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Sample records for chemomechanical caries removal

  1. Comparison of chemomechanical caries removal using Papacárie versus conventional method in children

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    Merve Erkmen Almaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of chemomechanical caries removal (Papacárie, compared with the conventional method. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 50 primary molars selected from 25 healthy children (mean age 7.6 ± 1.1. Each patient had at least two primary molars with approximately equal-size caries lesions. Both treatments were carried out in the same session. Before and after treatment, fluorescence values were obtained using DIAGNOdent Pen and time needed for caries removal was recorded. Each patient was asked whether he/she felt any pain, requested for local anesthesia, which treatment he/she preferred, and behavior of the patient during caries removal was assessed. Data were analyzed using McNemar, Wilcoxon signed rank, and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: The clinical evaluation revealed that all the cavities were caries free after both techniques. Comparison of the difference in fluorescence values showed that readings were lower after conventional method (P 0.05. Conclusion: Chemomechanical caries removal and conventional method exhibited similar efficacy in caries removal.

  2. A comparative in vitro efficacy of conventional rotatory and chemomechanical caries removal: Influence on cariogenic flora, microhardness, and residual composition

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    Rene Garcia-Contreras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemomechanical caries removal system is part of the minimal invasive dentistry; the aim of the study was to compare the amount of bacteria after caries removal with chemomechanical system and conventional rotatory instruments and to test the Vickers microhardness and micro-RAMAN analysis of residual dentin after excavation. Materials and Methods: Molars were induced for demineralization, confirmed with DIAGNOdent; Streptococcus mutans were inoculated into the cavities and filled. Caries removal was performed with rotatory instruments and chemomechanical system; surviving bacteria were cultured for 24 and 48 hours at 37΀C. Vickers microhardness and micro-RAMAN analysis were tested after excavation. Data were analyzed with Wilcoxon, continuity correction, odds ratio, ANOVA post hoc Tukey test, and Spearman correlation. Results: Demineralization was significantly detectable at 240 hours of incubation; conventional rotatory instruments and chemomechanical caries removal were effective in 19.4%-22.6% and 25.8%-32.3%, respectively. Vickers microhardness of chemomechanical system was higher (P < 0.0001 than conventional rotatory instruments and comparable to healthy dentin. Micro-RAMAN analysis showed that healthy dentin is correlated to chemomechanical system (R 2 = 0.683, P < 0.00001 and drilling with burs (R 2 = 0.139, P < 0.00001. Conclusion: The chemomechanical system is effective for caries elimination, comparable to conventional rotatory instruments; the remaining Vickers microhardness and composition surface tissue are similar to healthy dentin.

  3. A comparative in vitro efficacy of conventional rotatory and chemomechanical caries removal: Influence on cariogenic flora, microhardness, and residual composition

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    Garcia-Contreras, Rene; Scougall-Vilchis, Rogelio Jose; Contreras-Bulnes, Rosalia; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Morales-Luckie, Raul Alberto; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chemomechanical caries removal system is part of the minimal invasive dentistry; the aim of the study was to compare the amount of bacteria after caries removal with chemomechanical system and conventional rotatory instruments and to test the Vickers microhardness and micro-RAMAN analysis of residual dentin after excavation. Materials and Methods: Molars were induced for demineralization, confirmed with DIAGNOdent; Streptococcus mutans were inoculated into the cavities and filled. Caries removal was performed with rotatory instruments and chemomechanical system; surviving bacteria were cultured for 24 and 48 hours at 37°C. Vickers microhardness and micro-RAMAN analysis were tested after excavation. Data were analyzed with Wilcoxon, continuity correction, odds ratio, ANOVA post hoc Tukey test, and Spearman correlation. Results: Demineralization was significantly detectable at 240 hours of incubation; conventional rotatory instruments and chemomechanical caries removal were effective in 19.4%-22.6% and 25.8%-32.3%, respectively. Vickers microhardness of chemomechanical system was higher (P < 0.0001) than conventional rotatory instruments and comparable to healthy dentin. Micro-RAMAN analysis showed that healthy dentin is correlated to chemomechanical system (R2 = 0.683, P < 0.00001) and drilling with burs (R2 = 0.139, P < 0.00001). Conclusion: The chemomechanical system is effective for caries elimination, comparable to conventional rotatory instruments; the remaining Vickers microhardness and composition surface tissue are similar to healthy dentin. PMID:25506140

  4. Chemomechanical versus drilling methods for caries removal: an in vitro study

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    Kemporn KITSAHAWONG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of chemomechanical caries removal (CMCR with that of conventional drilling for efficacy of caries removal, time spent, morphological changes and microhardness of surface dentin, and microleakage of subsequent restorations. Forty-six carious deciduous molars were randomly divided into two groups: one each for caries removal by (1 CMCR and by (2 drilling. The completeness of caries removal was evaluated by visual and tactile criteria and a caries detector device. Twenty teeth in each group were restored with glass ionomer (GI and subjected to thermocycling before undergoing microleakage and microhardness tests. In each group, three restored teeth were used for polarized light microscopic analysis, and three unrestored teeth for scanning electron microscopy (SEM. There was no significant difference in the completeness of caries removal between groups. However, time spent for caries removal by CMCR was significantly longer than that required for drilling. Restorations in the CMCR group had significantly more microleakage than those in the drilling group. Dentin hardness of the cavity floor after CMCR was also significantly lower. Microscopic analyses showed roughened and irregular dentin surfaces in the CMCR group, unlike the smooth surfaces observed in the drilling group. In conclusion, CMCR was as efficacious as drilling in term of completeness of caries removal, but required longer excavation times and resulted in lower microhardness of residual dentin as well as more microleakage after restorations with GI. Further laboratory and clinical evaluations on the efficiency and performance of CMCR for the durability of subsequent restorations are required.

  5. Efficacy of chemomechanical caries removal in reducing cariogenic microbiota: a randomized clinical trial

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    Michelle Mikhael AMMARI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of chemochemical methods (Carisolv™ and Papacárie® versus the manual method (excavators in reducing the cariogenic microbiota in dentine caries of primary teeth. Forty-six healthy children (5 to 9 years old having at least one primary tooth with a cavitated dentine carious lesion were included in the study. The teeth presented no clinical or radiographic signs of pulpal involvement. The sample of 74 teeth was randomly divided into three different groups: Papacárie® (n = 25, Carisolv™ (n = 27 and Manual (n = 22. Samples of carious and sound dentine were collected with sterile excavators before and after caries removal in the three groups. The dentine samples were transferred to glass tubes containing a 1mL thioglycollate medium used as a carrier and enriched for microbiological detection of mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp, after incubation for 6h at room temperature. The minimum detection value for colony forming units (CFU was 3.3 x 102 CFU/ml, and the results were converted into scores from 0 to 4. A significant difference was observed in relation to the microbiological scores before and after caries removal for all methods (Wilcoxon test; p < 0.001. The use of chemomechanical methods for caries removal did not improve the reduction of cariogenic microorganisms in dentine caries lesions, in comparison with manual excavation.

  6. Chemomechanical caries removal method versus mechanical caries removal methods in clinical and community-based setting: A comparative in vivo study

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    Kumar, K. V. K. Santosh; Prasad, M. Ghanashyam; Sandeep, R. Venkata; Reddy, S. Pavani; Divya, D.; Pratyusha, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of various caries removal techniques in mandibular primary molars using Smart Burs, atraumatic restorative technique (ART) (mechanical caries removal) and Carie-care (chemomechanical caries removal [CMCR]) among primary school children in clinical and community-based settings. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 carious primary mandibular molars were selected for the study from the dental clinic and community. They were equally assigned to four groups according to caries removal technique and also by the operating site. In Group 1, caries was removed using Carie-care in the dental clinic and in Group 2, with Smart Burs in the dental clinic. In Group 3, caries was removed using Carie-care in the field and in Group 4, with the ART in the field. The time taken for caries removal, the efficacy of caries removal and patient acceptance were evaluated with different caries removal techniques. Statistical Analysis: The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis by ANOVA test. Results: In clinical settings, Carie-care was time-consuming but was more efficient with increased acceptance than Smart Burs and the result was found to be significant statistically (P < 0.05). In community-based settings, Carie-care was more efficient, less time consuming, and showed an increased acceptance when compared to atraumatic restorative treatment and the result was found to be significant statistically (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The CMCR technique was superior to the mechanical caries removal technique in primary teeth among school children in terms of time, efficacy, and acceptance in both clinical- and community-based settings. PMID:27403059

  7. Randomized controlled clinical trial of long-term chemo-mechanical caries removal using PapacarieTM gel

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    Lara Jansiski MOTTA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Compare the effectiveness of PapacarieTM gel for the chemo-mechanical removal of carious lesions on primary teeth to conventional caries removal with a low-speed bur with regard to execution time, clinical aspects and radiographic findings. Material and Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial with a split-mouth design was carried out. The sample was composed of 20 children aged four to seven years, in whom 40 deciduous teeth were randomly divided into two groups: chemo-mechanical caries removal with PapacarieTM and removal of carious dentin with a low-speed bur. Each child underwent both procedures and served as his/her own control. Restorations were performed with glass ionomer cement. The time required to perform the procedure was also analyzed. The patients underwent longitudinal clinical and radiographic follow-up of the restorations. Results: No statistically significant difference between groups was found regarding the time required to perform the procedures and the radiographic follow up. Statistically significant differences between groups were found in the clinical evaluation at 6 and 18 months after treatment. Conclusion: PapacarieTM is as effective as the traditional method for the removal of carious dentin on deciduous teeth, but offers the advantages of the preservation of sound dental tissue as well as the avoidance of sharp rotary instruments and local anesthesia.

  8. Two years survival rate of class II composite resin restorations prepared by ART with and without a chemomechanical caries removal gel in primary molars.

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    Topaloglu-Ak, A.; Eden, E.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Oncag, O.

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to test the null hypotheses that there is no difference: (1) in carious lesion development at the restoration margin between class II composite resin restorations in primary molars produced through the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) with and without a chemomechanical caries remov

  9. 化学机械去腐技术治疗龋病的系统评价%Chemomechanical caries removal for caries treatment:a systematic review

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    黄晶洁; 张荣德; 祁红延; 赵媛; 陈莉娅

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness and investigate the clinical value between chemomechanicaland mechnical caries removal for patients with caries. METHODS; PubMed, Cochrane Library, EM BASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China Journal Full-text Database, Chinese Scientific Journals Full-text Database and WanFang Database were retrieved. We also traced back the references to collect the relevant trails. According to the Cochrane Handbook for systematic reviews of interventions 5. 0. Statistic analyses were calculated using Revman 5. 0 software. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were involved and 2757 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that there was no statistically significant difference in complete caries removal [ OR =0. 52,95% CI(0. 25, 1.07),P = 0.08], pulp exposure[ OR =0. 18,95% CI(0. 03,1. 11), P = 0. 06], secondary caries [ OR = 0.86,95% CI (0.53,1.42), P=0.56] and lost or fractured filling[OR = 1.06,95%CI(0.55,2.02), P=0.87] between the two methods. Chemomechanical caries removal could increases 1 - year success rate [ OR = 1.81,95% CI (1. 28,2. 55 ) , P=0.0008], decreases dental anxiety[OR =0.25,95%CI(0.09,0.64), P = 0.004] and pulp complications [OR = 0.09,95% CI (0. 03,0. 27), P 5 min:0R =6. 05,95% CI( 1. 13,32.47), P=0.04]. CONCLUSION: Chemomechanical caries removal can achieve the effect of mechanical caries removal. It also can improve 1-year success rate, decrease dental anxiety and reduce the use of anesthesia. Currently available evidence suggests that chemomechanical caries removal is an effective and minimally invasive method for caries treatment.%目的:比较并评价化学机械去腐技术和常规机械去腐在龋病治疗中的效果和临床应用价值.方法:计算机检索PubMed、Cochrane图书馆(2010年第10期)、EMBASE、中国生物医学文献数据库、中国期刊全文数据库、中文科技期刊全文数据库、数字化期刊全文数据库,同时追溯纳入研究的参考文献.根据Cochrane

  10. Marginal Micro-leakage of Self-etch and All-in One Adhesives to Primary Teeth, with Mechanical or Chemo-Mechanical Caries Removal

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    Nouzari A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Chemo-mechanical caries removal is an effective alternative to the traditional rotary drilling method. One of the factors that can influence micro-leakage is the method of caries removal. Objectives: To compare the micro-leakage of resin composite in primary dentition using self-etch and all-in one adhesives following conventional and chemo-mechanical caries removal. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human primary anterior teeth with class III carious lesions were collected. The selected teeth were divided randomly into two groups each consisting of 30 teeth. In group1 carious lesions were removed using Carisolv multi mix gel. In group 2, caries was removed using round steel burs in a slow–speed hand piece. Then, the specimens in each group were randomly divided into two subgroups (A and B of 15 and treated by either Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB or Scotch bond. All prepared cavities were filled with a resin composite (Estellite. All the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 hours and then thermocycled in 5ºC and 55ºC water with a dwell time of 20 seconds for 1500 cycles. The specimens were immersed in 1% methylene blue solution for 24 hours, removed, washed and sectioned mesiodistally. The sectioned splits were examined under a stereomicroscope to determine the micro-leakage scores. The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis Test in SPSS version 21. Results: There were no significant differences between micro-leakage scores among the four groups (p = 0.127. Score 0 of micro-leakage was detected for 60% of the specimens in group 1-A (Carisolv + CSEB, 73% of the group 2-A (hand piece + CSEB, 80% of the group 1-B (Carisolv + Scotch bond, and 93% of the group 2-B in which caries was removed using hand piece and bonded with Scotch bond . Conclusions: Although caries removal using hand piece bur along with using Scotch bond adhesive performed less micro-leakage, it would seems that the use of Carisolv

  11. Effect of Carisolv Chemo-Mechanical Caries Removal Technique on Early Childhood Caries Treatment%研究伢碘微创凝胶去龋技术在儿童龋齿治疗中的临床应用

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    沈玥

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究伢碘微创凝胶去龋技术在儿童龋齿治疗中的疗效。方法:选取80例儿童龋齿患者,随机分为观察组和对照组各40例,对观察组应用伢碘微创凝胶去龋技术进行治疗,对照组的治疗采用传统的磨牙技术,观察和比较两组患儿的龋齿治疗效果。结果:观察组治疗的总体效果优于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);龋齿继发率观察组明显少于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论:在儿童龋齿治疗中采用伢典微创凝胶去龋技术效果良好,值得临床推广。%Objective:To analyze the effect of carisolv chemo-mechanical caries removal technique on early childhood caries treatment. Methods:80 cases early childhood caries were divided into treatment group and control group with 40 cases. Control group were treated by conventional teeth grinding. Treatment group was treated by carisolv chemo-mechanical caries removal technique. The effect of Childhood Caries treatment between two groups was observed and compared. Results:The general effect of the treatment was better than control group, the difference was statistical significance (p<0.05). Compared with control group, the secondary caries in treatment group were lower, difference was statistical significance (p<0.05). Conclusion:Carisolv chemo-mechanical caries removal technique showed significant effect in early childhood caries treatment, worth clinical promotion.

  12. Two years survival rate of class II composite resin restorations prepared by ART with and without a chemomechanical caries removal gel in primary molars.

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    Topaloglu-Ak, Asli; Eden, Ece; Frencken, Jo E; Oncag, Ozant

    2009-09-01

    The aim was to test the null hypotheses that there is no difference: (1) in carious lesion development at the restoration margin between class II composite resin restorations in primary molars produced through the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) with and without a chemomechanical caries removal gel and (2) in the survival rate of class II composite resin restorations between two treatment groups after 2 years. Three hundred twenty-seven children with 568 class II cavitated lesions were included in a parallel mouth study design. Four operators placed resin composite (Filtek Z 250) restorations bonded with a self-etch adhesive (Adper prompt L pop). Two independent examiners evaluated the restorations after 0.5, 1, and 2 years using the modified Ryge criteria. The Kaplan-Meier survival method was applied to estimate survival percentages. A high proportion of restorations were lost during the study period. Therefore, the first hypothesis could not be tested. No statistically significant difference was observed between the cumulative survival percentages of restorations produced by the two treatment approaches over the 2-year period (ART, 54.1 +/- 3.4%; ART with Carisolv, 46.0 +/- 3.4%). This hypothesis was accepted. ART with chemomechanical gel might not provide an added benefit increasing the survival percentages of ART class II composite resin restorations in primary teeth.

  13. Assessment of chemomechanical removal of carious lesions using Papacarie Duo ™: Randomized longitudinal clinical trial

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    Simone Ferreira Borges Matsumoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemomechanical removal of carious lesions consists of the dissolution of carious tissue by the application of a natural or synthetic agent, followed by atraumatic mechanical removal. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of Papacarie Duo ® gel in the chemomechanical removal of carious lesions in primary teeth in comparison to the traditional method (low-speed bur. Settings and Design: A randomized clinical trial was conducted with 20 children between 5 and 8 years of age. Materials and Methods: Two teeth were treated in each child (split-mouth design, with the randomization of two methods: Group 1 - chemomechanical caries removal with Papacarie Duo™; and Group 2 - removal of carious dentin tissue using a low-speed bur. Both methods involved restoration with glass ionomer cement and follow up. The following aspects were evaluated: time required for the procedure; pain (face evaluation scale; rtention of the restorative material in the cavity; and the presence of secondary caries after 30 days. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-squared test, Student′s t-test, and Wilcoxon test. Results: No statistically significant differences between methods were found regarding time required for the procedure (P = 0.13, the occurrence of pain (P = 0.585, or restoration status at the 30-day clinical evaluation (P = 0.713. Conclusion: The findings of the present study demonstrate that the two methods achieve similar results. The advantages of minimally invasive treatment, such as chemomechanical caries removal with Papacarie Duo™, are its ease of use, patient comfort, and the fact that it causes less damage to dental tissue.

  14. Evaluation of the methodologies used in clinical trials and effectiveness of chemo-mechanical caries removal with CarisolvTM Avaliação das metodologias utilizadas nos ensaios clínicos e efetividade da remoção químico-mecânica de tecido cariado com Carisolv®

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    Marcela Marquezan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aims to discuss the methodologies applied in clinical trials published about CarisolvTM, in order to assess the best scientific evidence concerning chemo-mechanical caries removal. Papers concerning the use of CarisolvTM were sought using a search strategy. The titles and abstracts of all the reports identified through the search were analyzed by a single reviewer. The inclusion criterion involved: clinical trials having CarisolvTM in one of the study groups. Then, those that fulfilled the inclusion criterion underwent methodology assessment and data extraction. Only 12 papers met the inclusion criterion. It was observed that none of these studies complied with all the evaluated research methodological principles required in order to have power of evidence generation. CarisolvTM proved to be effective in caries removal. Appointment mean time was greater, but the perceived time was shorter than that using conventional techniques due to patients' perception of more comfort and a reduction of anesthesia needs. There were no adverse effect in long-term assessments. In studies with microbiological evaluation of the remaining dentine, it was observed that both the conventional and chemo-mechanical methods produced statistically significant reduction on counts of viable microorganisms.Esta investigação objetiva discutir as metodologias aplicadas em ensaios clínicos publicados sobre Carisolv®, para verificar a melhor evidência científica concernente à remoção químico-mecânica de tecido cariado. Artigos referentes ao uso de Carisolv® foram procurados utilizando-se uma estratégia de busca. Os títulos e resumos de todos os estudos identificados pela procura foram analisados por um único revisor. O critério de inclusão envolveu: ensaios clínicos contendo o sistema Carisolv® em um dos grupos de estudo. Os estudos que preencheram o critério de inclusão foram submetidos à avaliação de metodologia e extração de dados

  15. Papain-based gel for biochemical caries removal: influence on microtensile bond strength to dentin

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    Evandro Piva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of a papain-based gel (Papacárie for chemo-mechanical caries removal on bond strength to dentin. Human molars were assigned to the following groups: Group 1: sound teeth were flattened to expose dentin; Group 2: after flattening of surfaces, the papain-based gel was applied on the sound dentin; Group 3: overlying enamel from carious teeth was removed and mechanical excavation of dentin was conducted; Group 4: chemo-mechanical excavation of carious dentin was conducted using the papain-based gel. The Prime&Bond NT or Clearfil SE Bond adhesive systems were used for restorative procedures. A microtensile bond strength test was performed, and the modes of failure were determined under SEM. The data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05. No significant differences were observed between the sound dentin groups. For both excavation methods, Clearfil presented a significantly higher bond strength than Prime&Bond NT. Also, for Clearfil, the mechanically excavated samples disclosed a significantly higher bond strength than the chemo-mechanically ones. For Prime&Bond NT, no significant differences were detected between the excavation methods. Predominance of mixed failures for the sound substrate and of adhesive failures for the carious dentin one was detected. The bond strength to carious dentin of the self-etching system was negatively affected by chemo-mechanical excavation using the papain-based gel.

  16. Retracted: Modern Concepts for Caries Tissue Removal.

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    Schwendicke, Falk

    2016-02-15

    "Modern Concepts for Caries Tissue Removal", by Falk Schwendicke The above article, published online on 15 February 2016 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.llll/jerd.12201), has been retracted by agreement between the author, Dr. Falk Schwendicke, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Harald O. Heymann, Associate Editor, Dr. Edward Swift and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed as the article was published in advance of other companion work which should have had precedence. The article pages have been replaced by the Retraction Statement and the article condensed accordingly. Schwendicke, F. Swift, EJ. Modern concepts for caries tissue removal. Dent J Esthet Rest 2016; 28:1; DOI: 10.1111/jerd.12201.

  17. Comparsion of the efficacy of chemomechanical and mechanical methods of caries removal in the reduction of streptococcus mutans and lactobacillus spp in carious dentine of primary teeth Comparação da eficácia dos métodos químico-mecânico e mecânico de remoção de cárie na redução de streptococcus mutans e lactobacillus spp da dentina criada de dentes decíduos

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    Gisele Quariguasi Tobias Lima

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The methods of caries removal have been the subject of many studies over the last years. At present, methods involving the least tissue invasion have been outstanding in the field of surgical-restorative treatment. In this context, the Carisolv™ system has appeared as a less traumatic and less invasive approach, particularly in pedodontics. Thus, the objective of the present study was to carry out a comparative analysis of the dentinal structure of primary molars before and after the removal of carious tissue by mechanical (low speed drills and conventional dentinal curettes and chemomechanical (Carisolv™ kit procedures based on quantitative culture for cariogenic bacteria to determine the number of bacteria present in the carious dentine after both treatments. Sixty primary molars from children ranging in age from 4 to 8 years, with active occlusal caries in dentine, were divided into two groups (A and B of 30 teeth each, with group A having been treated by the chemomechanical technique and group B by the mechanical technique. Dentin samples were placed in glass vials containing 1 mL thioglycolate broth and submitted to culture to determine the number of S. mutans and Lactobacillus per mg of decayed dentine. The results did not reveal significant differences between the two methods of caries removal; however, the chemomechanical method was more efficient in completely eliminating S. mutans (p=0.02. In summary, the present results confirm previous studies showing that the two methods are comparable in reducing Lactobacillus, but Carisolv™ is more effective in the elimination of S. mutans.Os métodos de remoção de cárie têm sido objeto de muitos estudos nos últimos anos. Atualmente, aqueles que determinam mínima invasão tecidual têm se sobressaído no campo do tratamento cirúrgico-restaurador. Neste contexto, surgiu o sistema Carisolv™ como uma abordagem menos traumática, com destaque na odontopediatria e menos invasiva. Desta

  18. Erbium, chromium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet laser for caries removal: influence on bonding of a self-etching adhesive system.

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    Tachibana, Arlene; Marques, Márcia Martins; Soler, Julia Maria Pavan; Matos, Adriana Bona

    2008-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the dental substrates obtained after the use of different caries removal techniques on bonding of a self-etching system. Forty, extracted, carious, human molars were ground to expose flat surfaces containing caries-infected dentine surrounded by sound dentine. The caries lesions of the specimens were removed or not (control--G1) either by round steel burs and water-cooled, low speed, handpiece (G2), or by irradiation with an erbium, chromium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser (2W, 20 Hz, 35.38 J/cm(2), fiber G4 handpiece with 0.2826 mm(2), non-contact mode at a 2 mm distance, 70% air/20% water--G3) or using a chemo-mechanical method (Carisolv--G4). Caries-infected, caries-affected and sound dentines were submitted to a bonding system followed by construction of a resin-based composite crown. Hour-glass shaped samples were obtained and submitted to a micro-tensile bond test. The bond strength data were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA), complemented by Tukey's test (P bond strengths than did samples of caries-affected dentine, except for the groups treated with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The highest bond strengths were observed with the sound dentine treated with burs and Carisolv. The bond strengths to caries-affected dentine were similar in all groups. Additionally, bonding to caries-affected dentine of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser and Carisolv groups was similar to bonding to caries-infected dentine. Thus, caries-affected dentine is not an adequate substrate for adhesion. Moreover, amongst the caries removal methods tested, the Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation was the poorest in providing a substrate for bonding with the tested self-etching system.

  19. Comparison of behavioral response to caries removal methods: A randomised controlled cross over trial

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    P R Geetha Priya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of dental fear and anxiety still poses a significant problem in treating children. Various caries management protocols have been tried to make the dental visit more compatible to the child patients. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the behavioral and physiological responses to chemo-mechanical caries removal (CMCR and conventional drilling method (CDM. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 children with an age range of 7 to 11 years with bilateral frank carious lesions were included in this study. They were randomized into two groups: Group A - treated with CDM first followed by CMCR and Group B - treated with CMCR first followed by CDM. The physiological signs (pulse, blood pressure and oxygen saturation were noted prior to treatment, during treatment, post treatment and 5 min after treatment. The behavioral responses were assessed by face, legs, activity, cry, and consolability scale and facial image scale. The participants were interviewed about pain, discomfort, taste, smell, preference and overall experience after every procedure. The pediatric dentist filled in details about patient behavior, time utilized and need for local anesthesia. The results were statistically analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test appropriately (SPSS version 11. Results: There was no significant difference in any of the physiological parameters assessed between the two groups. Discomfort was significantly more (P < 0.025 in the CDM group than CMCR group. The time taken by the dentist was significantly lesser (P < 0.01 in the CDM group. Conclusion: Techniques which enhance the behavioral response in children should be considered for a better pediatric dental practice.

  20. Dental caries: Therapeutic possibilities

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    Perić Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and prevention of dental caries are better understood today and new restorative materials that bond micromechanically and/or chemically to dental tissues have been introduced. Thus, development of a new, less destructive caries removal technique is allowed. In the last decades, many alternative methods have been introduced in an attempt to replace rotary instruments. These are claimed to be efficient and selective for diseased tissues and to offer comfortable treatment to the patients. New methods include air abrasion, air polishing, ultrasonic, polymer burs, enzymes, systems for chemo-mechanical caries removal, and lasers. The aim of this paper was to discuss various caries removal techniques and possibilities of their use in clinical practice. Based on the literature review it can be concluded that none of the new caries removal methods can completely replace conventional rotary instruments.

  1. Effect of Caries Removal Methods on the Shear Bond Strength of Resin and Glass IonomerAdhesives to Primary Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: There is no enough published data about the shear bond strength of resin modified glass ionomer adhesives on caries-affected primary tooth dentin excavated using minimally invasive systems. Objectives: To evaluate the shear bond strength of 2 different adhesives (one resin modified glass ionomer and one resin using two caries removal tech- niques on healthy and caries-affected primary dentin. Materials and Methods: Two caries removal methods including mechanical (handpiece and chemomechanical (Carisolv techniques and two types of ad- hesives including one resin adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond; CSEB, Kuraray and one resin-modified glass ionomer adhesive (Riva Bond LC; RBLC, SDI were used in this study. Ten extracted healthy primary teeth were used for the control group. The teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually and mesio-distally in order to obtain four specimens from each tooth. Thirty suitable specimens were selected as the “control” and randomly divided into two groups of “sound dentin” based on the type of the adhesive used. Sixty extracted caries affected teeth were used for the carious group; sectioned as mentioned above and sixty suitable specimens were selected as the “treatment”. Then the specimens were arbitrarily divided into four groups based on caries removal techniques and the type of ad- hesive used (n = 15. After bonding with either CSEB or RBLC, the specimens were restored with a resin composite by means of PVC tubes and subjected to the shear bond strength test. The data was analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: The specimens in Carisolv group bonded with CSEB (11.68 ± 3.1 showed a statistically significant higher mean bond strength followed by those in handpiece group bonded with CSEB (9.4 ± 2.7, which exhibited higher mean values than those groups with RBLC (p < 0.05. Shear bond strength values for Clearfil SE Bond was not significantly higher than Riva Bond LC when used in sound

  2. A systematic approach to deep caries removal end points: the peripheral seal concept in adhesive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, David S; Magne, Pascal

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this article is to present evidence-based protocols for the diagnosis and treatment of deep caries lesions in vital teeth. These protocols combine caries-detecting dye with anatomical and histologic knowledge to arrive at ideal caries removal end points for adhesive restorations. DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence technology can also be used to confirm these end points. These ideal caries removal end points generate a peripheral seal zone that can support long-term biomimetic restorations. A review of the published literature since 1980 on caries, caries diagnosis, and caries treatments and their relationships to adhesive bonding techniques was carried out. Combining anatomical measurements and pathologic and histologic knowledge with caries-detecting dye and DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence technologies can produce ideal caries removal end points for adhesive dentistry without exposing vital pulps.

  3. Retraction statement: Modern Concepts for Caries Tissue Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    "Modern Concepts for Caries Tissue Removal", by Falk Schwendicke The above article, published online on 15 February 2016 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.llll/jerd.12201), has been retracted by agreement between the author, Dr. Falk Schwendicke, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Harald O. Heymann, Associate Editor, Dr. Edward Swift and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed as the article was published in advance of other companion work which should have had precedence. The article pages have been replaced by the Retraction Statement and the article condensed accordingly. Schwendicke, F. Swift, EJ. Modern concepts for caries tissue removal. Dent J Esthet Rest 2016; 28:1; DOI: 10.1111/jerd.12201.

  4. Comparsion of the efficacy of chemomechanical and mechanical methods of caries removal in the reduction of streptococcus mutans and lactobacillus spp in carious dentine of primary teeth Comparação da eficácia dos métodos químico-mecânico e mecânico de remoção de cárie na redução de streptococcus mutans e lactobacillus spp da dentina criada de dentes decíduos

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele Quariguasi Tobias Lima; Eurípedes Gomes de Oliveira; João Inácio Lima de Souza; Valério Monteiro Neto

    2005-01-01

    The methods of caries removal have been the subject of many studies over the last years. At present, methods involving the least tissue invasion have been outstanding in the field of surgical-restorative treatment. In this context, the Carisolv™ system has appeared as a less traumatic and less invasive approach, particularly in pedodontics. Thus, the objective of the present study was to carry out a comparative analysis of the dentinal structure of primary molars before and after the re...

  5. [Dental caries--therapeutic possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perić, Tamara; Marković, Dejan; Zivković, Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and prevention of dental caries are better understood today and new restorative materials that bond micromechanically and/or chemically to dental tissues have been introduced. Thus, development of a new, less destructive caries removal technique is allowed. In the last decades, many alternative methods have been introduced in an attempt to replace rotary instruments. These are claimed to be efficient and selective for diseased tissues and to offer comfortable treatment to the patients. New methods include air abrasion, air polishing, ultrasonic, polymer burs, enzymes, systems for chemo-mechanical caries removal, and lasers. The aim of this paper was to discuss various caries removal techniques and possibilities of their use in clinical practice. Based on the literature review it can be concluded that none of the new caries removal methods can completely replace conventional rotary instruments.

  6. Assessment of root caries removal by Er,Cr:YSGG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldo-Martins, Vinícius R.; Marques, Márcia M.

    2007-02-01

    The present study aimed to compare root caries removal by air turbine and Er,Cr:YSGG laser, and examine morphological changes after these caries removal techniques under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Seventy two extracted human carious-free third molars were used in this study. After the in vitro root caries induction using S. mutans, the carious lesions were removed by the conventional technique, using burs (control), and by the Er,Cr:YSGG laser, using 13 different parameters, between 1 and 4,0 W. During caries removal, preparation time was recorded for all groups. The results appointed out that the conventional method was the fastest one. When only laser treatment was evaluated, the higher parameters seemed to remove caries faster then the lower ones. SEM revealed that the surfaces treated by air turbine were smooth, but with debris. The laser groups demonstrated smooth undulations, with little or absence of smear layer, and no signs of carbonization. These results suggest that caries removal by Er,Cr:YSGG laser was effective. Therefore, this equipment requires training on cavity preparation, in order to avoid damages in dental hard tissues.

  7. Selective removal of dental caries with a diode-pumped Er:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ruth; Chan, Kenneth H.; Tom, Henry; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Selective removal of caries lesions with high precision is best accomplished using lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates utilizing small spot sizes. Conventional flash-lamp pumped Er:YAG lasers are poorly suited for this purpose, but new diode-pumped Er:YAG lasers have become available operating at high pulse repetition rates. The purpose of this study was to measure the ablation rate and selectivity of sound and demineralized enamel and dentin for a 30 W diode-pumped Er:YAG laser operating with a pulse duration of 20-30-μs and evaluate it's potential for the selective removal of natural occlusal lesions on extracted teeth. Microradiography was used to determine the mineral content of the demineralized enamel and dentin of 300-μm thick sections with natural caries lesions prior to laser ablation. The ablation rate was calculated for varying mineral content. In addition, near-IR reflectance measurements at 1500-1700- nm were used to guide the laser for the selective ablation of natural occlusal caries lesions on extracted teeth.

  8. 扫描电镜观察不同方法去腐后牙本质玷污层的形态变化%Morphological changes of the smear layer after caries removal using different methods:An observation under scanning electron microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方玲; 朱艳莉

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The methods to remove the smear layer mainly include mechanical, Carisolv chemomechanical, laser, ozone methods and so on. But studies after caries removal are limited. At present, there is no research for the observation of the smear layer after caries removal using Er:YAG laser, Carisolv chemomechanical and traditional dental turbine. OBJECTIVE:To observe the morphologic changes of the dentin smear layer after treated with the three methods of Er:YAG laser, Carisolv chemomechanical and traditional high speed dental turbine under a scanning electron microscope. METHODS:Thirty newly removed premolars or molars with moderate caries were divided into three groups, 10 teeth in each group. The bottom surface of the tooth cavity was observed with the naked eyes after caries removal with Er:YAG laser, Carisolv chemomechanical and traditional dental turbine, respectively. Then, the surface was observed using the scanning electron microscope (magnification ×1 000 and ×2 000). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The texture of the tooth cavity was hard in the three groups. After caries removal, the dentin surface of Er:YAG laser group was rough and uneven, and showed a peak-like shape;The dentin surface of Carisolv chemomechanical group was dark and the bottom was flat;The dentin surface of traditional dental turbine group was smooth and bright, and there was an obvious cutting trace. It was found that the surface of Er:YAG laser group did not have the smear layer, and the dentinal tubule was clearly visible. The most dentinal tubules were visible in the Carisolv chemomechanical group, and the surface was covered with a less smear layer. The surface of the traditional dental turbine group was covered with a thick smear layer, and the dentinal tubule was unseen. The differences in dentin smear layer cleanliness were significant between the three groups. These result indicate that Er:YAG laser can effectively remove the smear layer, which is better than Carisolv

  9. Minimal intervention dentistry: part 7. Minimally invasive operative caries management: rationale and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, A

    2013-02-01

    When patients present with cavities causing pain, poor aesthetics and/or functional problems restorations will need to be placed. Minimally invasive caries excavation strategies can be deployed depending on the patient's caries risk, lesion-pulp proximity and vitality, the extent of remaining supra-gingival tooth structure and clinical factors (for example, moisture control, access). Excavation instruments, including burs/handpieces, hand excavators, chemo-mechanical agents and/or air-abrasives limiting caries removal selectively to the more superficial caries-infected dentine and partial removal of caries-affected dentine when required, help create smaller cavities with healthy enamel/dentine margins. Using adhesive restorative materials the operator can, if handling with care, optimise the histological substrate coupled with the applied chemistry of the material so helping to form a durable peripheral seal and bond to aid retention of the restoration as well as arresting the carious process within the remaining tooth structure. Achieving a smooth tooth-restoration interface clinically to aid the cooperative, motivated patient in biofilm removal is an essential pre-requisite to prevent further secondary caries.

  10. Aesthetic restoration of deciduous anterior teeth after removal of carious tissue with Papacárie ®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motta Lara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of conservative techniques for the removal of carious tissue and the improvement of dental restoration materials allow better preservation of the dental structure. Chemomechanical caries removal is a conservative and atraumatic alternative. Papacárie ® is a papain-based material developed to act only on the carious dentin, allowing its easy removal with a blunt curette. This study aims to present a clinical case of aesthetic restoration of both upper deciduous central incisors after the removal of carious tissue with Papacárie ® .

  11. Serial removal of caries lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces using near-IR image-guided IR laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Tom, Henry; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have established that caries lesions can be imaged with high contrast without the interference of stains at near-IR wavelengths greater than 1300-nm. It has been demonstrated that computer controlled laser scanning systems utilizing IR lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates can be used for serial imaging and selective removal of caries lesions. In this study, we report our progress towards the development of algorithms for generating rasterized ablation maps from near-IR reflectance images for the removal of natural lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces. An InGaAs camera and a filtered tungsten-halogen lamp producing near-IR light in the range of 1500-1700-nm were used to collect crosspolarization reflectance images of tooth occlusal surfaces. A CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3- μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs was used for image-guided ablation.

  12. 伢典微创凝胶去龋治疗儿童龋齿疗效研究%Research on Curative Effect of Carisolv Minimally Invasive Gel Caries Re-moval in Treatment of Dental Caries in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑秀超

    2016-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effect of carisolv minimally invasive gel caries removal in treatment of dental caries in children. Methods 136 cases of children with dental caries admitted and treated in our department from September 2013 to September 2015 were selected and randomly divided into two groups with 68 cases in each, the observation group adopted carisolv minimally invasive gel caries removal treatment, the control group adopted conventional dental drill to remove the necrotic tissue, and the curative effects were compared between the two groups. Results The pain degree in the observation group was obviously better than those in the control group, P<0.05, and the incidence rate of complications in the observa-tion group was 2.9%, which was obviously better than those in the control group, P<0.05. Conclusion Carisolv minimally invasive gel caries removal in treatment of dental caries in children is a technique with small trauma and few complications.%目的:探讨伢典微创凝胶去龋治疗儿童龋齿的效果。方法整群选取该院2013年9月—2015年9月收治的龋齿患儿136例,随机分为2组各68例,观察组采用伢典微创凝胶治疗,对照组采用常规牙钻去腐,比较两组疗效。结果观察组疼痛程度明显优于对照组(P<0.05),观察组并发症发生率为2.9%,明显优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论伢典微创凝胶是治疗儿童龋齿的一种创伤性小、并发症少的技术。

  13. Assessment of the frequency of routine removal of dental plaque prior to caries diagnosis by dentists in three cities in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Heitor Cunha Moreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of routine use of dental prophylaxis prior to visual inspection, in order to diagnose caries, by dentists with different lapses of time after graduating time. One hundred and fifty one Brazilian dentists were interviewed in 3 Brazilian cities to determine if they usually remove dental plaque prior to visual inspection for caries diagnosis. The dentists were stratified according to year of graduation. The association between the lapse of time after graduating and the practice of routinely removing dental plaque before clinical examination was tested using the chi-square test with a significance level of 5%. Only 28.5% of the dentists reported that they usually remove dental plaque prior to clinical examination. The dentists who graduated in the last 15 years presented the lowest percentages of plaque removal prior to clinical examination (15.1%, whereas the more experienced dentists reported that they perform prophylaxis more frequently. Of the professionals who graduated from 1960-1975, 23.9% reported that they performed dental plaque removal prior to diagnosis, whereas the figure for those graduating from 1976-1990 was 46.2%. Most of the dentists interviewed reported that they did not remove dental plaque prior to performing visual diagnosis of caries.

  14. Image-guided removal of occlusal caries lesions with a λ= 9.3-μm CO2 laser using near-IR transillumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Leon C.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that near-IR transillumination is well suited for imaging deep occlusal lesions. The purpose of this study was to determine if near-IR images can be used to guide a CO2 laser for the selective removal of natural occlusal lesions on extracted teeth. Near-IR occlusal transillumination images of extracted human teeth with natural occlusal caries lesions were acquired using an InGaAs camera and near-IR light at wavelengths from 1290 to 1470-nm from a filtered tungsten halogen source. A CO2 laser operating at 9.3-μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs and a pulse repetition rate of 100-300-Hz was used for caries removal. Optical Coherence tomography was used to confirm lesion presence and serial scans were used to assess selective removal. Teeth were also sectioned for histological examination using polarized light microscopy. This study suggests that near-infrared transillumination is a promising method for the image guided laser ablation of occlusal caries lesions but the use of serial near-IR transillumination imaging for monitoring lesion removal was limited.

  15. Evaluation of the caries risk profile with removable partial denture prothesis%可摘局部义齿修复后患龋风险预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽娜; 王志峰; 李传花; 蓝菁

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore a potential association between the caries risk and removable partial denture restoration.Methods:Data were obtained from 180 patients treated with RPDs.Various caries risk factors were collected by oral examination and questionnaires were evaluated by using a computer-based program(Cariogram).According to the reports,all patients were divided into the higher caries risk group and the lower caries risk group.Statistical analysis was carried out.Results:There was no significant difference between the two groups about the secretion rate and buffer capacity.But the higher caries risk group possessed more mutans streptococci counts,high plaque index and high-carbonhydrate diets,comparing with lower caries risk group (P<0.05).The caries average was much more in higher risk group.Conclusion:Rigid oral hygiene protocols and regular recall should be a part of the routine care of RPD wearers.Data were in favor of an association between caries risk and the insertion of RPDs and supported the notion that increasing quantity of mutans streptcocci maked the tooth more susceptible to caries.There was no clear evidence of buffering capacity or secretion rate for increasing the risk of caries.%目的:评估可摘局部义齿修复后与患龋风险大小的关系,为临床工作提供一定的理论指导.方法:记录临床行可摘局部义齿修复的180例患者.在试戴义齿完成后进行口腔检查、口腔健康问卷调查和龋病活跃性实验检测,所得结果由Cariogram系统进行龋危预测,根据预测结果受试者被分为高风险患龋组和低风险患龋组,评估患龋的风险因素并进行统计学分析.结果:两组受试者的唾液流量和缓冲能力差异不明显,但高风险患龋组变形链球菌计数、菌斑指数普遍较高且饮食习惯不良者较多,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);高风险患龋组龋均明显多于低风险组.结论:临床工作中可通过口腔卫生宣教、定期复查

  16. Clinical effect of photodynamic therapy on primary carious dentin after partial caries removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Adriano Moreno NEVES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was conducted to assess the clinical effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT in the decontamination of the deep dentin of deciduous molars submitted to partial removal of carious tissue. After cavity preparation, dentin samples were taken from the pulp wall of nineteen deciduous molars before and after PDT application. Remaining dentin was treated with 0.01% methylene blue dye followed by irradiation with an InGaAlP diode laser (λ – 660 nm; 40 mW; 120 J/cm2; 120 s. Dentin samples were microbiologically assessed for the enumeration of total microorganisms, Lactobacillus spp. and mutans streptococci. There was no significant difference in the number of colony-forming units (CFU for any of the microorganisms assessed (p > 0.05. Photodynamic therapy, using 0.01% methylene blue dye at a dosimetry of 120 J/cm2 would not be a viable clinical alternative to reduce bacterial contamination in deep dentin.

  17. Endodoncia preventiva: Protección pulpar mediante la técnica de eliminación de la caries en etapas (stepwise excavation Preventive endodontics: pulp protection using stepwise caries removal procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Castellanos-Cosano

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento de la caries dentinaria profunda en dientes permanentes se ha venido realizando, generalmente, mediante la remoción completa y en una sola sesión de la dentina cariada, incluyendo la dentina blanda desmineralizada, sin tener en cuenta el potencial regenerador de la pulpa dental. Una complicación frecuentemente ligada a esta actitud es la exposición pulpar intraoperatoria que, en muchos casos, termina en tratamiento de conductos. Varios estudios han demostrado que la eliminación de la caries dentinaria profunda por etapas, en dos visitas con varios meses de diferencia, protege a la pulpa, disminuyendo la frecuencia de exposiciones pulpares, a la vez que permite la formación de dentina terciaria, con la consiguiente disminución del porcentaje de casos que requieren tratamiento endodóncico. En este artículo se analiza el estado del conocimiento y la evidencia científica sobre este tema.The treatment of deep dentine carious lesions in permanent teeth has included, generally, complete removal of affected dentin in a single session, including soft demineralized dentin, regardless of the regenerative potential of dental pulp. One complication often linked to this attitude is the pulp exposure, in many cases ending in root canal treatment. Several studies have shown that the elimination of deep dentine caries in stages, in two visits to several months apart, protects the pulp, reducing the frequency of pulp exposures, while allowing the development of tertiary dentin, with the consequent decrease in the percentage of cases requiring endodontic treatment. This article discusses the state of knowledge and scientific evidence on this topic.

  18. Influence of different caries treatments on children′s dental fear and anxiety%3种不同龋病治疗方法对儿童牙科畏惧症的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧民; 汪俊; 陈曦; 冯希平

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较3种不同龋病治疗方法对儿童牙科畏惧症的影响。方法选择乳磨牙患Ⅱ度龋的90例患儿,随机分为不同龋病治疗组:传统车针去龋组、非创伤性修复(atraumatic restorative treatment,ART)组、化学-机械去龋组。运用面部表情分级法(Facial Image Scale,FIS)比较3组患儿的畏惧程度。采用SPSS19.0软件包进行卡方检验统计学处理。结果3组畏惧程度有显著性差异(P<0.05),传统去龋组的畏惧程度高于其他两组,其与 ART组之间的差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论非创伤性修复法和化学-机械去龋法可较为有效地缓解儿童牙科畏惧。%Objective To compare the influence of three different caries treatments,including traditional application of rotary instru-ments,atraumatic restorative treatment(ART)and chemo-mechanical method,on children′s dental fear and anxiety.Methods Ninety pediatric patients aged 5-1 2 years who suffered from dental caries were randomly divided into different treatment groups:conventional bur caries group,ART group and chemo-mechanical caries removal group.Dental fear during the treatments was assessed using Facial Image Scale (FIS).Chi square test was performed with SPSS1 9.0 statistical software.Results The degrees of fear among three groups were significantly different.The group using traditional method had higher rate of fear than other two groups.Conclusions The Atrau-matic restorative treatment and the chemo-mechanical technique are more effective in easing children′s dental fear and anxiety and a-chieving better physical and psychological health of children.

  19. A study of a laser fluorescence device for assessing caries removal in primary teeth in vitro%激光龋齿检测仪评价乳牙去腐净的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江浩; 秦满

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of using laser fluorescence device for assessing caries removal in primary teeth in vitro. Methods 8 primary molars with approximal caries were collected, and caries were removed in vitro. The laser fluorescence readings of dentin before and after caries removal were recorded. To judge the degree of caries removal by caries detector, polarizing microscope and dental microhardness tester. The correlation of DIAGNO-dent reading with Viker's Hardness was analyzed. The feasibility of using laser fluorescence for assessing caries removal was explored. Results The average Viker's Hardness of dentin after caries removal with staining was (46.99± 12.44) HV, and the average Viker's Hardness of normal control was (67.39±16.59) HV. There was significant difference between the two groups (P0.05). And there was significant difference between the laser fluorescence readings before and after the caries removal without staining (P<0.05). It was observed by polarizing microscope that there was no caries residue in sample, no matter stain or not. Conclusion The laser fluorescence could not distinguish stained dentin from caries, and is not suitable for assessing caries removal.%目的 用体外研究的方法探索激光龋齿检测仪评价乳牙去腐净的可行性.方法 选取患邻面中龋的乳磨牙8颗为研究对象,测量去腐前后激光龋齿检测仪读数,利用龋蚀检测液、硬组织硬度仪和偏光显微镜对腐质是否去净进行评判,分析激光龋齿检测仪读数与其相关性,探索激光龋齿检测仪在评价去腐洁净度中的应用.结果 去腐后色素沉着处牙本质硬度为(46.99±12.44) HV;健康位点备洞后洞缘的牙本质硬度为(67.39±16.59) HV,二者间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).去腐前DIAGNOdent读数与去腐后色素沉着处DIAGNOdent读数差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);而与去腐后无色素沉着处DIAGNOdent读数差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).

  20. Rampant Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Although dental caries in the pediatric and adolescent population has consistently declined in the United States, it is still the most common childhood disease. Dental problems are the number one reason for missing school next to the common cold. Dental caries are an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by…

  1. 伢典去龋法在龋病治疗中的应用%Application of Carislov in the treatment of dental caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海男; 李云华

    2011-01-01

    Chemomechanical caries removal with Carisolv is a painless and minimally invasive techniquethat overcomes the shortcomings and potential adverse reactions of conventional mechenical caries removal method. It lessens patients'fear, increases the degree of comfort and sense of security, which renders its good prospect for clinical application. In this review, the mechanisms of action and the effects on dentin and dental pulps of Carisolv are summarized.%伢典去龋法是一种无痛的微创去龋技术,其克服了常规机械去龋法的缺点和潜在的不良反应,消除了病人对治牙的恐惧感,增加了就诊的舒适度和安全感,有良好的临床应用前景.该文就伢典的作用原理以及对牙体、牙髓组织的影响作一综述.

  2. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-07-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface.

  3. Chemo-mechanical control of neural stem cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geishecker, Emily R.

    Cellular processes such as adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation are controlled in part by cell interactions with the microenvironment. Cells can sense and respond to a variety of stimuli, including soluble and insoluble factors (such as proteins and small molecules) and externally applied mechanical stresses. Mechanical properties of the environment, such as substrate stiffness, have also been suggested to play an important role in cell processes. The roles of both biochemical and mechanical signaling in fate modification of stem cells have been explored independently. However, very few studies have been performed to study well-controlled chemo-mechanotransduction. The objective of this work is to design, synthesize, and characterize a chemo-mechanical substrate to encourage neuronal differentiation of C17.2 neural stem cells. In Chapter 2, Polyacrylamide (PA) gels of varying stiffnesses are functionalized with differing amounts of whole collagen to investigate the role of protein concentration in combination with substrate stiffness. As expected, neurons on the softest substrate were more in number and neuronal morphology than those on stiffer substrates. Neurons appeared locally aligned with an expansive network of neurites. Additional experiments would allow for statistical analysis to determine if and how collagen density impacts C17.2 differentiation in combination with substrate stiffness. Due to difficulties associated with whole protein approaches, a similar platform was developed using mixed adhesive peptides, derived from fibronectin and laminin, and is presented in Chapter 3. The matrix elasticity and peptide concentration can be individually modulated to systematically probe the effects of chemo-mechanical signaling on differentiation of C17.2 cells. Polyacrylamide gel stiffness was confirmed using rheological techniques and found to support values published by Yeung et al. [1]. Cellular growth and differentiation were assessed by cell counts

  4. Health promotion and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Marisa; Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo

    2010-01-01

    The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene), among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene) should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  5. Health promotion and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Maltz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene, among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  6. Chemomechanical phenomena in the grinding of coal. Final report, February 1, 1976--May 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macmillan, N.H.

    1977-08-01

    Vickers microhardness, drilling rate, grinding rate and zeta-potential measurements have been made on coals of various rank in both aqueous and organic environments in order to determine whether: (a) chemomechanical (Rebinder) effects exist in coal; and (b) any such effects as do exist can be used to improve the comminution of coal. The results reveal the mechanical behavior of coal to be remarkably environment-insensitive as compared to inorganic non-metals. As a result, it is concluded that chemomechanical phenomena offer little prospect of reducing the cost of comminuting coal.

  7. Modern approaches to caries management of the primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, N P T; Evans, D J P

    2013-06-01

    When prevention of dental caries fails, and a child is exposed to the risk of pain and infection, the disease must be managed to reduce this risk. There is growing evidence supporting more 'biological' and fewer 'surgical' approaches to managing dental caries in primary teeth. These biological methods include partial and stepwise caries removal procedures, as well as techniques where no caries is removed. An overview of clinical trials comparing these biological methods to complete caries removal shows that they perform as well as traditional methods and have the advantage of reducing the incidence of iatrogenic pulpal exposures. The Hall Technique is one biological approach to managing caries in primary molars which involves sealing caries beneath preformed metal (stainless steel) crowns. The crown is cemented over the tooth without caries removal, tooth preparation or use of local anaesthesia. The clinical steps for the Hall Technique are straightforward but, as with all dental care provision, appropriate treatment planning for the procedure requires skill. The Hall Technique offers another method of managing early to moderately advanced, active carious lesions in primary molars, with good evidence of effectiveness and acceptability. This evidence aligns with the positive findings of other studies on biological strategies for managing caries in primary teeth.

  8. Dental caries vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from carious lesions of which S. mutans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , and Actinomyces viscosus are the main pathogenic species involved in the initiation and development of dental caries. In India, surveys done on school children showed caries prevalence of approximately 58%. Surveys among the U.S. population showed an incidence of 45.3% in children and 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries. Huge amounts of money and time are spent in treating dental caries. Hence, the prevention and control of dental caries is the main aim of public health, eventually the ultimate objective of public health is the elimination of the disease itself. Recently, dental caries vaccines have been developed for the prevention of dental caries. These dental caries vaccines are still in the early stages.

  9. PRIMARY CARIES: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary caries is an initial lesions produced by direct extension from an external surface. Dental caries is called as tooth decay or a cavity is a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid which than dematerializes the hard tooth structure like enamel, dentin and cementum. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries by acid production. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment and prevention of it. A review of some patents on dental caries is also provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.

  10. Exploration of a Chemo-Mechanical Technique for the Isolation of Nanofibrillated Cellulosic Fiber from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch as a Reinforcing Agent in Composites Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireana Yusra A. Fatah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of sulphuric acid hydrolysis and high-pressure homogenization as an effective chemo-mechanical process for the isolation of quality nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC. The cellulosic fiber was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB using acid hydrolysis methods and, subsequently, homogenized using a high-pressure homogenizer to produce NFC. The structural analysis and the crystallinity of the raw fiber and extracted cellulose were carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The morphology and thermal stability were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and thermogravimetric (TGA analyses, respectively. The FTIR results showed that lignin and hemicellulose were removed effectively from the extracted cellulose nanofibrils. XRD analysis revealed that the percentage of crystallinity was increased from raw EFB to microfibrillated cellulose (MFC, but the decrease for NFC might due to a break down the hydrogen bond. The size of the NFC was determined within the 5 to 10 nm. The TGA analysis showed that the isolated NFC had high thermal stability. The finding of present study reveals that combination of sulphuric acid hydrolysis and high-pressure homogenization could be an effective chemo-mechanical process to isolate cellulose nanofibers from cellulosic plant fiber for reinforced composite materials.

  11. Cavity lining after excavating caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Göstemeyer, Gerd; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: After removal of dentin caries lesions, cavity lining has been advocated. Non-clinical data support this approach, but clinical data are sparse and ambiguous. We aimed at evaluating the benefits and harms of cavity lining using meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis. DATA: We...... included randomized clinical trials comparing restorations without versus with cavity lining for treating primary caries lesions. Only trials reporting failure (defined as need to re-retreat) after ≥1 year follow-up were included. Trial selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were conducted....... STUDY SELECTION: From 128 studies, three randomized trials (89/130 patients or teeth), all treating primary teeth, were included. The trials had high risk of bias. All trials compared no lining versus calcium hydroxide lining after selective caries removal followed by adhesive restoration. Follow...

  12. Chemomechanical Origin of Hydrogen Trapping at Grain Boundaries in fcc Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Marchand, Daniel; McDowell, David L; Zhu, Ting; Song, Jun

    2016-02-19

    Hydrogen embrittlement of metals is widely observed, but its atomistic origins remain little understood and much debated. Combining a unique identification of interstitial sites through polyhedral tessellation and first-principles calculations, we study hydrogen adsorption at grain boundaries in a variety of face-centered cubic metals of Ni, Cu, γ-Fe, and Pd. We discover the chemomechanical origin of the variation of adsorption energetics for interstitial hydrogen at grain boundaries. A general chemomechanical formula is established to provide accurate assessments of hydrogen trapping and segregation energetics at grain boundaries, and it also offers direct explanations for certain experimental observations. The present study deepens our mechanistic understanding of the role of grain boundaries in hydrogen embrittlement and points to a viable path towards predictive microstructure engineering against hydrogen embrittlement in structural metals.

  13. Caries risk assessment models in caries prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Zukanović

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this research was to assess the efficiency of different multifactor models in caries prediction. Material and methods. Data from the questionnaire and objective examination of 109 examinees was entered into the Cariogram, Previser and Caries-Risk Assessment Tool (CAT multifactor risk assessment models. Caries risk was assessed with the help of all three models for each patient, classifying them as low, medium or high-risk patients. The development of new caries lesions over a period of three years [Decay Missing Filled Tooth (DMFT increment = difference between Decay Missing Filled Tooth Surface (DMFTS index at baseline and follow up], provided for examination of the predictive capacity concerning different multifactor models. Results. The data gathered showed that different multifactor risk assessment models give significantly different results (Friedman test: Chi square = 100.073, p=0.000. Cariogram is the model which identified the majority of examinees as medium risk patients (70%. The other two models were more radical in risk assessment, giving more unfavorable risk –profiles for patients. In only 12% of the patients did the three multifactor models assess the risk in the same way. Previser and CAT gave the same results in 63% of cases – the Wilcoxon test showed that there is no statistically significant difference in caries risk assessment between these two models (Z = -1.805, p=0.071. Conclusions. Evaluation of three different multifactor caries risk assessment models (Cariogram, PreViser and CAT showed that only the Cariogram can successfully predict new caries development in 12-year-old Bosnian children.

  14. Chemo-mechanical modeling of tumor growth in elastic epithelial tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratsun, Dmitry A.; Zakharov, Andrey P.; Pismen, Len

    2016-08-01

    We propose a multiscale chemo-mechanical model of the cancer tumor development in the epithelial tissue. The epithelium is represented by an elastic 2D array of polygonal cells with its own gene regulation dynamics. The model allows the simulation of the evolution of multiple cells interacting via the chemical signaling or mechanically induced strain. The algorithm includes the division and intercalation of cells as well as the transformation of normal cells into a cancerous state triggered by a local failure of the spatial synchronization of the cellular rhythms driven by transcription/translation processes. Both deterministic and stochastic descriptions of the system are given for chemical signaling. The transformation of cells means the modification of their respective parameters responsible for chemo-mechanical interactions. The simulations reproduce a distinct behavior of invasive and localized carcinoma. Generally, the model is designed in such a way that it can be readily modified to take account of any newly understood gene regulation processes and feedback mechanisms affecting chemo-mechanical properties of cells.

  15. The caries balance: the basis for caries management by risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, John D B

    2004-01-01

    Dental caries progression or reversal depends upon the balance between demineralization and remineralization. The 'Caries Balance' is determined by the relative weight of the sums of pathological factors and protective factors. Minimally invasive dentistry aims at the least possible removal of enamel or dentin, including reducing pathological factors and enhancing remineralization to avoid any removal of hard tissues. A structured caries risk assessment should be carried out based upon the concept of the caries balance. Following the risk assessment a treatment plan is devised which leads to the control of dental caries for the patient. The balance between pathological and preventive factors can be swung in the direction of caries intervention and prevention by the active role of the dentist and his/her auxiliary staff. Much is now understood about the mechanism of dental caries. We have known for a long time that demineralization of enamel, dentin or cementum is caused by organic acids that are generated by so-called acidogenic bacteria in the plaque when these bacteria feed upon fermentable carbohydrates (Silverstone, 1973; Featherstone, 2000; Loesche, 1986). The natural repair process is remineralization, which occurs when the pH rises again and calcium and phosphate from saliva together with fluoride enter the subsurface region of the lesion and form a new veneer on the existing crystal remnants in the lesion (Ten Cate and Featherstone, 1991). This veneer is less soluble than the original mineral and resists further acid attacks. The key to improved dental health for all is now for the dental profession to embrace this knowledge and put it into practice in the real world, to inhibit caries formation and progression, and to enhance the natural repair process.

  16. Caries og drikkevandets kvalitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Bardow, Allan; Bruvo, Maja;

    2011-01-01

    Drikkevandskvaliteten har stor betydning for forekomsten af caries blandt 15 årige skolebørn, også selv om de bruger fluoridholdigt tandpasta. Ud over den kendte effekt af fluorid har vi vist, at calcium også har en væsentlig betydning. Begge ioner forebygger caries. Denne viden har væsentlig...

  17. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  18. A comparative clinical study on the Carisolv caries removal method%Carisolv去腐方法的临床对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Afrodite Kakaboura; Costas Masouras; Olga Staikou; George Vougiouklakis; 陈小贤

    2004-01-01

    目的Carisolv是一种比较新的化学机械去腐方法.本研究的目的是比较Carisolv和传统的车针技术.材料和方法45名志愿者参加本实验,年龄18~55岁,每名志愿者有2个同颌同名的原发近中咬合面或远中咬合面牙冠龋洞,龋坏程度类似.由两名经校准的操作者进行所有的治疗.一名操作者在一次就诊时同时治疗2个龋损(一个用Carisolv,另外一个用车针去腐).在充填完成后,记录每名患者对每种去腐技术的感受.每个病例的操作者记录以下几项:在用Carisolv之外是否需辅助使用车针、去腐所需时间、麻醉的需要及牙龈对Carisolv凝胶的反应.结果患者反馈,和车针比较Carisolv治疗更舒适(82%);更倾向于使用Carisolv的占88%.40%用车针治疗的患者需要麻醉,而Carisolv仅8%.为完全去腐,在用Carisolv去腐的病损中10%需要辅助使用车针.Cari-solv不会引起牙龈反应.Carisolv比车针去腐时间明显长,分别是12.2±4.1分钟与6.8±2.8分钟.结论Carisolv技术是:(a)可被大多数患者所接受;(b)能有效去腐;(c)对牙科医生来讲更耗时;(d)对麻醉的需要较少.

  19. Xilitol and dental caries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Marten Titus

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries is a widespread multifactoral disease. The main sympthons are minaral loss from tooth enemal and dentine, eventually leading to total destruction of the teeth, pain, impairment of mastication and problems with facial esthetics. ... Zie: Summary

  20. Efficacy of Two Caries Detector Dyes in the Diagnosis of Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Etemad-Moghadam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of two caries detector dyes in the diagnosis of dental caries.Materials and Methods: Twenty extracted human posterior teeth without pulpal exposure were sectioned mesiodistally through the center of the lesions using a water-cooled disk.The tooth halves were randomly divided into two groups and treated with Caries Detector (CD and Caries Check (CC detector dyes. Access cavities were prepared followed by caries removal and dye application. All cavities were arbitrarily divided into two right and left sections and excavation of the stained areas was performed on the left parts, while the right sections remained untouched. Bacterial penetration into dentinal tubules was evaluated using Gram-stained decalcified sections under light microscopy. Sensitivity and specificity of both dyes were calculated.Results: The sensitivity of CD and CC were 74% and 71%,respectively. The specificity obtained for both dyes was 100%.Conclusion: Considering the low sensitivity of the dyes evaluated in the present study, it seems that they may not be reliable when used as the sole diagnostic technique for detection of carious lesions in posterior teeth.

  1. Genetics and caries: prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rezende Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries remains the most prevalent non-contagious infectious disease in humans. It is clear that the current approaches to decrease the prevalence of caries in human populations, including water fluoridation and school-based programs, are not enough to protect everyone. The scientific community has suggested the need for innovative work in a number of areas in cariology, encompassing disease etiology, epidemiology, definition, prevention, and treatment. We have pioneered the work on genetic studies to identify genes and genetic markers of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic value. This paper summarizes a presentation that elaborated on these initial findings.

  2. A clinical study on relationship of dental caries and removable partial denture of the aged patients%老年患者基牙龋病与可摘局部义齿关系的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李行懿; 陈娜; 刘聪

    2011-01-01

    Objective To characterize (patterns of caries after placing RPD. Methods A total of 95 patients were included in this study. A clinical examination of caries lesions on abutment teeth was conducted by me. Results The incidence of caries on abutment teeth and on nonabutment teeth were respectively 23. 67% and 3. 45%. ( P < 0.05). 27.49% of abutment teeth had new caries on the posterior oral cavity, onlyl3.89% of that on the anterior oral cavity. (P<0. 05). The incidence of caries on proximal surfaces adjacent to dentures was 25. 72% , under denture rests was 9. 33% , on root surfaces was 3. 02% , on tooth surfaces in contact with denture clasps was 1. 36% . The incidence of caries on abutment teeth of three groups classified by the oral hygienic habit were respectively 8. 91% 、24. 09%、44. 29% (P<0.01). Conclusion RPD wearers had more caries incidence. Abutment teeth had a higher of incidence of caries than nonabutment teeth. On the posterior oral cavity, abutment teeth had more caries incidence. Proximal surfaces adjacent to dentures abutment teeth had more caries incidence. Proximal surfaces adjacent to dentures were at highest risk of being decayed, surfaces under denture rests were next. The incidence of root caries on abutment teeth significantly increased. The incidence of caries on tooth surfaces in contact with denture clasps was not high.%目的 观察老年患者戴用可摘局部义齿2-3年后的龋病发病情况及其临床特点.方法 对95例戴用可摘局部义齿2-3年患者的基牙和非基牙的龋齿发病情况进行检查.结果 基牙龋齿发病率23.67%高于非基牙3.45%(P<0.05).口腔后部基牙龋齿发病率27.49%高于口腔前部基牙13.89%(P<0.05).基牙邻接面龋发病率25.72%,支托窝龋发病率9.33%,根面龋发病率3.02%,卡环龋发病率1.36%.口腔卫生习惯优、良、差三级的基牙龋齿发病率分别为8.91%、24.09%、44.29%,差异有显著性(P<0.01).结论 患者戴用可摘局部义齿后易患龋

  3. Caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejàre, I; Axelsson, S; Dahlén, G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria. ...

  4. Oral diagnosis and treatment planning: part 5. Preventive and treatment planning for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, K; Smales, R

    2012-09-01

    The practice of operative dentistry continues to evolve, to reflect the many changes occurring in society and in dental diseases and conditions. However, the belief that all questionable and early carious lesions should be restored still persists. This belief is largely based upon the concept that the removal of all carious tissue followed by meticulous restoration of the tooth is the treatment of choice for dental caries. Yet restorations are not permanent and do not cure caries, as the causes remain. On the other hand, preventive measures can remove or partially remove the causes, thereby reducing the risks for future caries recurrence at the same site or elsewhere in the mouth.

  5. Chemomechanical Polymers as Sensors and Actuators for Biological and Medicinal Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Strongin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the chemical environment can trigger large motions in chemomechanical polymers. The unique feature of such intelligent materials, mostly in the form of hydrogels, is therefore, that they serve as sensors and actuators at the same time, and do not require any measuring devices, transducers or power supplies. Until recently the most often used of these materials responded to changes in pH. Chemists are now increasingly using supramolecular recognition sites in materials, which are covalently bound to the polymer backbone. This allows one to use a nearly unlimited variety of guest (or effector compounds in the environment for a selective response by automatically triggered size changes. This is illustrated with non-covalent interactions of effectors comprising of metal ions, isomeric organic compounds, including enantiomers, nucleotides, aminoacids, and peptides. Two different effector molecules can induce motions as functions of their concentration, thus representing a logical AND gate. This concept is particularly fruitful with effector compounds such as peptides, which only trigger size changes if, e.g. copper ions are present in the surroundings. Another principle relies on the fast formation of covalent bonds between an effector and the chemomechanical polymer. The most promising application is the selective interaction of covalently fixed boronic acid residues with glucose, which renders itself not only for sensing, but eventually also for delivery of drugs such as insulin. The speed of the responses can significantly increase by increasing the surface to volume ratio of the polymer particles. Of particular interest is the sensitivity increase which can be reached by downsizing the particle volume.

  6. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF DENTAL CARIES: A CHANGE IN THERAPEUTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is an infectious, communicable disease, which causes destruction of teeth by acid-forming bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries progression or reversal is determined by the balance between protective and pathological factors in the mouth. There have been revolutions in every field and dentistry is no exception to it, these changes have led to a change in concept from the conventional surgical approach of removing dental decay and cutting of tooth structure to the medical model which deals with interception of disease at different stages and possible reversal of the disease process. The key to medical paradigm is determination of caries risk in an individual and effective early detection of initial carious lesions. There are various equipments available in market which uses different principles for diagnosing caries susceptibility in an individual. In the years of thorough research different agents have been investigated for their role in caries prevention and reversal. There is a separate treatment plan for managing patients falling in different risk category. This article outlines the need for the medical management of dental caries and how it can be a viable option in dental decay management.

  7. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly.

  8. Nature vs. nurture in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, I D

    1994-10-01

    Why are some people more resistant to dental caries than others? Certainly diet plays a part, but are there hereditary factors that affect caries development? This report explores genetic components that appear related to caries resistance and susceptibility.

  9. Application of Silicon Selective Epitaxial Growth and Chemo-Mechanical Polishing to Bipolar and Soi Mosfet Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cuong Tan

    1994-01-01

    Polished Epitaxy, or the combination of silicon Selective Epitaxial Growth and Chemo-Mechanical Polishing, provides new flexibility in process and device design, including optimized isolation, planar active-area definition, low-capacitance contacts, and SOI thin films. In this work, Polished Epitaxy has been developed with particular effort on overcoming junction leakage problems widely reported in devices fabricated in similar processes. It was found that in addition to careful surface preparation and defect control in the selective epitaxy process, issues such as sidewall orientation, junction passivation, crystal annealing, and surface damage removal were equally important and needed to be addressed. Coupled with the proper processing steps, Polished Epitaxy was able to deliver material of comparable quality to bulk silicon, suitable for device applications. By growing epitaxy laterally over an oxide step followed by polishing, a pedestal structure was created in which a thin film of single-crystal silicon was formed over oxide. Serving as the extrinsic base contact to a T-Pedestal bipolar transistor device, this pedestal helped minimize the parasitic extrinsic-base-collector overlap capacitance. The cut-off frequency (f_ {T}) in a device with a 1.0-mu m wide emitter stripe was found to improve from 17GHz to 22GHz when the contact overlap was reduced from a more conventional, larger size of 1.0 mu m to 0.2 mum. It is expected that the high-frequency performance of this structure can still be improved further in an optimized process with reduced emitter and collector resistances. The same pedestal structure was applied to a Pedestal -SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) MOSFET device concept. At one extreme, a conventional bulk MOSFET structure is obtained when the pedestal is not utilized; quasi-SOI occurs when the drain and part of the channel overlap with the pedestal over buried oxide; at the other extreme, complete-SOI behavior results when source, channel, and drain

  10. Caries preventive efficiency of therapeutic complex accomponying orthodontic treatment of children with initial dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denga A.E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of orthodontic non-removable appliance in orthodontic treatment inter¬feres with the process of teeth mineralization, worsens level of oral cavity hygiene, stimulates development of caries process. The situation is complicated when a patient has an initial tooth decay. The aim of this study was to determine genetic characteristics of children with initial caries and clinical evaluation of effectiveness of the developed caries preventive therapeutic complex accompanying treatment of jaw facial anomalies (JFA. 47 children aged 12-14 with initial tooth decay participated in the examination. Complex diagnostics, including molecular genetic studies was carried out. Therapeutic complex for children, of the main group included remineralizing, adaptogenic, biogenic agents, which increase non-specific resistance, as well as infiltration ICON therapy before fixing braces. Caries preventive complex accompanying JFA treatment in children with primary tooth decay developed with regard to revealed genetic disorders of amelogenesis, 2-nd of phase detoxification, collagen formation, functional responses in the oral cavity, state of hard tissues of teeth and periodontal tissues enabled to preserve existing carious process, normalize periodontal and hygienic indices at all stages of treatment.

  11. Caries diagnosis using laser fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Souza-Campos, Dilma H.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2000-03-01

    Caries prevention is a goal to be achieved by dentist in order to promote health. There are several methods used to detect dental caries each one presenting advantages and disadvantages, especially regarding hidden occlusal caries. The improvement of laser technology has permitted the use of laser fluorescence for early diagnosis of hidden occlusal caries. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the use of 655 nm laser light on the detection of hidden occlusal caries. Forty molar teeth from patients of both sexes which ages ranging from 10 - 18 years old were used on this study. Following manufacture's instructions regarding the use of the equipment, the teeth had their occlusal surface examined with the DIAGNOdent. Twenty six of 40 teeth had hidden occlusal caries detected by the DIAGNOdent. However only 17 of these 26 teeth showed radiographic signs of caries the other 9 teeth showed no radiological signs of the lesion. Radiographic examination was able to identify 34,61% of false negative cases. This means that many caries would be left untreated due to the lack of diagnosis using both visual and radiographic examination. The use of the DIAGNOdent was effective in successfully detecting hidden occlusal caries.

  12. The Marketplace for New Caries Management Products: Dental Caries Detection and Caries Management by Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Berg Joel H

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The number of new technologies emerging each year in the realm of dental caries management is growing at an exponential rate. Examining the patent literature, one can see that this growth rate will likely continue, with the outcome that dentistry will see an expanded growth in managing dental caries by risk assessment with medicinal therapeutic interventions. Restorative dentistry solutions, treating the results of dental caries, will continue to grow, while technologies to identify ...

  13. Prognosis of caries increment with past caries experience variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Palenstein Helderman, W H; van't Hof, M A; van Loveren, C

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed to select past caries experience variables as caries predictors and to compare their prognostic accuracy with the variables used in a method of caries prognosis developed in a Swiss child population. The data used for the analyses originated from an 8-year longitudinal study starting in 1980 on caries of 7.5-year-old Dutch children. Stepwise logistic regression analyses provided predictor variables. The newly introduced variables D23fi, D(123)i and D23pifi were interchangeable and the most powerful caries predictors. For the sake of uniformity and ease of application, D23fi (number of fissures of the permanent first molar with non-cavitated or cavitated caries lesions) was chosen as the first variable in the logistic regression equations. The gain in accuracy of the second and third predictor variables (number of sound primary molars and the number of buccal and lingual smooth surfaces of the permanent first molar with non-cavitated or cavitated caries) in the regression equations was limited. The D1 condition of surfaces could be omitted from the prediction models. The present forced three-predictor-regression equations for 7.5-, 9.5- and 11.5-year-old children were evaluated to assess their prognostic performance by using the area under the ROC curve as a measure of prognostic quality. For the present regression equations, the area under the ROC curve was 81-87%, which was higher compared to the Swiss regression equations for caries prognosis.

  14. Microstructural characterization of the chemomechanical behavior of asphalt in terms of aging and fatigue performance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert Grover

    The study of asphalt chemo-mechanics requires a basic understanding of the physical properties and chemical composition of asphalt and how these properties are linked to changes in performance induced by chemical modifications. This work uniquely implements the framework of chemo-mechanics by investigating two types of chemical modification processes, natural (oxidative aging) and synthetic (chemical doping) as they relate not only to macro-scale properties of asphalt binder but also to the asphalt microstructure and nanorheology. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and the extraction of nano-scale engineering properties, i.e. elastic modulus, relaxation modulus, and surface energy, as a method to predict performance related to the fatigue characteristics of asphalt binders by modeling intrinsic material flaws present amongst phase interfaces. It was revealed that oxidative aging induces substantial microstructural changes in asphalt, including variations in phase structure, phase properties, and phase distribution. It has also been shown that certain asphalt chemical parameters have a consistent and measureable effect on the asphalt microstructure that is observed with AFM. In fact, particular phases that emerged via chemical doping revealed a surprising correlation between oxidative aging and the saturates chemical parameter of asphalt in terms of how they explicitly impact durability and performance of asphalt. By implementing a crack initiation model---which requires measureable microstructural characteristics as an input parameter---it was found that microstructural flaws (depending on the extremity) can have a more profound impact on asphalt performance than the properties of the material located between the flaws. It was also discovered by comparing the findings to performance data in the Strategic Highway Research Program's (SHRP's) Materials Reference Library (MRL), that the crack initiation model

  15. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision-making process for the correct prevention and management of dental caries. Multiple risk factors and indicators have been proposed as targets in the assessment of risk of future disease, varying sometimes based on the age group at which...... for prediction purposes, as measured until now in the literature, is at best questionable in schoolchildren, adolescents and adults. That is not to say these additional factors should not be assessed to help understand the strength of their associations with the disease experience in a particular patient......, and aid in the development of an individualized and targeted preventive and management plan....

  16. One-Pot dry chemo-mechanical deconstruction for bioethanol production from sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambusiti, C; Licari, A; Solhy, A; Aboulkas, A; Cacciaguerra, T; Barakat, A

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was the application of an innovative dry chemo-mechanical pretreatment using different mechanical stresses to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The effect of different milling methods on physicochemical composition, enzymatic hydrolysis, bioethanol production and energy efficiency was also evaluated. SB was pretreated with NaOH and H3PO4 at high materials concentration (5 kg/L). Results indicate that vibratory milling (VBM) was more effective in the reduction of particles size and cellulose crystallinity compared to centrifugal (CM) and ball (BM) milling. NaOH pretreatment coupling to BM and VBM was preferred to enhance glucose yields and bioethanol production, while CM consumed less energy compared to BM and VBM. Moreover, the highest energy efficiency (η=0.116 kg glucose/kWh) was obtained with NaOH-CM. Therefore, the combination of dry NaOH and CM appears the most suitable and interesting pretreatment for the production of bioethanol from SB.

  17. The nonlinear chemo-mechanic coupled dynamics of the F 1 -ATPase molecular motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lizhong; Liu, Fang

    2012-03-01

    The ATP synthase consists of two opposing rotary motors, F0 and F1, coupled to each other. When the F1 motor is not coupled to the F0 motor, it can work in the direction hydrolyzing ATP, as a nanomotor called F1-ATPase. It has been reported that the stiffness of the protein varies nonlinearly with increasing load. The nonlinearity has an important effect on the rotating rate of the F1-ATPase. Here, considering the nonlinearity of the γ shaft stiffness for the F1-ATPase, a nonlinear chemo-mechanical coupled dynamic model of F1 motor is proposed. Nonlinear vibration frequencies of the γ shaft and their changes along with the system parameters are investigated. The nonlinear stochastic response of the elastic γ shaft to thermal excitation is analyzed. The results show that the stiffness nonlinearity of the γ shaft causes an increase of the vibration frequency for the F1 motor, which increases the motor's rotation rate. When the concentration of ATP is relatively high and the load torque is small, the effects of the stiffness nonlinearity on the rotating rates of the F1 motor are obvious and should be considered. These results are useful for improving calculation of the rotating rate for the F1 motor and provide insight about the stochastic wave mechanics of F1-ATPase.

  18. Occlusal Caries: Biological Approach for Its Diagnosis and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, JC; Dige, Irene; Machiulskiene, V;

    2016-01-01

    occlusal caries lesions in the permanent dentition may be treated by non-invasive fissure sealing. By extending the criteria for non-invasive treatments, traditional restoration of occlusal surfaces can be postponed or even avoided, and the dental health in children and adolescents can be improved....... Selective removal (incomplete) to soft dentin in deep carious lesions has greater success rates than stepwise excavation. Selective (complete) removal to firm dentin has a lower success rate due to increased pulp exposure....

  19. Dental caries: Strategies to control this preventable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rugg-Gunn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man’s most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth’s resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: ‘automatic’, ‘home care’ and ‘professional care’: the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Conclusion. Dental caries is preventable – individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this.

  20. Evidence-based prevention, management, and monitoring of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Lois Rigmont; Wilkins, Esther M

    2002-01-01

    Dental caries, not unlike periodontal diseases, is now recognized as an infectious, transmissible, multifactorial disease of bacterial origin. Current evidence-based emphasis is on the need to recognize a carious lesion in its earliest stage before demineralization has produced a cavitated lesion that requires restoration by a dentist. As a result of current understanding of caries control, the dental hygienist's role as a prevention specialist is to determine the dental caries risk factors for patients of all ages and to introduce remineralization strategies into the patient's dental hygiene care plan. Conservative strategies of a concentrated program include initial infection control with a chlorhexidine rinse; extra daily fluoride exposures; placement of pit and fissure sealants where indicated; control of sucrose exposures; use of sugar substitutes, particularly xylitol-containing sugar-free chewing gum; and an emphasis on a daily bacterial plaque removal routine. Evidence supports the management and monitoring of dental caries. Caries risk level must be reevaluated at each maintenance appointment. Appropriate in-office strategies to preserve tooth structure should be carried out and followed by applicable home regimens that are based on need, not age.

  1. Spectroscopic Detection of Caries Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Ruohonen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A caries lesion causes changes in the optical properties of the affected tissue. Currently a caries lesion can be detected only at a relatively late stage of development. Caries diagnosis also suffers from high interobserver variance. Methods. This is a pilot study to test the suitability of an optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for caries diagnosis. Reflectance visible/near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/NIRS was used to measure caries lesions and healthy enamel on extracted human teeth. The results were analysed with a computational algorithm in order to find a rule-based classification method to detect caries lesions. Results. The classification indicated that the measured points of enamel could be assigned to one of three classes: healthy enamel, a caries lesion, and stained healthy enamel. The features that enabled this were consistent with theory. Conclusions. It seems that spectroscopic measurements can help to reduce false positives at in vitro setting. However, further research is required to evaluate the strength of the evidence for the method’s performance.

  2. Incidence of dental caries in chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Surrinder

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Three hundred patients of chronic urticaria were screened for dental affections. Sixty two (20.66% patients were detected to have dental caries. Among the control group which com-prised of 100 patients, 20% had dental caries. There was thus no increased incidence of dental caries among patients with urticaria. Only 2 patients had remission of urticaria following treat-ment of caries. Dental caries therefore is probably not a cause of chronic urticaria.

  3. Prediction of dental caries activity

    OpenAIRE

    Crossner, Claes-Göran

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis was to find a test for prediction of caries activity which would be useful in routine clinical work.Correlations between oral health, general health, food habits and socioeconomic conditions were investigated in 4- and 8-year-old children. It was found that the salivary secretion rate and the prevalence of oral lactobacilli were factors which might be useful in caries prediction.In 5- and 8-year-old children negative correlations between caries frequency and secr...

  4. INCIDENCE OF SECONDARY ROOT CARIES LESIONS IN PATIENTS REFERRED FOR TREATMENT IN THE FACULTY OF DENTAL MEDICINE – SOFIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Marinova-Takorova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the presented study was to determine the incidence of secondary root caries lesions in patients referred for treatment in the Faculty of Dental Medicine – Sofia. Material/Methods: The subjects who took part in the study were patients referred for treatment of caries lesions in the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Sofia. They were interviewed for smoking, presence of systematic diseases and medications and debris and plaque were removed from natural teeth prior to examination. Dental examination was carried out with a dental mirror and a probe. Decayed, missed and filled teeth (DMFT were recorded. Root caries lesions, restorations of those lesions and secondary caries lesions were recorded separately. Results: A total number of 603 patients were examined. The frequency of appearance of root caries in the investigated population was 33.5% (202 patients. The whole number of root caries lesions was 857. Three hundred forty three (41.4% of those lesions were restored. Presence of secondary caries lesions was observed in 138 cases (39.1%. Conclusions: Based on the data obtained from the presented study it may be concluded that most of the root caries lesions remain untreated (58.8%. Secondary carious was diagnosed in 39.1% of the root caries restorations. The patients with secondary caries lesions presented with higher incidence of concomitant diseases and lower incidence of smoking.

  5. Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Daniel; Xie, John; Shafi, Sahar; Featherstone, John D. B.; Breunig, Thomas; Le, Charles Q.

    2002-06-01

    New diagnostic tools are needed for the characterization of dental caries in the early stages of development. If carious lesions are detected early enough, they can be arrested without the need for surgical intervention. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used for the imaging of early caries lesions and for the monitoring of lesion progression over time. High-resolution polarization resolved images were acquired of natural caries lesions and simulated caries lesions of varying severity created over time periods of 1 to 14 days. Linearly polarized light was incident on the tooth samples and the reflected intensity in both orthogonal polarizations was measured. PS-OCT was invaluable for removing the confounding influence of surface reflections and native birefringence and for resolving the surface structure of caries lesions. This study demonstrated that PS-OCT is well suited for the resolution of interproximal and occlusal caries, early root caries, and secondary caries around composite fillings. Longitudinal measurements of lesion progression established a strong correlation (p<0.001) between the reflected light from the lesion area and the square root of time indicating that PS-OCT is well suited for monitoring changes in enamel mineralization over time.

  6. Dental caries in HIV-seropositive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, J A; Mulligan, R; Nelson, E; Brunelle, J; Alves, M E A F; Navazesh, M; Greenspan, D

    2004-11-01

    Reports that compare dental caries indices in HIV-seropositive (HIV+) subjects with HIV-seronegative (HIV-) subjects are rare. The objective of this study was to determine if there was an association between HIV infection and dental caries among women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Subjects included 538 HIV+ and 141 HIV- women at baseline and 242 HIV+ and 66 HIV- women at year 5. Caries indices included DMFS and DFS (coronal caries) and DFSrc (root caries). Cross-sectional analysis of coronal caries data revealed a 1.2-fold-higher caries prevalence among HIV+ women compared with HIV- women. Longitudinally, DMFS increased with increasing age and lower average stimulated salivary volume. Root caries results were not significant except for an overall increased DFSrc associated with smoking. Anti-retroviral therapy was not identified as a risk factor for dental caries.

  7. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

    OpenAIRE

    LaMantia, Nicole R.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluo...

  8. Efficacy of lasers as an adjunct to chemo-mechanical disinfection of infected root canals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, H; Larsson, K M; Wolf, E

    2013-04-01

    The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of various types of lasers used as an adjunct to chemo-mechanical disinfection of infected root canals with the outcome measures 'normal periapical condition' or 'reduction of microbial load'. PubMed, CENTRAL and ISI Web of Knowledge literature searches with specific indexing terms and a subsequent hand search were made with stated limits and criteria. Relevant publications were retrieved, followed by interpretation. The quality of each included publication was assessed as high, moderate or low. The initial search process yielded 234 publications. All abstracts of these publications were read, and the reference lists of relevant publications were hand-searched. Ten articles were read in full text and interpreted according to a data extraction form. Five were included in the systematic review and were assessed. A meta-analysis was impossible to perform because the included studies were heterogeneous with regard to study design, treatment and outcome measures. Positive effects were reported; however, no concluding evidence grade could be made because each included study was judged to have low quality, primarily due to lack of a power analysis, blinding and reproducibility. The evidence grade for whether lasers can be recommended as an adjunct to chemo-mechanical disinfection of infected root canals was insufficient. This does not necessarily imply that laser should not be used as an adjunct to root canal treatment but instead underscores the need for future high-quality studies.

  9. Caries-related factors and bacterial composition of supragingival plaques in caries free and caries active Algerian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Hoceini

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: This study confirms the association of some aciduric bacteria with caries formation, and a direct association of sugar intake and cultural level with dental caries. Furthermore, oral hygiene practices minimize the prevalence of tooth decay.

  10. Nutrition and Experimental Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    田村,俊吉; タムラ, シュンキチ; Shunkichi, TAMURA

    1983-01-01

    Nutrition is an effective factor for the inhibition of the development of dental caries. The constitution of diet has a strong bearing on the development of dental caries. However the theoretical background regarding the development of dental caries has not been sastifactorily established. Experimentally, we have clarified the relation of nutrition and dental caries in rats. Experimental animals used in this study were Wistar strain Albino rats (closed colony, Tamura, 1950). Young rats of 21 ...

  11. Caries og de nye nationale indkaldeintervaller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Bruun, Gitte; Bakhshandeh, Azam

    2015-01-01

    obligatorisk at gøre under de nye retningslinjer. Det gennemgås, hvilke behandlinger der er relevante for patienten i forhold til de tre cariesdiagnoser: Caries dentalis progressiva superficialis (CS), Caries dentalis progressiva media (CM) og Caries dentalis progressiva profunda (CP). Diagnoserne angiver...

  12. Validation of Visual Caries Activity Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedes, R S; Piovesan, C; Ardenghi, T M

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive and construct validity of a caries activity assessment system associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in primary teeth. A total of 469 children were reexamined: participants of a caries survey performed 2 yr before (follow-up ra...

  13. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen;

    2012-01-01

    Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To the authors' knowledge, no one has quantified the prevalence of QOC, so this quantification was the authors' objective in conducting this study...

  14. Caries risk assessment in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    displayed a high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present summary of literature, it may be concluded: (1) a caries risk assessment should be carried out at the child's first dental visit and reassessments should be done during childhood (D); (2) multivariate models display a better accuracy than......PURPOSE: To summarise the findings of recent systematic reviews (SR) covering caries risk assessment in children, updated with recent primary studies. METHODS: A search for relevant papers published 2012-2014 was conducted in electronic databases. The systematic reviews were quality assessed...... the use of single predictors and this is especially true for preschool children (C); (3) there is no clearly superior method to predict future caries and no evidence to support the use of one model, program, or technology before the other (C); and (4) the risk category should be linked to appropriate...

  15. A novel caries risk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Paul C; Denny, Patricia A; Takashima, Jona; Galligan, Joyce; Navazesh, Mahvash

    2007-03-01

    A diagnostic test is particularly beneficial if it reveals the level of susceptibility prior to onset of a disease process. In the case of childhood caries, such a diagnostic test affords the opportunity for preventive measures to be implemented before caries begins. Salivary glycoproteins contain a wealth of individually specific oligosaccharide motifs. Depending on microbial compatibilities and individual genotypes, the glycoproteins that form the pellicle coating of teeth may provide attachment sites that foster colonization leading to cariogenesis. Alternatively, certain oligosaccharides, when present in nonpellicle glycoproteins, can interact with planktonic bacteria and lower their ability to interact with the tooth surface. We have found that in young adults the ratio of the two classes of oligosaccharides present in resting saliva exhibits a strong correlation with caries history (DFT: number of decayed and filled teeth). Oligosaccharide moieties associated with the test are quantitated in dried spots of whole saliva on nitrocellulose using commercially available biotinylated lectins with a variety of reporters. A combination of multiple linear regression and neural net analyses were used to develop the algorithms that describe the relationship between oligosaccharide patterns and DFT. During test development several different groups of adults and children have been studied. The correlation algorithms routinely exceed an R(2) (coefficient of determination) of 0.96. When the test is applied to the saliva of children, it yields a projection of their future caries history. Modifying the test result metric to reflect the groups of teeth with caries in young adults, the test identifies those teeth at risk for future caries in children. This test outcome can then be accompanied with suggested specific preventive measures for each tooth group-based risk level.

  16. Traffic of interacting ribosomes on mRNA during protein synthesis: effects of chemo-mechanics of individual ribosomes

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, A; Basu, Aakash; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2006-01-01

    Many {\\it ribosomes} simultaneously move on the same messenger RNA (mRNA), each synthesizing a protein. In contrast to the earlier models, here {\\it we develope a ``unified'' theoretical model} that not only incorporates the {\\it mutual exclusions} of the interacting ribosomes, but also describes explicitly the mechano-chemistry of each of these individual cyclic machines during protein synthesis. Using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, we analyze the rates of protein synthesis and the spatio-temporal oraganization of the ribosomes in this model. We also predict how these properties would change with the changes in the rates of the various chemo-mechanical processes in each ribosome. Finally, we illustrate the power of this model by making experimentally testable predictions on the rates of protein synthesis and the density profiles of the ribosomes on some mRNAs in {\\it E-coli}.

  17. Adjunct methods for caries detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of adjunct methods used to detect and quantify dental caries. Study design. A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Abstracts and full text articles were assessed i...

  18. Fluoride varnishes and enamel caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, Hugo de

    1987-01-01

    Topical fluoride applications have the aim of increasing the fluoride uptake in enamel and consequently reducing caries. In the early ‘60s fluoride varnishes were introduced because they had a long contact period with the enamel which resulted in a higher fluoride uptake than from other topical appl

  19. Salivary Microbiome Diversity in Caries-Free and Caries-Affected Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries (tooth decay is an infectious disease. Its etiology is not fully understood from the microbiological perspective. This study characterizes the diversity of microbial flora in the saliva of children with and without dental caries. Children (3–4 years old with caries (n = 20 and without caries (n = 20 were recruited. Unstimulated saliva (2 mL was collected from each child and the total microbial genomic DNA was extracted. DNA amplicons of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were generated and subjected to Illumina Miseq sequencing. A total of 17 phyla, 26 classes, 40 orders, 80 families, 151 genera, and 310 bacterial species were represented in the saliva samples. There was no significant difference in the microbiome diversity between caries-affected and caries-free children (p > 0.05. The relative abundance of several species (Rothia dentocariosa, Actinomyces graevenitzii, Veillonella sp. oral taxon 780, Prevotella salivae, and Streptococcus mutans was higher in the caries-affected group than in the caries-free group (p < 0.05. Fusobacterium periodonticum and Leptotrichia sp. oral clone FP036 were more abundant in caries-free children than in caries-affected children (p < 0.05. The salivary microbiome profiles of caries-free and caries-affected children were similar. Salivary counts of certain bacteria such as R. dentocariosa and F. periodonticum may be useful for screening/assessing children’s risk of developing caries.

  20. Salivary Microbiome Diversity in Caries-Free and Caries-Affected Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Gao, Xiaoli; Jin, Lijian; Lo, Edward C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is an infectious disease. Its etiology is not fully understood from the microbiological perspective. This study characterizes the diversity of microbial flora in the saliva of children with and without dental caries. Children (3–4 years old) with caries (n = 20) and without caries (n = 20) were recruited. Unstimulated saliva (2 mL) was collected from each child and the total microbial genomic DNA was extracted. DNA amplicons of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were generated and subjected to Illumina Miseq sequencing. A total of 17 phyla, 26 classes, 40 orders, 80 families, 151 genera, and 310 bacterial species were represented in the saliva samples. There was no significant difference in the microbiome diversity between caries-affected and caries-free children (p > 0.05). The relative abundance of several species (Rothia dentocariosa, Actinomyces graevenitzii, Veillonella sp. oral taxon 780, Prevotella salivae, and Streptococcus mutans) was higher in the caries-affected group than in the caries-free group (p < 0.05). Fusobacterium periodonticum and Leptotrichia sp. oral clone FP036 were more abundant in caries-free children than in caries-affected children (p < 0.05). The salivary microbiome profiles of caries-free and caries-affected children were similar. Salivary counts of certain bacteria such as R. dentocariosa and F. periodonticum may be useful for screening/assessing children’s risk of developing caries. PMID:27898021

  1. A novel saliva test for caries risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Paul C; Denny, Patricia A; Takashima, Jona; Si, Yan; Navazesh, Mahvash; Galligan, Joyce M

    2006-04-01

    A new saliva test for caries risk assessment introduced in this study integrates a variety of host factors to predict for children, individual risk levels that are tooth-group specific. These various host factors correlate with caries history, DFT (decayed and filled teeth) or DFS (decayed and filled surfaces) in young adults. The test is based on the pattern of genetically determined oligosaccharides present on salivary glycoproteins. The mechanism behind the test is believed to be centered on the specific oligosaccharides that either facilitate bacterial attachment and colonization at the surface of teeth or protect against colonization by promoting agglutination and removal of free bacteria. It is the ratio of the two classes of oligosaccharides that is very strongly correlated with the numerical range of DFS or DFT observed in a young adult population.

  2. Diagnosis of Dentin Caries – Ultraviolet Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunov Ts.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The technology advance in recent years determines the need of construction of modern appliances for early diagnosis of dental caries, which are categorized by great precision, non-invasiveness, easy usage and wide availability. Such non-invasive and accurate tool for diagnostics of caries is Caries Detector (LED, Bulgarian product by “Optica Laser”. The detector emits a specific wavelength of near ultraviolet light, which causes fluorescence to porphyrins - metabolic products of the life cycle of caries-inducing bacteria. The purpose of the study is piloting a new diagnostic tool for detection and monitoring of caries excavation based on fluorescence - LED UV caries detector of company “Optica laser”. Subjected to examination by caries indicator dye and UV caries detector were sixty permanent teeth with deep dentine caries. Two methods were used to assess the dentin caries - UV fluorescence detector of “Optica Laser” and staining with caries indicator - dye (Sable ™ Seek®. It was found that among all sixty teeth, the fields, closed by margins of carious process overlap. Fifty-four of tested teeth has shown bigger field of images with staining method and six - smaller in comparison to the fluorescent method. Ultraviolet fLuorescence caries detector of “Optica Laser” company is affordable and easy applicable method for controlled excavation of dentine caries. The detector can be used in daily dental practice equally with other methods. The unit has a number of advantages - non-invasiveness, lack of interaction with tooth structures, speed, reliability, efficiency, predictability and repeatability of results.

  3. In vitro study of caries detection through sound dentin using a laser fluorescence device, DIAGNOdent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Yukiteru; Shimizu, Ayako; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Hayashi, Mikako; Takeshige, Fumio; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of proximal surface caries detection using a laser fluorescence device, DIAGNOdent, through the sound dentin surrounding the cavity wall after removal of occlusal caries. Extracted sound human molars were ground to prepare horizontal and vertical dentin plates 1.4 mm thick. Extracted carious human molars were reduced in thickness horizontally from the occlusal surfaces until exposure of the dentin caries. The dentin plate was placed on the carious tooth. Before and after gradual thinning of the dentin plate from approximately 1.4 mm to 0.2 mm thick, the dentin caries was measured 10 times through the plate by the laser fluorescence device with a cone-shaped tip or a broad tip. When the dentin plate was reduced to less than 0.3 mm thick (using a combination of a horizontal plate and cone-shaped tip) or 0.2 mm thick (using the other combinations), the values measured with the laser fluorescence device were significantly larger than the values before reducing the thickness of the dentin. Based on these results, the device offers potential use as one of the screening tests for proximal surface caries detection through sound dentin when the sound dentin between tip and caries is thin.

  4. DENTAL CARIES LEADING TO PREMATURE LOSS OF BABY TEETH- IMPLICATIONS AND MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Bahuguna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a destructive process causing decalcification of the tooth enamel and leading to continued destruction of enamel and dentin, and cavitation of the tooth. Dental caries can occur soon after eruption of the primary teeth, starting at 6 months of age. Primary teeth are present for a reason. One key reason is that they save space for the permanent tooth, which will erupt into its position when the deciduous / primary tooth is lost normally. If a primary tooth (baby or milk tooth, has to be removed early due to say, an abscess which is mostly a result of dental caries, a space maintainer may be recommended to save the space. If the space is not preserved, the other teeth may drift causing difficult to treat crowding and orthodontic problems. These "spacers" are placed temporarily, and are not permanent. They are removed when the new tooth (usually a bicuspid erupts or the abutment teeth get loose.

  5. DENTINE CARIES: ACID-TOLERANT MICROORGANISMS AND ASPECTS ON COLLAGEN DEGRADATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Anders Hedenbjörk

    2014-01-01

    . Key findings: Each investigated lesion harbored a unique microbiota in terms of both species composition and numbers of microorganisms. This indicates that various combinations of aciduric microorganisms can colonize, survive in and probably also propagate dentine carious lesions. We also found that solid pH-selective agars can be used successfully to select acid-tolerant microorganisms in caries lesions. This would preserve their phenotypic traits for further study. In Paper III, the relation between salivary levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), salivary levels of tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP-1), and the presence of manifest caries lesions in a large number of subjects was investigated. Saliva samples were collected and analyzed for concentrations of MMP-8, TIMP-1 and total protein using immunofluorometric assays, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays and Bradford assays, respectively. Key findings: Subjects with manifest caries lesions had significantly elevated levels of salivary MMP-8 compared to subjects without caries lesions. TIMP-1 was not significant in any case. In Paper IV, a new method for generating bioactive demineralized dentine matrix substrate (DDM) was developed using a dialysis system and two different demineralization approaches (acetic acid or EDTA). The generated DDM was subsequently analyzed for the presence of type 1 collagen, active MMP-8 and hydroxyproline (HYP) levels using SDS-PAGE, ELISA or immunofluorescence assay. Key findings: Both demineralization methods produced a substrate rich in collagen and with preserved MMP-8 activity. This report presents new knowledge on the composition of the acid tolerant dentine caries microbiota from three levels in dentine carious lesions and on the efficacy of operative caries removal on the numbers of viable microorganisms in the caries free cavity using two operative methods. Moreover, the basic mechanisms behind collagen degradation in the dentine caries process are studied from both a

  6. Visual Inspection for Caries Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, T; Piovesan, C; Braga, M M

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to perform a systematic review including a meta-analysis to evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting carious lesions and to identify possible sources of heterogeneity among the studies included. Two reviewers searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and other sources through...... July 2014 to identify published and nonpublished studies in English. Studies of visual inspection were included that 1) assessed accuracy of the method in detecting caries lesions; 2) were performed on occlusal, proximal, or free smooth surfaces in primary or permanent teeth; 3) had a reference...... (from 5,808 articles initially identified) and 1 abstract (from 168) met the inclusion criteria. In general, the analysis demonstrated that the visual method had good accuracy for detecting caries lesions. Although laboratory and clinical studies have presented similar accuracy, clinically obtained...

  7. Understanding Caries From the Oral Microbiome Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Anne C R; Kressirer, Christine A; Faller, Lina L

    2016-07-01

    Dental caries is a major disease of the oral cavity with profound clinical significance. Caries results from a transition of a healthy oral microbiome into an acidogenic community of decreased microbial diversity in response to excessive dietary sugar intake. Microbiological cultivation, molecular identification, gene expression and metabolomic analyses show the importance of the entire microbial community in understanding the role of the microbiome in the pathology of caries.

  8. Current possibilities in occlusal caries management

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    Hrvoje Jurić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that affects most populations throughout the world and it is still the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth are the most vulnerable sites for dental caries due to their anatomy. Therefore, the aim of the following article is to summarize current knowledge on occlusal caries development and the possibilities of its prevention. Although the overall caries rate today has fallen for populations in industrialized countries, the rate of occlusal surface caries has not decreased. This may be explained with fact that topically applied fluorides and their mode of action prevent caries better on smooth than on occlusal surfaces. As we know, tooth decay of first permanent molars causes a great deal of different short and long term difficulties for patients. Therefore, there is a continuous need for implementation of programs for caries prevention in permanent teeth. Nowadays, we like to treat our patients by minimally invasive methods. A very important step in our effective preventive treatment is sealing pits and fissures as a cornerstone of occlusal caries management. Reliable assessment of caries activity is also very important for defining treatment needs and plans. A very important decision, which should be made during occlusal caries management, is the selection of restorative material according to the treatment plan. Conclusion. Current possibilities in occlusal caries prevention and management are very effective. Therefore, dentists today do not have any excuse for avoiding the philosophy of Minimally Invasive Dentistry, especially when we talk about caries management of occlusal surfaces in permanent molars.

  9. Investigation of the chemo-mechanical coupling in lithiation/delithiation of amorphous Si through simulations of Si thin films and Si nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Xiao, Xinran

    2016-09-01

    A strong asymmetric rate behavior between lithiation and delithiation has been observed in amorphous Si (a-Si) anode in the form of thin films, but not in other geometries, such as Si nanospheres. This work investigated the rate behavior of the two geometries through numerical simulations. The results reveal that the rate behavior is affected by the geometry and the constraint of the electrode, the chemo-mechanical coupling, and the prior process. A substrate-constrained film has a relatively low surface/volume ratio and a constant surface area. Its lithiation has a great tendency to be hindered by surface limitation. The chemo-mechanical coupling also plays an important role. The stress profiles differ in the two geometries but both affect the lithiation process more than the delithiation process. The overall delithiation capacity is affected very little by the chemo-mechanical coupling. In cyclic loading, the delithiation capacity is reduced at the same rate as the lithiation capacity because of the low initial state of charge in the electrode. The asymmetric rate behavior was absent under cyclic loading. On the other hand, a slow charging process resulted in a better retained delithiation capacity and an asymmetric rate behavior at higher rates.

  10. Parents and nursing-bottle caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Everdingen, T; Eijkman, M A; Hoogstraten, J

    1996-01-01

    In this study, the role of the parent in the phenomenon of nursing bottle caries is investigated. The main goal is to try to assess whether differences exist between parents and their children who suffer from nursing bottle caries and parents and children who are not affected by this form of dental decay. To this purpose, a questionnaire was constructed. Results showed that, in contrast to parents of non-caries children, more parents of caries children give a bottle straight from birth. These bottles more often contain sugared drinks and are given during daytime as well as at night. Children with caries and non-caries children differ in two respects: caries children on the whole are older and they have been sick more often than non-caries children. Finally, habit seems to be the major factor contributing to the use of a bottle to a relatively high age. Discussion focuses on the characterization of "typical" caries parents and their children and the implication for educational programs such a characterization could have.

  11. Antibodies against Streptococcus mutans and glucosyltransferases in caries-free and caries-active military recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hus in 't Veld, J; Bannet, D; Van Palenstein Helderman, W; Camargo, P S; Backer-Dirks, O

    1978-01-01

    1) Plaque samples from caries-active recruits showed a higher incidence of S. mutans than plaque samples from caries-free recruits. The persistance of the S. mutans serotypes in the individual plaque samples attested to the consistency of S. mutans in human dental plaque. 2) S. mutans serotype d is predominantly present in approximal plaque of caries-active subjects. 3) Serum antibody titers against S. mutans are higher in caries-active individuals. 4) Sera from caries-free or caries-active individuals inhibit the insoluble glucan synthesis by the cellbound GTF to the same extent. 5) It is unlikely that antibodies against S. mutans in parotid saliva or serum play a major role in the protection against dental caries in Dutch military recruits.

  12. Caries risk assessment in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To validate baseline caries risk classifications according to the Cariogram model with the actual caries development over a 3-year period in a group of young adults living in Sweden. METHODS: The study group consisted of 1,295 19-year-old patients that completed a comprehensive clinical...

  13. Palmistry: A tool for dental caries prediction!

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    Nidhi Madan

    2011-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: Handprints of caries-free children, especially females, showed maximum ulnar loops. The caries group showed maximum occurrence of whorls (r=2:1, which were more prevalent in females on the left hand 3rd digit than in males where the whorls were found on the right hand 3 rd digit, and also low total ridge count, especially in males.

  14. Diagnosis and Prevention Strategies for Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the oldest and most common diseases found in humans. With the recent shift from the surgical model, which emphasized restorative treatment, to a medical model of disease management, newer strategies emphasize disease prevention and conservation of tooth structure. For early detection and monitoring of caries, rather than waiting until a cavity is formed and restorative treatment is needed, devices such as DIAGNOdent, Digital Imaging Fiber-Optic Transillumination, quantitative light-induced fluorescence, and the Electronic Caries Monitor have been introduced. For caries prevention, oral hygiene measures, fluoride application, pit-and-fissure sealants, the use of xylitol, the development of a dental caries vaccine, and the role of the primary caregiver for infants are briefly discussed. PMID:26064846

  15. An in vitro comparison of a combined FOTI/Visual examination of occlusal caries with other caries diagnostic methods and the effect of stain on their diagnostic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K.R.; Côrtes, D.F.; Ellwood, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain......Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain...

  16. Selective ablation of pit and fissure caries from occlusal surfaces using λ=355-nm laser pulses and air-abrasion demonstrated using PS-OCT and near-IR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Steven T.; Fan, Kenneth; Fried, Daniel

    2006-02-01

    Several past studies have suggested that lasers with and without added chromophores can be used for the selective removal of dental caries from stained pit and fissures in preparation for composite sealant placement with minimal damage to sound, unstained tooth structure. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is a new nondestructive imaging technology that can be used to acquire images of caries lesions in occlusal surfaces. PSOCT is ideally suited to measure the caries depth and severity before and after selective removal from occlusal surfaces. In this study, λ=355-nm laser pulses of 5-ns duration at irradiation intensities ranging from 0.5-1.3 J/cm2 were scanned across tooth surfaces to selectively remove decayed enamel with and without the addition of India ink. PS-OCT images were acquired before and after removal. The laser removal was also compared to air abrasion in order to compare selectivity of these two conservative caries removal technologies.

  17. Distal caries of the second molar in the presence of a mandibular third molar - a prevention protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toedtling, V; Coulthard, P; Thackray, G

    2016-09-23

    Objectives The objectives of the prospective study were to establish the prevalence of distal caries (DC) in the mandibular second molar and to assess the outcomes of these diseased teeth in our population. Further aims were to identify associated risk factors and to design a protocol for prevention.Methods Clinical and radiographic data from 210 consecutive patients were ascertained over a three-month period. The sample population included all patients who had been referred to a hospital oral surgery department for a lower wisdom tooth assessment.Results A total of 224 mandibular third molars were included and assessed. The prevalence of caries affecting the distal aspect of the second molar was 38% (n = 85) in this population. In 18% of patients there was evidence of early enamel caries. Fifty-eight percent of caries was managed with restorative treatment but 11% of patients required second molar extraction and 13% of patients required the removal of the second and third molars. The prevalence of distal caries was significantly higher in patients with partially erupted wisdom teeth positioned below the amelocemental junction (P molar and in patients who presented with mesioangular impactions (P molars are useful disease predictors which can be used to indicate the likelihood of a caries process occurring on the distal aspect of the second mandibular molar. If patients' third molar teeth are not removed then consideration needs to be given to prevention and regular monitoring.

  18. Proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography in the artificial caries activity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hoon; Lee, Gi Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Kyung Soo; Jin, Hyun Seok; Hong, Kyung Won; Oh, Berm Seok; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluating the diagnostic ability of dental caries detection using digital subtraction in the artificial caries activity model. Digital radiographs of five teeth with 8 proximal surfaces were obtained by CCD sensor (Kodak RVG 6100 using a size no.2). The digital radiographic images and subtraction images from artificial proximal caries were examined and interpreted. In this study, we proposed novel caries detection method which could diagnose the dental proximal caries from single digital radiographic image. In artificial caries activity model, the range of lesional depth was 572-1,374 {mu}m and the range of lesional area was 36.95-138.52 mm{sup 2}. The lesional depth and the area were significantly increased with demineralization time (p<0.001). Furthermore, the proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography showed high detection rate compared to the proximal caries examination using simple digital radiograph. The results demonstrated that the digital subtraction radiography from single radiographic image of artificial caries was highly efficient in the detection of dental caries compared to the data from simple digital radiograph.

  19. Incidence of Caries in Babies After 15 Months of an Educative/Preventive Program

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    Eunice KUHN

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate an educative/preventive program to control caries disease in 160 babies, ages ranging from 1 to 21 months. Method: The selected children, healthy and without caries, were examined once every three months during 15 months. In each appointment, the biofilm was removed with gauze and a baby’s toothbrush, according to the child’s age. After visual examination, the number of teeth and eventual alterations were recorded. Mothers were guided to perform suitable preventive activities through personal orientation, posters and slides. There were educational lectures at the beginning of the research, as well as every six months. The oral examination and the hygiene training of the mothers were conducted at the health units, community centers and a university. Aiming to verify the changes in the feeding and hygiene habits, questionnaires were applied at the beginning of the study and 12 months later. Results: The majority of the mothers hadn’t completed elementary school and the family income ranged from 1 to 3 minimum salaries. After 15 months, the drop-out rate was 23.8%. The incidence of caries, which was 7.3% in the 122 babies, evaluated with an average of 0.25 teeth with caries. Including the black spots, the incidence of caries was 9.8%, with an average of 0.4 teeth with caries. Conclusion: The educative/preventive program contributed to a lower caries incidence, and it stimulated the adoption of healthier habits. There was a decrease of 33% in night time bottle-feeding, and an increase of 20.9% in oral hygiene.

  20. On dental caries and caries-related factors in children and teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Dental caries is still a common disease among children and adolescents. The aims of the present thesis were therefore: 1) to investigate the approximal caries prevalence in posterior teeth in 15-year-olds, 2) to study past caries experience in the primary dentition in relation to future caries development and need for treatment, 3) to investigate factors during early childhood which are associated with caries development later in life, and 4) to study the association between age-specific body mass index (isoBMI) and approximal caries status in 15-year-olds. Paper I has a retrospective design and the analyses were based on record data from a randomly selected sample. Papers II, III and IV are based on radiographic analyses of posterior teeth in 15-year-olds followed longitudinally from 1 to 15 years of age. The data for these studies were selected from examinations, interviews and questionnaires from early childhood and school health care records at 15 years (isoBMI values). The result showed that the approximal caries prevalence in 15-year-olds is underestimated in official caries data, since initial caries lesions are not included in these statistics. Two thirds of all 15-year-olds had approximal caries and initial caries constituted 86% of the total number of caries lesions. There was a strong relationship between caries in early childhood and approximal caries prevalence in the posterior teeth at 15 years of age. Children with caries experience at 6 years received significantly more treatment in the primary dentition during the period from 7 to 12 years compared with children who were caries free at the same age. Further, it was pointed out that parents' attitudes to dental health and psychosocial factors during early childhood have an effect on approximal caries in 15-year-olds. Additionally, plaque on primary incisors at 1 year of age and infrequent toothbrushing at 3 years of age were associated with a high caries experience at 15 years. It was also

  1. Minimal intervention dentistry for managing dental caries - a review: report of a FDI task group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frencken, Jo E; Peters, Mathilde C; Manton, David J; Leal, Soraya C; Gordan, Valeria V; Eden, Ece

    2012-10-01

    This publication describes the history of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the 'surgical' care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI's policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing.

  2. Secondary caries detection by DIAGNOdent and radiography: a comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamzahim, Mohammad; Shi, Xie-Qi; Angmar-Månsson, Birgit

    2004-02-01

    DIAGNOdent is now well documented for detection of primary occlusal caries, but not as yet for secondary caries. The aim of this study was to investigate the application of DIAGNOdent for in vitro detection of secondary caries. The material comprised 66 extracted teeth: 48 with amalgam restorations and 18 with tooth-colored restorations. Digital images of occlusal surfaces were captured for each specimen. The teeth were mounted in groups of 3 or 4 in plaster blocks simulating their anatomical positions. Bitewing radiographs of each block were assessed for secondary caries by 5 observers. The margins of each restoration were carefully scanned with DIAGNOdent; the site of the highest reading was localized in digital images; and the corresponding values were registered. Marginal integrity and staining were also documented. The restorations were then removed and the teeth were hemi-sectioned. For verification, two observers working together examined all the cavities under a stereomicroscope at 16 x magnification followed by probing. Sensitivity and specificity for DIAGNOdent and conventional radiography were 0.77/0.81 and 0.65/0.81, respectively. Regarding ROC analyses, the Az values were 0.89 and 0.72 for DIAGNOdent and radiography. For DIAGNOdent, the false-positive fraction included only stained teeth. Cohen's kappa statistics disclosed moderate agreement between the 2 methods, with an agreement of 56%. DIAGNOdent tended to give more positive diagnoses than bitewing radiography. The results indicate that DIAGNOdent may be a helpful tool for detecting secondary caries.

  3. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease.

  4. Biological approach of dental caries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigalauskienė, Rūta; Slabšinskienė, Eglė; Vasiliauskienė, Ingrida

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease induced by dental plaque, which can be described as a community of microorganisms (biofilm). Because of genetic and environmental factors a number of changes in the oral microbiome takes place; in case of commensalism and mutualism between biofilm microorganisms and the host, homeostasis in oral microbiome is maintained. However, when a risk factor occurs parasitic relationship starts prevailing and activity of the pathogenic cariogenic microorganisms increases leading to a dental caries. According to the newest technologies of molecular microbiology new cariogenic microorganisms species have been determined. Each individual's oral microbiome is as unique as his/her immune system; therefore, commonly taken caries prevention measures cannot be of the same effectiveness for all individuals. Each person has his own caries risk which is determined by the oral microbiome and immune system influenced by the environmental and genetic factors. Early caries diagnostic, risk assessment and individualized caries prevention plan will allow us to control the disease and achieve a desirable effect. For the dentist the most important thing is not to treat the consequences of the disease - cavities - but be aware of the dental caries as a biological phenomenon.

  5. In vivo assessment of secondary caries and dentin characteristics after traditional amalgam restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assunção Pinheiro, Isauremi Vieira; Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra; de Lima, Kenio Costa

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate in vivo the occurrence of secondary caries and dentin characteristics in permanent molars after traditional amalgam restorations, by means of clinical visual examination, radiographs and laser-induced fluorescence (LF) (DIAGNOdent). Methods: Thirty first permanent molars of 30 schoolchildren in the 7 to14 year-old age group were included. Caries was removed by hand. Thus, indirect pulp capping was performed with glass-ionomer cement (GIC), the cavity was varnished and amalgam filled. LF was measured before and after cavity preparation and after a 12-month observation period. Dentin color after cavity preparation and after the 12-month observation period was recorded. Recurrent caries was also investigated by visual clinical and radiographic examinations, in addition to dentin thickness between pulp and indirect GIC pulp capping. Data was analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measurements, paired “t” test and descriptive statistic. Results: There were statistically significant differences (P<.05) among LF scores for dentin in all periods evaluated, with the lowest scores shown after 12 month of observation. There was no statistical difference between dentin color after cavity preparation and following 12 months of observation. Moreover, there was no recurrent caries attack at 12-month follow-up; dentin thickness between pulp and indirect GIC pulp capping was similar between baseline and final observation periods. It was concluded that the clinical restorative procedure using hand caries removal, indirect pulp capping with GIC, varnishing and amalgam filling the cavity did not provide secondary caries and increased dentin mineral content after 12 months. PMID:22904654

  6. Snacking habits and caries in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, I; Holgerson, P Lif; Kressin, N R; Nunn, M E; Tanner, A C

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is caused by a combination of infection and diet. This disease, if left untreated, may lead to pain, and impair the quality of life, nutritional status and development of young children. The objective was to investigate the association between snacking and caries in a population at high risk of dental caries. American preschool children (n = 1,206) were recruited in the offices of paediatricians. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene, breast-feeding, use of bottle and snacking were collected by questionnaire. Plaque presence, the number of teeth and their caries status (deft) were scored. The children sampled were 61% Black, 27% White and 10% Asian. Of the 1- to 2-, 2- to 3- and 3- to 4-year-old children, 93.8, 82.4 and 77.3% were caries free, and their mean caries scores were 0.16, 0.58 and 0.93, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modelling revealed plaque presence, lowest income, descriptors for tooth exposure time (number of teeth and age) and cariogenic challenge (total intake of sugar-containing snacks and chips/crisps, and chips intake with a sugar-containing drink) to be associated with more caries. These differences were also found in univariate analyses; in addition, children who continued breast-feeding after falling asleep had significantly higher deft values than those who did not. PLS modelling revealed that eating chips clustered with eating many sweet snacks, candies, popcorn and ice cream. We conclude that, in addition to the traditional risk indicators for caries - presence of plaque, sugar intake and socioeconomic status -, consumption of chips was associated with caries in young children.

  7. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  8. Effect of chemo-mechanical disintegration on sludge anaerobic digestion for enhanced biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Pray, S Saji; Yogalakshmi, K N; Kumar, S Adish; Yeom, Ick-Tae; Banu, J Rajesh

    2016-02-01

    The effect of combined surfactant-dispersion pretreatment on dairy waste activated sludge (WAS) reduction in anaerobic digesters was investigated. The experiments were performed with surfactant, Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the range of 0.01 to 0.1 g/g suspended solids (SS) and disperser with rpm of 5000-25,000. The COD (chemical oxygen demand) solubilization, suspended solids reduction, and biogas generation increased for an energy input of 7377 kJ/kg total solids (TS) (12,000 rpm, 0.04 g/g SS, and 30 min) and were found to be 38, 32, and 75 %, higher than that of control. The pretreated sludge improved the performance of semicontinuous anaerobic digesters of 4 L working volume operated at four different SRTs (sludge retention time). SRT of 15 days was found to be appropriate showing 49 and 51 % reduction in SS and volatile solids (VS), respectively. The methane yield of the pretreated sample was observed to be 50 mL/g VS removed which was observed to be comparatively higher than the control (12 mL/g VS removed) at optimal SRT of 15 days. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to be reported and not yet been documented in literature.

  9. [Dental caries in an ecological perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twetman, Svante; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-11-01

    Dental caries affects the majority of the Danish population. Its aetiology is multi-factorial, but a pH-induced change in the homeostasis of the oral biofilm leading to overgrowth of acid-tolerating bacteria is a key event. A non-invasive concept for prevention and management is emerging based on the common risk factor approach. There is strong evidence that tooth brushing twice a day with fluoridated toothpaste is the most cost-effective way to prevent and control caries development. Physicians need to consider that a number of drugs may affect the saliva flow rate, which increases the caries risk.

  10. Introducing a Dental Caries Marking Software and Evaluate Radiologists’ Disagreement in Caries Detection Using this Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baseri H

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Bitewing radiograph is the main reference for diagnosis of proximal and recurrent caries. There is no software for gathering and analyzing radiologists’ opinion in the field of caries detection on digital bitewing radiograph (DBR. Objectives: The main aim of this study is to introduce the first windows application that could be used for marking caries on DBR. This software is called Dental Caries Marking Software (DCMS. The second aim is to create the first DBR caries dataset to be used for future software development projects in the field of automatic caries detection; also gathering and documenting the disagreements and critiques regarding DCMS. Materials and Methods: DCMS has been designed and implemented by the researchers of this study. This software is divided into two parts. The first part is DCMS writer that is used for gathering the user’s opinion and The second part is DCMS analyzer that is used for reading and analyzing the user’s opinion file. Eight radiologists with different experiences used DCMS for marking dental caries on 200 DBR, 50 of which were repeated twice for assessing the accuracy of each radiologist. Results: A total of 3833 points were marked by 8 users on 150 non repetitive DBR. Only 35 points were marked similarly by 8 users; in other words, 8 users totally agreed with 4% of the caries points. According to 50 repetitive DBR, the maximum accuracy of users was 69% and the minimum was 50%. Conclusions: There is significant debate over the diagnosis of caries on DBR; therefore, for unifying the radiologist’s opinions, the need for intelligent caries detection software is apparent. DCMS is useful software for gathering caries data. Moreover, the use of conventional display monitor has negative impacts on accurate diagnosis of caries on DBR.

  11. Early childhood caries: a New Zealand perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries, primarily a preventable disease, remains the most common chronic disease of childhood and one of the most common reasons for hospital admissions for children in New Zealand. The most vulnerable children are shouldering the burden of the disease, with Maori and Pacific children having greater experience and severity of dental caries. Early childhood caries has deleterious effects on a child’s oral and general health and significant numbers of preschool-aged children experience pain and infection. Early identification by primary health care providers of children at high risk of developing early childhood caries can ensure these children are referred to the appropriate oral health services to receive appropriate and timely management.

  12. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  13. Dental caries - A complete changeover (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Carounanidy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a knowledge explosion in cariology science, dental caries still remains a misunderstood phenomenon by the clinicians. In order to effectively use the wide range of preventive and management strategies, it is imperative to look beyond those black and white spots that manifest on the tooth surfaces.This paper focuses on the revised versions of the etiopathogenesis and definition of dental caries disease in the present century.

  14. Evidence for dental caries decline among children in an East European country (Hungary)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szöke, J.; Petersen, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    Central and Eastern Europe, dental caries prevalence, need for dental care, long-term trends of caries, schoolchildren......Central and Eastern Europe, dental caries prevalence, need for dental care, long-term trends of caries, schoolchildren...

  15. Evaluation of pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate levels of saliva in caries-free, minimal caries and nursing caries children: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitha Animireddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate of saliva in caries free, minimal caries and nursing caries children and to evaluate the relationship of these on the caries activity of children. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 school children of age group between 4 and 12 years were selected and divided into three equal groups: Group I, Group II and Group III, consisting of 25 subjects each. Group I included caries-free subjects, Group II included subjects with minimal caries and Group III included subjects with nursing caries. Saliva samples were collected from all subjects and were estimated for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and viscosity. Results: There was a significant decrease in the mean salivary flow rate, salivary ph and salivary buffer capacity and a significant increase in the salivary viscosity among caries-free subjects, subjects with minimal caries and subjects with nursing caries. Conclusion: The physicochemical properties of saliva, such as salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and viscosity, has a relation with caries activity in children and act as markers of caries activity.

  16. A Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Different Caries Excavation Techniques in reducing the Cariogenic Flora: An in vivo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Gunjan; Tripathi, Abhay Mani; Mehrotra, Mridul; Saha, Sonali; Garg, Nishita

    2016-01-01

    Background Caries excavation is a noninvasive technique of caries removal with maximum preservation of healthy tooth structure. Aim To compare the efficacy of three different caries excavation techniques in reducing the count of cariogenic flora. Materials and methods Sixty healthy primary molars were selected from 26 healthy children with occlusal carious lesions without pulpal involvement and divided into three groups in which caries excavation was done with the help of (1) carbide bur; (2) polymer bur using slow-speed handpiece; and (3) ultrasonic tip with ultrasonic machine. Samples were collected before and after caries excavation for microbiological analysis with the help of sterile sharp spoon excavator. Samples were inoculated on blood agar plate and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. After bacterial cultivation, the bacterial count of Streptococcus mutans was obtained. Statistical analysis All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13 statistical software version. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance, Wilcoxon matched pairs test, and Z test were performed to reveal the statistical significance. Results The decrease in bacterial count of S. mutans before and after caries excavation was significant (p < 0.001) in all the three groups. Conclusion Carbide bur showed most efficient reduction in cariogenic flora, while ultrasonic tip showed almost comparable results, while polymer bur showed least reduction in cariogenic flora after caries excavation. How to cite this article Hassan AF, Yadav G, Tripathi AM, Mehrotra M, Saha S, Garg N. A Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Different Caries Excavation Techniques in reducing the Cariogenic Flora: An in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):214-217. PMID:27843252

  17. Caries-related factors and bacterial composition of supragingival plaques in caries free and caries active Algerian adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amina Hoceini; Nihel Klouche Khelil; Ilhem Ben-Yelles; Amine Mesli; Sara Ziouani; Lotfi Ghellai; Nadia Aissaoui; Fatima Nas; Mounia Arab

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare oral hygiene practices, education and social background, food intake and oral malodor of Algerian adults suffering from dental caries with normal controls, and to determine and compare the bacterial composition of the supragingival plaques from the above-mentioned groups.Methods: Participants completed a questionnaire and were clinically examined for dental caries using decayed, missing and filled teeth index according to the criteria laid down by the World Health Organization. Supragingival plaque samples were collected from 50 caries-free adults(CF) and 50 caries-active adults(CA). Standard procedures of culture and identification of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were used. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test.Results: A total of 117 bacterial strains were isolated from supragingival plaques in CF group subjects, 76(64.96%) of them belonged to 9 aerobic genera, and 41(35.04%) to 9anaerobic genera(P < 0.05). While in the second group, 199 strains were isolated, 119(59.80%) of the strains belonged to 10 aerobic genera and 80(40.20%) to 10 anaerobic bacteria(P < 0.05). Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecium, Aerococcus viridans,Actinomyces meyeri, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Eubacterium limosum showed a significantly higher prevalence in the CA group(P < 0.05). The findings revealed that CA group had a high sugar intake(80%). A significantly higher frequency of tooth brushing(P < 0.000) and a significantly less self-reported oral malodor(P < 0.000) and tooth pain(P < 0.000) were found in CF group, while there was no association of socioeconomic levels and intake of meal snacks with dental caries.Conclusions: This study confirms the association of some aciduric bacteria with caries formation, and a direct association of sugar intake and cultural level with dental caries.Furthermore, oral hygiene practices minimize the prevalence of tooth decay.

  18. Diabetes enhances dental caries and apical periodontitis in caries-susceptible WBN/KobSlc rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-02-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and alveolar bone resorption were much higher in male WBN/KobSlc rats with chronic diabetes than in nondiabetic female rats of the same strain. Histopathologic examination showed that dental caries progressed from acute to subacute inflammation due to bacterial infections and necrosis in the pulp when the caries penetrated the dentin. In the most advanced stage of dental caries, inflammatory changes caused root abscess and subsequent apical periodontitis, with the formation of granulation tissue around the dental root. Inflammatory changes resulted in resorption of alveolar bone and correlated well with the severity of molar caries. Our results suggest that diabetic conditions enhance dental caries in WBN/KobSlc rats and that periodontal lesions may result from the apical periodontitis that is secondary to dental caries.

  19. Effect of milk and yogurt on streptococcus sobrinus counts and caries score in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghasempour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An anti-cariogenic diet containing probiotics can be effective in caries prevention. This animal study compared the effects of milk and yogurt on Streptococcus sobrinus counts and caries score. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 male rats were infected with S. sobrinus (27,607 and divided into three groups. Group A and B received 200 mL of milk and 100 g of yogurt per day, respectively, and a control group received 2.5 mL of NCP number 2 diet twice daily for 21 days. After killing the animals, their lower left jaws were removed and sonicated to quantify the colonies of S. sobrinus. Dental caries was scored using Keyes technique. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon-Signed Rank tests. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The mean (±standard error of the mean of S. sobrinus colonies in the milk, yogurt and control groups were determined at 119666.67 (±20733, 46416.666 (±12846 and 163,250 (±33493, respectively. Microbial counts decreased in the yogurt group compared with the milk and control groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.000; respectively. There were significant differences between caries scores of smooth surfaces in the milk and yogurt groups compared with the control group (P = 0.000 and P = 0.000, respectively. Both milk and yogurt significantly reduced caries score of fissured surfaces compared with controls (P = 0.004 and P = 0.000, respectively. Conclusion: Considering the limitations of this study, yogurt administration reduces S. sobrinus counts. In addition, yogurt and milk regimens reduce the caries scores of smooth and fissured surfaces.

  20. Effect of milk and yogurt on streptococcus sobrinus counts and caries score in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Rajabnia, Ramazam; Ashrafpour, Manouchehr; Ehsani, Atiyyeh; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Gharekhani, Samane; Shahandashti, Elaheh Ferdosi; Bagheri, Meghdad

    2015-01-01

    Background: An anti-cariogenic diet containing probiotics can be effective in caries prevention. This animal study compared the effects of milk and yogurt on Streptococcus sobrinus counts and caries score. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 male rats were infected with S. sobrinus (27,607) and divided into three groups. Group A and B received 200 mL of milk and 100 g of yogurt per day, respectively, and a control group received 2.5 mL of NCP number 2 diet twice daily for 21 days. After killing the animals, their lower left jaws were removed and sonicated to quantify the colonies of S. sobrinus. Dental caries was scored using Keyes technique. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon-Signed Rank tests. Statistical significance was set at P yogurt and control groups were determined at 119666.67 (±20733), 46416.666 (±12846) and 163,250 (±33493), respectively. Microbial counts decreased in the yogurt group compared with the milk and control groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.000; respectively). There were significant differences between caries scores of smooth surfaces in the milk and yogurt groups compared with the control group (P = 0.000 and P = 0.000, respectively). Both milk and yogurt significantly reduced caries score of fissured surfaces compared with controls (P = 0.004 and P = 0.000, respectively). Conclusion: Considering the limitations of this study, yogurt administration reduces S. sobrinus counts. In addition, yogurt and milk regimens reduce the caries scores of smooth and fissured surfaces. PMID:26759594

  1. Sugar Alcohols, Caries Incidence, and Remineralization of Caries Lesions: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauko K. Mäkinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol≥xylitol>sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials.

  2. Clinical evaluation of Krimidanta Pratishedha (anti-caries) activity of Triphaladi Gandusha in high risk dental caries patients

    OpenAIRE

    Atara, Achyuta G.; Manjusha, R.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Vaghela, Dharmendra B.; Rooparalia, Brijesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is the most common complaint encountered in clinical practice. Virtually every adult in the world has experience of dental caries. It affects almost 80% of the population. It is now being viewed in dual perspective- “caries as a disease” and “caries as a lesion”. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of Triphaladi Gandusha for its anti-caries activity and improvement in Oral Hygiene Index in high risk patients of dental caries and to compare the efficacy of prevalent method...

  3. Evaluation of pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate levels of saliva in caries-free, minimal caries and nursing caries children: An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Dwitha Animireddy; Venkata Thimma Reddy Bekkem; Pranitha Vallala; Sunil Babu Kotha; Swetha Ankireddy; Noorjahan Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate of saliva in caries free, minimal caries and nursing caries children and to evaluate the relationship of these on the caries activity of children. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 school children of age group between 4 and 12 years were selected and divided into three equal groups: Group I, Group II and Group III, consisting of 25 subjects each. Group I included caries-free...

  4. [Caries status in diabetic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, M; Bánóczy, J; Dinya, E; Tamás, G

    1991-09-01

    Clinical dental examination of 1600 diabetics (815 type 1 insulin dependent and 761 type 2 non-insulin dependent patients) has been performed according to the WHD criteria. According to examination results higher DMF mean value, less uncared of teeth with caries (D) and, in the age group of 19 years and above 30 years, more edentulousness has been found than with healthy individuals. The number of filled and crowded teeth (F) below the age of 35 years in diabetics (p 0.0001), above 45 years in the control group (p 0.0001) was higher. Concerning cared of teeth there was no deviation in the number of filled teeth between diabetic and healthy individuals whereas the number of crown covered teeth was higher with diabetics. (p 0.01). As to the distribution of individuals with healthy teeth and toothless ones it was found characteristic that while among diabetic individuals but 1%, in the control 1.4% possessed retained healthy teeth. The number of completely toothless individuals was higher (11.83%) with diabetics than with healthy individuals (2.25%).

  5. Factors associated with early childhood caries in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Hoffmeister

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The high prevalence of caries in this young group is concerning. The factors associated with caries identified in this study could help in the design of preventive interventions at early ages.

  6. Risk factors for caries - control and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Hasanagić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate a prevalence of caries, filled permanentand extracted permanent teeth, as well as caries risk factors inschool children aged 7, 9 and 11.Methods. The survey included 800 children (296 children aged7; 254 children aged 9 and 250 children aged 11 from the MostarMunicipality, 400 of them living in both rural and urban areas.A dental mirror and standard light of dental chair were used forexamination. The DMF index (Dental Caries, Missing Teeth andFilled Teeth was determined, as well as failure in keeping teethhygiene, sugar intake with food, and incidence of oral cavity infection.Results. The dental state of permanent teeth in children aged 7and 9 has shown significant difference between the children fromrural and urban areas (p < 0,001. Out of 2,698 and 2,790 permanentteeth in children aged 11 from rural and urban areas, 1,086(40,25 % and 884 (31.68 % had caries, respectively (p < 0.01.The difference between these groups of children has been foundin relation to the index of oral hygiene too (p < 0.05.Conclusion. An identification of risk groups for getting caries wasvery important and could help health and social structures to maintaintheir programs in order to improve oral health.

  7. International comparisons of health inequalities in childhood dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pine, Cynthia M; Adair, Pauline M; Nicoll, Alison D

    2004-01-01

    important predictor of whether children had caries and this factor persisted in children from disadvantaged communities. 90% of children with lactobacillus had caries. CONCLUSIONS: Parental beliefs and attitudes play a key role in moderating oral health related behaviour in young children and in determining...... whether they develop caries. Further research is indicated to determine whether supporting the development of parenting skills would reduce dental caries in children from disadvantaged communities independent of ethnic origin....

  8. 21 CFR 872.1740 - Caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caries detection device. 872.1740 Section 872.1740...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1740 Caries detection device. (a) Identification. The caries detection device is a device intended to show the existence of decay in a patient's...

  9. 21 CFR 872.1745 - Laser fluorescence caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laser fluorescence caries detection device. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1745 Laser fluorescence caries detection device. (a) Identification. A laser fluorescence caries detection device is a laser,...

  10. PUFA - an index of clinical consequences of untreated dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monse, B.; Heinrich-Weltzien, R.; Benzian, H.; Holmgren, C.J.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Dental caries is a global public health problem, especially in children. Most caries in developing countries remains untreated. Only limited data are available on the clinical consequences of untreated dental caries because there is no measure to quantify the prevalence and severity of or

  11. Host and microbiological factors related to dental caries development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Soet, J.J.; van Gemert-Schriks, M.C.M.; Laine, M.L.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Morré, S.A.; van Winkelhoff, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Studies on dental caries suggest that in severe cases it may induce a systemic immune response. This occurs particularly when caries progresses into pulpal inflammation and results in abscess or fistula formation (AFF). We hypothesized that severe dental caries will affect the general health of chil

  12. The caries process and its effect on the pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of the caries process and its effect on the pulp is presented in the context that caries does develop in various rates of progression. Early in the caries process, the pulp reflects changes within lesion activity. Thus, the early pulp response is reversible. Later, the rate of c...

  13. Caries-preventive Effect of Supervised Toothbrushing and Sealants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgert, L.A.; Leal, S.C.; Mulder, J.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of 3 caries-preventive measures on high- and low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial covered 242 schoolchildren, 6 to 7 y old, from low socioeconomic areas. At baseline, caries risk was a

  14. A chemo-mechanical free-energy-based approach to model durotaxis and extracellular stiffness-dependent contraction and polarization of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Vivek B; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Xiao

    2016-02-06

    We propose a chemo-mechanical model based on stress-dependent recruitment of myosin motors to describe how the contractility, polarization and strain in cells vary with the stiffness of their surroundings and their shape. A contractility tensor, which depends on the distribution of myosin motors, is introduced to describe the chemical free energy of the cell due to myosin recruitment. We explicitly include the contributions to the free energy that arise from mechanosensitive signalling pathways (such as the SFX, Rho-Rock and MLCK pathways) through chemo-mechanical coupling parameters. Taking the variations of the total free energy, which consists of the chemical and mechanical components, in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics provides equations for the temporal evolution of the active stress and the contractility tensor. Following this approach, we are able to recover the well-known Hill relation for active stresses, based on the fundamental principles of irreversible thermodynamics rather than phenomenology. We have numerically implemented our free energy-based approach to model spatial distribution of strain and contractility in (i) cells supported by flexible microposts, (ii) cells on two-dimensional substrates, and (iii) cells in three-dimensional matrices. We demonstrate how the polarization of the cells and the orientation of stress fibres can be deduced from the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the contractility tensor. Our calculations suggest that the chemical free energy of the cell decreases with the stiffness of the extracellular environment as the cytoskeleton polarizes in response to stress-dependent recruitment of molecular motors. The mechanical energy, which includes the strain energy and motor potential energy, however, increases with stiffness, but the overall energy is lower for cells in stiffer environments. This provides a thermodynamic basis for durotaxis, whereby cells preferentially migrate towards stiffer regions of the

  15. CARI-7A: DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Kyle

    2017-01-10

    Aircrew members can be exposed to higher annual doses of natural ionizing radiation than members of the general population in most parts of the world. The principal ionizing radiation to which they are exposed is galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Among the particles present in the primary spectrum are heavy ions: relativistic nuclei of lithium and heavier elements. These ions have very high radiation weighting factors and can contribute significantly to the effective dose at altitudes above the Pfotzer maximum. This report describes the latest version of the US Federal Aviation Administration's GCR flight dose calculation software, CARI-7A. Unlike its predecessor, CARI-6, CARI-7A directly includes heavy ion transport, using a database of atmospheric particle spectra generated by incident GCR ions pre-calculated with MCNPX 2.7.0. to enable calculations to the edge of space. Results are compared with measurements aboard commercial passenger aircraft, high altitude research aircraft and similar calculations by others.

  16. Enamel remineralization: controlling the caries disease or treating early caries lesions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Aparecido Cury

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The emphasis currently given to new technologies for enamel remineralization suggests that the changes in the understanding of the dental caries disease, which occurred in the last century, were either not yet adopted or were forgotten. Just like in the past, when the disease was "treated" by restoring cavities, there is presently a misunderstanding on the concept of incipient lesion remineralization. The aim of this paper was to review some concepts about caries, the natural phenomenon of enamel remineralization and the effect of fluoride (F on it, and also to discuss the clinical relevance of remineralizing products recently launched in the marketplace aiming to "treat early caries lesions".

  17. Inhibition of secondary caries in a bacterial based in vitro caries model

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Franziska

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect of fluoride precipitation with calcium hydroxide on secondary caries in a bacterial based in vitro caries model. Caries-free, retained wisdom teeth were randomly divided into four groups (n=30). The enamel was cut off and cylindrical cavities 3 mm in diameter and 1,5 mm in depth were prepared on each dentine surface. The cavities of Group A and B were restored with composite (Z100) only. A fluoride solution (43,500 ppm Fˉ as magne...

  18. A vaccine against dental caries: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, S M; Katz, J; Childers, N K

    2001-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be a costly and prevalent oral disease. Research efforts towards developing a well tolerated and effective vaccine against dental caries were initiated following the demonstration of a specific bacterial aetiology for this disease. The cariogenic mutans streptococci are the principal bacteria causing this disease. Specific immune defence against these bacteria is provided mainly by secretory immunoglobulin (Ig) A antibodies present in saliva, which are generated by the common mucosal immune system. Progress in the development of a vaccine against dental caries has increased due to both advancements in molecular biology and our understanding of the mucosal immune system and mucosal vaccines. Advancements in molecular biology have facilitated the cloning and functional characterisation of virulence factors of the mutans streptococci, including the cell-surface fibrillar proteins, which mediate adherence to the tooth surface, and the glucosyltransferase enzymes, which synthesise adhesive glucans and allow microbial accumulation on the teeth. Current strategies for immunisation against dental caries are using these virulence factors as key antigens and incorporating them into novel mucosal vaccine systems and delivering them with or without adjuvants to mucosal IgA inductive sites. The most popular routes of mucosal immunisation are via the oral or nasal route. The mucosal immune system is functional in newborn infants, who develop salivary IgA antibodies as they become colonised by oral micro-organisms. Mucosal immunisation strategies result in the induction of salivary IgA antibody responses and pose fewer problems than parenteral injection of antigen. Therefore, mucosal immunisation of infants prior to the appearance of their first teeth may be a well tolerated and effective way to induce immunity against the colonisation of teeth by mutans streptococci and protection against subsequent dental caries. The purpose of this article is to

  19. Clinical evaluation of Er:YAG laser caries treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Kucerova, Hana; Krejsa, Otakar; Hamal, Karel; Kubelka, Jiri; Prochazka, Stanislav

    1997-05-01

    To prepare the enamel, the energy used was mainly 345 mJ and repetition rate 2 Hz, for dentine the optimal energy of Er:YAG drilling machine was 200 mJ and repetition rate from 1 to 2 Hz, depending on cavity depth. Subject of treatment were caries of enamel and dentine and it was possible to remove the old insufficient fillings. The average number of pulses was 111.22, ranging from 16 to 489. During preparation, vibrations of microexplosions were felt by 8 patients, however, neither pain or unpleasant sensations were experienced. The filling materials used were composite resins and glassionomer cements. Their clinical evaluation 6 months post insertion was similar to that of the classical drilling system.

  20. Caries prevention by professional fluoride gel application on enamel and dentinal lesions in low-caries children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, G.J.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2005-01-01

    In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, the caries-reducing effect of semi-annually applied fluoride gel in a low-caries child population initially aged 4.5-6.5 years (n = 773) has been investigated. Secondary analyses of the data were performed to study the caries reduction includin

  1. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  2. Dietary pattern of Finnish children with low high caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemola-Kujala, E; Räsänen, L

    1979-08-01

    The correlations between dietary patterns and caries were studied in a series consisting of 534, 5-, 9- and 13-year-old Finnish rural children from low-fluoride areas (0.10-0.46 parts/10(6)). The food consumption of the children was assessed by the 24-hour recall method. The consumption of sweets was estimated by the dietary history method. Caries was diagnosed by clinical inspection. Children with a low and children with a high caries experience were compared with regard to food and nutrient intakes per 1000 kcal. The intakes of most foods and nutrients were similar in the low-caries and in the high-caries groups. However, the diet of the high-caries groups of 5- and 13-year-olds contained less iron, thiamine and ascorbic acid than the diet of the low-caries groups. The intake of sugar and sugar-containing products per unit of energy was higher in the high-caries groups. This was true for soft drinks in particular. Among the 9-year-olds the proportion of sugar consumed as such was greater in the high-caries than in the low-caries children. With regard to the total monthly consumption of sweets no significant differences were observed between the high- and low-caries groups. Analysis of the energy-standardized consumption of food and nutrients thus showed that the relative proportion of sugar and sugar-containing products was somewhat greater in the diet of the high-caries children than in the diet of the low-caries children, but not as high as could be expected. These products replaced foods with a higher nutritive value with the result that the diet of the high-caries groups was on the whole more refined than the diet of the low-caries groups.

  3. Prevalence of candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesion of early childhood caries (ECC) according to sampling site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefidgar, Seyed Ali Asghar; Eyzadian, Haniyeh; Gharakhani, Samaneh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans may have cariogenic potential but its role in caries etiology has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine candida albicans in supragingival dental plaque and infected dentine of cervical and proximal in early childhood caries (ECC). Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 6o children aged 2-5 years, which were divided into 3 groups: children with at least one cervical caries; children with at least one proximal caries and caries-free. The infected dentine was collected from cervical and proximal caries lesions and plaque samples were collected from the three groups in order to compare the frequency of candida albicans in the collected sites. All samples were cultured in Sabouraud and CHROMagar medium and the cases that were positive for candida albicans were cultured in germ tube. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: The mean age of the children was 3.9 years. From 100 samples, candida albicans samples were isolated in 55%, mold fungi were found in 29% cases and there was no fungal growth in 16% of the samples. In plaque samples, candida albicans were found in 15% of caries-free samples, 20% of the proximal and 80% of the cervical caries. In samples extracted from the caries, candida albicans were found in 60% of the proximal and 100% of the cervical caries. Mothers with university educational level had children with more cervical decays, caries free and proximal caries, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that prevalence of Candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesions of children with early childhood caries were relatively high and the prevalence was higher in cervical caries group. PMID:24551436

  4. Evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free and caries-active children were evaluated. Results: Results showed that 90% of subjects in the caries-free group and 30% of subjects in the caries-active group had normal level of hydration value of less than 60 s and the difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Normal flow rate of stimulated saliva was found in 90% of the subjects in caries-free group and 33.3% subjects in the caries active group and difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Adequate salivary pH was found in 100% subjects in caries-free group and 30% in caries-active group and the difference was statistically very highly significant. Conclusion: To conclude, within limitations of this study, it became clear that normal level of hydration and higher values for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity of saliva lead to good oral health and a reduced caries occurrence. Increased salivary viscosity plays a role in increasing caries incidence. Salivary biochemical indicators like calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase also play their respective role in determining caries susceptibility of an individual. These salivary parameters can be used as diagnostic tool for caries risk assessment.

  5. The Clinical, Environmental, and Behavioral Factors That Foster Early Childhood Caries: Evidence for Caries Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Margherita

    2015-01-01

    Caries risk assessment, an essential component of targeted health care delivery for young children, is of paramount importance in the current environment of increasing health care costs and resource constraints. The purpose of this manuscript was to review recent best available evidence behind the factors that influence caries risk assessment and the validity of strategies to assess the caries risk of young children. Moderate to weak evidence supports the following recommendations: (1) Children should have a caries risk assessment done in their first year (or as soon as their first tooth erupts) as part of their overall health assessment, and this should be reassessed periodically over time. (2) Multiple clinical, environmental, and behavioral factors should be considered when assessing caries risk in young children, including factors associated with the primary caregiver. (3) The use of structured forms, although most may not yet be validated, may aid in systematic assessment of multiple caries risk factors and in objective record-keeping. (4) Children from low socioeconomic status groups should be considered at increased risk when developing community preventive programs.

  6. Good Manufacturing Practices production and analysis of a DNA vaccine against dental caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping YANG; Yu-hong LI; Ai-hua ZHANG; Lan BI; Ming-wen FAN

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To prepare a clinical-grade anti-caries DNA vaccine pGJA-P/VAX and explore its immune effect and protective efficacy against a cariogenic bacterial challenge.Methods: A large-scale industrial production process was developed under Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) by combining and optimizing common unit operations such as alkaline lysis, precipitation, endotoxin removal and column chromatography. Quality controls of the purified bulk and final lyophilized vaccine were conducted according to authoritative guidelines. Mice and gnotobiotic rats were intranasally immunized with clinical-grade pGJA-P/VAX with chitosan. Antibody levels of serum IgG and salivary SlgA were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and caries activity was evaluated by the Keyes method. pGJA-P/VAX and pVAX1 prepared by a laboratory-scale commercial kit were used as controls.Results: The production process proved to be scalable and reproducible. Impurities including host protein, residual RNA, genomic DNA and endotoxin in the purified plasmid were all under the limits of set specifications. Intranasal vaccination with clinical-grade pGJA-P/ VAX induced higher serum IgG and salivary SlgA in both mice and gnotobiotic rats. While in the experimental caries model, the enamel (E), dentinal slight (Ds), and dentinal moderate (Dm) caries lesions were reduced by 21.1%, 33.0%, and 40.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The production process under GMP was efficient in preparing clinical-grade pGJA-P/VAX with high purity and intended effectiveness, thus facilitating future clinical trials for the anti-caries DNA vaccine.

  7. Dental caries from a molecular microbiological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Nyvad; W. Crielaard; A. Mira; N. Takahashi; D. Beighton

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries results from an imbalance of the metabolic activity in the dental biofilm. The microbial communities of teeth have traditionally been studied by standard cultural approaches. More recently, cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene have been used to characterize the microbial composi

  8. Dental caries vaccine: some problems solved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, D L; Mallett, C P; Doyle, G

    1985-10-01

    The interest in a dental caries vaccine has been great over the past few years. Studies have shown two possible problems using Streptococcus mutans as an immunogen: (i) the production of heart reactive antibody, and (ii) the need to protect against several serotypes. Possible solutions to these problems are discussed.

  9. Need for new caries detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas A.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    1999-05-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) continues to be a major problems for adults as well as children, even though great advances have been made in preventive methods in the last 20 years. New methods for the management of caries will work best if lesions can be detected at an early stage and chemical rather than physical intervention can take place, thereby preserving the natural tooth structure and helping the saliva to heal, or remineralize, the areas of early decay. Clinical detection of caries in the US relies on visual examination, tactile with hand held explorer, and conventional radiographs, all of which are inadequate for the occlusal (biting) surfaces of the teeth where most of the decay now occurs. The dentist often has to explore by drilling with a dental bur to confirm early decay in these areas. New method that can determine the extent and degree of subsurface lesions in these surfaces non-destructively are essential for further advances in the clinical management of dental caries. Optical methods, which exploit the differences between sound and carious enamel and dentin, show great promise for the accurate detection of these lesions. Two or three- dimensional images, which include a measure of severity will be needed.

  10. Declining caries trends: are we satisfied?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D. Lagerweij; C. van Loveren

    2015-01-01

    WHO data suggest that all over the world the prevalence of caries has declined at the end of the previous and in the first decade of the present century. This decline started wherever the use of effective fluoride toothpaste became commonplace. Even though the decline is considerable with a 90 % red

  11. Probiotics for caries prevention and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S; Keller, M K

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of the microbiota for restoring and maintaining health is a growing issue in medical science. A search for relevant clinical trials on the use of probiotic bacteria as a potential and clinically applicable anti-caries measure was performed. According to predetermined criteria, papers w...

  12. Caries experience in schoolchildren in Bucharest, Romania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funieru, Cristian; Twetman, Svante; Funieru, Elena;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence and experience of dental caries among children from public middle schools in Bucharest in relation to socioeconomic status and access to school-based dental care. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from 1,595 schoolchild...

  13. Mechanical benefits of conservative restoration for dental fissure caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongpu; Zheng, Keke; Li, Eric; Li, Wei; Li, Qing; Swain, Michael V

    2016-01-01

    The principle of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) is to limit removal of carious tooth tissue while maximizing its repair and survival potential. The objective of this study is to explore the fracture resistance of a permanent molar tooth with a fissure carious lesion along with three clinical restoration procedures, namely one traditional and two conservative approaches, based upon MID. The traditional restoration employs extensive surgical removal of enamel and dentine about the cavity to eliminate potential risk of further caries development, while conservative method #1 removes significantly less enamel and infected dentine, and conservative method #2 only restores the overhanging enamel above the cavity and leaves the infected and affected dentine as it was. An extended finite element method (XFEM) is adopted here to analyze the fracture behaviors of both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) modeling of these four different scenarios. It was found that the two conservative methods exhibited better fracture resistance than the traditional restorative method. Although conservative method #2 has less fracture resistance than method #1, it had significantly superior fracture resistance compared to other restorations. More important, after cavity sealing it may potentially enhance the opportunity for remineralization and improved loading bearing capacity and fracture resistance.

  14. Caries status in young Colombian children expressed by the ICCMS™ visual/radiographic combined caries staging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Andrea; Ekstrand, Kim Rud; Gamboa, Luis Fernando;

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report (1) the caries experience prevalence and mean, and the caries severity and distribution patterns, expressed clinically and combined with radiographs with the conventional and ICCMS™ systems in young children from Bogotá, Colombia; (2) the contribution of including radiographs...... to the clinical caries scoring and (3) in which surfaces the radiograph adds to the clinical caries registration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six hundred children from kindergartens/schools were enrolled: Cohort A: 2-year (n = 200), Cohort B: 4-year (n = 200) and Cohort C: 6-year (n = 200) olds. Radiographs were taken...... of the 4- and 6- year olds. Children were examined clinically using the Clinical (C) and Radiographic (R) ICCMS™-epi Caries Scoring Systems, staging caries lesions (d) as: Initial (Cepi/RA), Moderate (CM/RB) or Extensive (CE/RC). Caries experience including missing (m) and filled (f) surfaces was expressed...

  15. Caries dental en escolares del Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRIGOYEN-CAMACHO MARÍA ESTHER

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de la prevalencia y la severidad de caries dental, así como las necesidades de tratamiento de la población escolar del Distrito Federal examinada en la encuesta de caries dental que se llevó a cabo en 1988 con la finalidad de obtener datos basales sobre caries en los escolares al inicio del Programa Nacional de Fluoruración de la Sal en México. Material y métodos. La población de estudio fue seleccionada empleando un marco muestral basado en el listado de las escuelas primarias y los jardines de niños registrados por la Secretaría de Educación Pública en 1988. En el examen de la cavidad bucal de los escolares se utilizaron los criterios diagnósticos señalados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados. Un total de 4 475 escolares de 5 a 12 años de edad participaron en el estudio. La prevalencia de caries dental en la población alcanzó 90.5%. El índice de necesidades de tratamiento fue elevado (79.6%. El promedio de los índices de caries en los escolares de 12 años de edad fue CPOD= 4.42 (desviación estándar -DE- 3.2 y CPOS= 6.53 (DE 4.8. Conclusiones. Los resultados de la encuesta subrayan la pertinencia de un programa preventivo de amplia cobertura, como el de fluoruración de la sal. Además, muestran que se requiere elaborar estrategias para mejorar el acceso de la población escolar a los servicios odontológicos del sistema de salud en México.

  16. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sweeteners and dental caries. 101.80 Section 101.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... caries. (a) Relationship between dietary carbohydrates and dental caries. (1) Dental caries, or tooth... development of dental caries. Risk factors include tooth enamel crystal structure and mineral content,...

  17. Breaking the Chain of Early Childhood Caries Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine Strickland

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dental disease can have devas-tating effects on children who lack access to dental care. The US was shocked to learn of the recent death of a child from a caries related infection. The bio-logical basis of dental caries risk is usually considered interims of individual behavior. The role of the family and other more complex units of social organization in determining caries risk are not often appreciated. The transmission of caries causing bacteria from mothers (or other care givers having extensive contact with the child has been well docu-mented. In addition the age at which children are vulnerable to colonization with caries causing organisms is known. Despite the fact that the dental and scientific communities possess knowledge concerning the routs of caries transmission, efforts to implement preventive programs specifically targeting the reduction of caries transmission have been inconsistent. Working with and motivating families to prevent caries transmission should be the shared objective of researchers and clinicians. Armed with the available know-ledge, caries should not the thought of as an inevitable part of life. The goal of this essay is to challenge readers to empower people at risk to make decisions that enable them to break the chain of caries infection.

  18. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna CARTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33 randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1 personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization, (2 life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits, and (3 oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency. An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA. Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2, whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4 and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6. Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83–3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13–1.82, respectively. The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified.

  19. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Giovanna; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Cocco, Fabio; Sale, Silvana; Lingström, Peter; Campus, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33) randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS) index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1) personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization), (2) life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits), and (3) oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency). An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA). Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2), whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4) and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6). Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83-3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13-1.82, respectively). The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified.

  20. Effects of Autolog Saliva on Biofilm Formation of Streptococcus mutans Isolated from Caries and Caries-free Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Paramita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Saliva and Streptococcus mutans play role in biofilm formation. Saliva and S.mutans virulence are different between subjects with and without caries. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of autolog saliva on biofilm formation of S. mutans isolated from caries and caries-free subjects. Materials and Methods: Saliva and plaque samples are obtained from caries and caries-free subjects. Plaque samples were cultured on TYS20B for 3 days. Selected colonies were picked and cultured on TSB for 3 days. After colony counting, biofilm assay was conducted and inoculated for one day. The biofilm was tested using crystal violet binding assay and quantified by measuring the optical density at 655 nm wavelength. Result: The optical density of S. muttans biofilm isolated from subjects with caries were different from taste with no caries. Biofilm formation of S. muttans isolated from caries and caries-free subjects with and without the presence of autolog saliva were different. Conclusion: Autolog saliva influences S. mutans biofilm formation and there is a tendency that is higher than those from subjects with no caries.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v17i2.48

  1. Prevalence of dental caries and caries-related risk factors in premature and term children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruvinel, Vanessa Resende Nogueira; Gravina, Danuze Batista Lamas; Azevedo, Tatiana Degani Paes Leme; Bezerra, Ana Cristina Barreto; Toledo, Orlando Ayrton de

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of enamel defects and dental caries and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely-born children and term children. Eighty children were examined, 40 born prematurely (G1) and 40 born term (G2), in the age group between 5 and 10 years. The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were recorded on a questionnaire. The teeth were examined for presence of deficiencies of the enamel and caries that were registered. The caries were registered, focusing on the indices dmft (decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth) and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth). The results showed that 75% of the total sample had enamel defects. The logistic regression model showed that other risk factors such as per capita family income, educational level, dietary and hygiene habits, fluoride exposure, trauma, and diseases had no correlation with enamel defects and caries. A smaller value of total DMFT (0.95) was found in the group of premature children in comparison to the term children (2.07) p = 0.0164. There was no difference concerning the permanent dentition between the two groups (p = 0.9926). One concludes that prematurity can't be a predisposing factor for the presence of dental caries.

  2. Prevalence of dental caries and caries-related risk factors in premature and term children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Resende Nogueira Cruvinel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the prevalence of enamel defects and dental caries and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely-born children and term children. Eighty children were examined, 40 born prematurely (G1 and 40 born term (G2, in the age group between 5 and 10 years. The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were recorded on a questionnaire. The teeth were examined for presence of deficiencies of the enamel and caries that were registered. The caries were registered, focusing on the indices dmft (decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth. The results showed that 75% of the total sample had enamel defects. The logistic regression model showed that other risk factors such as per capita family income, educational level, dietary and hygiene habits, fluoride exposure, trauma, and diseases had no correlation with enamel defects and caries. A smaller value of total DMFT (0.95 was found in the group of premature children in comparison to the term children (2.07 p = 0.0164. There was no difference concerning the permanent dentition between the two groups (p = 0.9926. One concludes that prematurity can't be a predisposing factor for the presence of dental caries.

  3. Relation Between Past and Present Dietary Sugar Intake and Dental Caries in A High Caries Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Malek Mohammadi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate relationship between re-ported dietary habits and dental caries in five and six-year-old children referred for dental extractions.Materials and Methods: Two hundred children were examined using standard caries di-agnostic criteria. The numbers of decayed, missing and filled deciduous teeth were re-corded. A food frequency table was completed by the parents of each child and analyzedthrough weighting the cariogenic potentialby the frequency of consumption, and summing the two scores.Results: The mean number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft was 7.1 (SD=3.29. There was no statistically significant correlation between the reported dietary intake and the caries rate in the study population P=0.07.Use of bottles with sugared drinks during infancy was associated with increased caries levels (P<0.01.Conclusion: Poor infant feeding practices promote caries in childhood. A method of diet assessment which would evaluate diet-related health education is required.

  4. Dental caries: an updated medical model of risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, V Kim

    2014-04-01

    Dental caries is a transmissible, complex biofilm disease that creates prolonged periods of low pH in the mouth, resulting in a net mineral loss from the teeth. Historically, the disease model for dental caries consisted of mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus species, and the dental profession focused on restoring the lesions/damage from the disease by using a surgical model. The current recommendation is to implement a risk-assessment-based medical model called CAMBRA (caries management by risk assessment) to diagnose and treat dental caries. Unfortunately, many of the suggestions of CAMBRA have been overly complicated and confusing for clinicians. The risk of caries, however, is usually related to just a few common factors, and these factors result in common patterns of disease. This article examines the biofilm model of dental caries, identifies the common disease patterns, and discusses their targeted therapeutic strategies to make CAMBRA more easily adaptable for the privately practicing professional.

  5. Occlusal Caries: Biological Approach for Its Diagnosis and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christina Carvalho, Joana; Dige, Irene; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2016-01-01

    process on occlusal surfaces. In addition, it considers the whole spectrum of the caries process on occlusal surfaces, ranging from the molecular ecology of occlusal biofilms to the management of deep occlusal caries lesions. Studies using molecular methods with focus on biofilms in relation to occlusal...... caries should explore the relationship between the function and the structural composition of these biofilms to understand the role of occlusal biofilms in caries development. State-of-the-art measures to evaluate risk for occlusal caries lesion activity, caries incidence, and progression should include...... the assessment of the occlusal biofilm and the stage of tooth eruption. Careful clinical examination of non-cavitated lesions, including assessment of the lesion activity status, remains the major tool to determine the immediate treatment need and to follow on the non-operative treatment outcome. Even medium...

  6. Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it might mean for you. What are dental caries? Dental caries, also known as tooth decay, occurs when bacteria ... May 2014 Task Force FINAL Recommendation | 1 Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years ...

  7. Effect of Dental Caries on Children Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Malek Mohammadi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined the hypothesis that severe dental caries may affect growth and development in preschool children. Methods: The study examined 218 children with severe caries using standard diagnostic criteria. All children were weighed and measured and a food frequency questionnaire was completed for each. Six months subsequent to tooth extraction, 131 of the children were followed up and underwent repeat measurement of height, weight, dental health and food intake. For each child, body mass index (BMI was calculated, and all measurements were converted into standard deviation scores and compared to the UK 1990 growth reference. Results: In the six months period after having their decayed teeth extracted the children’s BMIs had increased by 0.654. Two-sided t-tests for paired data showed this difference to be significant (P< 0.01. Conclusion: Treatment of gross dental disease appears to promote "catch-up" growth and normalisation of body mass index.

  8. Malnutrition and Dental Caries: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition occurs when there are deficiencies in protein, energy foods or both, relative to a body's needs. This paper reviews the association of early childhood malnutrition with: (1) dental caries, (2) enamel hypoplasia, (3) salivary gland hypofunction, and (4) delayed eruption. Studies suggest that caries of the primary dentition is associated with early childhood malnutrition, though the effect on caries of the permanent dentition has essentially not been studied. Enamel ...

  9. Fluoride varnish: a primary prevention tool for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Neerrajah

    2008-01-01

    Fluoride varnish is an effective tool that has been proven to prevent dental caries both in primary and permanent dentition. Its ease of use, acceptability and efficacy make it an important tool in the primary prevention of dental caries in high-caries-risk children. There has been an increase in third-party reimbursement for fluoride varnish applications in high-risk children and adults.

  10. Prevention, diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment of dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Study the news overtures to prevention, diagnosis and therapy of caries disease. Methods: We conducted one randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT), one cross-sectional study and one systematic review with meta-analysis. The RCT evaluated the efficacy of the Carisolv and CeraBur. In the cross-sectional study we evaluated the efficacy of a new device to detect caries lesions: DIAGNOcam. The systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate efficacy of polyols in caries pr...

  11. DENTAL CARIES- A WIDELY GROWING DISEASE OF TEETH

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries called as tooth decay is basically a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid. This acid then dematerializes the hard tooth structure. They are produced when demineralization amount exceeds the remineralization amount. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment, prevention and risk factors associated with it. A review o...

  12. Clinical evaluation of sodium flouride chewable tablets in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddi, S S; Tandon, S; Aithal, K S

    1999-01-01

    Chewable tablets containing low dosage flouride content were prepared using two varities of celluloses and their in vitro parameters were evaluated. An eighteen month clinical trial revealed that both these formulations were effective in controlling the caries. However, ethyl cellulose is proved to be superior to methylcellulose as a controlled release matrix material in controlling caries. Thus this study recommends ethylcellulose matrix tablets containing low flouride content is an efficacious and cost effective drug device in controlling dental caries.

  13. Fluoride Importance in Controlling Caries and Fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s. Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, se...

  14. Protection of gnotobiotic rats against dental caries by passive immunization with bovine milk antibodies to Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, S M; Gregory, R L; Harmon, C C; Katz, J; Richardson, G J; Hilton, T; Filler, S J; McGhee, J R

    1987-10-01

    A multivalent vaccine consisting of whole cell antigens of seven strains, representing four serotypes (b, c, d and g), of mutans streptococci was used to hyperimmunize a group of cows. Serum samples from these animals contained immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody activity to seven serotypes (a to g) of mutans streptococci. Whey obtained from the animal with the highest serum antibody activity, which also contained high levels of IgG1 antibody, was used in passive caries immunity studies. Gnotobiotic rats monoinfected with Streptococcus mutans MT8148 serotype c or Streptococcus sobrinus OMZ176 (d) or 6715 (g) and provided a caries-promoting diet containing immune whey had lower plaque scores, numbers of streptococci in plaque, and degree of caries activity than similarly infected animals given a diet containing control whey obtained from nonimmunized cows. To establish the nature of the protective component(s) present in the immune whey, an ultrafiltrate fraction of the whey was prepared. This preparation contained higher levels of IgG1 anti-S. mutans antibody activity than the immune whey. Rats monoinfected with S. mutans MT8148 and provided with a diet supplemented with 0.1% of this fraction exhibited a degree of caries protection similar to that seen in animals provided a diet containing 100% immune whey. In fact, a diet containing as little as 0.01% of the ultrafiltrate fraction gave some degree of protection against oral S. mutans infection. The active component in the immune whey was the IgG1 anti-S. mutans antibody, since rats monoinfected with S. mutans MT8148 and provided a diet supplemented with purified immune whey IgG1 had significantly reduced plaque scores, numbers of S. mutans in plaque, and caries activity compared with control animals. Prior adsorption of the IgG fraction with killed S. mutans MT8148 whole cells removed antibody activity and abrogated caries protection.

  15. Obesity and dental caries: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. METHODS A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. RESULTS Initially, 537 references were found; after checking the titles and abstracts by two independent researchers, twenty-eight articles were selected for complete reading. Ten of them that assessed the primary and/or permanent dentition observed a positive association between obesity and dental caries and one study found an inverse association. According to the Downs & Black classification, thirteen articles with good scientific evidence were found. CONCLUSIONS The present review did not find sufficient evidence regarding the association between obesity and dental caries, and it did not clarify the possible role of diet and other possible effect modifiers on this association.

  16. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment...... and the method must be used for all patients. Use of indices, for example, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), can improve the performance of this method. Using visual inspection, the clinician must decide about the presence, severity and activity of lesions. After this process...

  17. Identification of Microbial and Proteomic Biomarkers in Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Hart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide a univariate and multivariate analysis of genomic microbial data and salivary mass-spectrometry proteomic profiles for dental caries outcomes. In order to determine potential useful biomarkers for dental caries, a multivariate classification analysis was employed to build predictive models capable of classifying microbial and salivary sample profiles with generalization performance. We used high-throughput methodologies including multiplexed microbial arrays and SELDI-TOF-MS profiling to characterize the oral flora and salivary proteome in 204 children aged 1–8 years (n=118 caries-free, n=86 caries-active. The population received little dental care and was deemed at high risk for childhood caries. Findings of the study indicate that models incorporating both microbial and proteomic data are superior to models of only microbial or salivary data alone. Comparison of results for the combined and independent data suggests that the combination of proteomic and microbial sources is beneficial for the classification accuracy and that combined data lead to improved predictive models for caries-active and caries-free patients. The best predictive model had a 6% test error, >92% sensitivity, and >95% specificity. These findings suggest that further characterization of the oral microflora and the salivary proteome associated with health and caries may provide clinically useful biomarkers to better predict future caries experience.

  18. Genotypic diversity and virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans in caries-free and caries-active individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Miula Portelinha Braga; Augusta Piovesan; Natália Valarini; Sandra Mara Maciel; Flaviana Bombarda de Andrade; Regina Célia Poli-Frederico

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the genotypic diversity, frequency of serotypes and the detection of mutacins from Streptococcus mutans isolates in caries-free and caries-active individuals.A total of 260 S. mutans isolated from 28 individuals with and without dental caries were subjected to AP-PCR and PCR screening of glucosyltransferase B, mutacin and serotype genes, which showed the presence of. 70 different genotypes. There was no statistically significant association between t...

  19. A Review on Traditional Caries Diagnostic Systems and Introduction of New International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Malek Mohammadi T.; Hajizamani A.

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infection disease that manifests itself through demineralization of dental tissues and cavitations in the tooth structure. The diagnosis of dental caries poses challenges due to the complex interaction of multiple endogenous causal factors. Naturally, visual and visual-tactile examinations have been the most commonly used diagnostic aids in caries examination for many years. A major drawback in common dental examination was the use of varied diagnostic criteria by v...

  20. Incidence of distal caries in mandibular second molars due to impacted third molars: Nonintervention strategy of asymptomatic third molars causes harm? A retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Shetty, Akshay; Goswami, Rahul Dev; Apparaju, Vijay; Bagga, Vivek; Kale, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Removal of impacted third molars is the most common oral surgical procedure. Many investigators have questioned the necessity of removal in patients who are free of symptoms or associated pathologies. Aim: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the incidence of caries on distal aspect of mandibular second molars in patients referred for corresponding third molar assessment and to identify its association with angular position and depth of the impacted mandibular third molars based on the classification of Pell and Gregory. Methodology: Records of 150 patients with impacted third molar presenting to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sri Rajiv Gandhi College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, were assessed retrospectively. The radiographic angulation and depth of mandibular third molar impaction were determined and compared to determine the relationship with incidence of caries on the distal surface of the second molar. Results: According to this study results, 37.5% cases show caries on the distal aspect of mandibular second molars. The incidence of caries with mesioangular impacted third molars was 55%. A majority of these mesioangular cases were Level B and Class I as per the Pell and Gregory classification. Conclusion: The prophylactic extraction of mandibular third molars is indicated if the angulation is between 30° and 70° and is justified by incidence of distal caries in the second molars. PMID:28251102

  1. A Review on Traditional Caries Diagnostic Systems and Introduction of New International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Mohammadi T.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a chronic infection disease that manifests itself through demineralization of dental tissues and cavitations in the tooth structure. The diagnosis of dental caries poses challenges due to the complex interaction of multiple endogenous causal factors. Naturally, visual and visual-tactile examinations have been the most commonly used diagnostic aids in caries examination for many years. A major drawback in common dental examination was the use of varied diagnostic criteria by various authors. Some extensive reviews regarding this have emphasized the need for a unique system for the diagnosis of such caries. Thus, International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS emerged as a benchmark for detection and assessment of dental caries. The main objective of the new system is to improve the level of information to help make informed decision about diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical management of caries at both individual and public health levels.This study aimed to review traditional caries diagnosis methods and also describe the philosophy of the new ICDAS system for diagnosis and assessment of caries and also demonstrate how it can serve as a basis and benchmark for clinical and epidemiological research.

  2. In vivo evaluation of DIAGNOdent for the quantification of occlusal dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalife, Moufida A; Boynton, James R; Dennison, Joseph B; Yaman, Peter; Hamilton, James C

    2009-01-01

    The accurate diagnosis of non-cavitated occlusal caries is generally considered problematic. Induced fluorescence quantified by the DIAGNOdent device (KaVo) gives a reading from 0-99, which may help in the caries diagnostic process. There is some controversy around the implication of increased severity of decay with increased DIAGNOdent readings. This in vivo study assessed the correlation of depth and volume of decay as it was removed by traditional rotary handpieces with DIAGNOdent readings and determined sensitivities/specificities of the device at different cut-off points. Included in the current study were 31 patients providing 60 permanent molar and premolar occlusal surfaces suspected of dentinal decay. DIAGNOdent readings were recorded, along with lesion depth (as measured by periodontal probe) and volume measurements (as calculated from measuring the mass of a polyvinyl siloxane impression of the cavity, divided by the material's calculated density). Clinical detection of decay at the DEJ was used as the gold-standard to calculate an appropriate cut-off. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that DIAGNOdent readings were weakly correlated with lesion depth (r = 0.47) and lesion volume (also r = 0.47). An appropriate cut-off point for the sample in the current study was calculated between 35 and 40; a more specific cut-off point could not be determined due to the sample size distribution. It was concluded that the DIAGNOdent device should be used as an adjunct in the caries diagnosis and treatment planning process.

  3. Effect of alteration in organic material of the occlusal caries on DIAGNOdent readings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz; Bengtson, Antonio Lucindo

    2004-01-01

    DIAGNOdent is a laser fluorescence device used for dental caries diagnosis in occlusal and smooth surfaces. Despite the promising preliminary results, the molecules involved in the increase of fluorescence in carious lesions remain unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the laser fluorescence readings before and after changes in the organic material of occlusal carious lesions in primary teeth. Twenty-four primary molars stored in saline solution with at least one site with occlusal caries were divided into two groups. The control group had 17 sites with caries and the experimental one had 16 sites. The carious lesions were measured with laser fluorescence. The experimental samples were then removed from the storage solution and immersed in a 2% sodium hypochlorite solution for 24 hours. After washing with water, the teeth were measured again with the laser fluorescence device. The teeth of the control group were submitted to the same procedures, but saline solution was used instead of the sodium hypochlorite solution. A statistically significant reduction in the mean of the readings after immersion in the two tested solutions compared with the initial readings was observed in both groups, but the decrease was statistically higher in the experimental group (p < 0.0001). In this study, the data indicate that changes in the fluorescence of carious lesions measured by the laser fluorescence are mainly due to the organic content alterations rather than to the mineral loss.

  4. The Comparison of Dentine Thickness Under Proximal Caries Between Bitewing Radiographs and Tooth Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravi K

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Carious lesions are usually found by dentists, using bitewing radiographs, and according to the depth of the lesions, the treatment plan is designed. At the present, this technique is the most accepted one and is used generally. But it is not a perfect technique and there are some errors in determining of depth of proximal carious lesions. These errors are mainly related to the use of new high-speed films with broad density and lower voltages. In this study, dentin thickness under proximal caries in bitewing radiography was compared with its real thickness, in tooth structure. Twenty-four teeth samples with proximal caries were used. Before and after removal of carious lesions bitewing radiographs were taken and then each tooth was sectioned occlusogingivally and the thickness of dentine under proximal caries and on bitewing radiographs were measured under microscope with 0.01 mm accuracy. Mean value of dentine thickness in tooth structure was 41% of its mean thickness in bitewing radiographs, showing 59% difference (reduction. Therefore, more care should be taken in using standard technique and interpreting of bitewing radiographs by clinicians. Clinical examinations also should be performed in ideal conditions, and patients should be clinically and radiographically examined every six months.

  5. Phase transformations in a human tooth tissue at the initial stage of caries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Seredin

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to study phase transformations in solid tissues of the human teeth during the development of fissure caries by Raman and fluorescence microspectroscopy. The study of the areas with fissure caries confirmed the assumption of the formation of a weak interaction between phosphate apatite enamel and organic acids (products of microorganisms. The experimental results obtained with by Raman microspectroscopy showed the formation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate - CaHPO4-2H2O in the area of mural demineralization of carious fissure. A comparative analysis of structural and spectroscopic data for the intact and carious enamel shows that emergence of a more soluble phase - carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite - is typical for the initial stage of caries. It is shown that microareas of dental hard tissues in the carious fissure due to an emerging misorientation of apatite crystals have a higher fluorescence yield than the area of the intact enamel. These areas can be easily detected even prior to a deep demineralization (white spot stage for the case of irreversibly changed organomineral complex and intensive removal of the mineral component.

  6. A novel LED-based device for occlusal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, Ali Murat; Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Ciftçi, Mehmet Ertuğrul; Sirin Karaarslan, Emine

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the performance of laser-based (DIAGNOdent, KaVo, Biberach, Germany) and LED-based (Midwest Caries I.D., DENTSPLY Professional, New York, USA) caries detectors in the detection of occlusal caries in permanent molars. The study consisted of 129 visually sound or non-cavitated pits or fissures in 82 extracted permanent human molar teeth. Two trained examiners used the laser-based and LED-based caries detectors to examine the fissures for caries. The teeth were then sectioned at the surfaces suspected of containing occlusal caries and histologically evaluated using stereomicroscopy as a gold standard. Inter-examiner reliability of the caries detector examination was assessed using Cohen's Kappa statistics. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in diagnosing occlusal caries using the two devices were calculated according to appropriate cut-off scores. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were also determined to compare the diagnostic performance of the devices in occlusal caries diagnosis. The cut-off level of significance was taken as p = 0.005. Cohen's Kappa showed substantial agreement for the laser-based caries detector (0.74), and almost perfect agreement for the LED-based (0.89) caries detector. The specificity of the laser-based device varied from 0.49 to 0.97 at T1 and T2. Its sensitivity varied from 0.33 to 0.65 at T1 and T2. The specificity of the LED-based device varied from 0.48 to 0.56 at T1 and T2. Its sensitivity varied from 0.65 to 0.84 at T1 and from 0.80 to 0.84 at T2. Taking the limitations of the current study into consideration, the DIAGNOdent laser pen was more accurate in determining when teeth were free of occlusal caries than was the Midwest Caries I.D. LED-based device, although the Midwest Caries I.D. device more often revealed the presence of occlusal caries than did the DIAGNOdent pen.

  7. Micro-structural analysis of local damage introduced in subsurface regions of 4H-SiC wafers during chemo-mechanical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, Hideki; Matsuhata, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Masayuki; Nagaya, Masatake; Kido, Takanori; Kawata, Kenji; Kato, Tomohisa; Senzaki, Junji; Kitabatake, Makoto; Okumura, Hajime

    2016-04-01

    The surface morphology and lattice defect structures in the subsurface regions of 4H-SiC wafers introduced during chemo-mechanical polishing (CMP) were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It is known that local damage consisting of high-density lattice defects is introduced in the wafers during the current CMP, however, optical microscopy showed that the surface was very flat and clean without any presence of surface defects. Specifically, this study focused on the detailed analysis of such lattice defect structures. The high-density lattice defects locally introduced in the subsurface regions consisted of nano-scale surface scratches, high-density basal-plane dislocation loops, Shockley-type stacking faults, and Y-shaped defects. Two types of dislocation loops were introduced near the scratches that were selected for further study: nearly perfect basal-plane dislocations, which were accompanied by narrow stacking faults, and apparent partial basal-plane dislocations, which were accompanied by wide stacking faults. A Y-shaped defect was observed in the local damage along the [ 11 2 ¯ 0 ] direction, but not in the local damage along the [ 1 ¯100 ] direction. It was also found that the directions of the Burgers vectors for the basal-plane dislocations clearly depended on the directions of the introduced scratch-like defects.

  8. EFFECT OF FLUORIDE MOUTHRINSING ON CARIES LESION DEVELOPMENT IN SHARK ENAMEL - AN INSITU CARIES MODEL STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OGAARD, B; ROLLA, G; DIJKMAN, T; RUBEN, J; ARENDS, J

    1991-01-01

    Shark enamel consists of nearly pure fluorapatite and has been shown to demineralize in an in situ caries model. The present study was conducted to investigate whether additional fluoride supplementation in the form of mouthrinsing would inhibit lesion development in shark enamel. The study slabs of

  9. Fluorine profiling after application of various anti-caries gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschau, H.E.; Plier, F.; Otto, G. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Wissenschaftsbereich Angewandte Kernphysik); Wyrwich, C.; Treide, A. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Poliklinik fuer Orthopaedische und Kinderstomatologie)

    1990-04-01

    Two newly developed caries-preventing gels were tested together with Elmex on pre-school children over a time of 3 years. Proton-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry (PIGE) was used to measure the fluorine profiles in milk teeth (incisors). In accordance with the clinical statement the results allow to produce a new anti-caries drug. (orig.).

  10. Early Childhood Caries (ECC): an infectious transmissible oral disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Poureslami; W.E. van Amerongen

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries in babies and toddlers is called Early Childhood Caries (ECC). It is an infectious and transmissible die-to-bacterial disease. Detailed knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents facilitates a more comprehensive approach toward prevention. Mutans streptoc

  11. Fluorides in caries prevention and control: empiricism or science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, J M

    2004-01-01

    The caries-preventive effects of fluoride are beyond any reasonable doubt! Inclusion of fluoride use in caries prevention protocols has resulted in significant reduction in caries prevalence in the majority of the population. Nevertheless, even in low-caries prevalence populations up to 20% of individuals may suffer to an unacceptable degree from caries. In the history of caries research various phases can be discerned. Starting with the initial - laboratory - studies to reveal the mode of action of fluoride, attention later shifted to intra-oral studies and in situ product testing. Currently much emphasis is given to evidence-based dentistry and guidelines for clinical practice, which trend has also focussed the research on fluoride and caries. While on some topics, such as the efficacy of fluoride toothpastes, evidence is convincing, additional research is indicated to resolve remaining questions. One such question is that of high-prevalence individuals for which a comprehensive research programme focussing both on caries aetiological and behavioural aspects should be further developed. Efforts should continue to be directed at improving our understanding of fluoride, in particular on topics where success so far has failed.

  12. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; van Loveren, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to ex

  13. Estimation of caries experience by multiple imputation and direct standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, A.A.; Buuren, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Valid estimates of caries experience are needed to monitor oral population health. Obtaining such estimates in practice is often complicated by nonresponse and missing data. The goal of this study was to estimate caries experiences in a population of children aged 5 and 11 years, in the presence of

  14. Estimation of Caries Experience by Multiple Imputation and Direct Standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, A. A.; van Buuren, S.

    2014-01-01

    Valid estimates of caries experience are needed to monitor oral population health. Obtaining such estimates in practice is often complicated by nonresponse and missing data. The goal of this study was to estimate caries experiences in a population of children aged 5 and 11 years, in the presence of

  15. Dental caries in Rome, 50-100 AD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, O; Guldager Bilde, P; Bizzarro, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Scarce information exists on the clinical features of dental caries in the Imperial Roman population and no structural data on caries lesions from this period have so far been published. We report on the findings of 86 teeth (50-100 AD) found during archaeological excavations of the temple...

  16. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Loveren, C. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to e

  17. Dental Caries and General Health in Children and Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    Caries is a biofilm-mediated noncommunicable disease fueled by dietary sugar, neglected oral hygiene, and reduced saliva flow. General diseases may influence the oral environment through its pathogenesis, medication, and/or the caring of the condition. Associations between caries and chronic...

  18. Carious dentine removal: current approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Coeli de Farias Sales

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentistry is renewed day after day through the results of qualified researches. The approach as regards carious dentin removal is goingthrough questioning and innovation. The scope of this study was to perform a literature review in the sense of elucidating questions pertaining to the problem of whether or not it is necessary to completely remove carious dentin, and the possibility of performing restoration in a single session, in addition to a discussion about which type of material should be applied in this type of substrate. After analyzing the referenced articles, it was concluded that the stepwise treatment controls caries progression; there is a trend in the literature to partially remove the carious dentin in deep lesions and perform definitive restoration; Calcium hydroxide cement is a classical liner in these situations, while glass ionomer cement and resinous materials are other possibilities of materials that can be in close contact with the remaining dentin.

  19. Influence of microleakage, surface roughness and biofilm control on secondary caries formation around composite resin restorations: an in situ evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Garcia Lima

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate in situ the influence of microleakage, surface roughness and biofilm control on caries formation around composite resin restorations. During 28 days, 12 volunteers wore palatal devices containing bovine enamel slabs restored with composite resin. Restorations were made without leakage, when the adhesive system was applied, or with leakage, when adhesive system was omitted. Half of the restorations in each group were finished and the remaining were finished and polished. In one side of the palatal device, biofilm was left to accumulate over the restored slabs, and in the other side dental slabs were brushed, to allow biofilm removal. There was an extraoral application of 20% sucrose solution (8x/day over the enamel slabs. The formation of caries lesions (white spots was evaluated by visual inspection under stereomicroscopy. Additionally, the dental slabs were sectioned and observed under polarized light microscopy. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman's correlation test at 5% significance level. Polishing and bonding were not significant factors regarding white spot formation (p>0.05. Biofilm control (brushing was associated with reduction of caries formation close to the restorations (p<0.01. Polarized light microscopy confirmed the visual inspection findings. These results suggest that while microleakage and surface roughness did not influence caries lesion formation, biofilm control may prevent the enamel demineralization.

  20. Validity and reliability of methods for the detection of secondary caries around amalgam restorations in primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Minatel Braga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary caries has been reported as the main reason for restoration replacement. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the performance of different methods - visual inspection, laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent, radiography and tactile examination - for secondary caries detection in primary molars restored with amalgam. Fifty-four primary molars were photographed and 73 suspect sites adjacent to amalgam restorations were selected. Two examiners evaluated independently these sites using all methods. Agreement between examiners was assessed by the Kappa test. To validate the methods, a caries-detector dye was used after restoration removal. The best cut-off points for the sample were found by a Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC analysis, and the area under the ROC curve (Az, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the methods were calculated for enamel (D2 and dentine (D3 thresholds. These parameters were found for each method and then compared by the McNemar test. The tactile examination and visual inspection presented the highest inter-examiner agreement for the D2 and D3 thresholds, respectively. The visual inspection also showed better performance than the other methods for both thresholds (Az = 0.861 and Az = 0.841, respectively. In conclusion, the visual inspection presented the best performance for detecting enamel and dentin secondary caries in primary teeth restored with amalgam.

  1. The influence of caries disclosing agents and cavity disinfectants on microleakage of gingival floor of class V composite resin restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safarcherati H

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: An important purpose of adhesive dentistry is restriction of cavity preparation to carious dentin removal and conservation of sound dentin. Application of caries disclosing agents and cavity disinfectants can help achieving this goal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caries disclosing agents and cavity disinfectants on microleakage of composite resin restorations. Materials and Methods: This experimental in-vitro study was performed on class V cavities in 48 extracted human sound premolars. The teeth were randomly divided into four equal groups. In group 1 caries detector dye (Seek, Ultradent, USA and in group 2 cavity disinfectant (Consepsis, Ultradent, USA were applied on dentinal surfaces. In group 3 both mentioned materials were applied. Group 4 was considered as control group. PQ1 bonding agent and Amelogen composite were used to restore the cavities. Gingival microleakage was assessed by dye penetration. Data were analyzed by Kruskall Wallis and Dunn tests. P<0.05 was the level of significance.Results: Group 2 showed the least and group 4 showed the highest microleakage;however no statistical significant difference was found among the groups.Conclusion: The use of caries disclosing agent (Seek and cavity disinfectant (Consepsis Liquid did not adversely affect the sealing ability of dentin bonding resins.

  2. Prevention of dental caries: A review of effective treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicca, Claudio; Bobbio, Elena; Quartuccio, Natale; Nicolò, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to review medical and non medical treatments for prevention of caries. Material and Methods A comprehensive literature search of the most relevant and updated published studies from 01/01/2002 through December 2015 in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases regarding the efficacy of strategies and treatments aiming to prevent the development of caries was performed selecting papers on the basis of the Evidence-based Medicine Criteria. Results We identified thirty systematic reviews on prevention of caries. Analyzing the data the retrieved literature, performance of prevention treatments seems to be high. Conclusions Prevention treatments may have a relevant impact on the avoiding the development of caries planning. Key words:Dental caries, prevention, fluoride. PMID:27957278

  3. Risk factors for early childhood caries in disadvantaged populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Schwarz, Eli; Blinkhorn, Anthony Stevenson

    2011-11-01

    Early childhood caries is a significant international public health problem. The aim of this paper was to review the current evidence of the risk factors for dental caries in disadvantaged children under 6 years of age. Medline, Cochrane, and PubMed database searches were conducted. Systematic reviews were used where available, or meta-analyses; randomized, controlled trials; and cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies (in that order). Studies were restricted to those published in English from 1990 to October 2010. Early childhood caries has a complex etiology with biological, behavioral, and sociodemographic influences. Evidence suggests that young children are most likely to develop caries if Streptococcus mutans is acquired at an early age, although this is influenced by other factors, such as oral hygiene, fluoride, diet, dental visit patterns, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and health literacy. Etiological pathways should be taken into consideration when designing interventions to prevent dental caries in disadvantaged preschool children.

  4. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  5. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles for caries control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Birkedal, Henrik; Olsen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Caries is caused by acid production in biofilms on dental surfaces. Preventing caries therefore involves control of microorganisms and/or the acid produced. Here, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles are presented as a new approach to caries control. The particles are made by co......-precipitation and designed to bind to bacteria in biofilms, impede biofilm build-up without killing the microflora, and release phosphate ions to buffer bacterial acid production if the pH decreases below 6. Analysis of biofilm formation and pH in a five-species biofilm model for dental caries showed that treatment......H always remained above 5.5. Hence, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles show potential for applications in caries control....

  6. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Areias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. METHODS: A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. RESULTS: Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of non-Down syndrome siblings. This difference in the DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth essentially reflects data obtained from treated teeth, for which 91% of children with Down syndrome had never had a tooth treated vs. 67% of siblings. This result was statistically significant, whereas results for decayed and lost teeth did not differ between Down syndrome children and their unaffected siblings. Additionally, in Down syndrome children, a delayed eruption of the second molar occurs. Down syndrome children and their siblings have similar oral hygiene habits, but a higher percentage of Down syndrome children visit a dentist before the age of three years, in comparison to their siblings. Bruxism was also more common in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Portuguese children with Down syndrome have lower caries rates than children without Down syndrome. This reduced prevalence may be associated with the parents' greater concern about oral health care in Down syndrome children, resulting in their taking them sooner to visit a dentist, as well as to a higher bruxism prevalence and delayed tooth eruption.

  7. Genetic influences in caries and periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassell, T M; Harris, E L

    1995-01-01

    Deciphering the relative roles of heredity and environmental factors ("nature vs. nurture") in the pathogenesis of dental caries and diseases of the periodontium has occupied clinical and basic researchers for decades. Success in the endeavor has come more easily in the case of caries; the complex interactions that occur between host-response mechanisms and putative microbiologic pathogens in periodontal disease have made elucidation of genetic factors in disease susceptibility more difficult. In addition, during the 30-year period between 1958 and 1987, only meager resources were targeted toward the "nature" side of the nature/nurture dipole in periodontology. In this article, we present a brief history of the development of genetic epistemology, then describe the three main research mechanisms by which questions about the hereditary component of diseases in humans can be addressed. A critical discussion of the evidence for a hereditary component in caries susceptibility is next presented, also from a historical perspective. The evolution of knowledge concerning possible genetic ("endogenous", "idiotypic") factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease is initiated with an analysis of some foreign-language (primarily German) literature that is likely to be unfamiliar to the reader. We identify a turning point at about 1960, when the periodontal research community turned away from genetics in favor of microbiology research. During the past five years, investigators have re-initiated the search for the hereditary component in susceptibility to common adult periodontal disease; this small but growing body of literature is reviewed. Recent applications of in vitro methods for genetic analyses in periodontal research are presented, with an eye toward a future in which persons who are at risk--genetically predisposed--to periodontal disease may be identified and targeted for interventive strategies. Critical is the realization that genes and environment

  8. DIAGNOdent: an optical method for caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussi, A; Hibst, R; Paulus, R

    2004-01-01

    The onset of caries is characterized by demineralization of dental hard tissues. Optimal fluoridation with respective oral hygiene habits and diet may stop the progression of a lesion and even allow for its remineralization. The aim of modern dentistry must be a preventive approach rather than invasive repair of the disease. This is possible only with early detection and respective preventive measures. Some of today's diagnostic tools are not sensitive enough to detect this early onset of destruction. Tools based on fluorescence could have the possibility to overcome this problem. This overview will focus on today's knowledge of one possible tool, the DIAGNOdent.

  9. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries.

  10. Association of parental stress and early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ebrahim Jabbarifar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Little research has been carried out on whether the parental stress affects children′s oral health in general and dental caries in particular. This study aimed to investigate the association be-tween parental stress and early childhood caries (ECC. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed that included 250 children of 4-6 year-old; 127 ones attended the pediatric department of Isfahan School of Dentistry who had early childhood caries and a comparison group of 123 caries free children attended five kindergartens and pre-schools in Isfahan city. Clinical examinations were conducted to evaluate the caries status. The parents of the two study groups completed the self-administrated long form of the Parenting Stress Index questionnaire. De-tails of their socio-demographic status were gathered too. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5. The nonparametric Mantel-Haenszel test for correlation statistics was used to determine bivariate associations between total parenting stress and their domains scores in the two groups; i.e., those with early childhood caries and the caries free group. Results: Mean score of PSI in the early childhood caries and caries free group were 286.66 ± 66.26 and 273.87 ± 31.03, respectively. There was not any significant relationship between total parental stress and ECC. The scores of the following domains of PSI demonstrated significant differences between ECC and CF groups: child reinforcement, child distractibility, child deficit attention, life stress and relationship with spouse (P = 0.01, 0.01, 0.001, 0.005 respectively. Conclusion: Findings of this study did not show any significant association between total parenting stress score and prevalence of early childhood caries.

  11. Caries-preventive Effect of Supervised Toothbrushing and Sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, L A; Leal, S C; Mulder, J; Creugers, N H J; Frencken, J E

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of 3 caries-preventive measures on high- and low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial covered 242 schoolchildren, 6 to 7 y old, from low socioeconomic areas. At baseline, caries risk was assessed at the tooth surface level, through a combination of ICDAS II (International Caries Detection and Assessment System) and fissure depth codes. High-caries risk occlusal surfaces were treated according to daily supervised toothbrushing (STB) at school and 2 sealants: composite resin (CR) and atraumatic restorative treatment-high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (ART-GIC). Low-caries risk occlusal surfaces received STB or no intervention. Evaluations were performed after 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 y. A cavitated dentine carious lesion was considered a failure. Data were analyzed according to the proportional hazard rate regression model with frailty correction, Wald test, analysis of variance, and t test, according to the jackknife procedure for calculating standard errors. The cumulative survival rates of cavitated dentine carious lesion-free, high-caries risk occlusal surfaces were 95.6%, 91.4%, and 90.2% for STB, CR, and ART-GIC, respectively, over 3 y, which were not statistically significantly different. For low-caries risk occlusal surfaces, no statistically significant difference was observed between the cumulative survival rate of the STB group (94.8%) and the no-intervention group (92.1%) over 3 y. There was neither a difference among STB, CR, and ART-GIC on school premises in preventing cavitated dentine carious lesions in high-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars nor a difference between STB and no intervention for low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y.

  12. An artifical neural network for detection of simulated dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kositbowornchai, S. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Oral Diagnosis; Siriteptawee, S.; Plermkamon, S.; Bureerat, S. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Chetchotsak, D. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Industrial Engineering

    2006-08-15

    Objects: A neural network was developed to diagnose artificial dental caries using images from a charged-coupled device (CCD)camera and intra-oral digital radiography. The diagnostic performance of this neural network was evaluated against a gold standard. Materials and methods: The neural network design was the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) used to classify a tooth surface as sound or as having dental caries. The depth of the dental caries was indicated on a graphic user interface (GUI) screen developed by Matlab programming. Forty-nine images of both sound and simulated dental caries, derived from a CCD camera and by digital radiography, were used to 'train' an artificial neural network. After the 'training' process, a separate test-set comprising 322 unseen images was evaluated. Tooth sections and microscopic examinations were used to confirm the actual dental caries status.The performance of neural network was evaluated using diagnostic test. Results: The sensitivity (95%CI)/specificity (95%CI) of dental caries detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography were 0.77(0.68-0.85)/0.85(0.75-0.92) and 0.81(0.72-0.88)/0.93(0.84-0.97), respectively. The accuracy of caries depth-detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography was 58 and 40%, respectively. Conclusions: The model neural network used in this study could be a prototype for caries detection but should be improved for classifying caries depth. Our study suggests an artificial neural network can be trained to make the correct interpretations of dental caries. (orig.)

  13. [Factors associated with the incidence of dental caries among schoolchildren living in a municipality with low prevalence of dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypriano, Silvia; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Sciamarelli, Maria Cristina; Tôrres, Luísa Helena do Nascimento; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de; Wada, Ronaldo Seichi

    2011-10-01

    The literature has shown that poorer levels of oral health are more frequently related to lower socio-economic status, consequently this cross-sectional and exploratory study conducted in 2003 investigated the association between caries and socio-economic factors, access to care, self-perception and habits among 266 12-year-old schoolchildren living in a community with low prevalence of dental caries. World Health Organization dental caries diagnosis methodology was used, in addition to the application of socio-economic and behavioral questionnaires. To identify the factors associated with dental caries, multivariate logistic regression was used and the dependent variable was synthesized into DMFT=0 and DMFT>0. Bearing in mind the limitations of a cross-sectional study, disliking the appearance of teeth, seeking dental care because of pain, studying at a state school and the head of the family being a manual worker were independently associated with dental caries. Even in a municipality with low prevalence of caries, the socio-economic status, dental care and self-perception were important factors in the incidence of dental caries among schoolchildren, and it is recommended that many factors in the bio-psychosocial context of multi-factorial dental caries should be investigated.

  14. Genotypic diversity and virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans in caries-free and caries-active individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miula Portelinha Braga

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the genotypic diversity, frequency of serotypes and the detection of mutacins from Streptococcus mutans isolates in caries-free and caries-active individuals.A total of 260 S. mutans isolated from 28 individuals with and without dental caries were subjected to AP-PCR and PCR screening of glucosyltransferase B, mutacin and serotype genes, which showed the presence of. 70 different genotypes. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of genes for serotypes and mutacins with dental caries. However, there was a statistically significant and a strong association between the higher genotypic diversity in the subjects with caries (r = 0.72, p = 0.001. There was an increase in the number of genotypes with increasing age (p <0.01.

  15. Caries dental en escolares del Distrito Federal Dental caries in school children in Mexico City

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    MARÍA ESTHER IRIGOYEN-CAMACHO

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de la prevalencia y la severidad de caries dental, así como las necesidades de tratamiento de la población escolar del Distrito Federal examinada en la encuesta de caries dental que se llevó a cabo en 1988 con la finalidad de obtener datos basales sobre caries en los escolares al inicio del Programa Nacional de Fluoruración de la Sal en México. Material y métodos. La población de estudio fue seleccionada empleando un marco muestral basado en el listado de las escuelas primarias y los jardines de niños registrados por la Secretaría de Educación Pública en 1988. En el examen de la cavidad bucal de los escolares se utilizaron los criterios diagnósticos señalados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados. Un total de 4 475 escolares de 5 a 12 años de edad participaron en el estudio. La prevalencia de caries dental en la población alcanzó 90.5%. El índice de necesidades de tratamiento fue elevado (79.6%. El promedio de los índices de caries en los escolares de 12 años de edad fue CPOD= 4.42 (desviación estándar –DE– 3.2 y CPOS= 6.53 (DE 4.8. Conclusiones. Los resultados de la encuesta subrayan la pertinencia de un programa preventivo de amplia cobertura, como el de fluoruración de la sal. Además, muestran que se requiere elaborar estrategias para mejorar el acceso de la población escolar a los servicios odontológicos del sistema de salud en México.Objective. To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the dental treatment necessities of school children in Mexico City. The studied population was surveyed for dental caries in 1988 to obtain data necessary for the National Program of Salt Fluoridation in Mexico. Material and methods. The population was selected with a sample frame based on a list of Kindergardens and primary schools registered at the Ministry of Public Education in 1988. The oral cavity examination was based on diagnostic criteria marked by the

  16. Caries-resistant bonding layer in dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Niu, Li-Na; Hu, Lin; Jiao, Kai; Chang, Gang; Shen, Li-Juan; Tay, Franklin R; Chen, Ji-Hua

    2016-09-07

    The present study examined the mechanism for caries resistance and the pulp responses in vital teeth following the use of the augmented-pressure adhesive displacement technique. Dentin adhesives were applied to the surface of sound dentin disks in 4 experimental groups: non-antibacterial adhesive and gentle adhesive displacement (N-G), non-antibacterial adhesive and augmented-pressure adhesive displacement (N-H), antibacterial adhesive and gentle adhesive displacement (A-G), antibacterial adhesive and augmented-pressure adhesive displacement (A-H). The depth of demineralization induced by biological or chemical demineralization models was measured using confocal laser scanning microscopy and analyzed with two-way ANOVA. Pulp responses of vital dog's teeth to the augmented-pressure adhesive displacement technique were evaluated using light microscopy. Depth of demineralization was significantly affected by "adhesive type" and "intensity of adhesive displacement" for biological demineralization. For chemical demineralization, only "intensity of adhesive displacement" showed significant influence on lesion depth. Pulp response of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 MPa groups showed only moderate disorganization of the odontoblast layer at 24 hours that completely re-organized after 3 weeks. Augmented-pressure adhesive displacement improves the caries resistance property of bonded dentin and does not cause irreversible pulpal damage to vital teeth when the air pressure employed is equal or smaller than 0.3 MPa.

  17. Terahertz pulsed imaging study of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Altan, Hakan; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç

    2015-07-01

    Current diagnostic techniques in dentistry rely predominantly on X-rays to monitor dental caries. Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) has great potential for medical applications since it is a nondestructive imaging method. It does not cause any ionization hazard on biological samples due to low energy of THz radiation. Even though it is strongly absorbed by water which exhibits very unique chemical and physical properties that contribute to strong interaction with THz radiation, teeth can still be investigated in three dimensions. Recent investigations suggest that this method can be used in the early identification of dental diseases and imperfections in the tooth structure without the hazards of using techniques which rely on x-rays. We constructed a continuous wave (CW) and time-domain reflection mode raster scan THz imaging system that enables us to investigate various teeth samples in two or three dimensions. The samples comprised of either slices of individual tooth samples or rows of teeth embedded in wax, and the imaging was done by scanning the sample across the focus of the THz beam. 2D images were generated by acquiring the intensity of the THz radiation at each pixel, while 3D images were generated by collecting the amplitude of the reflected signal at each pixel. After analyzing the measurements in both the spatial and frequency domains, the results suggest that the THz pulse is sensitive to variations in the structure of the samples that suggest that this method can be useful in detecting the presence of caries.

  18. Bluetooth technology for prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad

    2009-12-01

    Caries is caused when the pH at the tooth surface drops below 5.5. A miniaturized and autonomous pH monitoring nodes can be attached to the tooth surface, like a tooth jewel. This intelligent sensor includes three components: (a) digital micro pH meter, (b) power supply, (c) wireless communicating device. The micro pH meter facilitates long term tooth surface pH monitoring and providing real time feedback to the patients and dental experts. Power supply of this system will be microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cell (enzymatic micro-battery) using organic compounds (e.g. formate or glucose) as the fuel to generate electricity. When micro pH meter detects the pH lower than 5.5, wireless Bluetooth device sends a caution (e.g. "you are at risk of dental caries") to external monitoring equipment such as mobile phone or a hands-free heads. After reception of the caution, subjects should use routine brushing and flossing procedure or use a medicated chewing gum (e.g. chlorhexidine containing chewing gum) or rinse with a mouthwash.

  19. The Antibacterial Effects of Apacaries Gel on Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Juntavee, Apa; Peerapattana, Jomjai; Ratanathongkam, Ariya; Nualkaew, Nartsajee; Chatchiwiwattana, Supaporn; Treesuwan, Panta

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: New approaches for chemomechanical caries removal require effective materials with antibacterial properties for removal of infected dentin. Apacaries gel is a newly developed material comprised polyphenol from mangosteen extracts and papain mixed in gel preparation. Aim: This study evaluated the antibacterial effects of Apacaries gel on Streptococcus mutans in vitro. Materials and methods: Mangosteen pericarp powder was extracted. The amount of phenolic compounds was dete...

  20. Risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braúna, Ana Paula Vasques Sales; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de; Resende, Vera Lúcia Silva; Castilho, Lia Silva de

    2016-06-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities who were treated at a clinical reference service for patients with special needs in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. This is a retrospective cohort study that evaluated 401 dental charts of individuals without dental caries or restorations in their first dental appointment. The dependent variable was the time of occurrence of new dental caries or restorations and was measured in months. Gender, age, International Code of Diseases (ICD), mother´s education, sugar consumption, use of fluoride toothpaste, oral hygiene, mouth breathing, reports of xerostomia, gingival status, use of psychotropic or asthma drugs, and history of asthma were covariates. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the raw and adjusted hazard ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals. The average time that individuals remained free of dental caries/restoration was equal to 107.46 months (95%CI 95.41 to 119.51), with a median of caries-free children up to 94 months. For each point increase in the scale of sucrose consumption, the increase in caries risk was 1.07 (95%CI 1.01 to 1.15). Sucrose consumption was the only risk factor for dental caries found in this group of individuals with developmental disabilities.

  1. Low levels of caries in aggressive periodontitis: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulugodu Ramachandra Srinivas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a traditional literature review on caries levels in aggressive periodontitis. Aggressive periodontitis generally affects systemically healthy individuals aged <30 years (older individuals can also be affected and is characterized by a young age of onset, rapid rate of disease progression, and familial aggregation of cases. Dental caries is caused by the dissolution of enamel by acid-producing bacteria present in the plaque biofilm, especially when the biofilm reaches critical mass due to improper oral hygiene. The association between caries level and aggressive periodontitis has long been debated. Initial research indicated that caries levels were high in patients with aggressive periodontitis, but high-quality studies have consistently shown that caries and aggressive periodontitis are inversely related. A recent in vitro study showed that Streptococcus mutans was killed more readily in the saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans positivity than in patients with A. actinomycetemcomitans negativity. Other mechanisms possibly explaining the inverse relationship between caries and aggressive periodontitis in cases of Down’s syndrome are also discussed in this literature review. The usefulness of caries level in the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis in developing countries such as India, where the disease is diagnosed primarily on the basis of clinical and radiographic features and familial history is also discussed.

  2. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of dental caries with high specificity for carious lesions detection. In the presented cases photographic images, representing the visual diagnostic approach, are applied as integration to VistaCam iX Proof images. A step-by-step sequence of inspection and assessment of operative treatment need is presented in a case of hidden pit and fissure caries on a permanent molar. Based on the reported case, it could be observed that VistaCam iX Proof shows promising results in hidden pits and fissures caries detection and could be considered a non-invasive examination method that facilitate the detection of early lesions and a potential diagnostic aid.

  3. Reactionary Dentinogenesis and Neuroimmune Response in Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couve, E; Osorio, R; Schmachtenberg, O

    2014-08-01

    Reactionary dentin formation is an adaptive secretory response mediated by odontoblasts to moderate dentin injury. The implications of this process for neuroimmune interactions operating to contain pathogens have not been fully appreciated. The purpose of the present study was to describe the relationship between reactionary dentinogenesis, the neurogenic changes of dental pulp innervation, and dendritic cell recruitment to caries progression, using a comparative immunohistochemical approach in human teeth from young adult individuals. Reactionary dentin formation during dentin caries progression is associated with changes in the integrity of junctional complexes within the odontoblast layer. Diminished coexpression of Cx43 and zonula occludens 1 implies a reduced level of intercellular connectivity between odontoblasts. Dentin caries also causes overexpression of growth-associated protein 43, a modulator of neural plasticity that promotes extensive sprouting of nerve endings into the reactionary dentin matrix. At the same time, an elevated number of HLA-DR-positive dendritic cells infiltrate the odontoblast layer and subsequently invade reactionary dentin formed underneath the early caries-affected regions. Simultaneous odontoblast layer remodeling, nerve fiber sprouting, and activation of dendritic cells during caries progression suggest a coordinated neuroimmune response to fight caries pathogen invasion and to promote dentin-pulp healing. We propose that reactionary dentin formation hinders pathogen invasion and supports defensive neuroimmune interactions against infection. The eventual understanding of this complex scenario may contribute to the development of novel approaches to dental caries treatment.

  4. Diet and the microbial aetiology of dental caries: new paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, David J; Lynch, Richard J M

    2013-12-01

    The microbial and dietary factors that drive caries have been studied scientifically for 120 years. Frequent and/or excessive sugar (especially sucrose) consumption has been ascribed a central role in caries causation, while Streptococcus mutans appeared to play the key role in metabolising sucrose to produce lactic acid, which can demineralise enamel. Many authors described caries as a transmissible infectious disease. However, more recent data have shifted these paradigms. Streptococcus mutans does not fulfil Koch's postulates - presence of the organism leading to disease, and absence of the organism precluding disease. Furthermore, molecular microbiological methods have shown that, even with a sugar-rich diet, a much broader spectrum of acidogenic microbes is found in dental plaque. While simple sugars can be cariogenic, cooked starches are also now recognised to be a caries threat, especially because such starches, while not 'sticky in the hand', can be highly retentive in the mouth. Metabolism of starch particles can yield a prolonged acidic challenge, especially at retentive, caries-prone sites. These changes in the paradigms of caries aetiology have important implications for caries control strategies. Preventing the transmission of S. mutans will likely be inadequate to prevent caries if a sufficiently carbohydrate-rich diet continues. Similarly, restriction of sucrose intake, although welcome, would be unlikely to be a panacea for caries, especially if frequent starch intake persisted. Instead, approaches to optimise fluoride delivery, to target plaque acidogenicity or acidogenic microbes, to promote plaque alkali generation, to increase salivary flow or replace fermentable carbohydrates with non-fermentable alternatives may be more promising.

  5. Heavy smoking and severe dental caries in Indonesian men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumartono, Wasis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Indonesia, the prevalence of dental caries is 85%–99% and 67.4% of males aged 15 years or older are current users of tobacco. The aim of this study was to examine the association between heavy smoking and severe dental caries. METHODS: The authors used secondary data from Basic Health Research 2007. Respondents were Indonesian males aged 45–54 years (n = 34 534. Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT value was used to define severe dental caries with 31.4% of respondents having DMFT value ≥ 8, the cutoff point of severe dental caries in this study. In addition, the enumerators recorded socio-demographic characteristics (age, socio-economic status, education, and job, tooth brushing and smoking behavior of respondents. Chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of severe dental caries between heavy smokers (defined as Brinkman Index or BI ≥ 400 and never smokers (BI = 0. The multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate adjusted association between heavy smoking and dental caries severity. RESULTS: The prevalence of severe dental caries among never smokers, light smokers (BI 1-399 and heavy smokers was 24.9%, 32.5%, and 38.7% respectively (p < 0.005. Compared to never smokers, the adjusted ORs of having severe dental caries among light smokers and heavy smokers were 1.45 (95% CI: 1.37-1.53 and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.59 – 1.81, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is a risk factor of severe dental caries in Indonesian men with dose-and-response association revealed between the exposure and the outcome. Indonesian dentists, individually and collectively, have to participate in smoking prevention and control more actively.

  6. Ozone and caries: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, F J Trevor

    2012-05-01

    Ozone, either in gaseous form or as ozonated water, has been available for use as a treatment for dental caries for a decade. This paper reviews the literature on the subject by examining the findings of publications in the peer review literature. Eighteen papers were identified by a literature search. From the review of these, it was concluded that, while some laboratory studies and some short duration clinical studies have suggested that ozone may be effective in the treatment of root caries or killing of oral micro-organisms, the clinical evidence for the use of ozone in treatment of caries is not compelling.

  7. The colony number of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in saliva of dental caries and free caries children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seno Pradopo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans are regarded as the main initiator microorganism of caries, with Lactobacilli participating on caries progression, due to its carcinogenic capacity. The purpose of this study was to examine the number of S. mutans and Lactobacillus sp in children with in children’s saliva with dental caries and free caries. Twenty children attending the Paediatric Dental Clinic in Airlangga University participated in our study. Their age ranged from 1–14 years old. Subject was divided into two groups, which were study group consisting of 10 children with 3–5 dmft/DMFT and control group with 10 caries free children. Subjects were examined and their caries number was recorded using WHO index. Stimulated saliva was collected from each subject for bacterial assessment. Colony counting of S. mutans and Lactobacillus sp count in each saliva sample group were done. The study showed that subject with 3–5 dmft/DMFT had higher number of S. mutans and Lactobacillus sp than caries free.

  8. Defectos del esmalte, caries en dentición primaria, fuentes de fluoruro y su relación con caries en dientes permanentes Enamel defects, caries in primary dentition and fluoride sources: relationship with caries in permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alicia Vallejos-Sánchez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Explorar la relación entre la presencia de defectos del esmalte (DE, la experiencia de caries en la dentición temporal, y la exposición a diversas fuentes de fluoruros, con la presencia de caries en la dentición permanente de niños con dentición mixta. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 713 sujetos de 6-9 años de edad de 4 escuelas de Campeche, México, mediante un cuestionario dirigido a las madres, y un examen clínico bucal a los niños. La variable dependiente fue la prevalencia de caries en la dentición permanente. Resultados: El promedio de dientes temporales cariados, extraídos y obturados (ceod y dientes permanentes cariados, perdidos y obturados (CPOD fue de 2,48 (2,82 (ceod > 0 = 58,9% y 0,40 (0,98 (CPOD > 0 = 18,2%, respectivamente. El índice SiC (índice de caries significativa, calculado en la dentición temporal fue de 5,85 para los niños de 6 años de edad. En el análisis de regresión logística multivariado permanecieron significativas, después de ajustar por variables de exposición a fluoruros, la mayor edad (odds ratio [OR] = 2,99, el ceod > 0 (OR = 5,46, la menor escolaridad de la madre (OR = 1,57 y una interacción entre sexo y defectos del esmalte. Conclusiones: Las caries en la dentición temporal y permanente fueron relativamente menores que las observaciones publicadas por otros estudios en México. Los resultados confirmaron que la caries en la dentición temporal se asoció fuertemente con la caries en la dentición permanente. No hubo una relación significativa entre las fuentes de fluoruro y la caries dental en la dentición permanente.Objective: To examine the relationship between the presence of enamel defects, dental caries in primary teeth, and exposure to various fluoride technologies and the presence of dental caries in permanent teeth in children with mixed dentition. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 713 children aged 6-9 years old

  9. Caries detection and quantification with DIAGNOdent: prospects for occlusal and root caries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, R; Wicht, M J

    2004-10-01

    A possible consequence of light absorption as the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with molecules of the tooth's hard substances is, apart from the emission of heat, fluorescence. It was demonstrated that the emission spectra of enamel, dentin, and caries look alike upon excitation with red light; however, fluorescence increases with the process of carious destruction. Based on that, the DIAGNOdent System was developed, which simultaneously injects red light into the tooth surface and detects the resulting fluorescence. Due to this design, clinical application is currently limited to accessible occlusal and smooth surfaces. For occlusal caries detection, it was shown that validity and reproducibility could be optimized over classical diagnostic tests for deep dentin lesions with seemingly intact surfaces. The detection of root caries does not play a relevant role in the directly accessible areas, but estimation of the lesion's activity and progression rate is a prerequisite for differentiated lesion management Excellent reproducibility of the laser fluorescence measurements was confirmed for this scenario. Lesions with a soft surface texture show significantly higher fluorescence values than leathery or hard lesions, and values also increase with increasing cavity depth. DIAGNOdent offers the potential to improve follow-ups and estimation of the prognosis and to support clinical management of primary carious lesions.

  10. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hair Removal KidsHealth > For Teens > Hair Removal A A A ... recommend an electrologist with the proper credentials. Laser Hair Removal How It Works: A laser is directed through ...

  11. Laser induced fluorescence of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, S.; Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Significant differences between the optical spectra taken from sound regions of teeth and carious regions have been observed. These differences appear both in absorption and in laser induced fluorescence spectra. Excitation by the 488 nm line of an argon ion laser beam showed a peak in the emission intensity around 553 nm for the sound dental material while the emission peak from the carious region was red-shifted by approximately 40 nm. The relative absorption of carious region was significantly higher at 488 nm; however its fluorescence intensity peak was lower by an order of magnitude compared to the sound tooth. Implications of these results for a safe, reliable and early detection of dental caries are discussed.

  12. Prioritizing the Risk Factors of Severe Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Samir Kabil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe early childhood caries remains the most common chronic disease affecting children. The multifactorial etiology of caries has established a controversy about which risk factors were more significant to its development. Therefore, our study aimed through meticulous statistical analysis to arrange the “well agreed upon” common risk factors in order of significance, to aid the clinician in tailoring an adequate preventive program. The study prioritized or reshuffled the risk factors contributing to severe early childhood caries and placed them in the order of their significance as follows: snacking of sugary food several times a day, increased number of siblings to three or more, night feeding, child self-employed brushing, mother’s caries experience, two siblings, on demand feeding, once/day sugary food, sharing utensils, one sibling, male gender, father’s education, late first dental visit, brushing time, mother’s education, no dental visit, decreased brushing frequency, and no night brushing.

  13. Carbonated soft drinks and dental caries in the primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, W; Burt, B A; Sowers, M R

    2006-03-01

    We analyzed fluid intake data among children aged 2-10 years from a 24-hour dietary recall interview in the NHANES III (1988-94) to investigate the effect of high consumption of carbonated soft drinks on caries in the primary dentition. We used cluster analysis to determine fluid consumption patterns. Four distinct fluid consumption patterns were identified: high carbonated soft drinks, high juice, high milk, and high water. About 13% of children had a high carbonated soft drink consumption pattern; they also had a significantly higher dental caries experience in the primary dentition than did children with other fluid consumption patterns. A fluid intake pattern comprised mainly of milk, water, or juice was less likely to be associated with dental caries. Findings of this study suggest that high consumption of carbonated soft drinks by young children is a risk indicator for dental caries in the primary dentition and should be discouraged.

  14. RECENT ADVANCES IN DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS OF DENTAL CARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries , a progressive bacterial damage to teeth , is one of the most commondiseases that affects 95% of the population and is still a major cause of tooth loss.Recent years have seen an increase in research activity surrounding diagnostic methods , particularly in the assessment of early caries lesions. The use of technologi es as adjunct to clinical visual examination for caries diagnosis will facilitate preventive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost as well as reduce the cost and time for testing potential anticaries agents. This article describes the various technolog ies available to aid the dental practitioners in detecting and diagnosis ofdental caries at the earliest stage of its formation , assessing the activities of the detected carious lesion , and quantitatively or qualitatively monitoring of the lesion over time .

  15. Optimal drinking water composition for caries control in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruvo, M.; Ekstrand, K.; Arvin, Erik;

    2008-01-01

    Apart from the well-documented effect of fluoride in drinking water on dental caries, little is known about other chemical effects. Since other ions in drinking water may also theoretically influence caries, as well as binding of fluoride in the oral environment, we hypothesized that the effect...... of drinking water on caries may not be limited to fluoride only. Among 22 standard chemical variables, including 15 ions and trace elements as well as gases, organic compounds, and physical measures, iterative search and testing identified that calcium and fluoride together explained 45% of the variations...... in the numbers of decayed, filled, and missing tooth surfaces (DMF-S) among 52,057 15-year-old schoolchildren in 249 Danish municipalities. Both ions had reducing effects on DMF-S independently of each other, and could be used in combination for the design of optimal drinking water for caries control...

  16. Altered Bacterial Profiles in Saliva from Adults with Caries Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, D; Fiehn, N-E; Nielsen, C H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to learn whether presence of caries in an adult population was associated with a salivary bacterial profile different from that of individuals without untreated caries. Stimulated saliva samples from 621 participants of the Danish Health Examination Survey were analyzed...... using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray technology. Samples from 174 individuals with dental caries and 447 from a control cohort were compared using frequency and levels of identified bacterial taxa/clusters as endpoints. Differences at taxon/cluster level were analyzed using Mann......-Whitney's test with Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple comparisons. Principal component analysis was used to visualize bacterial community profiles. A reduced bacterial diversity was observed in samples from subjects with dental caries. Five bacterial taxa (Veillonella parvula, Veillonella atypica...

  17. Dental caries imaging using hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Jian, Lin; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    We report the development of a polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging technique based on a picosecond (ps) laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator system for label-free imaging of dental caries. In our imaging system, hyperspectral SRS images (512×512 pixels) in both fingerprint region (800-1800 cm-1) and high-wavenumber region (2800-3600 cm-1) are acquired in minutes by scanning the wavelength of OPO output, which is a thousand times faster than conventional confocal micro Raman imaging. SRS spectra variations from normal enamel to caries obtained from the hyperspectral SRS images show the loss of phosphate and carbonate in the carious region. While polarization-resolved SRS images at 959 cm-1 demonstrate that the caries has higher depolarization ratio. Our results demonstrate that the polarization resolved-hyperspectral SRS imaging technique developed allows for rapid identification of the biochemical and structural changes of dental caries.

  18. [Microabrasive tooth preparation for early caries prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrova, A G; Kulakov, A A; Vinnichenko, Iu A; Monastyreva, E G

    2011-01-01

    Based on the 4-year experience with the method of air-abrasion treatment on the stages of treatment and prevention of dental caries in the article provides data on the indications for its use, benefits and complications.

  19. Prevalence of early childhood caries and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier Aguilar-Ayala

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: due to the high prevalence of white spots, is necessary to create prevention programs that educate mothers or caregivers about the caries risk factors and its control, promoting self-care as a preven- tion strategy.

  20. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment and the method must be used for all patients. Use of indices, for example, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), can improve the performance of this method. Using visual inspection, the clinician must decide about the presence, severity and activity of lesions. After this process, additional methods could aid the dentist in reaching a more appropriate treatment decision in some cases. The ICDAS, including the activity assessment system or the Nyvad system, seems to be the best option to reach final diagnoses for managing lesions. The radiographic method is the most recommended additional method available for daily clinical practice.

  1. Reemergencia de la caries dental en adolescentes Re-emerging of dental caries in adolescents

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    A.M. Franco Cortés

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las inequidades en la cobertura de los programas preventivos y en el acceso a la atención podrían afectar los indicadores de salud bucal de los adolescentes. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio descriptivo fue determinar la prevalencia y la historia de caries de los adolescentes de Medellín; evaluar la tendencia de los indicadores y en consecuencia evaluar una posible reemergencia de este problema. Materiales y métodos: Los datos se obtuvieron mediante un examen clínico dental en una muestra estratificada aleatoria de 1292 adolescentes en el año 2005; los examinadores fueron previamente entrenados y calibrados (Kappa > 0,65. Se realizaron pruebas chi cuadrado, Kruskal - Wallis y de Mann - Whitney (α = 5%. Resultados y Conclusiones: Los valores promedio y desviación estándar del índice CPOD y el Índice Significante de Caries fueron 4,5±2,8 y 2,8±3,3 y 11,3 y 6,2 en los jóvenes de 17 años de colegios públicos y privados respectivamente. Estos resultados indican un incremento en la prevalencia de caries para este grupo poblacional y además de ello la polarización del problema en un grupo reducido de jóvenes cuyas características deben estudiarse cuidadosamente. Las autoridades de salud deberán enfocar la atención y la intervención sobre ambos problemas.Introduction: inequities in coverage of preventive programs and access to care may affect the indicators of oral health of adolescents. Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the prevalence and history of dental caries among adolescents of Medellin; to evaluate the tendency of the indicators, and to evaluate possible re-emerging of these problem. Materials and methods: Data were obtained from dental examinations of a stratified randomized sample of 1292 students in 2005, performed by trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa > 0.65. Chi - square, Kruskal - Wallis, and Mann - Whitney tests were used (α = 5%. Results and conclusions: The

  2. Oral arginine metabolism may decrease the risk for dental caries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, M M; Liu, Y; Kalra, R; Perry, S; Adewumi, A; Xu, X; Primosch, R E; Burne, R A

    2013-07-01

    Arginine metabolism by oral bacteria via the arginine deiminase system (ADS) increases the local pH, which can neutralize the effects of acidification from sugar metabolism and reduce the cariogenicity of oral biofilms. To explore the relationship between oral arginine metabolism and dental caries experience in children, we measured ADS activity in oral samples from 100 children and correlated it with their caries status and type of dentition. Supragingival dental plaque was collected from tooth surfaces that were caries-lesion-free (PF) and from dentinal (PD) and enamel (PE) caries lesions. Regardless of children's caries status or type of dentition, PF (378.6) had significantly higher ADS activity compared with PD (208.4; p caries status. Mixed-model analysis showed that plaque caries status is significantly associated with ADS activity despite children's age, caries status, and dentition (p caries.

  3. Deciduous teeth occlusal caries detection with 655-nm diode laser confirmed by surface scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Danilo; Fonseca, Yara P. C.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.

    2000-03-01

    The morphological complexity of the occlusal surface of deciduous molar teeth is considered as a factor to increase vulnerability to caries lesion. Occlusal surface of these teeth shows sulcus, pits and fissures which allow retention of both micro-organisms and food debris which make them more susceptible to caries. In the last decades there was a significant reduction on caries of smooth surface but not on the occlusal surface where dentinal caries develops under fissures which are apparently caries-free under eye observation. This is known as a hidden caries. The occlusal surface of sound extracted deciduous molar teeth were examined using a 655 nm diode laser (DIAGNOdent - KaVo) in order to detect hidden caries. When there was indication of a hidden caries, the area was examined using SEM and confirm or not the diagnosis. The authors concludes that the diagnosis of caries using 655 diode laser is reliable and precise method.

  4. Prioritizing the Risk Factors of Severe Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Noha Samir Kabil; Sherif Eltawil

    2017-01-01

    Severe early childhood caries remains the most common chronic disease affecting children. The multifactorial etiology of caries has established a controversy about which risk factors were more significant to its development. Therefore, our study aimed through meticulous statistical analysis to arrange the “well agreed upon” common risk factors in order of significance, to aid the clinician in tailoring an adequate preventive program. The study prioritized or reshuffled the risk factors contri...

  5. Comparison of two different methods of detecting residual caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kütük, Zeynep Bilge; Ergin, Esra; Yalçın Çakır, Filiz; Gürgan, Sevil

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the fluorescence-aided caries excavation (FACE) device to detect residual caries by comparing conventional methods in vivo. Materials and Methods A total of 301 females and 202 males with carious teeth participated in this study. The cavity preparations were done by grade 4 (Group 1, 154 teeth), grade 5 (Group 2, 176 teeth), and postgraduate (Group 3, 173 teeth) students. After caries excavation using a handpiece and hand instruments, the presence of residual caries was evaluated by 2 investigators who were previously calibrated for visual-tactile assessment with and without magnifying glasses and trained in the use of a FACE device. The tooth number, cavity type, and presence or absence of residual caries were recorded. The data were analyzed using the Chi-square test, the Fisher's Exact test, or the McNemar test as appropriate. Kappa statistics was used for calibration. In all tests, the level of significance was set at p = 0.05. Results Almost half of the cavities prepared were Class II (Class I, 20.9%; Class II, 48.9%; Class III, 20.1%; Class IV, 3.4%; Class V, 6.8%). Higher numbers of cavities left with caries were observed in Groups 1 and 2 than in Group 3 for all examination methods. Significant differences were found between visual inspection with or without magnifying glasses and inspection with a FACE device for all groups (p < 0.001). More residual caries were detected through inspection with a FACE device (46.5%) than through either visual inspection (31.8%) or inspection with a magnifying glass (37.6%). Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, the FACE device may be an effective method for the detection of residual caries. PMID:28194364

  6. INTERFERENCE POSSIBILITIES OF HABITAT OF CARIES IN CHILDHOOD IN BLANSKO

    OpenAIRE

    Vašíčková, Pavlína

    2007-01-01

    The tooth decay is the most widespread disease. The preschool and school age is important period for the tooth decay prevention. The nutrition of children is one of the most important part in interference occurrence of the tooth decay, dental care is also necessary by using chemical and mechanical agents. It is very important for choldren to know the caries prevention. There was found by this research that the nutrition of children do not correspond to the caries prevention, the good and qual...

  7. Enzymes, Dentinogenesis and Dental Caries: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Search in PubMed with keywords “enzymes, dentinogenesis, and dental caries” revealed only 4 items, but when combined with “enzymes, osteogenesis, and osteoporosis” as high as 404 items resulted. Dental caries was associated with an order of magnitude fewer studies than the chronic bone disease, osteoporosis. This observation motivated this review. Material and Methods A comprehensive review of the available literature on role of enzymes in dentinogenesis and dental caries ...

  8. Caries prevalence in older persons with and without dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellefsen, Birita; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E;

    2008-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of coronal and root caries in a memory clinic-based population of elderly patients with and without a diagnosis of dementia and to examine the influence of age, sex, social relations, social position, and functional ability.......To examine the prevalence of coronal and root caries in a memory clinic-based population of elderly patients with and without a diagnosis of dementia and to examine the influence of age, sex, social relations, social position, and functional ability....

  9. Risk indicators and risk predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Pereira da Silva Tagliaferro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify risk indicators of high caries level at baseline (HCLB based on cross-sectional data and predictors of high caries increment (HCI based on a 7-year-follow-up examination in 6-8-year-old schoolchildren. Two hundred and six schoolchildren were examined in 1997 and in 2004 by the same two calibrated dentists, in Piracicaba, Brazil. At baseline, dental caries, presence of sealants, fluorosis, and oral hygiene status were recorded. The children's parents completed a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic level, fluoride use, dental service utilization, dietary and oral hygiene habits. HCLB and HCI were defined considering the upper quartile of the total caries experience distribution (dmfs+DMFS and caries increment distribution, respectively. Logistic regression models were adjusted estimating the Odds Ratio (OR, 95% confidence intervals and p-values. Having white spot lesions (OR=5.25 was found to be a risk indicator of HCLB. Schoolchildren with dental fluorosis (OR=0.17 or those who brushed the teeth more than two times a day (OR=0.37 presented less probability of HCLB. The predictors of HCI were: dmfs>0 (OR=2.68 and mothers' educational level up to 8 years of schooling (OR=2.87. Clinical and socioeconomic variables were found to be risk indicators and/or predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren.

  10. Role of saliva proteinase 3 in dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Teng-Yu; Zhou, Wen-Jie; Du, Yue; Wu, Song-Tao; Yuan, Wen-Wen; Yu, Yu; Su, Lin; Luo, Yang; Zhang, Jie-Hua; Lu, Wan-Lu; Wang, Xiao-Qian; Chen, Jiao; Feng, Yun; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Salivary analysis can be used to assess the severity of caries. Of the known salivary proteins, a paucity of information exists concerning the role of proteinase 3 (PR3), a serine protease of the chymotrypsin family, in dental caries. Whole, unstimulated saliva was collected from children with varying degrees of active caries and tested using a Human Protease Array Kit and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A significantly decreased concentration of salivary PR3 was noted with increasing severity of dental caries (P<0.01); a positive correlation (r=0.87; P<0.01; Pearson's correlation analysis) was also observed between salivary pH and PR3 concentration. In an antibacterial test, a PR3 concentration of 250 ng·mL−1 or higher significantly inhibited Streptococcus mutans UA159 growth after 12 h of incubation (P<0.05). These studies indicate that PR3 is a salivary factor associated with the severity of dental caries, as suggested by the negative relationship between salivary PR3 concentration and the severity of caries as well as the susceptibility of S. mutans to PR3. PMID:26756046

  11. Early Childhood Caries with the Perspective of Pediatrician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bucak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Early childhood caries are characterized by the presence of at least one or more decayed, missing or filled teeth surfaces in any primary tooth of a child 24-72 months of age. The prevalance of early childhood caries is variable among the world because of wide range of contributing aetiological factors. Aim of this study to determine the prevalance and aetiologic factors of early childhood caries, in South East Anatolia Region of Turkey and evaluated as a pediatrician view. Material and Method: Patients admitted to pediatric polyclinics for any reason, aging between 24 to 72 months, were enrolled in this study. The children who had dental caries and who had not were examined by a dentist. Families were requested to voluntarily answer questions asked by our staff who follow a questionnaire. This questionnaire contains breastfeeding, usage of vitamin D, multivitamin formulations, iron supplements, baby bottle and pacifier, as well as consumpion of yogurt, acidic drinks, in addition to health habits of brushing teeth, check up by the dentist, cigarette usage of parents (mother, father or both. Results: 553 patients were included the study. Early childhood caries was determined to be 33,1 %. As a result of this study, we found that pacifier usage, multiviamin supplements and acidic drinks were significantly contributing to early childhood caries. Discussion: We advise refrainment from pacifier usage and unnecesary consumption of multivitamin supplemantation, acidic drinks or at least brushing of teeth rightafter consumption of these foods in childhood.

  12. Role of saliva proteinase 3 in dental caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teng-Yu Yang; Wan-Lu Lu; Xiao-Qian Wang; Jiao Chen; Yun Feng; Xue-Dong Zhou; Ping Zhang; Wen-Jie Zhou; Yue Du; Song-Tao Wu; Wen-Wen Yuan; Yu Yu; Lin Su; Yang Luo; Jie-Hua Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Salivary analysis can be used to assess the severity of caries. Of the known salivary proteins, a paucity of information exists concerning the role of proteinase 3 (PR3), a serine protease of the chymotrypsin family, in dental caries.Whole, unstimulated saliva was collected from children with varying degrees of active caries and tested using a Human Protease Array Kit and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Asignificantly decreased concentration of salivaryPR3was notedwith increasing severity of dental caries (P,0.01); a positive correlation (r50.87; P,0.01; Pearson’s correlation analysis) was also observed between salivary pHand PR3 concentration. In an antibacterial test, a PR3 concentration of 250 ng?mL21 or higher significantly inhibited Streptococcus mutans UA159 growth after 12 h of incubation (P,0.05). These studies indicate that PR3 is a salivary factor associated with the severity of dental caries, as suggested by the negative relationship between salivary PR3 concentration and the severity of caries as well as the susceptibility of S. mutans to PR3.

  13. Factors Used for Caries Prediction in First Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Azeredo Alves ANTUNES

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the early presence of caries cavitation and active white spots (AWS in maxilary anterior teeth in the primary dentition associating them with other factors (diet, fluor exposure, precocious ocorrence of mutans streptococci, oral hygiene with the purpose of predict future caries lesion in posterior primary teeth. Method: The examination of the charts was done by the evaluation including anamnesis and clinical examination recorder in 250 files (young children with 18 - 36 months attended at the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic from a public University Dental School of Rio de Janeiro in 2000 - 2003. Results: After data analysis, the result agree with other studies: the early experience of caries in anterior primary teeth was the best predictor of caries cavitation in deciduos molares (74,49%, other risks factors also have been significance in the prediction. After carie, the second most important variable was anterior teeth with white spots (58,82%, followed by high consuption of sugar (54% and natural breastfeeding after 12 months of age (49,59%. Conclusion: This way this study could establish that dental caries is the best predictor, so preventive operatives shoud be done in early primary dentition.

  14. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak PA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prathibha Anand Nayak,1 Ullal Anand Nayak,2 Vishal Khandelwal3 1Department of Periodontics, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 2Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 3Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Index Dental College and Hospital, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India Abstract: Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual. Keywords: xylitol, caries preventive effect, oral flora 

  15. Saliva microbiota carry caries-specific functional gene signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yang

    Full Text Available Human saliva microbiota is phylogenetically divergent among host individuals yet their roles in health and disease are poorly appreciated. We employed a microbial functional gene microarray, HuMiChip 1.0, to reconstruct the global functional profiles of human saliva microbiota from ten healthy and ten caries-active adults. Saliva microbiota in the pilot population featured a vast diversity of functional genes. No significant distinction in gene number or diversity indices was observed between healthy and caries-active microbiota. However, co-presence network analysis of functional genes revealed that caries-active microbiota was more divergent in non-core genes than healthy microbiota, despite both groups exhibited a similar degree of conservation at their respective core genes. Furthermore, functional gene structure of saliva microbiota could potentially distinguish caries-active patients from healthy hosts. Microbial functions such as Diaminopimelate epimerase, Prephenate dehydrogenase, Pyruvate-formate lyase and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase were significantly linked to caries. Therefore, saliva microbiota carried disease-associated functional signatures, which could be potentially exploited for caries diagnosis.

  16. Dentine microhardness after different methods for detection and removal of carious dentine tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOLLICA, Fernanda Brandão; TORRES, Carlos Rocha Gomes; GONÇALVES, Sergio Eduardo de Paiva; MANCINI, †Maria Nadir Gasparoto

    2012-01-01

    There are several methods for identifying carious dentinal tissue aiming to avoid removal of healthy dentinal tissue. Objectives The purpose of this study was to test different methods for the detection of carious dentinal tissue regarding the amount of carious tissue removed and the remaining dentin microhardness after caries removal. Material and methods The dentin surfaces of 20 bovine teeth were exposed and half of the surface was protected with nail polish. Cariogenic challenge was performed by immersion in a demineralizing solution for 14 days. After transverse cross-section of the crown, the specimens were divided into four groups (n=10), according to the method used to identify and remove the carious tissue: "Papacárie", Caries-detector dye, DIAGNOdent and Tactile method. After caries removal, the cross-sectional surface was included in acrylic resin and polished. In a microhardness tester, the removed dentin thickness and the Vickers microhardness of the following regions were evaluated: remaining dentin after caries removal and superficial and deep healthy dentin. Results ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05) were performed, except for DIAGNOdent, which did not detect the presence of caries. Results for removed dentin thickness were: "Papacárie" (424.7±105.0; a), Caries-detector dye (370.5±78.3; ab), Tactile method (322.8±51.5; bc). Results for the remaining dentin microhardness were: "Papacárie" (42.2±10.5; bc), Caries-detector dye (44.6±11.8; abc), Tactile method (24.3±9.0; d). Conclusions DIAGNOdent did not detect the presence of carious tissue; Tactile method and "Papacárie" resulted in the least and the most dentinal thickness removal, respectively; Tactile method differed significantly from "Papacárie" and Caries-detector dye in terms of the remaining dentin microhardness, and Tactile method was the one which presented the lowest microhardness values. PMID:23032207

  17. Dentine microhardness after different methods for detection and removal of carious dentine tissue

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    Fernanda Brandão Mollica

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There are several methods for identifying carious dentinal tissue aiming to avoid removal of healthy dentinal tissue. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to test different methods for the detection of carious dentinal tissue regarding the amount of carious tissue removed and the remaining dentin microhardness after caries removal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The dentin surfaces of 20 bovine teeth were exposed and half of the surface was protected with nail polish. Cariogenic challenge was performed by immersion in a demineralizing solution for 14 days. After transverse cross-section of the crown, the specimens were divided into four groups (n=10, according to the method used to identify and remove the carious tissue: "Papacárie", Caries-detector dye, DIAGNOdent and Tactile method. After caries removal, the cross-sectional surface was included in acrylic resin and polished. In a microhardness tester, the removed dentin thickness and the Vickers microhardness of the following regions were evaluated: remaining dentin after caries removal and superficial and deep healthy dentin. RESULTS: ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05 were performed, except for DIAGNOdent, which did not detect the presence of caries. Results for removed dentin thickness were: "Papacárie" (424.7±105.0; a, Caries-detector dye (370.5±78.3; ab, Tactile method (322.8±51.5; bc. Results for the remaining dentin microhardness were: "Papacárie" (42.2±10.5; bc, Caries-detector dye (44.6±11.8; abc, Tactile method (24.3±9.0; d. CONCLUSIONS: DIAGNOdent did not detect the presence of carious tissue; Tactile method and "Papacárie" resulted in the least and the most dentinal thickness removal, respectively; Tactile method differed significantly from "Papacárie" and Caries-detector dye in terms of the remaining dentin microhardness, and Tactile method was the one which presented the lowest microhardness values.

  18. Dental caries in relation to socio-behavioral factors of 6-year-old school children of Udaipur district, India

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    Santhosh Kumar Tadakamadla

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Rural children and boys experienced greater caries than their urban and girl counterparts. Caries experience was related to the parent′s occupation and education. Moreover, caries occurrence was influenced by brushing frequency and dental visiting habits.

  19. Brief communication: a pilot study: smooth surface early caries (caries incipiens) detection with KaVo DIAGNODent in historical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Jacek; Komarnitki, Iulian; Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2013-03-01

    In many odontological studies concerning archeological material, there is no analysis of early caries lesions (caries incipiens) that manifest as a carious spot. At this stage of caries, the enamel is still hard, and thus, it is impossible to diagnose caries by visual methods. We assessed the usefulness of the DIAGNODent pen (DD laser) in analyzing noncavity lesions on the smooth surface sites of crowns from historical populations. Twenty-seven individuals were examined: 18 from Radom (Poland), and nine from Tell Masaikh and Terqa (Syria). A total of 562 teeth were characterized. The series represented different climatic zones, but were dated from the similar period, 18th to 19th century AD. We used four diagnostic techniques: visual, DD laser, radiographic, and histological as the gold standard. DD laser showed that the mean values of healthy enamel in both series did not exceed 15 units. The mean values of smooth and rough spots in the Syrian population were significantly higher than those from Poland. This study showed that all the noncarious spots from the Radom series did not exceed 30 units. In the Syrian samples, this limit was higher at 44 units. These results were confirmed by histology and radiography. The DD laser provided good results in detecting dentine carious lesions in historical material, but its efficiency in diagnosing early caries (caries incipiens) remains uncertain based on the presented series.

  20. Gene-environment Interactions in the Etiology of Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, G; Ermis, R B; Calapoglu, N S; Celik, E U; Türel, G Y

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that can be conceptualized as an interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of AMELX, CA6, DEFB1, and TAS2R38 gene polymorphism and gene-environment interactions on caries etiology and susceptibility in adults. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buccal mucosa, and adults aged 20 to 60 y were placed into 1 of 2 groups: low caries risk (DMFT ≤ 5; n = 77) and high caries risk (DMFT ≥ 14; n = 77). The frequency of AMELX (+522), CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) single-nucleotide polymorphisms was genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Environmental risk factors examined in the study included plaque amount, toothbrushing frequency, dietary intake between meals, saliva secretion rate, saliva buffer capacity, mutans streptococci counts, and lactobacilli counts. There was no difference between the caries risk groups in relation to AMELX (+522) polymorphism (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). The distribution of CA6 genotype and allele frequencies in the low caries risk group did not differ from the high caries risk group (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). Polymorphism of DEFB1 (G-20A) was positively associated, and TAS2R38 (A49P) negatively associated, with caries risk (χ(2) test, P = 0.000). There were significant differences between caries susceptibility and each environmental risk factor, except for the saliva secretion rate (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.000). Based on stepwise multiple linear regression analyses, dental plaque amount, lactobacilli count, age, and saliva buffer capacity, as well as DEFB1 (G-20A), TAS2R38 (A49P), and CA6 (T55M) gene polymorphism, explained a total of 87.8% of the variations in DMFT scores. It can be concluded that variation in CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) may be associated with caries experience in Turkish adults with a high level of dental plaque, lactobacilli count

  1. Metatranscriptomics reveals overall active bacterial composition in caries lesions

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    Aurea Simón-Soro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying the microbial species in caries lesions is instrumental to determine the etiology of dental caries. However, a significant proportion of bacteria in carious lesions have not been cultured, and the use of molecular methods has been limited to DNA-based approaches, which detect both active and inactive or dead microorganisms. Objective: To identify the RNA-based, metabolically active bacterial composition of caries lesions at different stages of disease progression in order to provide a list of potential etiological agents of tooth decay. Design: Non-cavitated enamel caries lesions (n=15 and dentin caries lesions samples (n=12 were collected from 13 individuals. RNA was extracted and cDNA was constructed, which was used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene. The resulting 780 bp polymerase chain reaction products were pyrosequenced using Titanium-plus chemistry, and the sequences obtained were used to determine the bacterial composition. Results: A mean of 4,900 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene with an average read length of 661 bp was obtained per sample, giving a comprehensive view of the active bacterial communities in caries lesions. Estimates of bacterial diversity indicate that the microbiota of cavities is highly complex, each sample containing between 70 and 400 metabolically active species. The composition of these bacterial consortia varied among individuals and between caries lesions of the same individuals. In addition, enamel and dentin lesions had a different bacterial makeup. Lactobacilli were found almost exclusively in dentin cavities. Streptococci accounted for 40% of the total active community in enamel caries, and 20% in dentin caries. However, Streptococcus mutans represented only 0.02–0.73% of the total bacterial community. Conclusions: The data indicate that the etiology of dental caries is tissue dependent and that the disease has a clear polymicrobial origin. The low proportion of mutans streptococci

  2. Caries en una población militar española Dental caries in a Spanish military population

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    R. Mombiedro Sandoval

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia de caries de la población militar española de la base "General Almirante" Marines, Valencia. Material y método: Estudio descriptivo transversal para el que se seleccionó una muestra de 387 militares para un IC del 95%. En el gabinete dental de la base se realizó la exploración oral siguiendo los criterios de la OMS (1997, 4ª edición. Un solo profesional experimentado con un explorador patrón llevó a cabo la encuesta entre diciembre del 2003 y julio del 2004. Resultados: El índice de dientes con caries, ausentes y obturados (CAO-D fue de 4,05. El 23% de la muestra estaba libre de caries. Presentaban caries sin tratar el 40% de los explorados, siendo significativamente superior el porcentaje en la tropa y en los que referían no cepillarse de forma regular. El índice de restauración (% O/ CAO-D fue del 60%. La población de tropa presentó con significación estadística mas caries y menos dientes con caries tratada (A,O que el grupo de oficiales y suboficiales. Conclusiones: Casi la mitad de la población encuestada precisa tratamiento por caries. Estrategias de asistencia basadas en políticas preventivas de diagnostico precoz y de asistencia personalizada en función del riesgo individual de caries, adaptadas al medio militar, pudieran ser la clave para poder desplegar en un futuro tropas que no ocasionen emergencias en futuras operaciones.Object: The target of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries in a population of Spanish military personnel at the "General Almirante " base at Marines (Valencia. Material and Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was made of a sample of 387 military personnel, (95% CI. The oral examinations were conducted at the dental clinic at the base, in accordance with the WHO (1997, 4th ed. criteria, by a single dentist calibrated against an experienced examiner. The survey was conducted between December 2003 and July 2004. Results: The decayed, missed and

  3. Occlusal caries detection and quantification by DIAGNOdent and Electronic Caries Monitor: in vitro comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamzahim, Mohammad; Shi, Xie-Qi; Angmar-Månsson, Birgit

    2002-12-01

    The Electronic Caries Monitor (ECM) and the recently introduced laser-based KaVo DIAGNOdent have been developed as clinical diagnostic aids in the detection and quantification of occlusal carious lesions. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare their reproducibility and validity. The ability of DIAGNOdent to retrieve sites of occlusal carious lesions without reference to photographs or drawings from previous assessments was also tested. The material comprised 87 premolar teeth: the occlusal surfaces were sound or exhibited non-cavity carious lesions of varying severity. All were photographed and measured by DIAGNOdent and ECM on 2 occasions, 2 weeks apart. The teeth were then sectioned into 300 microm thick slices. Two observers independently classified the sections according to the histopathology, into 5 categories, ranging from sound to dentinal caries in the inner part of the dentin. Statistical analysis comprised intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) to test reproducibility and regression analysis of validity. Sensitivity and specificity were also calculated for detection of D3 lesions for both devices. DIAGNOdent recorded maximum readings at identical sites on both occasions in 89% of the teeth. The ICC for readings on 2 separate occasions was 0.97 for DIAGNOdent and 0.71 for ECM. The correlations with histology were r = 0.93 and 0.83, for DIAGNOdent and ECM, respectively. For detection of D3 lesions, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.8 and 1 for DIAGNOdent and 0.75 and 0.88 for ECM. In this in vitro study, DIAGNOdent was superior to ECM for occlusal caries detection.

  4. Detection method of proximal caries using line profile in digital intra-oral radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Kim, Gyu Tae; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Min Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Hoon [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how to detect proximal caries using line profile and validate linear measurements of proximal caries lesions by basic digital manipulation of radiographic images. The X-ray images of control group (15) and caries teeth (15) from patients were used. For each image, the line profile at the proximal caries-susceptible zone was calculated. To evaluate the contrast as a function of line profile to detect proximal caries, a difference coefficient (D) that indicates the relative difference between caries and sound dentin or intact enamel was measured. Mean values of D were 0.0354 {+-} 0.0155 in non-caries and 0.2632 {+-} 0.0982 in caries (p<0.001). The mean values of caries group were higher than non-caries group and there was correlation between proximal dental caries and D. It is demonstrated that the mean value of D from caries group was higher than that of control group. From the result, values of D possess great potentiality as a new detection parameter for proximal dental caries.

  5. Sex differences in dental caries experience: clinical evidence, complex etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, John R

    2011-10-01

    A sex difference in oral health has been widely documented through time and across cultures. Women's oral health declines more rapidly than men's with the onset of agriculture and the associated rise in fertility. The magnitude of this disparity in oral health by sex increases during ontogeny: from childhood, to adolescence, and through the reproductive years. Representative studies of sex differences in caries, tooth loss, and periodontal disease are critically reviewed. Surveys conducted in Hungary, India, and in an isolated traditional Brazilian sample provide additional support for a significant sex bias in dental caries, especially in mature adults. Compounding hormonal and reproductive factors, the sex difference in oral health in India appears to involve social and religious causes such as son preference, ritual fasting, and dietary restrictions during pregnancy. Like the sex difference in caries, tooth loss in women is greater than in men and has been linked to caries and parity. Results of genome wide association studies have found caries susceptible and caries protective loci that influence variation in taste, saliva, and enamel proteins, affecting the oral environment and the micro-structure of enamel. Genetic variation, some of which is X-linked, may partly explain how sex differences in oral health originate. A primary, but neglected, factor in explaining the sex differential in oral health is the complex and synergistic changes associated with female sex hormones, pregnancy, and women's reproductive life history. Caries etiology is complex and impacts understanding of the sex difference in oral health. Both biological (genetics, hormones, and reproductive history) and anthropological (behavioral) factors such culture-based division of labor and gender-based dietary preferences play a role.

  6. The occurrence of dental caries is associated with atherosclerosis

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    Bernhard Glodny

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that marginal periodontitis is a risk factor for developing atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether caries may also be associated with atherosclerosis. METHODS: The computed tomography data sets of 292 consecutive patients, 137 women and 155 men with a mean age of 54.1±17.3 years, were analyzed. Caries were quantified based on the number of decayed surfaces of all the teeth, and periodontitis was quantified on the basis of the horizontal bone loss in the jaw. The presence of chronic apical periodontitis (CAP was assessed, and the aortic atherosclerotic burden was quantified using a calcium scoring method. RESULTS: The patients with <1 caries surfaces/tooth had a lower atherosclerotic burden (0.13±0.61 mL than patients with ≥1 caries surfaces/tooth. The atherosclerotic burden was greater in patients with a higher number of lesions with pulpal involvement and more teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. In the logistical regression models, age (Wald 49.3, number of caries per tooth (Wald 26.4, periodontitis (Wald 8.6, and male gender (Wald 11 were found to be independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. In the linear regression analyses, age and the number of decayed surfaces per tooth were identified as influencing factors associated with a higher atherosclerotic burden, and the number of restorations per tooth was associated with a lower atherosclerotic burden. CONCLUSION: Dental caries, pulpal caries, and chronic apical periodontitis are associated positively, while restorations are associated inversely, with aortic atherosclerotic burden. Prospective studies are required to confirm these observations and answer the question of possible causality.

  7. Dental caries in rural Alaska Native children--Alaska, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    In April 2008, the Arctic Investigations Program (AIP) of CDC was informed by the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) of a large number of Alaska Native (AN) children living in a remote region of Alaska who required full mouth dental rehabilitations (FMDRs), including extractions and/or restorations of multiple carious teeth performed under general anesthesia. In this remote region, approximately 400 FMDRs were performed in AN children aged Dental caries can cause pain, which can affect children's normal growth and development. AIP and Alaska DHSS conducted an investigation of dental caries and associated risk factors among children in the remote region. A convenience sample of children aged 4-15 years in five villages (two with fluoridated water and three without) was examined to estimate dental caries prevalence and severity. Risk factor information was obtained by interviewing parents. Among children aged 4-5 years and 12-15 years who were evaluated, 87% and 91%, respectively, had dental caries, compared with 35% and 51% of U.S. children in those age groups. Among children from the Alaska villages, those aged 4-5 years had a mean of 7.3 dental caries, and those aged 12-15 years had a mean of 5.0, compared with 1.6 and 1.8 dental caries in same-aged U.S. children. Of the multiple factors assessed, lack of water fluoridation and soda pop consumption were significantly associated with dental caries severity. Collaborations between tribal, state, and federal agencies to provide effective preventive interventions, such as water fluoridation of villages with suitable water systems and provision of fluoride varnishes, should be encouraged.

  8. Quantitative detection of Streptococcus mutans and bacteria of dental caries and no caries groups in permanent teeth from a north China population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhan-yong; WANG Jian-qiu; ZHOU Yan; ZHAO Dong; XIAO Bai

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) is the prime pathogen of dental caries.There are few reports that studied the relationship between S.mutans,bacteria and dental caries in permanent teeth when compared to those in primary teeth.This study aimed to detect S.mutans and bacteria of dental caries and non-caries groups in permanent teeth from a north China population by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and compare the relationship between the number of these bacteria and the prevalence of dental caries in permanent teeth.Methods Human saliva samples were collected from 142 subjects with permanent teeth.According to their dental tooth (DT),142 subjects were divided into a dental caries group (DT≥1) and a non-caries group (DT=0).With specific primers for S.mutans and 16S rRNA,the total number of S.mutans and total bacteria of 142 saliva samples were detected by real-time PCR and statistically analyzed.Results There was no significant difference between the detection rates of S.mutans (P=0.118) and medians of S.mutans (P=0.115).The ratio of S.mutans to total bacteria in people with dental caries was significantly higher than in those without caries (P <0.001),but the total number of bacteria in people with dental caries was significantly lower than in those without caries (P <0.001).Conclusions S.mutans had different effects on caries in the permanent teeth of several individuals from a north China population.The ratios of S.mutans to total bacteria in saliva detected by real-time PCR with Sm479F/R and 16S RNA primers were closely associated with the prevalence of dental caries in the same population.These assays may be useful for the assessment of an individual's risk of dental caries.

  9. Inequalities of caries experience in Nevada youth expressed by DMFT index vs. Significant Caries Index (SiC over time

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    Mobley Connie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasingly polarized distribution of dental caries among children and adolescents, the usual DMFT measure has become a less meaningful population descriptor. To re-focus on identifying the high caries prevalence group the Significant Caries Index (SiC was created. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence and severity of dental caries in Nevada youth over a period of eight years and to compare its expression by means of DMFT and SiC; analyze the caries trends in the population and their underlying factors, and determine whether Nevada youth were at risk for significantly high levels of dental caries. Methods Retrospective data was analyzed from a series of sequential, standardized oral health surveys across eight years (2001/2002-2008/2009 that included over 62,000 examinations of adolescents 13-19 years of age, attending public/private Nevada schools. Mean Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth index (DMFT and Significant Caries Index (SiC were subsequently computed for each academic year. Descriptive statistics were reported for analysis of comparative DMFT and SiC scores in relation to age, gender, racial background, and residence in a fluoridated/non-fluoridated community. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the differential impact of the variables on the probability of being in the high caries prevalence group. Results Comparison of students' mean DMFT to National (NHANES data confirmed that dental caries remains a common chronic disease among Nevada youth, presenting higher prevalence rates and greater mean scores than the national averages. Downward trends were found across all demographics compared between survey years 1 and 6 with the exception of survey year 3. An upward trend began in survey year six. Over time, the younger group displayed an increasing proportion of cariesfree individuals while a decreasing proportion was found among older examinees. As expected, the mean SiC score was

  10. Maintenance of pulpal vitality in a tooth with deep caries: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Maria Lourdes de Andrade; Tavares, Warley Luciano Fonseca; Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Deep caries can induce severe inflammatory reactions. However, inflamed pulp can heal if the demineralization process is interrupted and inactivated sufficiently early. The aim of this case report is to describe the use of stepwise excavation to treat a mature permanent tooth that exhibited deep caries and apical periodontitis. A 12-year-old girl was experiencing lingering pain lasting for a few minutes in the mandibular left second molar when drinking cold water. Clinical and radiographic examinations suggested that a conservative therapeutic approach could be successful. The tooth was anesthetized and isolated, and the unsupported enamel was removed. The remaining affected dentin was left on the pulpal floor, which was protected by a thin layer of calcium hydroxide cement. The tooth was sealed with temporary cement. Three months later, pulpal sensitivity was reduced. The pulp was found to be healthy at a 9-month follow-up examination. The cavity was definitively restored with glass ionomer cement and composite resin applied with the sandwich technique. At the 4-year follow-up, the tooth remained functional, presenting standard color and satisfactory restoration. The periodontal tissues were healthy, and radiographic images indicated that the width of the periodontal ligament space was normal. This case demonstrates that clinical diagnosis should prevail over radiographic findings, even in cases where a radiographic widening of the periodontal ligament space suggests irreversible pulpal damage.

  11. PERCEPTION OF Er-YAG LASER DENTAL CARIES TREATMENT IN ADOLESCENTS - A CLINICAL EVALUATION.

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    Galia G. Zhegova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate adolescents’ acceptance and pain perception of Er-YAG laser preparation in comparison to conventional mechanical preparation. Material and methods: Forty four adolescents between the age of 16 and 18 years with bilateral matched pairs of carious permanent molars participated in this study. In each patient one of the 2 cavities was prepared conventionally, the other with the Er-YAG laser. All cavities were restored with light-cured composite resin following the application of acid etch and a bonding agent. The patients were instructed to rate pain (sensitivity during treatment according to visual analogue scale and to decide which method they would prefer for their future caries treatment. Results: The patients rated lower pain perception during laser treatment. It was found that 86.36 % of the adolescents indicated that they would prefer the Er:YAG laser preparation for further caries treatment. Conclusion: The application of the Er-YAG laser for carious tissue removal, compared to conventional mechanical preparation, is perceived as more comfortable and the adolescents prefer it for a future treatment.

  12. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMantia, Nicole R.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluorescence (QLF). In order for image-guided laser ablation to be feasible, chemical and physical modification of tooth surfaces due to laser irradiation cannot greatly reduce the contrast between sound and demineralized dental hard tissues. Sound and demineralized surfaces of 48 extracted human molar teeth with non-cavitated lesions were examined. Images were acquired before and after laser irradiation using visible and near-IR reflectance and QLF at several wavelengths. Polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography was used to confirm that lesions were present. The highest contrast was attained at 1460-nm and 1500-1700-nm, wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption. The reflectance did not decrease significantly after laser irradiation for those wavelengths.

  13. Remineralization of caries lesions extending into dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Cate, J M

    2001-05-01

    Remineralization is one aspect of the overall process of tooth decay. However, it is primarily studied in shallow lesions. The aim of this study was to explore whether caries lesions in enamel and extending into the dentin can be remineralized. A single-section model was developed for the longitudinal and non-destructive monitoring of changes in enamel and dentin. Lesions at least 200 microm into dentin were formed in undersaturated acetate buffers. Next, the lesions were divided into groups (three treatment and one control) and remineralized. The treatments were: weekly immersion in 1,000 ppm fluoride, single treatment with methanehydroxybisphosphonate, and a constant level of 1 ppm fluoride. De- and remineralization was assessed by transverse microradiography. Remineralization was observed in enamel, but also in dentin, indicating that, deep into dentin, the pores become supersaturated to apatite formation. Treatments affected remineralization only in the outer part of enamel. Both findings are explained by a relatively fast diffusion of mineral ions, with precipitation being rate-limiting. The results suggest that dentin remineralization, underneath enamel, can be achieved and could possibly be used in clinical treatment strategies.

  14. Caries risk assessment in school children using a reduced Cariogram model without saliva tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Isberg, Per-Erik; Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the caries predictive ability of a reduced Cariogram model without salivary tests in schoolchildren.......To investigate the caries predictive ability of a reduced Cariogram model without salivary tests in schoolchildren....

  15. Dental caries and its association with sociodemographics, erosion, and diet in schoolchildren from southeast Brazil.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Auad, Sheyla Marcia

    2009-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of caries in a sample of Brazilian schoolchildren, test associotions between caries, sociodemographics, and erosion, and investigate potential dietary factors common to both conditions.

  16. SCHOOL DIETARY HABITS AND INCIDENCE OF DENTAL CARIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, Celia; Téllez, Francisco; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibañez-Peinado, Diana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: los hábitos alimentarios saludables influyen sobre la salud oral. El tratamiento de la caries comprende la restauración dental con selladores y composites dentales, la mayoría con bisfenol A (BPA). Hipótesis: a) el desayuno y hábitos de higiene oral son factores importantes en el desarrollo de caries; b) el tratamiento de la caries con epoxirresinas conlleva riesgo de exposición oral a monómeros plásticos. Objetivo: relacionar la ingesta del desayuno y los hábitos de higiene oral con la caries dental y determinar la presencia de selladores/composites como fuentes potenciales de exposición al BPA. Métodos: se analizaron 582 niños/as en edad escolar de Granada (sur de España) de 7 años de edad (7,55 [0,64] años). Se empleó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, 3 recordatorios de 24 h y variables de estilo de vida, incluyendo la higiene bucodental. La calidad del desayuno fue estimada con el Breakfast Quality Index (BQI). Resultados: se detectó un 21,7% de caries. El valor medio del BQI fue 5,18 (1,29). El 24% de la población realizó un desayuno con alimentos ricos en azúcares simples (> 5% de la energía total), asociado significativamente con la frecuencia de caries en el análisis de regresión logística. El 35,8% de los participantes tomaron galletas; asociado significativamente con la frecuencia de caries. La ingesta de productos de panadería, cereales y lácteos mostró una asociación inversamente significativa con la frecuencia de caries. Conclusión: se necesitan más investigaciones para aclarar el papel de la dieta en la caries y el riesgo de exposición a xenobióticos estrogénicos, como el BPA.

  17. Spectral characteristics of caries-related autofluorescence spectra and their use for diagnosis of caries stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sung-Ae; Jung, Kyeong-Hoon; Ko, Ching-Chang; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify factors useful for diagnosis of the caries stage from laser-induced autofluorescence (AF) spectra. Affected teeth were accurately staged and allocated to four groups: sound, stage II, stage III, or stage IV. A 405-nm laser was used to produce AF spectra. The spectrum factors analyzed were spectrum slope at 550 to 600 nm, spectral area from 500 and 590 nm, and intensity ratio of peaks 625 and 667 nm (625/667 nm). DIAGNOdent was used as control measurement. AF spectra of sound teeth had a peak near 500 nm followed by a smooth decline to 800 nm. As caries progressed, some specimens in stages II to IV showed one or two peak(s) near 625 and 667 nm. Slopes at 550 to 600 nm and areas under the curve at 500 to 590 nm were significantly different (p<0.001) for each stage. Two-peak ratios were also significantly different (p<0.001) except for stage III and stage IV. DIAGNOdent readings for sound and stage II and stage III and IV were not significantly different. Among the studied factors, the spectrum slope at 550 to 600 nm and area under curve at 500 to 590 nm could be useful treatment decision-making tools for carious lesions.

  18. Tick Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ticks Tickborne diseases abroad Borrelia miyamotoi Borrelia mayonii Tick Removal Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If ... a tick quite effectively. How to remove a tick Use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick ...

  19. The antimicrobial peptide DEFB1 is associated with caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, A; Famili, P; Vieira, A R

    2010-06-01

    Genetics is an important component in the determination of individual susceptibility to caries and periodontal diseases. Since beta defensin 1 (DEFB1) localizes in the oral cavity, we tested if variation in DEFB1 is associated with caries and periodontitis. We analyzed 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DEFB1 in DNA samples from unrelated individuals. Carrying a copy of the variant allele of the DEFB1 marker rs11362 (G-20A) increased the DMFT and DMFS scores more than five-fold. Also, carrying a copy of the variant allele of the DEFB1 marker rs179946 (G-52A) correlated with low DMFT scores. We found a high-caries-experience haplotype (GCA), which increased DMFT scores two-fold, and a low- caries-experience haplotype (ACG), which decreased DMFT scores two-fold, in the DEFB1 promoter. No association between DEFB1 genetic markers and periodontal disease was found. Our results suggest that functional polymorphisms of DEFB1 are potential markers for caries.

  20. Caries prevention with fluoride toothpaste in children: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The aim was to examine recent literature and review the caries-preventive effect of fluoride toothpaste in children. METHODS: Based on three comprehensive systematic reviews published in 2003, a broad search of the PubMed and Cochrane library databases was conducted for papers published 2002...... fluorosis in low-caries communities but not in socially deprived high-caries populations. CONCLUSIONS: The results reinforced the outstanding role of fluoride toothpaste as an effective caries preventive measure in children.......AIM: The aim was to examine recent literature and review the caries-preventive effect of fluoride toothpaste in children. METHODS: Based on three comprehensive systematic reviews published in 2003, a broad search of the PubMed and Cochrane library databases was conducted for papers published 2002...... of the study. The targeted papers were critically assessed concerning design, methodology and performance according to a pre-determined checklist. RESULTS: The initial search revealed 179 papers of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. There was strong evidence that daily use of fluoride toothpaste has...

  1. Aquaporin 5 Interacts with Fluoride and Possibly Protects against Caries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Anjomshoaa

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQP are water channel proteins and the genes coding for AQP2, AQP5, and AQP6 are clustered in 12q13. Since AQP5 is expressed in serous acinar cells of salivary glands, we investigated its involvement in caries. DNA samples from 1,383 individuals from six groups were studied. Genotypes of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the aquaporin locus were tested for association with caries experience. Interaction with genes involved in enamel formation was tested. The association between enamel microhardness at baseline, after creation of artificial caries lesion, and after exposure to fluoride and the genetic markers in AQP5 was tested. Finally, AQP5 expression in human whole saliva, after exposure to fluoride in a mammary gland cell line, which is known to express AQP5, and in Wistar rats was also verified. Nominal associations were found between caries experience and markers in the AQP5 locus. Since these associations suggested that AQP5 may be inhibited by levels of fluoride in the drinking water that cause fluorosis, we showed that fluoride levels above optimal levels change AQP5 expression in humans, cell lines, and rats. We have shown that AQP5 is involved in the pathogenesis of caries and likely interacts with fluoride.

  2. Ozone therapy in the management and prevention of caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaz, Merve Erkmen; Sönmez, Işıl Şaroğlu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to assess the effectiveness of ozone therapy in the management and prevention of caries, reviewing clinical and in vitro studies. Ozone has proven to be effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In dentistry, most of the published articles are based on ozone's antimicrobial effects and the treatment of caries. Most of the clinical studies reported ozone to be a promising alternative to conventional methods for caries management. However, a few studies have shown ozone to be insufficient for preventing caries and reducing microorganisms in open occlusal carious lesions. Ozone might be a useful tool to reduce and control oral infectious microorganisms in dental plaque and dental cavity. However, the results of in vitro studies are controversial; while some researchers reported that ozone therapy had a minimal or no effect on the viability of microorganisms, others suggested ozone to be highly effective in killing both gram-positive and gram-negative oral microorganisms. Therefore, more evidence is required before ozone can be accepted as an alternative to present methods for the management and prevention of caries.

  3. Oratest: A new concept to test caries activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries activity tests are based on the concept of a specific odontogenic infection, the principle causative organism being streptococci mutans. Their predominance is attributed to its acidogenic and aciduric nature after a selective growth advantages over the other non- acid tolerant organisms. Many studies on caries activity are aimed at finding relevant microorganisms. Till date, the ideal method to evaluate in terms of sensitivity, specialization and reliability has not been found. Many of these caries activity tests require extensive work up time and additional equipment. Rosenberg et al. in 1989 developed Oratest, a simple, economical, non- invasive and less time-consuming test for estimating the oral microbial level. The test is simple and consists of rinsing the mouth with 10 ml of sterile milk, 3 ml of which is mixed with 0.12 ml of 0.1% methylene blue dye and observed for colour change. The present study sample consists of twenty five children with dental caries and twenty five controls, free of caries, gingivitis and other oral ailments. This study is being conducted in the department of Oral Pathology & Microbiology and is in the preliminary phase so further results are awaited.

  4. Dermatoglyphics: A genetic marker of early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Anitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is an accepted fact that genetics plays an important role in determination of palmar dermatoglyphic patterns. Since caries is a multifactorial disease with the influence of genetic pattern, this study was undertaken to explore the possibility of dermatoglyphics as a noninvasive and early predictor of dental caries in children, so as to initiate preventive oral health measures at an early age. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 200 children aged between 4 and 5 years. The dmfs score was evaluated. The experimental group (Group 1, comprised of 100 children with early childhood caries (ECC with dmfs >5. The control group (Group 2 comprised of 100 children with dmfs score of 0. Results: An increased frequency of ulnar loops in caries-free children and whorls in children with ECC was observed. Low mean atd angle and low mean. Total ridge count was observed in the ECC group. Conclusion: There is definite variation in dermatoglyphics between the ECC and caries-free group, indicating that dermatoglyphic patterns can be used as a predictive tool for children with ECC.

  5. Modelling community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijster, Denise; van Loveren, Cor; Dusseldorp, Elise; Verrips, Gijsbert H W

    2014-04-01

    This cross-sectional study empirically tested a theoretical model of pathways and inter-relationships among community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries in a sample of 630, 6-year-old children from the Netherlands. Children's decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) scores were extracted from dental records. A validated parental questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, and oral hygiene behaviours. Data on neighbourhood quality were obtained from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics. Structural equation modelling indicated that the model was valid after applying a few modifications. In the revised model, lower maternal education level was related to poorer family organization, lower levels of social support, lower dental self-efficacy, and an external dental health locus of control. These, in turn, were associated with poorer oral hygiene behaviours, which were linked to higher levels of childhood dental caries. In addition, lower maternal education level and poorer neighbourhood quality were directly associated with higher caries levels in children. This model advances our understanding of determinants of childhood dental caries and the pathways in which they operate. Conception of these pathways is essential for guiding the development of caries-preventive programmes for children. Clues for further development of the model are suggested.

  6. Diagnosis of dental caries using quantitative light-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.; Higham, Susan M.

    2001-10-01

    Current dental diagnostic methods can detect caries but cannot quantify the mineral status of the lesion. Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) measures the percentage fluorescence radiance change of demineralised enamel with respect to surround sound enamel, and related it directly to the amount of mineral lost during demineralisation. Demineralisation of teeth to produce caries-like lesions and the subsequent remineralisation of the lesions were monitored quantitatively and longitudinally with QLF. The influence of factors such as presence of plaque or saliva, lesion staining, lesion magnification, tooth thickness and developmental hypomineralisation, on the reproducibility of QLF imaging and analysis were investigated, Results showed that the integrated fluorescence change (hence the mineral loss) increased linearly with demineralisation time and decreased with increasing remineralisation time. Caries detection was limited by saliva or plaque, but enhanced by staining. QLF could not discriminate between developmental hypomineralisation and caries. Neither the variation in tooth thickness nor lesion magnification within the limit of a sharp image made a significant difference in QLF analysis. It was concluded that QLF could detect and quantitatively monitor the mineral changes in an incipient caries on a longitudinal basis, however detection may be limited by the presence of saliva or plaque or enhanced by staining.

  7. Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n = 15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P = 0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r = 0.347, P = 0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P = 0.001 stimulated; P = 0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P = 0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry.

  8. Caries remineralisation and arresting effect in children by professionally applied fluoride treatment – a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Zhang, Shinan; Mei, May Lei; Lo, Edward Chin-Man; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background As a low-cost and easily operated treatment, the use of professionally applied topical fluoride was approved for preventing dental caries and remineralising early enamel caries or white spot lesions. It is also used to arrest dentine caries. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of professional fluoride therapy in remineralising and arresting caries in children. Method A systematic search of publications from 1948 to 2014 was conducted using four databases: ...

  9. Co-Relationships between Glandular Salivary Flow Rates and Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guillory, Carolina Diaz; Schoolfield, John D; Johnson, Dorthea; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Chen, Shuo; Cappelli, David P; Bober-Moken, Irene G; Dang, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the relationship of age, gender, ethnicity and salivary flow rates on dental caries in an adult population using data collected from the Oral Health San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (OH:SALSA). Background Saliva is essential to maintain a healthy oral environment and diminished output can result in dental caries. Although gender and age play a role in the quantity of saliva, little is known about the interaction of age, gender and ethnicity on dental caries and salivary flow rates. Materials and Methods Data from the 1,147 participants in the OH: SALSA was analyzed. The dependent variables were the number of teeth with untreated coronal caries, number of teeth with root caries, and the number of coronal and root surfaces with untreated caries. The independent variables were stimulated and unstimulated glandular salivary flow rates along with the age, sex, and ethnicity (e.g. European or Mexican ancestry) of the participants. Results Coronal caries experience was greater in younger participants while root surface caries experience was greater in the older participants. Coronal caries was lower in the older age groups while the root caries experience increased. Men had a statistically significant (p<0.02) higher experience of root caries than women. Values for unstimulated and stimulated parotid salivary flow rates showed no age difference and remained constant with age, whereas the age differences in the unstimulated and stimulated submandibular/sublingual salivary flow rates were significant. The mean number of teeth with coronal and root caries was higher in Mexican-Americans than in European-Americans. Conclusions Over one-fourth of the adults between the ages of 60 and 79 have untreated root caries over one-third having untreated coronal caries. Lower salivary flow rates play a significant role in the both the number of teeth and the number of surfaces developing caries in these adults. Women and individuals

  10. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among school going children of Chandigarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashri Prabakar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the findings, it can be concluded that high prevalence of caries was found in primary dentition than permanent dentition and most of the decayed teeth were untreated. This study emphasize the need for treating dental caries at its earliest possible stage and parents should be made aware of caries preventive measures for their children.

  11. Indicators for root caries in Danish persons with recently diagnosed Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellefsen, Birita; Morse, Douglas E; Waldemar, Gunhild;

    2012-01-01

    doi: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2011.00560.x Indicators for root caries in Danish persons with recently diagnosed Alzheimer's disease Objective:  To identify indicators of root caries among persons with newly diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD). Background:  Few studies have investigated dental caries...

  12. Typing of Streptococcus mutans strains isolated from caries free and susceptible subjects by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmourespour, Arezoo; Nabinejad, Abdolreza; Shirian, Hannaneh; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro; Tahmourespour, Sanaz

    2013-01-01

    This study was evaluated the clonal diversity of Streptococcus mutans in caries-free and caries-active subjects using MLEE. Strains from caries-free subjects were grouped in a single taxon. Unrooted dendrogram showed that different strains clustered in four different clades, also showed that more than one clonal type can be found in a same individual.

  13. Modernisation of the design of clinical trials for caries preventive agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    In January 2002 the International Consensus Workshop on Caries Clinical Trials was organised in Scotland. The meeting was an initiative of both academic and industrial partners, in order to arrive at a consensus about ways to modernise the design of clinical trials for caries preventive agents (Cari

  14. [Secular trends of caries prevalence among 6 and 12 year-old youths in the Netherlands].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, G.J.; Schuller, A.A.; Poorterman, J.H.G.; Mulder, J.

    2010-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the development of caries prevalence and caries experience among Dutch youth, a meta-analysis was carried out on epidemiological caries data collected in 5 and 6 and 11 and 12 year-olds between 1980 and 2009. From the present analysis it appears that after the mid-1980'

  15. Caries prevention by professional fluoride gel application on enamel and dentinal lesions in low-caries children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truin, G J; van't Hof, M A

    2005-01-01

    In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, the caries-reducing effect of semi-annually applied fluoride gel in a low-caries child population initially aged 4.5-6.5 years (n = 773) has been investigated. Secondary analyses of the data were performed to study the caries reduction including non-cavitated lesions. The treatment effect of fluoride gel was calculated as preventive fraction (PF). When enamel lesions were included in DFS count (D(2) grade), the PF was 22% as compared to 26% counting dentinal lesions. The PFs showed that the mean effect of professionally applied fluoride gel was highest (71%) for D(3)S in the permanent dentition and lowest for d(3)s in the primary dentition (5%). The PFs for approximal and buccal and lingual surfaces of the permanent dentition significantly decreased from 80 to 25% and from 60 to 37% when enamel lesions (D(2)S) were included. With the exception of the buccal and lingual surfaces, in the primary dentition the PFs varied slightly when enamel lesions were included. Inclusion of non-cavitated lesions in the treatment effect statistics did not change the former conclusion that the treatment effect of fluoride gel application on dental caries reduction in a low-caries child population was considered not clinically relevant.

  16. Microbiología de la caries radicular en el paciente mayor Microbiology of the root caries in old patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Gutiérrez Acero

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La caries radicular es uno de los problemas bucodentales más importantes y que más comúnmente afectan al adulto mayor. La caries radicular es aquel proceso carioso que se produce sobre la raíz expuesta del diente. Los principales patógenos implicados son el Streptococcus mutans, el Actinomyces viscosus y el Lactobacillus acidofilus, que producen los ácidos orgánicos que desmineralizan el cemento y la dentina de la raíz, llegando producir su cavitación. Los cambios que se producen en el medio oral tienen una relación muy directa con las bacterias de la caries radicular y del biofilm que forman.The root caries is one of most important bucodental problems that affect to the old patient. The root caries is the decay process that produce on the expose root. The principals pathogens relying are Streptococos mutans, Actinomyces viscosus and Lactobacillus acidofilus, that produce the organics acids demineralizating of root cement and dentin producing the cavitation of the root. The changes producing in the mouth have a direct relation with the bacteria and its biofilm.

  17. Removal of Dental Biofilms with an Ultrasonically Activated Water Stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlin, R P; Fabbri, S; Offin, D G; Symonds, N; Kiang, K S; Knee, R J; Yoganantham, D C; Webb, J S; Birkin, P R; Leighton, T G; Stoodley, P

    2015-09-01

    Acidogenic bacteria within dental plaque biofilms are the causative agents of caries. Consequently, maintenance of a healthy oral environment with efficient biofilm removal strategies is important to limit caries, as well as halt progression to gingivitis and periodontitis. Recently, a novel cleaning device has been described using an ultrasonically activated stream (UAS) to generate a cavitation cloud of bubbles in a freely flowing water stream that has demonstrated the capacity to be effective at biofilm removal. In this study, UAS was evaluated for its ability to remove biofilms of the cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans UA159, as well as Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 12104 and Streptococcus oralis ATCC 9811, grown on machine-etched glass slides to generate a reproducible complex surface and artificial teeth from a typodont training model. Biofilm removal was assessed both visually and microscopically using high-speed videography, confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Analysis by CSLM demonstrated a statistically significant 99.9% removal of S. mutans biofilms exposed to the UAS for 10 s, relative to both untreated control biofilms and biofilms exposed to the water stream alone without ultrasonic activation (P biofilm removal. The UAS was also highly effective at S. mutans, A. naeslundii, and S. oralis biofilm removal from machine-etched glass and S. mutans from typodont surfaces with complex topography. Consequently, UAS technology represents a potentially effective method for biofilm removal and improved oral hygiene.

  18. Chemomechanics with Molecular Force Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    energies with chemical accuracy (±1 kcal/mol). Solvent-dependent reactions (e.g., SN2 substitutions, see below) are calculated with a continuum...mechanotransduction [51]. As shown by Whitesides et al. and others, the reaction proceeds through a classical SN2 rate-determining step in which thiolate attacks... reaction dynamics in multiscale phenomena. These are characterized by correlated directional motion at multiple length scales—from molecular to

  19. Chemomechanical Instabilities in Responsive Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Borckmans, P; Khokhlov, A. R; Métens, S

    2009-01-01

    This volume contains a selection of the papers presented by renowned specialists of each field. It is the first book in which the communities of nonlinear chemists and gel specialist communicate and show how interactions between the two fields can actually produce working devices based on the transduction of chemical to mechanical energy and vice-versa. Beside subtle ways of using the slaving of responsive materials devices to oscillatory reactions, emphasis is brought on emerging properties that are possessed by neither of the separated constituents. Several contributions on these aspects are included, in relation to their potential relevance to biological, medical and technological applications. The whole constitutes a specific multidisciplinary "new" field. Both advanced and basic aspects of the two fields can be found the this collection of lectures. The book will not only benefit to doctoral students or young post-docs to learn the ropes of both subjects, but also to active researchers from one field, to...

  20. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles for caries control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian

    Oftentimes caries lesions develop in protected sites that are difficult to access by self-performed mechanical tooth cleaning. At present, there is a growing interest in chemical adjuncts to mechanical procedures of oral hygiene that aim at biofilm control rather than biofilm eradication. Calcium......-phosphate-osteopontin particles are a new promising therapeutic approach to caries control. They are designed to bind to dental biofilms and interfere with biofilm build-up, lowering the bacterial burden on the tooth surface without affecting bacterial viability in the oral cavity. Moreover, they dissolve when pH in the biofilm...... drops to 6 or below and release buffering phosphate ions that stabilize biofilm pH above the critical level for enamel dissolution. With that twofold approach, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles may make a relevant contribution to clinical caries control....

  1. Caries diagnosis with the DIAGNOdent laser: a user's product evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, G

    1999-03-01

    In the study, the DIAGNOdent has shown itself to be very accurate in the diagnosis of pit and fissure lesions. In the clinical situation, it showed a 92.1 per cent accuracy in diagnosing lesions, as well as their severity. In addition, when the unit showed a reading of less than 30, it was 100 per cent accurate in the virgin teeth. When the unit indicated that there was no caries in extracted teeth, it was accurate 98.1 per cent of the time. Now, for the first time, dentists can do research as to the speed of progression of caries, as well as what percentage of caries becomes arrested and what percentage deteriorate.

  2. Implications of caries diagnostic strategies for clinical management decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baelum, Vibeke; Hintze, Hanne; Wenzel, Ann;

    2012-01-01

    in a low-caries population. METHODS: Each of four examiners independently examined preselected contacting interproximal surfaces in 53 dental students aged 20-37 years using a visual-tactile examination and bitewing radiography. The visual-tactile examination distinguished between noncavitated......OBJECTIVES: In clinical practice, a visual-tactile caries examination is frequently supplemented by bitewing radiography. This study evaluated strategies for combining visual-tactile and radiographic caries detection methods and determined their implications for clinical management decisions......-specificity) were calculated for each diagnostic strategy. RESULTS: Visual-tactile examination provided a true-positive rate of 34.2% and a false-positive rate of 1.5% for the detection of a cavity. The combination of a visual-tactile and a radiographic examination using the lesion in dentin threshold...

  3. Fluoride use in Controlling Dental Caries and Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience. The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s.

  4. New methodology for studying the structural ecology of occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Irene; Grønkjær, Lene; Nyvad, Bente

    Microbiological studies of occlusal dental biofilms have hitherto been hampered by inaccessibility to the sampling site and demolition of the original biofilm architecture. The aim of the present study was to explore the spatial distribution of bacterial taxa in vivo at various stages of occusal...... caries, applying a new methodology involving preparation of embedded hard dental tissue slices for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. 11 extracted teeth were included in the study and classified according to their occlusal caries status (active/inactive/sound; cavitated......-bacterial origin resembling developmental protein, calculus and/or dead bacteria. Bacterial invasion with penetration into the dentinal tubules was seen only at advanced stages of the caries process with manifest cavity formation. It is concluded that the new methodology represents a valuable supplement...

  5. Specifics of proximal caries and their diagnostics in posterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcik-Checinska Ilona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proximal surfaces are the second in turn after the occlusal surfaces, as being the most exposed places to the carious process. The specificity of changes and location makes the diagnostic of approximal cavities difficult. The aim of the study was to collect information on possibilities of detection, monitoring and assessment of carious lesions located on proximal surfaces, starting from the early stage. On the base of current literature, chosen methods of diagnosis, from conventional, to advanced technologies were presented. Current literature also suggests that none of the diagnostic methods exclude the possibility of misdiagnosis of proximal caries. Therefore, during the diagnosing of doubtful cases, it is advisable to employ several methods of assessment, with simultaneous individual appraisal of caries risk factors, such as oral hygiene, frequency of eating sweets or the number of active caries foci.

  6. Early caries detection: comparison of two procedures. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Caries is one of the most common chronic diseases and the main cause of tooth loss. Early detection provides a better evaluation of the disease and improves the chances to succeed of prevention strategies. This pilot study aims to compare the effectiveness of ICDAS-II system (International Caries Detection and Assessment System and the fluorescence terminal (Proof of VistaCam iX intraoral camera, in the early diagnosis and assessment of caries in permanent teeth. Results shows a fair correlation between ICDAS II and VistaCam iX Proof; intraoral camera proved to be a useful support to the ICDAS II visual / tactile monitoring of carious lesions in occlusal surfaces.

  7. Bionic restorative system: its potential value in caries therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M M Hao; Zheng, M M Ren; Lin, M D Yinghe

    2009-07-01

    Dental defect caused by dental caries is usually restored by fillings, inlays or onlays at the present day. Although the therapeutic effects of these methods have already been confirmed, complications occasionally set in, such as pulp injury, fracture and secondary caries. Bionic dental organic center possesses similar functions of the natural dental organic center. So we put forward a hypothesis that bionic organic center can be transplanted onto the conditioned pulpal walls of the prepared cavity and a specific filling material, which the cavity will be filled with, provides oxygen, nutrition and raw materials for it to regenerate the lost odontal tissue in vivo. The regenerated odontal tissue which has similar properties of the healthy odontal tissue will restore the defect and it will be combined with the residual odontal tissue tightly, not only in physical structure but also in function. Then the teeth suffering from dental caries could live and function like healthy ones.

  8. Caries assessment: establishing mathematical link of clinical and benchtop method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2009-02-01

    It is well established that the development of new technologies for early detection and quantitative monitoring of dental caries at its early stage could provide health and economic benefits ranging from timely preventive interventions to reduction of the time required for clinical trials of anti-caries agents. However, the new technologies currently used in clinical setting cannot assess and monitor caries using the actual mineral concentration within the lesion, while a laboratory-based microcomputed tomography (MCT) has been shown to possess this capability. Thus we envision the establishment of mathematical equations relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT will enable the mineral concentration of lesions detected and assessed in clinical practice to be extrapolated from the equation, and this will facilitate preventitive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost. We utilize MCT and the two prominent clinical caries assessment devices (Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence [QLF] and Diagnodent) to longitudinally monitor the development of caries in a continuous flow mixed-organisms biofilm model (artificial mouth), and then used the collected data to establish mathematical equation relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT. A linear correlation was observed between the measurements of MicroCT and that of QLF and Diagnodent. Thus mineral density in a carious lesion detected and measured using QLF or Diagnodent can be extrapolated using the developed equation. This highlights the usefulness of MCT for monitoring the progress of an early caries being treated with therapeutic agents in clinical practice or trials.

  9. Nanotechnology-based restorative materials for dental caries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Mary A S; Guedes, Sarah F F; Xu, Hockin H K; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A

    2013-08-01

    Nanotechnology has been applied to dental materials as an innovative concept for the development of materials with better properties and anticaries potential. In this review we discuss the current progress and future applications of functional nanoparticles incorporated in dental restorative materials as useful strategies to dental caries management. We also overview proposed antimicrobial and remineralizing mechanisms. Nanomaterials have great potential to decrease biofilm accumulation, inhibit the demineralization process, to be used for remineralizing tooth structure, and to combat caries-related bacteria. These results are encouraging and open the doors to future clinical studies that will allow the therapeutic value of nanotechnology-based restorative materials to be established.

  10. Optical Assessment of Caries Lesion Structure and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert Chulsung

    New, more sophisticated diagnostic tools are needed for the detection and characterization of caries lesions in the early stages of development. It is not sufficient to simply detect caries lesions, methods are needed to assess the activity of the lesion and determine if chemical or surgical intervention is needed. Previous studies have demonstrated that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to nondestructively image the subsurface lesion structure and measure the thickness of the highly mineralized surface zone. Other studies have demonstrated that the rate of dehydration can be correlated with the lesion activity and that the rate can be measured using optical methods. The main objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that optical methods can be used to assess lesion activity on tooth coronal and root surfaces. Simulated caries models were used to develop and validate an algorithm for detecting and measuring the highly mineralized surface layer using PS-OCT. This work confirmed that the algorithm was capable of estimating the thickness of the highly mineralized surface layer with high accuracy. Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and thermal imaging methods were used to assess activity of caries lesions by measuring the state of lesion hydration. NIR reflectance imaging performed the best for artificial enamel and natural coronal caries lesion samples, particularly at wavelengths coincident with the water absorption band at 1460-nm. However, thermal imaging performed the best for artificial dentin and natural root caries lesion samples. These novel optical methods outperformed the conventional methods (ICDAS II) in accurately assessing lesion activity of natural coronal and root caries lesions. Infrared-based imaging methods have shown potential for in-vivo applications to objectively assess caries lesion activity in a single examination. It is likely that if future clinical trials are a success, this novel imaging

  11. [Dietary habits and early childhood caries intensity among young children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagińska, Joanna; Stokowska, Wanda

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a diet and the feeding method on caries intensity among children aged 36-48 months. Dental examination was carried out in 255 children and their mothers were asked about child's dietary habits. The population checked was divided into three groups: with dmf = 0, dmf 1-3 and dmf > or = 4. Statistically significant correlation between caries intensity and bottle feeding during sleep and frequency of eating cariogenic food were shown. Parents of young children should be educated about the influence of dietary habits on dental condition.

  12. [DNA-technologies application for early detection of caries predisposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, I L

    2006-01-01

    In the paper the possible use of modern DNA-technologies for estimation of gene pool, dental hard tissue resistance to caries prognosis, hereditary predisposition to the main oral diseases diagnosis are presented. Application potentialities of DNA-markers for multiple testing in population are identified. Today very little information is available concerning Russia gene pool characteristics in genome polymorphism, DNA-markers-allelic gene variants, related to the caries predisposition. These characteristics are needed to solve the problems concerning dental diseases prophylaxis and treatment.

  13. Fluoride Varnish Efficacy in Preventing Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Weintraub, J.A.; Ramos-Gomez, F; Jue, B.; Shain, S.; Hoover, C I; Featherstone, J.D.B.; Gansky, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of fluoride varnish (5% NaF, Duraphat®, Colgate) added to caregiver counseling to prevent early childhood caries, we conducted a two-year randomized, dental-examiner-masked clinical trial. Initially, 376 caries-free children, from low-income Chinese or Hispanic San Francisco families, were enrolled (mean age ± standard deviation, 1.8 ± 0.6 yrs). All families received counseling, and children were randomized to the following groups: no fluoride varnish, fluoride varni...

  14. Randomized trial on fluorides and sealants for fissure caries prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, HC; Liu, BY; Lo, ECM; Chu, CH

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of topical fluorides in preventing fissure caries, we conducted a randomized controlled trial with parallel groups. In total, 501 children (1,539 molars, 3,078 sites), mean age 9.1 years, who had at least one sound permanent first molar with deep fissures or fissures with signs of early caries were recruited. They were randomly allocated among four groups: (1) resin sealant, single placement; (2) 5% NaF varnish, semi-annual application; (3) 38% silver diamine ...

  15. Visual Inspection Displays Good Accuracy for Detecting Caries Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Visual inspection for caries detection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gimenez T, Piovesan C, Braga MM, Raggio DP, Deery C, Ricketts DN, Ekstrand DR, Mendes FM. J Dent Res 2015;94(7):895-904. REVIEWER: Svante Twetman, DDS, PhD, Odont Dr PURPOSE....../QUESTION: To evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting caries lesions. SOURCE OF FUNDING: Brazilian government (Process 2012/17888-1). TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis of data LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 1: Good-quality, patient-oriented evidence STRENGTH OF RECOMMENDATION...

  16. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles for caries control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian

    Oftentimes caries lesions develop in protected sites that are difficult to access by self-performed mechanical tooth cleaning. At present, there is a growing interest in chemical adjuncts to mechanical procedures of oral hygiene that aim at biofilm control rather than biofilm eradication. Calcium......-phosphate-osteopontin particles are a new promising therapeutic approach to caries control. They are designed to bind to dental biofilms and interfere with biofilm build-up, lowering the bacterial burden on the tooth surface without affecting bacterial viability in the oral cavity. Moreover, they dissolve when pH in the biofilm...

  17. Detection of early dental caries with short pulse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Nahoko; Goto, Shigeru [Osada Research Inst., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ohzu, Akira; Arisawa, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Advanced Photon Research Center, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Differences in the optical properties of polarization and photoluminescence between caries lesion and noncaries (sound) enamel have been investigated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 532 nm on the surface of teeth. Significant difference in the polarization property of the scattered light from the surface can be observed with some carious samples. For photoluminescence spectral lines which appear at around 650 nm, the intensity of caries lesion has been approximately two times higher than that of sound one. A discussion is presented in which early are potentially detectable by the pulsed laser. (author)

  18. Detecting short-term changes in the activity of caries lesions with the aid of new technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. van der Veen

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of new technologies for the assessment of caries and more in particular changes in caries activity. Over the past decades, we have seen a shift from restorative treatment caries to a prevention-driven approach. Also there is a need for shorter and less expensive caries c

  19. [Clinical aspects of the evolution of dental caries and periodontal disease in patients treated with corticosteroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lăcătuşu, St; Ghiorghe, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Patients treated with adrenal glucocorticoids may run a higher risk of dental caries, both as a result of their medical condition and of the physical and physiological effects of their pharmacotherapy. Our clinical study reports about patients treated with glucocorticoids who were also having an odonto-periodontal condition. They were examined and we found rampant caries and periodontal diseases. The slow evolution of asymptomatic periodontal disease encouraged destruction of teeth in root caries. The rampant caries were correlated with immunodeficiency and treatment of these caries must take into account the general treatment.

  20. Microbiología de la caries radicular en el paciente mayor Microbiology of the root caries in old patients

    OpenAIRE

    D Gutiérrez Acero; L Alós Cortés; García Gómez, F.; A González Sanz

    2006-01-01

    La caries radicular es uno de los problemas bucodentales más importantes y que más comúnmente afectan al adulto mayor. La caries radicular es aquel proceso carioso que se produce sobre la raíz expuesta del diente. Los principales patógenos implicados son el Streptococcus mutans, el Actinomyces viscosus y el Lactobacillus acidofilus, que producen los ácidos orgánicos que desmineralizan el cemento y la dentina de la raíz, llegando producir su cavitación. Los cambios que se producen en el medio ...

  1. Susceptibility to Dental Caries and the Salivary Proline-Rich Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Levine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood caries affects 28% of children aged 2–6 in the US and is not decreasing. There is a well-recognized need to identify susceptible children at birth. Caries-free adults neutralize bacterial acids in dental biofilms better than adults with severe caries. Saliva contains acidic and basic proline-rich proteins (PRPs which attach to oral streptococci. The PRPs are encoded within a small region of chromosome 12. An acidic PRP allele (Db protects Caucasian children from caries but is more common in African Americans. Some basic PRP allelic phenotypes have a three-fold greater frequency in caries-free adults than in those with severe caries. Early childhood caries may associate with an absence of certain basic PRP alleles which bind oral streptococci, neutralize biofilm acids, and are in linkage disequilibrium with Db in Caucasians. The encoding of basic PRP alleles is updated and a new technology for genotyping them is described.

  2. A review of the dental caries status of ethnic minority children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shinan; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Liu, Juan; Chu, Chun Hung

    2015-02-01

    China has 55 ethnic minority groups comprised of 113 million persons, or 7.0% of total population. Dental caries is a major health problem for children in China, and national oral health surveys currently report dental caries based on geographical location rather than by ethnic group. This study reviews the literature on dental caries in ethnic minority children in China. Publications were retrieved in Chinese and English from five electronic databases; thirty-eight studies from 1983 to 2012 met inclusion criteria and described 25 ethnic minority groups. Primary dentition median caries prevalence and experience were higher (51% and dmft = 3.0, respectively) than permanent dentition caries prevalence and experience (39% and DMFT = 0.8). Median caries prevalence was highest (80%) for permanent dentition among aggregated ethnic minorities with population greater than 1 million. More work and research is needed to expand dental caries prevention and treatment measures for ethnic minority child populations in China.

  3. A cross-sectional survey of dental caries, oral hygiene, and Helicobacter pylori infection in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Yue, Ji; Han, Shufang; Deng, Tianzheng; Fu, Chongjian; Zhu, Guoxiong; Chen, Dong

    2013-07-01

    We explored the epidemiological risk factors for dental caries to help explain differences in the prevalence of adult dental caries. We examined 841 people for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in their dental plaque and for dental caries. Of the 841 subjects, 574 (68.25%) were infected with H pylori, and 516 (61.36%) were diagnosed with dental caries. Among the 574 subjects with H pylori, the prevalence of dental caries was 73.52% (422/574), while the prevalence among the 267 cases without H pylori was 35.21% (94/267). A correlation existed between the presence of H pylori and the occurrence of dental caries (χ(2) = 112.8, P oral cavity is associated with dental caries and poor dental hygiene.

  4. Dental caries among children visiting a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky: a pooled cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Methods Study...

  5. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Paixão-Gonçalves, Suzane; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2016-05-20

    The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95). The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%). Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6%) received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12-2.05) had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children's caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.

  6. Caries risk assessment in schoolchildren - a form based on Cariogram® software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nunes CABRAL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying caries risk factors is an important measure which contributes to best understanding of the cariogenic profile of the patient. The Cariogram® software provides this analysis, and protocols simplifying the method were suggested. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether a newly developed Caries Risk Assessment (CRA form based on the Cariogram® software could classify schoolchildren according to their caries risk and to evaluate relationships between caries risk and the variables in the form. Material and Methods: 150 schoolchildren aged 5 to 7 years old were included in this survey. Caries prevalence was obtained according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II. Information for filling in the form based on Cariogram® was collected clinically and from questionnaires sent to parents. Linear regression and a forward stepwise multiple regression model were applied to correlate the variables included in the form with the caries risk. Results: Caries prevalence, in primary dentition, including enamel and dentine carious lesions was 98.6%, and 77.3% when only dentine lesions were considered. Eighty-six percent of the children were classified as at moderate caries risk. The forward stepwise multiple regression model result was significant (R2=0.904; p<0.00001, showing that the most significant factors influencing caries risk were caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources. Conclusion: The use of the form based on the Cariogram® software enabled classification of the schoolchildren at low, moderate and high caries risk. Caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources are the variables that were shown to be highly correlated with caries risk.

  7. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia CORRÊA-FARIA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95. The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%. Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6% received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12–2.05 had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children’s caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.

  8. Caries set fra et økologisk perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries affects the majority of the Danish population. Its aetiology is multi-factorial, but a pH-induced change in the homeostasis of the oral biofilm leading to overgrowth of acid-tolerating bacteria is a key event. A non-invasive concept for prevention and management is emerging based on...

  9. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Grace Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  10. A Comparison of Different Methods for Fissure Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to compare the diagnostic capabilities of three different diagnostic methods: Quantitative Laser Fluorescence (QLF − DIAGNOdent Classic (DD, Light-Induced Fluorescence (LIF − SoproLife daylight and blue fluorescence, and their relevance to ICDAS II system in detection of fissure caries lesions in permanent molars. Permanent molars (n = 45 are divided in two groups: 1 third molars, n = 35; 2 first and second molars, n = 10. They are examined by 2 examiners with and without magnification x5 using ICDAS II, SoproLife “day light” and “blue light” (405nm, LIF, DIAGNOdent Classic − emitting laser light on 655nm, QLF. The results are proven with histological bucco-lingual or mesio-distal sections through the body of the lesion with diamond blade rinsed with water. Photos of all occlusal surfaces of the molars are taken before and after the sections. The lowest overdiagnosis rate is found with SoproLife camera. When visual examination is applied overdiagnoses are fewer than with DD. DD is not capable to differentiate white and brown spots from a caries lesion. Soprolife is not capable to differentiate brown spots from a caries lesion. The most accurate method in this in vitro study for diagnosis of fissure caries is LIF (SoproLife − 75.6% of the teeth are correctly diagnosed, followed by ICDAS (57.8% and QLF (DIAGNOdent (40%.

  11. Are we ready for caries prevention through bacteriotherapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svante Twetman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent insights in medical science indicate that human biofilms play an important role in health and well-being, and have put microbiota modulation through bacteriotherapy into focus. In dentistry, bacterial interference with probiotic bacteria to support the stability and diversity of oral biofilms has gained similar interest. Investigations in vitro into metabolic activity, co-aggregation, growth inhibition, bacteriocin production, and adhesion have collectively suggested a potential role for probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria to modulate the oral microbial ecology. Likewise, short-term clinical studies with intermediate microbial endpoints indicate that interference with caries-associated bacteria seems possible through probiotic dairy products, tablets, lozenges and chewing gum in various dose regimens. Few randomized controlled clinical trials with caries outcomes are available, but three studies with preschool children and the elderly have demonstrated preventive fractions between 21% and 75%, following regular intake of milk supplemented with probiotic lactobacilli. However, further large-scale trials with orally derived anti-caries candidates are needed before we can say that we are ready for bacteriotherapy as an adjunct to complement the existing evidence-based methods for preventing and controlling caries in daily practice.

  12. Economic aspects of the detection of occlusal dentine caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlund, Anders; Axelsson, Susanna; Dahlen, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost of true-positive occlusal dentine caries detection in permanent molars assessed by: (I) visual-tactile examination, (II) visual-tactile examination combined with bitewing radiographs, and (III) selective radiographic examination of patients with lesions detected cl...

  13. Methods for the evaluation of caries preventing agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herkströter, Franciscus Maria

    1990-01-01

    Dental caries, or tooth decay, is a pathological process of localized destruction of tooth tissues by micro-organisms present in the so-called plaque. The destruction, caused by acids formed in the plague,Ieads to mineral loss (demineralization) from the hard tissues. A demineralized tooth can also

  14. [Diagnosis of occlusal caries lesions using laser fluorescence measurements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naphausen, M T P; Riemersma, M; Verdonschot, E H

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a device for detecting occlusal caries lesions (DIAGNOdent) has been introduced. The reproducibility and validity of this laser-fluorescence device were investigated. In the in vivo part of the study, 45 sites at the occlusal surfaces of permanent molar teeth in 13 patients were measured by 2 observers using 2 DIAGNOdent devices, one produced in 1998 and one in 1999. The interobserver reliability between both devices and both observers was established. In the in vitro part of the study, 49 permanent molars were measured by 2 observers using 2 DIAGNOdent devices. In addition, visual inspection was performed. The teeth were sectioned to measure the histological depth and area of the caries lesions. The reproducibility of both DIAGNOdent devices was high, and so was the interobserver reliability. The correlation between DIAGNOdent measurements and the actual depth of the caries lesions was lower than that of visual inspection. The correlation with the enamel part of the lesion exceeded that of the dentine part. It was concluded that the validity of the DIAGNOdent, expressed as the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, was not statistically significantly different from that of visual inspection. Because of the high reproducibility, dental practitioners who wish to use the DIAGNOdent for monitoring caries lesions, this investigation indicates that an old device may be replaced by a new one, provided that the same tip will be used.

  15. ART: a minimal intervention approach to manage dental caries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Holmgren, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    The number of studies investigating aspects of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach has increased in recent years. This tissue preservative treatment approach appears to be less painful and is, therefore, more patient-friendly than conventional caries treatments. The investigations so

  16. Early Childhood Dental Caries. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.

    As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…

  17. The Relationship Between Dietary Factors and Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, M. Lisa

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between the development of tooth decay and the diet includes a multitude of variables other than sugar. However, the frequency with which food is consumed and its consistency or stickiness may be primary contributors to the development of dental caries. (JN)

  18. Modelling community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; van Loveren, C.; Dusseldorp, E.; Verrips, G.H.W.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study empirically tested a theoretical model of pathways and inter-relationships among community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries in a sample of 630, 6-year-old children from the Netherlands. Children's decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) sco

  19. Sealing occlusal caries lesions in adults referred for restorative treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhshandeh, Azam; Qvist, Vibeke; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2012-01-01

    treatment by senior lecturers at School of Dentistry, Copenhagen, Denmark were included. In case the patient had more than one occlusal caries lesion, randomization between sealing and restoration was made; otherwise, the lesion was sealed. In total, 60 resin sealants and 12 composite restorations were made...

  20. Developing explanatory models of health inequalities in childhood dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pine, Cynthia M; Adair, Pauline M; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Long-term aim is to determine optimum interventions to reduce dental caries in children in disadvantaged communities and minimise the effects of exclusion from health care systems, of ethnic diversity, and health inequalities. DESIGN: Generation of initial explanatory models, study pro...

  1. OPTICAL QUANTITATION AND RADIOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSIS OF INCIPIENT APPROXIMAL CARIES LESIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERDONSCHOT, EH; VANDERIJKE, JW; BROUWER, W; TENBOSCH, JJ; TRUIN, GJ

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the applicability of photocell measurements in approximal caries diagnosis and to evaluate the use of radiographs as validating criterion. Forty extracted premolars were selected, and the progression of the approximal lesions was graded clinically and radiog

  2. Digital contrast subtraction radiography for proximal caries diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja [Department of Dental Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    To determine whether subtraction images utilizing contrast media can improve the diagnostic performance of proximal caries diagnosis compared to conventional periapical radiographic images. Thirty-six teeth with 57 proximal surfaces were radiographied using a size no.2 RVG-ui sensor (Trophy Radiology, Marne-la-Vallee, France). The teeth immersed in water-soluble contrast media and subtraction images were taken. Each tooth was then sectioned for histologic examination. The digital radiographic images and subtraction images were examined and interpreted by three dentists for proximal caries. The results of the proximal caries diagnosis were then verified with the results of the histologic examination. The proximal caries sensitivity using digital subtraction radiography was significantly higher than simply examining a single digital radiograph. The sensitivity of the proximal dentinal carious lesion when analyzed with the subtraction radiograph and the radiograph together was higher than with the subtraction radiograph or the radiograph alone. The use of subtraction radiography with contrast media may be useful for detecting proximal dentinal carious lesions.

  3. Mechanisms of action of fluoride for caries control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzalaf, M.A.R.; Pessan, J.P.; Honório, H.M.; ten Cate, J.M.; Buzalaf, M.A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Fluoride was introduced into dentistry over 70 years ago, and it is now recognized as the main factor responsible for the dramatic decline in caries prevalence that has been observed worldwide. However, excessive fluoride intake during the period of tooth development can cause dental fluorosis. In o

  4. Efficacy of Miswak (Salvadorapersica in Prevention of Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ezoddini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The rate of tooth decay and periodontal diseases today is still high, regardless of progress in oral and dental hygiene. The traditional toothbrush or chewing stick called "Miswak" has been used since ancient times. Many significant effects of Miswak such as antibacterial, anti-caries and antiperiopathic effects have been recognized today. Tooth care is a very important issue and both prevention and treatment of dental caries could be very helpful in maintaining good personal health. In this research, the efficacy of natural toothbrush or Miswak in prevention of dental caries was investigated and compared with the efficacy of ordinary toothbrush and toothpaste. Aim: Miswak was introduced for preventing dental caries by the Holy Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W 1400 years ago and has been used since then in many Islamic countries. In this research, the efficacy of Miswak in prevention of dental caries was investigated and compared with the efficacy of ordinary toothbrush. Methods: This analytical and clinical trial was performed in a high school student population (girls and boys in the city of Yazd, Iran in 2001-2002. Twelve high schools were randomly chosen. From these high schools, 380 second year students (190 cases and 190 controls were enrolled and their teeth condition such as the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMF were recorded in a specific questionnaire. The degrees of decay in the decayed teeth were recorded as well. Then, Miswak sticks were distributed to the case group and required dental training was given to both groups. After one year, the examinations were repeated and findings recorded in the same questionnaires. For analyzing the data, one-way variance analysis, Chi square, Paired t-test and two variable analyses were used. Results: At the start of the study, there were no significant differences between the two groups (case and control with regards to their dental condition and the frequency of

  5. Caries Diagnosis in the Mixed Dentition Using ICDAS II

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    Erica Simone dos Santos Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the dental caries prevalence with ICDAS II in the mixed dentition, 40 children aged 7 to 11 years old, participating in a social program, whose parents and/or guardians signed a informed consent form. Material and Methods: Clinical examination was carried out after brushing. A single researcher performed the examination and the diagnosis consistency was obtained by Kappa coefficient in 12% of the sample. All dental surfaces were examined receiving a two-digit code. The first one refers to the presence of restoration/sealant and the second, the severity of carious lesions. The data was processed at SPSS software version 10.0 and analyzed using descriptive statistics (absolute distribution, percentage, mean and standard deviation. Results: The coefficient intra-examiner agreement was 0,83. Caries prevalence was considered high because 100% of the children had some surface with non-cavitated caries lesion. ICDAS II can be easily transformed to dmf-s or DMF-S without compromising its integrity. For dmf-s/DMF-S decayed surfaces were considered ICDAS codes 3 to 6, resulting in a dmf-s = 6,57 where 11 children (27,5% presented no decayed deciduous teeth surface. DMF-S = 2,0 showed that 15 children (37,5% had none decayed permanent surface, determining a underestimation of the caries disease when using dmf-d/dmf-s and DMF-S indexes. Conclusion: A careful viewing of initial caries lesions makes ICDAS II usefull in evaluating the health promotion actions impact, supporting the planning process, implementation and evaluation of program activities.

  6. Role of dentin MMPs in caries progression and bond stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A; Tjäderhane, L; Checchi, V; Di Lenarda, R; Salo, T; Tay, F R; Pashley, D H; Breschi, L

    2015-02-01

    Dentin can be described as a biological composite with collagen matrix embedded with nanosized hydroxyapatite mineral crystallites. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins are families of endopeptidases. Enzymes of both families are present in dentin and collectively capable of degrading virtually all extracellular matrix components. This review describes these enzymes and their presence in dentin, mainly focusing on their role in dentin caries pathogenesis and loss of collagen in the adhesive hybrid layer under composite restorations. MMPs and cysteine cathepsins present in saliva, mineralized dentin, and/or dentinal fluid may affect the dentin caries process at the early phases of demineralization. Changes in collagen and noncollagenous protein structure may participate in observed decreases in mechanical properties of caries-affected dentin and reduce the ability of caries-affected dentin to remineralize. These endogenous enzymes also remain entrapped within the hybrid layer during the resin infiltration process, and the acidic bonding agents themselves (irrespective of whether they are etch-and-rinse or self-etch) can activate these endogenous protease proforms. Since resin impregnation is frequently incomplete, denuded collagen matrices associated with free water (which serves as a collagen cleavage reagent for these endogenous hydrolase enzymes) can be enzymatically disrupted, finally contributing to the degradation of the hybrid layer. There are multiple in vitro and in vivo reports showing that the longevity of the adhesive interface is increased when nonspecific enzyme-inhibiting strategies are used. Different chemicals (i.e., chlorhexidine, galardin, and benzalkonium chloride) or collagen cross-linker agents have been successfully employed as therapeutic primers in the bonding procedure. In addition, the incorporation of enzyme inhibitors (i.e., quaternary ammonium methacrylates) into the resin blends has been recently promoted. This

  7. [Relation between biofilm, caries activity and gingivitis in HIV + children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Apoena de Aguiar; Portela, Maristela; Souza, Ivete Pomarico de

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of medicines to treat HIV-infected children has been promoting a decrease in the prevalence of soft-tissue oral lesions, as years pass by. In contrast, it has been observed that the experience of caries and gingivitis is constant in this population, mostly because of the chronic influence of some factors involved in the HIV-infection process, such as the chronic utilization of sweetened liquid medicines and carbohydrate-enriched diet, as well as frequent episodes of hospitalization. So, the purpose of this study was to evaluate if the quality and quantity of biofilm are important factors in the activity of dental caries and gingivitis, also in this special group. After examination of the biofilm (biofilm index - Ribeiro23, 2000), the activity of caries and gingivitis was assessed in 56 children, aging from 0 to 14 years, who were patients with definitive diagnosis of HIV infection. It was observed that only 7 subjects (12.5%) did not present with clinically visible biofilm, and 33 (58.9%) presented with gingivitis, with the average of 4.44 bleeding sites. As to dental caries, 73.2% of the patients presented with active carious lesions. A strong correlation was verified between Biofilm Index, gingival status and active carious lesions (Spearman's correlation test, r s = +0.57 and r s = +0.49, respectively). It was concluded that, also in HIV-infected children, the quality and quantity of biofilm over the dental surfaces are important etiologic factors related to the activity of caries and gingivitis. Biofilm should, thus, be controlled in order to reestablish the oral health of HIV-infected children.

  8. Role of Dentin MMPs in Caries Progression and Bond Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A.; Tjäderhane, L.; Checchi, V.; Di Lenarda, R.; Salo, T.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    Dentin can be described as a biological composite with collagen matrix embedded with nanosized hydroxyapatite mineral crystallites. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins are families of endopeptidases. Enzymes of both families are present in dentin and collectively capable of degrading virtually all extracellular matrix components. This review describes these enzymes and their presence in dentin, mainly focusing on their role in dentin caries pathogenesis and loss of collagen in the adhesive hybrid layer under composite restorations. MMPs and cysteine cathepsins present in saliva, mineralized dentin, and/or dentinal fluid may affect the dentin caries process at the early phases of demineralization. Changes in collagen and noncollagenous protein structure may participate in observed decreases in mechanical properties of caries-affected dentin and reduce the ability of caries-affected dentin to remineralize. These endogenous enzymes also remain entrapped within the hybrid layer during the resin infiltration process, and the acidic bonding agents themselves (irrespective of whether they are etch-and-rinse or self-etch) can activate these endogenous protease proforms. Since resin impregnation is frequently incomplete, denuded collagen matrices associated with free water (which serves as a collagen cleavage reagent for these endogenous hydrolase enzymes) can be enzymatically disrupted, finally contributing to the degradation of the hybrid layer. There are multiple in vitro and in vivo reports showing that the longevity of the adhesive interface is increased when nonspecific enzyme-inhibiting strategies are used. Different chemicals (i.e., chlorhexidine, galardin, and benzalkonium chloride) or collagen cross-linker agents have been successfully employed as therapeutic primers in the bonding procedure. In addition, the incorporation of enzyme inhibitors (i.e., quaternary ammonium methacrylates) into the resin blends has been recently promoted. This

  9. Laser-induced fluorescence in diagnosis of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, Eleni A.; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Khabbaz, Maruan; Serafetinides, Alexandros A.

    2003-09-01

    The autofluorescence spectra of hard dental tissues, both in normal and pathological areas were investigated in this study. The measurements were performed both on the intact hard tissues of the examined teeth, such as enamel, dentine, cementum, and root canal, and on the tissues pathologically affected by caries (superficial, intermediate, and deep). Various laser wavelengths (337 nm, 488 nm, and 514 nm) were used to irradiate the dental surfaces and a computer-controlled spectrograph captured the fluorescent spectra. The emission signals were stored, measured, analyzed and quantified in terms of wavelength distribution and the relative photon intensity. Results indicated that the fluorescent spectra from healthy enamel, dentine, and cementum were almost identical in form, depending on the excitation wavelength. The intact and affected hard tissues were greatly different in the integral fluorescent intensity. Healthy areas were found to produce the most pronounced fluorescent intensity, whereas the carious regions produced the weaker fluorescent intensity. Independently of the laser excitation wavelength, dentin regions were found to produce the most pronounced fluorescent intensity than any other dental component. The fluorescence signal of carious affected dental structure revealed a reed shifted spectral curve, more pronounced after 488 nm excitation. There was a pronounced red shift for deep caries (crown -- root caries), after ultraviolet laser excitation. Excitation with visible wavelengths did not produce such differences between intact and cervical, deep carious affected tissue. Using a monochromatic light source without any light output at the wavelengths of fluorescence, e.g. a laser with the appropriate filters, the difference in fluorescence between intact and carious enamel was generally easy to observe. Finally, we found that the blue line of an argon ion laser is preferable for superficial caries detection, while the ultraviolet emitting nitrogen

  10. Kemomekanik çürük kaldırma yöntemlerinde güncel yaklaşımlar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Ölmez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The change in the concepts of cavity preparation and the production of reliable adhesive materials lead to the development of alternative methods of caries removal. Painless, minimal intervention and thus giving comfort, relief and instill positive attitude toward dental treatments, are some of the factors justifying the specialty of pediatric dentistry. Chemomechanical caries removal method is a conservative and atraumatic alternative and recently comes up again by means of developed a new chemomechanical caries removal agent papain-based gel (Papacárie®, Fórmula&Ação, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The purpose of this paper is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature regarding chemomechanical caries removal methods, including the most recently available caries removal agent.

    Keywords: Dental caries, chemomechanical caries removal, papacarie.

     

    ÖZET

    Kavite hazırlama prensiplerindeki değişim ve güvenilir adeziv materyallerin üretilmesi, çürüğün kaldırılmasında alternatif metotların geliştirilmesine yol açmıştır. Ağrısız, minimal müdahale ve bunun sağladığı konfor, güven ve diş tedavilerine olumlu yaklaşım, özellikle çocuk diş hekimliğinde aranılan özelliklerdir. Kemomekanik çürük kaldırma yöntemi konservatif ve atravmatik bir alternatiftir ve son zamanlarda geliştirilen yeni bir kemomekanik çürük kaldırıcı ajan, papain bazlı jel (Papacárie®, Fórmula&Ação, Sao Paulo, Brezilya sayesinde tekrar gündeme gelmektedir. Bu makalenin amacı, yeni üretilen çürük kaldırma ajanı da dahil olmak üzere kemomekanik çürük kaldırma yöntemleri ile ilgili kapsamlı bir literatür derlemesi yapmaktır.

  11. A comparative evaluation of dental caries status among hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, evaluated with the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment

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    Sudipta Kar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dental caries is one of the major modern-day diseases of dental hard tissue. It may affect both normal and hearing-impaired children. Aims: This study is aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries in hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, utilizing the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional, case-control study of dental caries status of 6-12-year-old children was assessed. Subjects and Methods: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries affected hearing-impaired children found to be about 30.51% compared to 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group, and the result is significant at P < 0.05. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out utilizing Z-test. Results: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries effected hearing-impaired children found about 30.51% instead of 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group. Conclusions: Dental health of hearing-impaired children was found unsatisfactory than normal children when studied in relation to dental caries status evaluated with CAST.

  12. Evaluation of possible associated factors for early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries: a multicenter cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özen, B.; van Strijp, A.J.P.; Özer, L.; Olmus, H.; Genc, A.; Cehreli, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluated associated factors for developing early childhood caries (ECC) and Severe-ECC (S-ECC) in a group of children aged 24–71 months. Potential positive effects of early dental visit on formation of ECC is investigated as well. Study Design: This was a multicenter,

  13. EFECTO DE UN GEL DE THEOBROMA CACAO EN EL CONTROL DE CARIES VESTIBULAR EN PACIENTES CON TRATAMIENTO DE ORTODONCIA. CONSULTA PRIVADA. AREQUIPA. 2014

    OpenAIRE

    SALAS LINARES, MARY JULISSA

    2015-01-01

    THEOBROMA CACAO GENERALIDADES DESCRIPCIÓN ORIGEN Y EXTENSIÓN CLASIFICACIÓN CIENTÍFICA VARIEDADES DEL CACAO DISTRIBUCIÓN USOS MEDICINALES EFECTO ANTICARIOGÉNICO GEL CARIES DENTAL FACTORES DE RIESGO MICROORGANISMOS IMPLICADOS EN LA CARIES DENTAL CARIES EN EL ESMALTE CLASIFICACIÓN DE LA CARIES MÉTODOS DE DETECCIÓN DE CARIES CRITERIOS ICDAS

  14. Efficacy of three-tone disclosing agent as an adjunct in caries risk assessment

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    Mungara Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, most approaches to caries viewed that catastrophic change in normal plaque biofilm is responsible for the disease. The behavior and composition of the biofilm are a reflection of the oral environment; the caries is a reflection of adverse changes occurring in that environment. Thus, it is important to identify the pathogenicity of the plaque biofilm so as to predict the caries risk. The recently developed three-tone plaque disclosing agent was used to test its ability in identifying the pathogenicity of plaque. Aim: To assess the efficacy of three-tone plaque disclosing agent in identifying the plaque pathogenicity and correlate with the clinical caries status and microbiological findings. Materials and Methods: Sixty children of 6-13 years age group of both sexes were clinically examined for caries and plaque scores, and then disclosing agent was applied; the color stained plaque samples were collected and cultured for microbiological assessment, and the data were analyzed based on the caries status of the children. Results: There was a significant difference between the pathological plaque of caries active and caries free group (P < 0.05. The pathological plaque scores and the total colony counts, Streptococcus counts and mutans streptococci counts increased with the increase in caries. Conclusion: Three-tone plaque disclosing agent was effective in identifying pathological plaque and can be used as one of the chairside adjuvants in caries risk assessment.

  15. Women Are More Susceptible to Caries but Individuals Born with Clefts Are Not

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    Aditi Jindal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of individuals at a higher risk of developing caries is of great interest. Isolated forms of cleft lip and palate are among the most common craniofacial congenital anomalies in humans. Historically, several reports suggest that individuals born with clefts have a higher risk for caries. Caries continues to be the most common infectious noncontagious disease worldwide and a great burden to any health system. The identification of individuals of higher susceptibility to caries is of great interest. In this paper, we assessed caries experience of 1,593 individuals from three distinct populations. The study included individuals born with clefts, their unaffected relatives, and unrelated unaffected controls that were recruited from areas with similar cultural pressures and limited access to dental care. DMFT/dmft scores were obtained, and caries experience rates were compared among the three groups in each geographic area. Individuals born with clefts did not present higher caries experience in comparison to their unaffected relatives or unrelated unaffected controls. Women tend to present higher caries rates in comparison to men. Our work provides strong evidence that individuals born with clefts are not at higher risk to caries; however, women tend to have more severe caries experience.

  16. Dental caries experience in 12-year-old schoolchildren in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cypriano

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of caries-free children using DMFT and significant caries (SiC indexes in different caries prevalence groups in cities of the region of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The methodology proposed by the World Health Organization (1997 was used for caries diagnosis in 2,378 individuals. According to the DMFT index obtained in each evaluated city, 3 prevalence groups with representative samples were formed, being classified as low, moderate and high. SiC index was used to classify the one third of the population with the highest caries prevalence. In the low prevalence group, 32.4% of the children were caries free (DMFT=0, with mean DMFT of 2.29 and SiC index of 4.93. In the moderate prevalence group, 21.8% of the children were caries free, with mean DMFT of 3.36 and SiC of 6.74. Only 6.9% of the children in the high prevalence group were caries free and the mean DMFT was 5.54 (SiC=9.62. There was a great heterogeneity in dental caries distribution within the studied population, as well as a high caries prevalence considering the 3 classifications. Other indexes besides DMFT could be used to improve oral health assessment during establishment of the treatment plan and intervention.

  17. Investigation of salivary function and oral microbiota of radiation caries-free people with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyang Zhang

    Full Text Available Radiation caries have been reported to be correlated with radiotherapy-induced destruction of salivary function and changes in oral microbiota. There have been no published reports detailing patients who have remained radiation caries-free following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary function, oral microbiota and the absence of radiation caries. Twelve radiation caries-free patients and nine patients exhibiting radiation caries following irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected. V40, the dose at which the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receives more than 40 Gy, was recorded. Stimulated saliva flow rate, pH values and buffering capacity were examined to assess salivary function. Stimulated saliva was used for molecular profiling by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli in saliva were also cultivated. There were no significant differences in V40 between radiation caries-free individuals and those with radiation caries. Compared with normal values, the radiation caries-free group had significantly decreased simulated saliva flow rate, while there were no significant differences in the saliva pH value and buffering capacity. Similar results were observed in the radiation caries group. There was no statistical difference in microbial diversity, composition and log CFU counts in cultivation from the radiation caries-free group and the radiation caries group. Eleven genera were detected in these two groups, among which Streptococcus spp. and Neisseria spp. had the highest distribution. Our results suggest that changes in salivary function and in salivary microbiota do not explain the absence of radiation caries in radiation caries-free individuals.

  18. Caries-inhibiting effect of professional fluoride gel application in low-caries children initially aged 4.5-6.5 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkom, H.M. van; Truin, G.J.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2004-01-01

    It was the purpose of the study to investigate the caries-reducing effect of semi-annual professional fluoride gel application in a low-caries child population initially aged 4.5-6.5 years during a 4-year follow-up period. In a double-blind randomised controlled trial (n = 773) the effect of sodium

  19. 不同去龋技术在乳牙龋病治疗中的应用疗效分析%Analysis of Different Techniques Applied in the Dental Caries Treatment of Deciduous Teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡静; 陈增力; 刘继延; 王丽英; 赵文峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effect of conventional mechanical caries removal treatment,atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) and Carisolv chemical caries removal treatment applied in the dental caries treatment of primary teeth.Methods:96 pediatric patients diagnosed of mild/moderate dental caries in deciduous teeth from January 2011 to June 2012 were randomly divided into conventional mechanical removal treatment group,atmumatic restorative treatment (ART) group and Carisolv chemical caries removal treatment group with 60 dentals each.Then operative reaction,operation time and long-term efficacy were recorded and analyzed.Results:The efficacy of dental removal in conventional mechanical caries removal group and Carisolv chemical caries removal treatment group were significantly better than ART group (P<0.05).There was no significant difference in the operation time spent among all treatment groups (P>0.05).The number of intraoperative pain occurs in ART group and Carisolv chemical caries removal treatment group were lower than that on the conventional mechanical caries removal group (P<0.05).In one-year post-treatment,secondary caries incidence in conventional mechanical caries removal group and Carisolv chemical caries removal treatment group were significantly lower than that in ART group(P<0.05).However,there was no significant difference in the incidence of break/loss dental filling among all treatment groups (P>0.05).Conclusions:Carisolv chemical caries removal treatment can effectively relieve intmoperative pain and recurrence rate after operation,which is worthy of promotion and application in clinical treatment of deciduous teeth.Caries removal effects and long-term efficacy of ART may limit its widespread application.%目的:比较传统机械切割法、非创伤性充填法(atraumatic restorative treatment,ART)和Carisolv化学法在临床乳牙龋病治疗中的应用效果差异.方法:选取2011年1月-2012年6月来我科就诊的5-8

  20. Tattoo removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adatto, Maurice A; Halachmi, Shlomit; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Over 50,000 new tattoos are placed each year in the United States. Studies estimate that 24% of American college students have tattoos and 10% of male American adults have a tattoo. The rising popularity of tattoos has spurred a corresponding increase in tattoo removal. Not all tattoos are placed intentionally or for aesthetic reasons though. Traumatic tattoos due to unintentional penetration of exogenous pigments can also occur, as well as the placement of medical tattoos to mark treatment boundaries, for example in radiation therapy. Protocols for tattoo removal have evolved over history. The first evidence of tattoo removal attempts was found in Egyptian mummies, dated to have lived 4,000 years BC. Ancient Greek writings describe tattoo removal with salt abrasion or with a paste containing cloves of white garlic mixed with Alexandrian cantharidin. With the advent of Q-switched lasers in the late 1960s, the outcomes of tattoo removal changed radically. In addition to their selective absorption by the pigment, the extremely short pulse duration of Q-switched lasers has made them the gold standard for tattoo removal.

  1. Effect of copper co-crystallized with sugar on caries development in desalivated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalen, P L; Bowen, W H; Pearson, S K

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of varying levels of copper incorporated in sucrose by co-crystallization on caries development in the desalivated rat model and to examine the retention of copper in the oral cavity and its influence on protein and carbohydrate composition of plaque. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were infected by Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 and desalivated when aged 26 days. Four groups were placed in a König-Höfer programmed feeder and received 17 meals daily at hourly intervals, and essential nutrition (NCP No. 2) by gavage twice daily. The control group (1) received meals of plain sucrose, and groups 2, 3, and 4 received sucrose co-crystallized with 300 ppm Cu2+(2), 150 Cu2+(3), and 75 Cu2+(4). After 3 weeks, the animals were killed, and blood was collected for determination of copper. The lower jaw was removed and sonicated in 0.9% saline solution. Microbial assessment and copper, protein and carbohydrate assays were performed for each animal. Smooth-surface and [sulcal] caries scores were: (1) 92.0[41.4]; (2) 6.1[34.2]; (3) 16.7[32.0]; (4) 24.0[36.0]. Copper in sucrose drastically affected the population of S. sobrinus when compared with the control. Also, Cu2+ sucrose groups had significantly more copper per unit of protein and carbohydrate in jaw suspension than the control group. Concentration of copper in the blood was apparently unaffected by any dietary regimen. It is concluded that Cu2+ in a range of concentrations (75-300 ppm Cu2+) when delivered co-crystallized with sucrose is an effective cariostatic agent. The co-crystallization of a cariostatic agent with sucrose may be an effective method to decrease the cariogenic potential of sucrose.

  2. Remineralization of initial enamel caries in vitro using a novel peptide based on amelogenin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danxue; Lv, Xueping; Tu, Huanxin; Zhou, Xuedong; Yu, Haiyang; Zhang, Linglin

    2015-09-01

    Dental caries is the most common oral disease with high incidence, widely spread and can seriously affect the health of oral cavity and the whole body. Current caries prevention measures such as fluoride treatment, antimicrobial agents, and traditional Chinese herbal, have limitations to some extent. Here we design and synthesize a novel peptide based on the amelogenin, and assess its ability to promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries lesions. We used enamel blocks to form initial lesions, and then subjected to 12-day pH cycling in the presence of peptide, NaF and HEPES buffer. Enamel treated with peptide or NaF had shallower, narrower lesions, thicker remineralized surfaces and less mineral loss than enamel treated with HEPES. This peptide can promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries and inhibit the progress of caries. It is a promising anti-caries agent with various research prospects and practical application value.

  3. Role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prahlad; Gupta, Nidhi; Pawar, Atish Prakash; Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Natt, Amanpreet Singh; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term "caries" denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries.

  4. Explaining Gender Differences in Caries: A Multifactorial Approach to a Multifactorial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ferraro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have demonstrated that caries rates are higher in women than in men. This review attempts to provide an explanation for this trend by examining each factor which contributes to caries and how the factor differs in men and women. Evidence has been provided to demonstrate that caries risk factors for women include a different salivary composition and flow rate, hormonal fluctuations, dietary habits, genetic variations, and particular social roles among their family. Systemic diseases that have been found to be associated with caries have also been found to have an association with the female gender. An extended exposure to the oral cavity or a more cariogenic oral microflora has not been proven to contribute to higher caries in women. Further research in these areas could be done in the future to explain their contribution, or lack thereof, to a higher caries rate in women.

  5. Current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Seok; Ahn, Jin Soo; Kwon, Ho Beom; Lee, Seung Pyo [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review the current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). An online PubMed search was performed to identify studies on caries research using CBCT. Despite its usefulness, there were inherent limitations in the detection of caries lesions through conventional radiograph mainly due to the two-dimensional (2D) representation of caries lesions. Several efforts were made to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) image of lesion, only to gain little popularity. Recently, CBCT was introduced and has been used for diagnosis of caries in several reports. Some of them maintained the superiority of CBCT systems, however it is still under controversies. The CBCT systems are promising, however they should not be considered as a primary choice of caries diagnosis in everyday practice yet. Further studies under more standardized condition should be performed in the near future.

  6. Role of Probiotics in Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease

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    Amit Bhardwaj

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been found to be beneficial to host health. In medicine, probiotics are used mainly in support therapy for gastro-intestinal diseases. In recent years, probiotics have been used as a treatment to promote oral health. There has also been a change in understanding of the oral disease process because of better understanding of the ecology and microbiology of the oral cavity. Very encouraging studies exploring probiotics in the fields of caries, periodontal diseases and few other areas have come up in the recent past and the results tend to suggest beneficial effects of probiotics on oral health and on the whole body in general. Extensive research to create a probiotic product intended to maintain dental and periodontal health is needed. This article reviews the role of probiotics in dental caries and periodontal disease. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(1.000: 45-49

  7. Defectos del esmalte, caries en dentición primaria, fuentes de fluoruro y su relación con caries en dientes permanentes Enamel defects, caries in primary dentition and fluoride sources: relationship with caries in permanent teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Alicia Vallejos-Sánchez; Carlo Eduardo Medina-Solís; Juan Fernando Casanova-Rosado; Gerardo Maupomé; Alejandro José Casanova-Rosado; Mirna Minaya-Sánchez

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: Explorar la relación entre la presencia de defectos del esmalte (DE), la experiencia de caries en la dentición temporal, y la exposición a diversas fuentes de fluoruros, con la presencia de caries en la dentición permanente de niños con dentición mixta. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 713 sujetos de 6-9 años de edad de 4 escuelas de Campeche, México, mediante un cuestionario dirigido a las madres, y un examen clínico bucal a los niños. La variable dependient...

  8. Sugared soda consumption and dental caries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, K E; Burt, B A; Eklund, S A

    2001-10-01

    Because of the complexity of the caries process, the potential cariogenicity of specific food items is difficult to assess. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between sugared soda consumption and caries. Dietary and dental examination data from the 1988-94 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) were used. From the food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall data, significant associations between DMFS and soda consumption were generally seen in persons over age 25. No differences in DMFS, relative to soda consumption, were seen in persons under age 25, or in analyses of dfs for children under age 12. The observed associations could be due to the cumulative effects of the long-term consumption of sugared soda. The absence of apparent effects of sugared soda consumption in younger people may also be related to the increased use of fluorides since the 1960s.

  9. Lab-Test® 4: Dental caries and bacteriological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cura

    2012-01-01

    The main factors predisposing the onset of the carious process are: 1 the presence of bacterial species able to lower the pH until critical values of 5.5, 2 the absence of adequate oral hygiene, 3 an inefficient immune response anti-caries, 4 the type of alimentary diet and 5 the structure of the teeth. Among the 200 bacterial species isolated from dental plaque the most pathogenic for dental caries are: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomices viscusus and Bifidobacterium dentium. Our laboratory (LAB® s.r.l., Codigoro, Ferrara, Italy has developed a test for absolute and relative quantification of the most common oral cariogenic bacteria. The test uses specific primers and probes for the amplification of bacteria genome sequences in Polymerase Chain Reaction Real Time. The results provide a profile of patient infection, helpful for improving the diagnosis and planning of preventive treatment to reduce the bacterial load.

  10. UCSF Protocol for Caries Arrest Using Silver Diamine Fluoride: Rationale, Indications, and Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Jeremy A; Ellenikiotis, Hellene; Milgrom, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration recently cleared silver diamine fluoride for reducing tooth sensitivity. Clinical trials document arrest and prevention of dental caries by silver diamine fluoride; this off-label use is now permissible and appropriate under U.S. law. A CDT code was approved for caries arresting medicaments for 2016 to facilitate documentation and billing. We present a systematic review, clinical indications, clinical protocol, and consent procedure to guide application for caries arrest treatment. PMID:26897901

  11. EAPD interim seminar and workshop in Brussels May 9 2015 Non-invasive caries treatment

    OpenAIRE

    van Loveren, C.; van Palenstein Helderman, W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim This was to collect information for the 9th European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry Interim Seminar and Workshops to discuss the state of art on non-invasive caries therapy to be used if possible to formulate clinical guidelines by European experts in paediatric dentistry Methods Based on systematic reviews and additional papers were assessed for methods to prevent caries initiation and caries progression both in the state of pre-cavitation and cavitation without invasive technologies. R...

  12. FDI Global Caries Initiative; implementing a paradigm shift in dental practice and the global policy context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J; Johnston, S; Hewson, N; van Dijk, W; Reich, E; Eiselé, J-L; Bourgeois, D

    2012-08-01

    The implementation of a new paradigm for caries management is necessary for the profession to respond effectively to changing population health needs. The FDI Global Caries Initiative (GCI) is a 10 year programme aimed at developing and implementing a new paradigm for caries management, one that would contribute to a common vision of health. The article reviews the global health policy landscape and examines how it might influence and shape the implementation of the GCI.

  13. A comparison of periapical radiographs and their digital images for the detection of dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-15

    In summary, it has been demonstrated by this study that the detection rate of definite large proximal surface caries (C2) on the digital images was good and the detection rate of the first stage caries (C1) was somewhat inferior to film based images. It has been demonstrated by this study and others that the detection of proximal surface caries by present clinical methodologies is still poor. Every effort should be made to develop new means to improve digitizing process.

  14. Caries prevention in high-risk preschool children in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Autio-Gold, J. (Jaana)

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Dental caries is a common infectious disease affecting young children living in low-income families in the United States. Efficacious, safe, feasible and cost-effective caries prevention methods for these children are essential. Several studies have shown the efficacy of fluoride varnish and xylitol to improve the oral health of children. The efficiency of caries prevention programs including the use of fluoride varnish or xylitol chewing gum in early childhood has not been w...

  15. A randomized clinical trial on arresting dentin caries in preschool children by topical fluorides

    OpenAIRE

    Duangthip, Duangporn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Silver diammine fluoride (SDF) has been found to be effective in preventing and arresting dental caries in children. The annual or semi-annual application of SDF may not be practical in migratory populations or effective high caries risk patients. So far, no data are available about the effectiveness of intensive fluoride treatment in arresting dental caries in primary teeth. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three topical fluoride application prot...

  16. Efficacy of Laser Fluorescence in Dental Caries Diagnosis: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    iii     EFFICACY OF LASER FLUORESCENCE IN DENTAL CARIES DIAGNOSIS: A META-ANALYSIS by Derek T. Fagen LCDR...not be re-printed without the expressed written permission of the author. vi     ABSTRACT EFFICACY OF LASER FLUORESCENCE IN DENTAL CARIES ...presence or absence of dental caries is of the utmost importance since errors may lead to either performance of irreversible, but unnecessary

  17. Evaluation of total antioxidant level of saliva in modulation of caries occurrence and progression in children

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen Reddy Banda; Garima Singh; Vandana Markam

    2016-01-01

    Context: Recent studies have implicated a direct relation between dental caries and salivary total antioxidant level (TAL), which can be suggested as an indicator (either harmful or protective) for susceptibility of individuals for dental caries. Aim: To evaluate the total antioxidant level (TAL) in unstimulated saliva of children, and to correlate the TAL with caries experience and BMI (body mass index). Settings and Design: 60 children, aged 6-12 yrs, were randomly selected for the study. T...

  18. Inequalities in the distribution of dental caries among 12-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Chaiana Piovesan; Fausto Medeiros Mendes; José Leopoldo Ferreira Antunes; Thiago Machado Ardenghi

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the inequality in the distribution of dental caries and the association between indicators of socioeconomic status and caries experience in a representative sample of schoolchildren. This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a sample of 792 schoolchildren aged 12 years, representative of this age group in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Guardians answered questions on socioeconomic status and a dental examination provided information on the dental caries experience (DMF-T). Ineq...

  19. Physical, chemical, and histologic changes in dentin caries lesions of primary teeth induced by regular use of polyol chewing gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, K K; Chiego, D J; Allen, P; Bennett, C; Isotupa, K P; Tiekso, J; Mäkinen, P L

    1998-06-01

    A previous clinical trial showed that long-term use of saliva-stimulating polyol (xylitol and sorbitol) chewing gums was associated with arrest of dental caries in young subjects. After a 20-22-month intervention (when the subjects were 8 years old), a total of 23 primary teeth with extensive dentin caries lesions whose surface in clinical examination was found to be totally rehardened (remineralized) could be removed because the teeth were near their physiologic exfoliation time. These teeth were subjected to histologic, microhardness, and electron microscopic tests. The majority of the specimens had been remineralized from the surface by a non-cellular-mediated process within the remaining collapsed, organic extracellular matrix associated with the remaining dentinal surface. Many of the underlying dentinal tubules were filled with a matrix that had been subsequently mineralized. Dental microanalyses showed that the topmost (outer) 20-microm-thick rehardened layer of the lesions exhibited the highest Ca:P ratio, which leveled off at a depth of approximately 150 microm. The rehardened surface layer (normally <0.1 mm in thickness) was significantly (P < 0.001) harder than sound dentin and nearly as hard as sound enamel. Although the main source of the mineral present in the rehardened layer was most likely of salivary origin, some extracellular remineralization was probably mediated by odontoblasts. The results complete the dinical diagnoses of the original trial and suggest that regular use of polyol chewing gums may induce changes in dentin caries lesions, which in histologic and physiochemical studies show typical characteristics of rehardening and mineralization.

  20. Validity of a laser fluorescence system (DIAGNOdent) for detection of occlusal caries in third molars: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başeren, N M; Gokalp, S

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the validity of the measurements of the laser fluorescence device, KaVo DIAGNOdent, with the result of polarized light microscopy in the detection of occlusal fissure caries in extracted third molars. Ten impacted, surgically removed, and 25 extracted third molars with macroscopically intact occlusal surfaces were selected. The DIAGNOdent measurements of the occlusal test site were recorded by two observers at intervals of 2 days. The teeth were then sectioned at the specified test sites for histological examinations. Prepared specimens were evaluated under the polarized light microscopy and all images were scored with the caries classification of D1 (sound and fissure lesion in the half of the outer enamel), D2 (enamel decay) and D3 (dentin decay) level (gold standard). The kappa value for the inter-observer repeatability was calculated and the value 0.83 for the first measurements and 0.67 for the second measurement were obtained,respectively. Inter-observer correct classification percentages were 88.5 and 77.1 for the first and second measurements, respectively. The kappa value for intra-observer repeatability was 0.79 for the first observer and 0.75 for the second observer. Intra-observer correct classification percentage values were 85.7 and 82.8 for the first and second observer, respectively. Value of specificity for the detection of enamel caries at D1 level was 0.74 and sensitivity values at D2 and D3 levels were 0.66 and 1.00, respectively. The present study indicates that the DIAGNOdent provides not only almost perfect agreement but also sufficient repeatability at D1, D2, D3 levels and better specificity at D1 level as well as lower sensitivity at D2 level and excellent sensitivity at D3 level.

  1. Caries prevalence of children and adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Markovic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to present epidemiological parameters of caries prevalence in children and adolescents in index age groups on a national and regional level in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH. Materials and methods. The study was conducted during 2004 year for children aged 6 and 12, and during 2007 for adolescents aged 15. An oral health survey was performed on a total number of 1,240 children and adolescents in line with World Health Organization methodology and criteria. Results for caries prevalence and treatment needs were presented and discussed in this paper. Results. Mean dmft (decay, missing, filled teeth for primary dentition for children aged six was 6.7 (SD±3.9 in that the decayed teeth constituted the major part of the index (88.8%, followed by extracted teeth (8.9% and a small percentage of filled teeth (2.3%. In 12-year-olds DMFT (Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth for permanent dentition was 4.2 (SD±2.9, Significant Caries index (SiC was 7.7 (SD±2.9, the decayed teeth constituted the major part of the index (45.4%, followed by 42.1% of FT and 12.5% of extracted teeth. Among 15-year-olds the DMFT was 7.6 (SD±4.1, SiC was 9.2 (SD±1.2, and filled teeth constituted the major part of the index. Conclusion. The present study provides some evidence of relatively high caries prevalence and severity in comparison with Western European countries. It is necessary to devote more attention to the oral health of children and adolescents. Community based oral health promotion, preventive programs and preventive oriented public dental health care services should be made available and accessible to all children in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  2. Efficacy of Specific Plant Products on Microorganisms Causing Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanth, M Rajini; Prakash, A Ravi; Sreenath, G; Reddy, Vikram Simha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries and periodontal diseases are the most common oral diseases seen globally, both in developed and developing countries. Oral microorganisms that is gram positive and gram negative bacteria are known to be involved in causation of these diseases. Nowadays commercially available dentrifices and mouth rinses are known to contain ingredients that can alter the oral microbial flora and have undesirable side effects such as vomiting, diarrhoea, disarrangement of oral, intestinal flora and tooth staining. Naturally available plant products are known to be less harmful with fewer side effects and also economical for the patient. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial properties of 10 naturally available plant products against oral microorganisms causing caries and to check the efficacy of these products in-vitro and to use these in mouth washes and dentrifices. Materials and Methods Sample of caries material was scrapped out from the extracted teeth and transferred to liquid broth, streaked over the agar media to allow for the growth of microorganisms. Plant products like clove oil, neem, ginger-garlic paste, tea tree oil, ginger, garlic, cinnamon oil, green tea, eucalyptus oil and turmeric were used. Antimicrobial efficacy of these products, was estimated by measuring zones of inhibition in the nutrient agar media. Results Clove oil was the most effective of all products against microorganisms causing caries with zone of inhibition - 30mm followed by ginger-garlic paste - 25mm, Neem - 15mm, tea tree oil - 15mm. Conclusion Based on the above results, it can be inferred that these natural products have the maximum efficacy against microorganisms and can be recommended in dentifrices, mouth rinses, topical gels, etc. PMID:28209019

  3. Recent and Planned Developments in the CARI Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    calculation software developed by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The software is of benefit to the FAA and the public as a tool used...needed to keep CARI-6 up-to-date in terms of dose calculation standards. As another improvement, cutoff rigidities for geomagnetic epoch 2000 are...Gluon String Model MCNPX -- Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended MS-DOS -- Microsoft ® DOS NCRP ----- National Council on Radiation Protection and

  4. Effect of Iron Containing Supplements on Rats' Dental Caries Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Eshghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Iron deficiency is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries. Iron containing supplements have been used effectively to solve this problem. In children, because of teeth staining after taking iron drops, parents have the idea that iron drops are the cause of tooth decay; therefore, they limit thisvital supplement in their children’s diet. Hereby, we evaluate the histologic effect of iron containing supplements on tooth caries in rice rats with cariogenic or noncariogenic diet.Materials and Methods: Twelve rats were selected and divided into four groups for this interventional experimental study. Four different types of dietary regimens were used for four months; group A, cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group B, cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements; groupC, non-cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group D, non-cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements. After sacrificing the rats, 20-micron histological sections of their posterior teeth were prepared using the Ground Sectionmethod, then they were studied under polarized light microscopy. In order to compare the progression of caries in different samples, the depth of the lesions in the enamel was measured as three grades I, II and III.Results: The mean grade value of A, B, C and D groups were 1.61, 2.61, 1.37 and 1.80, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that significantly fewer caries were seen in the group which had received iron containing supplements and cariogenicdiet compared with cariogenic diet without iron supplements (p<0.05.Conclusion: Ferrous sulfate reduces the progression of dental caries in the cariogenic dietary regimen.

  5. Sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries - international perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2005-01-01

    - and middle-income countries have been published in recent years. World Health Organization international collaborative studies and other international studies of social factors in dental caries using the same methodology provide empirical evidence of social inequality in oral health across countries...... and across oral health care systems. The paper highlights the challenges to dental public health practice, particularly the importance of risk assessment in estimating the potential for prevention. In future public health programmes, systematic risk factor assessment may therefore be instrumental...

  6. Role of Dentin MMPs in Caries Progression and Bond Stability

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mazzoni; Tjäderhane, L.; Checchi, V.; Di Lenarda, R.; Salo, T.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.; Breschi, L

    2015-01-01

    Dentin can be described as a biological composite with collagen matrix embedded with nanosized hydroxyapatite mineral crystallites. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins are families of endopeptidases. Enzymes of both families are present in dentin and collectively capable of degrading virtually all extracellular matrix components. This review describes these enzymes and their presence in dentin, mainly focusing on their role in dentin caries pathogenesis and loss of collag...

  7. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  8. Sociodemographic Variation of Caries Risk Factors in Toddlers and Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Eckert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Dental caries is the most common chronic childhood disease, with numerous identified risk factors. Risk factor differences could indicate the need to target caregiver/patient education/preventive care intervention strategies based on population and/or individual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate caries risk factors differences by race/ethnicity, income, and education. Methods. We enrolled 396 caregiver-toddler pairs and administered a 105-item questionnaire addressing demographics, access to care, oral bacteria transmission, caregiver's/toddler's dental and medical health practices, caregiver's dental beliefs, and caregiver's/toddler's snacking/drinking habits. Logistic regressions and ANOVAs were used to evaluate the associations of questionnaire responses with caregiver's race/ethnicity, income, and education. Results. Caregivers self-identified as Non-Hispanic African-American (44%, Non-Hispanic White (36%, Hispanic (19%, and “other” (1%. Differences related to race/ethnicity, income, and education were found in all risk factor categories. Conclusions. Planning of caregiver/patient education/preventive care intervention strategies should be undertaken with these caries risk factor differences kept in mind.

  9. Indigenous Australian dental health: a brief review of caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Iverson, N; Pacza, T; Phatouros, A; Tennant, M

    2000-03-01

    The indigenous community in Australia is an at risk population for oral diseases such as dental caries. The majority of communities are isolated and dental services in these areas are limited. Oral hygiene standards are poor and this combined with a diet rich in refined carbohydrates has led to high incidences of dental caries. In addition, diabetes, which is related to obesity (and a diet high in sugar and fat) has been linked to increases in oral disease. Caries prevalence was found to be low in areas where fluoridation levels in the water were high. The fact that the fluoride supplementation appears to improve oral health to a significant degree suggests that implementation of fluoride treatment programmes for school children and, where viable, fluoridation of water sources would be appropriate. In addition, dental education programmes should receive high priority. As with the rest of the community, these preventive measures will result in less need for emergency dental treatment in the future, better oral health for the community and reduced financial burden on the State. It is under these circumstances that oral health planners and providers must, in consultation with the relevant community representatives, develop appropriate mechanisms to address the needs of this group. The development of strategies that integrate with the plethora of general health strategies currently being implemented is just one means of achieving improved oral health outcomes for indigenous Australians.

  10. Prevalence of Dental Caries in Kosovar Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerim Kamberi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in the Kosovar adult population. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study in Kosovo was conducted examining 9387 patients, aged 18 upwards, between January 2010 and December 2011. Clinical evaluation was done using WHO criteria for evaluation of dental health status and data collection. Results. The prevalence of caries for the whole study was 72.80%. The mean DMFT index was 9.61 (±5.12 in the 18–34-year age group, 11.6 (±6.42 in the 35–44-year age group, 13.68 (±8.12 among the 45–64-year age group, 17.98 (±9.81 in the 65–74-year age group, and 23.19 (±9.41 in the age group of 75+ years, respectively. A significant difference of mean DMFT and its each component was observed between the ages (P<0.001. Conclusion. This study comes out with the significant levels of dental caries among young Kosovar population (18–34 years old.

  11. Micro CT settings for caries detection: how to optimize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiben CL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some important items that can influence micro CT image were reviewed in this study. Different settings were optimized for the assessment of early caries lesions. There are several researches on bone using micro CT but not too much on dental hard tissues when assessing mineral loss. Different kinds of micro CT devices and technologies are taking place today, each requiring unique settings, and this consists one of the greatest obstacles for the use of micro CT on dental hard tissues. Achieving the settings for an ideal dental image is therefore a challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different micro CT settings to optimize the assessment of early caries lesions aiming the integrity of the dental specimen thus, making possible to reuse it for further studies. Three teeth with early caries lesions were submitted to different micro CT settings and different reconstruction settings, aiming a better image. The final image was compared visually through different densities and attenuation coefficients. The best setting for teeth tissues was achieved regarding contrast, definition, noise reduction and the larger difference between sound enamel and early lesions attenuation coefficient.

  12. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Man Wai; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Lieberman, Martin; Lee, Jessica Y; Scoville, Richard; Hannon, Cindy; Maramaldi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC) has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM) approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI) collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR) for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

  13. Caries prevention through the fluoridation of milk. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánóczy, Jolán; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew J

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of 50 years experience of milk fluoridation and draw conclusions about the applicability of the method. Fluoridated milk was first investigated in the early 1950s, almost simultaneously in Switzerland, the USA and Japan. Stimulated by the favourable results obtained from these early studies, the establishment of The Borrow Dental Milk Foundation (subsequently The Borrow Foundation) in England gave an excellent opportunity for further research, both clinical and non-clinical, and a productive collaboration with the World Health Organization from the early 1980s onwards. Numerous peer-reviewed publications in international journals showed clearly the bioavailability of fluoride in milk, and increased concentrations of fluoride in saliva, dental plaque, dental enamel and dentine, and urine, after consumption of fluoridated milk. Clinical trials were initiated in the 1980s--some of these can be classed as randomised controlled trials, while most of the clinical studies were community preventive programs. These evaluations showed clearly that the optimal daily intake of fluoride in milk is effective in preventing dental caries. At present, milk fluoridation programs are running continuously in about ten countries of the world. Fluoridation of milk can be recommended as a caries preventive measure where the fluoride concentration in drinking water is suboptimal, caries experience in children is significant, and there is an existing school milk program. The program should aim to provide fluoridated milk for at least 200 days per year and should commence before the children are 4 years of age.

  14. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Wai Ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

  15. Dental caries in South Pacific populations: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutress, T W

    2003-03-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) was uncommon in Pacific Island communities before European trading and migration expanded into the Region. The etiology of this oral microbial disease is a consequence of changed diets, food preparation and lifestyle. In particular, the easy availability of a high level of frequent dietary supplementation with refined sucrose (sugar) and carbohydrates is the key factor in the etiology of tooth decay. While tooth decay initially developed as a health problem in the more accessible Pacific islands over a century ago, it has spread increasingly as trading, travel and cash economies have developed to include even the more geographically remote communities. In this review selected epidemiological data are presented to show the magnitude, variation and secular changes in the prevalence of tooth decay in different communities. Tooth decay in conjunction with the historically endemic adult gum diseases poses a major public health problem in terms of pain, premature loss of teeth and the need for oral rehabilitation. Implementation and monitoring of caries control programs is a priority need in most communities. It is impractical to consider a return to indigenous diets and lifestyles as a strategy for caries prevention. Instead promotion of proven modern community preventive programmes, notably appropriate use of fluorides, 'fissure sealants' together with control of excessive consumption of diets rich in refined sugar is required if a significant increase in the levels of tooth decay is to be avoided.

  16. Accuracy of digital panoramic regarding interproximal caries detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarzi Pour D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Conventional radiological equipments in our country are going to be converted to digital system using computed radiology (CR technology. If we know the accuracy of digital panoramic radiography for detection of small defects in tooth, it will be useful in cases with difficulty for taking the intraoral radiographs. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of digital panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries compared with the bitewing radiography."nMaterials and Methods: One-hundred patients who had been ordered for taking both bitewing and panoramic radiography were included in this study. Panoramic and then bitewing radiographs were observed by a maxillofacial radiologist and interproximal caries were recorded. Sensitivity and specificity of digital panoramic radiography (CI=95% was calculated compared with the bitewing radiography as a gold standard."nResults: This study showed that the values for sensitivity and specificity were 62.7% (CI 95%=57.7%-67.5% and 91.0% (CI 95%=89.2%-92.5%, respectively."nConclusion: Sensitivity of digital panoramic is less than bitewing radiography even with processing before printing. Therefore, bitewing radiography is superior for detection of inter proximal caries.

  17. Imaging simulated secondary caries lesions with cross polarization OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Jonathan; Kang, Hobin; Fried, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    The clinical diagnosis of secondary caries has been found to account for the replacement of the majority of intra-coronal restorations. Current methods to diagnose the presence of these lesions at early stages are considered insufficient due to their low sensitivity. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) imaging studies have confirmed its effectiveness for imaging carious subsurface lesions in enamel and dentin. The objective of this study was to determine if PS-OCT can be used to nondestructively image demineralization through resin restorations on extracted teeth with both simulated and natural lesions. Simulated secondary caries lesions were created by exposing cavity preparations made in extracted human teeth to a demineralizing solution for 48 hours and subsequently restoring with resin. Negative control restorations were also prepared on each tooth. Optical changes in demineralized versus control preparations beneath restorations were measured as a function of depth using PS-OCT. PS-OCT images indicated that a significant increase in reflectivity and depth occurred in the simulated lesions compared with the control preparations. This study suggests that PS-OCT is well-suited to nondestructively detect early caries lesions in enamel beneath composite restorations.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of insight intraoral film on dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Young Nam; Lee, Byung Do [Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of Kodak Insight film with other intra-oral films in the detection of dental caries. Periapical radiographs of 99 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were made on Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Kodak Insight films and automatically processed. Six dentists examined the presence of dental caries using a five-point confidence rating scale and compared the diagnostic accuracy by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and ANOVA test. The sensitivity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.84, 0.77, 0.75 and 0.79 respectively. The specificity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.97, 0.95, 0.96 and 0.94 respectively. The mean ROC areas (Az) of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.917, 0.910, 0.894, 0.909 respectively. There was no significant differences between Az of Insight film and other films (p = 0.178). Theses results suggested that Kodak Insight film have the comparative diagnostic accuracy of dental caries with Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed films. (77)

  19. Antipsychotic medications and dental caries in newly diagnosed schizophrenia: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai-Fang; Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Wen, Yen-Hsia; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard

    2016-11-30

    We investigated the association between antipsychotic medications and the risk of dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. We enroled a nationwide cohort of patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia within 1 year of dental caries development. Exposure to antipsychotics and other medications was categorised according to their type and duration, and the association between exposure and dental caries was assessed through logistic regressions. Of the 3610 patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia, 2149 (59.5%) exhibited an incidence of treated dental caries. Logistic regression analysis identified a younger age, female sex, high income, a 2-year history of dental caries, and exposure to first-generation antipsychotics, and antihypertensives as independent risk factors for treated dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. Hyposalivation, the adverse effect of first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives, was associated with an increased risk of treated dental caries. However, hypersalivation from first-generation antipsychotics for dental caries was associated with a protective factor. These findings suggest that clinicians should pay attention to the aforementioned risk factors for dental caries in patients with schizophrenia, particularly while prescribing first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives to such patients.

  20. Associations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and IL-10 with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogulu, Dilsah; Onay, Huseyin; Ozdemir, Yasemin; I Aslan, Gulcin; Ozkinay, Ferda; Kutukculer, Necil; Eronat, Cemal

    2015-03-01

    Streptococcus mutans is important in dental caries. Although the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of dental caries is not clear, components of S. mutans were found to stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We examined the associations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and IL-10 with dental caries. Unstimulated whole saliva and blood samples were obtained from 108 children aged 6-12 years with high caries (decayed, missing, or filled teeth [dmft/DMFT] index >4, n = 37), moderate caries (dmft/DMFT = 1-4, n = 37), or caries-free (dmft/DMFT = 0, n = 34). S. mutans level was classified as low (caries was not correlated with salivary or serum concentrations of the studied cytokines. S. mutans level positively correlated with saliva IL-1β concentration and inversely correlated with saliva IL-1ra concentration. There was no correlation of IL-1β, IL-1ra, or IL-10 gene polymorphisms with dental caries. S. mutans is important in stimulating saliva IL-1β and inhibiting IL-1ra. Future studies of associations between cytokines and dental caries should investigate additional cytokines and enroll a larger number of participants.

  1. The effect of nursing or rampant caries on height, body weight and head circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, H; Suskan, E; Yildirim, S

    1996-01-01

    In this study, the effect of nursing bottle caries and rampant caries on height, weight and head circumference was evaluated. For this purpose, 126 children, aged 3 to 5 years old, who have nursing or rampant caries were selected. One hundred twenty-six children with no caries and similar age and sex were matched as a control group. When the children who had rampant or nursing caries were evaluated in the direction of the mean weight, it was corresponding to mean weight between 25th and 50th percentiles. The mean percentile weight for control group were corresponding to mean weight between the 50th and 75th percentiles. Of the nursing or rampant caries children, 7.1% weighed less than 80% of their ideal weight, compared with only 0.7% of the control group children. When the children, who had rampant or nursing caries, were evaluated in the direction of the mean height, it was corresponding to mean height between 10th and 25th percentiles. The mean percentile height for control group were corresponding to mean height between the 25th and 50th percentiles. When the head circumference is evaluated, there was no significant statistical difference between the two groups. Since the height and weight of the control group showed a higher percentile category than the nursing or rampant caries group, (P<0.001), it can be stated that rampant or nursing caries may correlate with adversely affected growth of the body.

  2. The Epidemic Tendency of Dental Caries Prevalence of School Students from 1991 to 2005 in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐杰; 余毅震; 马颖

    2010-01-01

    The epidemic tendency of dental caries of school students over the past 15 years in China was analyzed in order to provide bases for prevention of dental caries.Data sets of boys and girls at the age of 7,9,12 years(deciduous caries)and 7,9,12,14,17 years(permanent caries)were collected from the series of Chinese National Surveillance on Students' Constitution and Health(CNSSCH)between 1991 to 2005,a survey that covers 30 provinces of and autonomous regions of China,with Tibet Autonomous Region and Taiwan P...

  3. Relation of salivary calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase with the incidence of dental caries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaprasad K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess possible relationship of Calcium, Phosphorus and Alkaline-phophatase levels in saliva with incidence of caries in child patients. Settings and Design: Children (n=75 attending Department of Pedodontics, St. Joseph Dental college, Eluru, with and without caries were categorized in to Group I: Consisting of 25 children with non-rampant caries, Group II: Consisting of 25 children with rampant caries, Group III: Consisting of 25 children without caries. (Control group. Materials and Methods: The samples of saliva were collected one week after oral prophylaxis. Unstimulated directly expectorated whole saliva samples were collected in clean, dry, sterilized glass bottles and fitted with proper rubber stoppers immediately. The samples were subjected to biochemical assay for estimation of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels. Statistical analysis used: ANOVA. Results: The alkaline Phosphatase activity for rampant caries group was 18.66 K.A, and control group was 4.68 K.A. The values of alkaline phosphatase activity for minimal caries group was 6.16 KA. Conclusion: Saliva could reflect a caries risk situation was supported by the fact that alkaline phosphatase activity was very much significantly higher in caries prone groups.

  4. Dental caries induction in experimental animals by clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, S; Ooshima, T; Torii, M; Imanishi, H; Masuda, N; Sobue, S; Kotani, S

    1978-01-01

    Oral implantation and the cariogenic activity of clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans which had been isolated from Japanese children and labeled with streptomycin-resistance were examined in specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats. All the seven strains tested were easily implanted and persisted during the experimental period. Extensive carious lesions were produced in rats inoculated with clinical strains of S. mutans belonging to serotypes c, d, e, and f, and maintained on caries-inducing diet no. 2000. Noninfected rats did not develop dental caries when fed diet no. 2000. Type d S. mutans preferentially induced smooth surface caries in the rats. Strains of other serotypes primarily developed caries of pit and fissure origin. Caries also developed in rats inoculated with reference S. mutans strains BHTR and FAIR (type b) that had been maintained in the laboratories for many years. However, the cariogenicity of the laboratory strains was found to have decreased markedly. All three S. sanguis strains could be implanted, but only one strain induced definite fissure caries. Two S. salivarius strains could not be implanted well in the rats and therefore they were not cariogenic. Four different species of lactobacilli also failed to induce dental caries in rats subjected to similar caries test regimen on diet no. 200. S. mutans strain MT6R (type c) also induce caries in golden hamsters and ICR mice, but of variable degrees.

  5. Design of the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT

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    Amaechi Bennett T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries incidence in adults is similar to that in children and adolescents, but few caries preventive agents have been evaluated for effectiveness in adults populations. In addition, dentists direct fewer preventive services to their adult patients. Xylitol, an over-the-counter sweetener, has shown some potential as a caries preventive agent, but the evidence for its effectiveness is not yet conclusive and is based largely on studies in child populations. Methods/Design X-ACT is a three-year, multi-center, placebo controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial that tests the effects of daily use of xylitol lozenges versus placebo lozenges on the prevention of adult caries. The trial has randomized 691 participants (ages 21-80 to the two arms. The primary outcome is the increment of cavitated lesions. Discussion This trial should help resolve the overall issue of the effectiveness of xylitol in preventing caries by contributing evidence with a low risk of bias. Just as importantly, the trial will provide much-needed information about the effectiveness of a promising caries prevention agent in adults. An effective xylitol-based caries prevention intervention would represent an easily disseminated method to extend caries prevention to individuals not receiving caries preventive treatment in the dental office. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00393055

  6. Pencegahan primer pada anak yang berisiko karies tinggi (Primary prevention in children with high caries risk

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    Ami Angela

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral and dental health has got improvement tremendously over the last century but the prevalence of dental caries in children has remained a significant clinical problem. Caries risk varies between individuals according to each subject’s balance between factors exposing to and protecting from caries attack. It is important to assess the risk of caries for all patients on a routine basis. Caries risk is divided into three levels: high, moderate, and low. Thereby, the dental professional is better to make a specific prevention and treatment recommendations to reduce a child risk and improve overall oral health. The goal of caries-risk assessment and preventive treatment is to eliminate caries or at least to reduce the high-caries occurrence down to the level of the remaining part of the age group. Preventive treatment is divided into three parts: primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. This paper describes the primary prevention in children with high caries risk by behavior modification and tooth protection. Behavior modification is about dental health education, oral hygiene, diet and sugar consumption, sugar-free chewing gum and sugar-free medicines. Tooth protection is about sealant, usage of flouride and chlorhexidine.

  7. Sugars and Dental Caries: Evidence for Setting a Recommended Threshold for Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects ≤80% of the world's population with almost a quarter of US adults having untreated caries. Dental caries is costly to health care and negatively affects well-being. Dietary free sugars are the most important risk factor for dental caries. The WHO has issued guidelines that recommend intake of free sugars should provide ≤10% of energy intake and suggest further reductions to dental health throughout life. These recommendations were informed by a systematic review of the evidence pertaining to amount of sugars and dental caries risk, which showed evidence of moderate quality from cohort studies that limiting free sugars to ≤10% of energy reduced, but did not eliminate, dental caries. Even low levels of dental caries in children are of concern because caries is a lifelong progressive and cumulative disease. The systematic review therefore explored if there were further benefits to dental health if the intake of free sugars was limited to dental caries when free sugar intake was 5% but ≤10% of energy. The WHO recommendations are intended for use by policy makers as a benchmark when assessing intake of sugars by populations and as a driving force for policy change. Multiple strategies encompassing both upstream and downstream preventive approaches are now required to translate the recommendations into policy and practice.

  8. Root caries, root surface restorations and lifestyle factors in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Ekstrand, Kim

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate selected lifestyle factors in relation to active caries and restored root surface lesions in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on clinical examinations and questionnaires, data on root caries, socioeconomic status, body mass index, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, tobacco...... dentures were significantly associated with presence of active root caries (p tobacco use and alcohol...... consumption, as well as wearing dentures, were significantly associated with the occurrence of untreated caries and restored root surface lesions, especially in persons over 45. Thus, such lifestyle factors should be taken into consideration, identifying persons with a need of preventive dental services...

  9. La importancia del diagnóstico de caries: ICDAS II

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, R.; IRIQUIN, STELLA MARIS; Rimoldi, M; Mendes, C.; Rancich, L.; Oviedo, J.; Mazzeo, D.; Lancon, C.; Fingerman, G.

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Se han introducido criterios diagnósticos más sensibles para el registro de caries dental, ya que la medida tradicional de la caries dental en la fase de cavitación, excluyendo las fases de pre cavitación no resulta suficiente para reflejar los cambios lentos registrados en la incidencia de caries en las poblaciones actuales. Además, se ha demostrado que el diagnóstico de la caries registrado solo a nivel de cavitación conduce a una subvaloración importante de la prevalencia rea...

  10. Evaluation of Interproximal Caries with Using of Bitewing Radiography in Dental Student of Islamic Azad University

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    S. Sahba

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Dental caries is one of the common diseases in the world. It is an infective disease which is caused by loss of minerals and destruction of dental tissues. One of the most effective ways to diagnose the interproximal caries is radiography. Bitewing radiography is the best way for caries diagnosis.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the interproximal caries in dental students of Islamic Azad University.Materials and Methods: This research was a cross sectional study that was conducted on 89 students of the Azad University consisting of 48 females and 41 males who were selected by random sampling. For each individual student left and right posterior bitewing radiographs were taken with a standard method (the interproximal spaces were between 6-7,5,6 and 4,5. Thus 12 interproximal spaces were examined in each individual. The most proximal cavitation surfaces were detected in the upper Jaw.Results: Results revealed that 6 individuals (6.7% were totally caries free and 83 individuals (93.3% showed interproxmal caries. Out of 1068 proximal spaces which had been studied 794 Spaces (73.4% were caries free and 274 surfaces (25.7% had caries.Conclusion: The high incidence of proximal caries and the possibility of missing them in the routine examinations make the bitewing radiographs an effective procedure for diagnosis.

  11. Caries risk estimation in children regarding values of saliva buffer system components and carboanhydrase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šurdilović Dušan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. One of the preconditions for efficacious systematic reduction of caries prevalence and prophylaxis is the determination of risks of this disease appearance. The aim of this study was to prove the significance of salivary carboanhydrase activity determination in estimation of caries risk in children. Methods. The study included 123 children of average age of 13.4±0.3 years and permanent dentition. The children were divided into two groups according to caries risk (low and high caries risk groups. Two samples of saliva - unstimulated and stimulated one were taken from each child. Salivary carboanhydrase activity, as well as pH value, bicarbonate and phosphate buffer levels were estimated in both group of saliva samples. Results. The investigation showed significantly higher carboanhydrase activity (p < 0.001 in both saliva samples in low caries risk group compared to high caries risk one. In children with low caries risk, both unstimulated and stimulated saliva show significantly higher bicarbonate and phosphate buffer concentrations (p < 0.001, as well as pH values. Conclusion. The lower caries incidence could be expected in children with high carboanhydrase activity and higher salivary buffer system parameters levels. The presented results suggest that salivary carboanhydrase activity represents the important marker of individual susceptibility for caries appearance in children.

  12. Dental caries among children visiting a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky: a pooled cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Methods Study subjects were children aged 6 to 15 years who participated in the school-based dental sealant program through the mobile dental clinic operated by the Institute for Rural Health at Western Kentucky University between September 2006 and May 2011 (n = 2,453). Descriptive statistics were calculated for sociodemographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and urban versus rural residential location) and caries status. We used chi-square tests to compare sociodemographic differences of children stratified by caries and no caries status as well as three levels of caries severity. We developed a logistic regression model to investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Results The proportion of children having untreated dental caries was 49.7% and the mean number of untreated dental caries was 2.0. The proportion of untreated dental caries was higher in older children, children with no insurance and living in rural residential locations, and caries severity was also higher in these groups. Odds ratio indicated that older ages, not having private insurance (having only public, government-sponsored insurance or no insurance at all) and rural residential location were associated with having untreated dental caries after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics of children. Conclusions Untreated dental caries was more likely to be present in older children living in rural areas without

  13. An in vitro comparison of the ability of fibre-optic transillumination, visual inspection and radiographs to detect occlusal caries and evaluate lesion dept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K.R.; Côrtes, D.F.; Elias-Boneta, A.R.

    2000-01-01

    Occlusal caries, diagnosis, fibre-optic transillumination, bite-wing radiograph, visual inspection......Occlusal caries, diagnosis, fibre-optic transillumination, bite-wing radiograph, visual inspection...

  14. Does breastfeeding increase risk of early childhood caries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, L

    2015-09-01

    According to the WHO, "breastfeeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and development. Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months of age, with continued breastfeeding along with appropriate complementary foods up to two years of age or beyond". However, several studies have reported prolonged and unrestricted breastfeeding as a potential risk factor for primary tooth caries (ECC). On-demand breastfeeding, particularly while lying down at night, would seem to cause ECC because milk remains in the baby's mouth for long periods of time. There is lack of evidence that human milk is cariogenic; other factors, such as oral hygiene, may be more influential in caries development than on-demand breastfeeding. Moreover the biomechanics of breastfeeding differs from those of bottle feeding and milk is expressed into the soft palate and swallowed without remaining on teeth. Indeed we cannot forget that the main factor influencing caries development in infants is the presence of bacteria streptococcus mutans that thrives in a combination of sugars, small amounts of saliva and a low pH. Today the question is open and recently Chaffee, Felines, Vitolo et al. [2014] have found that breastfeeding for 24 months or longer increases the prevalence of severe early childhood caries in low-income families in Porto Alegre, Brazil. These results do not claim that prolonged breastfeeding is the cause of tooth decay; we can expect an association with food for infants often rich in refined sugars, which cause the reduction of the protective effect of saliva on the deciduous teeth enamel. In Japan, Kato, Yorifuji, Yamakawa et al. [2015] have found that infants who had been breastfed for at least 6 or 7 months, both exclusively and partially, were at elevated risk of dental caries at the age of 30 months compared with those who had been exclusively fed with formula. The authors themselves say, however, that further studies

  15. Efficacy of different final irrigant activation protocols on smear layer removal by EDTA and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Daniel R; Santos, Zarina T; Tay, Lidia Y; Silva, Emmanuel J; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Gomes, Brenda P F A

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different activation protocols for chelating agents used after chemo-mechanical preparation (CMP), for smear layer (SL) removal. Forty-five single-rooted human premolars with straight canals and fully formed apex were selected. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups depending on the chelating agent used for smear layer removal: distilled water (DW, control group); 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); and 10% citric acid (CA). Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to the activation protocol used: no-activation (NA), manual dynamic activation (MDA), or sonic activation (SA). After CMP, all specimens were sectioned and processed for observation of the apical thirds by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two calibrated evaluators attributed scores to each specimen. The differences between activation protocols were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used for comparison between each root canal third. When chelating agents were activated, either by MDA or SA, it was obtained the best cleaning results with no significant difference between EDTA and CA (P > 0.05). Sonic activation showed the best results when root canal thirds were analyzed, in comparison to MDA and NA groups (P benefits smear layer removal from root canals.

  16. The Effect of Fragaria vesca Extract on Smear Layer Removal: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Amin; Razavi, Sayed Alireza; Mosaddeghmehrjardi, Mohammad Hossein; Tabrizizadeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Successful endodontic treatment depends on elimination of the microorganisms through chemomechanical debridement. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry) extract (FVE) on the removal of smear layer (SL). Methods and Materials: In this analytical-observational study, 40 extracted mandibular and maxillary human teeth were selected. After canal preparation with standard step-back technique, the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the irrigation solution: saline (negative control), 5.25% NaOCl+EDTA (positive control), FVE and FVE+EDTA. The teeth were split longitudinally so that scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs could be taken to evaluate the amount of remnant SL in coronal, middle and apical thirds. The data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Significant differences were found among the groups (P<0.001). The use of NaOCl+EDTA was the most effective regimen for removing the SL followed by FVE+EDTA. FVE alone was significantly more effective than saline (P<0.001). Conclusion: FVE with and without EDTA could effectively remove the smear layer; however, compared to NaOCl group it was less effective. PMID:26526069

  17. Debris and smear removal in flattened root canals after use of different irrigant agitation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Eduardo Milani; Silva-Sousa, Yara T C; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Lorencetti, Karina Torales; Silva, Silvio Rocha Correa

    2012-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) can be used to analyze the presence of debris and smear layer on the internal walls of root canal. This study evaluated the debris and smear removal in flattened root canals using SEM after use of different irrigant agitation protocols. Fifty mandibular incisors were distributed into five groups (n = 10) according to the irrigant agitation protocol used during chemomechanical preparation: conventional syringe irrigation with NaviTip needle (no activation), active scrubbing of irrigant with brush-covered NaviTip FX needle, manual dynamic irrigation, continuous passive ultrasonic irrigation, and apical negative pressure irrigation (EndoVac system). Canals were irrigated with 5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl at each change of instrument and received a final flush with 17% EDTA for 1 min. After instrumentation, the roots were split longitudinally and SEM micrographs at ×100 and ×1,000 were taken to evaluate the amount of debris and smear layer, respectively, in each third. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc tests (α = 5%). Manual dynamic activation left significantly (p protocols, while ultrasonic irrigation and EndoVac were the most effective (p 0.05) either among the irrigant agitation protocols or between the protocol-canal third interactions. Although none of the irrigant agitation protocols completely removed debris and smear layer from flattened root canals, the machine-assisted agitation systems (ultrasound and EndoVac) removed more debris than the manual techniques.

  18. Tratamiento de lesiones de caries interproximales mediante el uso de infiltrantes Treatment of approximal caries lesions using infiltrants

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    ML Marró Freitte

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Basados en el respeto por la estructura dentaria junto a un adecuado tratamiento y detención de las lesiones de caries, se ha desarrollado ICON®, un sistema que penetra los tejidos afectados con una resina de baja viscosidad fotopolimerizable (infiltrante sin necesidad de la apertura mecánica de una cavidad. De este modo se introducen los “infiltrantes” como herramientas para el tratamiento de las lesiones proximales. El “infiltrante” actúa bloqueando la progresión de la lesión de caries y estabilizando la estructura dentaria. En este reporte se muestra la técnica de infiltración con el uso del kit ICON®, mediante la presentación de un caso clínico de lesión proximal extendida al tercio externo de la dentina.Based on the respect for the tooth structure with adequate treatment and arrest of carious lesions, ICON ® has been developed. This system enters the affected tissue with a low-viscosity light-curing resin (infiltrant with no need for mechanical opening of a cavity. This will introduce the infiltrants as tools for the treatment of proximal lesions. The “infiltrant” works by blocking the progression of caries lesion and stabilizing tooth structure. This report shows the technique with the use of the ICON ® kit, by presenting a case of proximal carious lesion extended to the outer third of dentin.

  19. Papain gel containing methylene blue for simultaneous caries removal and antimicrobial photoinactivation against Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Jr., Zenildo Santos; Huang, Ying-Ying; de Freitas, Lucas Freitas; França, Cristiane Miranda; Botta, Sergio Brossi; Ana, Patrícia Aparecida; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Santos Fernandes, Kristianne Porta; Deana, Alessandro; Lima Leal, Cintia Raquel; Prates, Renato Araujo; Hamblin, Michael R.; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2016-01-01

    This study intended to evaluate the effects of a papain-gel with a red-light absorbing pigment (methylene blue – MB) to mediate photodynamic therapy (PDT) against Streptococcus mutans biofilms. The PapaMBlue was compared with free MB to generate reactive oxygen species using fluorescence probes (SOSG and HPF). PDT (660-nm light) was carried out against S. mutans biofilms grown on either plastic dishes or on collagen membrane and assayed by CFU, live-dead staining using confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and H&E staining for collagen films. Cytotoxicity and subcellular localization was studied in human fibroblasts. Sponges of bioabsorbable type I collagen membrane were exposed to papain based gel, irradiated with laser and analyzed about their integrity by ATR-FTIR. The PapaMBlue produced higher amounts of singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals than free MB, possibly due to better disaggregation of the dye in solution. The PapaMBlue antimicrobial effects on biofilms proved to be capable of reducing the S. mutans. Both MTT and PrestoBlue assays showed higher cell viability and metabolism scores in fibroblasts treated with PapaMBlue and MB, possibly due to stimulation of mitochondrial activity and that collagen triple helix is unaffected. The PapaMBlue is equally effective as MB in destroying S. mutans biofilms growing on plastic or collagen without affecting fibroblasts. PMID:27641507

  20. Ten-year results of a Screening Program during pregnancy for children’s dental caries prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Merluzzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is a multifactorial disease with many contributing factors in the genesis of risk (11. Streptococcus mutans (SM is a gram positive, facultative anaerobe commonly found in the human oral cavity. Described for the first time in 1924 by Clarke, is the main germ responsible for the caries disease (5, 9. In fact, SM produces an insoluble extracellular polysaccharide sucrose which plays an important role as a mediator of the adhesiveness, both as a cementing molecule for other microorganisms, and to create a protected site where the microorganism can proliferate (6, 9, 10. Its presence in the plaque is not equal for all people and is closely related to sugar consumption (9. Its transmission can take place early in the life of the child through the mother’s saliva (2, 3, 4, 8.The early acquisition of this organism is associated with Early Childhood Caries (ECC and then creates a primary colonization which is hardly removed (1, 7. Paying special attention to the health of women and children, this work aimed to decrease the incidence of childhood tooth decay, streamlining preventive efforts in a population at risk. Methods: Since 1999, all women referred to our clinic in the second trimester of pregnancy or during childbirth were offered the opportunity to perform a simple test to measure the presence of SM in saliva and have been given some advice (diet, hygiene, fuoro-prophylaxis, dental visit. The sampling of saliva was performed after chewing one paraffin tablet for about 1 minute. For the microbiological examination the technique of dip-slide test (CTR bacteria, Ivoclar Vivadent was used; results were classified according to semi-quantitative classes of microorganism concentration.Women were classified positive when bacterial concentration was 100000 CFU/ml. Besides a general advice on hygiene and diet, these women were invited to undergo a prophylactic treatment with chlorhexidine, a disinfectant with bactericidal

  1. Epidemiology of dental caries in children in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bluwi, Ghada S M

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries has a significant impact on the general health and development of children. Understanding caries epidemiology is an essential task for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) policymakers to evaluate preventive programmes and to improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to collect and summarise all data available in the published literature on the epidemiology of dental caries in the UAE in children aged under 13 years. This will provide dental health planners with a comprehensive data summary, which will help in the planning for and evaluation of dental caries prevention programmes. Data were collected from the various published studies in PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Google, and the reference lists in relevant articles. Four keywords were used in the search: 'dental caries,' 'epidemiology,' 'prevalence,' and 'UAE'. All studies conducted in the UAE in general or any single emirate that sheds light on the prevalence of dental caries of children under 13 years were included in this literature review. Studies on early childhood caries and factors associated with dental caries were also included. The review comprises 11 published surveys of childhood caries in UAE. The earliest study was published in 1991 and the most recent was published in 2011. The range of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) in UAE children (age between 4 years and 6 years) was 5.1-8.4. For the 12-year-old group the decayed missing and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) ranged from 1.6 to 3.24. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate goals and planning for preventive oral health programmes. The current data available on the dmft and DMFT indicate that childhood dental caries is still a serious dental public health problem in the UAE that warrants immediate attention by the government and policy makers.

  2. Differential cell-mediated immune response to S. mutans in children with low and high dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, H; Sharma, A; Banerjee, U; Sidhu, S S; Sundaram, K R

    1993-08-01

    Role of cell-mediated immune response (CMI) in dental caries was studied in 171 subjects, comprising of 86 children with low caries (LC), 31 with high caries (HC), and 54 age matched controls. [3H]thymidine mediated lymphoblast transformation test (LTT) using mutans streptococci antigen as stimulant was used to study the stimulation index (SI) of in vitro cultured lymphocytes from these children. The analysis revealed low stimulation index in high caries children whereas low caries children exhibited high stimulation index normally ranging between 2 to 6. The findings indicated that low caries children had strong CMI response as compared to high caries children. Although, the findings are based on limited number of samples, it certainly lays emphasis on protective or regulatory role of CMI in different phases of dental caries.

  3. Mutans streptococci and lactobacilli on healthy and carious teeth in the same mouth of children with and without dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Toi, C. S.; Mogodiri, R.; Cleaton-Jones, P. E.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between mutans streptococci and lactobacilli contribute towards the microbial challenge of dental caries. A comparison was made between numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in plaque from primary teeth in healthy children and between caries-free teeth and carious lesions in the same mouth of children with caries. The study group comprised 107 nursery-school children with a clinically healthy dentition and 117 children with caries. After a dental examination with mirror...

  4. Evaluation of Marginal Sealing in Adhesives Restorations After the Use of a Papain Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Costa ARAÚJO

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the sealing conditions of adhesive restorations after the chemomechanical removal of carious tissue with a papain gel (Papacarie® and after the traditional method of caries removal utilizing rotatory instruments. Method: Seventeen human premolars with caries lesions envolving oclusal (enamel marginal and cervical (dentin marginal surfaces was used. The sample was divided in two groups: G1 removal of caries tissue with the traditional method G2 removal of caries tissue with the chemomechanical technique (Papacarie®. After the removal of caries tissue with one of the two techniques, the adhesive system Prime&Bond 2.1® was applied and the cavities were restored with composite resin (Filtek Z250®, A2. The test specimes were thermocycled (300 cycles at 5ºC – 55ºC, for 15 seconds in each temperature, isolated through the sealing of apices, immersed into basic fucsin during 24 hours, seccioned longitudinally through the restoration and assessed by three examiners that attributed marks according to the degree of dye penetration along the interface enamel/restoration and dentin/restoration in occlusal and cervical wall, respectively. Results: The statistical analysis using the Mann-Whitney test revealed the occurrence of marginal microleakage in both groups (Papacarie® and rotatory instruments when the cervical surface was evaluated and there was no significant difference between them. Nevertheless, when the oclusal surface was evaluated there was a significant difference between the groups, because in Papacarie’s group had worst results. Conclusion: The sealing properties of composite resin restorations were harmed by the method of caries removal with Papacarie®.

  5. Effects of enamel matrix genes on dental caries are moderated by fluoride exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, John R; Carlson, Jenna C; Stanley, Brooklyn O C; Feingold, Eleanor; Cooper, Margaret; Vanyukov, Michael M; Maher, Brion S; Slayton, Rebecca L; Willing, Marcia C; Reis, Steven E; McNeil, Daniel W; Crout, Richard J; Weyant, Robert J; Levy, Steven M; Vieira, Alexandre R; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common chronic disease, worldwide, affecting most children and adults. Though dental caries is highly heritable, few caries-related genes have been discovered. We investigated whether 18 genetic variants in the group of non-amelogenin enamel matrix genes (AMBN, ENAM, TUFT1, and TFIP11) were associated with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified samples from six parent studies (N = 3,600). Linear regression was used to model genetic associations and test gene-by-fluoride interaction effects for two sources of fluoride: daily tooth brushing and home water fluoride concentration. Meta-analysis was used to combine results across five child and eight adult samples. We observed the statistically significant association of rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 with dental caries experience via meta-analysis across adult samples (p caries experience only if they were not exposed to the source of fluoride. Altogether, these results confirm that variation in enamel matrix genes contributes to individual differences in dental caries liability, and demonstrate that the effects of these genes may be moderated by protective fluoride exposures. In short, genes may exert greater influence on dental caries in unprotected environments, or equivalently, the protective effects of fluoride may obviate the effects of genetic risk alleles.

  6. The status of dental caries and related factors in a sample of Iranian adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakpour, Amir H.; Hidarnia, Alireza; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the status of dental caries in a sample of Iranian adolescents aged 14 to 18 years in Qazvin, and to identify caries-related factors affecting this group. Study design: Qazvin was divided into three zones according to socio-economic status. The sampling procedure used was a...

  7. Childhood caries in the state of Kentucky, USA: a cross-sectional study

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    Kandel Elizabeth A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Untreated dental caries afflicts almost one third of school-aged children in the United States and many of them are from disadvantaged families. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of untreated caries in north central Kentucky, USA and to examine the relationships between the available demographic variables and untreated childhood caries as reported on the forms from the Smile Kentucky! program. Methods During the fall of 2008, caries status was assessed during the visual oral screening examination component of “SmileKentucky!”– a model of the American Dental Association’s Give Kids A Smile program. Parents had completed brief surveys concerning 3,488 elementary school children aged 5 to 13 years who participated in the program. A secondary analysis was conducted using univariate, bivariate and multivariate statistical methods. Results Untreated caries was reported in 33% of children. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses found that the most significant risk factors for having untreated caries were living in the metropolitan Louisville, Kentucky area, not having had a dental visit in the previous 3 years and not having any form of dental insurance. Conclusions Untreated caries in elementary school children is prevalent in north-central Kentucky despite efforts to improve access to care. The results suggest that additional family and community preventive initiatives are needed to reduce the development of childhood caries in this area of the United States.

  8. Professionally applied fluoride gel in low-caries 10.5-year-olds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, G.J.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2005-01-01

    The question has been raised whether low-caries children regularly using fluoride toothpaste will benefit from the professional application of additional fluoride gel. To investigate the caries-reducing effect of semi-annually-applied neutral 1% sodium fluoride gel, we carried out a double-blind ran

  9. The influence of dental caries on body growth in prepubertal children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert-Schriks, M.C.M.; van Amerongen, E.W.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Wennink, J.M.B.; ten Cate, J.M.; de Soet, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Dental decay and dental treatment are suggested to be related to body growth in children. The aim of this study was first to assess the relation between dental caries and body proportions cross-sectionally in a Suriname caries child population and secondly to investigate whether dental treatment had

  10. Shifts in the Microbial Population in Relation to in situ Caries Progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, R. Z.; Zijnge, V.; Cicek, A.; de Soet, J. J.; Harmsen, H. J. M.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The shift in microbial diversity from young to mature plaque, related to caries activity on sound and restored surfaces, was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. During a 20-week in situ study on caries progression 8 subjects wearing restored and unrestored dentin and enamel sectio

  11. Plaque, caries level and oral hygiene habits in young patients receiving orthodontic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Lemos, M I

    2010-01-01

    To assess plaque, caries, and oral hygiene habits amongst patients receiving fixed-orthodontic treatment at the Dental-Clinic, Universidad-El-Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia.......To assess plaque, caries, and oral hygiene habits amongst patients receiving fixed-orthodontic treatment at the Dental-Clinic, Universidad-El-Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia....

  12. An in vitro comparison between two methods of electrical resistance measurement for occlusal caries detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhnisch, J; Heinrich-Weltzien, R; Tabatabaie, M; Stosser, L; Huysmans, MCDNJM

    2006-01-01

    Because of different measurement techniques and the easier design of the CRM prototype, this in vitro study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance and reproducibility of two electrical methods (Electronic Caries Monitor III, ECM and Cariometer 800, CRM) for occlusal caries detection, and to eva

  13. Caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using the Cariogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Agouropoulos, Andreas; Gizani, Sotiria

    2012-01-01

    To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors.......To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors....

  14. DENTAL CARIES AND RELATED ORAL HEALTH FACTORS AMONG 9 TO 18 MONTH OLD THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detsomboonrat, Palinee; Pisarnturakit, Pagaporn Pantuwadee

    2015-07-01

    Dental caries can occur as soon as the first tooth erupts. We studied the caries prevalence and related risk factors among children aged 9-18 months in U Thong District, Suphan Buri Province, Thailand. A total of 151 children, whose primary caregivers were willing to participate in this study, were evaluated for decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces (dmfs). Questionnaires were given to the primary caregivers of the study subjects to ascertain their socio-economic status, oral hygiene habits, and child-feeding habits. The Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to evaluate bivariate outcome data. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to determine variables predictive of dental caries in the studied children. The prevalence of dental caries among the 151 subjects was 32.5%; 15.9% had at least one cavity (cavitated caries) and 16.6% had white lesions (non-cavitated caries). The mean dmfs score was 2.83 ± 6.48. Significant associations were seen between the dmfs score and the number of erupted teeth (p bottle feeding (P = 0.17, p bottle in the mouth (P = 0.18, p bottle feeding, frequency of drinking sweetened milk and falling asleep with a bottle in the mouth were important caries risk factors and the number of erupted teeth was a strong caries risk predictor. Dentists should educate caregivers about these risk factors.

  15. The role of school-based dental programme on dental caries experience in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amalia, Rosa; Schaub, Rob M. H.; Widyanti, Niken; Stewart, Roy; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the effectiveness of a school-based dental programme (SBDP) in controlling caries by measuring the relationship between the SBDP performance and caries experience in children aged 12 in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia, by taking into account influencing factors. Methods. A cross

  16. A New Dietary Intake Measure and Its Relationship to Caries Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Malek Mohammadi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim the main aim of this study was to examine the usability of a new dietary measure among a high caries population and examine whether reported food intake, when weighted by frequency and cariogenicity, was associated with increased caries rates within a high caries population. Key method Two hundred and eighteen children with caries were examined using standard caries diagnostic criteria. The examinations were carried out by a single calibrated dental examiner. A food frequency table was completed by the parents of each participant and this was analysed by weighting foods’ cariogenic potential by the frequency of consumption, and summing the product. The total cariogenicity score for each child was then plotted against its dmft and dt and correlation coefficients were calculated. Result the mean cariogenicity score using this new measure was 71.02, with a range of 31.96 to 135.24. The standard deviation was 16.72. Total cariogenicity scores using the new measure and dmft were weakly correlated, with the Pearson correlation co-efficient being 0.130 and for dt 0.131. These correlations did not reach significance. Conclusion The study has demonstrated that in children with caries, reported food intake (when weighted by frequency and cariogenicity and caries are only weakly and non-significantly associated. Dietary intake, when measured in a way, which takes account of all food groups, was therefore not strongly associated with caries when measured on an individual level.

  17. Validation of an age-modified caries risk assessment program (Cariogram) in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgerson, Pernilla Lif; Twetman, Svante; Stecksèn-Blicks, Christina

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (i) To validate caries risk profiles assessed with a computer program against actual caries development in preschool children, (ii) to study the possible impact of a preventive program on the risk profiles, and (iii) to compare the individual risk profiles longitudinally. MATERIAL AND...

  18. Family Matters. The role of parental and family-related psychosocial factors in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is common childhood disease with children from lower socioeconomic status experiencing disproportionately higher levels of the disease. Parents and the broader family environment may play an important role in the development of childhood dental caries as mediators / moderators of risk.

  19. [Immunological status of patients with caries and its complications in combination with parodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovskiĭ, A V; Shumskiĭ, A V

    2008-01-01

    Results of complex clinical and immunological study of patients with caries and pulpitis in combination with periodontitis were presented. It was revealed that high intensity of caries and parodontitis combines with significant disturbances in cellular and humoral parts of immune system.

  20. Caries detection in primary teeth is less challenging than in permanent teeth

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    Fausto M Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Most studies about caries detection methods have been performed using permanent teeth. Primary teeth, however, present significant differences from permanent teeth; hence findings of these studies with permanent teeth cannot be extrapolated. The Hypothesis: Our hypothesis is that the caries diagnosis process in primary teeth is less challenging than in permanent teeth. This assertion is based on the fact that primary enamel is thinner and the caries process progresses faster in this type of teeth when compared to permanent teeth. For these reasons, the majority of caries lesions in primary teeth would be more evident and therefore, easily detected through visual inspection. Only a few number of caries lesions would be missed by visual inspection. Thus, adjunct diagnostic methods, such as radiographs, would be unnecessary for primary teeth. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: To evaluate this hypothesis, researchers should conduct studies about the performance of the caries detection methods avoiding selection bias and defining appropriate settings. Clinical trials randomizing the diagnostic strategies would be worthwhile. The evidence supporting the benefits of adjunct methods in detecting caries lesions in primary lesions is limited. However, clinical guidelines have recommended the use of the radiographic method to detect caries in primary teeth in all symptomless children. The confirmation of our hypothesis would lead to the need to re-evaluate such guidelines.

  1. Factors increasing the caries risk of second primary molars in 5-year-old Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfrink, Marlies E C; Schuller, Annemarie A; Veerkamp, Jaap S J; Poorterman, Jan H G; Moll, Henriette A; ten Cate, Bob J M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caries is still a prevalent condition in 5-year-old children. At present, knowledge regarding some aetiological factors, like deciduous molar hypomineralization (DMH), is limited. AIM: To investigate aetiological factors both directly and indirectly associated with caries in second prima

  2. Influence of host-related risk indicators on dental caries in permanent dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the individual and grouped influence of host-related factors on dental caries experience in permanent dentition of 7-9 year-old children. One hundred and twenty one children were recruited applying a stratified cluster sampling without replacement. Clinical examinations, Colorimetric Test and non-stimulated and stimulated saliva collection were performed; the samples obtained were later incubated using Snyder culture medium. Simple and multiple binary logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the individual and grouped influence of the host-related factors and establish a modelfor predicting dental caries in permanent dentition. 78.5% of the evaluated children presented dental caries in permanent dentition. Binary logistic regression analyses revealMd that only dental caries in deciduous dentition and stimulated salivary flow were significantly associated to dental caries in permanent dentition. The final multivariate model showed that the adjusted OR was 1.76 for an increase of 1 tooth in dmft and 2.29 for a decrease of 1 ml in stimulated salivary flow. Dental caries in deciduous dentition is a risk indicator for dental caries in permanent dentition, and stimulated salivary flow is a protective factor Variables like enamel resistance to acid dissolution and buffer capacity are not related to dental caries in permanent dentition, making them inappropriate for risk studies.

  3. Differentiation of salivary bacterial profiles of subjects with periodontitis and dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Nielsen, Claus H

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial profiles of saliva in subjects with periodontitis and dental caries have been demonstrated to differ from that of oral health. The aim of this comparative analysis of existing data generated by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) from 293 stimulated saliva samples...... was to compare bacterial profiles of saliva in subjects with periodontitis and dental caries....

  4. Dental caries prevalence among type II diabetic and nondiabetic adults attending a hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvania, Ekta A.; Sheth, Sona A.; Sharma, Ashish S.; Mansuri, Saloni; Shaikh, Faizan; Sahani, Saloni

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common chronic metabolic disorder which affects millions of people. At present, India has the highest incidence of diabetes worldwide. Several oral lesions and conditions are associated with diabetes. However, there is a lack of consensus among researchers regarding the relationship between DM and dental caries. Hence, the present study was carried out to assess the dental caries prevalence among type II diabetic and nondiabetic adults attending a hospital in Ahmedabad city. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted. One hundred and twenty diabetics individuals attending the diabetic Outpatient Department (OPD) and age and sex-matched 120 nondiabetic individuals from general OPD were included in the study. The data were gathered through semi-close-ended questionnaire and clinical examination. Dental caries was assessed by using the World Health Organization's 2013 proforma. Data was analyzed by applying Student's independent t-test or one-way analysis of variance. Results: Dental caries prevalence among the diabetic group was 73.33% and 33.33% among the nondiabetic group. Dental caries prevalence and mean dental caries was significantly higher among uncontrolled diabetic individuals than that among controlled diabetic individuals. Duration of the disease and dental caries prevalence did not show any significant difference. Conclusion: Dental caries prevalence was significantly high among diabetic individuals compared with nondiabetic individuals. Close collaboration between the patients, healthcare units, and oral health professionals could be a way of improving diabetic patients' general and oral health. PMID:28217542

  5. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children of Different Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidoye, R. O.; Koleoso, Titilayo Abiodun

    1989-01-01

    Compares incidence of caries in 60 13 to 15 year olds in 2 Nigerian schools, 1 with an affluent population and the other with students from a lower socioeconomic level. Data on parental occupations, patterns of dental practice, and eating habits were collected. Caries incidence in different categories of social standing was similar. (NH)

  6. Caries Risk Assessment/Treatment Programs in U.S. Dental Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorty, Jack S.; Brown, K. Birgitta

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 42 U.S. dental schools was conducted to identify the number and characteristics of caries risk- assessment/treatment programs. Findings address lectures about caries risk, use of variable recall programs, categorization of risk level, early detection and treatment of lesions, and restoration of radiographically visible lesions. (DB)

  7. Survey and Analysis of Dental Caries in Students at a Deaf-Mute High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hong; Wang, Yan-Ling; Cong, Xiao-Na; Tang, Wan-Qin; Wei, Ping-Min

    2012-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study was conducted to assess and compare the prevalence of dental caries of 229 deaf adolescents in a special senior high school and to identify factors related to dental caries, with a match group of 196 healthy adolescents in a normal senior high school, in Jiangsu province of East China. In this study the prevalence…

  8. Best clinical practice guidance for management of early caries lesions in children and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühnisch, J; Ekstrand, K R; Pretty, I;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) encourages prevention and arrest of active dental caries. Therefore, the present guidance provides evidence- and clinically-based recommendations for detecting and diagnosing early/non-cavitated caries lesions, risk assessment and di...

  9. Caries experience in a child population in a deprived area of Brazil, using ICDAS II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorim, R.G. de; Figueiredo, M.J.; Leal, S.C.; Mulder, J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the caries experience of children aged 6 to 7 years old in a socially deprived suburban area of Brazil's Federal District, using the ICDAS II system and to investigate determinants of dental caries. The survey was carried out in six public schools by three

  10. Diagnostic value of DIAGNOdent in detecting caries under composite restorations of primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Vali Sichani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: DIAGNOdent showed a greater accuracy in detecting secondary caries under primary molar restorations, compared to radiographs. Although DIAGNOdent is an effective method for detecting caries under composite restorations, it is better to be used as an adjunctive method alongside other detecting procedures.

  11. Microtensile bond strength of three simplified adhesive systems to caries-affected dentin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, J.D.; Purwanta, K.; Dogan, N.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the microtensile bond strength of three different simplified adhesive systems to caries-affected dentin. Materials and Methods: Fifteen extracted human molars with primary carious lesions were ground flat until dentin was exposed. Soft caries-infect

  12. Maternal care influence on children’s caries prevalence in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela dos Santos PINTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to investigate the influence of specific maternal-factors on caries prevalence in offspring. This cross sectional study was conducted in Pelotas, Brazil nested in a cohort of adolescent mothers with children aged 24–42 months. A questionnaire was administered to collect information in relationship to socio-economic, demographic, and behavioral maternal variables. The outcome (children’s dental caries prevalence – dmfs > 0 was collected from clinical examinations. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. A total of 538 mother/child dyads were evaluated and 15.1% of the children exhibited caries. Adjusted multivariate analysis showed children from mothers living without partners (p < 0.027 had more caries than those living with partners. Maternal perception of a child’s oral health was associated to occurrence of caries, particularly when mothers classified their child as poor and these children had a higher level of caries. In addition, mothers accurately evaluated their child’s teeth when associated with caries occurrence. Maternal oral health care practices were associated with children’s caries prevalence. Our results demonstrated mothers accurately evaluated the oral health of their offspring.

  13. Some special features of the caries preventive effect of water-fluoridation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer Dirks, O.; Houwink, B.; Kwant, G.W.

    1961-01-01

    In March 1953 water-fluoridation was started in Tiel, the Netherlands. From the caries numbers of three age classes the differences in caries inhibition for the various teeth and for the various tooth surfaces are shown after 5 1/2 of fluoridation. The free smooth surfaces (buccal and labial) show

  14. Differentiation of salivary bacterial profiles of subjects with periodontitis and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Belstrøm

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial profiles of saliva in subjects with periodontitis and dental caries have been demonstrated to differ from that of oral health. The aim of this comparative analysis of existing data generated by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM from 293 stimulated saliva samples was to compare bacterial profiles of saliva in subjects with periodontitis and dental caries.

  15. Genetic Association of MMP10, MMP14, and MMP16 with Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, E.; Cooper, M.; Vanyukov, M. M.; Maher, B. S.; Slayton, R. L.; Willing, M. C.; Reis, S. E.; Crout, R. J.; Weyant, R. J.; Levy, S. M.; Marazita, M. L.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which degrade extracellular proteins as part of a variety of physiological processes, and their inhibitors have been implicated in the dental caries process. Here we investigated 28 genetic variants spanning the MMP10, MMP14, and MMP16 genes to detect association with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified (n = 3,587) samples from 6 parent studies. Analyses were performed separately for each sample, and results were combined across samples by meta-analysis. Two SNPs (rs2046315 and rs10429371) upstream of MMP16 were significantly associated with caries in an individual sample of white adults and via meta-analysis across 8 adult samples after gene-wise adjustment for multiple comparisons. Noteworthy is SNP rs2046315 (p = 8.14 × 10−8) association with caries in white adults. This SNP was originally nominated in a genome-wide-association study (GWAS) of dental caries in a sample of white adults and yielded associations in a subsequent GWAS of surface level caries in white adults as well. Therefore, in our study, we were able to recapture the association between rs2046315 and dental caries in white adults. Although we did not strengthen evidence that MMPs 10, 14, and 16 influence caries risk, MMP16 is still a likely candidate gene to pursue. PMID:28348596

  16. Microtensile Bond Strength of Three Simplified Adhesive Systems to Caries-affected Dentin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, Johannes; Purwanta, Kenny; Dogan, Nilgun; Kleverlaan, Cees J.; Feilzer, Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the microtensile bond strength of three different simplified adhesive systems to caries-affected dentin. Materials and Methods: Fifteen extracted human molars with primary carious lesions were ground flat until dentin was exposed. Soft caries-infect

  17. Trends in de prevalentie van cariës bij de 6- en 12-jarige jeugd in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, G J; Schuller, A A; Poorterman, J H G; Mulder, J

    2010-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the development of caries prevalence and caries experience among Dutch youth, a meta-analysis was carried out on epidemiological caries data collected in 5 and 6 and 11 and 12 year-olds between 1980 and 2009. From the present analysis it appears that after the mid-1980'

  18. Trends in de prevalentie van cariës bij de 6- en 12-jarige jeugd in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, G.J.; Schuller, A.A.; Poorterman, J.H.G.; Mulder, A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the development of caries prevalence and caries experience among Dutch youth, a meta-analysis was carried out on epidemiological caries data collected in 5 and 6 and 11 and 12 year-olds between 1980 and 2009. From the present analysis it appears that after the mid-1980’

  19. Developments in caries diagnosis and their relationship to treatment decisions and quality of care - ORCA Saturday Afternoon Symposium 1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, EH; Angmar-Mansson, B; ten Bosch, JJ; Deery, CH; Huysmans, MCDNJM; Pitts, NB; Waller, E

    1999-01-01

    This symposium report evaluates the achievements made in caries diagnostic research since the previous symposium held in 1992. The symposium aimed at presenting the state of the art of caries diagnostic methods, on presenting the links between caries diagnosis and subsequent treatment decisions and

  20. Analysis of caries susceptibility factors during transition from caries-free to caries in three-year-old children%3岁儿童患龋过程中龋易感因素的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝文婧; 徐赫; 陈霄迟; 周琼; 张萍; 秦满

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of caries susceptibility factors during the transition from caries-free to caries in three-year-old children.Methods The study included 144 caries-free children aged 34-38 months.All participants underwent clinical examination and full-mouth supragingival plaque collection.Survey of children's oral health behaviors involving feeding habits and oral health care was also taken from children' s parents of all participants.The children were reexamined 6 and 12 months later.According to the potential changes of caries status in twelve months follow up,all the participants were divided into three groups:caries-free group (caries free children in twelve months follow up),caries at 6-month group(children who were found with caries or cavities fillings at six months review) and caries at 12-month group(children who were caries free at six months but found with caries or cavities fillings at twelve months).Streptococcus mutans (Sm)and Streptococcus sobrinus (Ss) loads were compared among the three groups by real time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR).Results One hundred and thirty children completed twelve months review,the dropout rate was 9.7% (14/144).At the end of twelve months follow up,the number of children in caries-free group,caries at 6-month group and caries at 12-month group was 58,44 and 28 respectively.The changes of oral behavioral habits in caries-free group,caries at 6-month group and caries at 12-month group during twelve months follow up were not significantly different(P >0.05).At baseline,the frequency of sweets consumption and eating sweets before sleeping in caries-free group was significantly lower than that in caries at 6-month group and caries at 12-month group (P < 0.001).At baseline,the quantity of Sm and Ss in caries at 6-month group [copy number of Sm:(6.33 ± 2.21) × 103,copy number of Ss:(1.99 ±0.45) × 103] was significantly higher than that in the caries-free group [copy

  1. Child externalizing behavior problems linked to genetic and non-genetic variation in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Michael F; Smith Slep, Amy M; Heyman, Richard E; Bretz, Walter A

    2014-01-01

    The association of environmental and genetic variation in caries with child externalizing behavior problems (inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and defiance) was studied in a sample of 239 pairs of 3- to 8-year-old impoverished Brazilian twins. It was hypothesized that externalizing problems would show a stronger positive association with environmental than genetic variation in caries. Univariate twin models were estimated to parse variation in caries into three components: additive genetic (A), shared environment (C) and non-shared environment/error (E). Age-adjusted associations between externalizing problems and each variance component were tested. Contrary to the hypothesis, modest but very consistent negative associations were found between externalizing problems and both genetic and environmental variation in caries. Mutans streptococci and sweetness preference did not explain the negative associations of caries and externalizing problems. Externalizing problems in non-medicated children were associated with less dental decay that could be explained by both genetic and environmental factors.

  2. Reliability of specific finger dermatoglyphic patterns and their association with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Pratibha; Sentamilselvi, G; Narayan, Vinod; Premkumar, Priya; Anuja, N; Sherlin, Herald; Abilasha, R

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of dental caries is generally agreed to be a complex problem with many indirect factors that may obscure the direct cause or causes. There is substantial evidence that heredity plays an important role in this disease. Dermatoglyphics is a study that can be used to indicate congenital abnormalities. This study sought to determine a correlation between the prevalence of dental caries and dermatoglyphic fingerprint patterns, and thus assess the reliability of such patterns for identifying a susceptibility to dental caries. The results showed that the association between people with dental caries and whorls in their fingerprints was 60.4% . The association between people without caries who had loops in their fingerprints was 55.7%. These associations had a statistical significance of P < 0.001.

  3. [The lacto-tampon concept. Determination and prevention of an increased risk for caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikner, S

    1989-01-01

    The lactobacillus count and buffer capacity (final pH) of whole stimulated saliva was assessed and related to the caries increment over the next 12 months in 327 teenagers. The caries increment was 3-4.5 times higher in children having a high lactobacillus count combined with a low buffer capacity, compared with other lacto-buffer combinations (P less than, 01-,001). The protective influence of a high buffer capacity seems to be stronger than the caries-promoting influence of high sugar consumption, indicated by a high lactobacillus count. On the one hand a low sugar consumption seems to have a decisive determining preventive effect even in children having impaired buffer systems. On the other hand a high sugar consumption strongly promotes caries when the buffer capacity is low. It is also demonstrated that consumption changes during a longitudinal study may impair the relationships between the salivary parameters, assessed at baseline, and the caries increment during the study.

  4. Concepts in critical thinking applied to caries risk assessment in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra; Warren, John J; Cunningham-Ford, Marsha A; von Bergmann, HsingChi; Johnsen, David C

    2014-06-01

    Much progress has been made in the science of caries risk assessment and ways to analyze caries risk, yet dental education has seen little movement toward the development of frameworks to guide learning and assess critical thinking in caries risk assessment. In the absence of previous proactive implementation of a learning framework that takes the knowledge of caries risk and critically applies it to the patient with the succinctness demanded in the clinical setting, the purpose of this study was to develop a model learning framework that combines the science of caries risk assessment with principles of critical thinking from the education literature. This article also describes the implementation of that model at one dental school and presents some preliminary assessment data.

  5. Prediction of Early Childhood Caries via Spatial-Temporal Variations of Oral Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fei; Yang, Fang; Huang, Shi; Bo, Cunpei; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech; Amir, Amnon; Knight, Rob; Ling, Junqi; Xu, Jian

    2015-09-09

    Microbiota-based prediction of chronic infections is promising yet not well established. Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most common infection in children. Here we simultaneously tracked microbiota development at plaque and saliva in 50 4-year-old preschoolers for 2 years; children either stayed healthy, transitioned into cariogenesis, or experienced caries exacerbation. Caries onset delayed microbiota development, which is otherwise correlated with aging in healthy children. Both plaque and saliva microbiota are more correlated with changes in ECC severity (dmfs) during onset than progression. By distinguishing between aging- and disease-associated taxa and exploiting the distinct microbiota dynamics between onset and progression, we developed a model, Microbial Indicators of Caries, to diagnose ECC from healthy samples with 70% accuracy and predict, with 81% accuracy, future ECC onsets for samples clinically perceived as healthy. Thus, caries onset in apparently healthy teeth can be predicted using microbiota, when appropriately de-trended for age.

  6. Enzymes, Dentinogenesis and Dental Caries: a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Larmas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Search in PubMed with keywords “enzymes, dentinogenesis, and dental caries” revealed only 4 items, but when combined with “enzymes, osteogenesis, and osteoporosis” as high as 404 items resulted. Dental caries was associated with an order of magnitude fewer studies than the chronic bone disease, osteoporosis. This observation motivated this review. Material and Methods: A comprehensive review of the available literature on role of enzymes in dentinogenesis and dental caries was undertaken using MEDLINE (PubMed and Scopus. Keywords for the search were: enzymes and odontoblasts, enzymes and different forms of dentinogenesis as well as dental caries. Results: Search revealed studies which described odontoblasts harbouring numerous enzymes (hydrolases, including metalloproteinases, transaminases and dehydrogenases during primary dentinogenesis. Alkaline phosphatase activity sharply decreased when odontoblasts turned into quiescent odontoblasts. Tertiary dentinogenesis was characterized first by reactionary dentine formation when alkaline phosphatase was highly reactivated. Then later some of these odontoblasts may die out and be replaced by other progenitor cells of pulpal origin. This tertiary dentine was called reparative dentine. Pulpal progenitor/stem cells revealed alkaline phosphatase activity in areas encircling inflamed pulp sections. Soft carious dentine revealed high hydrolase, transaminase and dehyrogenase activities that may have originated from invading microbes, saliva or were endogenous. Proteolytic activity was especially demonstrable using histochemical and biochemical means. Specifically, matrix metalloproteases may have originated partly from activated proenzymes of host origin. Conclusions: Though dental studies are scanty when compared to bone, the active role of large spectrum of enzymes in healthy and carious dentine was given support.

  7. Milk fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries

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    Jolán Bánóczy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to give an overview of 55 years experience of milk fluoridation and draw conclusions about the applicability of the method. Fluoridated milk was first investigated in the early 1950s, almost simultaneously in Switzerland, the USA and Japan. Stimulated by the favourable results obtained from these early studies, the establishment of The Borrow Dental Milk Foundation (subsequently The Borrow Foundation in England gave an excellent opportunity for further research, both clinical and non-clinical, and a productive collaboration with the World Health Organization which began in the early 1980s. Numerous peer-reviewed publications in international journals showed clearly the bioavailability of fluoride in various types of milk. Clinical trials were initiated in the 1980s – some of these can be classed as randomised controlled trials, while most of the clinical studies were community preventive programmes. Conclusion. These evaluations showed clearly that the optimal daily intake of fluoride in milk is effective in preventing dental caries. The amount of fluoride added to milk depends on background fluoride exposure and age of the children: commonly in the range 0.5 to 1.0 mg per day. An advantage of the method is that a precise amount of fluoride can be delivered under controlled conditions. The cost of milk fluoridation programmes is low, about € 2 to 3 per child per year. Fluoridation of milk can be recommended as a caries preventive measure where the fluoride concentration in drinking water is suboptimal, caries experience in children is significant, and there is an existing school milk programme.

  8. Probiotics in the prevention of dental caries Microorganismos probióticos en la prevención de caries dentales

    OpenAIRE

    Yensi Díaz Martell; Johany Duque de Estrada Riverón; Ileana Hidalgo-Gato Fuentes

    2010-01-01

    Probiotics have the potential to provide significant benefits to human health, so we decided to investigate the probiotics species that may have preventive action against dental caries mainly in children in order to determine if there can be created a preventive medicine, made from probiotics found in the oral cavity. Oral probiotics that have shown promising activities in the prevention of dental caries are: Streptococcus salivarius (strain K12), BGH01 Lactobacillus salivarius, BGH089 gasser...

  9. Actinomyces spp. gene expression in root caries lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame-Teixeira, Naile; Parolo, Clarissa Cavalcanti Fatturi; Maltz, Marisa; Tugnait, Aradhna; Devine, Deirdre; Do, Thuy

    2016-01-01

    Background The studies of the distribution of Actinomyces spp. on carious and non-carious root surfaces have not been able to confirm the association of these bacteria with root caries, although they were extensively implicated as a prime suspect in root caries. Objective The aim of this study was to observe the gene expression of Actinomyces spp. in the microbiota of root surfaces with and without caries. Design The oral biofilms from exposed sound root surface (SRS; n=10) and active root caries (RC; n=30) samples were collected. The total bacterial RNA was extracted, and the mRNA was isolated. Samples with low RNA concentration were pooled, yielding a final sample size of SRS=10 and RC=9. Complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries were prepared and sequenced on an Illumina® HiSeq 2500 system. Sequence reads were mapped to eight Actinomyces genomes. Count data were normalized using DESeq2 to analyse differential gene expression applying the Benjamini-Hochberg correction (false discovery rate [FDR]0.05), except for Actinomyces OT178 (p=0.001) and Actinomyces gerencseriae (p=0.004), which had higher read counts in the SRS. Genes that code for stress proteins (clp, dnaK, and groEL), enzymes of glycolysis pathways (including enolase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), adhesion (Type-2 fimbrial and collagen-binding protein), and cell growth (EF-Tu) were highly – but not differentially (p>0.001) – expressed in both groups. Genes with the most significant upregulation in RC were those coding for hypothetical proteins and uracil DNA glycosylase (p=2.61E-17). The gene with the most significant upregulation in SRS was a peptide ABC transporter substrate-binding protein (log2FC=−6.00, FDR=2.37E-05). Conclusion There were similar levels of Actinomyces gene expression in both sound and carious root biofilms. These bacteria can be commensal in root surface sites but may be cariogenic due to survival mechanisms that allow them to exist in acid environments and to

  10. Caries correlates strongly to salivary levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedenbjörk-Lager, Anders; Bjørndal, Lars; Gustafsson, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    examinations were performed, and stimulated saliva was collected and analyzed for concentrations of MMP-8, TIMP-1 and total protein, using an immunofluorometric assay, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the Bradford assay, respectively. Salivary numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli were......The caries process in dentin involves the degradation of both mineral and organic matrix. The demineralization has been demonstrated to be caused by bacterial acids. However, the collagen degradation is considered to be initiated by endogenous proteolytic enzymes, mainly collagenolytic matrix...

  11. Use of new minimum intervention dentistry technologies in caries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassery, H; Levallois, B; Terrer, E; Manton, D J; Otsuki, M; Koubi, S; Gugnani, N; Panayotov, I; Jacquot, B; Cuisinier, F; Rechmann, P

    2013-06-01

    Preservation of natural tooth structure requires early detection of the carious lesion and is associated with comprehensive patient dental care. Processes aiming to detect carious lesions in the initial stage with optimum efficiency employ a variety of technologies such as magnifying loupes, transillumination, light and laser fluorescence (QLF® and DIAGNOdent® ) and autofluorescence (Soprolife® and VistaCam®), electric current/impedance (CarieScan(®) ), tomographic imaging and image processing. Most fluorescent caries detection tools can discriminate between healthy and carious dental tissue, demonstrating different levels of sensitivity and specificity. Based on the fluorescence principle, an LED camera (Soprolife® ) was developed (Sopro-Acteon, La Ciotat, France) which combined magnification, fluorescence, picture acquisition and an innovative therapeutic concept called light-induced fluorescence evaluator for diagnosis and treatment (LIFEDT). This article is rounded off by a Soprolife® illustration about minimally or even non-invasive dental techniques, distinguishing those that preserve or reinforce the enamel and enamel-dentine structures without any preparation (MIT1- minimally invasive therapy 1) from those that require minimum preparation of the dental tissues (MIT2 - minimally invasive therapy 2) using several clinical cases as examples. MIT1 encompasses all the dental techniques aimed at disinfection, remineralizing, reversing and sealing the caries process and MIT2 involves a series of specific tools, including microburs, air abrasion devices, sonic and ultrasonic inserts and photo-activated disinfection to achieve minimal preparation of the tooth. With respect to minimally invasive treatment and prevention, the use of lasers is discussed. Furthermore, while most practices operate under a surgical model, Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CaMBRA) encourages a medical model of disease prevention and management to control the manifestation of the

  12. Prevalensi early childhood caries dan severe early childhood caries pada anak prasekolah di Gunung Anyar Surabaya (The prevalences of early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries in preschool children at Gunung Anyar Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahel Wahjuni Sutjipto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early childhood caries (ECC is a serious health problem especially in young children. Frequent night time bottle feeding with milk and prolong breast-feeding are reported to be the possible cause. Purpose: The purpose of study was to determine the prevalence of ECC and severe early childhood caries (SECC in children at Preschool Gunung Anyar district Surabaya. Methods: The subjects were 65 children consist of children aged 6 months (5 children, 1 year (8 children, 2 years (24 children, and 3 years (28 children. All tooth surface is evaluated. If there was one or more DMFs, it was indicated as ECC, whereas if there was one or more DMFs on smooth surfaces, then indicated as SECC. Results: No caries has found in 6 months and 1 year old children. The higher prevalence of ECC and SECC is in 3 years old children. The most caries was found on mesial maxillary central incisors. Conclusion: This study shows that the prevalence of ECC in group of children aged 6 months - 3 years at Gunung Anyar Surabaya was 30.8 % , while the prevalence was 29.2 % SECC .Latar belakang: Karies anak usia dini merupakan masalah kesehatan yang serius terutama di kalangan anak-anak. Sering mengkonsumsi susu melalui botol pada malam hari dan pemberian ASI yang berkepanjangan dilaporkan sebagai faktor penyebab. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti prevalensi ECC dan SECC pada kelompok anak di PAUD Gunung Anyar Surabaya. Metode: Subyek penelitian ini adalah 65 anak yang terdiri dari anak usia 6 bulan (5 anak, 1 tahun (8 anak, 2 tahun (24 anak, dan 3 tahun (28 anak. Semua permukaan gigi dievaluasi. Apabila terdapat 1 atau lebih dmfs, maka diindikasikan sebagai ECC, sedangkan apabila terdapat 1 atau lebih dmfs pada permukaan gigi yang halus, maka diindikasikan sebagai SECC. Hasil: Tidak ditemukan karies pada kelompok anak usia 6 bulan hingga 1 tahun. Prevalensi tinggi ECC dan SECC ditemukan pada kelompok anak usia 3 tahun. Area gigi yang paling sering terkena

  13. [Helicobacter pylori in the development of dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseeva, M V; Belova, E V; Vakhrushev, Ia M

    2010-01-01

    It is shown, that in patients with erosive and ulcer defects of gastroduodenal zone at settling Helicobacter pylori (Hp) in an oral cavity in 100% of cases caries develops at intensity 13.6 +/- 1.4 teeth. Produced Hp protease and ammonia cause disintegration connected to protein silica acids and reduce activity lysocim, worsening, thus, fluid and protective properties of a saliva. In the subsequent infringement of autopurification of a teeth results in accumulation of a dental strike where protease activity conditionally pathogenic microflora conducts to depolymerization and demineralization enamels of a teeth.

  14. The human oral metaproteome reveals potential biomarkers for caries disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belda-Ferre, Pedro; Williamson, James; Simón-Soro, Áurea

    2015-01-01

    diversity. Healthy individuals appeared to have significantly higher amounts of L-lactate dehydrogenase and the arginine deiminase system, both implicated in pH buffering. Other proteins found to be at significantly higher levels in healthy individuals were involved in exopolysaccharide synthesis, iron...... metabolism and immune response. We applied multivariate analysis in order to find the minimum set of proteins that better allows discrimination of healthy and caries-affected dental plaque samples, detecting seven bacterial and five human protein functions that allow determining the health status...

  15. Genetic susceptibility to dental caries differs between the sexes: a family-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, John R; Wang, Xiaojing; McNeil, Daniel W; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Many of the factors affecting susceptibility to dental caries are likely influenced by genetics. In fact, genetics accounts for up to 65% of inter-individual variation in dental caries experience. Sex differences in dental caries experience have been widely reported, with females usually exhibiting a higher prevalence and severity of disease across all ages. The cause for this sex bias is currently uncertain, although it may be partly due to the differential effects of genetic factors between the sexes: gene-by-sex interactions. In this family based study (N = 2,663; 740 families; ages 1-93 years), we assessed dental caries via intra-oral examination and generated six indices of caries experience (DMFS, dfs, and indices of both pit-and-fissure surface caries and smooth surface caries in both primary and permanent dentitions). We used likelihood-based methods to model the variance in caries experience conditional on the expected genetic sharing among relatives in our sample. This modeling framework allowed us to test two lines of evidence for gene-by-sex interactions: (1) whether the magnitude of the cumulative effect of genes differs between the sexes, and (2) whether different genes are involved. We observed significant evidence of gene-by-sex interactions for caries experience in both the primary and permanent dentitions. In the primary dentition, the magnitude of the effect of genes was greater in males than females. In the permanent dentition, different genes may play important roles in each of the sexes. Overall, this study provides the first direct evidence that sex differences in dental caries experiences may be explained, in part, by gene-by-sex interactions.

  16. Association between enamel hypoplasia and dental caries in primary second molars: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, L; Levy, S M; Warren, J J; Broffitt, B

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the longitudinal relationships between enamel hypoplasia and caries experience of primary second molars. The study sample was 491 subjects who received dental examinations at both age 5 and 9 by the calibrated examiners. Four primary second molars (n = 1,892) were scored for the presence of enamel hypoplasia for each participant. Caries presence and number of decayed and filled surfaces (dfs) were determined at age 5 and 9. The relationships between enamel hypoplasia and caries experience were assessed. Among primary second molars, 3.9% of children and 1.7% of primary second molars had enamel hypoplasia. At age 5, 36.8% of children with hypoplasia had caries, while 16.9% of children without enamel hypoplasia had caries. At age 9, the corresponding numbers were 52.6% for children with hypoplasia and 34.5% for children without hypoplasia, respectively. At the tooth level, for age 5, 28.1% of teeth with hypoplasia had caries (mean dfs = 0.40), and 7.6% of teeth without hypoplasia had caries (mean dfs = 0.11). At age 9, the corresponding numbers were 41.9% (mean dfs = 0.76) for teeth with hypoplasia and 18.3% (mean dfs = 0.34) for teeth without hypoplasia. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, teeth of subjects with enamel hypoplasia had a significantly higher risk for caries at age 5 and 9 after controlling for other risk factors. Enamel hypoplasia appears to be a significant risk factor for caries and should be considered in caries risk assessment.

  17. Glycemic control with insulin prevents progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in diabetic WBN/KobSlc rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    We have previously reported that dental caries progress in spontaneously and chemically induced diabetic rodent models. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between hyperglycemia and dental caries by evaluating the preventive effect of glycemic control with insulin on the progression of the lesions in diabetic rats. Male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 15 weeks were divided into groups of spontaneously diabetic rats (intact group), spontaneously diabetic rats with insulin treatment (INS group), alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats (AL group), and alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats with insulin treatment (AL + INS group). The animals were killed at 90 weeks of age, and their oral tissue was examined. Dental caries and periodontitis were frequently detected in the intact group, and the lesions were enhanced in the AL group (in which there was an increased duration of diabetes). Meanwhile, glycemic control with insulin reduced the incidence and severity of dental caries and periodontitis in the INS group, and the effects became more pronounced in the AL + INS group. In conclusion, glycemic control by insulin prevented the progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in the diabetic rats.

  18. Caries-inhibiting effect of professional fluoride gel application in low-caries children initially aged 4.5-6.5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijkom, H M; Truin, G J; van 't Hof, M A

    2004-01-01

    It was the purpose of the study to investigate the caries-reducing effect of semi-annual professional fluoride gel application in a low-caries child population initially aged 4.5-6.5 years during a 4-year follow-up period. In a double-blind randomised controlled trial (n = 773) the effect of sodium fluoride gel on D3MFS and d3mfs was compared with a placebo gel. The mean caries reduction of professionally applied fluoride gel after 4 years in subjects with baseline caries experience D3MFS = 0 as well as d3mfs = 0 was 0.08 D3MFS (SE = 0.06) and 0.36 d3mfs (SE = 0.22). The prevented fraction for D3MFS and d3mfs was 26% (SE = 16%) and 20% (SE = 11%), respectively. It was concluded that in the investigated low-caries 4.5- to 6.5-year-olds, fluoride gel treatment showed a statistically significant (tested one-sided) caries-inhibiting effect on D3MFS, which was considered not clinically relevant, and no significant effect on d3mfs.

  19. Validez y Seguridad de las Pruebas Diagnósticas para la Caries oculta de Dentina: Un Estudio in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Belizón, Elena

    2016-01-01

    La epidemiología de la caries y su forma de presentación están cambiando. A pesar del descenso de la caries en los países industrializados, la caries de surcos y fisuras sigue siendo una las formas clínicas más frecuentes, ya que la mayor reducción ha ocurrido en las caries de superficie libre accesibles al cepillado y a los fluoruros tópicos. Estudios sobre la prevalencia de caries, muestran como las superficies oclusales de los molar...

  20. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu CH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations. Keywords: operative, practice, tunnel preparation, composite, amalgam, glass ionomer