used as a predictive tool for children with ECC.

  16. Progress dissecting the oral microbiome in caries and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burne, R A; Zeng, L; Ahn, S J; Palmer, S R; Liu, Y; Lefebure, T; Stanhope, M J; Nascimento, M M

    2012-09-01

    Recent rapid advances in "-omics" technologies have yielded new insights into the interaction of the oral microbiome with its host. Associations of species that are usually considered to be acid-tolerant with caries have been confirmed, while some recognized as health-associated are often present in greater proportions in the absence of caries. In addition, some newly identified bacteria have been suggested as potential contributors to the caries process. In spite of this progress, two major challenges remain. The first is that there is a great deal of heterogeneity in the phenotypic capabilities of individual species of oral bacteria. The second is that the most abundant taxa in oral biofilms display remarkable phenotypic plasticity, i.e., the bacteria associated most strongly with health or with caries can morph rapidly in response to alterations in environmental pH, carbohydrate availability and source, and oxygen tension and redox environment. However, new technologic advances coupled with "old-fashioned microbiology" are starting to erode the barriers to a more complete understanding of oral biofilm physiology and ecology, and in doing so are beginning to provide insights for the creation of novel cost-effective caries control therapies. PMID:22899685

  17. BREASTFEEDING AND EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES (ECC) SEVERITY OF CHILDREN UNDER THREE YEARS OLD IN DKI JAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Risqa Rina Darwita; Herwati Djoharnas; Febriana Setiawati Sugito

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years old are constantly increasing. One of the cause is the increase consumption of cariogenic carbohydrate. Breast milk have buffer capacity that eventually able to prevent caries. The aims of this research are to discover the correlation between breastfeeding with the severity of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) in children under three years old, to provide information on prevalence and severity of caries in children under three yea...

  18. Caries remineralisation and arresting effect in children by professionally applied fluoride treatment – a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Zhang, Shinan; Mei, May Lei; Lo, Edward Chin-Man; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background As a low-cost and easily operated treatment, the use of professionally applied topical fluoride was approved for preventing dental caries and remineralising early enamel caries or white spot lesions. It is also used to arrest dentine caries. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of professional fluoride therapy in remineralising and arresting caries in children. Method A systematic search of publications from 1948 to 2014 was conducted using four databases: ...

  19. Women Are More Susceptible to Caries but Individuals Born with Clefts Are Not

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi Jindal; Michelle McMeans; Somnya Narayanan; Erin K. Rose; Shilpa Jain; Marazita, Mary L.; Renato Menezes; Ariadne Letra; Carvalho, Flavia M.; Carla A. Brandon; Resick, Judith M.; Mereb, Juan C.; Poletta, Fernando A.; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Eduardo E. Castilla

    2011-01-01

    The identification of individuals at a higher risk of developing caries is of great interest. Isolated forms of cleft lip and palate are among the most common craniofacial congenital anomalies in humans. Historically, several reports suggest that individuals born with clefts have a higher risk for caries. Caries continues to be the most common infectious noncontagious disease worldwide and a great burden to any health system. The identification of individuals of higher susceptibility to carie...

  20. Childhood caries in the state of Kentucky, USA: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Kandel Elizabeth A; Richards Jenna M; Binkley Catherine J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Untreated dental caries afflicts almost one third of school-aged children in the United States and many of them are from disadvantaged families. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of untreated caries in north central Kentucky, USA and to examine the relationships between the available demographic variables and untreated childhood caries as reported on the forms from the Smile Kentucky! program. Methods During the fall of 2008, caries st...

  1. Caries risk assessment in school children using a reduced Cariogram model without saliva tests

    OpenAIRE

    Twetman Svante; Isberg Per-Erik; Petersson Gunnel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background To investigate the caries predictive ability of a reduced Cariogram model without salivary tests in schoolchildren. Methods The study group consisted of 392 school children, 10-11 years of age, who volunteered after informed consent. A caries risk assessment was made at baseline with aid of the computer-based Cariogram model and expressed as "the chance of avoiding caries" and the children were divided into five risk groups. The caries increment (ΔDMFS) was extracted from ...

  2. Caries risk assessment in schoolchildren - a form based on Cariogram® software

    OpenAIRE

    CABRAL, Renata Nunes; Leandro Augusto HILGERT; Faber, Jorge; Soraya Coelho LEAL

    2014-01-01

    Identifying caries risk factors is an important measure which contributes to best understanding of the cariogenic profile of the patient. The Cariogram® software provides this analysis, and protocols simplifying the method were suggested. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether a newly developed Caries Risk Assessment (CRA) form based on the Cariogram® software could classify schoolchildren according to their caries risk and to evaluate relationships between caries risk an...

  3. Iron Deficiency in Young Children: A Risk Marker for Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Iranna Koppal, Pushpa; Sakri, Mohan Ravishankar; Akkareddy, Basavaprabhu; Hinduja, Dharam M; Gangolli, Raviraj Annayya; Patil, Basanagouda C

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: Evaluate the coexistence of iron deficiency and early childhood caries. Evaluate whether iron deficiency can be considered as a risk marker for early childhood caries. Estimate the incidence of iron deficiency in children with early childhood caries. To evaluate and compare the iron status of children with and without severe early childhood caries. Materials and methods: Sixty children of age 2 to 6 years in whom blood investigations are advised by pediatricians are selected for...

  4. Comparative evaluation of predictive value of three caries activity tests-snyder, lactobacillus count and cariostat in mixed dentition children with and without caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is a disease with multifactorial etiology. Early detection and preventive measures are essential for caries control. Caries activity tests are one of the methods of early detection, but all these are based on microbiological study. Aims: Compare the sensitivity and specificity of Snyder test (ST, lactobacillus count (LBC and Cariostat in mixed dentition children with and without caries. Materials and Methods: 90 healthy mixed dentition children (79 boys and 11 girls were selected and were divided into two groups, one with Decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT 0 and another group with DMFT 3-5. The salivary samples were collected for ST and LBC and plaque samples were collected for Cariostat. Caries activity was assessed. Results: The data obtained were analyzed for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and over all accuracy. Conclusions: Our present study showed that the LBC was found to have a higher correlation in caries as the caries increased the count also increased with positive caries activity. A good correlation was found between Snyder and LBC for the caries activity 1, 2 and 3. But no correlation was seen for score 0. To conclude, a combination of all these tests was found to be good for assessing caries risk groups.

  5. Impact of dental caries on preschool children's quality of life: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Bönecker; Jenny Abanto; Gustavo Tello; Luciana Butini Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The literature reports that dental caries can cause functional, physical and aesthetic impairment, often with repercussions on children's general health at an early age. Moreover, recent studies have investigated how caries lesions can compromise children's quality of life. This paper aims to describe the current situation of dental caries prevalence in children and how this oral health disease can impact their quality of life.

  6. Treatment protocols: nonfluoride management of the caries disease process and available diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    to prevent caries lesions. However, such measures may be considered to control the disease in caries-active individuals. There is evidence that xylitol has antibacterial properties that alter the oral ecology but the clinical evidence for caries prevention is rated as fair. However, preventive...

  7. Microbiología de la caries radicular en el paciente mayor Microbiology of the root caries in old patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Gutiérrez Acero

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La caries radicular es uno de los problemas bucodentales más importantes y que más comúnmente afectan al adulto mayor. La caries radicular es aquel proceso carioso que se produce sobre la raíz expuesta del diente. Los principales patógenos implicados son el Streptococcus mutans, el Actinomyces viscosus y el Lactobacillus acidofilus, que producen los ácidos orgánicos que desmineralizan el cemento y la dentina de la raíz, llegando producir su cavitación. Los cambios que se producen en el medio oral tienen una relación muy directa con las bacterias de la caries radicular y del biofilm que forman.The root caries is one of most important bucodental problems that affect to the old patient. The root caries is the decay process that produce on the expose root. The principals pathogens relying are Streptococos mutans, Actinomyces viscosus and Lactobacillus acidofilus, that produce the organics acids demineralizating of root cement and dentin producing the cavitation of the root. The changes producing in the mouth have a direct relation with the bacteria and its biofilm.

  8. New methodology for studying the structural ecology of occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Irene; Grønkjær, Lene; Nyvad, Bente

    Microbiological studies of occlusal dental biofilms have hitherto been hampered by inaccessibility to the sampling site and demolition of the original biofilm architecture. The aim of the present study was to explore the spatial distribution of bacterial taxa in vivo at various stages of occusal...... caries, applying a new methodology involving preparation of embedded hard dental tissue slices for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. 11 extracted teeth were included in the study and classified according to their occlusal caries status (active/inactive/sound; cavitated...... related to histological features of lesion penetration. The sites showed distinct differences in the bacterial composition and fluorescence intensity between different ecological niches in occlusal caries. Biofilm observed along the entrance of fissures showed an inner layer of microorganisms organized in...

  9. The human oral metaproteome reveals potential biomarkers for caries disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belda-Ferre, Pedro; Williamson, James; Simón-Soro, Áurea;

    2015-01-01

    Tooth decay is considered the most prevalent human disease worldwide. We present the first metaproteomic study of the oral biofilm, using different mass spectrometry approaches that have allowed us to quantify individual peptides in healthy and caries-bearing individuals. A total of 7771 bacterial...... of the studied individuals with an estimated specificity and sensitivity over 96%. We propose that future validation of these potential biomarkers in larger sample size studies may serve to develop diagnostic tests of caries risk that could be used in tooth decay prevention......., iron metabolism and immune response. We applied multivariate analysis in order to find the minimum set of proteins that better allows discrimination of healthy and caries-affected dental plaque samples, detecting seven bacterial and five human protein functions that allow determining the health status...

  10. Dental caries in Rome, 50-100 AD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, O; Guldager Bilde, P; Bizzarro, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    Scarce information exists on the clinical features of dental caries in the Imperial Roman population and no structural data on caries lesions from this period have so far been published. We report on the findings of 86 teeth (50-100 AD) found during archaeological excavations of the temple...... of Castor and Pollux in the Forum Romanum. We found that nearly all teeth had large carious cavities extending into the pulp. The distribution and size of the caries lesions were similar to those found in contemporary adult populations in Africa and China living without access to dental care. Most lesions...... had a hypermineralized zone in the dentin at the advancing front of the carious cavities as revealed by micro-computed tomography. This biological dentin reaction combined with the morphology of the cavities might indicate that some temporary topical pain relief and intervention treatment slowed down...

  11. Fluoride use in Controlling Dental Caries and Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience. The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s.

  12. Caries assessment: establishing mathematical link of clinical and benchtop method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2009-02-01

    It is well established that the development of new technologies for early detection and quantitative monitoring of dental caries at its early stage could provide health and economic benefits ranging from timely preventive interventions to reduction of the time required for clinical trials of anti-caries agents. However, the new technologies currently used in clinical setting cannot assess and monitor caries using the actual mineral concentration within the lesion, while a laboratory-based microcomputed tomography (MCT) has been shown to possess this capability. Thus we envision the establishment of mathematical equations relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT will enable the mineral concentration of lesions detected and assessed in clinical practice to be extrapolated from the equation, and this will facilitate preventitive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost. We utilize MCT and the two prominent clinical caries assessment devices (Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence [QLF] and Diagnodent) to longitudinally monitor the development of caries in a continuous flow mixed-organisms biofilm model (artificial mouth), and then used the collected data to establish mathematical equation relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT. A linear correlation was observed between the measurements of MicroCT and that of QLF and Diagnodent. Thus mineral density in a carious lesion detected and measured using QLF or Diagnodent can be extrapolated using the developed equation. This highlights the usefulness of MCT for monitoring the progress of an early caries being treated with therapeutic agents in clinical practice or trials.

  13. Nd:YAG laser in caries prevention: a clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The caries prevention by using laser irradiation has been investigated during the last 30 years. The Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride has been shown as a very promising technique for enamel caries prevention. The aim of this work was to clinically evaluate the efficiency of Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride in pit and fissure caries prevention of children and adolescents. In this work it was determined the dye that enhance the effect of Nd: YAG laser in enamel. It was selected 242 pre-molar and molar teeth from 33 children and adolescents, aged from 7 to 15 years old. The selected teeth were free from caries or decalcification marks (active white marks) to the clinical and radiographic exams. The teeth were divided into two groups: the first group was laser irradiated and their homologous remained as a control. The right side teeth were dye-assisted Nd:YAG laser irradiated. The dye solution was a moisture of dust coal and equal parts of water and alcohol. The irradiation conditions were 60 mJ/10 Hz, optical fiber in contact mode, with diameter of 300 μm, resulting in an energy density of 84,9 J/cm2. The oclusal surface of the teeth was completely irradiated, specially on the slopes and in the deepest part of the pits and fissures. This procedure was repeated three times. In the sequence it was applied the acidulated phosphate fluoride for 4 minutes. On the left side teeth - control group- only acidulated phosphate fluoride was applied for the same time. The final examination considered the presence of caries and active white marks after a period of one year. There were statistical significant differences (p < 0.01) between the lased + fluoride group and the non irradiated group. The present study concluded that the technique used in this work can be an alternative clinical method for caries prevention. (author)

  14. Lab-Test® 4: Dental caries and bacteriological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Cura; Annalisa Palmieri; Ambra Girardi; Marcella Martinelli; Luca Scapoli; Francesco Carinci

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common infectious ultifactorial diseases worldwide, characterized by the progressive demineralization of the tooth, following the action of bacterial acid metabolism. The main factors predisposing the onset of the carious process are: 1) the presence of bacterial species able to lower the pH until critical values of 5.5, 2) the absence of adequate oral hygiene, 3) an inefficient immune response anti-caries, 4) the type of alimentary diet and 5) the structure o...

  15. Detection of early dental caries with short pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differences in the optical properties of polarization and photoluminescence between caries lesion and noncaries (sound) enamel have been investigated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 532 nm on the surface of teeth. Significant difference in the polarization property of the scattered light from the surface can be observed with some carious samples. For photoluminescence spectral lines which appear at around 650 nm, the intensity of caries lesion has been approximately two times higher than that of sound one. A discussion is presented in which early are potentially detectable by the pulsed laser. (author)

  16. Macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to compare macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries of extracted teeth from patients aged 65-95 years. Although the study conditions for macroscopic and radiographic diagnosis favored more sensitive evaluations than routine clinical conditions, there was a 24% disagreement in diagnosis. This finding indicates that under routine clinical conditions it is difficult to register with certainty all superficial root carious lesions. Even in the absence of clinically detectable root surface caries, preventive measures should be considered for elderly people with exposed root surfaces

  17. Association of severe early childhood caries with iron deficiency anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpana Bansal; Meetu Goyal; Renuka Dhingra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Severe tooth decay is known to affect the health and well-being of young children. However, there has been minimal research showing the association of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Aims: The primary aim of this study was to investigate an association between S-ECC with IDA. The secondary objective was to find an association between severe caries and body weight of the child. The oral health-related quality of life of children with S-ECC wa...

  18. Assessment of caries prevalence among children below 5 years old

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu, Poornima; Rajajee, K. T. S. S.; Sudheer, K. A.; Jesudass, G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: In the current scenario of developing countries, dental caries has been a long-standing challenge in the oral health issue and still on the rise. Aim: The aim of the following study is to estimate the caries prevalence in the primary dentition among children below 5 years of age. Meterials and Methods: Study population included both boys and girls below 5 years old attending KGF Dental College and Hospital, Karnataka. A simple random sampling method was used. A total of 672 children ...

  19. Influence of social environment on caries prevalence in early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Tušek Ivan; Carević Momir; Tušek Jasmina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a special form of caries that affects decideous teeth with rapid progression and numerous complications. Objective. The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of ECC in children of the South Bačka area, the importance of social environment for the prevalence and severity of ECC, and define the model for its prevention. Methods. The survey was the cross-sectional analytical study in the 10% sample of children, aged 13-64 months, differ...

  20. Laboratory Studies of Nonlinear Optical Signals for Caries Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terrer, E; Panayotov, I V; Slimani, A;

    2016-01-01

    microscopy is a powerful imaging technique: the biological materials are transparent to infrared frequencies and can be excited to penetration depths inaccessible to 1-photon confocal microscopy. The laser excitation greatly reduces photodamage to the sole focal region, and the signal-to-noise ratio is...... that both 2PEF and SHG intensity of human dentin are strongly modified during the tooth caries process, and we show that the ratio between SHG and 2PEF signals is a reliable parameter to follow dental caries. The ratio of the SHG/2PEF signals measured by nonlinear optical spectroscopy provides valuable...

  1. Dental caries: Strategies to control this preventable disease

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Rugg-Gunn

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man’s most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental tre...

  2. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles for caries control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian

    Oftentimes caries lesions develop in protected sites that are difficult to access by self-performed mechanical tooth cleaning. At present, there is a growing interest in chemical adjuncts to mechanical procedures of oral hygiene that aim at biofilm control rather than biofilm eradication. Calcium...... drops to 6 or below and release buffering phosphate ions that stabilize biofilm pH above the critical level for enamel dissolution. With that twofold approach, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles may make a relevant contribution to clinical caries control....

  3. Papain-gel Degrades Intact Nonmineralized Type I Collagen Fibrils

    OpenAIRE

    BERTASSONI, L. E.; Marshall, G.W.

    2009-01-01

    Papain-gel has been utilized as a chemomechanical material for caries removal due to its ability to preserve underlying sound dentin. However, little is known about the effect of the papain enzyme on intact type I collagen fibrils that compose the dentin matrix. Here we sought to define structural changes that occur in intact type I collagen fibrils after an enzymatic treatment with a papaingel. Intact and nonmineralized type I collagen fibrils from rat tail were obtained and treated with a p...

  4. Visual scoring of non-cavitated caries lesions and clinical trial efficiency, testing xylitol in caries active adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, JP; Amaechi, BT; Bader, JD; Gilbert, GH; Makhija, SK; Lozano-Pineda, J; Leo, MC; Chuhe, C; Vollmer, WM

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To better understand the effectiveness of xylitol in caries prevention in adults, and to attempt improved clinical trial efficiency. Methods As part of the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT), non-cavitated and cavitated caries lesions were assessed in subjects who were experiencing the disease. The trial was a test of the effectiveness of 5 grams/day of xylitol, consumed by dissolving in the mouth five 1 gram lozenges spaced across each day, compared with a sucralose placebo. For this analysis, seeking trial efficiency, 538 subjects aged 21–80, with complete data for four dental examinations were selected from the 691 randomized into the three year trial, conducted at three sites. Acceptable inter and intra examiner reliability before and during the trial was quantified using the kappa statistic. Results The mean annualized non-cavitated plus cavitated lesion transition scores in coronal and root surfaces, from sound to carious favoured xylitol over placebo, during the three cumulative periods of 12, 24, and 33 months, but these clinically and statistically non-significant differences declined in magnitude over time. Restricting the present assessment to those subjects with a higher baseline lifetime caries experience showed possible but inconsistent benefit. Conclusions There was no clear and clinically relevant preventive effect of xylitol on caries in adults with adequate fluoride exposure when non-cavitated plus cavitated lesions were assessed. This conformed to the X-ACT trial result assessing cavitated lesions. Including non-cavitated lesion assessment in this full scale, placebo controlled, multi site, randomized, double blinded clinical trial in adults experiencing dental caries, did not achieve added trial efficiency or demonstrate practical benefit of xylitol. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00393055 PMID:24205951

  5. Tick Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ticks Tickborne diseases abroad Borrelia miyamotoi Borrelia mayonii Tick Removal Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If ... a tick quite effectively. How to remove a tick Use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick ...

  6. Do the more caries in early primary dentition indicate the more caries in permanent dentition? Results of a 5-years follow-up study in rural-district

    OpenAIRE

    Dülgergil, C. T.; Çolak, H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: In the deprived communities with high caries incidence, determination of high-risk children in early age is a valuable tool to apply the individual and/or community-level preventive measures. The purpose of this 5-years follow-up study was to examine the relationship between early caries occurrence on primary incisors and the future caries occurrence on both first permanent molars and all permanent dentition in the children living in rural Turkey. Materials and Methods: Total 34 children...

  7. Microbiología de la caries radicular en el paciente mayor Microbiology of the root caries in old patients

    OpenAIRE

    D Gutiérrez Acero; L Alós Cortés; García Gómez, F.; A González Sanz

    2006-01-01

    La caries radicular es uno de los problemas bucodentales más importantes y que más comúnmente afectan al adulto mayor. La caries radicular es aquel proceso carioso que se produce sobre la raíz expuesta del diente. Los principales patógenos implicados son el Streptococcus mutans, el Actinomyces viscosus y el Lactobacillus acidofilus, que producen los ácidos orgánicos que desmineralizan el cemento y la dentina de la raíz, llegando producir su cavitación. Los cambios que se producen en el medio ...

  8. Tratamiento de lesiones de caries interproximales mediante el uso de infiltrantes Treatment of approximal caries lesions using infiltrants

    OpenAIRE

    ML Marró Freitte; R Cabello Ibacache; G. Rodríguez Martínez; A Mustakis Truffello; I Urzúa Araya

    2011-01-01

    Basados en el respeto por la estructura dentaria junto a un adecuado tratamiento y detención de las lesiones de caries, se ha desarrollado ICON®, un sistema que penetra los tejidos afectados con una resina de baja viscosidad fotopolimerizable (infiltrante) sin necesidad de la apertura mecánica de una cavidad. De este modo se introducen los “infiltrantes” como herramientas para el tratamiento de las lesiones proximales. El “infiltrante” actúa bloqueando la progresión de la lesión de carie...

  9. Susceptibility to Dental Caries and the Salivary Proline-Rich Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Levine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood caries affects 28% of children aged 2–6 in the US and is not decreasing. There is a well-recognized need to identify susceptible children at birth. Caries-free adults neutralize bacterial acids in dental biofilms better than adults with severe caries. Saliva contains acidic and basic proline-rich proteins (PRPs which attach to oral streptococci. The PRPs are encoded within a small region of chromosome 12. An acidic PRP allele (Db protects Caucasian children from caries but is more common in African Americans. Some basic PRP allelic phenotypes have a three-fold greater frequency in caries-free adults than in those with severe caries. Early childhood caries may associate with an absence of certain basic PRP alleles which bind oral streptococci, neutralize biofilm acids, and are in linkage disequilibrium with Db in Caucasians. The encoding of basic PRP alleles is updated and a new technology for genotyping them is described.

  10. Validation of an age-modified caries risk assessment program (Cariogram) in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgerson, Pernilla Lif; Twetman, Svante; Stecksèn-Blicks, Christina

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (i) To validate caries risk profiles assessed with a computer program against actual caries development in preschool children, (ii) to study the possible impact of a preventive program on the risk profiles, and (iii) to compare the individual risk profiles longitudinally. MATERIAL AND...... variables associated with caries were collected through clinical examinations and questionnaires, and scored and computed with a risk assessment program (Cariogram). RESULTS: Children assessed as having a "low chance (0-20%) of avoiding caries" had significantly higher caries at 7 years of age compared to...... METHODS: Caries risk was assessed in 125 two-year-old children invited to participate in a 2-year caries-preventive trial with xylitol tablets. At 7 years of age, 103 were available for follow-up, 48 from the former intervention group and 55 from the control group. At baseline and after 5 years, 7...

  11. Inhibition of salivary amylase by black tea in high-caries and low-caries index children: A comparative in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Vishal; Taneja, Lavina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dental caries is a universal disease. Dietary modification is important in reducing the occurrence of dental caries. Tea which is so frequently consumed with cariogenic starch rich food is proposed to have anticariogenic potential. The various mechanism has been proposed for same and one being inhibition of salivary amylase activity. Aim: To determine the effect of 1.5% black tea decoction on salivary amylase activity in children with high caries and no caries. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 children in the age group of 12–15 years were selected for the study. They were further grouped based on their decayed missing filled surface (DMFS) score into high-caries group (DMFS above 10) and no-caries group (DMFS = 0). After 2 h of fasting, subjects consumed two salted crackers for 60 s following which they rinsed with water and then with black tea decoction (1.5%) the very next day. Retained food particles were recovered salivary amylase activity was noted as maltose to sucrose ratio via chromatography. Results: The average ratio of maltose to sucrose ratio percentage reduction in high-caries group was 43.63% and 41.17% in no caries group which was highly significant (P children with high- and no-caries index. PMID:27313414

  12. A 5-year retrospective study of rampant dental caries among adult patients in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    M Ajayi Deborah; M F Abiodun-Solanke Iyabode; O Gbadebo Shakeerah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rampant caries in adults has not been a focus of many researches unlike the childhood form of the disease. The disease is an interesting finding in an adult patient. When the condition occurs in children, it has been described as nursing bottle caries, baby bottle tooth decay, and the most recently adopted term, "early childhood caries". Aim: The aim was to determine the prevalence of rampant caries among adult patients. Materials and Methods: Cases of rampant caries were id...

  13. Dental caries among children visiting a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky: a pooled cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Dawkins, Erika; Michimi, Akihiko; Ellis-Griffith, Gregory; Peterson, Tina; Carter, Daniel; English, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Methods Study...

  14. Caries risk assessment in schoolchildren - a form based on Cariogram® software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nunes CABRAL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying caries risk factors is an important measure which contributes to best understanding of the cariogenic profile of the patient. The Cariogram® software provides this analysis, and protocols simplifying the method were suggested. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether a newly developed Caries Risk Assessment (CRA form based on the Cariogram® software could classify schoolchildren according to their caries risk and to evaluate relationships between caries risk and the variables in the form. Material and Methods: 150 schoolchildren aged 5 to 7 years old were included in this survey. Caries prevalence was obtained according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II. Information for filling in the form based on Cariogram® was collected clinically and from questionnaires sent to parents. Linear regression and a forward stepwise multiple regression model were applied to correlate the variables included in the form with the caries risk. Results: Caries prevalence, in primary dentition, including enamel and dentine carious lesions was 98.6%, and 77.3% when only dentine lesions were considered. Eighty-six percent of the children were classified as at moderate caries risk. The forward stepwise multiple regression model result was significant (R2=0.904; p<0.00001, showing that the most significant factors influencing caries risk were caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources. Conclusion: The use of the form based on the Cariogram® software enabled classification of the schoolchildren at low, moderate and high caries risk. Caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources are the variables that were shown to be highly correlated with caries risk.

  15. The Relationship Between Dietary Factors and Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, M. Lisa

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between the development of tooth decay and the diet includes a multitude of variables other than sugar. However, the frequency with which food is consumed and its consistency or stickiness may be primary contributors to the development of dental caries. (JN)

  16. Hyperspectral laser-induced autofluorescence imaging of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals leading to the penetration of bacteria into the dentine and pulp. Early detection of enamel demineralization resulting in increased enamel porosity, commonly known as white spots, is a difficult diagnostic task. Laser induced autofluorescence was shown to be a useful method for early detection of demineralization. The existing studies involved either a single point spectroscopic measurements or imaging at a single spectral band. In the case of spectroscopic measurements, very little or no spatial information is acquired and the measured autofluorescence signal strongly depends on the position and orientation of the probe. On the other hand, single-band spectral imaging can be substantially affected by local spectral artefacts. Such effects can significantly interfere with automated methods for detection of early caries lesions. In contrast, hyperspectral imaging effectively combines the spatial information of imaging methods with the spectral information of spectroscopic methods providing excellent basis for development of robust and reliable algorithms for automated classification and analysis of hard dental tissues. In this paper, we employ 405 nm laser excitation of natural caries lesions. The fluorescence signal is acquired by a state-of-the-art hyperspectral imaging system consisting of a high-resolution acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and a highly sensitive Scientific CMOS camera in the spectral range from 550 nm to 800 nm. The results are compared to the contrast obtained by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technique employed in the existing studies on early detection of dental caries.

  17. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Grace Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  18. Early Childhood Dental Caries. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.

    As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…

  19. Digital contrast subtraction radiography for proximal caries diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether subtraction images utilizing contrast media can improve the diagnostic performance of proximal caries diagnosis compared to conventional periapical radiographic images. Thirty-six teeth with 57 proximal surfaces were radiographied using a size no.2 RVG-ui sensor (Trophy Radiology, Marne-la-Vallee, France). The teeth immersed in water-soluble contrast media and subtraction images were taken. Each tooth was then sectioned for histologic examination. The digital radiographic images and subtraction images were examined and interpreted by three dentists for proximal caries. The results of the proximal caries diagnosis were then verified with the results of the histologic examination. The proximal caries sensitivity using digital subtraction radiography was significantly higher than simply examining a single digital radiograph. The sensitivity of the proximal dentinal carious lesion when analyzed with the subtraction radiograph and the radiograph together was higher than with the subtraction radiograph or the radiograph alone. The use of subtraction radiography with contrast media may be useful for detecting proximal dentinal carious lesions.

  20. Candida albicans in oral biofilms could prevent caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Hubertine Marjoleine; Kos, Kevin; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann; Krom, Bastiaan P

    2016-07-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a Gram-positive bacterium involved in development to caries, the most common infectious disease of our time. Streptococcus mutans interacts with other microbes, like the fungus Candida albicans and both are commonly isolated from patients with caries. Since the role of C. albicans in caries remains unknown, our aim was to unravel this using an in vitro dual-species cariogenic oral biofilm model. Biofilms were grown for 24-72 h on glass cover slips or hydroxyapatite (HA) disks to mimic the surface of teeth. Medium pH, lactic acid production capacity and calcium release from HA disks were determined. All 24-h biofilms had external pH values below the critical pH of 5.5 where enamel dissolves. In contrast, 72-h dual-species biofilms had significantly higher pH (above the critical pH) and consequently decreased calcium release compared to single-species S. mutans biofilms. Counter intuitively, lactic acid production and growth of S. mutans were increased in 72-h dual-species biofilms. Candida albicans modulates the pH in dual-species biofilms to values above the critical pH where enamel dissolves. Our results suggest that C. albicans is not by definition a cariogenic microorganism; it could prevent caries by actively increasing pH preventing mineral loss. PMID:27129365

  1. Fluoride Varnish for Caries Prevention: Efficacy and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Debbie; Clarkson, Jan E

    2016-01-01

    Many reviews support fluoride varnish (FV) as a caries-inhibitory agent. Evidence from 6 Cochrane systematic reviews involving 200 trials and more than 80,000 participants further confirms the effectiveness of FV, applied professionally 2-4 times a year, for preventing dental caries in both primary and permanent teeth. The relative benefit of FV application seems to occur irrespective of baseline caries risk, baseline caries severity, background exposure to fluorides, use of fluoride toothpaste and application features such as prior prophylaxis, concentration of fluoride or frequency of application. While the efficacy of FV is acknowledged in clinical practice guidelines globally, the implementation of this recommendation may still be an issue. Factors that may facilitate FV application in the USA include Medicaid eligibility, relationships with dentists/community centers and strong cooperation and communication between physicians and support staff. Barriers include insufficient time to integrate oral health services into well-child visits, difficulty in applying FV (lack of skills/training) and resistance among colleagues and staff. Research in the UK/Scotland also suggests encouraging clinicians in their motivation to perform this treatment and addressing professional and parental concerns relating to possible negative consequences may be influential. Further research targeting cost-effectiveness and how FV in routine care may fit in with political agendas relating to, for example, inequalities in health care provision and access will also play a key part in stakeholder decisions to put resources into this issue. PMID:27100219

  2. Are we ready for caries prevention through bacteriotherapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svante Twetman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent insights in medical science indicate that human biofilms play an important role in health and well-being, and have put microbiota modulation through bacteriotherapy into focus. In dentistry, bacterial interference with probiotic bacteria to support the stability and diversity of oral biofilms has gained similar interest. Investigations in vitro into metabolic activity, co-aggregation, growth inhibition, bacteriocin production, and adhesion have collectively suggested a potential role for probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria to modulate the oral microbial ecology. Likewise, short-term clinical studies with intermediate microbial endpoints indicate that interference with caries-associated bacteria seems possible through probiotic dairy products, tablets, lozenges and chewing gum in various dose regimens. Few randomized controlled clinical trials with caries outcomes are available, but three studies with preschool children and the elderly have demonstrated preventive fractions between 21% and 75%, following regular intake of milk supplemented with probiotic lactobacilli. However, further large-scale trials with orally derived anti-caries candidates are needed before we can say that we are ready for bacteriotherapy as an adjunct to complement the existing evidence-based methods for preventing and controlling caries in daily practice.

  3. Laser-induced autofluorescence study of caries model in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ekaterina; Uzunov, Tzonko; Avramov, Latchezar

    2006-04-01

    Laser-induced autofluorescence spectra of teeth irradiated by a 337 nm nitrogen laser were measured during in vitro caries formation through initial enamel demineralization and introducing of carious bacterial flora in the lesions developed. Spectra obtained from sound teeth consist of an intensive maximum at 480-500 nm and secondary maximum at 430-450 nm. In the process of caries formation, we observed an increase in the intensity at 430-450 nm and the appearance of two maxima in the red spectral region-at 590-650 nm. The intensity increase at 430-450 nm was related to the tooth demineralization. Bacteria presence and their metabolism products induced an increase in the absorption in the UV-blue spectral region at 350-420 nm and the appearance of a fluorescence signal in the long-wave spectral region at 590-650 nm. From the point of view of tissue optics, these results allow caries to be considered as consisting of two different phenomena-tissue destruction and bacterial flora and its metabolism products increase. The results could be used to obtain a more complete picture of caries formation on the base of its fluorescent properties. PMID:16568211

  4. Dental caries - not just holes in teeth! A perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, W H

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation in teeth results from a pathogenic process termed dental caries that has occurred on the tooth surface for weeks or even years. Accumulation of dental plaque (biofilm) on the tooth is usually the first manifestation of the disease. Although acid production is the immediate and proximal cause of dissolution of teeth; it is the milieu within which the acid is formed that should be of primary concern. Focusing on the 'critical pH' has detracted attention from the more biological aspects (biofilm formation) of dental caries. Dental caries is unique; it is a biological process occurring on essentially an inert surface. Investigation of the multitude of interactions occurring in plaque ranging from enamel interfaces to surfaces of bacteria and matrices poses challenges worthy of the best scientific minds. The mouth clearly offers unique opportunities to investigate the multi facets of biofilm formation in vivo, generating data that have relevance way beyond the mouth. Prevention of this ubiquitous disease, dental caries, continues to present serious challenges. The public health benefits of fluoride delivered in its various formats are well recognized. Nevertheless, additional preventive approaches are required. Overcoming the rapid clearance of agents from the mouth is particularly challenging. Building on the polymerizing capacity of glucosyltransferases it may be possible to incorporate a therapeutic agent into the matrix plaque, thereby delivering therapeutic agents precisely to where they are needed. PMID:26343264

  5. CARIES PREVENTIVE MEASURES AMONG RAJASTHANI ORTHODONTISTS: A QUESTIONNAIRE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchi; Anil Kumar; Vijay

    2014-01-01

    : INTRODUCTION: Patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy are at high risk of developing decalcification, caries and white spot lesions. AIM: As little information is available about preventive measures taken by orthodontists, this study surveyed the measures used by orthodontists those practicing in Rajasthan in prevention of such problems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire regarding preventive measures undertaken before, during and after the orthodontic treatmen...

  6. Modelling community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Loveren, C. van; Dusseldorp, E.; Verrips, G.H.W.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study empirically tested a theoretical model of pathways and inter-relationships among community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries in a sample of 630, 6-year-old children from the Netherlands. Children's decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) sco

  7. Sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries - international perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2005-01-01

    Diseases probably have their roots in a complex chain of environmental and behavioural events which are shaped by broader socioeconomic determinants. Most studies of sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries have been carried out in industrialized countries, but such reports from low- and mi...

  8. Are we ready for caries prevention through bacteriotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twetman, Svante

    2012-01-01

    Recent insights in medical science indicate that human biofilms play an important role in health and well-being, and have put microbiota modulation through bacteriotherapy into focus. In dentistry, bacterial interference with probiotic bacteria to support the stability and diversity of oral biofilms has gained similar interest. Investigations in vitro into metabolic activity, co-aggregation, growth inhibition, bacteriocin production, and adhesion have collectively suggested a potential role for probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria to modulate the oral microbial ecology. Likewise, short-term clinical studies with intermediate microbial endpoints indicate that interference with caries-associated bacteria seems possible through probiotic dairy products, tablets, lozenges and chewing gum in various dose regimens. Few randomized controlled clinical trials with caries outcomes are available, but three studies with preschool children and the elderly have demonstrated preventive fractions between 21% and 75%, following regular intake of milk supplemented with probiotic lactobacilli. However, further large-scale trials with orally derived anti-caries candidates are needed before we can say that we are ready for bacteriotherapy as an adjunct to complement the existing evidence-based methods for preventing and controlling caries in daily practice. PMID:23318746

  9. International comparisons of health inequalities in childhood dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pine, Cynthia M; Adair, Pauline M; Nicoll, Alison D;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To undertake formative studies investigating how the experience of dental caries in young children living in diverse settings relates to familial and cultural perceptions and beliefs, oral health-related behaviour and oral microflora. PARTICIPANTS: The scientific consortium came from 27...

  10. Caries correlates strongly to salivary levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedenbjörk-Lager, Anders; Bjørndal, Lars; Gustafsson, Anders; Sorsa, Timo; Tjäderhane, Leo; Åkerman, Sigvard; Ericson, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The caries process in dentin involves the degradation of both mineral and organic matrix. The demineralization has been demonstrated to be caused by bacterial acids. However, the collagen degradation is considered to be initiated by endogenous proteolytic enzymes, mainly collagenolytic matrix...

  11. Efficacy of Miswak (Salvadorapersica in Prevention of Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ezoddini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The rate of tooth decay and periodontal diseases today is still high, regardless of progress in oral and dental hygiene. The traditional toothbrush or chewing stick called "Miswak" has been used since ancient times. Many significant effects of Miswak such as antibacterial, anti-caries and antiperiopathic effects have been recognized today. Tooth care is a very important issue and both prevention and treatment of dental caries could be very helpful in maintaining good personal health. In this research, the efficacy of natural toothbrush or Miswak in prevention of dental caries was investigated and compared with the efficacy of ordinary toothbrush and toothpaste. Aim: Miswak was introduced for preventing dental caries by the Holy Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W 1400 years ago and has been used since then in many Islamic countries. In this research, the efficacy of Miswak in prevention of dental caries was investigated and compared with the efficacy of ordinary toothbrush. Methods: This analytical and clinical trial was performed in a high school student population (girls and boys in the city of Yazd, Iran in 2001-2002. Twelve high schools were randomly chosen. From these high schools, 380 second year students (190 cases and 190 controls were enrolled and their teeth condition such as the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMF were recorded in a specific questionnaire. The degrees of decay in the decayed teeth were recorded as well. Then, Miswak sticks were distributed to the case group and required dental training was given to both groups. After one year, the examinations were repeated and findings recorded in the same questionnaires. For analyzing the data, one-way variance analysis, Chi square, Paired t-test and two variable analyses were used. Results: At the start of the study, there were no significant differences between the two groups (case and control with regards to their dental condition and the frequency of

  12. Laser-induced fluorescence in diagnosis of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, Eleni A.; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Khabbaz, Maruan; Serafetinides, Alexandros A.

    2003-09-01

    The autofluorescence spectra of hard dental tissues, both in normal and pathological areas were investigated in this study. The measurements were performed both on the intact hard tissues of the examined teeth, such as enamel, dentine, cementum, and root canal, and on the tissues pathologically affected by caries (superficial, intermediate, and deep). Various laser wavelengths (337 nm, 488 nm, and 514 nm) were used to irradiate the dental surfaces and a computer-controlled spectrograph captured the fluorescent spectra. The emission signals were stored, measured, analyzed and quantified in terms of wavelength distribution and the relative photon intensity. Results indicated that the fluorescent spectra from healthy enamel, dentine, and cementum were almost identical in form, depending on the excitation wavelength. The intact and affected hard tissues were greatly different in the integral fluorescent intensity. Healthy areas were found to produce the most pronounced fluorescent intensity, whereas the carious regions produced the weaker fluorescent intensity. Independently of the laser excitation wavelength, dentin regions were found to produce the most pronounced fluorescent intensity than any other dental component. The fluorescence signal of carious affected dental structure revealed a reed shifted spectral curve, more pronounced after 488 nm excitation. There was a pronounced red shift for deep caries (crown -- root caries), after ultraviolet laser excitation. Excitation with visible wavelengths did not produce such differences between intact and cervical, deep carious affected tissue. Using a monochromatic light source without any light output at the wavelengths of fluorescence, e.g. a laser with the appropriate filters, the difference in fluorescence between intact and carious enamel was generally easy to observe. Finally, we found that the blue line of an argon ion laser is preferable for superficial caries detection, while the ultraviolet emitting nitrogen

  13. Predicting Dental Caries Outcomes in Children: A "Risky" Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divaris, K

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, unprecedented gains in the understanding of the biology and mechanisms underlying human health and disease have been made. In the domain of oral health, although much remains to be learned, the complex interactions between different systems in play have begun to unravel: host genome, oral microbiome with its transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, and more distal influences, including relevant behaviors and environmental exposures. A reasonable expectation is that this emerging body of knowledge can help improve the oral health and optimize care for individuals and populations. These goals are articulated by the National Institutes of Health as "precision medicine" and the elimination of health disparities. Key processes in these efforts are the discovery of causal factors or mechanistic pathways and the identification of individuals or population segments that are most likely to develop (any or severe forms of) oral disease. This article critically reviews the fundamental concepts of risk assessment and outcome prediction, as they relate to early childhood caries (ECC)-a common complex disease with significant negative impacts on children, their families, and the health system. The article highlights recent work and advances in methods available to estimate caries risk and derive person-level caries propensities. It further discusses the reasons for their limited utility in predicting individual ECC outcomes and informing clinical decision making. Critical issues identified include the misconception of defining dental caries as a tooth or surface-level condition versus a person-level disease; the fallacy of applying population-level parameters to individuals, termed privatization of risk; and the inadequacy of using frequentist versus Bayesian modeling approaches to derive individual disease propensity estimates. The article concludes with the notion that accurate caries risk assessment at the population level and "precision dentistry" at the

  14. Removal of Dental Biofilms with an Ultrasonically Activated Water Stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlin, R P; Fabbri, S; Offin, D G; Symonds, N; Kiang, K S; Knee, R J; Yoganantham, D C; Webb, J S; Birkin, P R; Leighton, T G; Stoodley, P

    2015-09-01

    Acidogenic bacteria within dental plaque biofilms are the causative agents of caries. Consequently, maintenance of a healthy oral environment with efficient biofilm removal strategies is important to limit caries, as well as halt progression to gingivitis and periodontitis. Recently, a novel cleaning device has been described using an ultrasonically activated stream (UAS) to generate a cavitation cloud of bubbles in a freely flowing water stream that has demonstrated the capacity to be effective at biofilm removal. In this study, UAS was evaluated for its ability to remove biofilms of the cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans UA159, as well as Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 12104 and Streptococcus oralis ATCC 9811, grown on machine-etched glass slides to generate a reproducible complex surface and artificial teeth from a typodont training model. Biofilm removal was assessed both visually and microscopically using high-speed videography, confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Analysis by CSLM demonstrated a statistically significant 99.9% removal of S. mutans biofilms exposed to the UAS for 10 s, relative to both untreated control biofilms and biofilms exposed to the water stream alone without ultrasonic activation (P naeslundii, and S. oralis biofilm removal from machine-etched glass and S. mutans from typodont surfaces with complex topography. Consequently, UAS technology represents a potentially effective method for biofilm removal and improved oral hygiene. PMID:26056055

  15. Radiation-related caries. Etiology and possible preventive strategies. What should the radiotherapist know?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After radiation treatment of head-and-neck cancer, the impairment of patient's quality of life still remains an issue. After completion of the treatment course, a substantial number of patients develop so-called radiation caries. In addition, almost 50% of all cases of infectious osteoradionecrosis (iORN) of the jaws are directly associated with radiation caries. This review addresses our current knowledge on the etiology and pathogenesis of radiation caries including possible preventive strategies. Materials and methods A PubMed search using the terms ''radiation caries'' (''radiation related caries'', ''radiation related damage to dentition'') and ''radiogenic caries'' (''postradiation caries'', ''dental complications and radiotherapy'') was performed. The analysis of its content focused on the etiology, the pathogenesis, and the available knowledge on prophylaxis as well as treatment of radiation caries. Results For this review, 60 publications were selected. As main causal factors for radiogenic caries, either indirect impairment, resulting from alterations in the oral environment (e.g., radiation-induced xerostomia) or direct radiation-induced damage in teeth hard tissues are discussed. Radiation caries remains a lifelong threat and, therefore, requires permanent prevention programs. Conclusion To enable optimal medical care of the patients during the time course of radiotherapy as well as afterwards, close interdisciplinary cooperation between radiotherapists, oral surgeons, otorhinolaryngologists, and dentists is absolutely essential. (orig.)

  16. Validation of Visual Caries Activity Assessment: A 2-yr Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, R S; Piovesan, C; Ardenghi, T M; Emmanuelli, B; Braga, M M; Ekstrand, K R; Mendes, F M

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the predictive and construct validity of a caries activity assessment system associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in primary teeth. A total of 469 children were reexamined: participants of a caries survey performed 2 yr before (follow-up rate of 73.4%). At baseline, children (12-59 mo old) were examined with the ICDAS and a caries activity assessment system. The predictive validity was assessed by evaluating the risk of active caries lesion progression to more severe conditions in the follow-up, compared with inactive lesions. We also assessed if children with a higher number of active caries lesions were more likely to develop new lesions (construct validity). Noncavitated active caries lesions at occlusal surfaces presented higher risk of progression than inactive ones. Children with a higher number of active lesions and with higher caries experience presented higher risk of developing new lesions. In conclusion, the caries activity system associated with the ICDAS presents predictive and construct validity in primary teeth in the assessment of occlusal caries lesions, but predictive validity was not observed in smooth surfaces. PMID:24713370

  17. Women Are More Susceptible to Caries but Individuals Born with Clefts Are Not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Jindal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of individuals at a higher risk of developing caries is of great interest. Isolated forms of cleft lip and palate are among the most common craniofacial congenital anomalies in humans. Historically, several reports suggest that individuals born with clefts have a higher risk for caries. Caries continues to be the most common infectious noncontagious disease worldwide and a great burden to any health system. The identification of individuals of higher susceptibility to caries is of great interest. In this paper, we assessed caries experience of 1,593 individuals from three distinct populations. The study included individuals born with clefts, their unaffected relatives, and unrelated unaffected controls that were recruited from areas with similar cultural pressures and limited access to dental care. DMFT/dmft scores were obtained, and caries experience rates were compared among the three groups in each geographic area. Individuals born with clefts did not present higher caries experience in comparison to their unaffected relatives or unrelated unaffected controls. Women tend to present higher caries rates in comparison to men. Our work provides strong evidence that individuals born with clefts are not at higher risk to caries; however, women tend to have more severe caries experience.

  18. Efficacy of three-tone disclosing agent as an adjunct in caries risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungara Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, most approaches to caries viewed that catastrophic change in normal plaque biofilm is responsible for the disease. The behavior and composition of the biofilm are a reflection of the oral environment; the caries is a reflection of adverse changes occurring in that environment. Thus, it is important to identify the pathogenicity of the plaque biofilm so as to predict the caries risk. The recently developed three-tone plaque disclosing agent was used to test its ability in identifying the pathogenicity of plaque. Aim: To assess the efficacy of three-tone plaque disclosing agent in identifying the plaque pathogenicity and correlate with the clinical caries status and microbiological findings. Materials and Methods: Sixty children of 6-13 years age group of both sexes were clinically examined for caries and plaque scores, and then disclosing agent was applied; the color stained plaque samples were collected and cultured for microbiological assessment, and the data were analyzed based on the caries status of the children. Results: There was a significant difference between the pathological plaque of caries active and caries free group (P < 0.05. The pathological plaque scores and the total colony counts, Streptococcus counts and mutans streptococci counts increased with the increase in caries. Conclusion: Three-tone plaque disclosing agent was effective in identifying pathological plaque and can be used as one of the chairside adjuvants in caries risk assessment.

  19. 不同去龋技术在乳牙龋病治疗中的应用疗效分析%Analysis of Different Techniques Applied in the Dental Caries Treatment of Deciduous Teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡静; 陈增力; 刘继延; 王丽英; 赵文峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effect of conventional mechanical caries removal treatment,atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) and Carisolv chemical caries removal treatment applied in the dental caries treatment of primary teeth.Methods:96 pediatric patients diagnosed of mild/moderate dental caries in deciduous teeth from January 2011 to June 2012 were randomly divided into conventional mechanical removal treatment group,atmumatic restorative treatment (ART) group and Carisolv chemical caries removal treatment group with 60 dentals each.Then operative reaction,operation time and long-term efficacy were recorded and analyzed.Results:The efficacy of dental removal in conventional mechanical caries removal group and Carisolv chemical caries removal treatment group were significantly better than ART group (P<0.05).There was no significant difference in the operation time spent among all treatment groups (P>0.05).The number of intraoperative pain occurs in ART group and Carisolv chemical caries removal treatment group were lower than that on the conventional mechanical caries removal group (P<0.05).In one-year post-treatment,secondary caries incidence in conventional mechanical caries removal group and Carisolv chemical caries removal treatment group were significantly lower than that in ART group(P<0.05).However,there was no significant difference in the incidence of break/loss dental filling among all treatment groups (P>0.05).Conclusions:Carisolv chemical caries removal treatment can effectively relieve intmoperative pain and recurrence rate after operation,which is worthy of promotion and application in clinical treatment of deciduous teeth.Caries removal effects and long-term efficacy of ART may limit its widespread application.%目的:比较传统机械切割法、非创伤性充填法(atraumatic restorative treatment,ART)和Carisolv化学法在临床乳牙龋病治疗中的应用效果差异.方法:选取2011年1月-2012年6月来我科就诊的5-8

  20. Association of severe early childhood caries with iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe tooth decay is known to affect the health and well-being of young children. However, there has been minimal research showing the association of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC and iron deficiency anemia (IDA. Aims: The primary aim of this study was to investigate an association between S-ECC with IDA. The secondary objective was to find an association between severe caries and body weight of the child. The oral health-related quality of life of children with S-ECC was also assessed. Materials and Methods: Following the ethical approval, 60 children aged 2-6 years (30 with S-ECC and 30 controls with caries status <2 were recruited for this cross-sectional association study. Each child received a clinical examination for dental caries status using deft index and a blood investigation to determine various parameters; hemoglobin (Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and packed cell volume (PCV. Children underwent venipuncture after due parental consent, and 2.5 mL blood was collected from each child to evaluate the above parameters. Following this, the parents filled up a 10 point questionnaire to determine the child′s quality of life. Data were then analyzed by t-test and Fischer′s exact t-test. Result: On comparison of percentage of children with IDA in S-ECC and control group, it was found that children with S-ECC were more likely to have IDA odds ratio (95% confidence interval: 10.77 (2.0, 104.9, (P = 0.001. In addition to this, S-ECC children were significantly more likely to have low Hb, MCV, and PCV levels (P < 0.001 which imply that S-ECC may be a risk marker for the development of anemia. More children (93% with severe caries were found to have less body weight than ICMR standard weight for age as compared to children with low caries (P < 0.05%. Conclusion: S-ECC is strongly associated with the anemia due to iron deficiency, and efforts should be made toward the preventive

  1. Current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this article is to review the current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). An online PubMed search was performed to identify studies on caries research using CBCT. Despite its usefulness, there were inherent limitations in the detection of caries lesions through conventional radiograph mainly due to the two-dimensional (2D) representation of caries lesions. Several efforts were made to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) image of lesion, only to gain little popularity. Recently, CBCT was introduced and has been used for diagnosis of caries in several reports. Some of them maintained the superiority of CBCT systems, however it is still under controversies. The CBCT systems are promising, however they should not be considered as a primary choice of caries diagnosis in everyday practice yet. Further studies under more standardized condition should be performed in the near future.

  2. Tomographic imaging of incipient dental-caries using optical coherence tomography and comparison with various modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jihoon; Baek, Jae Ho; Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Changsu; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2009-07-01

    We present the optical coherence tomography (OCT) made to investigate the early dental caries in human teeth and compare its results with those taken by conventional imaging modalities including light illuminating examination (LIE), digital intra-oral radiography (DIOR), and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Morphological features and caries-involved areas of the dental structure were mainly investigated by LIE, DIOR, and OCT to study the infection of the caries lesion in pits and fissures. The biochemical information acquired with EPMA and the morphological features taken with OCT in the early stage of caries were compared and analyzed to present an objective and practical index for the degree of caries. The experimental results allow us to conclude that OCT could be used to provide quantitative analysis of caries based on the reflectivity difference in the specimen.

  3. Current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Seok; Ahn, Jin Soo; Kwon, Ho Beom; Lee, Seung Pyo [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review the current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). An online PubMed search was performed to identify studies on caries research using CBCT. Despite its usefulness, there were inherent limitations in the detection of caries lesions through conventional radiograph mainly due to the two-dimensional (2D) representation of caries lesions. Several efforts were made to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) image of lesion, only to gain little popularity. Recently, CBCT was introduced and has been used for diagnosis of caries in several reports. Some of them maintained the superiority of CBCT systems, however it is still under controversies. The CBCT systems are promising, however they should not be considered as a primary choice of caries diagnosis in everyday practice yet. Further studies under more standardized condition should be performed in the near future.

  4. Cariogram caries risk profiles in adolescent orthodontic patients with and without some salivary variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsi, Georgia; Gizani, Sotiria; Twetman, Svante; Kavvadia, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Cariogram caries risk profiles with and without salivary buffer capacity and mutans streptococci (MS) counts in adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 90 healthy Greek adolescents who were undergoing orthodontic...... treatment. The Cariogram risk model was applied through a questionnaire and clinical and salivary examinations. The actual chance of avoiding new caries was calculated, and participants were categorized into three groups (0-40%  =  high caries risk, 41-60%  =  medium caries risk, and 61-100%  =  low caries....... RESULTS: Using the Cariogram with nine variables, 62% of the patients were assigned to the high caries risk category, 13% to the medium risk category, and 24% to the low risk category. Omission of salivary buffer capacity did not alter the risk categories significantly, while more subjects were assigned...

  5. Remineralization of initial enamel caries in vitro using a novel peptide based on amelogenin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danxue; Lv, Xueping; Tu, Huanxin; Zhou, Xuedong; Yu, Haiyang; Zhang, Linglin

    2015-09-01

    Dental caries is the most common oral disease with high incidence, widely spread and can seriously affect the health of oral cavity and the whole body. Current caries prevention measures such as fluoride treatment, antimicrobial agents, and traditional Chinese herbal, have limitations to some extent. Here we design and synthesize a novel peptide based on the amelogenin, and assess its ability to promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries lesions. We used enamel blocks to form initial lesions, and then subjected to 12-day pH cycling in the presence of peptide, NaF and HEPES buffer. Enamel treated with peptide or NaF had shallower, narrower lesions, thicker remineralized surfaces and less mineral loss than enamel treated with HEPES. This peptide can promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries and inhibit the progress of caries. It is a promising anti-caries agent with various research prospects and practical application value.

  6. Lab-Test® 4: Dental caries and bacteriological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cura

    2012-01-01

    The main factors predisposing the onset of the carious process are: 1 the presence of bacterial species able to lower the pH until critical values of 5.5, 2 the absence of adequate oral hygiene, 3 an inefficient immune response anti-caries, 4 the type of alimentary diet and 5 the structure of the teeth. Among the 200 bacterial species isolated from dental plaque the most pathogenic for dental caries are: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomices viscusus and Bifidobacterium dentium. Our laboratory (LAB® s.r.l., Codigoro, Ferrara, Italy has developed a test for absolute and relative quantification of the most common oral cariogenic bacteria. The test uses specific primers and probes for the amplification of bacteria genome sequences in Polymerase Chain Reaction Real Time. The results provide a profile of patient infection, helpful for improving the diagnosis and planning of preventive treatment to reduce the bacterial load.

  7. Defectos del esmalte, caries en dentición primaria, fuentes de fluoruro y su relación con caries en dientes permanentes Enamel defects, caries in primary dentition and fluoride sources: relationship with caries in permanent teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Alicia Vallejos-Sánchez; Carlo Eduardo Medina-Solís; Juan Fernando Casanova-Rosado; Gerardo Maupomé; Alejandro José Casanova-Rosado; Mirna Minaya-Sánchez

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: Explorar la relación entre la presencia de defectos del esmalte (DE), la experiencia de caries en la dentición temporal, y la exposición a diversas fuentes de fluoruros, con la presencia de caries en la dentición permanente de niños con dentición mixta. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 713 sujetos de 6-9 años de edad de 4 escuelas de Campeche, México, mediante un cuestionario dirigido a las madres, y un examen clínico bucal a los niños. La variable dependient...

  8. Economic aspects of the detection of occlusal dentine caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlund, Anders; Axelsson, Susanna; Dahlen, Gunnar;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost of true-positive occlusal dentine caries detection in permanent molars assessed by: (I) visual-tactile examination, (II) visual-tactile examination combined with bitewing radiographs, and (III) selective radiographic examination of patients with lesions detected...... clinically. A second aim was to analyse the different strategies when the costs of the subsequent restorative care are considered. METHODS: A model analysis was applied owing to the lack of original articles. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated from a systematic review and included in vitro and in...... most beneficial by up to 26% savings per true-positive diagnosis. However, with this selective strategy, more cases of true-positive dentine caries were assumed would remain undetected as compared with the combined strategy with visual-tactile examination and radiographs for all. CONCLUSIONS: The cost...

  9. Visual Inspection Displays Good Accuracy for Detecting Caries Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Visual inspection for caries detection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gimenez T, Piovesan C, Braga MM, Raggio DP, Deery C, Ricketts DN, Ekstrand DR, Mendes FM. J Dent Res 2015;94(7):895-904. REVIEWER: Svante Twetman, DDS, PhD, Odont Dr PURPOSE...... RECOMMENDATION GRADE: Grade A: Consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence......./QUESTION: To evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting caries lesions. SOURCE OF FUNDING: Brazilian government (Process 2012/17888-1). TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis of data LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 1: Good-quality, patient-oriented evidence STRENGTH OF...

  10. Caries prevention with fluoride toothpaste in children: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The aim was to examine recent literature and review the caries-preventive effect of fluoride toothpaste in children. METHODS: Based on three comprehensive systematic reviews published in 2003, a broad search of the PubMed and Cochrane library databases was conducted for papers published 2002...... significant caries-preventive effect in children compared with placebo (prevented fraction 24%). The effect was boosted by supervised tooth brushing, increased brushing frequency to twice daily, and use of a toothpaste concentration of 1,500 ppm fluoride. There were few studies of high quality reporting...... findings from the primary dentition. There were no studies available, and therefore insufficient evidence, on when to commence brushing with fluoride toothpaste as well as on the post-brushing behaviour. The use of "adult" toothpaste in very young children seemed to increase the risk for mild dental...

  11. Role of Probiotics in Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bhardwaj

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been found to be beneficial to host health. In medicine, probiotics are used mainly in support therapy for gastro-intestinal diseases. In recent years, probiotics have been used as a treatment to promote oral health. There has also been a change in understanding of the oral disease process because of better understanding of the ecology and microbiology of the oral cavity. Very encouraging studies exploring probiotics in the fields of caries, periodontal diseases and few other areas have come up in the recent past and the results tend to suggest beneficial effects of probiotics on oral health and on the whole body in general. Extensive research to create a probiotic product intended to maintain dental and periodontal health is needed. This article reviews the role of probiotics in dental caries and periodontal disease. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(1.000: 45-49

  12. A qualitative study of the views of adolescents on their caries risk and prevention behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Hall-Scullin, Emma; Goldthorpe, Joanna; Milsom, Keith; Tickle, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and beliefs of adolescents towards dental caries and their use or non-use of caries prevention regimens. Methods Adolescents aged 16 years from four state-funded secondary schools in North West of England (n = 19). Purposive sampling strategically selected participants with characteristics to inform the study aims (gender, ethnicity, and caries status). Semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a f...

  13. Caries correction factors applied to a Punic (6th - 2nd BC) population from Ibiza (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez-Grant, N

    2009-01-01

    Caries correction factors were applied to a Punic (6th-2nd century BC) rural sample from the island of Ibiza (Spain). Data obtained on dental caries and ante-mortem tooth loss provided a corrected rate of 12.8% of teeth with caries. This result, in conjunction with other sources of information such as stable isotope analysis and documentary evidence, indicated a diet based on terrestrial protein (mainly carbohydrates) and a low component of marine protein. The paper suggests further research ...

  14. Prevalence of Dental Caries among the Population of Gwalior (India) in Relation of Different Associated Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Abdul Arif; Jain, Sudhir K.; Shrivastav, Archana

    2008-01-01

    Objectives India is unique in entire world due to variety of dietary habits in population. Many people of India follow totally vegetarian life style through their entire life time due to some religious and cultural reasons. Present study tried to analyze the role of different factors in the occurrence of dental caries including dietary habit. Methods Persons suffering with dental caries were examined for the type of dental caries in relation to different factors. Dental examination was perfor...

  15. Prevalence of dental caries among school children of Bharatpur city, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ingle, Navin Anand; Dubey, Harsh Vardhan; Kaur, Navpreet; Gupta, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthy teeth and oral tissues and the need for oral health care are important for any section of society. Dental caries is an infectious microbial disease of multifactorial origin in which diet, host, and microbial flora interacts over a period of time in such a way so as to encourage demineralization of the tooth enamel with resultant caries formation. Dental caries, the product of man's progress towards civilization, has a very high morbidity potential and thus, is coming into ...

  16. The role of nutrition in caries prevention and maintenance of oral health during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Jevtić Marija; Pantelinac Jelena; Jovanović-Ilić Tatjana; Petrović Vasa; Grgić Olja; Blažić Larisa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Pregnancy may pose an increased risk for the development of caries and other oral health problems. Continuous screening of oral health status, implementing appropriate preventive measures (particularly oral hygiene, healthy diet plans and education) is of paramount importance not only for oral health but also for the general health status of the future mother and her offspring. Effects of Food on Caries Development. Caries prevention through h...

  17. Inequalities in the distribution of dental caries among 12-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Chaiana Piovesan; Fausto Medeiros Mendes; José Leopoldo Ferreira Antunes; Thiago Machado Ardenghi

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the inequality in the distribution of dental caries and the association between indicators of socioeconomic status and caries experience in a representative sample of schoolchildren. This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a sample of 792 schoolchildren aged 12 years, representative of this age group in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Guardians answered questions on socioeconomic status and a dental examination provided information on the dental caries experience (DMF-T). Ineq...

  18. Bio-modification approach for novel dentine caries management by Galla chinesis extract and microbial transglutaminase

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Deng; Xin Xu; Jiyao Li; Xuedong Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Dental caries still remains one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. Unlike enamel caries which can be restored mainly by modulating mineral balance, the dentine caries are characterized with irreversible proteolytic disintegration of organic matrices, highlighting an urgent need to seek novel management strategies. Bio-modification of dentine matrix has been proposed as a novel and alternative approach to enhancing its biochemical and biomechanical properties. The resultan...

  19. Design of the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT)

    OpenAIRE

    Amaechi Bennett T; Gilbert Gregg H; Gullion Christina M; Vollmer William M; Shugars Daniel A; Bader James D; Brown John P

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental caries incidence in adults is similar to that in children and adolescents, but few caries preventive agents have been evaluated for effectiveness in adults populations. In addition, dentists direct fewer preventive services to their adult patients. Xylitol, an over-the-counter sweetener, has shown some potential as a caries preventive agent, but the evidence for its effectiveness is not yet conclusive and is based largely on studies in child populations. Methods/Des...

  20. Caries risk assessment in young adults: a 3 year validation of the Cariogram model

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    Background To validate baseline caries risk classifications according to the Cariogram model with the actual caries development over a 3-year period in a group of young adults living in Sweden. Methods The study group consisted of 1,295 19-year-old patients that completed a comprehensive clinical baseline examination, including radiographs and salivary tests. An individual caries risk profile was computed and the patient was placed in one of five risk categories. After 3 years, 982 patients (...

  1. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia CORRÊA-FARIA; Suzane PAIXÃO-GONÇALVES; Paiva, Saul Martins; Isabela Almeida PORDEUS

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried o...

  2. A comparison of periapical radiographs and their digital images for the detection of dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In summary, it has been demonstrated by this study that the detection rate of definite large proximal surface caries (C2) on the digital images was good and the detection rate of the first stage caries (C1) was somewhat inferior to film based images. It has been demonstrated by this study and others that the detection of proximal surface caries by present clinical methodologies is still poor. Every effort should be made to develop new means to improve digitizing process.

  3. Age-related differences of tooth enamel morphochemistry in health and dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Kunin, Anatoly A; Evdokimova, Anna Yu; Moiseeva, Natalia S

    2015-01-01

    Currently, dental caries is the main reason of patient visits to dentists. A great deal of scientific work is dedicated to the study of enamel caries. The reason for this is the necessity for more detailed study of the pathogenesis of dental caries and other pathological processes occurring in tooth enamel. The application of modern high-technological methods of research has made it possible to study enamel structure in detail. Hard dental tissues are composed of organic and inorganic compone...

  4. Family Matters. The role of parental and family-related psychosocial factors in childhood dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Loveren, van, C.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Duijster, D.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is common childhood disease with children from lower socioeconomic status experiencing disproportionately higher levels of the disease. Parents and the broader family environment may play an important role in the development of childhood dental caries as mediators / moderators of risk. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to explore parental and family-related determinants of childhood dental caries, and their potential role in socioeconomic inequalities in children’s dental he...

  5. Evaluation of efficacy caries prevent of stabilized fluoride dentifrices in students of medical university

    OpenAIRE

    Марченко, Наталья Сергеевна; Політун, Антоніна Михайлівна; Терешина, Тетяна Петрівна

    2015-01-01

    Conducted laboratory and clinical evaluation of the efficacy of  stabilized fluoride dentifrice compared to without fluoride dentifrice, for the prevention of dental caries in students. Indexes stability of fluoride in dentifrice containing fluoride , concentration and  prolonged action ionized fluoride in saliva for the prevention of dental caries.Methods: Clinical and laboratory testing of dentifrice in vivo and in vitro research.Results: In clinical and laboratory testing of caries prevent...

  6. Subjectivity and examiner experience in diagnosis of residual caries--an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Lennon, A. M.; Wiegand, A.; Buchalla, W.; Wahl, B.; Werner, C.; Betke, H; Hannig, C.; Rödig, T; Attin, T.

    2007-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate subjectivity (using inter- and intraexaminer repeatability), the effect of examiner experience, and residual caries diagnostic accuracy with visual tactile (VT) criteria and using a caries disclosing agent (CD). Thirty teeth with occlusal caries were excavated by a single operator not involved in the diagnostic part of the study. A test area was marked in each cavity. Four dentists with more than five and five dentists with less than five years' experience rated the ma...

  7. Dental caries prevalence, oral health knowledge and practice among indigenous Chepang school children of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Prasai Dixit, Lonim; Shakya, Ajay; Shrestha, Manash; Shrestha, Ayush

    2013-01-01

    Background Chepang communities are one of the most deprived ethnic communities in Nepal. According to the National Pathfinder Survey, dental caries is a highly prevalent childhood disease in Nepal. There is no data concerning the prevalence of caries along with knowledge, attitude and oral hygiene practices among Chepang schoolchildren. The objectives of this study were to 1) record the prevalence of dental caries 2) report experience of dental pain 3) evaluate knowledge, attitude and prevent...

  8. Interdental Spacing and Dental Caries in the Primary Dentition of 4-6 Year Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    G. Babu Kl; Nagarathna, J; Subramaniam, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There are various risk factors which play an essential role in the multifactorial disease “dental caries.” Although absence of interdental spaces in the primary dentition may increase the risk of dental caries, not many studies have been carried out to assess this correlation. This study was performed to assess the relationship between interdental spacing and dental caries in primary dentition.Materials and Methods: Five hundred 4-6 year-old children were enrolled into this study. ...

  9. Caregiver's education level and child's dental caries in African Americans: A path analytic study

    OpenAIRE

    Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) throug...

  10. Caries Management: A Journey between Black’s principals and Minimally Invasive Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdi H. Hamama; Cynthia K.Yiu; Michael F. Burrow

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial microbial disease that affects tooth hard tissue leading to destruction of its mineral and organic components. The current work reviewed the development of caries assessment methods and excavation concepts in the past two centuries. In the late ninetieth century, G.V. Black introduced a classification of dental caries, as well as established the principals of tooth preparation, based on his understanding of the nature of the disease. However, d...

  11. Is there an association between early childhood caries and serum iron and serum ferritin levels?

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Sadeghi; Reza Darakhshan; Ali Bagherian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a virulent form of dental caries that can destroy the primary dentition of preschool children. The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible association between ECC with serum iron and serum ferritin levels. Materials and Methods: Following the ethical approval, 204 children aged 24–71 months were recruited for a double-blind, randomized cross-sectional study. Each child was examined clinically for dental caries using the World Health Orga...

  12. The use of probiotic strains in caries prevention : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Guglielmo Campus; Peter Lingström; Fabio Cocco; Egle Milia; Maria Grazia Cagetti; Stefano Mastroberardino

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a systematic review of the caries-prevention effect of probiotics in human. The hypothesis was that the administration of probiotic strains might play a role in caries lesion prevention and in the control of caries-related risk factors. The main relevant databases (Medline, Embase) were searched. Quality of the Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) was classified using the “Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials” (CONSORT) checklist and the Impact Factor (IF) value ...

  13. Into the Future: Keeping Healthy Teeth Caries Free: Pediatric CAMBRA Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Ng, Man-Wai

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) prevalence has increased significantly in children ages 2–5 years.1 ECC disproportionately affects lower socioeconomic and minority groups, is a predictor for future decay, but is preventable and manageable2. Caries risk assessment systematically derives a patient’s caries risk and is important during an infant oral health visit beginning at age one. Information obtained through a risk assessment can guide a disease management care path tailored to an individual’s...

  14. Efficacy of three-tone disclosing agent as an adjunct in caries risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Today, most approaches to caries viewed that catastrophic change in normal plaque biofilm is responsible for the disease. The behavior and composition of the biofilm are a reflection of the oral environment; the caries is a reflection of adverse changes occurring in that environment. Thus, it is important to identify the pathogenicity of the plaque biofilm so as to predict the caries risk. The recently developed three-tone plaque disclosing agent was used to test its ability in id...

  15. Predictive research methods of enamel and dentine for initial caries detection

    OpenAIRE

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Belenova, Irina A; Ippolitov, Yury A; Moiseeva, Natalia S; Kunin, Dmitry A

    2013-01-01

    Currently, various research methods of enamel and dentine for precautionary diagnostics of initial caries forms are developed; however, the vast majority of these do not provide objective criteria of caries diagnostics or are very difficult to perform. Therefore, the search of diagnostics and enamel research methods, which will allow predicting caries emergence and to carry out personalised prevention of this pathology, is necessary. In this review, modern diagnostic methods that allow unders...

  16. Caries risk estimation in children regarding values of saliva buffer system components and carboanhydrase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Šurdilović Dušan; Stojanović Ivana 1; Apostolović Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aim. One of the preconditions for efficacious systematic reduction of caries prevalence and prophylaxis is the determination of risks of this disease appearance. The aim of this study was to prove the significance of salivary carboanhydrase activity determination in estimation of caries risk in children. Methods. The study included 123 children of average age of 13.4±0.3 years and permanent dentition. The children were divided into two groups according to caries risk (low and high ...

  17. Explaining Gender Differences in Caries: A Multifactorial Approach to a Multifactorial Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Maria Ferraro

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that caries rates are higher in women than in men. This review attempts to provide an explanation for this trend by examining each factor which contributes to caries and how the factor differs in men and women. Evidence has been provided to demonstrate that caries risk factors for women include a different salivary composition and flow rate, hormonal fluctuations, dietary habits, genetic variations, and particular social roles among their family. Systemic diseas...

  18. A randomized clinical trial on arresting dentin caries in preschool children by topical fluorides

    OpenAIRE

    Duangthip, Duangporn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Silver diammine fluoride (SDF) has been found to be effective in preventing and arresting dental caries in children. The annual or semi-annual application of SDF may not be practical in migratory populations or effective high caries risk patients. So far, no data are available about the effectiveness of intensive fluoride treatment in arresting dental caries in primary teeth. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three topical fluoride application prot...

  19. Caries prevention in high-risk preschool children in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Autio-Gold, J. (Jaana)

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Dental caries is a common infectious disease affecting young children living in low-income families in the United States. Efficacious, safe, feasible and cost-effective caries prevention methods for these children are essential. Several studies have shown the efficacy of fluoride varnish and xylitol to improve the oral health of children. The efficiency of caries prevention programs including the use of fluoride varnish or xylitol chewing gum in early childhood has not been w...

  20. Pulpal safety of a 9.6-μm TEA CO2 laser used for caries prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodis, Harold E.; Fried, Daniel; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2002-06-01

    Lasers are used for several procedures involving hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity. Included in those procedures is the use of the CO2 laser to alter the surface structure of tooth enamel to render it more resistant to caries. A new 9.6micrometers wavelength TEA CO2 laser (Argu Photonics, Jpiter, FL) has been investigated as a device that can be used for this procedure without harming the dental pulp. Erupted, caries and restoration free third molars (n=24) were used in the experiment. Teeth were irradiated at an incident fluence of 1.5J/cm2 and a repetition rate of 10Hz and a spot size 1mm in diameter. At the low and high settings, 200 to 400 pulses were delivered at 12mJ per pulse for a total energy of 2.4 or 4.8J delivered for 20 or 40 seconds respectively. Other teeth were subjected to a sham dental procedure (positive control) or no procedure (negative control). Prior to testing, radiographs were taken of all teeth, and they were tested pulpally using heat, cold and electricity to determine vitality. The teeth were removed either immediately or at one week or one month after testing. They were bioprepared and examined histologically for signs of inflammation. Only one tooth developed symptoms of sensitivity to cold for 10 days following exposure to the high power level. The sensitivity was of fleeting duration and was judged to be reversible pulpitis. All teeth tested responded normally at pretesting and pre-extraction time periods. Histological examination disclosed no indication of an inflammatory response in the pulp tissue. All sections appeared normal with no changes seen in the normal pulpal morphology. We conclude that the 9.6 micrometers wavelength laser causes no pulpal damage at the energy levels used and can be used safely for caries prevention treatments.

  1. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak PA; Nayak UA; Khandelwal V

    2014-01-01

    Prathibha Anand Nayak,1 Ullal Anand Nayak,2 Vishal Khandelwal3 1Department of Periodontics, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 2Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 3Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Index Dental College and Hospital, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India Abstract: Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its...

  2. Effect of Iron Containing Supplements on Rats’ Dental Caries Progression

    OpenAIRE

    AR. Eshghi; Kowsari-Isfahan, R.; Rezaiefar, M.; Razavi, M.; Zeighami, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Iron deficiency is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries. Iron containing supplements have been used effectively to solve this problem. In children, because of teeth staining after taking iron drops, parents have the idea that iron drops are the cause of tooth decay; therefore, they limit this vital supplement in their children’s diet. Hereby, we evaluate the histologic effect of iron containing supplements on tooth caries in rice rats with cariogenic or non-...

  3. Effects of boron on experimental dental caries activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, F.T.Y.; Lin, H.S.

    1974-01-01

    Drinking water supplemented with 1, 10, 30, 50, 100 or 283 ppM of boron or 10 or 25 ppM of fluoride individually or in combination was supplied to weanling rats which were fed a cariogenic diet. Results showed that B did not exert a cariostatic effect nor did it synergize the F in reducing dental caries activity. 11 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Effect of Iron Containing Supplements on Rats' Dental Caries Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Eshghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Iron deficiency is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries. Iron containing supplements have been used effectively to solve this problem. In children, because of teeth staining after taking iron drops, parents have the idea that iron drops are the cause of tooth decay; therefore, they limit thisvital supplement in their children’s diet. Hereby, we evaluate the histologic effect of iron containing supplements on tooth caries in rice rats with cariogenic or noncariogenic diet.Materials and Methods: Twelve rats were selected and divided into four groups for this interventional experimental study. Four different types of dietary regimens were used for four months; group A, cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group B, cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements; groupC, non-cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group D, non-cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements. After sacrificing the rats, 20-micron histological sections of their posterior teeth were prepared using the Ground Sectionmethod, then they were studied under polarized light microscopy. In order to compare the progression of caries in different samples, the depth of the lesions in the enamel was measured as three grades I, II and III.Results: The mean grade value of A, B, C and D groups were 1.61, 2.61, 1.37 and 1.80, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that significantly fewer caries were seen in the group which had received iron containing supplements and cariogenicdiet compared with cariogenic diet without iron supplements (p<0.05.Conclusion: Ferrous sulfate reduces the progression of dental caries in the cariogenic dietary regimen.

  5. Xerostomy, dental caries and periodontal disease in HIV+ patients

    OpenAIRE

    Julio César Cavasin Filho; Élcio Magdalena Giovani

    2009-01-01

    We studied xerostomy and its correlation with periodontal and dental cavity diseases in HIV patients, through measurement of salivary flow and through variables such as saliva buffer capacity, salivary pH, periodontal index, MDF index, dental carie risk and risk of periodontal disease. One hundred patients were analyzed. They were distributed into two groups: Group I (test) - 50 patients evidently HIV+, from whom information was collected and analyzed regarding age, gender, skin color, habits...

  6. Reactionary Dentinogenesis and Neuroimmune Response in Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Couve, E.; Osorio, R.; Schmachtenberg, O.

    2014-01-01

    Reactionary dentin formation is an adaptive secretory response mediated by odontoblasts to moderate dentin injury. The implications of this process for neuroimmune interactions operating to contain pathogens have not been fully appreciated. The purpose of the present study was to describe the relationship between reactionary dentinogenesis, the neurogenic changes of dental pulp innervation, and dendritic cell recruitment to caries progression, using a comparative immunohistochemical approach ...

  7. Dental caries experience in Indians of the Upper Xingu, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Denise Leal RIGONATTO; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; FRAZÃO Paulo

    2001-01-01

    The present study describes the experience of dental caries in Indians communities of the Xingu, in order to supply parameters for further analysis of trends of the disease in Indians. We performed oral health examination in 288 Indians from four communities (Yawalapiti, Aweti, Mehinaku and Kamaiura) living in the southern part of the Xingu National Park, using international criteria defined by the World Health Organization. The outcome measures were the DMFT and dmft scores, and the care ind...

  8. Methods for the evaluation of caries preventing agents

    OpenAIRE

    Herkströter, Franciscus Maria

    1990-01-01

    Dental caries, or tooth decay, is a pathological process of localized destruction of tooth tissues by micro-organisms present in the so-called plaque. The destruction, caused by acids formed in the plague,Ieads to mineral loss (demineralization) from the hard tissues. A demineralized tooth can also gain mineral, due to a process called remineralization. A tooth is clinically "stable" when demineralization and remineralization are in equilibrium. ... Zie: Summary

  9. Micro CT settings for caries detection: how to optimize.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaiben CL

    2015-01-01

    Some important items that can influence micro CT image were reviewed in this study. Different settings were optimized for the assessment of early caries lesions. There are several researches on bone using micro CT but not too much on dental hard tissues when assessing mineral loss. Different kinds of micro CT devices and technologies are taking place today, each requiring unique settings, and this consists one of the greatest obstacles for the use of micro CT on dental hard tissue...

  10. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Chu CH; Mei ML; Cheung C; Nalliah RP

    2013-01-01

    Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot pre...

  11. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Chun-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slo...

  12. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, CH; Mei, L.; Cheung, C.; Nalliah, RP

    2013-01-01

    The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, suc...

  13. Nanotechnology-based restorative materials for dental caries management

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Mary A. S.; Guedes, Sarah F.F.; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Rodrigues, Lidiany K. A.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been applied to dental materials as an innovative concept for the development of materials with better properties and anticaries potential. In this review we discuss the current progress and future applications of functional nanoparticles incorporated in dental restorative materials as useful strategies to dental caries management. We also overview proposed antimicrobial and remineralizing mechanisms. Nanomaterials have great potential to decrease biofilm accumulation, inhi...

  14. The Role of Remineralizing and Anticaries Agents in Caries Management

    OpenAIRE

    Featherstone, J.D.; Doméjean, S.

    2012-01-01

    The first ICNARA conference (International Conference on Novel Anticaries and Remineralizing Agents) was held in Chile in January, 2008, and the proceedings were published in Advances in Dental Research (Volume 21, 2009). That issue of Advances summarized the state of the science and set a research agenda for the future for two key components of caries management, namely, antibacterial agents and remineralizing agents. The second conference (ICNARA 2, January 2012) provided an update on scien...

  15. MODERN TREATMENT METHODS OF PRIMARY CHILDHOOD DENTAL CARIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ekimov, E.; Fedotova, O.

    2015-01-01

    He uniqueness of tooth enamel focal demineralization (primary caries) is that it is the only form of tooth decay, which can be treated conservatively without any surgical treatment and filling. Therefore, the integral task in dentistry is to study all the possibilities of diagnosis and to increase the effectiveness of conservative treatment [10]. To determine the dental health of children in Omsk we carried out a dental check-up of 1682 schoolchildren from 7 to 12 years of age. In addition to...

  16. Developing explanatory models of health inequalities in childhood dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pine, Cynthia M; Adair, Pauline M; Petersen, Poul Erik;

    2004-01-01

    .001) with very good internal reliability (alpha = 0.89). Dentists questionnaire: excellent test-re-test reliability r = 0.88, (alpha = 0.90). CONCLUSIONS: Interaction between consortium members enhanced the validity of the questionnaires and protocols for different cultural locations. There were challenges...... in developing and delivering this multi-centre study. Experience gained will support the development of substantive trials and longitudinal studies to address the considerable international health disparity of childhood dental caries....

  17. Prevalence of root caries among elders living in residential homes of Bengaluru city, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumara-Raja, Balasubramanian; Radha, Gubbihal

    2016-01-01

    Background Among the various oral ailments which have been observed in elderly, root caries is a significant one. Tooth loss is chief oral health-related negative variable to the quality of life in elderly and root caries is the major cause of tooth loss in them. It has been reported about a third of older population bears most of the root caries burden, so the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of root caries among older individuals residing in residential homes of Bengaluru city I...

  18. Prevalence of root caries among elders living in residential homes of Bengaluru city, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumara-Raja, Balasubramanian; G. Radha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Among the various oral ailments which have been observed in elderly, root caries is a significant one. Tooth loss is chief oral health-related negative variable to the quality of life in elderly and root caries is the major cause of tooth loss in them. It has been reported about a third of older population bears most of the root caries burden, so the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of root caries among older individuals residing in residential homes of Ben...

  19. Effect of a Brazilian regional basic diet on the prevalence of caries in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a regional basic diet (RBD on the prevalence of caries in the molar teeth of rats of both sexes aged 23 days. The animals were divided into six groups of 10 rats each receiving the following diets for 30 and 60 days after weaning: RBD, a cariogenic diet, and a commercial diet. The prevalence and penetration of caries in the molar teeth of the rats was then analyzed. The RBD produced caries in 37.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 days, and in 83.4% of animals fed 60 days, while the cariogenic diet produced caries in 72.5% and 77.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 and 60 days, respectively. Rats fed the RBD for 30 days had caries in the enamel in 38% of their teeth, 48% had superficial dentin caries, and 7.5% moderate dentin caries. The effect of the RBD did not differ significantly from that of the cariogenic diet in terms of the presence of caries in rats fed 60 days. The penetration depth of the caries produced by the RBD was the same as that produced by the cariogenic diet. Our results show that the RBD has the same cariogenic potential as the cariogenic diet. Since the RBD is the only option for the low-income population, there should be a study of how to compensate for the cariogenicity of this diet.

  20. Pencegahan primer pada anak yang berisiko karies tinggi (Primary prevention in children with high caries risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Angela

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral and dental health has got improvement tremendously over the last century but the prevalence of dental caries in children has remained a significant clinical problem. Caries risk varies between individuals according to each subject’s balance between factors exposing to and protecting from caries attack. It is important to assess the risk of caries for all patients on a routine basis. Caries risk is divided into three levels: high, moderate, and low. Thereby, the dental professional is better to make a specific prevention and treatment recommendations to reduce a child risk and improve overall oral health. The goal of caries-risk assessment and preventive treatment is to eliminate caries or at least to reduce the high-caries occurrence down to the level of the remaining part of the age group. Preventive treatment is divided into three parts: primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. This paper describes the primary prevention in children with high caries risk by behavior modification and tooth protection. Behavior modification is about dental health education, oral hygiene, diet and sugar consumption, sugar-free chewing gum and sugar-free medicines. Tooth protection is about sealant, usage of flouride and chlorhexidine.