WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemically modified electrode

  1. Reduced chemically modified graphene oxide for supercapacitor electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopalan, Balasubramaniyan; Chung, Jin Suk

    2014-01-01

    An efficient active material for supercapacitor electrodes is prepared by reacting potassium hydroxide (KOH) with graphene oxide followed by chemical reduction with hydrazine. The electrochemical performance of KOH treated graphene oxide reduced for 24 h (reduced chemically modified graphene oxide, RCMGO-24) exhibits a specific capacitance of 253 F g-1 at 0.2 A g-1 in 2 M H2SO4 compared to a value of 141 F g-1 for graphene oxide reduced for 24 h (RGO-24), and good cyclic stability up to 3,000...

  2. Modelling Amperometric Biosensors Based on Chemically Modified Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronas, Romas; Kulys, Juozas

    2008-01-01

    The response of an amperometric biosensor based on a chemically modified electrode was modelled numerically. A mathematical model of the biosensor is based on a system of non-linear reaction-diffusion equations. The modelling biosensor comprises two compartments: an enzyme layer and an outer diffusion layer. In order to define the main governing parameters the corresponding dimensionless mathematical model was derived. The digital simulation was carried out using the finite difference technique. The adequacy of the model was evaluated using analytical solutions known for very specific cases of the model parameters. By changing model parameters the output results were numerically analyzed at transition and steady state conditions. The influence of the substrate and mediator concentrations as well as of the thicknesses of the enzyme and diffusion layers on the biosensor response was investigated. Calculations showed complex kinetics of the biosensor response, especially when the biosensor acts under a mixed limitation of the diffusion and the enzyme interaction with the substrate.

  3. Modelling Amperometric Biosensors Based on Chemically Modified Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juozas Kulys

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The response of an amperometric biosensor based on a chemically modified electrode was modelled numerically. A mathematical model of the biosensor is based on a system of non-linear reaction-diffusion equations. The modelling biosensor comprises two compartments: an enzyme layer and an outer diffusion layer. In order to define the main governing parameters the corresponding dimensionless mathematical model was derived. The digital simulation was carried out using the finite difference technique. The adequacy of the model was evaluated using analytical solutions known for very specific cases of the model parameters. By changing model parameters the output results were numerically analyzed at transition and steady state conditions. The influence of the substrate and mediator concentrations as well as of the thicknesses of the enzyme and diffusion layers on the biosensor response was investigated. Calculations showed complex kinetics of the biosensor response, especially when the biosensor acts under a mixed limitation of the diffusion and the enzyme interaction with the substrate.

  4. Stripping voltammetric behavior of technetium at various chemically modified electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In monitoring of nuclear processing plants and storage facilities the necessity arises of assaying traces of the artificial radioactive element technetium. The oxidation states IV and VII are of particular interest. Stripping voltammetry is among the methods of assay which are suited for this purpose. It allows an enhanced selectivity to be achieved by preconcentration of the analyte and of an oxidation state of the analyte, respectively, at the electrode used. This specific enrichment is successful after appropriate chemical modification of the electrode through immobilization of a Tc-specific reagent. When various approaches of chemical modification of a glassy carbon electrode were examined, the tetraphenylarsonium chloride extractant, which is highly selective with respect to technetium, proved to be the best suited reagent, capable of fixation both by ionic and by covalent bonding on an electrodeposited polymer film. For ionic immobilization the reagent was reacted to m-sulfophenyltriphenyl arsonium and then bound to a copolymer of vinylferrocene and vinylpyridine, which had been provided with cations. It was possible to enrich Tc(VII) at such an electrode and to determine it by stripping voltammetry down to a concentration of 1x10-8 M after 5 minutes enrichment time. (orig./EF)

  5. Electrodeposition of platinum and silver into chemically modified microporous silicon electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Koda, Ryo; Fukami, Kazuhiro; Sakka, Tetsuo; Ogata, Yukio H.

    2012-01-01

    Electrodeposition of platinum and silver into hydrophobic and hydrophilic microporous silicon layers was investigated using chemically modified microporous silicon electrodes. Hydrophobic microporous silicon enhanced the electrodeposition of platinum in the porous layer. Meanwhile, hydrophilic one showed that platinum was hardly deposited within the porous layer, and a film of platinum on the top of the porous layer was observed. On the other hand, the electrodeposition of silver showed simil...

  6. Determination of bisphenol A in food-simulating liquids using LCED with a chemically modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antuono, A; Dall'Orto, V C; Lo Balbo, A; Sobral, S; Rezzano, I

    2001-03-01

    Liquid chromatography with electrochemical detector (LC-ED), using a chemically modified electrode coated with a metalloporphyrin film, is reported for determination of bisphenol A (BPA) migration from polycarbonate baby bottles. The extraction process of the samples was performed according to regulations of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR), where certain food-simulating liquids [(A) distilled water, (B) acetic acid 3% V/V in distilled water, and (C) ethanol 15% V/V in distilled water] are defined along with controlled time and temperature conditions. The baseline obtained using the naked electrode showed a considerable drift which increased the detection limit. This effect was suppressed with the chemically modified electrode. A linear range up to 450 ppb along with a detection limit of 20 ppb for the amperometric detection technique was observed. The procedure described herein allowed lowering the detection limit of the method to 0.2 ppb. The value found for BPA in the food-simulating liquid is 1.2 ppb, which is below the tolerance limit for specific migration (4.8 ppm).

  7. Catalytic activity of platinum on ruthenium electrodes with modified (electro)chemical states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Won; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2005-07-21

    Using Pt on Ru thin-film electrodes with various (electro)chemical states designed by the sputtering method, the effect of Ru states on the catalytic activity of Pt was investigated. The chemical and electrochemical properties of Pt/Ru thin-film samples were confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Pt nanoparticles on Ru metal or oxide for an actual fuel cell system showed an effect of Ru states on the catalytic activity of Pt in methanol electrooxidation. Finally, it was concluded that such an enhancement of methanol electrooxidation on the Pt is responsible for Ru metallic and/or oxidation sites compared to pure Pt without any Ru state. PMID:16852701

  8. Electron Transfer Reactivity Patterns at Chemically Modified Electrodes: Fundamentals and Application to the Optimization of Redox Recycling Amplification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergren, Adam Johan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Electroanalytical chemistry is often utilized in chemical analysis and Fundamental studies. Important advances have been made in these areas since the advent of chemically modified electrodes: the coating of an electrode with a chemical film in order to impart desirable, and ideally, predictable properties. These procedures enable the exploitation of unique reactivity patterns. This dissertation presents studies that investigate novel reaction mechanisms at self-assembled monolayers on gold. In particular, a unique electrochemical current amplification scheme is detailed that relies on a selective electrode to enable a reactivity pattern that results in regeneration of the analyte (redox recycling). This regenerating reaction can occur up to 250 times for each analyte molecule, leading to a notable enhancement in the observed current. The requirements of electrode selectivity and the resulting amplification and detection limit improvements are described with respect to the heterogeneous and homogeneous electron transfer rates that characterize the system. These studies revealed that the heterogeneous electrolysis of the analyte should ideally be electrochemically reversible, while that for the regenerating agent should be held to a low level. Moreover, the homogeneous reaction that recycles the analyte should occur at a rapid rate. The physical selectivity mechanism is also detailed with respect to the properties of the electrode and redox probes utilized. It is shown that partitioning of the analyte into/onto the adlayer leads to the extraordinary selectivity of the alkanethiolate monolayer modified electrode. Collectively, these studies enable a thorough understanding of the complex electrode mechanism required for successful redox recycling amplification systems, Finally, in a separate (but related) study, the effect of the akyl chain length on the heterogeneous electron transfer behavior of solution-based redox probes is reported, where an odd-even oscillation

  9. Eletrodos quimicamente modificados aplicados à eletroanálise: uma breve abordagem Chemically modified electrodes applyes to electroanalysis: a brief presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Brito Souza

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemically modified electrodes (CMEs have been subject of considerable attention since its inception about 23 years ago. CMEs result of a deliberate immobilization of a modifier agent onto the electrode surface obtained through chemical reactions, chemisorption, composite formation or polymer coating. This immobilization seeks transfer the physicochemical properties of the modifier to the electrode surface and thus to dictate and control the behavior of the electrode/solution interface. In recent years the interest in CMEs has increased particularly to enhance the sensitivity and/or the selectivity of electroanalytical techniques. In general higher sensitivity and/or selectivity may be achieved by exploiting one or more of the following phenomena: electrocatalysis, preconcentration and interferents exclusion. This paper deals with the application of CMEs in electroanalysis, including a brief presentation of the more general procedures that have been employed for the modification of electrode surfaces.

  10. Effect of chemically converted graphene as an electrode interfacial modifier on device-performances of inverted organic photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the effects of chemically converted graphene (CCG) materials as a metal electrode interfacial modifier on device-performances of inverted organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs). As CCG materials for interfacial layers, a conventional graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were prepared, and their functions on OPV-performances were compared. The inverted OPVs with CCG materials showed all improved cell-efficiencies compared with the OPVs with no metal/bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) interlayers. In particular, the inverted OPVs with reduction form of GO showed better device-performances than those with GO and better device-stability than poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)-based inverted solar cells, showing that the rGO can be more desirable as a metal/BHJ interfacial material for fabricating inverted-configuration OPVs. (paper)

  11. Glassy carbon electrode modified with a graphene oxide/poly(o-phenylenediamine) composite for the chemical detection of hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Van Hoa [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Nha Trang University, 2 Nguyen Dinh Chieu, Nha Trang (Viet Nam); Tran, Trung Hieu [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jae-Jin, E-mail: jjshim@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    Conducting poly(o-phenylenediamine) (POPD)/graphene oxide (GO) composites were prepared using a facile and efficient method involving the in-situ polymerization of OPD in the presence of GO in an aqueous medium. Copper sulfate was used as an oxidative initiator for the polymerization of OPD. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that POPD microfibrils were formed and distributed relatively uniformly with GO sheets in the obtained composites. X-ray diffraction results revealed the highly crystal structure of POPD. This composite exhibited good catalytic activity and stability. These results highlight the potential applications of POPD/GO composites as excellent electrochemical sensors. The composites were used to modify glass carbon electrodes for the chemical detection of hydrogen peroxide in aqueous media. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide/poly(o-phenylenediamine) composites were prepared efficiently. • POPD microfibrils were distributed relatively uniformly with GO sheets. • The composite exhibited good catalytic activity and stability for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensing.

  12. Modified nickel electrodes: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalysts in the form of electrode surfaces offer the added dimension of the electrode potential which can be used to manage the catalyst reactivity and in some cases selectivity. The catalytic effect of nickel oxyhydroxide for the electrochemical determination of organics in alkaline media is very common. This has also received substantial thought because of the application of Ni in rechargeable alkaline batteries. This subject matter has been reviewed from different views before. The present review depicts the role of additives and the modifiers towards the enhancement of electro catalytic properties of electrode surface. (author)

  13. Electrochemical behavior of folic acid at calixarene based chemically modified electrodes and its determination by adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaze, Vishwanath D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400098 (India); Srivastava, Ashwini K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400098 (India)], E-mail: aksrivastava@chem.mu.ac.in

    2007-12-31

    Voltammetric behavior of folic acid at plain carbon paste electrode and electrode modified with calixarenes has been studied. Two peaks for irreversible oxidation were observed. Out of the three calixarenes chosen for modification of the electrodes, p-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene modified electrode (CME-6) was found to have better sensitivity for folic acid. Chronocoulometric and differential pulse voltammetric studies reveal that folic acid can assemble at CME-6 to form a monolayer whose electron transfer rate is 0.00273 s{sup -1} with 2-electron/2-proton transfer for the peak at +0.71 V against SCE. An adsorption equilibrium constant of 5 x 10{sup 3} l/mol for maximum surface coverage of 2.89 x 10{sup -10} mol/cm{sup 2} was obtained. The current is found to be rectilinear with concentration by differential pulse voltammetry. However, linearity in the lower range of concentration 8.79 x 10{sup -12} M to 1.93 x 10{sup -9} M with correlation coefficient of 0.9920 was achieved by adsorptive stripping voltammetry. The limit of detection obtained was found to be 1.24 x 10{sup -12} M. This method was used for the determination of folic acid in a variety of samples, viz. serum, asparagus, spinach, oranges and multivitamin preparations.

  14. Application of Nation/Cobalt Hexacyanoferrate Chemically Modified Electrodes for the Determination of Electroinactive Cations by Ion Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU,Ji-Ming(徐继明); XIAN,Yue-Zhong(鲜跃仲); SHI,Guo-Yue(施国跃); LI,Jin-Hua(李金花); JIN Li-Tong(金利通)

    2002-01-01

    An amperometric detector based on the chemical modification of Nafion and cobalt(H) hexacyanoferrate(Ⅱ, Ⅲ) thin film (Nafion/Co-CN-Fe) onto a glassy carbon (GC) electrode was firslly developed for the determination of electroinactive cations (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+ and NH4+) in single column ion chromatography. A set of well-defined peaks of electroinactive cation was obtained. The relative standard deviations (RSDs)of - peak height (nA) for these cations were all below 3.8%. The cations were detected conveniently in the linear concentration range of 6.0× 10-6-5.0 × 10-3 mol/L and their correlation coefficients were all above 0.99. Tne detection limiits of the cations were 9.2 × 10- 6 mol/L for Li + , 3.4 ×10-6 mol/L for Na+ , 6.3 × 10-7 mol/L for K+ , 7.8 × 10-7 mol/L for Rb+ , 6.2 × 10-7 mol/L for Cs+ and 6.2 × 10-6 mol/L for NH4+ , at a signal-noise ratio of 3. The method was quick, sensitive, simple and was successfully applied to the analysis of rainwater samples. The electrode was stable for a 2 week period of operation with no evidence of chemical or mechanical deterioration.

  15. Application of Nafion/Cobalt Hexacyanoferrate Chemically Modified Electrodes for the Determination of Electroinactive Cations by Ion Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐继明; 鲜跃仲; 等

    2002-01-01

    An amperometric detector based on the chemical modification of Nafion and cobalt(Ⅱ) hexacyanoferrate(Ⅱ,Ⅲ)thin film (Nafion /Co-CN-Fe) onto a glassy carbon(GC) electrode was firstly developed for the determination of electroinactive cations (Li+,Na+,K+,Rb+,Cs+,and NH4+)in single column ion cgrinatography,A set of well-defined peaks of electroinactive cation was obtained ,The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of chromatographic peak height(nA) for these cations were all below 3.8% .The cations were detected convenivently in the linear concentration ragne of 6.0×10-6--5.0×10-3 mol/L and their correlation coefficients were all above 0.99 .The detection limits of the cations were 9.2×107 mol/L for K+,7.8×107mol/L for Rb+,6.2×107mol/L for Cs+ and 6.2×106mol/L for NH4+ ,at a signal-noise ratio of 3. The method was quick,sensitive,simple and was successfully applied to the analysis of rainwater samples,The electrode was stable for a 2 week period of operation with no evidence of chemical of mechanical deterioration.

  16. Determination of vanadium(V) by direct automatic potentiometric titration with EDTA using a chemically modified electrode as a potentiometric sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintar, S E; Santagata, J P; Cortinez, V A

    2005-10-15

    A chemically modified electrode (CME) was prepared and studied as a potentiometric sensor for the end-point detection in the automatic titration of vanadium(V) with EDTA. The CME was constructed with a paste prepared by mixing spectral-grade graphite powder, Nujol oil and N-2-naphthoyl-N-p-tolylhydroxamic acid (NTHA). Buffer systems, pH effects and the concentration range were studied. Interference ions were separated by applying a liquid-liquid extraction procedure. The CME did not require any special conditioning before using. The electrode was constructed with very inexpensive materials and was easily made. It could be continuously used, at least two months without removing the paste. Automatic potentiometric titration curves were obtained for V(V) within 5 x 10(-5) to 2 x 10(-3)M with acceptable accuracy and precision. The developed method was applied to V(V) determination in alloys for hip prosthesis. PMID:18970248

  17. Encyclopedia of electrochemistry. Vol. 10. Modified electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, A.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Stratmann, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Rubinstein, I. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Materials and Interfaces; Fujihira, Masamichi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan). Dept. of Biomolecular Engineering; Rusling, J.F. (eds.) [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemistry, U-60]|[Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Pharmacology

    2007-07-01

    This volume contains the following topics: 1. Preparation of monolayer modified electrodes; 2. Layer-by-layer assemblies of thin films on electrodes; 3. Epitaxial electrochemical growth; 5. Other films; 6. Ex-situ methods; 7. In-situ methods; 8. Electron transfer; 9. Charge transport in polymer-modified electrodes; 10. Electrochemical reactions on modified electrodes; 11. Redox-active dendrimers in solution and as films on surfaces; 12. Electrochemical formation of organic thin films; 13. Electron transfer and transport in ordered enzyme layers.

  18. Cupric Hexacyanoferrate Nanoparticle Modified Carbon Ceramic Composite Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Peng(王鹏); ZHU,Guo-Yi(朱果逸)

    2002-01-01

    Graphite powder-supported cupric hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF)nanoparticles were dispersed into methyltrimethoxysilane-based gels to produce a conducting carbon ceramic composite, which was used as electrode material to fabricate surface-renewable CuHCF-modified electrodes. Electrochemical behavior of the CuHCF-modified carbon ceramic composite electrodes was characterized using cyclic and square-wave voitammetry.Cyclic voltammograms at various scan rates indicated that peak currents were surface-confined at low scan rates. In the presence of glutathione, a clear electrocatalytic response was observed at the CuHCF-modified composite electrodes. In addition, the electrodes exhibited a distinct advantage of reproducible surface-renewal by simple mechanical polishing on emery paper, as well as ease of preparation, and good chemical and mechanical stability in a flowing stream.

  19. Cupric Hexacyanoferrate Nanoparticle Modified Carbon Ceramic Composite Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Peng; ZHU,Guo-Yi

    2002-01-01

    Graphite powder-supported cupric hexacyanoferrate(CuHCF) nanoparticles were dispersed into methyltrimethoxysilane-based gels to produce a conducting carbon ceramic composite,which was used as electrode materials to fabricate surface-renewable CuHCF-modified electrodes.Electrochemical behavior of the CuHCF-modified carbon ceramic composite electrodes was characterized using cyclic and square-wave voltammetry. Cyclinc voltammograms at various scan rates indicated that peak currents were suface-confined at low scan rates.In the presence of glutathione,a clear electrocatalytic response was observed at the CuHCF-modified composite electrodes.In addition,the electrodes exhibited a distinct advantage of reproducible surface-renewal by simple mechanical polishing on emery paper,as well as ease of preparation,and good chemical and mechanical stability in a flowing stream.

  20. Cobalt Phthalocyanine Modified Electrodes Utilised in Electroanalysis: Nano-Structured Modified Electrodes vs. Bulk Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Foster

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC compounds have been reported to provide electrocatalytic performances towards a substantial number of analytes. In these configurations, electrodes are typically constructed via drop casting the CoPC onto a supporting electrode substrate, while in other cases the CoPC complex is incorporated within the ink of a screen-printed sensor, providing a one-shot economical and disposable electrode configuration. In this paper we critically compare CoPC modified electrodes prepared by drop casting CoPC nanoparticles (nano-CoPC onto a range of carbon based electrode substrates with that of CoPC bulk modified screen-printed electrodes in the sensing of the model analytes L-ascorbic acid, oxygen and hydrazine. It is found that no “electrocatalysis” is observed towards L-ascorbic acid using either of these CoPC modified electrode configurations and that the bare underlying carbon electrode is the origin of the obtained voltammetric signal, which gives rise to useful electroanalytical signatures, providing new insights into literature reports where “electrocatalysis” has been reported with no clear control experiments undertaken. On the other hand true electrocatalysis is observed towards hydrazine, where no such voltammetric features are witnessed on the bare underlying electrode substrate.

  1. Cobalt phthalocyanine modified electrodes utilised in electroanalysis: nano-structured modified electrodes vs. bulk modified screen-printed electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Christopher W; Pillay, Jeseelan; Metters, Jonathan P; Banks, Craig E

    2014-11-19

    Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) compounds have been reported to provide electrocatalytic performances towards a substantial number of analytes. In these configurations, electrodes are typically constructed via drop casting the CoPC onto a supporting electrode substrate, while in other cases the CoPC complex is incorporated within the ink of a screen-printed sensor, providing a one-shot economical and disposable electrode configuration. In this paper we critically compare CoPC modified electrodes prepared by drop casting CoPC nanoparticles (nano-CoPC) onto a range of carbon based electrode substrates with that of CoPC bulk modified screen-printed electrodes in the sensing of the model analytes L-ascorbic acid, oxygen and hydrazine. It is found that no "electrocatalysis" is observed towards L-ascorbic acid using either of these CoPC modified electrode configurations and that the bare underlying carbon electrode is the origin of the obtained voltammetric signal, which gives rise to useful electroanalytical signatures, providing new insights into literature reports where "electrocatalysis" has been reported with no clear control experiments undertaken. On the other hand true electrocatalysis is observed towards hydrazine, where no such voltammetric features are witnessed on the bare underlying electrode substrate.

  2. Mixed ion-exchanger chemically modified carbon paste ion-selective electrodes for determination of triprolidine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry M. Issa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Triprolidine hydrochloride (TpCl ion-selective carbon paste electrodes were constructed using Tp-TPB/Tp-CoN and Tp-TPB/Tp-PTA as ion-exchangers. The two electrodes revealed Nernstian responses with slopes of 58.4 and 58.1 mV decade−1 at 25 °C in the ranges 6 × 10−6–1 × 10−2 and 2 × 10−5–1 × 10−2 M for Tp-TPB/Tp-CoN and Tp-TPB/Tp-PTA, respectively. The potentials of these electrodes were independent of pH in the ranges of 2.5–7.0 and 4.5–7.0, and detection limits were 6 × 10−6 and 1 × 10−5 M for Tp-TPB/Tp-CoN and Tp-TPB/Tp-PTA, respectively. The electrodes showed a very good selectivity for TpCl with respect to a large number of inorganic cations and compounds. The standard addition, potentiometric titration methods and FIA were applied to the determination of TpCl in pure solutions and pharmaceutical preparations. The results obtained were in close agreement with those found by the official method. The mean recovery values were 100.91% and 97.92% with low coefficient of variation values of 0.94%, and 0.56% in pure solutions, 99.82% and 98.53% with coefficient of variation values of 2.20%, and 0.73% for Actifed tablet and Actifed syrup, respectively, using the Tp-TPB/Tp-CoN electrode, and 98.85%, and 99.18% with coefficient of variation values of 0.48% and 0.85% for Actifed tablet and Actifed syrup, respectively, using the Tp-TPB/Tp-PTA electrode.

  3. Mixed ion-exchanger chemically modified carbon paste ion-selective electrodes for determination of triprolidine hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Yousry M. Issa; Fekria M. Abu Attia; Nahla S. Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Triprolidine hydrochloride (TpCl) ion-selective carbon paste electrodes were constructed using Tp-TPB/Tp-CoN and Tp-TPB/Tp-PTA as ion-exchangers. The two electrodes revealed Nernstian responses with slopes of 58.4 and 58.1 mV decade−1 at 25 °C in the ranges 6 × 10−6–1 × 10−2 and 2 × 10−5–1 × 10−2 M for Tp-TPB/Tp-CoN and Tp-TPB/Tp-PTA, respectively. The potentials of these electrodes were independent of pH in the ranges of 2.5–7.0 and 4.5–7.0, and detection limits were 6 × 10−6 and 1 × 10−5 M ...

  4. Photo- and electro-chromism of diarylethene modified ITO electrodes - towards molecular based read-write-erase information storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Areephong, J.; Browne, W.R.; Katsonis, N.; Feringa, B.L.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular memory devices based on dithienylethene switch modified ITO electrodes undergo reversible ring opening/closing both photo- and electro-chemically with non-destructive electrochemical readout.

  5. Ammonium ions determination with polypyrrole modified electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work relates the preparation of polypyrrole films (PPy deposited on surfaces of glass carbon, nickel and ITO (tin oxide doped with indium on PET plastic, in order to study the ammonium detection. The popypyrrole films were polymerized with dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBSA on the electrodes, at + 0,70 V vs. Ag/AgCl, based on a solution containing the pyrrole monomer and the amphiphilic salt. Films deposited on glass carbon presented better performance. Cyclic voltammetries, between – 1,50 to + 0,5 V vs. Ag/AgCl, were repeated adding different concentrations of NH4Cl, in order to observe the behavior of the film as a possible detector of ions NH4+. The peak current for oxidation varies with the concentration of ammonium. A linear region can be observed in the band of 0 to 80 mM, with a sensibility (Sppy approximately similar to 4,2 mA mM-1 cm-2, showing the efficacy of the electrodes as sensors of ammonium ions. The amount of deposited polymer, controlled by the time of growth, does not influence on the sensor sensibility. The modified electrode was used to determine ammonium in grounded waters.

  6. A novel thin-layer amperometric detector based on chemically modified ring-disc electrode and its application for simultaneous measurements of nitric oxide and nitrite in rat brain combined with in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, L; Shi, G; Tian, Y; Liu, H; Jin, L; Yamamoto, K; Tao, S; Jin, J

    1998-08-01

    A novel thin-layer amperometric detector (TLAD) based on chemically modified ring-disc electrode and its application for simultaneous measurements of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrite (NO(2)(-)) in rat brain were demonstrated in this work. The ring-disc electrode was simultaneously sensitive to nitric oxide (NO) and nitrite (NO(2)(-)) by modifying its inner disc with electropolymerized film of cobalt(II) tetraaminophthalocyanine (polyCoTAPc)/Nafion and its outer ring with poly(vinylpyridine) (PVP), respectively. The ring-disc electrode was used to constitute a novel TLAD in radial flow cell for simultaneous measurements of NO and NO(2)(-) in rat brain combined with techniques of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and in vivo microdialysis. It was found that the basal concentration of NO in the caudate nucleus of rat brain is lower than 1.0x10(-7) mol l(-1), NO(2)(-) concentration is 5.0x10(-7) mol l(-1) and NO exists in brain maybe mainly in the form of its decomposed product. PMID:18967286

  7. Determination of Thallium(I by Hybrid Mesoporous Silica (SBA-15 Modified Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Rani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemically modified mesoporous silica material (SBA-15 was used for the construction of Tl(I selective carbon paste electrode. The best response was found with the electrode containing 10% modifier as electrode material. The electrode has a lower detection limit of 6.0 × 10−9 M in a working concentration range of 1.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−1 M. The selectivity coefficient calculated by match potential method (MPM shows the high selectivity of electrode towards Tl(I over other tested ions. The electrode was successfully applied as an indicator electrode for the titration of 0.01 M TlNO3 solution with standards EDTA solution and for sequential titration of mixture of different anions.

  8. Electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol using zeolite modified carbon paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abrishamkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research application of synthesized ZSM-5 zeolite to prepare the modified carbon paste electrodes was studied. To prepare of modified electrode, the nickel ions as mediator for electrochemical oxidation of ethanol were doped to ZSM-5 zeolite framework through ion exchange mechanism and oxidation of ethanol on the surface of proposed electrode in the alkaline solution was investigated using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry methods. Also, the catalytic rate constant for oxidation of ethanol (k was reported.

  9. Layered-double-hydroxide-modified electrodes: electroanalytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Domenica; Scavetta, Erika; Giorgetti, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional inorganic solids, such as layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also defined as anionic clays, have open structures and unique anion-exchange properties which make them very appropriate materials for the immobilization of anions and biomolecules that often bear an overall negative charge. This review aims to describe the important aspects and new developments of electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on LDHs, evidencing the research from our own laboratory and other groups. It is intended to provide an overview of the various types of chemically modified electrodes that have been developed with these 2D layered materials, along with the significant advances made over the last several years. In particular, we report the main methods used for the deposition of LDH films on different substrates, the conductive properties of these materials, the possibility to use them in the development of membranes for potentiometric anion analysis, the early analytical applications of chemically modified electrodes based on the ability of LDHs to preconcentrate redox-active anions and finally the most recent applications exploiting their electrocatalytic properties. Another promising application field of LDHs, when they are employed as host structures for enzymes, is biosensing, which is described considering glucose as an example.

  10. New Inorganic-organic Hybrid Compound Containing One Dimensional Keggin Polyoxometalate[SiW11O39Co]6- Chains:Preparation,Characterization and Application in Chemically Bulk-modified Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiu-li; LIN Hong-yan; LIU Guo-cheng; CHEN Bao-kuan; BI Yan-feng

    2008-01-01

    A new inorganic-organic hybrid compound based on polyoxometalate and organic ligand formulated as (H2bpp)3[SiW11O39Co]~2H2O(1)[bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane]was hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analysis,single-crystal X-ray diffraction,IR,TG,and cyclic voltammetry.Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compound 1 consists of interesting cobalt-monosubstituted POMs one dimensional chain together with protonated bpp ligands.Additionally,the polyoxoanions combined with the discrete organic substrates by hydrogen bond interactions to afford a supramolecular 3D network structure.The hybrid compound 1 was used as a bulk modifier to fabricate a three-dimensional chemically modified carbon paste electrode(1-CPE)by direct mixing.The electrochemical behavior and electrocatalysis of 1-CPE were studied in detail.The results indicate that 1-CPE has good electrocatalytic activities toward the reduction of nitrite or bromate in 1mol/L H2SO4 aqueous solution.1-CPE shows remarkable stability that can be ascribed to the insolubility of compound 1 and the supramolecular interactions existed between 1D POM anion chains and organic ligand bpp,which is very important for practical applications in electrode modification.

  11. Synthesis of chemically modified DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivalingam, Arun; Brown, Tom

    2016-06-15

    Naturally occurring DNA is encoded by the four nucleobases adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine. Yet minor chemical modifications to these bases, such as methylation, can significantly alter DNA function, and more drastic changes, such as replacement with unnatural base pairs, could expand its function. In order to realize the full potential of DNA in therapeutic and synthetic biology applications, our ability to 'write' long modified DNA in a controlled manner must be improved. This review highlights methods currently used for the synthesis of moderately long chemically modified nucleic acids (up to 1000 bp), their limitations and areas for future expansion. PMID:27284032

  12. An electrode for a chemical power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, I.; Ivaki, T.; Yanashkara, N.

    1983-07-29

    A metal which has a spongy structure is used as the electrode base for the chemical current source (KhIT). The majority of pores has a spindle shaped form and is identically oriented along the direction of the long axis. The size of the pores along the short diameter is 5 to 30 percent of the pore size along the long diameter. The length of a pore along the long axis is 100 to 500 micrometers. In making the electrode the pores are filled with an active mass. The electrode is manufactured in the form of a strip which is turned in a direction perpendicular to the long axis of the pores. The electrodes have excellent characteristics.

  13. Colloidal silver nanoparticles modified electrode and its application to the electroanalysis of Cytochrome c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Li [Department of Chemistry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)], E-mail: linliwz@21cn.com; Qiu Peihong [Department of Chemistry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Cao Xuni; Jin Litong [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2008-06-30

    A colloidal silver nanoparticles (CSNs) chemically modified electrode was prepared and its application to the electroanalysis of Cytochrome c (Cyt. c) was studied. The CSNs were prepared by reduction of AgNO{sub 3} with NaBH{sub 4}, and were stabilized by oleate. They could be efficiently immobilized on the surface of a silver electrode. The result showed that the CSNs could clearly enhance the electron transfer process between Cyt. c and the electrode compared with bulk silver electrode. Linear sweep voltammetric measurement of Cyt. c at the chemical modified electrode indicated that the oxidative peak current of Cyt. c was linear to its concentration ranging from 8.0 nmol L{sup -1} to 3.0 {mu}mol L{sup -1} with the calculated detection limit was about 2.6 nmol L{sup -1}. The direct electrochemistry of Cyt. c was also studied by cyclic voltammetry.

  14. Selective Voltammetric Determination of Uric Acid in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid at Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Modified Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN,Yan-Li; JIA,Neng-Qin; WANG,Zhi-Yong; SHEN,He-Bai

    2008-01-01

    A novel chemically modified electrode was fabricated by immobilizing ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC)onto a glassy carbon (GC) electrode.The electrocatalytic behavior of the OMC modified electrode towards the oxidation of uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) was studied.Compared to a glassy carbon electrode,the OMC modified electrode showed a faster electron transfer rate and reduced the overpotentials greatly.Furthermore,the OMC modified electrode resolved the overlapping voltammetric responses of UA and AA into two well-defined voltammetric peaks with peak separation of ca.0.38 V.All results show that the OMC modified electrode has a good electrocatalytic ability to UA and AA,and has an excellent response towards UA even in the presence of high concentration AA.

  15. Recent nanoarchitectures in metal nanoparticle-graphene nanocomposite modified electrodes for electroanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Munetaka; Chen, Xiaomei; Chen, Xi

    2014-01-01

    While increasing attention has been devoted to the use of carbon-based nanomaterials or metal nanoparticles (MNPs) as electrode modifiers for electroanalysis, there is a noticeable development in studies using MNP-graphene nanocomposites or nanohybrids in very recent years. In this review, first, very recent nanoarchitectures in MNP-graphene nanocomposites for modifying electrodes (mainly in 2013) are summarized together with the targets and achievements of electroanalysis. The variety of nanoarchitectures comes from the fact that graphene oxide and metal precursor ions can be reduced chemically or electrochemically, and concurrently or stepwisely. By browsing various preparation methods of the modified electrodes, some characteristic and interesting features of the preparations of MNP-graphene nanocomposites are described together with the possibilities and prospects as electrode modifiers for electroanalysis.

  16. Signal amplification of dopamine using lanthanum hexacyanoferrate-modified electrode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Selvaraju; R Ramaraj

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor has been developed using an electroactive polynuclear lanthanum hexacyanoferrate (LaHCF) complex with counter alkali cation (Na+) deposited on the glassy carbon (GC) electrode (GC/LaHCF). The GC/LaHCF-modified electrode is found to be an excellent transducer in mediating the oxidation of neurotransmitter molecule such as dopamine (DA) at physiological pH 7.2. Interestingly, the GC/LaHCF-modified electrode amplifies a 50-fold enhancement in the oxidation of DA signal compared to the bare GC electrode. Besides, the GC/LaHCF-modified electrode shows excellent selectivity in the voltammetric oxidation of DA in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA). Under optimal conditions, the GC/LaHCF modified electrode shows a linear relationship in DA oxidation between 0.1 × 10−6 and 1.0 × 10−6M with the detection limit of 1 × 10−8M (10 nM). Importantly, practical utility of the modified electrode is good in studying the real sample analysis such as dopamine hydrochloride injection assay.

  17. Modified Electrodes Used for Electrochemical Detection of Metal Ions in Environmental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory March

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form, or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins, enzymes or whole cells.

  18. Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes with Modified Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron-doped diamond (BDD thin films, as one kind of electrode materials, are superior to conventional carbon-based materials including carbon paste, porous carbon, glassy carbon (GC, carbon nanotubes in terms of high stability, wide potential window, low background current, and good biocompatibility. Electrochemical biosensor based on BDD electrodes have attracted extensive interests due to the superior properties of BDD electrodes and the merits of biosensors, such as specificity, sensitivity, and fast response. Electrochemical reactions perform at the interface between electrolyte solutions and the electrodes surfaces, so the surface structures and properties of the BDD electrodes are important for electrochemical detection. In this paper, the recent advances of BDD electrodes with different surfaces including nanostructured surface and chemically modified surface, for the construction of various electrochemical biosensors, were described.

  19. Nickel hydroxide modified electrodes for urea determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nickel hydroxide films were prepared by electrodeposition from a solution Ni(NO32 0,05 mol L ?¹ on ITO electrodes (Tin oxide doped with Indium on PET-like plastic film, applying a current of - 0,1 A cm ?² during different time intervals between 1800 and 7200 s. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode was investigated through a cyclic voltammogram, in NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹, where it was observed two peaks in the profile in 0,410 and 0,280 V, corresponding to redox couple Ni(II/Ni(III. A sensor for urea presenting a satisfactory answer can be obtained when, after the deposit of the film of Ni(OH2 on the electrode of nickel, it is immersed in a solution of NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹ and applying a potential of + 0,435 V, where the maximum of the anodic current occurs in the cyclic voltammogram. Analyzing the results it can be observed that, for a range of analite concentration between 5 to 50 m mol L ?¹, the behavior is linear and the sensibility found was of 20,3 mA cm?² (mol L?¹?¹, presenting reproducibility confirming the nickel hydroxide electrodes utilization for the determination of urea.

  20. Application of N-doped graphene modified carbon ionic liquid electrode for direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei, E-mail: swyy26@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China); Dong, Lifeng, E-mail: donglifeng@qust.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Materials Science, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897 (United States); Deng, Ying; Yu, Jianhua [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Wang, Wencheng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China); Zhu, Qianqian [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) was synthesized and used for the investigation on direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin (Hb) with a carbon ionic liquid electrode as the substrate electrode. Due to specific characteristics of NG such as excellent electrocatalytic property and large surface area, direct electron transfer of Hb was realized with enhanced electrochemical responses appearing. Electrochemical behaviors of Hb on the NG modified electrode were carefully investigated with the electrochemical parameters calculated. The Hb modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic reduction activity toward different substrates, such as trichloroacetic acid and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, with wider dynamic range and lower detection limit. These findings show that NG can be used for the preparation of chemically modified electrodes with improved performance and has potential applications in electrochemical sensing. - Graphical abstract: The utilization of N-doped graphene enables direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin with a pair of well-defined redox peaks appearing. - Highlights: • Nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) was synthesized by a solvothermal method. • NG was used for the investigation on direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin with carbon ionic liquid electrode. • The Hb modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward different substrates.

  1. Application of N-doped graphene modified carbon ionic liquid electrode for direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) was synthesized and used for the investigation on direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin (Hb) with a carbon ionic liquid electrode as the substrate electrode. Due to specific characteristics of NG such as excellent electrocatalytic property and large surface area, direct electron transfer of Hb was realized with enhanced electrochemical responses appearing. Electrochemical behaviors of Hb on the NG modified electrode were carefully investigated with the electrochemical parameters calculated. The Hb modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic reduction activity toward different substrates, such as trichloroacetic acid and H2O2, with wider dynamic range and lower detection limit. These findings show that NG can be used for the preparation of chemically modified electrodes with improved performance and has potential applications in electrochemical sensing. - Graphical abstract: The utilization of N-doped graphene enables direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin with a pair of well-defined redox peaks appearing. - Highlights: • Nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) was synthesized by a solvothermal method. • NG was used for the investigation on direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin with carbon ionic liquid electrode. • The Hb modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward different substrates

  2. Theory of Water Desalination by Porous Electrodes with Immobile Chemical Charge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Suss, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    In capacitive deionization (CDI), water is desalinated by storing ions in electrical double layers (EDLs) within the micropores of charged porous carbon electrodes. Recent experiments using chemically modified electrodes have shown differing, novel phenomena such as "inverted CDI," "enhanced CDI,

  3. Ammonia gas sensors based on chemically reduced graphene oxide sheets self-assembled on Au electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yafei; Zhou, Zhihua; Liu, Yanhua; Shen, Su; Peng, Changsi

    2014-01-01

    We present a useful ammonia gas sensor based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets by self-assembly technique to create conductive networks between parallel Au electrodes. Negative graphene oxide (GO) sheets with large sizes (>10 μm) can be easily electrostatically attracted onto positive Au electrodes modified with cysteamine hydrochloride in aqueous solution. The assembled GO sheets on Au electrodes can be directly reduced into rGO sheets by hydrazine or pyrrole vapor and conseq...

  4. Recent nanoarchitectures in metal nanoparticle-modified electrodes for electroanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Munetaka

    2010-01-01

    Increasing attention has been devoted to the use of metal nanoparticles (NPs) for electroanalysis. To make the best use of the electrocatalytic and electron-conducting characteristics of metal NPs, various nanoarchitectures have been developed for modifying metal NPs on electrode surfaces. In this review, at first recent nanoarchitectures with metal NPs for modifying electrodes are summarized together with the results of electrochemical analysis. Then, the progress of a seed-mediated growth method that we developed for modifying electrode surfaces is shown as an example that the nanoarchitectures of metal NPs are possible without using organic linker molecules. This approach should be effective for further functional modifications of the surfaces of metal NPs as well as the electrochemical analysis with lower charge-transfer resistance.

  5. Nanostructured metal particle-modified electrodes for electrocatalytic and sensor applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramasamy Ramaraj

    2006-11-01

    Nanotechnology has become one of the most exciting frontier fields in analytical chemistry. The huge interest in nanomaterials, for example in chemical sensors and catalysis, is driven by their many desirable properties. Although metal is a poor catalyst in bulk form, nanometre-sized particles can exhibit excellent catalytic activity due to their relative high surface area-to-volume ratio and their interface-dominated properties, which significantly differ from those of the bulk material. The integration of metal nanoparticles into thin film of permselective membrane is particularly important for various applications, for example in biological sensing and in electrocatalysis. We have already established different techniques to design permselective membrane-coated chemically modified electrodes with incorporated redox molecules for electrocatalytic, electrochromic and sensor applications. Recently, we have prepared nanostructured platinum and copper (represented Mnano, M = Pt and Cu) modified GC/Nafion electrodes (GC/Nf/Mnano) and characterized by using AFM, XPS, XRD and electrochemical techniques. The nanostructured Mnano modified electrodes were utilized for efficient electrocatalytic selective oxidation of neurotransmitter molecules in the presence of interfering species such as ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). It has been also shown that the modified electrodes could be used as sensors for the detection of submicromolar concentrations of biomolecules with practical applications to real samples such as blood plasma and dopamine hydrochloride injection solution. The GC/Cunano electrode has been used for catalytic reduction of oxygen.

  6. Single-wall carbon nanotube chemical attachment at platinum electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario-Castro, Belinda I.; Contés-de-Jesús, Enid J.; Lebrón-Colón, Marisabel; Meador, Michael A.; Scibioh, M. Aulice; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2010-11-01

    Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) techniques were used to adsorb 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) on platinum electrodes in order to obtain an amino-terminated SAM as the base for the chemical attachment of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). A physico-chemical, morphological and electrochemical characterizations of SWCNTs attached onto the modified Pt electrodes was done by using reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The SWNTs/4-ATP/Pt surface had regions of small, medium, and large thickness of carbon nanotubes with heights of 100-200 nm, 700 nm to 1.5 μm, and 1.0-3.0 μm, respectively. Cyclic voltammetries (CVs) in sulfuric acid demonstrated that attachment of SWNTs on 4-ATP/Pt is markedly stable, even after 30 potential cycles. CV in ruthenium hexamine was similar to bare Pt electrodes, suggesting that SWNTs assembly is similar to a closely packed microelectrode array.

  7. Single-wall carbon nanotube chemical attachment at platinum electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario-Castro, Belinda I.; Contes-de-Jesus, Enid J. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Advanced Nanoscale Materials, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, PO Box 23346, San Juan 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico); Lebron-Colon, Marisabel; Meador, Michael A. [NASA John H. Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Road, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Scibioh, M. Aulice [Department of Chemistry and Center for Advanced Nanoscale Materials, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, PO Box 23346, San Juan 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico); Cabrera, Carlos R., E-mail: carlos.cabrera2@uprrp.edu [Department of Chemistry and Center for Advanced Nanoscale Materials, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, PO Box 23346, San Juan 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico)

    2010-11-01

    Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) techniques were used to adsorb 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) on platinum electrodes in order to obtain an amino-terminated SAM as the base for the chemical attachment of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). A physico-chemical, morphological and electrochemical characterizations of SWCNTs attached onto the modified Pt electrodes was done by using reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The SWNTs/4-ATP/Pt surface had regions of small, medium, and large thickness of carbon nanotubes with heights of 100-200 nm, 700 nm to 1.5 {mu}m, and 1.0-3.0 {mu}m, respectively. Cyclic voltammetries (CVs) in sulfuric acid demonstrated that attachment of SWNTs on 4-ATP/Pt is markedly stable, even after 30 potential cycles. CV in ruthenium hexamine was similar to bare Pt electrodes, suggesting that SWNTs assembly is similar to a closely packed microelectrode array.

  8. Facile direct electron transfer in glucose oxidase modified electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dan [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Chen Liwei [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Suzhou Institute of Nano Tech and Nano Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 398 Ruoshui Road, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215125 (China)], E-mail: lwchen2008@sinano.ac.cn

    2009-07-15

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) is widely used in the glucose biosensor industry. However, mediatorless direct electron transfer (DET) from GOx to electrode surfaces is very slow. Recently, mediatorless DET has been reported via the incorporation of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles in the modification of electrodes. Here we report GOx electrodes showing DET without the need for any nanomaterials. The enzyme after immobilization with poly-L-lysine (PLL) and Nafion retains the biocatalytic activities and oxidizes glucose efficiently. The amperometric response of Nafion-PLL-GOx modified electrode is linearly proportional to the concentration of glucose up to 10 mM with a sensitivity of 0.75 {mu}A/mM at a low detection potential (-0.460 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The methodology developed in this study will have impact on glucose biosensors and biofuel cells and may potentially simplify enzyme immobilization in other biosensing systems.

  9. Improved Electrochemical Performance of Surface-Modified Metal Hydride Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kai; WU Feng; CHEN Shi; ZHANG Cun-zhong

    2005-01-01

    A novel plating process was applied to the surface modification of the metal hydride (MH) electrode of the MH/Ni batteries. The electrode was plated with a thin nickel film about 0.1 μm thick by using multi-arc ion plating technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to analyze the electrodes. Influence of the surface modification on the performance of the MH/Ni batteries was studied. It is shown that the surface modification could enhance the electrode conductivity and decrease the batteries ohimic resistance by 28.2 %. After surface modification, the discharge capacity of modification also improves the cyclic durability of the batteries. The inner pressure of the batteries with modified electrode during overcharging is much lower than that with unmodified electrode. The experimental results demonstrate that this process is an effective way for the surface modification of the electrode of MH/Ni batteries.

  10. Voltammetric Response of Epinephrine at Carbon Nanotube Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode and Activated Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; TANG Ping; ZHAO Fa-qiong; ZENG Bai-zhao

    2005-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of epinephrine at activated glassy carbon electrode and carbon nanotube-coated glassy carbon electrode was studied. Epinephrine could exhibit an anodic peak at about 0.2 V (vs. SCE) at bare glassy carbon electrode, but it was very small.However, when the electrode was activated at certain potential (i. e. 1.9V) or modified with carbon nanotube, the peak became more sensitive,resulting from the increase in electrode area in addition to the electrostatic attraction. Under the selected conditions, the anodic peak current was linear to epinephrine concentration in the range of 3.3 × 10-7-1.1 × 10-5mol/L at activated glassy carbon electrode and in the range of 1.0 × 10-6-5.0 × 10-5 mol/L at carbon nanotube-coated electrode. The correlation coefficients were 0. 998 and 0. 997, respectively. The determination limit was 1.0 × 10-7 mol/L. The two electrodes have been successfully applied for the determination of epinephrine in adrenaline hydrochloride injection with recovery of 95%-104%.

  11. Inorganic-Organic Hybrid 18-Molybdodiphosphate Nanoparticles Bulk-modified Carbon Paste Electrode and Its Electrocatalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Xiu-Li(王秀丽); KANG,Zhen-Hui(康振辉); WANG,En-Bo(王恩波); HU,Chang-Wen(胡长文)

    2002-01-01

    A kind of inorganic- organic hybrid 18-molybdodiphosphate nanoparticles ([(C4H9)4N]6P2Mo18O62 @4H2O) was firstly used as a bulk-modifier to fabricate a three-dimensional chemically modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) by direct mixing. The electrochemical behavior of the solid nanoparticles dispersed in the CPE in acidic aqueous solution was characterized by cyclic and square-wave voltammetry. The hybrid 18-molybdodiphosphate nanoparticles bulk-modified CPE (MNP-CPE) displayed a high electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of nitrite,bromate and hydrogen peroxide. The remarkable advantages of the MNP-CPE over the traditional polyoxometalates-modified electrodes are their excellent reproducibility of surface-renewal and high stability owing to the insolubility of the hybrid 18-molybdodiphosphate nanoparticles.

  12. Enzyme monolayer- and bilayer-modified tin oxide electrodes for the determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuma, Tetsu; Okawa, Yusuke; Watanabe, Tadashi (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    An enzyme-based amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide was developed, employing a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) monolayer covalently attached to a tin oxide electrode and a dissolved electron mediator. The sensor can determine hydrogen peroxide at levels down to 10{sup {minus}8} M and can be applied to a flow system. Stability of the electrode, kinetics of the surface process, and the efficiencies of different mediators were studied. As an extension, glucose oxidase (GOx) was chemically bound to the HRP-modified electrode. A GOx/HRP bilayer-modified electrode thus obtained exhibits much better performance in glucose detection limit, sensitivity, and response speed than previously reported GOx monolayer-modified electrodes.

  13. CHROMIUM ELECTROANALYSIS AT SCREEN PRINTED ELECTRODE MODIFIED BY THIN FILMS OF NICKEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid and potentially cost-effective electrochemical method is reported for analysis of chromium (VI) and Chromium(III) using a nickel modified screen printed carbon ink electrode. Electrochemical characteristics of nickel modified electrode as well voltammetric behavior f...

  14. Diffusional transport to and through thin-layer nanoparticle film modified electrodes: capped CdSe nanoparticle modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, William G; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Tschulik, Kristina; Barnes, Edward O; Kachoosangi, Roohollah Torabi; Compton, Richard G

    2014-09-01

    We present a simple and general theoretical model which accounts fully for the influence of an electrode modifying non-electroactive layer on the voltammetric response of a diffusional redox probe. The layer is solely considered to alter the solubilities and diffusion coefficients of the electroactive species within the thin layer on the electrode surface. On this basis it is demonstrated how, first, the apparent electrochemical rate constant can deviate significantly from that measured at an unmodified electrode. Second, depending on the conditions within the layer the modification of the electrode may lead to either apparent 'negative' or 'positive' electrocatalytic effects without the true standard electrochemical rate constant for the electron transfer at the electrode surface being altered. Having presented the theoretical model three experimental cases are investigated, specifically, the reductions of ruthenium(III) hexaamine, oxygen and boric acid on a gold macro electrode with and without a multi-layer organic capped nanoparticle film. In the latter case of the reduction of boric acid the voltammetric reduction is found to be enhanced by the presence of the organic layer. This result is interpreted as being due to an increase in the solubility of the analyte within the non-electroactive layer and not due to an alteration of the standard electrochemical rate constant. PMID:25050481

  15. ELECTROANALYTICAL APPLICATIONS OF CARBOXYL-MODIFIED CARBON NANOTUBE FILM ELECTRODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.G. Hu; W.L. Wang; K.J. Liao; W. Zhu

    2003-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of a carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube films was investigated to explore its possibility in electroanalytical applicaton. Cyclic voltammetry of quinone was conducted in 1mol/L Na2SO4, which showed a stable, quasi-reversible voltammetric response for quinone / hydroquinone, and the anodic and the cathodic peak potentials were 0.657V and -0.029V (vs. SCE) at a scan rate of 0.1V.s-1, respectively. Both anodic and cathodic peak currents depended linearly on the square root of the scan rate over the range of 0.01-0. 5 V.s-1, which suggested that the process of the electrode reactions was diffusion-controlled. Carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube electrodes made it possible to determine low level of dopamine selectively in the presence of a large excess of ascorbic acid in acidic media using derivative voltammetry.The results obtained were discussed in details. This work demonstrates the potential of carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube electrodes for electroanalytical applications.

  16. Microtitrimetry by differential electrolytic potentiometry using metallic electrodes and nanomaterials modified metallic electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amro, Abdulaziz Nabil

    For the first time silver wire electrodes have been coated with carbon nanotubes using floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The production of CNTs has been conducted in a horizontal tubular reactor. Acetylene gas was used as a carbon source. Ferrocene has been used as a catalyst precursor for the growth of CNT. Different parameters have been optimized to get a high yield of CNTs and ensure their growth on the silver electrodes using univariate method. The parameters studied include the hydrogen flow rate, acetylene flow rate, temperature of the furnace, time of the reaction and the location of the electrodes in the reactor tube. The optimum conditions for those parameters were: for hydrogen and acetylene, the flow rates were 25 mL /min and 75 mL / min respectively. The furnace temperature was found to be 700 °C and the reaction time was 15 minutes. Regarding the location of the silver wires it should be located in the first 10 cm of the front side of the tube. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transition electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to characterize carbon on silver electrodes. According to the experimental results, TEM figures show that CNT produced on Silver wire is multiwall carbon nanotubes MWCNT. Silver electrodes either pure or coated with CNT were used as indicating systems in micro titration using both dc differential electrolytic potentiometry (DEP) and mark-space bias DEP techniques. All types of titrimetric reactions were investigated using different types of electrodes like Pt and gold for oxidation reduction titrations, antimony electrodes for acid base titrations, silver electrodes for precipitation titrations in addition to Ag-CNT electrodes. End points at volumes of 1 microL were determined. Different parameters were optimized like the current density, the percentage bias, the volume of the sample and the concentrations of the reactants. Microtitrimetry has been applied on several types of analytes; Ferrous

  17. Electroless Co-Zn Surface-modified Nickel Hydroxide as an Active Material for Pasted Nickel Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Quan-sheng(宋全生); TANG Zhi-yuan(唐致远); GUO He-tong(郭鹤桐); CHAN S L I

    2004-01-01

    Chemically precipitated β-type nickel hydroxide powder was surface-modified by electroless deposition of Co-Zn coatings,and physical properties of both the modified and unmodified nickel hydroxide were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specific surface area (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It has been found that Co and Zn components of the surface electroless coatings exist in the oxidized state. Electrochemical performances of pasted nickel electrodes using the modified nickel hydroxide as an active material were investigated, and compared with those of the electrodes prepared with the unmodified nickel hydroxide. Charge/discharge tests show that the modified nickel hydroxide electrodes exhibit better performances in the charge efficiency, specific discharge capacity and active material utilization. Their resistance to swelling with cycling is also superior to that of the unmodified nickel hydroxide electrodes. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) studies indicate that the modified electrodes have a higher electrochemical activity, and the porous pasted nickel electrodes have some distinguished CV characteristics in comparison with those of the thin film nickel electrodes.

  18. Electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide at a waxed graphite electrode modified with platinum-decorated carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Qiao-cui; ZENG Wen-fang; ZHU Yunu

    2009-01-01

    Platinum-decorated carbon nanotubes (CNT-Pt) were produced by the chemical reduction method. A novel modified electrode was fabricated by intercalated CNT-Pt in the surface of waxed graphite, which provided excellent electro-catalytic activity and selectivity for both oxidation and reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The current response of the modified electrode for hydrogen peroxide was very rapid and the detection limits in amperometry are 2.5×10-6 mol/L at reduction potential and 4.8×10-6 mol/L at oxidation potential. It was desmonstrated that the electrode with high electro-activity was a suitable basic electrode for preparing enzyme electrode.

  19. Voltammetric Detection of Urea on an Ag-Modified Zeolite-Expanded Graphite-Epoxy Composite Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joop Schoonman

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a modified expanded graphite composite electrode based on natural zeolitic volcanic tuff modified with silver (EG-Ag-Z-Epoxy was developed. Cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed a reasonably fast electron transfer and a good stability of the electrode in 0.1 M NaOH supporting electrolyte. This modified electrode exhibited moderate electrocatalytic effect towards urea oxidation, allowing its determination in aqueous solution. The linear dependence of the current versus urea concentration was reached using square-wave voltammetry in the concentrations range of urea between 0.2 to 1.4 mM, with a relatively low limit of detection of 0.05 mM. A moderate enhancement of electroanalytical sensitivity for the determination of urea at EG-Ag-Z-Epoxy electrode was reached by applying a chemical preconcentration step prior to voltammetric/amperometric quantification.

  20. 化学修饰丝网印刷薄片碳电极测定痕量铜%Determination of the Copper(Ⅱ) by A Chemically Modified Screen-printing Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠一锋; 许健

    2001-01-01

    采用丝网印刷技术制备一次性薄片碳电极,并在此电极上进行化学修饰,于邻苯二酚-甲醛-NaOH溶液中,在-0.1 V~1.2V电位范围内,循环伏安法进行电聚合,可获得性能良好的修饰电极,该电极可用于阳极溶出伏安法测量痕量铜,其响应灵敏度较裸碳电极提高50倍以上;线性范围为2.5~50 μg/L;测量的RSD为2.7%。用该电极可直接测定当地自来水中铜的含量为6.27μg/L。%The technique for developing a screen-printing disposabl e carbonelectrode and modifying its surface with electropolymer of catechol- formaldehyde was described. This modified electrode could be used to determine the Cu2+ with high selectivity. The linear range of the determination was from 2.5 μg/L to 50 μg/L. The linear regression coefficient and the RSD were 0.9992 and 2.7%, respectively. The content of Cu2+in local tap water was determined by this modified electrode for 6.27 μg/L.

  1. Application of an exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet-modified electrode for the determination of quintozen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ion, Ion; Ion, Alina Catrinel, E-mail: ac_ion@yahoo.com; Culetu, Alina

    2011-10-10

    A chitosan-grafted exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet (xGnP) hybrid chemically modified electrode was developed and characterized for the determination of organochlorine pesticides with nitro groups using quintozen as a representative. The hybrid material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical properties of the chitosan-xGnP modified electrode were characterized by a physical deposition method for depositing it on a graphite electrode. Because of the affinity of the xGnP for nitro groups, nitroaromatic organophosphate pesticides are attached to the surface, allowing the extraction of quintozen within a short time (4 min). The differential pulse response was linear over the quintozen concentration range of 10{sup -12}-10{sup -6} M, and the current linearly increased with the quintozen concentrations in two concentration ranges: from 10{sup -12} to 10{sup -8} M with the linear regression equation of y = 0.0423x + 0.6451, R{sup 2} = 0.9964 and from 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -6} M with the linear regression equation of y = 0.0085x + 0.303, R{sup 2} = 0.9952, with a detection limit of 10{sup -11} M. Highlights: {yields} The first attempt to use graphitic nanoplatelets in an electrochemical sensor for quintozen and to characterize the obtained electrode. {yields} The studied sensor exhibits good sensitivity and stability, xGnP representing a good candidate of advanced electrode materials. {yields} We concluded that a simple method for the production of cheap xGnP-chit/GC modified electrodes for pesticides with nitro groups can be established, further study on developing this methods being envisaged.

  2. Amperometric sensing of hydrogen peroxide using glassy carbon electrode modified with copper nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sophia, J.; Muralidharan, G., E-mail: muraligru@gmail.com

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, fabrication of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with nano copper particles is discussed. The modified electrode has been tested for the non-enzymatic electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) were prepared employing a simple chemical reduction method. The presence of Cu NPs was confirmed through UV–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The size and morphology of the particles were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical properties of the fabricated sensor were studied via cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical sensor displayed excellent performance features towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection exhibiting wide linear range, low detection limit, swift response time, good reproducibility and stability.

  3. Platinum Nanoparticles Modified Electrode for Rapid Electrochemical Detection of Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yu-Xiao; LIU Ya-Jun; HUANG Jing-Jing; FENG Zhen; XIAN Yue-Zhong; WU Zi-Rong; ZHANG Wen; JIN Li-Tong

    2008-01-01

    A platinum nanoparticles chemically modified electrode (PtNP/GCE) was fabricated by electro-deposition and used to detection of Escherichia coli (E.coli).The detection principle was based on determination of p-aminophenol that was produced by an enzymatic reaction in E.coli solution.The sensitivity of the detection was improved by the platinum nanoparticle modified electrode and optimization of the detection system.The current responses were proportional to the density of E.coli ranging from 50 to 1.0× 105 cfu/mL, with detection limit of 20 cfu/mL, and the detection time was less than 4 h.Compared with conventional methods, the electrochemical technology described here could be suitable for rapid detection of E.coli in the fields of food industry, environmental monitoring and clinic biomedicine.

  4. Redox Response of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes to Hydrogen Peroxide and Hydrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Anzai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The surface of a glassy carbon (GC electrode was modified with reduced graphene oxide (rGO to evaluate the electrochemical response of the modified GC electrodes to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hydrazine. The electrode potential of the GC electrode was repeatedly scanned from −1.5 to 0.6 V in an aqueous dispersion of graphene oxide (GO to deposit rGO on the surface of the GC electrode. The surface morphology of the modified GC electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. SEM and AFM observations revealed that aggregated rGO was deposited on the GC electrode, forming a rather rough surface. The rGO-modified electrodes exhibited significantly higher responses in redox reactions of H2O2 as compared with the response of an unmodified GC electrode. In addition, the electrocatalytic activity of the rGO-modified electrode to hydrazine oxidation was also higher than that of the unmodified GC electrode. The response of the rGO-modified electrode was rationalized based on the higher catalytic activity of rGO to the redox reactions of H2O2 and hydrazine. The results suggest that rGO-modified electrodes are useful for constructing electrochemical sensors.

  5. Electroanalysis of cationic species at membrane-carbon electrodes modified by polysaccharides. Bioaccumulation at microorganism-modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojou, E; Bianco, P

    2000-05-01

    Membrane-carbon electrodes modified with polysaccharides suspensions entrapped between a dialysis membrane and the carbon surface were used for electroanalysis of various cationic species. Cationic complexes of ruthenium and cobalt, metallic cations (Cu(2+), Fe(3+), UO(2)(2+)) as well as methylviologen were considered. By investigating various parameters (concentration of the suspension, pH) binding of the cations by the polysaccharides was demonstrated. Comparison of cations uptake by different kinds of polysaccharides such as alginic acid, polygalacturonic acid, pectin, dextran and agar was performed. This study has been extended to natural biomaterials, alga and lichen, which are known to contain polysaccharides. The interest of the membrane-electrode strategy is described.

  6. Modified silver nanowire transparent electrodes with exceptional stability against oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idier, J.; Neri, W.; Labrugère, C.; Ly, I.; Poulin, P.; Backov, R.

    2016-03-01

    We report an easy method to prepare thin, flexible and transparent electrodes that show enhanced inertness toward oxidation using modified silver nanowires (Ag NWs). Stabilization is achieved through the adsorption of triphenylphosphine (PPh3) onto the Ag NW hybrid dispersions prior to their 2D organization as transparent electrodes on polyethylene terephtalate (PET) films. After 110 days in air (20 °C) under atmospheric conditions, the transmittance of the PET/Ag NW/PPh3 based films is nearly unchanged, while the transmittance of the PET/Ag NW-based films decreases by about 5%. The sheet resistance increases for both materials as time elapses, but the rate of increase is more than four times slower for films stabilized by PPh3. The improved transmittance and conductivity results in a significantly enhanced stability for the figure of merit σ dc/σ op. This phenomenon is highlighted in highly oxidative nitric acid vapor. The tested stabilized films in such conditions exhibit a decrease to σ dc/σ op of only 38% after 75 min, whereas conventional materials exhibit a relative loss of 71%. In addition, by contrast to other classes of stabilizers, such as polymer or graphene-based encapsulants, PPh3 does not alter the transparency or conductivity of the modified films. While the present films are made by membrane filtration, the stabilization method could be implemented directly in other liquid processes, including industrially scalable ones.

  7. Fabrication of ferrocenyl glutathione modified electrode and its application for detection of cadmium ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fang-bin; FAN Mei-yi; LIU You-nian; WANG Jian-xiu; ZENG Dong-ming; HUANG Ke-long

    2008-01-01

    1'-eysteaminecarbonyl-1-glutathionecarbonyl-ferrucene (Fc-GSH) was synthesized from ferrocene dicarboxylic acid and reduced glutathione (GSH) with 4 steps. IR and 1H-NMR were used to characterize the products. Then Fe-GSH was immobilized on the surface of gold electrode. Cyclic votammetry (CV) was adopted to investigate the electrochemical properties of this Fc-GSHmodified electrode in the absence and presence of Cd2+ aqueous solutions. The peak oxidation potential (Ea) and reduction potential(Ec) of Fc-GSH modified electrode were observed at Ea= 0.74 V and Ec= 0.64 V (vs Ag/AgCl) before the accumulation of Cd2+. This redox process is a monoelectron chemical reaction. The anodic shift is about 80 mV in the presence of 20 nmol/L of Cd2+ aqueous solution. Moreover, this shift is in proportion to the concentration of Cd2+ when the concentration of Cd2+ is lower than 20 nmol/L. So the modified electrode can be used as probes to detect cadmium ions with the limit of 0.1 nmol/L by cyclic voltammetry.

  8. Electrochemical investigation of NO at single-wall carbon nanotubes modified electrodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tingliang Xia; Hongmei Bi; Keying Shi

    2010-05-01

    The NO electro-oxidation was investigated at various single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) modified electrodes by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Compared with the glassy carbon electrode, the SWCNTs modified electrodes possess higher electro-catalytic activity to NO electro-oxidation. CV results indicate that the peak current density of NO electro-oxidation at the SWCNT-COOH (SWCNTs with carboxyl groups) modified electrode is the highest and the peak potential is the most negative among the four kinds of electrodes. EIS indicates that the charge transfer resistance of NO electro-oxidation at the SWCNT-COOH modified electrode is the least. The determined factors (charge transfer and mass transfer of diffusion) of NO electro-oxidation are different in varied potential region. The mechanism of NO electro-oxidation reaction at the SWCNTs modified electrodes is also discussed.

  9. Microdetermination of human serum albumin by differential pulse voltammetry at a L-cysteine modified silver electrode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Liyuan Lu; Yanqin Zi; Hongling Wang

    2008-07-01

    A simple and highly sensitive electrochemical method for the determination of human serum albumin (HSA) using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), based on a silver electrode modified with a self-assembled monolayer of L-cysteine, was developed. L-cysteine can be modified onto a silver electrode by covalent bonding through the sulfur to give stable and long-lived chemical electrodes. This electrode showed good sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility and time stability in the determination of trace amounts of HSA by DPV technique. The detection limit can be as low as 4 × 10-17 mol/L. The optimum conditions for the determination were carefully investigated. This method had been applied to the determination of HSA in human serum samples. The results were in agreement with those given in standard method.

  10. ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF ETHANOL, 2- PROPANOL AND 1-BUTANOL ON GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH NICKEL OXIDE FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benchettara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the modification of a glassy carbon electrode with nickel oxide film which is performed in two successive steps. In the first one, the electrochemical deposition of metallic nickel on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE is achieved in 0.1M boric acid; in the second step, the metallic deposit is anodically oxidized in 0.1M NaOH. These two operations were carried out in a three electrode cell with a filiform platinum auxiliary electrode, a SCE as potential reference and a working microelectrode of modified glassy carbon with nickel oxides. This electrode is characterized by several electrochemical techniques and is used for the catalytic determination of ethanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol in 0.1 M NaOH. The proposed chemical mechanism shows that NiO2 acts as a mediator.

  11. ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF ETHANOL, 2- PROPANOL AND 1-BUTANOL ON GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH NICKEL OXIDE FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benchettara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the modification of a glassy carbon electrode with nickel oxide film which is performed in two successive steps. In the first one, the electrochemical deposition of metallic nickel on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE is achieved in 0.1M boric acid; in the second step, the metallic deposit is anodically oxidized in 0.1M NaOH. These two operations were carried out in a three electrode cell with a filiform platinum auxiliary electrode, a SCE as potential reference and a working microelectrode of modified glassy carbon with nickel oxides. This electrode is characterized by several electrochemical techniques and is used for the catalytic determination of ethanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol in 0.1 M NaOH. The proposed chemical mechanism shows that NiO2 acts as a mediator.

  12. Photoinduced Electron Accumulation of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Modified Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Hirokazu; Sakamoto, Kensho; Kurashina, Masaru; Kanezaki, Eiji

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (Nps) were prepared by the hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in 2-propanol with different water contents (0.5 vol% to 7.2 vol%) at 45 °C. The diameter of the Nps was estimated to be 1.5±0.5 nm (L-TiO2) and 3.0±0.6 nm (S-TiO2) from the onset wavelength in the absorption spectra and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A modified Pt electrode with a three-layered sandwich structure was prepared; the outermost and innermost layers were composed of S-TiO2 and L-TiO2, respectively, and the middle layer contained 1, 1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridyl (MV2+)/Nafion®. Irradiation by a 500 W superhigh-pressure mercury lamp produced electrons in the conduction band of TiO2. An anodic current was observed after turning off the light. The mechanism by which anodic current is generated after turning off the radiation involves the reduction of MV2+ to MV+. by photogenerated electrons on the Nps and the diffusion of MV+. in the middle layer. After turning off the irradiation, MV+. transferred an electron to the Pt electrode via holes in the innermost layer or the conduction band of S-TiO2 coincidentally localized on the Pt electrode, resulting in the generation of the anodic current. The generation of MV+. was confirmed by the absorption spectra of MV+.. As a sacrificial reagent, 2-propanol (0.1 M) was used.

  13. Electrochemical detection of carbidopa using a ferrocene-modified carbon nanotube paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH KARIMI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A chemically modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE containing ferrocene (FC and carbon nanotubes (CNT was constructed. The electrochemical behavior and stability of the MCPE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The electrocatalytic activity of the MCPE was investigated and it showed good characteristics for the oxidation of carbidopa (CD in phosphate buffer solution (PBS. A linear concentration range of 5 to 600 μM CD, with a detection limit of 3.6±0.17 μM CD, was obtained. The diffusion coefficient of CD and the transfer coefficient ( were also determined. The MCPE showed good reproducibility, remarkable long-term stability and especially good surface renewability by simple mechanical polishing. The results showed that this electrode could be used as an electrochemical sensor for the determination of CD in real samples, such as urine samples.

  14. Investigation of a Nanophotonic Sensor with Electrode Modified by Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Sushko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on optical sensors, namely nanophotonic ones intended for liquid media contained polynuclear aromatics assay. Developed by us nanophotonic sensor includes optically transparent working electrode modified by quantum-dimensional structures such as spherical semiconductor quantum dots (QDs. Monomolecular layer of QDs is plotted onto the electrode by Langmuir-Blodgett technology. Particular attention is paid to the processes of assay in nanophotonic sensor. As an analyte we used polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH such as benzo[a]pyrene (BP, which is known for its carcinogenic properties. The developed nanophotonic sensor can be used in ecology for organic carcinogens detection in water objects of environment as well as for biomedical, physical chemical assays and some others.

  15. Electrochemical impedance-based DNA sensor using a modified single walled carbon nanotube electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Jessica E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing Research Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Pillai, Shreekumar [Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL (United States); Ram, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: mkram@usf.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing Research Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Kumar, Ashok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing Research Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Singh, Shree R. [Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL (United States)

    2011-07-20

    Carbon nanotubes have become promising functional materials for the development of advanced electrochemical biosensors with novel features which could promote electron-transfer with various redox active biomolecules. This paper presents the detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium using chemically modified single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with single stranded DNA (ssDNA) on a polished glassy carbon electrode. Hybridization with the corresponding complementary ssDNA has shown a shift in the impedance studies due to a higher charge transfer in ssDNA. The developed biosensor has revealed an excellent specificity for the appropriate targeted DNA strand. The methodologies to prepare and functionalize the electrode could be adopted in the development of DNA hybridization biosensor.

  16. A Multiwall Carbon Nanotube-chitosan Modified Electrode for Selective Detection of Dopamine in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Yan JIANG; Chuan Yin LIU; Li Ping JIANG; Guang Han LU

    2005-01-01

    A novel multiwall carbon nanotube-chitosan modified electrode has been prepared.The modified electrode resolves the overlapping voltammetric response of dopamine and ascorbic acid into two well-defined peak by 212 mY. The mechanism of discrimination of dopamine from ascorbic acid is discussed. Dopamine can be determined selectively with the carbon nanotube-chitosan modified electrode. The electrode shows good sensitivity, selectivity and stability.keywords: Nanotube-chitosan modified electrode, dopamine, ascorbic acid.

  17. Gold nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode for differential pulse voltammetric determination of eugenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Daryoush; Zarei, Somaye; Fathirad, Fariba; Mostafavi, Ali

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, a carbon paste electrode chemically modified with gold nanoparticles was used as a sensitive electrochemical sensor for determination of eugenol. The differential pulse voltammetric method was employed to study the behavior of eugenol on this modified electrode. The effect of variables such as percent of gold nanoparticles, pH of solution, accumulation potential and time on voltammogram peak current were optimized. The proposed electrode showed good oxidation response for eugenol in 0.1 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer solution (pH8) and the peak potential was about +285 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl). The peak current increased linearly with the eugenol concentration in the range of 5-250 μmol L(-1). The detection limit was found to be 2.0 μmol L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 1.2% (n=7). The effect of interferences on the eugenol peak current was studied. The method has been applied to the determination of eugenol in different real samples, spiked recoveries were in the range of 96%-99%.

  18. A novel amperometric sensor for peracetic acid based on a polybenzimidazole-modified gold electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Mu-Yi, E-mail: huamy@mail.cgu.edu.t [Green Research Center, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Biosensor Group, Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hsiao-Chien [Green Research Center, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Biosensor Group, Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Rung-Ywan [Electronics and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, Sec. 4, Chung Hsing Rd., Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yu-Chen [Green Research Center, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Biosensor Group, Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China)

    2011-04-30

    We have developed a peracetic acid (PAA) sensor based on a polybenzimidazole-modified gold (PBI/Au) electrode. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that PAA oxidized 69.4% of the imine in PBI to form PBI N-oxide, increasing the electrochemical reduction current during cyclic voltammetry. The chemical oxidation of the PBI/Au electrode by PAA, followed by its electrochemical reduction, allowed PAA to be detected directly and consecutively by assessing its reduction current. The PAA sensor had a broad linear detection range (3.1 {mu}M-1.5 mM) and a rapid response time (3.9 s) at an applied potential of -0.3 V. Potentially interfering substances, such as hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, and oxygen, had no effect on the ability of the probe to detect PAA, indicating high selectivity of the probe. Furthermore, the detection range, response time, and sensitivity of the sensor could all be improved by modification of the smooth planar electrode surface to a porous three-dimensional configuration. When compared to the analytical characteristics of other PAA sensors operating under optimal conditions, the three-dimensional PBI/Au electrode offers a rapid detection time, a usable linear range, and a relatively low detection limit.

  19. CO oxidation on Pt-modified Rh(111) electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housmans, T H M; Feliu, J M; Gómez, R; Koper, M T M

    2005-08-12

    The CO electro-oxidation reaction was studied on platinum-modified Rh(111) electrodes in 0.5 M H2SO4 using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The Pt-Rh(111) electrodes were generated during voltammetric cycles at 50 mV s(-1) in a 30 microM H2PtCl6 and 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. Surfaces generated by n deposition cycles were investigated (Ptn-Rh(111) with n=2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 16). The blank cyclic voltammograms of these surfaces are characterized by a pronounced sharpening of the hydrogen/(bi)sulfate adsorption/desorption peaks, typical for Rh(111), and the appearance of contributions between 0.1 and 0.4 V, which were ascribed to hydrogen/(bi)sulfate adsorption/desorption on the deposited platinum. At higher potentials, the surface oxidation of Rh(111) is enhanced by the presence of platinum. The structure of the Pt-modified electrodes was investigated by STM imaging. At low Pt coverages (Pt2-Rh(111)), monoatomically high islands are formed, which grow three dimensionally as the number of deposition cycles increases. After eight cycles, the monolayer islands have grown in diameter and range from mono- to multiatomic height. At even higher Pt coverage (Pt16-Rh(111)), the islands grow to particles of approx. 10 nm in diameter, which are 5-6 atoms high. The CO stripping voltammetry on these surfaces is characterized by two peaks: A low-potential, structure-insensitive peak, ascribed to CO reacting at the platinum monolayer islands, whose onset is shifted 150, 250, and 100 mV negatively with respect to pure Rh(111), Pt(111), and polycrystalline Pt, respectively, indicating the enhanced CO electro-oxidation properties of the Pt overlayer system. A peak at higher potentials displays strong structure sensitivity (particle-size effect) and was ascribed to CO reacting on the islands of multiatomic height. Current-time transients recorded on the surface with the highest amount of monolayer islands (Pt4-Rh(111)) also indicate enhanced CO-oxidation kinetics. Comparison of

  20. Voltammetric Detection of Urea on an Ag-Modified Zeolite- Expanded Graphite-Epoxy Composite Electrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manea, F.; Pop, A.; Radovan, C.; Malchev, P.G.; Bebeselea, A.; Burtica, G.; Picken, S.J.; Schoonman, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a modified expanded graphite composite electrode based on natural zeolitic volcanic tuff modified with silver (EG-Ag-Z-Epoxy) was developed. Cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed a reasonably fast electron transfer and a good stability of the electrode in 0.1 M NaOH supporting elec

  1. Single-Layer Pentacene Field-Effect Transistors Using Electrodes Modified With Self-assembled Monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadi, Kamal; Wu, Yu; Gholamrezaie, Fatemeh; Rudolf, Petra; Blom, Paul W. M.

    2009-01-01

    Pentacene field-effect transistor performance can be improved by modifying metal electrodes with self-assembled monolayers. The dominant role in performance is played by pentacene morphology rather than the work function of the modified electrodes. With optimized processing conditions, hysteresis-fr

  2. Electrocatalytic Evolution of Oxygen Gas at Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles Modified Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiek, Ibrahim M.; Mohammad, Ahmad M.; El-Shakre, Mohamed E.; Awad, M. Ismail; Mohamed S. El-Deab; Anadouli, Bahgat E.

    2012-01-01

    The electrocatalysis of oxygen evolution reaction (OER) at cobalt oxide nanoparticles (nano-CoOx) modified GC, Au and Pt electrodes has been examined using cyclic voltammetry. The OER is significantly enhanced upon modification of the electrodes with nano-CoOx, as demonstrated by a negative shift in the polarization curves at the nano-CoOx modified electrodes compared to that obtained at the unmodified ones. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the electrodeposition of nanometer-size C...

  3. Iron-enriched natural zeolite modified carbon paste electrode for H2O2 detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work demonstrates that iron-enriched natural zeolitic volcanic tuff (Paglisa deposit, Cluj county, Transilvania, Romania) resulting from a previous use as adsorbent in wastewater treatment can be recycled into effective electrode modifier applied to the electrocatalytic detection of hydrogen peroxide. After physico-chemical characterization of tuff samples using various techniques such as chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, BET analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the electrochemical response of the iron-enriched zeolites was studied on the basis of solid carbon paste electrodes modified with these samples. The results indicate that iron centers in the zeolite are electroactive and that they act as electrocatalysts in the voltammetric and amperometric detection of H2O2. Best performance was achieved in phosphate buffer at pH 7, showing a sensitivity of 0.57 mA M-1 cm-2, a detection limit down to 60 μM, and a linear domain up to 100 mM H2O2.

  4. EUGENOL POLYMER MODIFIED TITANIUM ELECTRODE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF CARBOCYSTEINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. EL QOUATLI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A eugenol polymer immobilized electrode was developed for the assay of the carbocysteine compound. The electrochemical sensor was made by in situ electropolymerization of eugenol at titanium electrode. Cyclic voltamperometry at prepared electrode permitted to point out a reversible pattern for carbocysteine electrooxidation.

  5. EUGENOL POLYMER MODIFIED TITANIUM ELECTRODE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF CARBOCYSTEINE

    OpenAIRE

    S. EL QOUATLI; R. T. NGONO; R. NAJIH; A. CHTAINI

    2012-01-01

    A eugenol polymer immobilized electrode was developed for the assay of the carbocysteine compound. The electrochemical sensor was made by in situ electropolymerization of eugenol at titanium electrode. Cyclic voltamperometry at prepared electrode permitted to point out a reversible pattern for carbocysteine electrooxidation.

  6. Study of enzyme biosensor based on carbon nanotubes modified electrode for detection of pesticides residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Ping Zhang; Lian Gang Shan; Zhen Ran Tian; Yi Zheng; Li Yi Shi; Deng Song Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes a controllable layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly modification technique of multi-walled carbon nanotubes(MWNTs) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) towards glassy carbon electrode (GCE), Acetylcholinesterase(ACHE) was immobilized directly to the modified GCE by LBL self-assembly method, the activity value of AChE was detected byusing i-t technique based on the modified Ellman method. Then the composition of carbaryl were detected by the enzyme electrodewith 0.01U activity value and the detection limit of carbaryl is 10-12 g L-1 so the enzyme biosensor showed good properties forpesticides residue detection.2008 Shu Ping Zhang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrochemical determination of ascorbic acid at p-phenylenediamine film-holes modified glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olana Bikila Nagasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the determination of ascorbic acid (AA at glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with a perforated film produced by reduction of diazonium generated in situ from p-phenylenediamine (PD is reported. Holes were intentionally created in the modifier film by stripping a pre-deposited gold nanoparticles. The modified electrodes were electrochemically characterized by common redox probes: hydroquinone, ferrocyanide and hexamineruthenium(III. The cyclic voltammetric and amperometric response of AA using the modified electrodes was compared with that of bare GCE. The bare GCE showed a linear response to AA in the concentration range of 5 mM to 45 mM with detection limit of 1.656 mM and the modified GCE showed a linear response to AA in the concentration range of 5 μM to 45 μM with detection limit of 0.123 μM. The effect of potential intereferents on amperometric signal of AA at the modified GCE was examined and found to be minimal. The inter-electrode reproducibility, stability, and accuracy were determined. The modified electrode showed excellent inter-electrode reproducibility, accuracy and stability. The modified electrode reported is a promising candidate for use in electroanalysis of AA.

  8. Study of the electrochemical properties of a transition metallic ions modified electrode in acidic VOSO4 solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wenhong; WANG Xindong

    2007-01-01

    Graphite material was used as the electrode for an all-vanadium redox flow battery, and the electrode was modified by transition metallic ions to enhance its electrochemical behavior. An porous graphite composite electrode has high specific surface area and high current density. The electrode modified by transition metallic ions has improved catalysis behavior that can catalyze the V(Ⅱ)-V(Ⅴ) redox reaction showed by cyclic voltammograms. This article studied the impedance of the modified electrode by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and approved that the electrode modified by Co2+ and Mn2+ has a lower charge transfer resistance than the non-modified electrode. The effect of average particle size distribution is at lower frequencies that the slope of Warburg impedance is reduced by large particle size distribution. The voltage efficiency of the Co2+ modified electrode test cell is 81.5%, which is higher than that of the non-modified electrode.

  9. Imprinted zeolite modified carbon paste electrode as a potentiometric sensor for uric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanah, Miratul; Widati, Alfa Akustia; Fitri, Sarita Aulia

    2016-03-01

    Imprinted zeolite modified carbon paste electrode (carbon paste-IZ) has been developed and applied to determine uric acid by potentiometry. The imprinted zeolite (IZ) was synthesized by the mole ratio of uric acid/Si of 0.0306. The modified electrode was manufactured by mass ratio of carbon, IZ and solid paraffin was 40:25:35. The modified electrode had shown the measurement range of 10-5 M to 10-2 M with Nernst factor of 28.6 mV/decade, the detection limit of 5.86 × 10-6 M and the accuracy of 95.3 - 105.0%. Response time of the electrode for uric acid 10-5 M - 10-2 M was 25 - 44 s. The developed electrode showed the high selectivity toward uric acid in the urea matrix. Life time of the carbon paste-IZ electrode was 10 weeks.

  10. Enhancing biocompatibility of some cation selective electrodes using heparin modified bacterial cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Ibrahim H A; Abdel-Sattar, R; Keshk, Sherif M A S

    2015-12-10

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) and heparin-modified bacterial cellulose (HBC) were utilized to enhance the biocompatibility of highly thrombogenic PVC-based potassium and calcium membrane electrodes. Three types of membrane electrodes were prepared: (1) conventional PVC electrode (control), (2) PVC-based electrode sandwiched with bacterial cellulose membrane (BC-PVC), and (3) PVC-based electrode sandwiched with heparin-modified bacterial cellulose membrane (HBC-PVC). The potentiometric response characteristics of the modified potassium and calcium membrane electrodes (BC-PVC and HBC-PVC) were compared with those of the control PVC-based potassium and calcium selective electrode, respectively. Response characteristics of the modified membrane electrodes were comparable to the control PVC membrane electrode. The platelet adhesion investigations indicated that (BC) and (HBC) layers are less thrombogenic compared to PVC. Therefore, use of BC or HBC would enable the enhancement of the biocompatibility of PVC-based membrane electrodes for potassium and calcium while practically maintaining the overall electrochemical performance of the PVC sensing film. PMID:26428173

  11. Preparation of Ti/SnO2-Sb electrodes modified by carbon nanotube for anodic oxidation of dye wastewater and combination with nanofiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ti/SnO2-Sb-CNT electrodes were prepared by pulse electrodeposition technology. • The characteristics of Ti/SnO2-Sb-CNT was compared with Ti/SnO2-Sb. • We combined electro-catalytic oxidation with NF to treat dye wastewater. - Abstract: A new type of Ti/SnO2-Sb electrode modified with carbon nanotube (CNT) has been fabricated using a pulse electrodeposition method. The electrode modified with CNT versus without CNT has larger surface area and smaller crystallite particles (41.9 nm versus 46.8 nm) as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and calculated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. It means that the CNT-modified electrode can provide more active sites for electrochemical oxidation of organic pollutants. Oxygen evolution potential of the CNT-modified electrode has 0.07 V higher overpotential in the Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) curve. The service lifetime of Ti/SnO2-Sb-CNT electrode is 4.8 times longer than that of the Ti/SnO2-Sb electrode without CNT modifying. The Ti/SnO2-Sb-CNT electrode is demonstrated to have a superior electrochemical oxidation and degradation abilities using Acid Red 73 (AR 73) as a model organic pollutant. The CNT-modified electrode has higher kinetic rate constant, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) removals, and mineralization current efficiency, which is 1.93, 1.27, 1.26, and 1.38 times those of the Ti/SnO2-Sb electrode, respectively. The repeated experiments prove the reproducibility of the data. Ti/SnO2-Sb-CNT electrode is 1.15 times more effective in permeation flux than the Ti/SnO2-Sb electrode when combining electro-catalytic oxidation and nanofiltration for treating dye wastewater

  12. Nanostructured copper particles-incorporated Nafion-modified electrode for oxygen reduction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Selvaraju; R Ramaraj

    2005-10-01

    The electrocatalytic activity of nanostructured copper particles (represented as Cunano) incorporated Nafion (Nf) film-coated glassy carbon (GC) electrode (GC/Nf/Cunano) towards oxygen reduction was investigated in oxygenated 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.2). The electrodeposited Cunano in Nf film was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrocatalytic activity of Cunano at the modified electrode towards oxygen reduction was studied using cyclic voltammetry technique. The molecular oxygen reduction at the GC/Nf/Cunano-modified electrode started at a more positive potential than at a bare GC electrode. A possible reaction mechanism was proposed in which oxygen reduction may proceed through two-step two-electron processes at the GC/Nf/Cunano electrode. The GC/Nf/Cunano electrode shows higher stability for oxygen reduction in neutral solution and the electrode may find applications in fuel cells.

  13. Catalase-Modified Carbon Electrodes: Persuading Oxygen To Accept Four Electrons Rather Than Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepunaru, Lior; Laborda, Eduardo; Compton, Richard G

    2016-04-18

    We successfully exploited the natural highly efficient activity of an enzyme (catalase) together with carbon electrodes to produce a hybrid electrode for oxygen reduction, very appropriate for energy transformation. Carbon electrodes, in principle, are cheap but poor oxygen reduction materials, because only two-electron reduction of oxygen occurs at low potentials, whereas four-electron reduction is key for energy-transformation technology. With the immobilization of catalase on the surface, the hydrogen peroxide produced electrochemically is decomposed back to oxygen by the enzyme; the enzyme natural activity on the surface regenerates oxygen, which is further reduced by the carbon electrode with no direct electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode. Near full four-electron reduction of oxygen is realised on a carbon electrode, which is modified with ease by a commercially available enzyme. The value of such enzyme-modified electrode for energy-transformation devices is evident.

  14. Preparation,Electrochemical Behavior and Electrocatalytic Activity of a Copper Hexacyanoferrate Modified Ceramic Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU,Hao; ZHENG,Jian-Bin

    2007-01-01

    A copper hexacyanoferrate modified ceramic carbon electrode(CuHCF/CCE)had been prepared by two-step sol-gel technique and characterized using electrochemical methods.The resulting modified electrode showed a pair of well-defined surface waves in the potential range of 0.40 to 1.0 V with the formal potential of 0.682 V (vs.SCE)in 0.050 mol·dm-3 HOAc-NaOAc buffer containing 0.30 mol·dm-3 KCI.The charge transfer coefficient (α) and charge transfer rate constant(Ks)for the modified electrode were calculated.The electrocatalytic activity of this modified electrode to hydrazine was also investigated,and chronoamperometry was exploited to conveniently determine the diffusion coefficient(D)of hydrazine in solution and the catalytic rate constant(Kcat).Finally,hydrazine was determined with amperometry using the resulting modified electrode.The calibration plot for hydrazine determination was linear in 3.0×10-6-7.5×10-4 mol·dm-3 with the detection limit of 8.0×10-7 mol·dm-3.This modified electrode had some advantages over the modified film electrodes constructed by the conventional methods,such as renewable surface,good long-term stability,excellent catalytic activity and short response time to hydrazine.

  15. Quality of chemically modified hemp fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Mirjana; Pejic, Biljana; Skundric, Petar

    2008-01-01

    Hemp fibers are very interesting natural material for textile and technical applications now. Applying hemp fibers to the apparel sector requires improved quality fibers. In this paper, hemp fibers were modified with sodium hydroxide solutions (5% and 18% w/v), at room and boiling temperature, for different periods of time, and both under tension and slack, in order to partially extract noncellulosic substances, and separate the fiber bundles. The quality of hemp fibers was characterised by determining their chemical composition, fineness, mechanical and sorption properties. The modified hemp fibers were finer, with lower content of lignin, increased flexibility, and in some cases tensile properties were improved. An original method for evaluation of tensile properties of hemp fibers was developed.

  16. Electrocatalytic determination of epinephrine and uric acid using a novel hydroquinone modified carbon paste electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Mazloum-Ardakani; Zahra Taleat; Hadi Beitollahi; Hossein Naeimi

    2011-01-01

    A sensitive and selective electrochemical method for the determination of epinephrine (EP) was developed using a modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE) with 2,2'- [3,6-dioxa-l,8-octanediylbis(nitriloethylidyne)]-bis-hydroquinone (DOH). Cyclic vol-tammetry was used to investigate the redox properties of this modified electrode at various solution pH values and at various scan rates. In differential pulse voltammetry, the modified electrode could separate the oxidation peak potentials of EP and uric acid (UA) present in the solution but at the unmodified CPE the peak potentials were indistinguishable. This method was also examined for determination of EP in EP injection.

  17. Electrochemically reduced graphene modified carbon ionic liquid electrode for the sensitive sensing of rutin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Feng [Fujian Province University Key Laboratory of Analytical Science, Department of Chemistry and Environment Science, Zhangzhou Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Qi Xiaowei [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Cai Xili; Wang Qingxiang; Gao Fei [Fujian Province University Key Laboratory of Analytical Science, Department of Chemistry and Environment Science, Zhangzhou Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Sun Wei, E-mail: sunwei@qust.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China)

    2012-05-31

    In this paper a graphene (GR) modified carbon ionic liquid electrode that was obtained by one-step potentiostatic electroreduction of a graphene oxide solution was described. The resulting electrode displayed excellent electrochemical performance due to the formation of highly conductive GR film on the electrode surface. Electrochemistry of rutin was carefully studied with a pair of well-defined redox peaks appeared in pH 2.5 buffer solution. Rutin exhibited a diffusion-controlled two-electron and two-proton transfer reaction on the modified electrode with the electrochemical parameters calculated. The reduction peak currents are linearly related to rutin concentration in the concentration range from 0.070 to 100.0 {mu}mol/L with a detection limit as low as 24.0 nmol/L (3{sigma}). The modified electrode displayed excellent selectivity with good stability, and was applied to the determination of rutin content in tablet, human serum and urine samples with satisfactory results. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electroreduced graphene modified carbon ionic liquid electrode was obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrochemical behaviors of rutin were investigated on the modified electrode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rutin in different samples were detected by the proposed electrode.

  18. Characterization of poly(5-hydroxytryptamine)-modified glassy carbon electrode and applications to sensing of norepinephrine and uric acid in preparations and human urines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) modified electrode was fabricated by electro-polymerization of 5-HT on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 0.05 M PBS (pH 7). The characterization of the modified electrode was carried out by atomic force microscopy (AFM), voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The mechanism of electro-deposition of 5-HT at GCE was discussed based on electrochemical studies and quantum chemical calculations. The poly(5-HT)-modified electrode could separately detect NE and UA, even in the presence of 10-fold concentration of ascorbic acid (AA) and was applied successfully to the analysis of NE preparations and healthy human urines. Due to the favorable functionalized groups (-NH2 and -OH), electroactivity, biocompatibility and stability, the poly(5-HT) film could be a promising immobilization matrix for anchoring interested biological molecules in the fabrication of sensors and biosensors. Highlights: ► A poly(5-HT)-modified electrode was fabricated originally by CV. ► The electro-deposition mechanism of 5-HT at GCE was proposed. ► The polymer film shows favorable electrocatalytic properties to NE and UA. ► The modified GCE was applied to the sensing analysis of real samples. -- Abstract: A poly(5-hydroxytryptamine) (poly(5-HT)) modified electrode was fabricated by electropolymerization of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 0.05 M PBS (pH 7). The characterization of poly(5-HT)-modified electrode was carried out by atomic force microscopy (AFM), voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results showed that a brown and heterogeneous film was formed on the surface of the modified electrode. The mechanism of electro-deposition of 5-HT at GCE was discussed. The modified electrode showed good affinity and electrocatalytic properties to some species, such as norepinephrine (NE) and uric acid (UA). Furthermore

  19. Efficient inverted polymer solar cells based on conjugated polyelectrolyte and zinc oxide modified ITO electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Tao; Zhu, Xiaoguang; Tu, Guoli, E-mail: tgl@hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhou, Lingyu [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian National Laboratory of Clean Energy, Dalian 116023 (China); Zhang, Jian, E-mail: jianzhang@guet.edu.cn [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2015-02-23

    Efficient inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) were constructed by utilizing a conjugated polyelectrolyte PF{sub EO}SO{sub 3}Na and zinc oxide to modify the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The ITO electrode modified by PF{sub EO}SO{sub 3}Na and zinc oxide possesses high transparency, increased electron mobility, smoothened surface, and lower work function. PTB7:PC{sub 71}BM inverted PSCs containing the modified ITO electrode achieved a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.49%, exceeding that of the control device containing a ZnO modified ITO electrode (7.48%). Especially, PCE-10:PC{sub 71}BM inverted polymer solar cells achieved a high PCE up to 9.4%. These results demonstrate a useful approach to improve the performance of inverted polymer solar cells.

  20. Electrodeposited nanostructured raspberry-like gold-modified electrodes for electrocatalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manivannan, Shanmugam; Ramaraj, Ramasamy, E-mail: ramarajr@yahoo.com [Madurai Kamaraj University, Centre for Photoelectrochemistry, School of Chemistry (India)

    2013-10-15

    A facile method for fabrication of raspberry-like Au nanostructures (Au NRBs)-modified electrode by electrodeposition and its applications toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol (MOR) in alkaline medium and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in both alkaline and acidic media are demonstrated. The Au NRBs are characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectra, SEM, X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical measurements. The growth of Au NRBs was monitored by recording the in-situ absorption spectral changes during electrodeposition using spectroelectrochemical technique. Here we systematically studied the MOR by varying several reaction parameters such as potential scan rate and methanol concentration. The electrocatalytic poisoning effect due to the MOR products are not observed at the Au NRBs-modified electrode. At the alkaline medium the Au NRBs-modified electrode shows the better catalytic activities toward the MOR and ORR when compared to the poly crystalline gold and bare glassy carbon electrodes. The Au NRBs-modified electrode is a promising and inexpensive electrode material for other electrocatalytic applications.Graphical AbstractRaspberry-like Au nanostructures modified electrode is prepared and used for electrocatalytic applications.

  1. Detection of cancer cells using a peptide nanotube–folic acid modified graphene electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Rozlosnik, Noemi;

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the preparation of a graphene electrode modified with a new conjugate of peptide nanotubes and folic acid for the selective detection of human cervical cancer cells over-expressing folate receptors. The functionalization of peptide nanotubes with folic acid was confirmed by....... The modified electrode described here opens up new possibilities for future applications in early stage diagnoses of diseases where cells over-express folate receptors, such as in cancer or leishmaniasis disease....

  2. Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite on tetraruthenated metalloporphyrins/Nafion glassy carbon modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calfuman, Karla [Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Casilla 653, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile); Aguirre, Maria Jesus [Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Departamento de Quimica de los Materiales, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Canete-Rosales, Paulina; Bollo, Soledad [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmaceuticas, Departamento de Quimica Farmacologica y Toxicologica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Llusar, Rosa [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Jaume I, Castellon (Spain); Isaacs, Mauricio, E-mail: misaacs@uchile.cl [Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Casilla 653, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > Preparation and characterization of modified electrodes with M(II) Tetraruthenated porphyrins onto a Nafion film. > The electrodes were characterized by SEM, TEM, AFM and SECM techniques. > The modified electrodes are active in the electrochemical reduction of nitrite at -660 mV vs Ag/AgCl. > GC/Nf/CoTRP modified electrode is more electrochemically active than their Ni and Zn analogues. - Abstract: This paper describes the electrochemical reduction of nitrite ion in neutral aqueous solution mediated by tetraruthenated metalloporphyrins (Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II)) electrostatically assembled onto a Nafion film previously adsorbed on glassy carbon or ITO electrodes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results have shown that on ITO electrodes the macrocycles forms multiple layers with a disordered stacking orientation over the Nafion film occupying hydrophobic and hydrophilic sites in the polyelectrolyte. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) results demonstrated that the Nafion film is 35 nm thick and tetraruthenated metalloporphyrins layers 190 nm thick presenting a thin but compacted morphology. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) images shows that the Co(II) tetraruthenated porphyrins/Nf/GC modified electrode is more electrochemically active than their Ni and Zn analogues. These modified electrodes are able to reduce nitrite at -660 mV showing enhanced reduction current and a decrease in the required overpotential compared to bare glassy carbon electrode. Controlled potential electrolysis experiments verify the production of ammonia, hydrazine and hydroxylamine at potentials where reduction of solvent is plausible demonstrating some selectivity toward the nitrite ion. Rotating disc electrode voltammetry shows that the factor that governs the kinetics of nitrite reduction is the charge propagation in the film.

  3. Lack of nano size effect on electrochemistry of dopamine at a gold nanoparticle modified indium tin oxide electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Nanometer sized materials have been shown to possess excellent chemical and electrochemical catalytic properties.In this work,a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode was employed for investigating its electro-catalytic property.AuNP was deposited on the 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) modified ITO electrode by self-assembly,and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry.Although the electrochemical reaction of dopamine was very sluggish on the ITO/APTES electrode,it was significantly enhanced after AuNP deposition.The cyclic voltammogram exhibited apparent dependence on the surface coverage of 11 nm AuNPs,which could be rationalized by different modes of mass diffusion.Among the different sizes of AuNP investigated,the lowest anodic peak potential was observed on 11 nm AuNP.However,the potential was still about 50 mV more positive than that obtained on a bulk gold electrode of similar geometry.It is therefore concluded that there is no nanometer size effect of AuNP modified ITO on the electrochemistry of dopamine.

  4. Silver Solid Amalgam Electrodes as Sensors for Chemical Carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Yosypchuk; Karolina Peckova; Tomas Navratil; Jan Fischer; Jiri Barek

    2006-01-01

    The applicability of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) at a non-toxic meniscus-modified silver solid amalgam electrode (m-AgSAE) for the determination of trace amounts of genotoxic substances was demonstrated on the determination of micromolar and submicromolar concentrations of 3-nitrofluoranthene using methanol - 0.01 mol L-1 NaOH (9:1) mixture as a base electrolyte and of Ostazine Orange using 0.01 mol L-1 NaOH as a base electrolyte.

  5. Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes Modified by Rhodium Dioxide and Glucose Dehydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtěch Polan; Jan Soukup; Karel Vytřas

    2011-01-01

    The described glucose biosensor is based on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified by rhodium dioxide, which functions as a mediator. The electrode is further modified by the enzyme glucose dehydrogenase, which is immobilized on the electrode's surface through electropolymerization with m-phenylenediamine. The enzyme biosensor was optimized and tested in model glucose samples. The biosensor showed a linear range of 500–5000 mg L−1 of glucose with a detection limit of 210 mg L−1 (es...

  6. Electroanalysis of thiocyanate using a novel glassy carbon electrode modified by aryl radicals and cobalt tetracarboxyphthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matemadombo, Fungisai; Nyokong, Tebello [Rhodes University, Grahamstown (South Africa). Department of Chemistry; Westbroek, Philippe [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium). Department of Textiles

    2007-12-01

    Electrochemical grafting of 4-nitrobenzenediazonium tetrafluoroborate onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) results in the formation of a nitrophenyl radical, which reacts with the surface to form a covalent bond (grafting) and results in a nitrophenyl modified electrode. The nitro group is electrochemically reduced to a NH{sub 2} group. Cobalt tetracarboxyphthalocyanine (CoTCPc) complex is then attached to the NH{sub 2} group using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as coupling agents. The new CoTCPc modified electrode was characterized using cyclic voltammetry and then employed for the catalytic oxidation of thiocyanate. (author)

  7. PHOTOCHARGEABLE BEHAVIOR OF HYDROGEN STORAGE ALLOY ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH TiO_2 NANOPARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王改田; 涂江平; 张博; 张文魁; 吴建波; 黄辉

    2004-01-01

    Photochargeable behavior of hydrogen storage alloy electrode modified with TiO_2 nanoparticles(MH/TiO_2) was investigated by measuring its photocharge-discharge characteristics. The results showed the MH/TiO_2 electrode could store light energy photoelectrochemically when it was illuminated. The potential of the MH/TiO_2 electrode could be charged to 0.843 V.The discharge time of the MH/TiO_2 electrode increased with increasing the illuminating time, The mechanism of photochargeable behavior of the MH/T...

  8. Research on PEG modified Bi-doping lead dioxide electrode and mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi-doping PbO2 electrode, which is called Bi-PbO2 for short, modified with different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was prepared by electrodeposition method in this paper. The microstructure and electrochemical properties of the different modified electrodes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Mott-Schottky, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and linear sweep voltammetry techniques. The results show that adulteration of PEG has a noticeable improvement in the morphology of Bi-PbO2 electrode which can greatly decrease its particle size and enlarge its active surface area. Phenol degradation experiments reveal that the modified electrodes have excellent electro-catalytic activity and stability, and the optimal adulterate concentration of PEG is 8 g L-1. Electrochemical performance tests show that the modified electrodes exhibit more negative flatband potential (Efb), larger adsorption pseudo capacitance, lower adsorption resistance and higher oxygen evolution potential, and these characteristics promote the electro-catalytic activity of the Bi-PbO2 electrode. Finally, accelerated lifetime tests demonstrate that PEG modification can highly lengthen the service life of Bi-PbO2 electrode in its practical application.

  9. Research on PEG modified Bi-doping lead dioxide electrode and mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Weihua, E-mail: yangwh@hqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021 (China); Yang Wutao; Lin Xiaoyan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021 (China)

    2012-05-15

    Bi-doping PbO{sub 2} electrode, which is called Bi-PbO{sub 2} for short, modified with different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was prepared by electrodeposition method in this paper. The microstructure and electrochemical properties of the different modified electrodes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Mott-Schottky, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and linear sweep voltammetry techniques. The results show that adulteration of PEG has a noticeable improvement in the morphology of Bi-PbO{sub 2} electrode which can greatly decrease its particle size and enlarge its active surface area. Phenol degradation experiments reveal that the modified electrodes have excellent electro-catalytic activity and stability, and the optimal adulterate concentration of PEG is 8 g L{sup -1}. Electrochemical performance tests show that the modified electrodes exhibit more negative flatband potential (E{sub fb}), larger adsorption pseudo capacitance, lower adsorption resistance and higher oxygen evolution potential, and these characteristics promote the electro-catalytic activity of the Bi-PbO{sub 2} electrode. Finally, accelerated lifetime tests demonstrate that PEG modification can highly lengthen the service life of Bi-PbO{sub 2} electrode in its practical application.

  10. Simultaneous determination of cysteamine and folic acid in pharmaceutical and biological samples using modified multiwall carbon nanotube paste electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Taherkhani; Hassan Karimi-Maleh; Ali A.Ensafi; Hadi Beitollahi; Ahmad Hosseini; Mohammad A.Khalilzadeh; Hassan Bagheri

    2012-01-01

    A carbon paste electrode (CPE) chemically modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes and ferrocene (FC) was used as a selective electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of trace amounts of cysteamine (CA) and folic acid (FA).This modified electrode showed very efficient electrocatalytic activity for the anodic oxidation of CA.The peak current of differential pulse voltammograms of CA and FA increased linearly with their concentration in the ranges of 0.7-200 μmol/L CA and 5.0-700 μmol/L FA.The detection limits for CA and FA were 0.3 μmol/L and 2.0 μ mol/L,respectively.The diffusion coefficient (D) and transfer coefficient (α) of CA were also determined.These conditions are sufficient to allow determination of CA and FA both individually and simultaneously.

  11. Determination of Silver(I) by Differential Pulse Voltammetry Using a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Synthesized N-(2-Aminoethyl)-4,4′-Bipyridine

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Lucian Radu; Bogdan Bucur; Madalina Petruta Bucur; Medeea Radulescu; Maria-Cristina Radulescu; Ana Chira

    2010-01-01

    A new modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) based on a synthesized N-(2-aminoethyl)-4,4'-bipyridine (ABP) was developed for the determination of Ag(I) by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). ABP was covalently immobilized on GC electrodes surface using 4-nitrobenzendiazonium (4-NBD) and glutaraldehyde (GA). The Ag(I) ions were preconcentrated by chemical interaction with bipyridine under a negative potential (−0.6 V); then the reduced ions were oxidized by differential pulse voltammetry and...

  12. Electrochemical Capacitance DNA Sensing at Hairpin-Modified Au Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Rivera-Gandía; Maria del Mar Maldonado; Yarimar De La Torre-Meléndez; Edwin O. Ortiz-Quiles; Vargas-Barbosa, Nella M.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2011-01-01

    An interfacial capacitance measurement electrochemical technique has been used for the sensing of self-assembled DNA hairpin probes (M. tuberculosis and B. anthracis) attached to Au electrodes. The double-layer capacitance (Cdl) was determined with electrochemical perturbations from 0.2 V to 0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl at a Au/M. tuberculosis DNA hairpin probe at surface coverage Au electrodes. The capacitance study was done at pH 7, which was necessary to maintain the M. tuberculosis and B. anthrac...

  13. Poly({omicron}-methoxyaniline) modified electrode for detection of lithium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindino, Cleber Antonio; Casagrande, Marcella; Peiter, Andreia; Ribeiro, Caroline [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports the use of an electrode modified with poly({omicron}-methoxyaniline) for detecting lithium ions. These ions are present in drugs used for treating bipolar disorder and that requires periodical monitoring of the concentration of lithium in blood serum. Poly({omicron}-methoxyaniline) was obtained electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry on the surface of a gold electrode. The results showed that the electrode modified with a conducting polymer responded to lithium ions in the concentration range of 1 x 10{sup -5} to 1 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}. The results also confirmed that the performance of the modified electrode was comparable to that of the standard method (atomic emission spectrophotometry). (author)

  14. Poly(o-methoxyaniline modified electrode for detection of lithium ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Antonio Lindino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the use of an electrode modified with poly(o-methoxyaniline for detecting lithium ions. These ions are present in drugs used for treating bipolar disorder and that requires periodical monitoring of the concentration of lithium in blood serum. Poly(o-methoxyaniline was obtained electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry on the surface of a gold electrode. The results showed that the electrode modified with a conducting polymer responded to lithium ions in the concentration range of 1 x 10-5 to 1 x 10-4 mol L-1 . The results also confirmed that the performance of the modified electrode was comparable to that of the standard method (atomic emission spectrophotometry.

  15. Characterization of surfactant/hydrotalcite-like clay/glassy carbon modified electrodes: Oxidation of phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of hydrotalcite (HT)-like clay films containing ionic and nonionic surfactants and their ability to oxidize phenol have been examined. The HT clay (Co/Al-NO3) was synthesized by coprecipitation techniques and then modified with surfactants such as sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (TX100) or cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB). X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the interlayer basal spacing varied depending on the type of surfactant retained by the HT. The presence of SDBS and CPB expanded the HT interlayer, which in the presence of TX100 did not show an appreciable change. Phenol oxidation is favored at surfactant-HT-GC modified electrodes, after a preconcentration time, compared to phenol oxidation at HT-GC or GC electrodes. Surfactant-HT-GC modified electrodes display good stability in continuous electrochemical phenol oxidation. At pH values between 6 and 10.8, both SDBS-HT-GC and TX100-HT-GC modified electrodes seem to be promising electrodes for the detection of phenol in water; while the CPB-HT-GC modified electrode should be affected by the inorganic anions

  16. Antitumor activity of chemical modified natural compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Meirelles de Oliveira

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Search of new activity substances starting from chemotherapeutic agents, continously appears in international literature. Perhaps this search has been done more frequently in the field of anti-tumor chemotherapy on account of the unsuccess in saving advanced stage patients. The new point in this matter during the last decade was computer aid in planning more rational drugs. In near future "the accessibility of supercomputers and emergence of computer net systems, willopen new avenues to rational drug design" (Portoghese, P. S. J. Med. Chem. 1989, 32, 1. Unknown pharmacological active compounds synthetized by plants can be found even without this eletronic devices, as tradicional medicine has pointed out in many contries, and give rise to a new drug. These compounds used as found in nature or after chemical modifications have produced successful experimental medicaments as FAA, "flavone acetic acid" with good results as inibitors of slow growing animal tumors currently in preclinical evaluation for human treatment. In this lecture some international contributions in the field of chemical modified compounds as antineoplasic drugs will be examined, particularly those done by Brazilian researches.

  17. DNA-modified electrodes (Ⅶ)——Preparation and characterization of DNA-bonded and DNA-adsorbed SAM/Au electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆琪; 庞代文; 胡深; 程介克; 蔡雄伟; 施财辉; 毛秉伟; 戴鸿平

    1999-01-01

    Two kinds of DNA-modified electrodes were prepared by covalent and adsorptive immobilization of DNA onto self-assembled monolayers of 2, 2’-dithiodiethanol on gold electrodes and characterized by cyclic voltammetry, Xray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. The results suggest that the methods are satisfactory for the immobilization of DNA on electrodes.

  18. Chemically modified flexible strips as electrochemical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, Raju; Ganesh, V

    2014-09-21

    A flexible and disposable strip sensor for non-enzymatic glucose detection is demonstrated in this work. The strips are prepared by using chemical modification processes followed by a simple electroless deposition of copper. Essentially, polyester overhead projector (OHP) transparent films are modified with a monolayer of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and polyaniline (PANI) conducting polymer. Later, nanostructured copper is deposited onto this modified film. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies are used for the structural, morphological and crystallinity characterization of the modified films. Electrochemical techniques, namely cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA), are employed for the non-enzymatic detection of glucose. These studies clearly reveal the formation of homogeneous, close-packed spherical Cu particles converged into uniform film that exhibits a good catalytic activity towards the oxidation of glucose. The Cu/PANI/APTMS/OHP sensor displays a remarkable enhancement in the oxidation current density, a very high sensitivity value of 2.8456 mA cm(-2) per mM, and a linear concentration range from 100 μM to 6.5 mM associated with glucose detection. Detection limit is estimated to be 5 μM and the response time of the sensor is determined to be less than 5 s. For comparison, similar studies are performed without PANI, namely Cu/APTMS/OHP films for glucose detection. In this case, a sensitivity value of 2.4457 mA cm(-2) per mM and a linear concentration range of 100 μM-3 mM are estimated. The higher performance characteristics observed in the case of Cu/PANI/APTMS/OHP are attributed to the synergistic effects of the conducting polymer acting as an electron facilitator and the nanostructured Cu films. These disposable, flexible and low-cost strip sensors have also been applied to the detection of glucose in clinical blood serum samples and the results obtained agree very well with the actual glucose

  19. Electrodeposited nickel oxide and graphene modified carbon ionic liquid electrode for electrochemical myglobin biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei, E-mail: swyy26@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China); Gong, Shixing; Deng, Ying; Li, Tongtong; Cheng, Yong [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Wang, Wencheng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China); Wang, Lei [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China)

    2014-07-01

    By using ionic liquid 1-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate based carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) as the substrate electrode, graphene (GR) and nickel oxide (NiO) were in situ electrodeposited step by step to get a NiO/GR nanocomposite modified CILE. Myoglobin (Mb) was further immobilized on the surface of NiO/GR/CILE with a Nafion film to get the electrochemical sensor denoted as Nafion/Mb/NiO/GR/CILE. Cyclic voltammetric experiments indicated that a pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks appeared in pH 3.0 phosphate buffer solution with the formal peak potential (E{sup 0′}) located at − 0.188 V (vs. SCE), which was the typical characteristics of Mb Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couples. So the direct electron transfer of Mb was realized and promoted due to the presence of the NiO/GR nanocomposite on the electrode. Based on the cyclic voltammetric data, the electrochemical parameters of Mb on the modified electrode were calculated. The Mb modified electrode showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of different substrates including trichloroacetic acid and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Therefore a third-generation electrochemical Mb biosensor based on NiO/GR/CILE was constructed with good stability and reproducibility. - Highlights: • Graphene and nickel oxide nanocomposites were prepared by electrodeposition. • Electrochemical myoglobin sensor was prepared on a nanocomposite modified electrode. • Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myglobin were realized.

  20. Electrochemical Oxidation of Paracetamol Mediated by MgB2 Microparticles Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zidan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A MgB2 microparticles modified glassy carbon electrode (MgB2/GCE was fabricated by adhering microparticles of MgB2 onto the electrode surface of GCE. It was used as a working electrode for the detection of paracetamol in 0.1 M KH2PO4 aqueous solution during cyclic voltammetry. Use of the MgB2/GCE the oxidation process of paracetamol with a current enhancement significantly by about 2.1 times. The detection limit of this modified electrode was found to be 30 μM. The sensitivity under conditions of cyclic voltammetry is significantly dependent on pH, supporting electrolyte, temperature and scan rate. The current enhancement observed in different electrolytic media varied in the following order: KH2PO4 > KCl > K2SO4 > KBr. Interestingly, the oxidation of paracetamol using modified GC electrode remain constant even after 15 cycling. It is therefore evident that the MgB2 modified GC electrode possesses some degree of stability. A slope of 0.52 dependent of scan rate on current indicates that the system undergoes diffusion-controlled process.

  1. Electrodeposited nickel oxide and graphene modified carbon ionic liquid electrode for electrochemical myglobin biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using ionic liquid 1-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate based carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) as the substrate electrode, graphene (GR) and nickel oxide (NiO) were in situ electrodeposited step by step to get a NiO/GR nanocomposite modified CILE. Myoglobin (Mb) was further immobilized on the surface of NiO/GR/CILE with a Nafion film to get the electrochemical sensor denoted as Nafion/Mb/NiO/GR/CILE. Cyclic voltammetric experiments indicated that a pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks appeared in pH 3.0 phosphate buffer solution with the formal peak potential (E0′) located at − 0.188 V (vs. SCE), which was the typical characteristics of Mb Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couples. So the direct electron transfer of Mb was realized and promoted due to the presence of the NiO/GR nanocomposite on the electrode. Based on the cyclic voltammetric data, the electrochemical parameters of Mb on the modified electrode were calculated. The Mb modified electrode showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of different substrates including trichloroacetic acid and H2O2. Therefore a third-generation electrochemical Mb biosensor based on NiO/GR/CILE was constructed with good stability and reproducibility. - Highlights: • Graphene and nickel oxide nanocomposites were prepared by electrodeposition. • Electrochemical myoglobin sensor was prepared on a nanocomposite modified electrode. • Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myglobin were realized

  2. Xanthine Biosensor Based on Didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide Modified Pyrolytic Graphite Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG,Ji-Lin(唐纪琳); HAN,Xiao-Jun(韩晓军); HUANG,Wei-Min(黄卫民); WANG,Er-Kang(汪尔康)

    2002-01-01

    The vesicle of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB)which contained tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was mixed with xanthine oxidase, and the mixture was cast on the pyrolytic graphite electrode. The lipid films were used to supply a biological environment resembling biomembrane on the surface of the electrode. TTF was used as a mediator because of its high electron-transfer efficiency. A novel xanthine biosensor based on cast DDAB film was developed. The effects of pH and operating potential were explored for optimum analytical performance by using the amperometric method. The response time of the biosensor was less than 10 s. The detection limit of the biosensor was 3.2 × 10-7 mol/L and the liner range was from 4 × 10-7 mol/L to 2.4 × 10-6 mol/L.

  3. Application of CdS quantum dots modified carbon paste electrode for monitoring the process of acetaminophen preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasandideh-Nadamani, M; Omrani, A; Sadeghi-Maleki, M R; Samadi-Maybodi, A

    2016-06-01

    In this research article, a novel, selective, and sensitive modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) using CdS quantum dots (QDs) is presented. The highly stable CdS QDs were successfully synthesized in an in situ process using Na2S2O3 as a precursor and thioglycolic acid as a catalyst and capping agent. The synthesis of CdS QDs was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The synthesized CdS QDs were used for preparation of a modified carbon paste electrode (CdS/CPE). The electrochemical behavior of the electrode toward p-aminophenol (PAP) and acetaminophen (Ac) was studied, and the results demonstrated that the CdS/CPE exhibited good electrocatalytic performance toward PAP and Ac oxidation. The oxidation peak potential of each analyte in the mixture was well separated. As a result, a selective and reliable method was developed for the determination of PAP and Ac simultaneously without any chemical separations. Application of the fabricated electrode for monitoring the process of Ac preparation from PAP was investigated. The obtained results show that CdS/CPE has satisfactory analytical performance; it could be a kind of attractive and promising nanomaterial-based sensor for process monitoring via the electrochemical approach. PMID:26945834

  4. Doping level influence on chemical surface of diamond electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, A. F.; Baldan, M. R.; Ferreira, N. G.

    2013-04-01

    The modification of surface bond termination promoted by the doping level on diamond electrodes is analyzed. The films were prepared by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique using the standard mixture of H2/CH4 with an extra H2 flux passing through a bubbler containing different concentrations of B2O3 dissolved in methanol. Diamond morphology and quality were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman scattering spectroscopy techniques while the changes in film surfaces were analyzed by contact angle, cyclic voltammetry and synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The boron-doped diamond (BDD) films hydrophobicity, reversibility, and work potential window characteristics were related to their physical properties and chemical surface, as a function of the doping level. From the Mott-Schottky plots (MSP) and XPS analyzes, for the lightly (1018 cm-3) and highly (1020 cm-3) BDD films, the relationship between the BDD electrochemical responses and their surface bond terminations is discussed.

  5. Comparative investigation on electrochemical behavior of hydroquinone at carbon ionic liquid electrode, ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode and carbon paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionic liquid, 1-heptyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (HMIMPF6), has been used to fabricate two new electrodes, carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) and ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode (IL/CPE), using graphite powder mixed with HMIMPF6 or the mixture of HMIMPF6/paraffin liquid as the binder, respectively. The electrochemical behaviors of hydroquinone at the CILE, the IL/CPE and the CPE were investigated in phosphate buffer solution. At all these electrodes, hydroquinone showed a pair of redox peaks. The order of the current response and the standard rate constant of hydroquinone at these electrodes were as follows: CILE > IL/CPE > CPE, while the peak-to-peak potential separation was in an opposite sequence: CILE < IL/CPE < CPE. The results show the superiority of CILE to IL/CPE and CPE, and IL/CPE to CPE in terms of promoting electron transfer, improving reversibility and enhancing sensitivity. The CILE was chosen as working electrode to determine hydroquinone by differential pulse voltammetry, which can be used for sensitive, simple and rapid determination of hydroquinone in medicated skin cosmetic cream

  6. Cyclam Modified Carbon Paste Electrode as a Potentiometric Sensor For Determination of Cobalt(Ⅱ) Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Reza POURETEDAL; Mohammad Hossein KESHAVARZ

    2005-01-01

    A new modified carbon paste electrode based on cyclam as a modifier was prepared for the determination of Co(Ⅱ) ions. The proposed electrode shows a Nernstian slope 28.4 mV per decade over a wide concentration range 5.0×10-6_1.0×10-1 mol/L of Co2+ ions with detection limit 2.5×10-6 mol/L. The sensor exhibits good selectivities for Co2+ over a wide variety of other cations. It can be used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of cobalt(Ⅱ) ions as well as in direct determination of cobalt(Ⅱ) ions in wastewater of acidic cobalt electroplating bath. The electrode shows Nernestian behavior in a solution of 25% ethanol.

  7. Surface-treated carbon electrodes with modified potential of zero charge for capacitive deionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Wang, Gang; Zhan, Fei; Dong, Qiang; Ren, Qidi; Wang, Jianren; Qiu, Jieshan

    2016-04-15

    The potential of zero charge (Epzc) of electrodes can greatly influence the salt removal capacity, charge efficiency and cyclic stability of capacitive deionization (CDI). Thus optimizing the Epzc of CDI electrodes is of great importance. A simple strategy to negatively shift the Epzc of CDI electrodes by modifying commercial activated carbon with quaternized poly (4-vinylpyridine) (AC-QPVP) is reported in this work. The Epzc of the prepared AC-QPVP composite electrode is as negative as -0.745 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Benefiting from the optimized Epzc of electrodes, the asymmetric CDI cell which consists of the AC-QPVP electrode and a nitric acid treated activated carbon (AC-HNO3) electrode exhibits excellent CDI performance. For inverted CDI, the working potential window of the asymmetric CDI cell can reach 1.4 V, and its salt removal capacity can be as high as 9.6 mg/g. For extended voltage CDI, the salt removal capacity of the asymmetric CDI cell at 1.2/-1.2 V is 20.6 mg/g, which is comparable to that of membrane CDI using pristine activated carbon as the electrodes (19.5 mg/g). The present work provides a simple method to prepare highly positively charged CDI electrodes and may pave the way for the development of high-performance CDI cells. PMID:26878480

  8. Impact of SO 2 poisoning of platinum nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode on oxygen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, M. I.; Saleh, M. M.; Ohsaka, T.

    An extraordinary recovery characteristic of Pt-nanoparticles from SO 2 poisoning is introduced in this study. Platinum nanoparticles (nano-Pt) modified glassy carbon electrode (nano-Pt/GC) has been compared with polycrystalline platinum (poly-Pt) electrode towards SO 2 poisoning. Two procedures of recovery of the poisoned electrodes were achieved by cycling the potential in the narrow potential range (NPR, 0-0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl/KCl (sat.)) and wide potential range (WPR, -0.2 to 1.3 V). The extent of recovery was marked using oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as a probing reaction. SO 2 poisoning of the electrodes changed the mechanism of the oxygen reduction from the direct reduction to water to the stepwise reduction involving the formation of H 2O 2 as an intermediate, as indicated by the rotating ring-disk voltammetry. Using the WPR recovery procedure, it was found that two potential cycles were enough to recover 100% of the activity of the ORR on the nano-Pt/GC electrode. At the poly-Pt electrode, however, four potential cycles of the WPR caused only 79% in the current recovery, while the peak potential of the ORR was 130 mV negatively shifted as compared with the fresh poly-Pt electrode. Interestingly, the NPR procedure at the nano-Pt/GC electrode was even more efficient in the recovery than the WPR procedure at the poly-Pt electrode.

  9. Role of iron oxide impurities in electrocatalysis by multiwall carbon nanotubes: An investigation using a novel magnetically modified ITO electrodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kanchan M Samant; Vrushali S Joshi; Kashinath R Patil; Santosh K Haram

    2014-04-01

    The role of iron oxide impurities in the electrocatalytic properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) prepared by catalytic chemical vapour decomposition method (CCVD) is studied in detail. A novel magnetically modified electrodes have been developed by which MWCNTs were immobilized on indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes, without any chemical binders. The electro-catalytic oxidation of dopamine, and reduction of hydrogen peroxide have been studied by cyclic voltammetry on magnetically modified electrodes with (i) MWCNTs with occluded iron oxide impurities (Fe-MWCNTs), (ii) MWCNTs grown on iron oxide nanoparticle particulate films (Io-MWCNTs) and (iii) pristine iron oxide nanoparticle particulate film (Io-NPs). A shift towards less positive potentials for the oxidation of dopamine was observed which is in the order of Fe-MWCNTs < Io-MWCNTs < Io-NPs. Similarly, trend towards less negative potentials for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide was observed. Thus, the electrocatalytic activities displayed by MWCNTs have been attributed to the iron oxide impurities associated with it. The systematic variation was related to the nature of interaction of iron oxide nanoparticles with MWCNT surface.

  10. A Novel Cholesterol Oxidase Biosensor Based on Pt-nanoparticle /Carbon Nanotube Modified Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Cui SHI; Tu Zhi PENG

    2005-01-01

    A Pt-nanoparticle/carbon nanotube modified graphite electrode immobilized with cholesterol oxidase/sol-gel layer was developed for monitoring cholesterol. Using this electrode,cholesterol concentration (4.0×10-6 to 1.0×10 mol/L) could be determined accurately in the presence of ascorbic or uric acid, and the response time was rapid (< 20 s). This biosensor has high sensitivity and selectivity.

  11. SELECTIVE VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF HYDROXYPURINS ON ELECTRODE MODIFIED BY CARBON NANOTUBES

    OpenAIRE

    Shaidarova, L. G.; Chelnokova, I. A.; Mahmutova, G. F.; Degteva, M. A.; Gedmina, A. V.; Budnikov, H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) deposited on the surface of glassy carbon electrode show catalytic activity in the oxidation of uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine that is exhibited in decreasing overvoltage and increasing oxidation current of hydroxypurins. The method of simultaneous voltammetric determination of uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine at the electrode modified by carbon nanotubes is suggested. The linear dependence of analytical signal from substrates concentration is observed in the ...

  12. Glucose biosensors based on a gold nanodendrite modified screen-printed electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an enzymatic glucose biosensor based on a three-dimensional gold nanodendrite (GND) modified screen-printed electrode was developed. The GNDs were electrochemically synthesized on the working electrode component of a commercially available screen-printed electrode using a solution acquired by dissolving bulk gold in aqua regia as the precursor. The 3D GND electrode greatly enhanced the effective sensing area of the biosensor, which improved the sensitivity of glucose detection. Actual glucose detections demonstrated that the fabricated devices could perform at a sensitivity of 46.76 μA mM−1 cm−2 with a linear detection range from 28 μM–8.4 mM and detection limit of 7 μM. A fast response time (∼3 s) was also observed. Moreover, only a 20 μl glucose oxidase is required for detection owing to the incorporation of the commercially available screen-printed electrode. (paper)

  13. Glucose biosensors based on a gold nanodendrite modified screen-printed electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsi-Chien; Tsai, Chung-Che; Wang, Gou-Jen

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an enzymatic glucose biosensor based on a three-dimensional gold nanodendrite (GND) modified screen-printed electrode was developed. The GNDs were electrochemically synthesized on the working electrode component of a commercially available screen-printed electrode using a solution acquired by dissolving bulk gold in aqua regia as the precursor. The 3D GND electrode greatly enhanced the effective sensing area of the biosensor, which improved the sensitivity of glucose detection. Actual glucose detections demonstrated that the fabricated devices could perform at a sensitivity of 46.76 μA mM-1 cm-2 with a linear detection range from 28 μM-8.4 mM and detection limit of 7 μM. A fast response time (˜3 s) was also observed. Moreover, only a 20 μl glucose oxidase is required for detection owing to the incorporation of the commercially available screen-printed electrode.

  14. Determination of Mercury (II Ion on Aryl Amide-Type Podand-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Güney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new voltammetric sensor based on an aryl amide type podand, 1,8-bis(o-amidophenoxy-3,6-dioxaoctane, (AAP modified glassy carbon electrode, was described for the determination of trace level of mercury (II ion by cyclic voltammetry (CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV. A well-defined anodic peak corresponding to the oxidation of mercury on proposed electrode was obtained at 0.2 V versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The effect of experimental parameters on differential voltammetric peak currents was investigated in acetate buffer solution of pH 7.0 containing 1 × 10−1 mol L−1 NaCl. Mercury (II ion was preconcentrated at the modified electrode by forming complex with AAP under proper conditions and then reduced on the surface of the electrode. Interferences of Cu2+, Pb2+, Fe3+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ ions were also studied at two different concentration ratios with respect to mercury (II ions. The modified electrode was applied to the determination of mercury (II ions in seawater sample.

  15. Electrochromic properties of WO3 thin film onto gold nanoparticles modified indium tin oxide electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) thin films, electrochemically deposited from hydrogen tetrachloroaurate onto transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film coated glass, have different color prepared by variation of the deposition condition. The color of GNP film can vary from pale red to blue due to different particle size and their interaction. The characteristic of GNPs modified ITO electrodes was studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and cyclic voltammetry. WO3 thin films were fabricated by sol-gel method onto the surface of GNPs modified electrode to form the WO3/GNPs composite films. The electrochromic properties of WO3/GNPs composite modified ITO electrode were investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. It was found that the electrochromic performance of WO3/GNPs composite films was improved in comparison with a single component system of WO3.

  16. Electroanalysis of dopamine at a gold electrode modified with N-acetylcysteine self-assembled monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Li, Meixian; Li, Qianyuan

    2004-07-01

    Voltammetric behavior of dopamine (DA) on a gold electrode modified with the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of N-acetylcysteine has been investigated, and one pair of well-defined redox peaks of dopamine is obtained at the SAM modified gold electrode. The oxidation peak current increases linearly with the concentration of dopamine in the range of 1.0x10 (-6)to 2.0x10 (-4)moll(-1). The detection limit is 8.0x10(-7)moll(-1). This method will be applicable to the determination of dopamine in injection of dopamine hydrochloride, and the good recovery of dopamine is obtained. Furthermore, The SAM modified gold electrode can resolve well the voltammetric responses of dopamine and ascorbic acid (AA), so it can also be applied to the determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid.

  17. Au nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots co-modified glassy carbon electrode for catechol sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuan; He, Dawei; Wang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yin; Fu, Chen

    2016-03-01

    In this letter, the gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots were applied to the modification of glassy carbon electrode for the detection of catechol. The synergist cooperation between gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots can increase specific surface area and enhance electronic and catalytic properties of glassy carbon electrode. The detection limit of catechol is 0.869 μmol/L, demonstrating the superior detection efficiency of the gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots co-modified glassy carbon electrode as a new sensing platform.

  18. A sensitive electrochemical sensor for paracetamole based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and dopamine nanospheres functionalized with gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe an electrochemical sensor for paracetamole that is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and dopamine nanospheres functionalized with gold nanoparticles. The functionalized nanospheres were prepared by a chemical route and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The well-dispersed gold nanoparticles were anchored on the dopamine nanosphere via a chemical reduction of the gold precursor. The stepwise fabrication of the modified electrode and its electrochemical response to paracetamole were evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The modified electrode displayed improved electrocatalytic activity towards paracetamole, a lower oxidation potential (371 mV), and a larger peak current when compared to a bare electrode or other modified electrodes. The kinetic parameters governing the electro-oxidation of paracetamole were studied, and the analytical conditions were optimized. The peak current was linearly related to the concentration of paracetamole in 0.8–400 μM range, and the detection limit was 50 nM (at an SNR of 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of paracetamole in spiked human urine samples and gave recoveries between 95.3 and 105.2 %. (author)

  19. Disposable pencil graphite electrode modified with peptide nanotubes for Vitamin B{sub 12} analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pala, Betül Bozdoğan [Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine Division, Institute of Science, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Vural, Tayfun [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hacettepe University, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Kuralay, Filiz [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Arts, Ordu University, 52200 Ordu (Turkey); Çırak, Tamer [Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine Division, Institute of Science, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Bolat, Gülçin; Abacı, Serdar [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hacettepe University, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Denkbaş, Emir Baki, E-mail: denkbas@hacettepe.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hacettepe University, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-06-01

    In this study, peptide nanostructures from diphenylalanine were synthesized in various solvents with various polarities and characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) techniques. Formation of peptide nanofibrils, nanovesicles, nanoribbons, and nanotubes was observed in different solvent mediums. In order to investigate the effects of peptide nanotubes (PNT) on electrochemical behavior of disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGE), electrode surfaces were modified with fabricated peptide nanotubes. Electrochemical activity of the pencil graphite electrode was increased with the deposition of PNTs on the surface. The effects of the solvent type, the peptide nanotube concentration, and the passive adsorption time of peptide nanotubes on pencil graphite electrode were studied. For further electrochemical studies, electrodes were modified for 30 min by immobilizing PNTs, which were prepared in water at 6 mg/mL concentration. Vitamin B{sub 12} analyses were performed by the Square Wave (SW) voltammetry method using modified PGEs. The obtained data showed linearity over the range of 0.2 μM and 9.50 μM Vitamin B{sub 12} concentration with high sensitivity. Results showed that PNT modified PGEs were highly simple, fast, cost effective, and feasible for the electro-analytical determination of Vitamin B{sub 12} in real samples.

  20. Electrocatalytic amperometric determination of amitrole using a cobalt-phthalocyanine-modified carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, Manuel; Zapardiel, Antonio; Bermejo, Esperanza; Moreno, Mónica; Madrid, Elena

    2002-07-01

    Cobalt-phthalocyanine-modified carbon paste electrodes are shown to be excellent indicators for electrocatalytic amperometric measurements of triazolic herbicides such as amitrole, at low oxidation potentials (+0.40 V). The detection and determination of amitrole in flow injection analysis with a modified carbon paste electrode with Co-phthalocyanine is described. The concentrations of amitrole in 0.1 M NaOH solutions were determined using the electrocatalytic oxidation signal corresponding to the Co(II)/Co(III) redox process. A detection limit of 0.04 microg mL(-1) (4 ng amitrole) was obtained for a sample loop of 100 microL at a fixed potential of +0.55 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 0.1 M NaOH and a flow rate of 4.0 mL min(-1). Furthermore, the modified carbon paste electrodes offers reproducible responses in such a system, and the relative standard deviation was 3.3% using the same surface, 5.1% using different surface, and 6.9% using different pastes. The performance of the cobalt-phthalocyanine-modified carbon paste electrodes is illustrated here for the determination of amitrole in commercial formulations. The response of the electrodes is stable, with more than 80% of the initial retained activity after 50 min of continuous use.

  1. Disposable pencil graphite electrode modified with peptide nanotubes for Vitamin B12 analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, peptide nanostructures from diphenylalanine were synthesized in various solvents with various polarities and characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) techniques. Formation of peptide nanofibrils, nanovesicles, nanoribbons, and nanotubes was observed in different solvent mediums. In order to investigate the effects of peptide nanotubes (PNT) on electrochemical behavior of disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGE), electrode surfaces were modified with fabricated peptide nanotubes. Electrochemical activity of the pencil graphite electrode was increased with the deposition of PNTs on the surface. The effects of the solvent type, the peptide nanotube concentration, and the passive adsorption time of peptide nanotubes on pencil graphite electrode were studied. For further electrochemical studies, electrodes were modified for 30 min by immobilizing PNTs, which were prepared in water at 6 mg/mL concentration. Vitamin B12 analyses were performed by the Square Wave (SW) voltammetry method using modified PGEs. The obtained data showed linearity over the range of 0.2 μM and 9.50 μM Vitamin B12 concentration with high sensitivity. Results showed that PNT modified PGEs were highly simple, fast, cost effective, and feasible for the electro-analytical determination of Vitamin B12 in real samples.

  2. Voltammetric detection of bisphenol a by a chitosan–graphene composite modified carbon ionic liquid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate based carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) was fabricated and further modified with chitosan (CTS) and graphene (GR) composite film. The fabricated CTS-GR/CILE was further used for the investigation on the electrochemical behavior of bisphenol A (BPA) by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. A well-defined anodic peak appeared at 0.436 V in 0.1 mol/L pH 8.0 Britton–Robinson buffer solution, which was attributed to the electrooxidation of BPA on the modified electrode. The electrochemical parameters of BPA on the modified electrode were calculated with the results of the charge transfer coefficient (α) as 0.662 and the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) as 1.36 s−1. Under the optimal conditions, a linear relationship between the oxidation peak current of BPA and its concentration can be obtained in the range from 0.1 μmol/L to 800.0 μmol/L with the limit of detection as 2.64 × 10−8 mol/L (3σ). The CTS-GR/CILE was applied to the detection of BPA content in plastic products with satisfactory results. - Highlights: ► A graphene modified carbon ionic liquid electrode was fabricated and characterized. ► Electrochemical behaviors of bisphenol A were investigated. ► Bisphenol A was detected by the proposed electrode.

  3. Disposable pencil graphite electrode modified with peptide nanotubes for Vitamin B12 analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Betül Bozdoğan; Vural, Tayfun; Kuralay, Filiz; Çırak, Tamer; Bolat, Gülçin; Abacı, Serdar; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2014-06-01

    In this study, peptide nanostructures from diphenylalanine were synthesized in various solvents with various polarities and characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) techniques. Formation of peptide nanofibrils, nanovesicles, nanoribbons, and nanotubes was observed in different solvent mediums. In order to investigate the effects of peptide nanotubes (PNT) on electrochemical behavior of disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGE), electrode surfaces were modified with fabricated peptide nanotubes. Electrochemical activity of the pencil graphite electrode was increased with the deposition of PNTs on the surface. The effects of the solvent type, the peptide nanotube concentration, and the passive adsorption time of peptide nanotubes on pencil graphite electrode were studied. For further electrochemical studies, electrodes were modified for 30 min by immobilizing PNTs, which were prepared in water at 6 mg/mL concentration. Vitamin B12 analyses were performed by the Square Wave (SW) voltammetry method using modified PGEs. The obtained data showed linearity over the range of 0.2 μM and 9.50 μM Vitamin B12 concentration with high sensitivity. Results showed that PNT modified PGEs were highly simple, fast, cost effective, and feasible for the electro-analytical determination of Vitamin B12 in real samples.

  4. Electroanalysis of NADH Using Conducting and Redox Active Polymer/Carbon Nanotubes Modified Electrodes-A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Ming Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Past few decades, conducting and redox active polymers play a critical role in the development of transducers for biosensing. It has been evidenced by increasing numerous reports on conducting and redox active polymers incorporated electrodes for assay of biomolcules. This review highlights the potential uses of electrogenerated polymer modified electrodes and polymer/carbon nanotubes composite modified electrodes for electroanalysis of reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinuceltoide (NADH. In addition, carbon electrodes modified with organic and inorganic materials as modifier have been discussed in detail for the quantification of NADH based on mediator or mediator-less methods.

  5. Electrocatalytic Reduction of NAD+ at Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈黎明; 丁飞; 王欢; 张文; 陆嘉星

    2005-01-01

    The cyclic voltammetric (CV) behaviors of NAD+ were studied with a multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. In 0.05 mol/L tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-HCl (Tris-HCl) buffer solution (pH=6.9), the MWNTs modified electrode showed high electrocatalytic activity toward reduction of NAD+.The electroreduction of NAD+ was an irreversible diffusion controlled process. The cathodic peak current increased linearly with increasing the concentration of NAD+. The influences of scan rate, temperature and concentration were also investigated.

  6. Direct Electrochemistry of Catalase on Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang ZHAO; Lun Hui GUAN; Zhen Nan GU; Qian Kun ZHUANG

    2005-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry of catalase (Ct) has been studied on single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. A pair of well-defined nearly reversible redox peaks is given at --0.48 V (vs. SCE) in 0.1 mol/L phosphate solution (pH 7.0).The peak current in cyclic voltammogram is proportional to the scan rate. The peak potential of catalase is shifted to more negative value when the pH increases. Catalase can adsorb on the SWNTs modified electrode.

  7. Copper modified platinum electrode for amperometric detection of spectinomycin sulfate by anion-exchange chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Ling Xi; Pei Min Zhang; Yan Zhu

    2009-01-01

    A La~(3+)-Cu/Pt modified electrode was fabricated by electrodepositing process in CuSO_4 solution by adding a small amount of lanthium compound, and it was employed for direct current (DC) amperometric detection of spectinomycin by anion-exchange chromatography. Without derivatization, this method can simultaneously determine the main component and impurities in spectinomycin pharmaceutical raw material. Ease of preparation, being applied in DC detection mode and good catalytic stability confirmed the interests of this modified electrode as amperometric sensor for the determination of spectinomycin.

  8. Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide-nafion/Au Nanoparticle Modified Electrode for Hydrogen Peroxide Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Yajie Lv; Fang Wang; Hui Zhu; Xiaorong Zou; Cheng-an Tao; Jianfang Wang

    2016-01-01

    n this paper, a non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor, based on Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) electrodepos‐ ited on an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide(ER‐ GO)-Nafion modified glass carbon electrode (GCE), was reported. The graphene oxide-(GO-)Nafion nanocompo‐ sites were first assembled on the GCE surface to produce a GO-Nafion electrode. GO was then electrochemically reduced to produce an ERGO-Nafion modified GCE (to be subsequently denoted as GCE/ERGO-Nafion). Afterwards, AuNPs ...

  9. Electrochemical Preparation and Characterization of Lanthanum Hexacyanoferrate Modified Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴萍; 蔡称心

    2005-01-01

    An electroactive polynuclear inorganic compound of rare earth metal hexacyanoferrate, lanthanum hexacyanoferrate (LaHCF), was prepared by electrochemical deposition on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode with a potential cycling procedure. The cyclic voltammogram of LaHCF exhibits a pair of well-defined redox peaks with the formal potential of 208 mV (vs. SCE) at a scan rate of 100 mV/s in 0.2 mol/L NaCl solution and the redox peak currents increase linearly with the square root of the scan rate up to 1000 mV/s. The effects of the concentration of supporting electrolyte on the electrochemical characteristics of LaHCF were studied by voltammetry. LaHCF was also characterizated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), FTIR and XPS techniques.

  10. A 3D Microfluidic Chip for Electrochemical Detection of Hydrolysed Nucleic Bases by a Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Vlachova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of carbon materials, especially graphene-based materials, has wide applications in electrochemical detection such as electrochemical lab-on-chip devices. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with chemically alternated graphene oxide was used as a working electrode (glassy carbon modified by graphene oxide with sulphur containing compounds and Nafion for detection of nucleobases in hydrolysed samples (HCl pH = 2.9, 100 °C, 1 h, neutralization by NaOH. It was found out that modification, especially with trithiocyanuric acid, increased the sensitivity of detection in comparison with pure GCE. All processes were finally implemented in a microfluidic chip formed with a 3D printer by fused deposition modelling technology. As a material for chip fabrication, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene was chosen because of its mechanical and chemical stability. The chip contained the one chamber for the hydrolysis of the nucleic acid and another for the electrochemical detection by the modified GCE. This chamber was fabricated to allow for replacement of the GCE.

  11. Redox poly[Ni(saldMp)] modified activated carbon electrode in electrochemical supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Fei [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Li Jianling, E-mail: lijianling@ustb.edu.c [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang Yakun; Wang Xindong [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Kang Feiyu [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2010-08-01

    The complex (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediaminebis(salicylideneaminato))-nickel(II), [Ni(saldMp)], was oxidatively electropolymerized on activated carbon (AC) electrode in acetonitrile solution. The poly[Ni(saldMp)] presented an incomplete coated film on the surface of carbon particles of AC electrode by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of poly[Ni(saldMp)] modified activated carbon (PAC) electrode were evaluated in different potential ranges by cyclic voltammetry. Counterions and solvent swelling mainly occurred up to 0.6 V for PAC electrode by the comparison of D{sup 1/2}C values calculated from chronoamperometry experiments. Both the Ohmic resistance and Faraday resistance of PAC electrode gradually approached to those of AC electrode when its potential was ranging from 1.2 V to 0.0 V. Galvanostatic charge/discharge experiments indicated that both the specific capacitance and energy density were effectively improved by the reversible redox reaction of poly[Ni(saldMp)] film under the high current density up to 10 mA cm{sup -2} for AC electrode. The specific capacitance of PAC electrode decreased during the first 50 cycles but thereafter it remained constant for the next 200 cycles. This study showed the redox polymer may be an attractive material in supercapacitors.

  12. Application of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for Determination of Mefenamic Acid in Pharmaceutical Preparations and Biological Fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemically modified electrode is constructed based on multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (MWCNTs/GCE). It is demonstrated that this sensor could be used for determination of pharmaceutically important compound mefenamic acid (MEF). Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) experiments of various concentration of MEF showed two linear dynamic ranges. The first linear dynamic range was from 2 micro M to 40 micro M, and the second linear dynamic range was between 50 micro M to 360 micro M. A detection limit of 0.21 micro M (S/N = 3) was obtained. Under optimal conditions the modified electrode exhibited high sensitivity and stability for determination of MEF, making it a suitable sensor for the submicromolar detection of MEF in solutions. The analytical performance of this sensor has been evaluated for the detection of MEF in human serum, human urine and a pharmaceutical preparation with satisfactory results. (author)

  13. Simultaneous electroanalysis of dopamine and ascorbic acid using poly (N,N-dimethylaniline)-modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Protiva Rani; Okajima, Takeyoshi; Ohsaka, Takeo

    2003-04-01

    Glassy carbon (GC) electrode is modified with an electropolymerized film of N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA). This polymer (PDMA) film-coated GC electrode is used to electrochemically detect dopamine (DA) in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA). Polymer film has the positive charge in its backbone, and in neutral solution DA exists as the positively charged species whereas AA exists as the negatively charged one. In cyclic voltammetric measurements, favorable ionic interaction (i.e., electrostatic attraction) between AA and PDMA film causes a large negative shift of the oxidation potential for AA compared to that at the bare electrode. Oxidation potential for DA is positively shifted due to the electrostatic repulsion. The PDMA film shows hydrophobicity by incorporating uncharged hydroquinone molecule within the film. DA is also incorporated into the film due to hydrophobic attraction even though DA has a positive charge. The responses of DA and AA at polymer-modified electrodes largely change with the concentration of the monomer (i.e., 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 M DMA) used in electropolymerization and thus with the film thickness. Hydrophobicity of the polymer film shows great influence on the voltammetric responses of both DA and AA. In square wave voltammetric measurements, the PDMA film-coated electrode can separate the DA and AA oxidation potentials by about 300 mV and can detect DA at its low concentration (e.g., 0.2 microM) in the presence of 1000 times higher concentration of AA, which is close to the physiological level. AA oxidizes at more negative potential than DA. The electrode response is not affected by the oxidized product of AA. So unlike the bare electrode, the fouling effect as well as the catalytic oxidation of AA by the oxidized form of DA are eliminated at the PDMA film-coated GC electrode. The electrode exhibits the stable and sensitive response to DA.

  14. Preparation, Electrochemical Property and Application in Bulk-modified Electrode of Dawson-type Phosphomolybdate-doped Polypyrrole Composite Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A kind of inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductor composite nanoparticles: Dawson-type phosphomolybdatedoped polypyrrole (P2Mo18-PPy) was designed and prepared using microemulsion oxidation-polymerization at room temperature and characterized by TEM and IR. The P2Mo18-PPy was used as a bulk-modifier to fabricate a chemically modified carbon paste electrode(CPE) by direct mixing, which represents the example of polyoxometalates (POMs)-doped semiconductor polymer nanoparticles modified electrode. Both the advantage of POMs-doped polymer and the surface-renewal property of the CPE were fully utilized. The electrochemical behavior of the P2Mo18-PPy bulk-modified CPE(P2Mo18-PPy-CPE) was investigated with cyclic voltammetry. Three couples of reversible redox peaks were observed in the range from + 800 to 0 mV, which corresponded to the reduction and oxidation through two-, four- and six-electron processes, respectively. The P2Mo18-PPY-CPE showed a high electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of nitrite, which expanded the application of POMs-doped semiconductor polymer nanoparticles.

  15. Au nanoparticles/poly(caffeic acid) composite modified glassy carbon electrode for voltammetric determination of acetaminophen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianbao; Xu, Juan; Zhao, Lei; Shen, Shaofei; Yuan, Maosen; Liu, Wenming; Tu, Qin; Yu, Ruijin; Wang, Jinyi

    2016-10-01

    An Au nanoparticles/poly(caffeic acid) (AuNPs/PCA) composite modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode was prepared by successively potentiostatic technique in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution containing 0.02mM caffeic acid and 1.0mM HAuCl4. Electrochemical characterization of the AuNPs/PCA-GC electrode was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen (AP) at the AuNPs/PCA-GC electrode was also studied by cyclic voltammetry. Compared with bare GC and poly(caffeic acid) modified GC electrode, the AuNPs/PCA-GC electrode was exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of AP. The plot of catalytic current versus AP concentration showed two linear segments in the concentration ranges 0.2-20µM and 50-1000µM. The detection limit of 14 nM was obtained by using the first range of the calibration plot. The AuNPs/PCA-GC electrode has been successfully applied and validated by analyzing AP in blood, urine and pharmaceutical samples. PMID:27474318

  16. Cathodic stripping voltammetric determination of chromium in coastal waters on cubic Nano-titanium carbide loaded gold nanoparticles modified electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao eHan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The novel cubical nano-titanium carbide loaded gold nanoparticles modified electrode for selective and sensitive detection of trace chromium (Cr in coastal water was established based on a simple approach. Nano-titanium carbide is used as the typical cubical nanomaterial with wonderful catalytic activity towards the reduction of Cr(VI. Gold nanoparticles with excellent physical and chemical properties can facilitate electron transfer and enhance the catalytic activity of the modified electrode. Taking advantage of the synergistic effects of nano-titanium carbide and gold nanoparticles, the excellent cathodic signal responses for the stripping determination of Cr(VI can be obtained. The detection limit of this method is calculated as 2.08 μg L-1 with the linear calibration curve ranged from 5.2 to 1040 μg L-1. This analytical method can be used to detect Cr(VI effectively without using any complexing agent. The fabricated electrode was successfully applied for the detection of chromium in coastal waters collected from the estuary giving Cr concentrations between 12.48 and 22.88 μg L-1 with the recovery between 96% and 105%.

  17. Performances improvement of eosin Y sensitized solar cells by modifying TiO2 electrode with silane-coupling reagent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU YanFang; LI XuePing; ZHANG JingBo; ZHOU XiaoWen; LIN Yuani

    2009-01-01

    Chemical fixing of xanthene dye (eosin Y) on the surface of TiO2 electrode was carried out by modifying the electrode with silane-coupling reagent to obtain stable dye-sensitized TiO2 electrode.Such silane modification can not only evidently enhance the stability of dye-sensitized TiO2 electrode but also improve the energy conversion efficiency of the assembled cells by increasing short-circuit photocurrent (Jsc) and open-circuit photovoltage (Voc).It was found that the improvements of cell performances differ depending on the composition of the electrolyte.The optimum cell of the cell performance was achieved in the electrolyte with 0.5 mol/L TBAI/0.05 mol/L I2/EC:PC(3:1 w/w),yielding Jsc of 4.69 cluding UV-Vis spectra,fluorescence spectra,EIS and dark current measurements were employed to derive reasonable analysis and explanations.

  18. Screen-printed carbon electrodes modified by rhodium dioxide and glucose dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polan, Vojtěch; Soukup, Jan; Vytřas, Karel

    2011-01-01

    The described glucose biosensor is based on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified by rhodium dioxide, which functions as a mediator. The electrode is further modified by the enzyme glucose dehydrogenase, which is immobilized on the electrode's surface through electropolymerization with m-phenylenediamine. The enzyme biosensor was optimized and tested in model glucose samples. The biosensor showed a linear range of 500-5000 mg L(-1) of glucose with a detection limit of 210 mg L(-1) (established as 3σ) and response time of 39 s. When compared with similar glucose biosensors based on glucose oxidase, the main advantage is that neither ascorbic and uric acids nor paracetamol interfere measurements with this biosensor at selected potentials. PMID:21528113

  19. Electrochemical sensing of bisphenol using a multilayer graphene nanobelt modified photolithography patterned platinum electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthick Kannan, Padmanathan; Hu, Chunxiao; Morgan, Hywel; Moshkalev, Stanislav A.; Sekhar Rout, Chandra

    2016-09-01

    An electrochemical sensor has been developed for the detection of Bisphenol-A (BPA) using photolithographically patterned platinum electrodes modified with multilayer graphene nanobelts (GNB). Compared to bare electrodes, the GNB modified electrode exhibited enhanced BPA oxidation current, due to the high effective surface area and high adsorption capacity of the GNB. The sensor showed a linear response over the concentration range from 0.5 μM–9 μM with a very low limit of detection = 37.33 nM. In addition, the sensor showed very good stability and reproducibility with good specificity, demonstrating that GNB is potentially a new material for the development of a practical BPA electrochemical sensor with application in both industrial and plastic industries.

  20. Improved hydrogen evolution on glassy carbon electrode modified with novel Pt/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide nanoscale aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jahan-Bakhsh Raoof; Sayed Reza Hosseini; Seyedeh Zeinab Mousavi-Sani

    2015-01-01

    A novel, cost‐effective, and simple electrocatalyst based on a Pt‐modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE), using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant, is reported. Am‐phiphilic CTAB molecules were adsorbed on GCE by immersion in a CTAB solution. The positively charged hydrophilic layer, which consisted of small aggregates of average size less than 100 nm, was used for accumulation and complexation of [PtCl6]2− anions by immersing the electrode in K2PtCl6 solution. The modified electrode was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy‐dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy, impedance spectroscopy, and electrochemical methods. The electrocatalytic activity of the Pt particles in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) was investigat‐ed. The results show that the CTAB surfactant enhances the electrocatalytic activity of the Pt parti‐cles in the HER in acidic solution.

  1. Amperometric Sensor Used for Determination of Thiocyanate with a Silver Nanoparticles Modified Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Fang

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A novel electrode modified with silver nanoparticles was fabricated. It is found that the reducibility of silver nanoparticles is higher than for bulk silver by comparing a silver nanoparticles modified electrode with a silver micro-disk electrode. When SCN- was added, a new oxidation peak occurred and the anodic peak current of silver nanoparticles decreased. The new anodic peak current is proportional to the thiocyanate concentration in the range of 5.0×10-7~4.0×10-4 mol/L in pH 6.0 NaH2PO4-Na2HPO4 buffer solutions (PBS. The detection limit (S/N=3 is 4×10-8 mol/L. This method has been applied to the determination of saliva (smoker and non-smoker.

  2. Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at the carbon atom wire modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue Kuanhong [Chemistry Department, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Bio-medical Function Materials, 122 NingHai Road, Nanjing, JiangSu 210097 (China)], E-mail: khxue@njnu.edu.cn; Liu Jiamei [Chemistry Department, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Bio-medical Function Materials, 122 NingHai Road, Nanjing, JiangSu 210097 (China); Wei Ribing [Chemistry Department, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Bio-medical Function Materials, 122 NingHai Road, Nanjing, JiangSu 210097 (China); Chen Shaopeng [Chemistry Department, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Bio-medical Function Materials, 122 NingHai Road, Nanjing, JiangSu 210097 (China)

    2006-09-11

    Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at an electrode modified by carbon atom wires (CAWs), a new material, was investigated by cyclic voltammetry combined with UV-vis spectrometry, and forced convection method. As to the electrochemical response of redox of adrenaline/adrenalinequinone couple in 0.50 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, at a nitric acid treated CAW modified electrode, the anodic and cathodic peak potentials E {sub pa} and E {sub pc} shifted by 87 mV negatively and 139 mV in the positive direction, respectively, and standard heterogeneous rate constant k {sup 0} increased by 16 times compared to the corresponding bare electrode, indicating the extraordinary activity of CAWs in electrocatalysis for the process.

  3. Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes Modified by Rhodium Dioxide and Glucose Dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Polan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The described glucose biosensor is based on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE modified by rhodium dioxide, which functions as a mediator. The electrode is further modified by the enzyme glucose dehydrogenase, which is immobilized on the electrode's surface through electropolymerization with m-phenylenediamine. The enzyme biosensor was optimized and tested in model glucose samples. The biosensor showed a linear range of 500–5000 mg L−1 of glucose with a detection limit of 210 mg L−1 (established as 3σ and response time of 39 s. When compared with similar glucose biosensors based on glucose oxidase, the main advantage is that neither ascorbic and uric acids nor paracetamol interfere measurements with this biosensor at selected potentials.

  4. Amperometric biosensor based on glassy carbon electrode modified with long-length carbon nanotube and enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furutaka, Hajime; Nemoto, Kentaro; Inoue, Yuki; Hidaka, Hiroki; Muguruma, Hitoshi; Inoue, Hitoshi; Ohsawa, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    An amperometric biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with long-length multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and enzyme nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) is presented. We demonstrate the effect of the MWCNT length on the amperometric response of the enzyme biosensor. The long length of MWCNT is 200 µm (average), whereas the normal length of MWCNT is 1 µm (average). The response of the long MWCNT–GDH electrode is 2 times more sensitive than that of the normal-length MWCNT–GDH electrode in the concentration range from 0.25–35 mM. The result of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that the long-length MWCNT–GDH electrode formed a better electron transfer network than the normal-length one.

  5. Electrodes from carbon nanotubes/NiO nanocomposites synthesized in modified Watts bath for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamada, Masataka; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Mabuchi, Mamoru

    2016-09-01

    A modified Watts bath coupled with pulsed current electroplating is used to uniformly deposit ultrafine nickel oxide particles (diameter carbon nanotubes. The capacitance of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes/nickel oxide electrodes was as high as 2480 F g-1 (per mass of nickel oxide), which is close to the theoretical capacitance of NiO.

  6. Graphene nanosheets modified glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous detection of heroine, morphine and noscapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaee, Aso; Salimi, Abdollah; Teymourian, Hazhir

    2012-01-15

    In the present study, the graphene nanosheets (GNSs) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode is employed for simultaneous determination of morphine, noscapine and heroin. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of the simultaneous determination of these three important opiate drugs based on their direct electrochemical oxidation. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) technique is utilized in order to study the surface morphology of the modified electrode. The modified electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of morphine, noscapine and heroin at reduced overpotentials in wide pH range. In the performed experiments, differential pulse voltammetric determination of morphine, noscapine and heroin yields calibration curves with the following characteristics; linear dynamic range up to 65, 40 and 100 μM, sensitivity of 275, 500 and 217 nA μM(-1) cm(-2), and detection limits of 0.4, 0.2 and 0.5 μM at 3S(B), respectively. Fast response time, signal stability, high sensitivity, low cost and ease of preparation method without using any specific electron-transfer mediator or specific reagent are the advantageous of the proposed sensor. The modified electrode can be used for simultaneous or individual detection of three major narcotic components, heroin, noscapine and morphine at micromolar concentration without any separation or pretreatment steps.

  7. Electrogenerated chemiluminesence method for the determination of riboflavin at an ionic liquid modified gold electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Honglan; Cao, Zongze; Hou, Lina

    2011-01-01

    A highly sensitive electrogenerated chemiluminesence (ECL) method for the determination of riboflavin was developed based on the enhancement of ECL intensity of lucigenin at room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) modified gold electrode. RTILs modified gold electrode exhibited excellent electrochemical and ECL property to lucigenin system and the ECL intensity of lucigenin was greatly enhanced by riboflavin. The characterization of the RTILs modified electrode and the attractive performance of the sensitive ECL method for the determination of riboflavin were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the ECL intensity was directly proportional to the concentration of riboflavin in the range from 5.0 × 10 -10 g/mL to 1.0 × 10 -8 g/mL with the detection limit of 1 × 10 -10 g/mL. The method has been applied to the determination of riboflavin in the pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory recovery from 96% to 101%. This work demonstrates that the incorporation of ECL method with RTILs modified electrode is a promising strategy for the determination of organic compounds with high sensitivity and good reproducibility.

  8. Ammonia gas sensors based on chemically reduced graphene oxide sheets self-assembled on Au electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yafei; Zhou, Zhihua; Liu, Yanhua; Shen, Su; Peng, Changsi

    2014-01-01

    We present a useful ammonia gas sensor based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets by self-assembly technique to create conductive networks between parallel Au electrodes. Negative graphene oxide (GO) sheets with large sizes (>10 μm) can be easily electrostatically attracted onto positive Au electrodes modified with cysteamine hydrochloride in aqueous solution. The assembled GO sheets on Au electrodes can be directly reduced into rGO sheets by hydrazine or pyrrole vapor and consequently provide the sensing devices based on self-assembled rGO sheets. Preliminary results, which have been presented on the detection of ammonia (NH3) gas using this facile and scalable fabrication method for practical devices, suggest that pyrrole-vapor-reduced rGO exhibits much better (more than 2.7 times with the concentration of NH3 at 50 ppm) response to NH3 than that of rGO reduced from hydrazine vapor. Furthermore, this novel gas sensor based on rGO reduced from pyrrole shows excellent responsive repeatability to NH3. Overall, the facile electrostatic self-assembly technique in aqueous solution facilitates device fabrication, the resultant self-assembled rGO-based sensing devices, with miniature, low-cost portable characteristics and outstanding sensing performances, which can ensure potential application in gas sensing fields.

  9. Ammonia gas sensors based on chemically reduced graphene oxide sheets self-assembled on Au electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yafei; Zhou, Zhihua; Liu, Yanhua; Shen, Su; Peng, Changsi

    2014-05-01

    We present a useful ammonia gas sensor based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets by self-assembly technique to create conductive networks between parallel Au electrodes. Negative graphene oxide (GO) sheets with large sizes (>10 μm) can be easily electrostatically attracted onto positive Au electrodes modified with cysteamine hydrochloride in aqueous solution. The assembled GO sheets on Au electrodes can be directly reduced into rGO sheets by hydrazine or pyrrole vapor and consequently provide the sensing devices based on self-assembled rGO sheets. Preliminary results, which have been presented on the detection of ammonia (NH3) gas using this facile and scalable fabrication method for practical devices, suggest that pyrrole-vapor-reduced rGO exhibits much better (more than 2.7 times with the concentration of NH3 at 50 ppm) response to NH3 than that of rGO reduced from hydrazine vapor. Furthermore, this novel gas sensor based on rGO reduced from pyrrole shows excellent responsive repeatability to NH3. Overall, the facile electrostatic self-assembly technique in aqueous solution facilitates device fabrication, the resultant self-assembled rGO-based sensing devices, with miniature, low-cost portable characteristics and outstanding sensing performances, which can ensure potential application in gas sensing fields.

  10. Strain Engineering to Modify the Electrochemistry of Energy Storage Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Nitin; Carter, Rachel; Oakes, Landon; Cohn, Adam P.; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-06-01

    Strain engineering has been a critical aspect of device design in semiconductor manufacturing for the past decade, but remains relatively unexplored for other applications, such as energy storage. Using mechanical strain as an input parameter to modulate electrochemical potentials of metal oxides opens new opportunities intersecting fields of electrochemistry and mechanics. Here we demonstrate that less than 0.1% strain on a Ni-Ti-O based metal-oxide formed on superelastic shape memory NiTi alloys leads to anodic and cathodic peak potential shifts by up to ~30 mV in an electrochemical cell. Moreover, using the superelastic properties of NiTi to enable strain recovery also recovers the electrochemical potential of the metal oxide, providing mechanistic evidence of strain-modified electrochemistry. These results indicate that mechanical energy can be coupled with electrochemical systems to efficiently design and optimize a new class of strain-modulated energy storage materials.

  11. Glassy carbon electrodes modified with gelatin functionalized reduced graphene oxide nanosheet for determination of gallic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fereshteh Chekin; Samira Bagheri; Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid

    2015-12-01

    A simple approach for the preparation of gelatin functionalized reduced graphene oxide nanosheet (Gel-RGONS) by chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using gelatin as both reducing agent and stabilizing agent in an aqueous solution was developed. The morphology and structure of the Gel-RGONS were examined by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Gelatin acted as a functionalizing reagent to guarantee good dispersibility and stability of the r in distilled water. Moreover, a new electrochemical sensor was developed based on Gel-RGONS modified glassy carbon electrode (Gel-RGONS/GCE). Gel-r exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity to gallic acid (GA) oxidation. The experimental conditions such as pH, adsorption time and scan rate were optimized for the determination of GA. Under optimum conditions, the sensor responded linearly to GA in the concentration of 1.0 × 10−6 to 1.1 × 10−4 M with detection limit of 4.7 × 10−7 M at 3 using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The method has been successfully applied to the determination of GA in sample of black tea.

  12. Mutagenicity of chemicals in genetically modified animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems MI; van Benthem J; LEO

    2001-01-01

    The strategy for assessing human health risks of chemicals consists of a large number of tests in different research disciplines. Tests include acute and chronic toxicity, genotoxicity, reproduction toxicity and carcinogenicity. Genotoxic properties of chemicals are assessed in short-term in vitro

  13. Comparing the performances of electrochemical sensors using p-aminophenol redox cycling by different reductants on gold electrodes modified with self-assembled monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Performances of p-AP redox cycling using different reductants on gold surface are compared. • Background current decreases in order of hydrazine, Na2SO3, NaBH4, NADH, cysteamine, and TCEP. • Chemical reaction rate with QI increases in order of NADH, TCEP, and cysteamine. • NADH, TCEP and cysteamine are suitable for p-AP redox cycling on gold electrode. -- Abstract: p-Aminophenol (p-AP) redox cycling using chemical reductants is one strategy for developing sensitive electrochemical sensors. However, most of the reported reductants are only used on indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes but not gold electrodes due to the high background current caused by the oxidation reaction of the reductants on the highly electrocatalytic gold electrodes. Therefore, new strategies and/or reductants are in demand for expanding the application of p-AP redox cycling on gold electrodes. In this work, we compared the performances of several reductants in p-AP redox cycling on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs)-modified gold electrodes. Among the tested reagents, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) and cysteamine were demonstrated to be suitable for p-AP redox cycling on the alkanethiol-modified gold electrodes because of their low background current. The rate of chemical reaction between reductants and p-quinone imine (QI, the electrochemically oxidized product of p-AP) increases in the order of NADH −1 was achieved. We believe that our work will be valuable for the development of electrochemical sensors using p-AP redox cycling on gold electrodes

  14. Bismuth Modified Carbon-Based Electrodes for the Determination of Selected Neonicotinoid Insecticides

    OpenAIRE

    Marko Rodić; Olga Vajdle; Valéria Guzsvány; Jasmina Zbiljić; Zsigmond Papp

    2011-01-01

    Two types of bismuth modified electrodes, a bismuth-film modified glassy carbon (BiF-GCE) and a bismuth bulk modified carbon paste, were applied for the determination of selected nitroguanidine neonicotinoid insecticides. The method based on an ex situ prepared BiF-GCE operated in the differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) mode was applied to determine clothianidin in the concentration range from 2.5 to 23 μg cm−3 with a relative standard deviation (RSD) not exceeding 1.5%. The tricresyl phosp...

  15. Bismuth Modified Carbon-Based Electrodes for the Determination of Selected Neonicotinoid Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Rodić

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Two types of bismuth modified electrodes, a bismuth-film modified glassy carbon (BiF-GCE and a bismuth bulk modified carbon paste, were applied for the determination of selected nitroguanidine neonicotinoid insecticides. The method based on an ex situ prepared BiF-GCE operated in the differential pulse voltammetric (DPV mode was applied to determine clothianidin in the concentration range from 2.5 to 23 μg cm−3 with a relative standard deviation (RSD not exceeding 1.5%. The tricresyl phosphate-based carbon paste electrodes (TCP-CPEs, bulk modified with 5 and 20 w/w% of bismuth, showed a different analytical performance in the determination of imidacloprid, regarding the peak shape, potential window, and noise level. The TCP-CPE with 5% Bi was advantageous, and the developed DPV method based on it allowed the determination in the concentration range from 1.7 to 60 μg cm−3 with an RSD of 2.4%. To get a deeper insight into the morphology of the bismuth-based sensor surfaces, scanning electron microscopic measurements were performed of both the surface film and the bulk modified electrodes.

  16. Electrochemical behavior of phenol in alkaline media at hydrotalcite-like clay/anionic surfactants/glassy carbon modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical behavior of phenol, using glassy carbon (GC) modified electrodes containing a hydrotalcite (HT)-like clay and anionic surfactants such as sodium octyl sulfate (SOS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), or sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) in alkaline media, has been examined. Phenol oxidation at the modified electrodes, after a time accumulation under open circuit conditions, promotes increments of the current and shifts the oxidation potential to less positive values, compared to phenol oxidation at HT-GC or GC electrodes. The phenol oxidation is favored by the presence of surfactants in the films. The results suggest that the surfactant molecules intercalate between the HT layers, yielding a hydrophobic clay capable of preconcentrating phenol molecules. X-ray diffraction analyses showed a larger spacing of the HT layers when the surfactant intercalates between them. Cyclic voltammograms have shown that the SOS-HT-GC modified electrode exhibits short-lived activity for phenol oxidation as a consequence of surface fouling, while the SDS-HT-GC and SDBS-HT-GC modified electrodes showed a more stable behavior. The SDBS-HT-GC modified electrode was the most effective adsorbing phenol, since the charge (Q), obtained from the integration of the anodic peak current of the phenol, is higher at this modified electrode. This is probably because the adsolubilization capacity of phenol on the SDBS-HT-GC electrode is higher than on SDS-HT-GC electrode

  17. Graphene-loaded nanofiber-modified electrodes for the ultrasensitive determination of dopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodthongkum, Nadnudda, E-mail: Nadnudda.R@chula.ac.th [Metallurgy and Materials Science Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Ruecha, Nipapan [Program in Macromolecular Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Rangkupan, Ratthapol [Metallurgy and Materials Science Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center of Innovative Nanotechnology, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Vachet, Richard W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Chailapakul, Orawon, E-mail: corawon@chula.ac.th [Electrochemistry and Optical Spectroscopy Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A novel electrode based on electrospun graphene/polyaniline/polystyrene nanofibers has been developed. •The proposed system provides ultrahigh sensitivity, good selectivity and wide linearity for the determination of dopamine. •This system was successfully applied to determine dopamine in complex biological environment with excellent reproducibility. -- Abstract: A novel and highly sensitive electrochemical system based on electrospun graphene/polyaniline/polystyrene (G/PANI/PS) nanofiber-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes has been developed for dopamine (DA) determination. A dramatic increase (9 times) in the current signal for the redox reaction of a standard, ferri/ferrocyanide [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−/4−} couple was found when compared to an unmodified electrode. This modified electrode also exhibited favorable electron transfer kinetics and excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of DA. When used together with square wave voltammetry (SWV), DA can be selectively determined in the presence of the common interferents (i.e. ascorbic acid and uric acid). Under optimal conditions, a very low limit of detection (0.05 nM) and limit of quantification (0.30 nM) were achieved for DA. In addition, a wide dynamic range of 0.1 nM to 100 μM was found for this electrode system. Finally, the system can be successfully applied to determine DA in complex biological environment (e.g. human serum, urine) with excellent reproducibility.

  18. Amperometric oxygen sensor based on a platinum nanoparticle-modified polycrystalline boron doped diamond disk electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Laura; Newton, Mark E; Unwin, Patrick R; Macpherson, Julie V

    2009-02-01

    Pt nanoparticle (NP)-modified polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (pBDD) disk electrodes have been fabricated and employed as amperometric sensors for the determination of dissolved oxygen concentration in aqueous solution. pBDD columns were cut using laser micromachining techniques and sealed in glass, in order to make disk electrodes which were then characterized electrochemically. Electrodeposition of Pt onto the diamond electrodes was optimized so as to give the maximum oxygen reduction peak current with the lowest background signal. Pt NPs, >0-10 nm diameter, were found to deposit randomly across the pBDD electrode, with no preference for grain boundaries. The more conductive grains were found to promote the formation of smaller nanoparticles at higher density. With the use of potential step chronoamperometry, in which the potential was stepped to a diffusion-limited value, a four electron oxygen reduction process was found to occur at the Pt NP-modified pBDD electrode. Furthermore the chronoamperometric response scaled linearly with dissolved oxygen concentration, varied by changing the oxygen/nitrogen ratio of gas flowed into solution. The sensor was used to detect dissolved oxygen concentrations with high precision over the pH range 4-10. PMID:19117391

  19. Gold electrode modified with a self-assembled glucose oxidase and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid as novel glucose bioanode for biofuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammam, Malika; Fransaer, Jan

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we have constructed a gold electrode modified with (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane/2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid/glucose oxidase (abbreviated as, Au/ATS/PDA/GOx) by sequential chemical adsorption. Au/ATS/PDA/GOx electrode was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The data from FT-IR illustrated deposition of ATS, PDA and GOx on the surface of gold electrode. The latter has been confirmed by EIS which showed that the electron transfer resistance of the electrode increases after adsorption of each supplementary layer. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) in phosphate buffer solution containing 5 mM glucose displayed that compared to Au/ATS/GOx, oxidation of glucose at Au/ATS/PDA/GOx electrode starts 461 mV earlier. This gain in potential is attributed to presence of PDA in the constructed Au/ATS/PDA/GOx electrode, which plays some sort of electron mediator for glucose oxidation. The Au/ATS/PDA/GOx electrode was stabilized by an outer layer of polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) and was connected to a Pt electrode as cathode and the non-compartmentalized cell was studied under air in phosphate buffer solution pH 7.4 containing 10 mM glucose. Under these conditions, the maximum power density reaches 0.25 μW mm-2 (25 μW cm-2) for the deposited GOx layer that has an estimated surface coverage of ∼70% of a monolayer.

  20. Determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical preparation and fruit juice using modified carbon paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Žabčíková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acrobic acid is key substance in the human metabolism and the rapid and accurate determination in food is of a great interest. Ascorbic acid is an electroactive compound, however poorly responded on the bare carbon paste electrodes. In this paper, brilliant cresyl blue and multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used for the modification of carbon paste electrode. Brilliant cresyl blue acts as a mediator improving the transition of electrons, whereas multiwalled carbon nanotubes increased the surface of the electrode. Both brilliant cresyl blue and multiwalled carbon nanotubes were added directly to the composite material. The electrochemical behavior of modified electode was determined in electrolyte at various pH, and the effect of the scan rate was also performed. It was shown that the electrochemical process on the surface of the modified carbon paste electrode was diffusion-controlled. The resulted modified carbon paste electrode showed a good electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of ascorbic acid at a reduced overpotential of +100 mV descreasing the risk of interferences. A linear response of the ascorbic acid oxidation current measured by the amperometry in the range of 0.1 - 350 µmol.L-1 was obtained applying the sensor for the standard solution. The limit of detection and limit of quantification was found to be 0.05 and 0.15 µmol.L-1, respectively. The novel method was applied for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical vitamin preparation and fruit juice, and the results were in good agreement with the standard HPLC method. The presented modification of carbon paste electrode is suitable for the fast, sensitive and very accurate determination of ascorbic acid in fruit juices and pharmaceutical preparation.

  1. Determination of nanomolar uric and ascorbic acids using enlarged gold nanoparticles modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, P; John, S Abraham

    2009-03-01

    Individual and simultaneous determination of 50nM uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) using enlarged, citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) self-assembled to 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (DMT) monolayer modified Au (Au/DMT) electrode by an amperometric method is described for the first time. Self-assembly of AuNPs on the electrode surface was confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), attenuated total reflectance FT-IR and diffuse reflectance spectral measurements. The electron transfer reaction (ETR) of [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) was blocked at Au/DMT electrode, whereas it was restored with a peak separation of 200mV after the attachment of AuNPs on the Au/DMT (Au/DMT/AuNPs) electrode, which was confirmed from the ETR of the [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) redox couple. When the self-assembled AuNPs were enlarged by hydroxylamine seeding, the ETR of [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) was improved significantly with a peak separation of 100mV. Tapping mode AFM showed that the average size of the enlarged-AuNPs (E-AuNPs) was 50-70nm. The E-AuNPs modified electrode catalyzes the oxidation of AA and UA, separates their voltammetric signals by 200mV, and has excellent sensitivity towards AA and UA with a detection limit of 50nM. The practical application of the modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of UA in blood serum and urine. PMID:19111516

  2. Application of graphene oxide/lanthanum-modified carbon paste electrode for the selective determination of dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fengying; Feng, Chenqi; Fu, Ning; Wu, Huihui; Jiang, Jibo; Han, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    A home-made carbon paste electrode (CPE) was reformed by graphene oxide (GO)/lanthanum (La) complexes, and a modified electrode, called GO-La/CPE, was fabricated for the selective determination of dopamine (DA) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Several factors affecting the electrocatalytic performance of the modified sensor were investigated. Owning to the combination of GO and La ions, the GO-La/CPE sensor exhibited large surface area, well selectivity, good repeatability and stability in the oxidation reaction of DA. At optimal conditions, the response of the GO-La/CPE electrode for determining DA was linear in the region of 0.01-0.1 μM and 0.1-400.0 μM. The limit of detection was down to 0.32 nM (S/N = 3). In addition, this modified electrode was successfully applied to the detection of DA in real urine and serum samples by using standard adding method, showing its promising application in the electroanalysis of real samples.

  3. Voltammetric determination of adenosine and guanosine using fullerene-C(60)-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Rajendra N; Gupta, Vinod K; Oyama, Munetaka; Bachheti, Neeta

    2007-02-28

    A fullerene-C(60)-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) is used for the simultaneous determination of adenosine and guanosine by differential pulse voltammetry. Compared to a bare glassy carbon electrode, the modified electrode exhibits an apparent shift of the oxidation potentials in the cathodic direction and a marked enhancement in the voltammetric peak current response for both the biomolecules. Linear calibration curves are obtained over the concentration range 0.5muM-1.0mM in 0.1M phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.2 with a detection limit of 3.02x10(-7)M and 1.45x10(-7)M for individual determination of adenosine and guanosine, respectively. The interference studies showed that the fullerene-C(60)-modified glassy carbon electrode exhibited excellent selectivity in the presence of hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid and ascorbic acid. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to detect adenosine and guanosine in human blood plasma and urine, without any preliminary pre-treatment. PMID:19071420

  4. Electrochemical degradation of carbamazepine using modified electrode with graphene-AuAg composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogacean, F.; Biris, A. R.; Socaci, C.; Floare-Avram, V.; Rosu, M. C.; Coros, M.; Pruneanu, S.

    2015-12-01

    Carbamazepine is a pharmaceutical drug which has been detected in surface and drinking water primarily due to human usage but also from the accidental disposal of pharmaceuticals into sewers. We have developed a graphene-modified electrode which was tested at the detection and degradation of carbamazepine. The oxidation process was studied by cyclic voltammetry in aqueous and organic solutions. The electrochemical degradation of carbamazepine was performed by polarizing the working electrode at a certain potential, for different times (from 5 to 60 minutes). The degradation efficiency was highly dependent on the type of solution and on the supporting electrolyte.

  5. Pt modified TiO{sub 2} nanotubes electrode: Preparation and electrocatalytic application for methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Li; Jia, Jianbo; Wang, Yizhe; Zhang, Bailin; Dong, Shaojun [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Pt nanoparticles decorated TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (Pt/TiO{sub 2}NTs) modified electrode has been successfully synthesized by depositing Pt in TiO{sub 2}NTs, which were prepared by anodization of the Ti foil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electrochemical methods were adopted to characterize their structures and properties. The Pt/TiO{sub 2}NTs electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in alkaline electrolyte without UV irradiation. (author)

  6. Performance of a nitrogen laser with a modified electrode configuration and gas flow arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagi, V. V.; Pawar, B. H.; Itagi, S.

    1980-10-01

    A Blumlein discharge N2 laser with modified electrode structure and gas flow arrangement is described. The compact nitrogen laser has a brass anode and hacksaw blade cathode, with the nitrogen flow across the electrodes and the Blumlein line formed by copper and aluminum sheets, with polyester as the dielectric. Output power is measured as a function of pressure, voltage and flow rate, and the trend of the power output towards saturation could be due to a nonlinear dependence of the excitation cross section on the electron temperature, which depends on the charging voltage. The laser can pump some dyes to amplified spontaneous emission and can trigger spark gaps.

  7. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence of a cationic cyclometalated iridium complex–Nafion modified electrode in neutral aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of a cationic cyclometalated iridium complex, [(pqcm)2Ir(bpy)](PF6) (1, pqcmH=2-phenyl-quinoline-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester, bpy=2,2′-bipyridine), was investigated at a bare glassy carbon electrode in CH3CN solution and 4 ECL peaks were observed. Then, the ECL of the iridium complex was studied in neutral phosphate buffer solution (PBS) by immobilizing it on a glassy carbon electrode. Two closely located ECL peaks were obtained at 1.07 and 1.40 V when the potential was scanned from −3.00 V to 2.20 V, while only one broad ECL peak located around −2.0 V was obtained when the potential was scanned from 2.20 V to −3.00 V. In the presence of oxalate, one ECL peak located around 1.22 V could be obtained except the broad ECL peak located at −2.00 V. The ECL peak at positive potential range was enhanced more than one magnitude in the presence of Nafion and was nearly 5-times higher than that of Ru(bpy)32+–Nafion modified electrode, suggesting that the synthesized iridium complex has great application potential in ECL detection. The ECL spectra of iridium complex were identical to its photoluminescence spectrum, indicating the same metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited states. The mechanisms of ECL were proposed based on the experimental results. The present ECL sensor gave a linear response for the oxalate concentration from 1.0×10−6 to 1.0×10−4 mol L−1 with a detection limit (S/N=3) of 9.1×10−7 mol L−1. -- Graphical abstract: Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of immobilized novel cationic cyclometalated iridium complex in neutral phosphate buffer solution is reported for the first time. The intensity of iridium complex ECL is 5-times higher than that of Ru(bpy)32+ ECL. Highlights: ► Cationic cyclometalated iridium complex was modified on a bare electrode. ► Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of the modified electrode was studied. ► The ECL intensity is higher than that of Ru(bpy)32+ modified

  8. Electroanalysis of some common pesticides using conducting polymer/multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manisankar, P; Sundari, Pl Abirama; Sasikumar, R; Palaniappan, Sp

    2008-09-15

    The cyclic voltammetric behaviour of three common pesticides such as isoproturon (ISO), voltage (VOL) and dicofol (DCF) was investigated at glassy carbon electrode (GCE), multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified GCE (MWCNTs/GCE), polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPY) deposited MWCNT/GCE. The modified electrode film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The electroactive behaviour of the pesticides was realized from the cyclic voltammetric studies. The differential pulse voltammetric principle was used to analyze the above-mentioned pesticides using MWCNT/GCE, PANI/MWCNT/GCE and PPY/MWCNT/GCE. Effects of accumulation potential, accumulation time, Initial scan potential, amplitude and pulse width were examined for the optimization of stripping conditions. The PANI/MWCNT/GCE performed well among the three electrode systems and the determination range obtained was 0.01-100 mgL(-1) for ISO, VOL and DCF respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.1 microgL(-1) for ISO, 0.01 microgL(-1) for VOL and 0.05 microgL(-1) for DCF on PANI/MWCNT/GCE modified system. It is significant to note that the PANI/MWCNT/GCE modified system results in the lowest LOD in comparison with the earlier reports. Suitability of this method for the trace determination of pesticide in spiked samples was also realized.

  9. Electrochemically induced chemical sensor properties in graphite screen-printed electrodes: The case of a chemical sensor for uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostaki, Vasiliki T.; Florou, Ageliki B. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 451 10 Ioannina (Greece); Prodromidis, Mamas I., E-mail: mprodrom@cc.uoi.gr [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 451 10 Ioannina (Greece)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > Electrochemical treatment endows analytical characteristics to SPEs. > A sensitive chemical sensor for uranium is described. > Performance is due to a synergy between electrochemical treatment and ink's solvents. > The amount of the solvent controls the achievable sensitivity. - Abstract: We report for the first time on the possibility to develop chemical sensors based on electrochemically treated, non-modified, graphite screen-printed electrodes (SPEs). The applied galvanostatic treatment (5 {mu}A for 6 min in 0.1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) is demonstrated to be effective for the development of chemical sensors for the determination of uranium in aqueous solutions. A detailed study of the effect of various parameters related to the fabrication of SPEs on the performance of the resulting sensors along with some diagnostic experiments on conventional graphite electrodes showed that the inducible analytical characteristics are due to a synergy between electrochemical treatment and ink's solvents. Indeed, the amount of the latter onto the printed working layer controls the achievable sensitivity. The preconcentration of the analyte was performed in an electroless mode in an aqueous solutions of U(VI), pH 4.6, and then, the accumulated species was reduced by means of a differential pulse voltammetry scan in 0.1 M H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, pH 3. Under selected experimental conditions, a linear calibration curve over the range 5 x 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -7} M U(VI) was constructed. The 3{sigma} limit of detection at a preconcentration time of 30 min, and the relative standard deviation of the method were 4.5 x 10{sup -9} M U(VI) and >12% (n = 5, 5 x 10{sup -8} M U(VI)), respectively. The effect of potential interferences was also examined.

  10. Electrochemical behavior of an anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil at methylene blue modified carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukkitgar, Shikandar D; Shetti, Nagaraj P

    2016-08-01

    A novel sensor for the determination of 5-fluorouracil was constructed by electrochemical deposition of methylene blue on surface of carbon paste electrode. The electrode surface morphology was studied using Atomic force microscopy and XRD. The electrochemical activity of modified electrode was characterized using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse method. The developed sensor shows impressive enlargement in sensitivity of 5-fluorouracil determination. The peak currents obtained from differential pulse voltammetry was linear with concentration of 5-fluorouracil in the range 4×10(-5)-1×10(-7)M and detection limit and quantification limit were calculated to be 2.04nM and 6.18nM respectively. Further, the sensor was successfully applied in pharmaceutical and biological fluid sample analysis. PMID:27157751

  11. Graphite felt modified with bismuth nanoparticles as negative electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, David J; González, Zoraida; Blanco, Clara; Granda, Marcos; Menéndez, Rosa; Santamaría, Ricardo

    2014-03-01

    A graphite felt decorated with bismuth nanoparticles was studied as negative electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The results confirm the excellent electrochemical performance of the bismuth modified electrode in terms of the reversibility of the V(3+) /V(2+) redox reactions and its long-term cycling performance. Moreover a mechanism that explains the role that Bi nanoparticles play in the redox reactions in this negative half-cell is proposed. Bi nanoparticles favor the formation of BiHx , an intermediate that reduces V(3+) to V(2+) and, therefore, inhibits the competitive irreversible reaction of hydrogen formation (responsible for the commonly observed loss of Coulombic efficiency of VRFBs). Thus, the total charge consumed during the cathodic sweep in this electrode is used to reduce V(3+) to V(2+) , resulting in a highly reversible and efficient process.

  12. Novel Pt nanowires modified screen-printed gold electrode by electrodeposited method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Hongli; Zhou Changxiang; Teng Yuanjie; Chen Chen [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry, and Research Centre of Analysis and Test, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Lan Minbo, E-mail: minbolan@ecust.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry, and Research Centre of Analysis and Test, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2011-02-01

    In this work, the preparation and characterization of novel Pt nanowires (Pt NWs) on the screen-printed gold electrode (SPGE) surface are reported. Firstly the mesoporous template was prepared by the electro-assisted self-assembly (EASA) method on the manual SPGE. Then, in the potentiostatic condition, Pt NWs were electrodeposited in the meosoporous channel on the Au electrode surface using the chronopotentiometry (CP) method at room temperature. The synthesized Pt NWs were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer. The results indicated that Pt NWs were successfully electrodeposited on the SPGE substrate, even the diameter of each Pt NWs could reach 3.2 nm. Furthermore, the SPGE could be mass produced conveniently and cost low which had very promising application prospect. And it is significant that the Pt NWs modified SPGE could function as an electrode in an electrochemical biosensor.

  13. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myoglobin in dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide film modified carbon ceramic electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Zhen Zhou; Hui Wang; She Ying Dong; An Xiang Tian; Zhi Xian He; Bin Chen

    2011-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myoglobin (Mb) were studied with Mb immobilized on dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) film modified carbon ceramic (CC) electrode. Cyclic voltammetry showed a pair of well-defined and nearly reversible redox peaks of Mb (FeⅡ/FeⅢ) at about -0.3 V vs. SCE (pH = 6.98). The currents of the redox peak were linear to scan rate, and rate constant (Ks) was estimated to be 3.03 s-1. The formal potential (E01) of Mb in the DTAB/CC electrodes shifted linearly with pH with a slope of-36.44 mV/pH, implying that the electron transfer between DTAB and CC electrodes is accompanied by proton transportation. The immobilized Mb exhibited excellent electrocatalytic response to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

  14. Indirect differential pulse voltammetric determination of aluminum by a pyrocatechol violet-modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, G.; Bi, S.; Dai, L.; Cao, M.; Chen, Y. Wang, X. [Nanjing Univ. (China)

    1999-03-01

    Aluminum is one of the abundant elements in the earth`s crust. It has been considered to be a causative agent for various neurological disorders such as Alzheimer Senile, presenile dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It is also very harmful to plants and aquatic organisms. Therefore, the determination of Al is very important. A Pyrocatechol Violet (PCV) modified electrode for the voltammetric determination of aluminum is reported. The modified electrode is simply prepared by dip-coating a pyrolytic graphite electrode in a NaAc-HAc buffer solution of PCV. Optimum experimental conditions for aluminum determination include a 0.2 mol/L NaAc-HAc buffer solution of pH 4.8, a PCV concentration of 0.02 mol/L used to modify the electrode and the use of differential-pulse mode for measurement. The peak currents of differential pulse voltammograms (DPV) decrease with the addition of Al into the buffer solution while the peak potentials remain the same. The decreasing value of peak current {Delta}i{sub p} is linear with Al concentration in the range of 1{times}10{sup {minus}8} to 1{times}10{sup {minus}7} mol/L and 1{times}10{sup {minus}7} to 1{times}10{sup {minus}6} mol/L. The detection limit is 5{times}10{sup {minus}9} mol/L and the relative standard deviation for 4{times}10{sup {minus}8} mol/L Al is 2.9% (n=8). The stability of this electrode is satisfactory. No serious interference is found. This method has been applied to determine Al in drinking water samples.

  15. Chiral recognition of alanine across modified carbon electrodes with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, E. [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica S.C., P.O. Box 064, C.P. 76700 Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico); Chemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, P.O. Box 14-740, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: ebustos@cideteq.mx; Godinez, Luis A. [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica S.C., P.O. Box 064, C.P. 76700 Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico); Rangel-Reyes, G.; Juaristi, E. [Chemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, P.O. Box 14-740, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-11-01

    3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) was covalently grafted onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by the formation of an amine cation radical in the electro-oxidation of the amino-containing compound. Cyclic voltammetric experiments proved that the DOPA was formed on the GCE as a monolayer. Its electron transfer over the GCE surface at different pH values was studied by cyclic voltammetry. Changes in solution pH resulted in the variation of the charge state of the terminal group and the surface pK{sub a} was estimated on the basis of these results. Because of electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged groups on the electrode surface and the alanine (Ala) in solution, the modified electrode was used as an enantioselective sensor. The peak current for D(+) or L(-)DOPA over the modified electrode decreased as a result of the chiral recognition across the blocking interaction with the respective enantiomer of L(-) or D(+)Ala. The recognition was verified with the protection of L(-)DOPA with a Fmoc group.

  16. Zinc oxide inverse opal electrodes modified by glucose oxidase for electrochemical and photoelectrochemical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lei; Song, Jian; Xu, Ru; Liu, Dali; Dong, Biao; Xu, Lin; Song, Hongwei

    2014-09-15

    The ZnO inverse opal photonic crystals (IOPCs) were synthesized by the sol-gel method using the polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as a template. For glucose detection, glucose oxidase (GOD) was further immobilized on the inwall and surface of the IOPCs. The biosensing properties toward glucose of the Nafion/GOD/ZnO IOPCs modified FTO electrodes were carefully studied and the results indicated that the sensitivity of ZnO IOPCs modified electrode was 18 times than reference electrode due to the large surface area and uniform porous structure of ZnO IOPCs. Moreover, photoelectrochemical detection for glucose using the electrode was realized and the sensitivity approached to 52.4 µA mM(-1) cm(-2), which was about four times to electrochemical detection (14.1 µA mM(-1) cm(-2)). It indicated that photoelectrochemical detection can highly improve the sensor performance than conventional electrochemical method. It also exhibited an excellent anti-interference property and a good stability at the same time. This work provides a promising approach for realizing excellent photoelectrochemical biosensor of similar semiconductor photoelectric material.

  17. Gold nanoparticles directly modified glassy carbon electrode for non-enzymatic detection of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Gang; Shu, Honghui; Ji, Kai [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, No. 368 Youyi Avenue, Wuchang, Wuhan 430062 (China); Oyama, Munetaka [Department of Material Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan); Liu, Xiong [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, No. 368 Youyi Avenue, Wuchang, Wuhan 430062 (China); He, Yunbin, E-mail: ybhe@hubu.edu.cn [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, No. 368 Youyi Avenue, Wuchang, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2014-01-01

    This work describes controllable preparation of gold nanoparticles on glassy carbon electrodes by using the seed mediated growth method, which contains two steps, namely, nanoseeds attachment and nanocrystals growth. The size and the dispersion of gold nanoparticles grown on glassy carbon electrodes could be easily tuned through the growth time based on results of field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Excellent electrochemical catalytic characteristics for glucose oxidation were observed for the gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes (AuNPs/GC), resulting from the extended active surface area provided by the dense gold nanoparticles attached. It exhibited a wide linear range from 0.1 mM to 25 mM with the sensitivity of 87.5 μA cm{sup −2} mM{sup −1} and low detection limit down to 0.05 mM for the sensing of glucose. The common interfering species such as chloride ion, ascorbic acid, uric acid and 4-acetamidophenol were verified having no interference effect on the detection of glucose. It is demonstrated that the seed mediated method is one of the facile approaches for fabricating Au nanoparticles modified substrates, which could work as one kind of promising electrode materials for the glucose nonenzymatic sensing.

  18. The Study of Electrochemical Behavior of Dopamine at Nano-gold Modified Carbon Fiber Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors (cyclic voltammetry, CV and different pulse voltammetry, DPV) of dopamine (DA) were studied in this paper. The result indicated that the oxidation of dopamine was controlled by diffusion and adsorption simultaneously at nano-gold (NG) modified carbon fiber electrode (CFE). This modified electrode can separate the peak potentials of dopamine and ascorbic acid (AA). The peak current of DA in DPV curve was found to be linearly proportional to the concentration of DA at range of 2.0×10-6~1.5×10-5mol/L and 1.0×10-5~5.0×10-4mol/L, respectively.

  19. Electrochemical Determination of Glycoalkaloids Using a Carbon Nanotubes-Phenylboronic Acid Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiying; Liu, Mingyue; Hu, Xinxi; Li, Mei; Xiong, Xingyao

    2013-01-01

    A versatile strategy for electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids (GAs) was developed by using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic acid (CNTs-PBA) modified glassy carbon electrode. PBA reacts with α-solanine and α-chaconine to form a cyclic ester, which could be utilized to detect GAs. This method allowed GA detection from 1 μM to 28 μM and the detection limit was 0.3 μM. Affinity interaction of GAs and immobilized PBA caused an essential change of the peak current. The CNT-PBA modified electrodes were sensitive for detection of GAs, and the peak current values were in quite good agreement with those measured by the sensors. PMID:24287539

  20. Electrochemical Determination of Glycoalkaloids Using a Carbon Nanotubes-Phenylboronic Acid Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A versatile strategy for electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids (GAs was developed by using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic acid (CNTs-PBA modified glassy carbon electrode. PBA reacts with α-solanine and α-chaconine to form a cyclic ester, which could be utilized to detect GAs. This method allowed GA detection from 1 μM to 28 μM and the detection limit was 0.3 μM. Affinity interaction of GAs and immobilized PBA caused an essential change of the peak current. The CNT-PBA modified electrodes were sensitive for detection of GAs, and the peak current values were in quite good agreement with those measured by the sensors.

  1. A glucose/O{sub 2} biofuel cell base on nanographene platelet-modified electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, W.; Zhao, H.Y.; Zhang, J.X.; Zhou, H.M.; Xu, X.X. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zheng, Y.F.; Wang, Y.B.; Cheng, Y. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Jang, B.Z. [College of Engineering and Computer Science, Wright State University, 3640 Colonel Glenn Hwy., Dayton, OH 45435 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    This study demonstrated a novel nanographene platelets (NGPs)-based glucose/O{sub 2} biofuel cell (BFC) with the glucose oxidase (GOD) as the anodic biocatalysts and the laccase as the cathodic biocatalysts. The GOD/NGPs-modified electrode exhibited good catalytic activity towards glucose oxidation and the laccase/NGPs-modified electrode exhibited good catalytic activity towards O{sub 2} electroreduction. The maximum power density was ca. 57.8 {mu}W cm{sup -} {sup 2} for the assembled glucose/O{sub 2} NGPs-based BFC. These results indicated that the NGPs were very useful for the future development of novel carbon-based nanomaterials BFC device. (author)

  2. Using Poly-L-Histidine Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode to Trace Hydroquinone in the Sewage Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive voltammetric method for trace measurements of hydroquinone in the sewage water is described. The poly-L-histidine is prepared to modify the glassy carbon electrode in order to improve the electrochemical catalysis of interesting substances such as hydroquinone. The influence of the base solution, pH value, and scanning speed on the tracing of hydroquinone is discussed, and the experimental procedures and conditions are optimized. The laboratory results show that it is possible to construct a linear calibration curve between the peak current of hydroquinone on modified electrode and its concentration at the level of 0.00001 mol/L. The potential limitation of the method is suggested by a linear peaking shift model as well. The method was successfully applied to the determination of hydroquinone in the actual sample of industrial waste water.

  3. Reduced graphene oxide-yttria nanocomposite modified electrode for enhancing the sensitivity of electrochemical genosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, P Abdul; Radhakrishnan, Thulasi; Shihabudeen, P K; Sandhyarani, N

    2016-09-15

    Reduced graphene oxide-yttria nanocomposite (rGO:Y) is applied as electrochemical genosensor platform for ultrahigh sensitive detection of breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) gene for the first time. The sensor is based on the sandwich assay in which gold nanoparticle cluster labeled reporter DNA hybridize to the target DNA. Glassy carbon electrode modified with rGO-yttria serves as the immobilization platform for capture probe DNA. The sensor exhibited a fine capability of sensing BRCA1 gene with linear range of 10attomolar (aM) to 1nanomolar (nM) and a detection limit of 5.95attomolar. The minimum distinguishable response concentration is down to the attomolar level with a high sensitivity and selectivity. We demonstrated that the use of rGO:Y modified electrode along with gold nanoparticle cluster (AuNPC) label leads to the highly sensitive electrochemical detection of BRCA1 gene. PMID:27153526

  4. A selective voltammetric detection for dopamine using poly(gallic acid) film modified electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The electrochemistry behavior of dopamine was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry at a poly (gallic acid) film modified glassy carbon electrode.Two electrons and two protons participated in the diffusion-controlled electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine with a diffusion coefficient of 2.186×10~(-5) cm~2/s.The interference of ascorbic acid with the determination of dopamine could be efficiently eliminated.This work provided a simple approach to selectively and sensitively...

  5. DNA-modified Electrodes Fabricated using Copper-Free Click Chemistry for Enhanced Protein Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Furst, Ariel L.; Hill, Michael G.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2013-01-01

    A method of DNA monolayer formation has been developed using copper-free click chemistry that yields enhanced surface homogeneity and enables variation in the amount of DNA assembled; extremely low-density DNA monolayers, with as little as 5% of the monolayer being DNA, have been formed. These DNA-modified electrodes (DMEs) were characterized visually, with AFM, and electrochemically, and were found to facilitate DNA-mediated reduction of a distally bound redox probe. These low-density monola...

  6. Electrochemical behaviour of platinum at polymer-modified glassy carbon electrodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carmem L P S Zanta; C A Martínez-Huitle

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, the preparations and voltammetric characteristics of chitosan-modified glassy carbon (Ct-MGC) and platinum electrodes are studied. Ct-MGC can be used for pre-concentration and quantification of trace amounts of platinum in solution. At low pH medium, the complex of Pt with protonated group -NH3+ in the chitosan molecule has been confirmed by FT-IR spectra studies.

  7. Enhanced electrochemical oxidation of methanol on copper electrodes modified by electrocorrosion and electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carugno, Sofía [INQUIMAE – DQIAQF, Facultad de Ciencias, Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Chassaing, Elisabeth [IRDEP (UMR7174), EDF R and D, 6 Quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France); Rosso, Michel [LPMC (UMR7643), CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); González, Graciela A., E-mail: graciela@qi.fcen.uba.ar [INQUIMAE – DQIAQF, Facultad de Ciencias, Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-02-14

    In this paper, we report a study of electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol on copper electrodes subjected to different surface treatments, either electrocorrosion or electrodeposition in the absence of strong hydrogen co-deposition. The surface morphology of treated electrodes was examined by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM). The effect of different treatment conditions and the methanol concentration dependence were evaluated by cyclic voltammetric technique. The results indicate that the oxidation of methanol can be enhanced by a suitable micro and nano structure generated by these treatments. This enhanced electrode activity is related to an increase of the effective surface area and/or to an increase of the surface concentration of electroactive molecules or intermediates. - Highlights: • We presented simple treatments to increase the response of copper electrodes. • Copper electrodes were modified by electrocorrosion and electrodeposition. • Scanning Electron Microscopy images reveal the effects of the different treatments. • The response is enhanced by an area increase and/or intermediates concentration. • For each treatment the concentration range of the diffusion control is analyzed.

  8. Graphene electrode modified with electrochemically reduced graphene oxide for label-free DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Pan, Genhua; Avent, Neil D; Lowry, Roy B; Madgett, Tracey E; Waines, Paul L

    2015-10-15

    A novel printed graphene electrode modified with electrochemically reduced graphene oxide was developed for the detection of a specific oligonucleotide sequence. The graphene oxide was immobilized onto the surface of a graphene electrode via π-π bonds and electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide was achieved by cyclic voltammetry. A much higher redox current was observed from the reduced graphene oxide-graphene double-layer electrode, a 42% and 36.7% increase, respectively, in comparison with that of a bare printed graphene or reduced graphene oxide electrode. The good electron transfer activity is attributed to a combination of the large number of electroactive sites in reduced graphene oxide and the high conductivity nature of graphene. The probe ssDNA was further immobilized onto the surface of the reduced graphene oxide-graphene double-layer electrode via π-π bonds and then hybridized with its target cDNA. The change of peak current due to the hybridized dsDNA could be used for quantitative sensing of DNA concentration. It has been demonstrated that a linear range from 10(-7)M to 10(-12)M is achievable for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus 1 gene with a detection limit of 1.58 × 10(-13)M as determined by three times standard deviation of zero DNA concentration.

  9. Voltammetric Determination of Paraquat Using Graphite Pencil Electrode Modified with Doped Polypyrrole

    CERN Document Server

    Sayyahmanesh, Maryam; Meibodi, Azam S Emami; Ahooyi, Taha Mohseni

    2016-01-01

    Recognition and determination of paraquat (PQ) using graphite pencil electrode (GPE) modified with polypyrrole (Ppy) doped with Eriochrome blue-black B (EBB) is reported. To that end, a thin film of Ppy was deposited onto the electrode surface by electropolymerization in the presence of a functional doping ion, EBB. The Ppy/EBB-coated electrode was templated by PQ ion and then the performance of the molecularly imprinted EBB/Ppy/GPE was evaluated by voltammetric technique. The prepared electrode exhibited considerable increase in electroactivity of the sensor toward this herbicide compared to the non-imprinted electrode. To enhance the detection capability of the prepared system, the factors controlling its response were investigated and optimized using differential pulse voltammetry. The proposed analytical procedure was proved to be applicable in the concentration range of 5 to 50 {\\mu}M (R^2 = 0.9939) and detection limit of (3{\\sigma}) 0.22 {\\mu}M. Ultimately, the proposed analytical methodology was applie...

  10. Electrochemical Recognition of Metalloproteins by Bromide-modified Silver Electrode - A New Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Rostami

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A bromide–modified silver electrode is reported, in the present study, to catalyzethe redox reactions of metalloproteins. This study describes that the bromide ions showvery good redox behavior with silver electrode. The cathodic and anodic peak potentialswere related to the concentration of bromide ions involved in making bromide-modifiedsilver electrode. The electrode reaction in the bromine solution was a diffusion-controlledprocess. Positive potential shift of the bromide ions was seen when different proteins wereadded to the solution using a silver electrode. New cathodic and anodic peaks wereobserved at different potential ranges for myoglobin, cytochrome c and catalase. A linearlyincreasing cathodic peak current of bromide ions was seen when the concentration ofsuperoxide dismutase was increased in the test solution. However, no change for albuminwas observed when its concentration was increased in the test solution. Present data provesour methodology as an easy-to-use analysis for comparing the redox potentials of differentmetalloproteins and differentiating the metallo- from non-metalloproteins. In this study, weintroduced an interesting method for bio-electrochemical analyses.

  11. Determination of Trace Thiocyanate by a Chitosan-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A chitosan-modified glassy carbon electrode(CMGCE) was employed for the determination of thiocyanate. The measurement was carried out by means of anodic stripping voltammetry. The effects of several experimental parameters, such as pH, the amount of modifier, deposition potential and deposition time were studied for analytical application, respectively. A liner response was obtained in the concentration range of 3.5×10-8-9.3×10-7 g/mL of SCN-. The detection limit was found to be 1.9×10-8 g/mL. The method was satisfactorily used to detect SCN- in saliva.

  12. Theory of water desalination by porous electrodes with fixed chemical charge

    OpenAIRE

    Biesheuvel, P. M.; Suss, M. E.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Water desalination by capacitive deionization (CDI) is performed via electrochemical cells consisting of two porous carbon electrodes. Upon transferring charge from one electrode to the other, ions are removed from the feedwater by electrosorption into electrical double layers (EDLs) within the micropores of the porous carbon. When using electrodes containing fixed chemical charge in the micropores, various counterintuitive observations have been made, such as "inverted CDI" where upon chargi...

  13. Electrochemical Glucose Oxidation Using Glassy Carbon Electrodes Modified with Au-Ag Nanoparticles: Influence of Ag Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Gabriela García-Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of glassy carbon modified electrodes bearing Aux-Agy nanoparticles to catalyze the electrochemical oxidation of glucose. In particular, the paper shows the influence of the Ag content on this oxidation process. A simple method was applied to prepare the nanoparticles, which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. These nanoparticles were used to modify glassy carbon electrodes. The effectiveness of these electrodes for electrochemical glucose oxidation was evaluated. The modified glassy carbon electrodes are highly sensitive to glucose oxidation in alkaline media, which could be attributed to the presence of Aux-Agy nanoparticles on the electrode surface. The voltammetric results suggest that the glucose oxidation speed is controlled by the glucose diffusion to the electrode surface. These results also show that the catalytic activity of the electrodes depends on the Ag content of the nanoparticles. Best results were obtained for the Au80-Ag20 nanoparticles modified electrode. This electrode could be used for Gluconic acid (GA production.

  14. Silver nanoparticle-modified electrode for the determination of nitro compound-containing pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Camila Alves; Santana, Edson Roberto; Piovesan, Jamille Valéria; Spinelli, Almir

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports the electroanalytical determination of pendimethalin and ethyl parathion by square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry using a material comprised of chitosan-stabilized silver nanoparticles to modify a glassy carbon electrode. Under optimized experimental conditions, the peak current was found to vary linearly with the concentration of pendimethalin in the range of 70 to 2000 nmol L(-1) and with concentration of ethyl parathion in the range of 40 to 8000 nmol L(-1). Detection limits of 36 and 40 nmol L(-1) were obtained for pendimethalin and ethyl parathion, respectively. The silver - nanoparticle-modified electrode was successfully employed for the analysis of pesticides in tap and mineral water (pendimethalin) and in lettuce and honey (ethyl parathion) samples. Pendimethalin recovery was between 94 and 100 %, and ethyl parathion recovery was between 97 and 101 %, indicating no significant matrix interference effects on the analytical results. The accuracy of the electroanalytical methodology using the proposed modified electrode was also compared to that of the UV-vis spectrophotometric method. PMID:26873207

  15. Chemically Modified Ordered Mesoporous Carbon/Polyaniline Composites for Electrochemical Capacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Ling-bin; ZHANG Jing; CAI Jian-jun; YANG Zhen-sheng; LUO Yong-chun; KANG Long

    2011-01-01

    Chemically modified ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 materials were prepared by means of an easy wet-oxidative method in 2 mol/L nitric acid aqueous solution. A large amount of oxygen-containing functional groups were introduced onto the CMK-3 surface. Modified CMK-3(m-CMK-3) and aniline monomer were polymerized via an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization method. Morphological characterizations of m-CMK-3/PANI (polyaniline) composites were carried out via field emission scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Their electrochemical properties were investigated with cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The m-CMK-3/PANI composites have excellent properties in capacitance, and the highest specific capacitance(SC) value was up to 489 F/g, suggesting their potential application in the electrode material for electrochemical capacitors.

  16. Development and characterization of fluorine tin oxide electrodes modified with high area porous thin films containing gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different electrode materials are prepared using fluoride doped tin oxide (FTO) electrodes modified with high area porous thin films of metal oxides containing gold nanoparticles. Three different metal oxides (TiO2, MgO and SnO2) have been assayed to this end. The effect of the metal oxide nature and gold loading on the structure and performance of the modified electrodes was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. XRD measurements reveal that MgO electrodes present the smallest gold nanoparticles after the sintering step however, the electrochemical response of these electrodes shows important problems of mass transport derived from the high porosity of these materials (Brunauer Emmett Teller area of 125 m2/g). The excellent sintering properties of titania nanoparticles result in robust films attached to the FTO electrodes which allow more reliable and reproducible results from an electroanalytical point of view.

  17. [Adsorption of phenol chemicals by surfactant-modified zeolites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jie; Wang, Zhe; Wu, De-Yi; Li, Chun-Jie

    2012-12-01

    Two kinds of zeolites were prepared from fly ash and modified by surfactant subsequently. Surfactant-modified zeolites were studied for adsorption of phenol chemicals (phenol, p-chlorphenol, bisphenol A). It showed that the adsorption affinity of zeolite to phenol chemicals was significantly improved after surfactant modification. The adsorption isotherms of phenol chemicals were well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm. For the two surfactant-surfactant modified zeolites, the maximum adsorption amounts of phenol, p-chlorphenol, and bisphenol A calculated from the Langmuir equation were 37.7, 52.36, 90.9 mg x g(-1) and 10.7, 22.83, 56.8 mg x g(-1), respectively. When pH values of solutions were higher than the pK(a) values of phenol chemicals, the removal efficiencies were getting higher with the increase of pH values. The octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)) was also found to be an important factor affecting adsorption of phenol chemicals by the modified zeolites. Higher K(ow) value, which means the greater hydrophobicity of the chemicals, resulted in a higher removal.

  18. Electrochemical Determination of Food Preservative Nitrite with Gold Nanoparticles/p-Aminothiophenol-Modified Gold Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşem Üzer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the negative impact of nitrate and nitrite on human health, their presence exceeding acceptable levels is not desired in foodstuffs. Thus, nitrite determination at low concentrations is a major challenge in electroanalytical chemistry, which can be achieved by fast, cheap, and safe electrochemical sensors. In this work, the working electrode (Au was functionalized with p-aminothiophenol (p-ATP and modified with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs to manufacture the final (Au/p-ATP-Aunano electrode in a two-step procedure. In the first step, p-ATP was electropolymerized on the electrode surface to obtain a polyaminothiophenol (PATP coating. In the second step, Au/p-ATP-Aunano working electrode was prepared by coating the surface with the use of HAuCl4 solution and cyclic voltammetry. Determination of aqueous nitrite samples was performed with the proposed electrode (Au/p-ATP-Aunano using square wave voltammetry (SWV in pH 4 buffer medium. Characteristic peak potential of nitrite samples was 0.76 V, and linear calibration curves of current intensity versus concentration was linear in the range of 0.5–50 mg·L−1 nitrite with a limit of detection (LOD of 0.12 mg·L−1. Alternatively, nitrite in sausage samples could be colorimetrically determined with high sensitivity by means of p-ATP‒modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and naphthylethylene diamine as coupling agents for azo-dye formation due to enhanced charge-transfer interactions with the AuNPs surface. The slopes of the calibration lines in pure NO2− solution and in sausage sample solution, to which different concentrations of NO2− standards were added, were not significantly different from each other, confirming the robustness and interference tolerance of the method. The proposed voltammetric sensing method was validated against the colorimetric nanosensing method in sausage samples.

  19. Electrochemical Determination of Food Preservative Nitrite with Gold Nanoparticles/p-Aminothiophenol-Modified Gold Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üzer, Ayşem; Sağlam, Şener; Can, Ziya; Erçağ, Erol; Apak, Reşat

    2016-08-02

    Due to the negative impact of nitrate and nitrite on human health, their presence exceeding acceptable levels is not desired in foodstuffs. Thus, nitrite determination at low concentrations is a major challenge in electroanalytical chemistry, which can be achieved by fast, cheap, and safe electrochemical sensors. In this work, the working electrode (Au) was functionalized with p-aminothiophenol (p-ATP) and modified with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) to manufacture the final (Au/p-ATP-Aunano) electrode in a two-step procedure. In the first step, p-ATP was electropolymerized on the electrode surface to obtain a polyaminothiophenol (PATP) coating. In the second step, Au/p-ATP-Aunano working electrode was prepared by coating the surface with the use of HAuCl₄ solution and cyclic voltammetry. Determination of aqueous nitrite samples was performed with the proposed electrode (Au/p-ATP-Aunano) using square wave voltammetry (SWV) in pH 4 buffer medium. Characteristic peak potential of nitrite samples was 0.76 V, and linear calibration curves of current intensity versus concentration was linear in the range of 0.5-50 mg·L(-1) nitrite with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.12 mg·L(-1). Alternatively, nitrite in sausage samples could be colorimetrically determined with high sensitivity by means of p-ATP‒modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and naphthylethylene diamine as coupling agents for azo-dye formation due to enhanced charge-transfer interactions with the AuNPs surface. The slopes of the calibration lines in pure NO₂(-) solution and in sausage sample solution, to which different concentrations of NO₂(-) standards were added, were not significantly different from each other, confirming the robustness and interference tolerance of the method. The proposed voltammetric sensing method was validated against the colorimetric nanosensing method in sausage samples.

  20. Electrochemical Determination of Food Preservative Nitrite with Gold Nanoparticles/p-Aminothiophenol-Modified Gold Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üzer, Ayşem; Sağlam, Şener; Can, Ziya; Erçağ, Erol; Apak, Reşat

    2016-01-01

    Due to the negative impact of nitrate and nitrite on human health, their presence exceeding acceptable levels is not desired in foodstuffs. Thus, nitrite determination at low concentrations is a major challenge in electroanalytical chemistry, which can be achieved by fast, cheap, and safe electrochemical sensors. In this work, the working electrode (Au) was functionalized with p-aminothiophenol (p-ATP) and modified with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) to manufacture the final (Au/p-ATP-Aunano) electrode in a two-step procedure. In the first step, p-ATP was electropolymerized on the electrode surface to obtain a polyaminothiophenol (PATP) coating. In the second step, Au/p-ATP-Aunano working electrode was prepared by coating the surface with the use of HAuCl4 solution and cyclic voltammetry. Determination of aqueous nitrite samples was performed with the proposed electrode (Au/p-ATP-Aunano) using square wave voltammetry (SWV) in pH 4 buffer medium. Characteristic peak potential of nitrite samples was 0.76 V, and linear calibration curves of current intensity versus concentration was linear in the range of 0.5–50 mg·L−1 nitrite with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.12 mg·L−1. Alternatively, nitrite in sausage samples could be colorimetrically determined with high sensitivity by means of p-ATP‒modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and naphthylethylene diamine as coupling agents for azo-dye formation due to enhanced charge-transfer interactions with the AuNPs surface. The slopes of the calibration lines in pure NO2− solution and in sausage sample solution, to which different concentrations of NO2− standards were added, were not significantly different from each other, confirming the robustness and interference tolerance of the method. The proposed voltammetric sensing method was validated against the colorimetric nanosensing method in sausage samples. PMID:27490543

  1. Highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles on chemically modified graphene with aminophenyl groups for formic acid oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Su-Dong; Shen Cheng-Min; Tong Hao; He Wei; Zhang Xiao-Gang; Gao Hong-Jun

    2011-01-01

    A novel electrode material based on chemically modified graphene (CMG) with aminophenyl groups is covalently functionalized by a nucleophilic ring-opening reaction between the epoxy groups of graphene oxide and the aminophenyl groups of p-phenylenediamine.Palladium nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4.2 nm are deposited on the CMG by a liquid-phase borohydride reduction.The electrocatalytic activity and stability of the Pd/CMG composite towards formic acid oxidation are found to be higher than those of reduced graphene oxide and commercial carbon materials such as Vulcan XC-72 supported Pd electrocatalysts.

  2. A simple and efficient electrochemical sensor for folic acid determination in human blood plasma based on gold nanoparticles–modified carbon paste electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvand, Majid, E-mail: arvand@guilan.ac.ir; Dehsaraei, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    Folic acid (FA) is a water soluble vitamin that exists in many natural species. The lack of FA causes some deficiencies in human body, so finding a simple and sensitive method for determining the FA is important. A new chemically modified electrode was fabricated for determination of FA in human blood plasma using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and carbon paste electrode (CPE). Gold nanoparticles–modified carbon paste electrode (AuNPs/CPE) was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental parameters such as pH, scan rate (ν) and amount of modifier were studied by cyclic voltammetry and the optimized values were chosen. The electrochemical parameters such as diffusion coefficient of FA (D{sub FA}), electrode surface area (A) and electron transfer coefficient (α) were calculated. Square wave voltammetry as an accurate technique was used for quantitative calculations. A good linear relation was observed between anodic peak current (i{sub pa}) and FA concentration (C{sub FA}) in the range of 6 × 10{sup −8} to 8 × 10{sup −5} mol L{sup −1}, and the detection limit (LOD) achieved 2.7 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1}, that is comparable with recently studies. This paper demonstrated a novel, simple, selective and rapid sensor for determining the FA in the biological samples. - Highlights: • We examine a AuNPs/CPE for direct electrooxidation behavior and determination of FA. • Characterization of the electrode showed an obvious increase in surface area and porosity after modification. • The modified electrode showed good ability to distinguish the electrochemical response of FA. • The results were attributed to the specific characteristics of AuNPs present in the AuNPs/CPE. • This paper demonstrated a simple and rapid sensor for determination of FA in plasma.

  3. Chemically-Modified Cellulose Paper as a Microstructured Catalytic Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Koga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the successful use of chemically-modified cellulose paper as a microstructured catalytic reactor for the production of useful chemicals. The chemical modification of cellulose paper was achieved using a silane-coupling technique. Amine-modified paper was directly used as a base catalyst for the Knoevenagel condensation reaction. Methacrylate-modified paper was used for the immobilization of lipase and then in nonaqueous transesterification processes. These catalytic paper materials offer high reaction efficiencies and have excellent practical properties. We suggest that the paper-specific interconnected microstructure with pulp fiber networks provides fast mixing of the reactants and efficient transport of the reactants to the catalytically-active sites. This concept is expected to be a promising route to green and sustainable chemistry.

  4. Polyoxometalate-Graphene Nanocomposite Modified Electrode for Electrocatalytic Detection of Ascorbic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiying; Du, Dan; Gunaratne, Don; Colby, Robert; Lin, Yuehe; Laskin, Julia

    2013-11-15

    Phosphomolybdate functionalized graphene nanocomposite (PMo12-GS) has been successfully formed on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the detection of ascorbic acid (AA). The obtained PMo12-GS modified GCE, was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and compared with GCE, GS modified GCE, and PMo12 modified GCE. It shows an increased current and a decrease in over-potential of ~210 mV. The amperometric signals are linearly proportional to the AA concentration in a wide concentration range from 1×10-6 M to 8×10-3 M, with a detection limit of 0.5×10-6 M. Finally, the PMo12-GS modified electrode was employed for the determination of the AA level in vitamin C tablets, with recoveries between 96.3 and 100.8 %.

  5. Voltammetric determination of theophylline at a Nafion/multi-wall carbon nanotubes composite film-modified glassy carbon electrode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suling Yang; Ran Yang; Gang Li; Jianjun Li; Lingbo Qu

    2010-11-01

    A Nafion/multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) composite film-modified electrode was fabricated and applied to the sensitive and convenient determination of theophylline (TP). Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were easily dispersed homogeneously into 0.1% Nafion methanol solution by sonication. Appropriate amount of Nafion/MWNTs suspension was coated on a glassy carbon electrode. After evaporating methanol, a Nafion/MWNTs composite film-modified electrode was achieved. TP could effectively accumulate at Nafion/MWNTs composite film-modified electrode and cause a sensitive anodic peak at around 1180 mV (vs SCE) in 0.01 mol/L H2SO4 medium (pH 1.8). In contrast with the bare glassy carbon electrode, Nafion film-modified electrode, Nafion/MWNTs film-modified electrode could remarkably increase the anodic peak current and decreased the overpotential of TP oxidation. Under the optimized conditions, the anodic peak current was proportional to TP concentration in the range of 8.0 × 10-8-6.0 × 10-5 mol/L, with a detection limit of 2.0 × 10-8 mol/L. This newly developed method was used to determine TP in drug samples with good percentage of recoveries.

  6. Studying the ion transfer across liquid interface of thin organic-film-modified electrodes in the presence of glucose oxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Mirceski, Valentin; Mitrova, Biljana; Ivanovski, Vladimir; Mitreska, Nikolina; Aleksovska, Angela; Gulaboski, Rubin

    2015-01-01

    A coupled electron-ion transfer reaction at thin organic-film-modified electrodes (TFE) is studied in the presence of glucose oxidase (GOx) under voltammetric conditions. TFE consists of a graphite electrode modified with a nitrobenzene solution of decamethylferrocene (DMFC) as a redox mediator and tetrabuthylammonium perchlorate as an organic-supporting electrolyte, in contact with aqueous buffer solutions containing percholarte ions and GOx. The redox turnover of DMFC coupled with perchl...

  7. Electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol on various metal ad-layer modified Au(111) electrodes in alkaline solution

    OpenAIRE

    DURSUN, Zekerya; KARABİBEROĞLU, Şükriye ULUBAY; GELMEZ, Buket

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol oxidation was studied on single-crystal Au(111) electrodes that were modified by platinum, palladium, and cadmium metal ad-layers. The metal ad-layer modification was carried out by the underpotential deposition process, in which controlled amounts of Pt, Pd, and Cd were electrodeposited onto the substrate as submonolayer or monolayer coverage. The activity of the metal ad-layer modified Au(111) electrodes toward ethanol oxidation was studied in alkaline media, and recorded v...

  8. Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetric Determination of Lead with Heparin Modified Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Nian-Bing(李念兵); DUAN,Jian-Ping(段建平); CHEN,Guo-Nan(陈国南)

    2004-01-01

    A novel differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry for the determination of trace amounts of lead, using a biomacromolecule heparin drop-coated modified glassy carbon electrode, has been described. Pb2+ was deposited on the surface of a heparin-modified electrode at - 1.0 V (vs. SCE) via forming Pb2+-heparin and subsequent reduction at the electrode. In the following step, Pb-heparin was oxidized, and voltammograms were recorded by scanning the potential in a positive direction. Conditions were optimized with respect to the pH of the medium, the mass of drop-coated heparin, accumulation potential and accumulation time. The peak current was proportional to the Pb2+ concentration in the range of 2.0× 10-9 to 7.0× 10-7 mol/L, The detection limit was 3.0× 10-10 mol/L.The relative standard deviation was 4.83% for 1.0× 10-8mol/L Pb2- (n= 10). The developed method has been applied to the determination of Pb2- in water samples with satisfactory results.

  9. Amperometric Immunosensor Based on a Protein A/Deposited Gold Nanocrystals Modified Electrode for Carbofuran Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Sun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor modified with protein A/deposited gold nanocrystals (DpAu was developed for the ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues. First, DpAu were electrodeposited onto the Au electrode surface to absorb protein A (PA and improve the electrode conductivity. Then PA was dropped onto the surface of DpAu film, used for binding antibody Fc fragments. Next, anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody was immobilized on the PA modified electrode. Finally, bovine serum albumin (BSA was employed to block the possible remaining active sites avoiding any nonspecific adsorption. The fabrication procedure of the immunosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV, respectively. With the excellent electroconductivity of DpAu and the PA’s oriented immobilization of antibodies, a highly efficient immuno-reaction and detection sensitivity could be achieved. The influences of the electrodeposition time of DpAu, pH of the detection solution and incubation time on the current response of the fabricated immunosensor were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the current response was proportional to the concentration of carbofuran which ranged from 1 to 100 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL. The detection limit was 0.1924 ng/mL. The proposed carbofuran immnuosensor exhibited high specificity, reproducibility, stability and regeneration performance, which may open a new door for ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues in vegetables and fruits.

  10. Amperometric immunosensor based on a protein A/deposited gold nanocrystals modified electrode for carbofuran detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xia; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Xiangyou

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor modified with protein A/deposited gold nanocrystals (DpAu) was developed for the ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues. First, DpAu were electrodeposited onto the Au electrode surface to absorb protein A (PA) and improve the electrode conductivity. Then PA was dropped onto the surface of DpAu film, used for binding antibody Fc fragments. Next, anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody was immobilized on the PA modified electrode. Finally, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was employed to block the possible remaining active sites avoiding any nonspecific adsorption. The fabrication procedure of the immunosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), respectively. With the excellent electroconductivity of DpAu and the PA's oriented immobilization of antibodies, a highly efficient immuno-reaction and detection sensitivity could be achieved. The influences of the electrodeposition time of DpAu, pH of the detection solution and incubation time on the current response of the fabricated immunosensor were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the current response was proportional to the concentration of carbofuran which ranged from 1 to 100 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL. The detection limit was 0.1924 ng/mL. The proposed carbofuran immnuosensor exhibited high specificity, reproducibility, stability and regeneration performance, which may open a new door for ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues in vegetables and fruits.

  11. Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified the Interdigitated Chain Electrode for an Insulin Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagati, Ajay Kumar; Park, Jinsoo; Cho, Sungbo

    2016-01-01

    Insulin is a key regulator in glucose homeostasis and its deficiency or alternations in the human body causes various types of diabetic disorders. In this paper, we present the development of a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) modified interdigitated chain electrode (ICE) for direct capacitive detection of insulin. The impedance properties of rGO-ICE were characterized by equivalent circuit modeling. After an electrochemical deposition of rGO on ICE, the electrode was modified with self-assembled monolayers and insulin antibodies in order to achieve insulin binding reactions. The impedance spectra and capacitances were measured with respect to the concentrations of insulin and the capacitance change (ΔC) was analyzed to quantify insulin concentration. The antibody immobilized electrode showed an increment of ΔC according to the insulin concentration in human serum ranging from 1 ng/mL to 10 µg/mL. The proposed sensor is feasible for label-free and real-time measuring of the biomarker and for point-of-care diagnosis. PMID:26784202

  12. Single-walled carbon nanotubes modified carbon ionic liquid electrode for sensitive electrochemical detection of rutin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Zhihong [Institute of Nano-Science and Technology Center, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Sun Xiaoying; Zhuang Xiaoming [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Zeng Yan [Institute of Nano-Science and Technology Center, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Sun Wei, E-mail: sunwei@qust.edu.c [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Huang Xintang [Institute of Nano-Science and Technology Center, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2010-11-01

    The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) modified carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) was designed and further used for the voltammetric detection of rutin in this paper. CILE was prepared by mixing graphite powder with ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and liquid paraffin together. Based on the interaction of SWCNTs with IL present on the electrode surface, a stable SWCNTs film was formed on the CILE to get a modified electrode denoted as SWCNTs/CILE. The characteristics of SWCNTs/CILE were recorded by different methods including cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of rutin on the SWCNTs/CILE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Due to the specific interface provided by the SWCNTs-IL film, the electrochemical response of rutin was greatly enhanced with a pair of well-defined redox peaks appeared in pH 2.5 phosphate buffer solution. The oxidation peak currents showed good linear relationship with the rutin concentration in the range from 1.0 x 10{sup -7} to 8.0 x 10{sup -4} mol/L with the detection limit as 7.0 x 10{sup -8} mol/L (3{sigma}). The SWCNTs/CILE showed the advantages such as excellent selectivity, improved performance, good stability and it was further applied to the rutin tablets sample detection with satisfactory results.

  13. Maize tassel-modified carbon paste electrode for voltammetric determination of Cu(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Mambo; Okonkwo, Jonathan O; Agyei, Nana M

    2014-08-01

    The preparation and application of a practical electrochemical sensor for environmental monitoring and assessment of heavy metal ions in samples is a subject of considerable interest. In this paper, a carbon paste electrode modified with maize tassel for the determination of Cu(II) has been proposed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study morphology and identify the functional groups on the modified electrode, respectively. First, Cu(II) was adsorbed on the carbon paste electrode surface at open circuit and voltammetric techniques were used to investigate the electrochemical performances of the sensor. The electrochemical sensor showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards Cu(II) at pH 5.0 and by increasing the amount of maize tassel biomass, a maximum response at 1:2.5 (maize tassel:carbon paste; w/w) was obtained. The electrocatalytic redox current of Cu(II) showed a linear response in the range (1.23 μM to 0.4 mM) with the correlation coefficient of 0.9980. The limit of detection and current-concentration sensitivity were calculated to be 0.13 (±0.01) μM and 0.012 (±0.001) μA/μM, respectively. The sensor gave good recovery of Cu(II) in the range from 96.0 to 98.0 % when applied to water samples. PMID:24705875

  14. Zwitterionic Surfactant Modified Acetylene Black Paste Electrode for Highly Facile and Sensitive Determination of Tetrabromobisphenol A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A electrochemical sensor for the highly sensitive detection of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA was fabricated based on acetylene black paste electrode (ABPE modified with 3-(N,N-Dimethylpalmitylammonio propanesulfonate (SB3-16 in this study. The peak current of TBBPA was significantly enhanced at SB3-16/ABPE compared with unmodified electrodes. To further improve the electrochemical performance of the modified electrode, corresponding experimental parameters such as the length of hydrophobic chains of zwitterionic surfactant, the concentration of SB3-16, pH value, and accumulation time were examined. The peak currents of TBBPA were found to be linearly correlated with its concentrations in the range of 1 nM to 1 µM, with a detection limit of 0.4 nM. Besides, a possible mechanism was also discussed, and the hydrophobic interaction between TBBPA and the surfactants was suggested to take a leading role in enhancing the responses. Finally, this sensor was successfully employed to detect TBBPA in water samples.

  15. Maize tassel-modified carbon paste electrode for voltammetric determination of Cu(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Mambo; Okonkwo, Jonathan O; Agyei, Nana M

    2014-08-01

    The preparation and application of a practical electrochemical sensor for environmental monitoring and assessment of heavy metal ions in samples is a subject of considerable interest. In this paper, a carbon paste electrode modified with maize tassel for the determination of Cu(II) has been proposed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study morphology and identify the functional groups on the modified electrode, respectively. First, Cu(II) was adsorbed on the carbon paste electrode surface at open circuit and voltammetric techniques were used to investigate the electrochemical performances of the sensor. The electrochemical sensor showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards Cu(II) at pH 5.0 and by increasing the amount of maize tassel biomass, a maximum response at 1:2.5 (maize tassel:carbon paste; w/w) was obtained. The electrocatalytic redox current of Cu(II) showed a linear response in the range (1.23 μM to 0.4 mM) with the correlation coefficient of 0.9980. The limit of detection and current-concentration sensitivity were calculated to be 0.13 (±0.01) μM and 0.012 (±0.001) μA/μM, respectively. The sensor gave good recovery of Cu(II) in the range from 96.0 to 98.0 % when applied to water samples.

  16. Zwitterionic Surfactant Modified Acetylene Black Paste Electrode for Highly Facile and Sensitive Determination of Tetrabromobisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Qiang; Wu, Weixiang; Zhou, Tong; Jiang, Shunli; Tong, Yeqing; Lu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    A electrochemical sensor for the highly sensitive detection of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) was fabricated based on acetylene black paste electrode (ABPE) modified with 3-(N,N-Dimethylpalmitylammonio) propanesulfonate (SB3-16) in this study. The peak current of TBBPA was significantly enhanced at SB3-16/ABPE compared with unmodified electrodes. To further improve the electrochemical performance of the modified electrode, corresponding experimental parameters such as the length of hydrophobic chains of zwitterionic surfactant, the concentration of SB3-16, pH value, and accumulation time were examined. The peak currents of TBBPA were found to be linearly correlated with its concentrations in the range of 1 nM to 1 µM, with a detection limit of 0.4 nM. Besides, a possible mechanism was also discussed, and the hydrophobic interaction between TBBPA and the surfactants was suggested to take a leading role in enhancing the responses. Finally, this sensor was successfully employed to detect TBBPA in water samples. PMID:27657078

  17. Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified the Interdigitated Chain Electrode for an Insulin Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagati, Ajay Kumar; Park, Jinsoo; Cho, Sungbo

    2016-01-01

    Insulin is a key regulator in glucose homeostasis and its deficiency or alternations in the human body causes various types of diabetic disorders. In this paper, we present the development of a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) modified interdigitated chain electrode (ICE) for direct capacitive detection of insulin. The impedance properties of rGO-ICE were characterized by equivalent circuit modeling. After an electrochemical deposition of rGO on ICE, the electrode was modified with self-assembled monolayers and insulin antibodies in order to achieve insulin binding reactions. The impedance spectra and capacitances were measured with respect to the concentrations of insulin and the capacitance change (ΔC) was analyzed to quantify insulin concentration. The antibody immobilized electrode showed an increment of ΔC according to the insulin concentration in human serum ranging from 1 ng/mL to 10 µg/mL. The proposed sensor is feasible for label-free and real-time measuring of the biomarker and for point-of-care diagnosis.

  18. Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified the Interdigitated Chain Electrode for an Insulin Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Yagati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin is a key regulator in glucose homeostasis and its deficiency or alternations in the human body causes various types of diabetic disorders. In this paper, we present the development of a reduced graphene oxide (rGO modified interdigitated chain electrode (ICE for direct capacitive detection of insulin. The impedance properties of rGO-ICE were characterized by equivalent circuit modeling. After an electrochemical deposition of rGO on ICE, the electrode was modified with self-assembled monolayers and insulin antibodies in order to achieve insulin binding reactions. The impedance spectra and capacitances were measured with respect to the concentrations of insulin and the capacitance change (ΔC was analyzed to quantify insulin concentration. The antibody immobilized electrode showed an increment of ΔC according to the insulin concentration in human serum ranging from 1 ng/mL to 10 µg/mL. The proposed sensor is feasible for label-free and real-time measuring of the biomarker and for point-of-care diagnosis.

  19. Studies on the Electrochemistry of Dopamine at a Pyrocatechol Sulfonephthalein Modified Glassy Carbon electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The electrochemical response of dopamine(DA)at a pyrocaterchol fulfonephthalein modified glassy carbon(PS/GC)electrode is reported.The electrode can be used as a detector for the determination of dopamine with a high stability and a good sensitivity.The cyclic voltammetric results indicated that there was a couple of well-defined redox peakds for dopamine at the PS/GC electrode with Epa=200mV,Epc=mV and the formal potential E0'=157.5 mV(vs.SCE) at 100 mV/s in the buffer solution of pH7.0. The PS/GC electrode can also be used to separate the electrochemical responses of ascorbic acid and DA by 54 mV with the differential pulse voltammetry.Under the selected conditions,the oxidation peak currents are linear with DA concetration in the range of 5.0×10-6 to 5.0×10-4 mol/L,and the detection limit is 1.0×10-6mol/L at S/N=3.Normalized with concentration,the Relative sensitivity of dopamine to ascorbic acid reaches ca.30.8:1.

  20. New triiodomercurate-modified carbon paste electrode for the potentiometric determination of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new tetrazolium-triiodomercurate-modified carbon paste electrode has been described for the sensitive and selective determination of mercury. The electrode shows a stable, near-Nernstian response for 1x10-3 to 6x10-6 M [HgI3]- at 25 deg. C over the pH range of 4.0-9.0, with an anionic slope of 55.5±0.4 mV. The lower detection limit is 4x10-6 M with a fast response time of 30-50 s. Selectivity coefficients of a number of interfering anions and iodo complexes of some metal ions have been estimated. The interference from many of the investigated ions is negligible. The determination of 1-200 μg/ml of mercury in aqueous solutions shows an average recovery of 98.5% and a mean relative standard deviation of 1.6% at 50.0 μg/ml. The direct determination of mercury in spiked wastewater, metal amalgams and dental alloy gave results that compare favorably with those obtained by the cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometric method. Potentiometric titration of mercury and phenylmercury acetate with standard potassium iodide has been monitored using the developed triiodomercurate-carbon paste electrode (CPE) as an end point indicator electrode

  1. Gold nanoparticle-coated multiwall carbon nanotube-modified electrode for electrochemical determination of methyl parathion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on an electrochemical sensor for the determination of methyl parathion. It is based on an electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes that were covered with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs). The vertically aligned array of MWCNTs on a tantalum substrate was coated with Au-NPs by overhead magnetron sputtering deposition. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy and XRD were used to characterize the Au-NP-MWCNTs composite. Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were employed to evaluate the suitability of the new electrode for the determination of methyl parathion. Under the optimal conditions, the current response of the electrode to methyl parathion is linear in the range from 0.50 to 16.0 mg mL-1, with a detection limit of 50 μg mL-1 (signal/noise = 3), and the sensitivity is 4.5 times better than that of the plain MWCNTs electrode. We conclude that this method represents a simple, rapid, effective and sensitive approach for the detection of methyl parathion. (author)

  2. A ultrasensitive nonenzymatic glucose sensor based on Cu2O polyhedrons modified Cu electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Jun Luo; Ting Ting Han; Ling Ling Qu; Xiang Yang Wu

    2012-01-01

    A novel nonenzymatic glucose sensor was successfully fabricated based on the Cu2O polyhedrons covered Cu foil.The Cu2O polyhedrons covered Cu foil was constructed via a facile,low-cost and larger scale producible method.The Cu2O polyhedrons covered Cu foil can be directly used as the working electrode of nonenzymatic glucose sensor,which present good stability and flexibility.The results indicated that the Cu2O polyhedrons modified Cu electrode (Cu2O/Cu electrode) showed high electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of glucose in alkaline solution.There are two linear regions of glucose concentration for the glucose sensor based on Cu2O/Cu electrode,respectively in 10 μmol/L to 0.53 mmol/L (sensitivity:3029.33 μA (mmol/L)-1 cm-2) and in 0.53-7.53 mmol/L (sensitivity:728.67 μA (mmol/L)-1 cm-2).

  3. Electrochemical Behavior and Determination of Rutin on Modified Carbon Paste Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Macikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The performances of ionic liquid (1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide, IL/CPE and iron phthalocyanine (IP/CPE modified carbon paste electrodes in electroanalytical determinations of rutin were evaluated and compared to the performance of unmodified carbon paste electrode (CPE. Cyclic voltammetry (CV, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV, differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPAdSV, and amperometry were used for rutin analysis. The best current responses of rutin were obtained at pH 4.0 for all tested techniques. IL/CPE electrode was found to perform best with DPAdSV technique, where a detection limit (LOD as low as 5 nmol L-1 of rutin was found. On the other hand, IP/CPE showed itself to be an optimum choice for DPV technique, where LOD of 80 nmol L-1 was obtained. Analytical applicability of newly prepared electrodes was demonstrated on determination of rutin in the model samples and the extracts of buckwheat seeds. To find an optimum method for buckwheat seeds extraction, a boiling water extraction (BWE, Soxhlet extraction (SE, pressurized solvent extraction (PSE, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE were tested.

  4. Coulometric determination of dissolved hydrogen with a multielectrolytic modified carbon felt electrode-based sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroaki Matsuura; Yosuke Yamawaki; Kosuke Sasaki; Shunichi Uchiyama

    2013-01-01

    A multielectrolytic modified carbon electrode (MEMCE) was fabricated by the electrolytic-oxidation/reduction processes.First,the functional groups containing nitrogen atoms such as amino group were introduced by the electrode oxidation of carbon felt electrode in an ammonium carbamate aqueous solution,and next,this electrode was electroreduced in sulfuric acid.The redox waves between hydrogen ion and hydrogen molecule at highly positive potential range appeared in the cyclic voltammogram obtained by MEMCE.A coulometric cell using MEMCE with a catalytic activity of electrooxidation of hydrogen molecule was constructed and was used for the measurement of dissolved hydrogen.The typical current vs.time curve was obtained by the repetitive measurement of the dissolved hydrogen.These curves indicated that the measurement of dissolved hydrogen was finished completely in a very short time (ca.10sec).A linear relationship was obtained between the electrical charge needed for the electrooxidation process of hydrogen molecule and dissolved hydrogen concentration.This indicates that the developed coulometfic method can be used for the determination of the dissolved hydrogen concentration.

  5. Determination of picomolar silver concentrations by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry at a carbon paste electrode modified with phenylthiourea-functionalized high ordered nanoporous silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study introduces the design of an anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV) method for the silver ion determination at a carbon paste electrode (CPE), chemically modified with phenylthiourea-nanoporous silica gel (Tu-SBA-15-CPE). The electroanalytical pro includes two steps: preconcentration of metal ions at an electrode surface, followed by quantification of the accumulated species by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric methods. Factors affecting the performance of the anodic stripping were investigated, including the modifier quantity in the paste, the electrolyte concentrations, the solution pH and the accumulation potential or time. The most sensitive and reliable electrode contained 10% Tu-SBA-15 and 90% carbon paste. The accumulation potential and time were set at, -200 mV and 300 s, respectively, and the scan rate at 50 mV s-1 in the scan range of -200 to 700 mV. The resulting electrode demonstrated a linear response over range of silver ion concentration of 8.0-80 pmol/L with detection limit (S/N = 3) of 5 pmol/L. The prepared electrodes were used for the silver determination in sea and tap water samples and very good recovery results were obtained. The accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments and independent analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

  6. Graphene-modified Electrodes for Enhancing the Performance of Microbial Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Heyang; He, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is an emerging material with superior physical and chemical properties, which can benefit the development of microbial fuel cells (MFC) in several aspects. Graphene-based anodes can enhance MFC performance with increased electron transfer efficiency, higher specific surface area and more active microbe-electrode-electrolyte interaction. For cathodic processes, oxygen reduction reaction is effectively catalyzed by graphene-based materials because of a favorable pathway and an increase...

  7. Electroanalytical method for determination of lead(II) in orange and apple using kaolin modified platinum electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mhammedi, M A; Achak, M; Bakasse, M; Chtaini, A

    2009-08-01

    This paper reports on the use of platinum electrode modified with kaolin (K/Pt) and square wave voltammetry for analytical detection of trace lead(II) in pure water, orange and apple samples. The electroanalytical procedure for determination of the Pb(II) comprises two steps: the chemical accumulation of the analyte under open-circuit conditions followed by the electrochemical detection of the preconcentrated species using square wave voltammetry. The analytical performances of the extraction method has been explored by studying the incubating time, and effect of interferences due to other ions. During the preconcentration step, Pb(II) was accumulated on the surface of the kaolin. The observed detection and quantification limits in pure water were 3.6x10(-9)molL(-1) and 1.2x10(-8)molL(-1), respectively. The precision of the method was also determined; the results was 2.35% (n=5).

  8. Double-ion imprinted polymer @magnetic nanoparticles modified screen printed carbon electrode for simultaneous analysis of cerium and gadolinium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Bhim Bali, E-mail: prof.bbpd@yahoo.com; Jauhari, Darshika

    2015-05-22

    Highlights: • Synthesis of a double-ion imprinted polymer for analysis of Ce(IV) and Gd(III). • Imprinted nano-beads were grown on MNPs-modified SPCE surface. • Voltammetric determination of both templates was carried out simultaneously. • Ultra-trace analysis with LOD (ng mL{sup −1}) 0.07 for Ce(IV) and 0.19 for Gd(III) is achieved. - Abstract: A typical, reproducible, and rugged screen printed carbon electrode, modified with dual-ion imprinted beads, was fabricated employing the “surface grafting from” approach. For this, the acyl chloride functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were first immobilized and chemically attached with a typical functional monomer (but-2-enedioic acid bis-[(2-amino-ethyl)-amide]) on the electrode surface. This was subsequently subjected to the thermal polymerization in the presence of template ions (Ce(IV) and Gd(III)), cross-linker (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate), initiator (AIBN), and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The modified sensor was used for the simultaneous analysis of both template ions in aqueous, blood serum, and waste-water samples, using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry which revealed two oxidation peaks for respective templates with resolution as much as 950 mV, without any cross reactivity, interferences and false-positives. The detection limits realized by the proposed sensor, under optimized conditions, were found to be as low as 0.07 ng mL{sup −1} for Ce(IV) and 0.19 ng mL{sup −1} for Gd(III) (S/N = 3) that could eventually be helpful for lanthanide estimation at stringent levels.

  9. Voltammetric Determination of Ferulic Acid Using Polypyrrole-Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Electrode with Sample Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refat Abdel-Hamid

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A polypyrrole-multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode-based sensor was devised for determination of ferulic acid (FA. The fabricated sensor was prepared electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry (CV and characterized using CV and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The electrode shows an excellent electrochemical catalytic activity towards FA oxidation. Under optimal conditions, the anodic peak current correlates linearly to the FA concentration throughout the range of 3.32 × 10−6 to 2.59 × 10−5 M with a detection limit of 1.17 × 10−6 M (S/N = 3. The prepared sensor is highly selective towards ferulic acid without the interference of ascorbic acid. The sensor applicability was tested for total content determination of FA in a commercial popcorn sample and showed a robust functionality.

  10. Third generation biosensor based on myoglobin-TiO2/MWCNTs modified glassy carbon electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhang; Dan Bi Tian; Jun Jie Zhu

    2008-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles were homogeneously coated on multi-walled carbon nanotubes by hydrothermal deposition, this nano-composite may be a promising material for myoglobin immobilization in view of its high biocompatibility and large surface. The glassy carbon electrode modified with Mb-TiO2/MWCNTs films exhibited a pair of well defined, stable and nearly reversible cycle voltammetric peaks. The electron transfer between Mb and electrode surface, Ks of 3.08 s-1, was greatly facilitated in the TiO2/MWCNTs film. The electrocatalytic reductions of hydrogen peroxide were studied, the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant is calculated to be 83.10 μmol/L, which shows a large catalytic activity of Mb in the TiO2/MWCNTs film to H2O2.

  11. Electrochemical determination of bisphenol A with a glassy carbon electrode modified with gold nanodendrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional gold nanodendrites with (111)-oriented growth were fabricated on a glassy carbon electrode by one-step electrodeposition of AuCl4− in the presence of L-asparagine. The gold nanodendrites were functionalized with 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA), which showed the improved catalytic performance for sensitive and selective determination of bisphenol A (BPA) by differential pulse voltammetry. The oxidation peak currents of BPA at 514 mV showed linear responses to BPA concentrations from 0.05 to 55.0 μM (R2 = 0.995), with the detection limit of 1.2 nM (S/N = 3). The modified electrode was extended for trace detection of BPA in (spiked) real samples with satisfied results. (author)

  12. Electrooxidation of DNA at glassy carbon electrodes modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes dispersed in polyethylenimine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luque, Guillermina L.; Ferreyra, Nancy F. [INFIQC, Departamento de Fisico Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Granero, Adrian [INFIQC, Departamento de Fisico Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Bollo, Soledad [Laboratorio de Bioelectroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad de Chile, P.O. Box 233, Santiago (Chile); Rivas, Gustavo A., E-mail: grivas@fcq.unc.edu.ar [INFIQC, Departamento de Fisico Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2011-10-30

    This work reports the electrochemical response of the complex between dsDNA and PEI formed in solution and at the surface of glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with a dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in polyethylenimine (CNT-PEI). Scanning Electron Microscopy and Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy demonstrate that the dispersion covers the whole surface of the electrode although there are areas with higher density of CNT and, consequently, with higher electrochemical reactivity. The adsorption of DNA at GCE/CNT-PEI is fast and it is mainly driven by electrostatic forces. A clear oxidation signal is obtained either for dsDNA or a heterooligonucleotide of 21 bases (oligoY) at potentials smaller than those for the oxidation at bare GCE. The comparison of the behavior of DNA before and after thermal treatment demonstrated that the electrochemical response highly depends on the 3D structure of the nucleic acid.

  13. Glucose sensor based on an electrochemical reduced graphene oxide-poly(L-lysine) composite film modified GC electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liang; Wu, Xiaqin; Wang, Rong

    2012-12-21

    A convenient and environmentally friendly method of fabricating glucose biosensors is proposed. Glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) which was adsorbed on the poly-L-lysine (PLL) modified glassy carbon electrode after being immersed in GO solution for 4 h. The electrochemical behaviors of GOD/ERGO/PLL/GC electrode have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Direct electron transfer between GOD immobilized with ERGO/PLL and GC electrode was observed. Moreover, the GOD/ERGO/PLL/GC electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for the detection of glucose with a linear range from 0.25 to 5 mmol L(-1). PMID:23082313

  14. Biosorption of uranium by chemically modified Rhodotorula glutinis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai Jing, E-mail: baijing@impcas.ac.c [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yao Huijun [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Fan Fangli; Lin Maosheng [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang Lina; Ding Huajie; Lei Fuan; Wu Xiaolei [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Xiaofei [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Guo Junsheng; Qin Zhi [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2010-11-15

    The present paper reports the biosorption of uranium onto chemically modified yeast cells, Rhodotorula glutinis, in order to study the role played by various functional groups in the cell wall. Esterification of the carboxyl groups and methylation of the amino groups present in the cells were carried out by methanol and formaldehyde treatment, respectively. The uranium sorption capacity increased 31% for the methanol-treated biomass and 11% for the formaldehyde-treated biomass at an initial uranium concentration of 140 mg/L. The enhancement of uranium sorption capacity was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis, with amino and carboxyl groups were determined to be the important functional groups involved in uranium binding. The biosorption isotherms of uranium onto the raw and chemically modified biomass were also investigated with varying uranium concentrations. Langmuir and Freundlich models were well able to explain the sorption equilibrium data with satisfactory correlation coefficients higher than 0.9. -- Research highlights: {yields} Uranium biosorption on to chemically modified yeast cells {yields} Cells before and after uranium sorption were investigate by FTIR spectroscopy {yields} Amino and carboxyl groups were important functional groups involved in uranium binding {yields} The sorption equilibrium date of raw and chemically modified biomass fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich models

  15. Modified NASA-Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Code for MHD applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, R. A.; Geyer, H. K.; Grammel, S. J.; Doss, E. D.

    1979-12-01

    A substantially modified version of the NASA-Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Code has recently been developed. The modifications were designed to extend the power and convenience of the Code as a tool for performing combustor analysis for MHD systems studies. This report describes the effect of the programming details from a user point of view, but does not describe the Code in detail.

  16. Structure and biological activity of chemically modified nisin A species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rollema, Harry S.; Metzger, Jörg W.; Both, Paula; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Siezen, Roland J.

    1996-01-01

    Nisin, a 34-residue peptide bacteriocin, contains the less common amino acids lanthionine, β-methyllanthionine, dehydroalanine (Dha), and dehydrobutyrine (Dhb). Several chemically modified nisin A species were purified by reverse-phase HPLC and characterized by two-dimensional NMR and electrospray m

  17. Modified NASA-Lewis chemical equilibrium code for MHD applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, R. A.; Geyer, H. K.; Grammel, S. J.; Doss, E. D.

    1979-01-01

    A substantially modified version of the NASA-Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Code was recently developed. The modifications were designed to extend the power and convenience of the Code as a tool for performing combustor analysis for MHD systems studies. The effect of the programming details is described from a user point of view.

  18. Molecular imprinted polypyrrole modified glassy carbon electrode for the determination of tobramycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Atomic force microscopic images of (A) bare GCE and (B) TOB imprinted PPy/GCE surface. - Highlights: • Glassy carbon electrode based on molecularly imprinted polypyrrole was prepared. • The developed surfaces were characterized by AFM, FTIR, EIS and CV. • The developed nanosensor was applied to egg and milk samples. - Abstract: Over the past two decades, molecular imprinted polymers have attracted a broad interest from scientists in sensor development. In the preparation of molecular imprinted polymers the desired molecule (template) induces the creation of specific recognition sites in the polymer. In this study, the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) based on molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (PPy) was fabricated for the determination of tobramycin (TOB). The developed electrode was prepared by incorporation of a template molecule (TOB) during the electropolymerization of pyrrole on GCE in aqueous solution using cyclic voltammetry (CV) method. The performance of the imprinted and non-imprinted electrodes was evaluated by square wave voltammetry (SWV). The effect of pH, monomer and template concentrations, electropolymerization cycles on the performance of the imprinted and non-imprinted electrodes was investigated and optimized. The non-modified and TOB-imprinted surfaces were characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and CV. The linearity range of TOB was 5.0 × 10−10–1.0 × 10−8 M with the detection limit of 1.4 × 10−10 M. The developed nanosensor was applied successfully for the determination of TOB in egg and milk

  19. Part I: A comparative study of bismuth-modified screen-printed electrodes for lead detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo Quintana, Josefina [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Biostrutture e Biosistemi ' INBB' , Viale Medaglie d' Oro 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Arduini, Fabiana, E-mail: fabiana.arduini@uniroma2.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Biostrutture e Biosistemi ' INBB' , Viale Medaglie d' Oro 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Amine, Aziz [Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, B.P.146, Mohammadia, Morocco, Rome (Italy); Punzo, Francesco; Destri, Giovanni Li [LAMSUN and CSGI at Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125, Catania (Italy); Bianchini, Chiara [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica Materiali Ambienti dell' Universita degli Studi ' La Sapienza' di Roma, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Zane, Daniela; Curulli, Antonella [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN)-CNR,via del Castro Laurenziano 7, 00161 Rome (Italy); Palleschi, Giuseppe; Moscone, Danila [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Biostrutture e Biosistemi ' INBB' , Viale Medaglie d' Oro 305, 00136 Rome (Italy)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 'In situ' Bi-SPE has higher sensitivity than 'ex situ' Bi-SPE and 'Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} bulk' SPE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrochemical treatment of SPE before Bi film deposition allows one to reach low LOD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The linearity of Pb{sup 2+} in HCl and HClO{sub 4} is greatly affected by the ionic strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Satisfactory values of the recovery percentage were obtained in drinking water samples. - Abstract: Lead determination was carried out in the frame of the European Union project Biocop ( (www.biocop.org)) using a bismuth-modified screen-printed electrode (Bi-SPE) and the stripping analysis technique. In order to choose a sensitive Bi-SPE for lead detection, an analytical comparative study of electrodes modified by Bi using 'in situ', 'ex situ' and 'bulk' procedures was carried out. On the basis of the results obtained, we confirmed that the 'in situ' procedure resulted in better analytical performances with respect to not only 'ex situ' but also to 'Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} bulk' modified electrodes, allowing for a linear range of lead ion concentration from 0.5 to 100 {mu}g L{sup -1} and a detection limit of 0.15 {mu}g L{sup -1}. We demonstrated that, before the Bi film deposition, an oxidative electrochemical pre-treatment of the working electrode could be useful because it eliminates traces of lead in the graphite-ink, as shown with stripping measurements. It also improves the electrochemical performance of the electrodes as demonstrated with Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The influence of different analytical parameters, such as the electrolyte solution composition (acetate buffer, chloridric acid, nitric acid, perchloric acid) and the ionic strength was investigated in order to evaluate how to treat the sample before the analysis. The morphology of

  20. Visible light photoelectrocatalysis with salicylic acid-modified TiO2 nanotube array electrode for p-nitrophenol degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research focused on immersion method synthesis of visible light active salicylic acid (SA)-modified TiO2 nanotube array electrode and its photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity. The SA-modified TiO2 nanotube array electrode was synthesized by immersing in SA solution with an anodized TiO2 nanotube array electrode. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS), and Surface photovoltage (SPV) were used to characterize this electrode. It was found that SA-modified TiO2 nanotube array electrode absorbed well into visible region and exhibited enhanced visible light PEC activity on the degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP). The degradation efficiencies increased from 63 to 100% under UV light, and 79-100% under visible light (λ > 400 nm), compared with TiO2 nanotube array electrode. The enhanced PEC activity of SA-modified TiO2 nanotube array electrode was attributed to the amount of surface hydroxyl groups introduced by SA-modification and the extension of absorption wavelength range.

  1. Electrochemical Reduction of Oxygen on Anthraquinone/Carbon Nanotubes Nanohybrid Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode in Neutral Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behaviors of monohydroxy-anthraquinone/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid modified glassy carbon (MHAQ/MWCNTs/GC electrodes in neutral medium were investigated; also reported was their application in the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR. The resulting MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. It was found that the ORR at the MHAQ/MWCNTs/GC electrode occurs irreversibly at a potential about 214 mV less negative than at a bare GC electrode in pH 7.0 buffer solution. Cyclic voltammetric and rotating disk electrode (RDE techniques indicated that the MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid has high electrocatalytic activity for the two-electron reduction of oxygen in the studied potential range. The kinetic parameters of ORR at the MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid modified GC electrode were also determined by RDE and EIS techniques.

  2. Chemical and physical characterization of electrode materials of spent sealed Ni-Cd batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, C A; Margarido, F

    2007-01-01

    The present work aimed at the chemical and physical characterization of spent sealed MONO-type Ni-Cd batteries, contributing to a better definition of the recycling process of these spent products. The electrode material containing essentially nickel, cadmium and some cobalt corresponds to approximately 49% of the weight of the batteries. The remaining components are the steel parts from the external case and the supporting grids (40%) containing Fe and Ni, the electrolyte (9%) and the plastic components (2%). Elemental quantitative analysis showed that the electrodes are highly concentrated in metals. The phase identification achieved by X-ray powder diffraction combined with chemical analysis and leaching tests allowed the authors to proceed with the composition of the electrode materials as following: cathode: 28.7% metallic Ni, 53.3% Ni(OH)2, 6.8% Cd(OH)2 and 2.8% Co(OH)2; anode: 39.4% metallic Ni and 57.0% Cd(OH)2. The morphology of the electrodes was studied by microscopic techniques and two phases were observed in the electrodes: (1) a bright metallic phase constituted of small nickel grains that acts as conductor, and (2) the main hydroxide phase of the active electrodes into which the nickel grains are dispersed. The disaggregation of the electrode particles from the supporting plates was easily obtained during the dismantling procedures, indicating that a substantial percentage of the electrodes can be efficiently separated by wet sieving after shredding the spent batteries. PMID:17166709

  3. The Graphene/l-Cysteine/Gold-Modified Electrode for the Differential Pulse Stripping Voltammetry Detection of Trace Levels of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Song

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium(II is a common water pollutant with high toxicity. It is of significant importance for detecting aqueous contaminants accurately, as these contaminants are harmful to human health and environment. This paper describes the fabrication, characterization, and application of an environment-friendly graphene (Gr/l-cysteine/gold electrode to detect trace levels of cadmium (Cd by differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV. The influence of hydrogen overflow was decreased and the current response was enhanced because the modified graphene extended the potential range of the electrode. The Gr/l-cysteine/gold electrode showed high electrochemical conductivity, producing a marked increase in anodic peak currents (vs. the glass carbon electrode (GCE and boron-doped diamond (BDD electrode. The calculated detection limits are 1.15, 0.30, and 1.42 µg/L, and the sensitivities go up to 0.18, 21.69, and 152.0 nA·mm−2·µg−1·L for, respectively, the BDD electrode, the GCE, and the Gr/l-cysteine/gold electrode. It was shown that the Gr/l-cysteine/gold-modified electrode is an effective means for obtaining highly selective and sensitive electrodes to detect trace levels of cadmium.

  4. A sensor for determination of tramadol in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes-modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemically modified electrode is constructed based on multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (MWCNTs/GCE). It is demonstrated that this sensor could be used for determination of pharmaceutical important compound tramadol (TRA). The measurements were carried out using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) methods. DPV experiments of various concentration of TRA showed two linear dynamic ranges. The first linear dynamic range was from 4 micro M to 35 micro M, and the second linear dynamic range was between 60 micro M to 550 micro M. A detection limit of 0.38 micro M (S/N = 3) was obtained. The analytical performance of this sensor has been evaluated for the detection of TRA in human serum, human urine and some pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory results. (author)

  5. Amperometric sensor for detection of bisphenol A using a pencil graphite electrode modified with polyaniline nanorods and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a simple and highly sensitive amperometric method for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) using pencil graphite electrodes modified with polyaniline nanorods and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The modified electrodes display enhanced electroactivity for the oxidation of BPA compared to the unmodified pencil graphite electrode. Under optimized conditions, the sensor has a linear response to BPA in the 1. 0 and 400 μM concentration range, with a limit of detection of 10 nM (at S/N = 3). The modified electrode also has a remarkably stable response, and up to 95 injections are possible with a relative standard deviation of 4. 2% at 100 μM of BPA. Recoveries range from 86 to 102% for boiling water spiked with BPA from four brands of baby bottles. (author)

  6. UV/Vis Spectroelectrochemistry as a Tool for Monitoring the Fabrication of Sensors Based on Silver Nanoparticle Modified Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aránzazu Heras

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new controlled current multipulse methodology has been developed to modify the screen-printed electrode surface with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. Spectroelectrochemistry has provided not only information about the type of nanoparticles (NPs deposited on the electrode surface, but also about the electrosynthesis process. Small NPs without plasmon band are initially generated. Next, these nuclei grow to form bigger NPs in the reduction pulses with a characteristic plasmon band centered at 400 nm. Most of the NPs are generated during the first reduction pulses and a linear growth of the absorbance at a lower reaction rate was obtained in the subsequent pulses. Oxidation pulses do not redissolve completely silver NPs but only partially, meaning that very stable NPs are generated. AgNPs-modified electrodes have been successfully used to determine hydrogen peroxide. Spectroelectrochemistry has also yielded very useful information to understand the voltammetric signal obtained during the reduction of H2O2 on silver modified electrodes.

  7. Detection of Carbofuran with Immobilized Acetylcholinesterase Based on Carbon Nanotubes-Chitosan Modified Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and stable enzyme biosensor based on efficient immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE to MWNTs-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE with chitosan (CS by layer-by-layer (LBL technique for rapid determination of carbofuran has been devised. According to the inhibitory effect of carbamate pesticide on the enzymatic activity of AChE, we use carbofuran as a model pesticide. The inhibitory effect of carbofuran on the biosensor was proportional to concentration of carbofuran in the range from  g/L to  g/L with a detection limit of  g/L. This biosensor is a promising new method for pesticide analysis.

  8. Localized electropolymerization on oxidized boron-doped diamond electrodes modified with pyrrolyl units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Paolo; Manesse, Mael; Nunes-Kirchner, Carolina; Wittstock, Gunther; Coffinier, Yannick; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2006-11-14

    This paper describes the functionalization of oxidized boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes with N-(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)pyrrole (TMPP) and the influence of this layer on the electrochemical transfer kinetics as well as on the possibility of forming strongly adhesive polypyrrole films on the BDD interface through electropolymerization. Furthermore, localized polymer formation was achieved on the TMPP-modified BDD interface using the direct mode of a scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) as well as an electrochemical scanning near-field optical microscope (E-SNOM). Depending on the method used polypyrrole dots with diameters in the range of 1-250 microm are electrogenerated. PMID:17066183

  9. Preparation and Electrocatalytic Performance of Bi-Modified Quartz Column Particle Electrode for Phenol Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiguo Huang; Haitao Chen; Shuo Pang; Gang Liu; Huanyu Cui; Lili Dong; Xingjuan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) and its composites have good electrocatalytic performance. Quartz column is a good kind of catalyst carrier with the characteristics of high mechanical strength and good stability. A novel Bi-modified quartz column particle electrode (BQP) was prepared by the dipping-calcination method. The characterization results revealed that Bi2O3 was successfully loaded on quartz column. The optimum preparation condition was calcining at 550°C for 4 h. Electrocatalytic performance w...

  10. A sensitive and environmentally friendly method for determination of chemical oxygen demand using NiCu alloy electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► NiCu alloy modified electrode is used to determine chemical oxygen demand. ► NiCu alloy can effectively oxidize a wide range of organic compounds. ► Compared with the existing methods, this method has wide linear range and high sensitivity. ► The results are linearly correlated to those by the classic dichromate method. ► The proposed method has an excellent practical perspective in water quality control. - Abstract: A simple, sensitive and environmentally friendly method was developed for determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) by cyclic voltammetry using nickel–copper (NiCu) alloy electrode. The structure and the electrochemical behavior of NiCu alloy electrode were investigated by atomic force microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. The results indicated that NiCu alloy film with high quality was stably modified on the surface of glass carbon (GC) electrode, which could effectively oxidize a wide range of organic compounds. Subsequently, the parameters affecting the analytical performance were investigated, including pH, dissolved oxygen and concentration of chloride ion. Under optimized conditions, the linear range was 10–1533 mg L−1 and the detection limit was 1.0 mg L−1. The results obtained from the proposed method were linearly correlated to those by the classic dichromate method (r = 0.9978, p < 0.01, n = 13). Finally, the validated method was used to determine the COD values of surface water, reclaimed water and wastewater. It was shown that the proposed method had an excellent practical perspective on determination of COD in water quality control and pollution evaluation.

  11. SPE Membrane Electrode and Its Application to Chemical Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The structure and proton conducting mechanism of solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) are described. Since the conductivity of electrolyte is important in SPE electrochemical cell research and development, we investigate quantitatively the conductivity of Nafion membrane and its dependence on temperature and relative humidity. Ex perimental results show that the conductivity of Nafion membrane increases with temperature and relative humidity. We also reports on the preparation and development of SPE membrane electrode with the emphasis on the mix ture pressing method and impregnation-reduction process to prepare SPE composite electrode assemblies and their application to electrochemical sensors. We also investigate and fabricate a potentiometric electrochemical sensor of hydrogen and ethylene to measure the hydrogen and ethylene partial pressure.

  12. ITO electrode modified by a gold ion implantation technique for direct electrocatalytic sensing of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a simple strategy for the fabrication of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on an indium tin oxide substrate using a modified ion implantation method. The morphology, structure and electrochemical features of AuNPs were characterized by atomic force microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The modified electrode has a large electrochemically active surface and enables strong loading with cytochrome c (Cyt c) proteins. It undergoes enhanced electron transfer at uncompromised electrochemical activity, and also displays good stability and repeatability. The immobilized Cyt c exhibits good electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), with a linear relationship between the catalytic current during differential pulse voltammetry and the concentration of H2O2 in the 0.05 μM to 0.2 μM range. The detection limit (S/N = 3) is 0. 01 μM. (author)

  13. Impedimetric Label-Free Immunosensor on Disposable Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes for Ochratoxin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Malvano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An impedimetric label-free immunosensor on disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE for quantitative determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA has been developed. After modification of the SPCE surface with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, the anti-OTA was immobilized on the working electrode through a cysteamine layer. After each coating step, the modified surfaces were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The capacitance was chosen as the best parameter that describes the reproducible change in electrical properties of the electrode surface at different OTA concentrations and it was used to investigate the analytical parameters of the developed immunosensor. Under optimized conditions, the immunosensor showed a linear relationship between 0.3 and 20 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 0.25 ng/mL, making it suitable to control OTA content in many common food products. Lastly, the immunosensor was used to measure OTA in red wine samples and the results were compared with those registered with a competitive ELISA kit. The immunosensor was sensitive to OTA lower than 2 μg/kg, which represents the lower acceptable limit of OTA established by European legislation for common food products.

  14. Temperature dependence studies on the electro-oxidation of aliphatic alcohols with modified platinum electrodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Panadda Katikawong; Tanakorn Ratana; Waret Veerasai

    2009-05-01

    Temperature dependence on the electro-oxidation of methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol in 0.5 M H2SO4 were investigated with Pt and PtRu electrodes. Tafel slope and apparent activation energy were evaluated from the cyclic voltammetric data in the low potential region (0.3-0.5 V vs SHE). The CV results provided Tafel slopes for alcohols in the range of 200-400 mV dec-1 which indicated a difference in the rate determining step. The decrease in Tafel slope was only observed in the case of methanol for the Ru-modified Pt electrode. This indicates that Ru improves the rate of determining step for methanol while hindering it for the other alcohols. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was also used to evaluate the electro-oxidation mechanism of alcohols on these electrodes. The simulated EIS results provided two important parameters: charge transfer resistance () and inductance (). The $R^{-1}_{ct}$ and -1 represent the rate of alcohol electro-oxidation and rate of desorption of intermediate species, respectively. These values increased with the increasing of temperature. The results from two techniques were well agreed that the electro-oxidation of methanol was improved by raising the temperature and ruthenium modification.

  15. Electrocatalytic oxidation of salicylic acid by a cobalt hydrotalcite-like compound modified Pt electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualandi, Isacco; Scavetta, Erika; Zappoli, Sergio; Tonelli, Domenica

    2011-03-15

    In this paper a study of the electrocatalytic oxidation of salicylic acid (SA) at a Pt electrode coated with a Co/Al hydrotalcite-like compound (Co/Al HTLC coated-Pt) film is presented. The voltammetric behaviour of the modified electrode in 0.1M NaOH shows two different redox couples: Co(II)/Co(III) and Co(III)/Co(IV). The electrocatalysis occurs at the same potential of the latter couple, showing that Co(IV) centers act as the oxidant. The CV investigation demonstrates that the process is controlled both by mass and charge transfer and that the Co(IV) centers involved in the oxidation are two for each SA molecule. The estimated value of the catalytic constant is 4×10(4) M(-1) s(-1). The determination of salicylic acid was performed both by DPV and chronoamperometry. The linearity ranges and the LOD values resulted 1×10(-5) to 5×10(-4), 5×10(-7) to 1×10(-4), 6×10(-6) and 2×10(-7) M, respectively. The Co/Al HTLC electrode has been used for SA determination in BAYER Aspirina® and the obtained results are consistent with an independent HPLC analysis. PMID:21237633

  16. Electrochemical behavior of labetalol at an ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode and its electrochemical determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yan-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical behavior of labetalol (LBT at carbon paste electrode (CPE and an ionic liquid1-benzyl-3-methylimidazolehexafluorophosphate([BnMIM]PF6modified carbon paste electrode([BnMIM]PF6/CPEin Britton-Robinson buffer solution (pH 2.0 was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV and square wave voltammetric (SWV. The experimental results showed that LBT at both the bare CPE and [BnMIM]PF6/CPEshowed an irreversible oxidation process, but at [BnMIM]PF6/CPE its oxidation peak current increased greatly and the oxidation peak potential shifted negatively. The electrode reaction process is a diffusion-controlled process involving one electron transferring accompanied by a participation of one proton at [BnMIM]PF6/CPE. At the same time, the electrochemical kinetic parameters were determined. Under the optimized electrochemical experimental conditions, the oxidation peak currents were proportional to LBT concentration in the range of 7.0 x 10-6-1.0 x 10-4 mol L-1 with the limit of detection(LOD, S/N=3 of 4.810 x 10-8 mol L-1and the limit of quantification(LOQ, S/N=10 of 1.60 x 10-7 mol L-1, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied in the determination of LBT content in commercial tablet samples.

  17. Droplet-based glucosamine sensor using gold nanoparticles and polyaniline-modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suea-Ngam, Akkapol; Rattanarat, Poomrat; Wongravee, Kanet; Chailapakul, Orawon; Srisa-Art, Monpichar

    2016-09-01

    A droplet-based electrochemical sensor for direct measurement of D-glucosamine was developed using carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and polyaniline (PANI). Central composition design (CCD) was employed as a powerful method for optimization of parameters for electrode fabrication. The optimized amounts of AuNPs and PANI obtained from the response surface were determined as 300 and 3000mgL(-1), respectively. Coupled with a droplet microfluidic system, the analysis of glucosamine was performed in a high-throughput manner with a sample throughput of at least 60 samples h(-1). In addition, the adsorption of the analyte on the electrode surface was prevented due to compartmentalization in droplets. Linearity of the proposed system was found to be in the range of 0.5-5mM with a sensitivity of 7.42×10(-3)Amol(-1)Lcm(-2) and limits of detection and quantitation of 0.45 and 1.45mM, respectively. High intraday and interday (evaluated among 3 days) precisions for the detection of 50 droplets containing glucosamine were obtained with relative standard deviation less than 3%. The system was successfully used to determine the amounts of glucosamine in supplementary products with error percentage and relative standard deviation less than 3%. In addition, the amounts of glucosamine measured using the developed sensor were in good agreement with those obtained from a CE method. These indicate high accuracy and precision of the proposed system. PMID:27343587

  18. Modified pulse electrodeposition of Pt nanocatalyst as high-performance electrode for PEMFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda-Onana, F.; Guillet, N.; AlMayouf, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Low platinum loading electrode was successfully deposited by a modified pulse galvanic signal in H2PtCl6 electrolyte using carbon black as support directly on a GDL (Gas Diffusion Layer). SEM images of the deposition were composed by rough Pt particles of 50 nm leading to specific electrochemical surface area of 53 m2 g-1. In spite of large particle size and a low cathode loading of 0.12 mg cm-2, the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) fed with humidified H2 and O2 at 80 °C, 1.5 absolute bar reached 0.2 mA cmPt-2 and 0.1 A mg-1 at 0.9 VIR-free which were twice higher than a reference membrane electrodes assembly (MEA) with a cathode loaded at 0.4 mgPt.cm-2. Such an active cathode electrode may be ascribed to a higher utilization rate of the platinum caused by an efficient catalyst deposition by electrochemical route.

  19. Nickel nanoparticle-modified electrode for ultra-sensitive electrochemical detection of insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanan; Guo, Meisong; Yuan, Mengwei; Liu, Weitong; Hu, Jingbo

    2016-03-15

    An ultra-sensitive electrochemical sensor for the detection of insulin was fabricated, using low-cost and environmentally friendly nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) by ion implantation. The morphology and structure of the NiNPs are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), revealing diameters ranging from 4 to 8 nm. The insulin assay performances were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronoamperometry (I-t). The NiNPs-modified indium tin oxide electrode (NiNPs/ITO) showed excellent analytical features, including ultra-high sensitivity (2140 μAμM(-1)) for detecting low concentrations of insulin, an incredibly low detection limit (10 pM) and a wide dynamic range (100 pM to 2400 pM and 1 nM to 125 nM). In addition, the NiNPs/ITO electrode was also used to analyze the insulin concentration in bovine insulin injections. The NiNPs/ITO electrode is expected to be used as a potential biosensor for insulin.

  20. Influence of temperature on natural and chemically modified zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeolites from Nizny Hrabovec (Slovak Republic) were modified with solutions of NaOH. The changes of zeolites in the temperature range 20-1200 deg C were studied by thermal analysis (DTA, TG, ETA), X-ray analysis and REM analysis. Thermal analysis showed that the process of dehydration started between temperatures 20 and 600 deg C, over this temperature the dealumination and structural changes have taken place. X-ray analysis and REM analysis showed the structural changes of natural zeolites and gradual loss of cristallinity of the chemically modified zeolites. (author)

  1. Chemical sensors based on molecularly modified metallic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haick, Hossam [Department of Chemical Engineering and Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2007-12-07

    This paper presents a concise, although admittedly non-exhaustive, didactic review of some of the main concepts and approaches related to the use of molecularly modified metal nanoparticles in or as chemical sensors. This paper attempts to pull together different views and terminologies used in sensors based on molecularly modified metal nanoparticles, including those established upon electrochemical, optical, surface Plasmon resonance, piezoelectric and electrical transduction approaches. Finally, this paper discusses briefly the main advantages and disadvantages of each of the presented class of sensors. (review article)

  2. Electrochemical Characterization of Graphene and MWCNT Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with AuNPs for Laccase Biosensor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Favero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to show how the integration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs into multi-wall-carbon-nanotubes (MWCNTs based screen-printed electrodes and into graphene-based screen-printed electrodes (GPHs could represent a potential way to further enhance the electrochemical properties of those electrodes based on nanoparticles. Laccase from Trametes versicolor (TvL was immobilized over MWCNTs and GPH previously modified with AuNPs (of 5 and 10 nm. The characterization of the modified electrode surface has been carried out by cyclic voltammetry. The results showed that the use of AuNPs for modification of both graphene and MWCNTs screen-printed electrode surfaces would increase the electrochemical performances of the electrodes. MWCNTs showed better results than GPH in terms of higher electroactive area formation after modification with AuNPs. The two modified nanostructured electrodes were successively proven to efficiently immobilize the TvL; the electrochemical sensing properties of the GPH- and MWCNT-based AuNPs-TvL biosensors were investigated by choosing 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid diammonium salt (ABTS, catechol and caffeic acid as laccase mediators; and the kinetic parameters of the laccase biosensor were carefully evaluated.

  3. Electrochemical synthesis of nickel–iron layered double hydroxide: Application as a novel modified electrode in electrocatalytic reduction of metronidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejati, Kamellia, E-mail: k_nejati@pnu.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Payame Noor University, PO. Box 19395-3697 Tehran, I.R. of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666-16471 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    A new and simple approach based on the electrochemical method was used for preparation of reproducible nanostructure thin film of Ni/Fe-layered double hydroxides (Ni/Fe-LDH) on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical behavior of the Ni/Fe-LDH deposited on GCE electrode is studied. Study of the scanning electron microscopy shows the formation of a nanostructure thin film on the glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical experiments show that Ni/Fe-LDH modified glassy carbon electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic reduction activity with Metronidazole. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of Metronidazole in tablets. The results were favorably compared to those obtained by the reported BP method. - Highlights: • Ni/Fe-LDH was synthesized simply via electrodeposition method on glassy carbon electrode. • The LDH modified electrode was used to electrocatalytic reduction and determination of metronidazole. • The reduction peak of Fe(III)-LDH to Fe(II)-LDH was applied to electrocatalytic reduction of Metronidazole. • The modified electrode exhibited very good analytical performance with low cost, convenient preparation and rapid detection.

  4. Electrochemical detection of acetaminophen on the functionalized MWCNTs modified electrode using layer-by-layer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjunatha, Revanasiddappa [Chemistry Research Centre, S.S.M.R.V. Degree College, IV ' T' Block, Jayanagar, Bangalore 560041 (India); Nagaraju, Dodahalli Hanumantharayudu [Mechanical Engineering Department, National University of Singapore, 119615 (Singapore); Suresh, Gurukar Shivappa, E-mail: sureshssmrv@yahoo.co.in [Chemistry Research Centre, S.S.M.R.V. Degree College, IV ' T' Block, Jayanagar, Bangalore 560041 (India); Melo, Jose Savio; D' Souza, Stanislaus F. [Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Venkatesha, Thimmappa Venkatarangaiah [Department of Chemistry, Kuvempu University, Jnanasahyadri, Shimoga 577451 (India)

    2011-07-30

    A selective electrochemical method is fabricated via layer-by-layer (LBL) method using both positively and negatively charged multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on poly (diallyldimetheylammonium chloride) (PDDA)/poly styrene sulfonate (PSS) modified graphite electrode, for the determination of acetaminophen (ACT) in the presence of dopamine (DA) and high concentration of ascorbic acid (AA). The modified electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Experimental conditions such as pH, accumulation potential and time, effect of potential sweep rates and interferents were studied. In CV well defined peaks for AA, ACT and DA are obtained at 24, 186 and 374 mV, respectively. The separations of peaks were 210, 188 and 398 mV between AA and DA, DA and ACT and AA and ACT, respectively. The diffusion coefficient was calculated by chronocoulometric. Chronoamperometric studies showed the linear relationship between oxidation peak current and concentration of ACT in the range 25-400 {mu}M (R = 0.9991). The detection limit was 5 x 10{sup -7} mol/L. The proposed method gave satisfactory results in the determination of ACT in pharmaceutical and human serum samples.

  5. Highly Selective Electrochemical Determination of Taxol Based on ds-DNA-Modified Pencil Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taei, M; Hassanpour, F; Salavati, H; Sadeghi, Z; Alvandi, H

    2015-05-01

    In this research, TiO2/ZrO2 nanocomposite has been prepared using sol-gel method. The TiO2/ZrO2 composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A sensitive electrochemical biosensor is also presented for the determination of Taxol based on ds-DNA decorated multiwall carbon nanotubes-TiO2/ZrO2-chitosan-modified pencil electrode (ds-DNA-MWNTs-TiO2/ZrO2-CHIT-PGE). The UV spectroscopic data and differential pulse voltammetry revealed that there is a strong interaction between ds-DNA and Taxol. The groove binding of Taxol to ds-DNA helix has been characterized by a red shift (less than 8 nm) in wavelength and the decrease in the differential pulse voltammetry oxidation signal intensity of the Taxol at pencil graphite electrode (PGE) after its interaction with ds-DNA. Finally, a pretreated PGE modified with ds-DNA-MWNTs-TiO2/ZrO2-CHIT was tested in order to determine Taxol content in the solution. The dynamic range was from 0.7 to 1874.0 nmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.01 nmol L(-1). This sensing platform was successfully applied for the determination of Taxol in pharmaceutical and biological samples.

  6. Electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol on Ni and NiCu alloy modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danaee, I.; Jafarian, M.; Forouzandeh, F.; Mahjani, M.G. [Department of Chemistry, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4416, Tehran (Iran); Gobal, F. [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-08-15

    Nickel and nickel-copper alloy modified glassy carbon electrodes (GC/Ni and GC/NiCu) prepared by galvanostatic deposition were examined for their redox process and electrocatalytic activities towards the oxidation of methanol in alkaline solutions. The methods of cyclic voltammetery (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) were employed. The cyclic voltammogram of NiCu alloy demonstrates the formation of {beta}/{beta} crystallographic forms of the nickel oxyhydroxide under prolonged repetitive potential cycling in alkaline solution. In CV studies, in the presence of methanol NiCu alloy modified electrode shows a significantly higher response for methanol oxidation. The peak current of the oxidation of nickel hydroxide increase is followed by a decrease in the corresponding cathodic current in presence of methanol. The anodic peak currents show linear dependency with the square root of scan rate. This behavior is the characteristic of a diffusion controlled process. Under the CA regime the reaction followed a Cottrellian behavior and the diffusion coefficient of methanol was found to be 2 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} in agreement with the values obtained from CV measurements. (author)

  7. Flow injection amperometric sensor with a carbon nanotube modified screen printed electrode for determination of hydroquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upan, Jantima; Reanpang, Preeyaporn; Chailapakul, Orawon; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2016-01-01

    Flow injection amperometric (FI-Amp) sensor was developed for sensitive and selective determination of hydroquinone. A simple screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was modified with various nanomaterials for improvement of sensitivity on the determination of quinone. As a result, the appropriate sensitivity is obtained from the SPCE modified with carbon nanotube (CNT) which indicated that CNT contributed to the transfer of electron to quinone. The reproducibility (n=9) and repeatability (n=111) of SPCE-CNT were obtained at 4.4% and 3.6%RSD, respectively. The SPCE-CNT electrode and enzymatic column were incorporated to the FI-Amp system to determine hydroquinone. Laccase was immobilized on silica gel using a cross-linking method by glutaraldehyde modification and then packed in the column. The laccase column has high efficiency for catalytic oxidation of hydroquinone to quinone, which further detects by amperometric detection. Parameters affecting response of the proposed sensor, i.e., pH, ionic strength, and temperature have been optimized. The proposed system provided a wide linear range between 1 and 50 µM with detection limit of 0.1 µM. Satisfactory recoveries in the range of 91.2-103.8% were obtained for the analysis of water sample. PMID:26695328

  8. Methionine – Au Nanoparticle Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode: a Novel Platform for Electrochemical Detection of Hydroquinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong HE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high sensitive electrochemical sensor based on methionine/gold nanoparticles (MET/AuNPs modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE was fabricated for the quantitative detection of hydroquinone (HQ. The as-modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. The electrochemical performance of the sensor to HQ was investigated by using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry, which revealed its excellent electrocatalytic activity and reversibility towards HQ. The separation of anodic and cathodic peak (∆Ep was decreased from 471 mV to 75 mV. The anodic peak current achieved under the optimum conditions was linear with the HQ concentration ranging from 8 μM to 400 μM with the detection limit 0.12 μM (3σ. The as-fabricated sensor also showed a good selectivity towards HQ without demonstrating interference from other coexisting species. Furthermore, the sensor showed a good performance for HQ detection in environmental water, which suggests its potential practical application. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6477

  9. Free-radical-promoted conversion of graphite oxide into chemically modified graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Na-Na; Zeng, Jing; Zhou, Kai-Ge; Xie, Yu-Long; Wang, Hang-Xing; Zhang, Hao-Li; Xu, Chen; Zhu, Ji-Xin; Yan, Qing-Yu

    2013-05-01

    The preparation of chemically modified graphene (CMG) generally involves the reduction of graphite oxide (GO) by using various reducing reagents. Herein, we report a free-radical-promoted synthesis of CMG, which does not require any conventional reductant. We demonstrated that the phenyl free radical can efficiently promote the conversion of GO into CMG under mild conditions and produces phenyl-functionalized CMG. This pseudo-"reduction" process is attributed to a free-radical-mediated elimination of the surface-attached oxygen-containing functionalities. This work illustrates a new strategy for preparing CMG that is alternative to the conventional means of chemical reduction. Furthermore, the phenyl-functionalized graphene shows an excellent performance as an electrode material for lithium-battery applications.

  10. Voltammetric determination of 6-thioguanine and folic acid using a carbon paste electrode modified with ZnO-CuO nanoplates and modifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitollahi, Hadi; Ivari, Susan Ghofrani; Torkzadeh-Mahani, Masoud

    2016-12-01

    ZnO-CuO nanoplates and 2-chlorobenzoyl ferrocene, were synthesized and used to construct a modified carbon paste electrode. The electrooxidation of 6-thioguanine at the surface of the modified electrode was studied. Under the optimized conditions, the square wave voltammetric (SWV) peak current of 6-thioguanine increased linearly in the concentration range 0.05 to 200.0μM and detection limit of 25±2nM was obtained for 6-thioguanine. The prepared modified electrode exhibits a very good resolution between the voltammetric peaks of 6-thioguanine and folic acid which makes it suitable for the detection of 6-thioguanine in the presence of folic acid in real samples. PMID:27612697

  11. Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine by copper iodide modified sol-gel derived carbon-ceramic composite Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Karim-Nezhad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new sol-gel derived ceramic-carbon composite electrode was fabricated by the use of CuI as modifier. The electrocatalytic activity of the copper iodide modified sol-gel derived ceramic-carbon composite (CIM-SGD-CCC electrode was examined for the oxidation of hydrazine. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to study the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of the modified electrode. Results showed that the CIM-SGD-CCC electrode has very high catalytic activity for electrooxidation of hydrazine. This proves that the copper iodide bears the main role in electro-catalytic oxidation of hydrazine. This modified electrode shows fast amperometric response with the range from 1 μ mol L-1 to 40 μ mol L-1 and the limit of detection (LOD of 0.524 μ mol L-1 for hydrazine. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D. was 0.72 % for 5 successive assays. High stability, good reproducibility, rapid response, easy surface regeneration and fabrication are the important characteristics of the proposed electrode.

  12. Electroanalytical detection of pindolol: comparison of unmodified and reduced graphene oxide modified screen-printed graphite electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumba, Loanda R; Smith, Jamie P; Brownson, Dale A C; Iniesta, Jesús; Metters, Jonathan P; do Carmo, Devaney R; Banks, Craig E

    2015-03-01

    Recent work has reported the first electroanalytical detection of pindolol using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) modified glassy carbon electrodes [S. Smarzewska and W. Ciesielski, Anal. Methods, 2014, 6, 5038] where it was reported that the use of RGO provided significant improvements in the electroanalytical signal in comparison to a bare (unmodified) glassy carbon electrode. We demonstrate, for the first time, that the electroanalytical quantification of pindolol is actually possible using bare (unmodified) screen-printed graphite electrodes (SPEs). This paper addresses the electroanalytical determination of pindolol utilising RGO modified SPEs. Surprisingly, it is found that bare (unmodified) SPEs provide superior electrochemical signatures over that of RGO modified SPEs. Consequently the electroanalytical sensing of pindolol is explored at bare unmodified SPEs where a linear range between 0.1 μM-10.0 μM is found to be possible whilst offering a limit of detection (3σ) corresponding to 0.097 μM. This provides a convenient yet analytically sensitive method for sensing pindolol. The optimised electroanalytical protocol using the unmodified SPEs, which requires no pre-treatment (electrode polishing) or electrode modification step (such as with the use of RGO), was then further applied to the determination of pindolol in urine samples. This work demonstrates that the use of RGO modified SPEs have no significant benefits when compared to the bare (unmodified) alternative and that the RGO free electrode surface can provide electro-analytically useful performances.

  13. Overpotential deposition of copper on an iodine-modified Au(1 1 1) electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Ruiz, Alejandro [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Ensenada, BC 22800 (Mexico)], E-mail: alejandro@uabc.mx; Palomar-Pardave, Manuel [Departamento de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, C.P. 02000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Batina, Nikola [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy were used to study the kinetics of nucleation and crystal growth during the initial stages of copper overpotential deposition (OPD) on a previously iodine-modified Au(1 1 1) electrode, from an aqueous solution 10{sup -3} M CuSO{sub 4} in 0.05 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The starting potential during step experiments was chosen in the region where the gold electrode was completely free of the copper deposit. The recorded current transients for copper deposition onto the iodine-modified Au(1 1 1) electrode surface appear to be very complex, with the unusual presence of two or more current maxima. A new method was used for quantitative evaluation of current transients that involves the transition UPD-OPD, developed by our group [M. Palomar-Pardave, I. Gonzalez, N. Batina, J. Phys. Chem. B 104 (2000) 3545], was used for the quantitative interpretation. Our results show that, within a single current transient, copper adsorption and two types of nucleation process: two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) limited by lattice incorporation of copper adatoms and diffusion of Cu(II) ion, respectively, take place simultaneously. STM images revealed the enhanced growth of 3D copper on edge of I-Au(1 1 1) during the early stages of deposition. Moreover, our results strongly suggest that the iodine adlayer is constantly present, even after the striping Cu that was overpotential deposited.

  14. Electro-chemical deposition of zinc oxide nanostructures by using two electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Taleatu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most viable ways to grow nanostructures is electro deposition. However, most electrodeposited samples are obtained by three-electrode electrochemical cell. We successfully use a much simpler two-electrode cell to grow different ZnO nanostructures from common chemical reagents. Concentration, pH of the electrolytes and growth parameters like potentials at the electrodes, are tailored to allow fast growth without complexity. Morphology and surface roughness are investigated by Scanning Electron and Air Force Microscopy (SEM and AFM respectively, crystal structure by X-Ray Diffraction measurements (XRD and ZnO stoichiometry by core level photoemission spectroscopy (XPS.

  15. Shape correction of optical surfaces using plasma chemical vaporization machining with a hemispherical tip electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takino, Hideo; Yamamura, Kazuya; Sano, Yasuhisa; Mori, Yuzo

    2012-01-20

    We propose a plasma chemical vaporization machining device with a hemispherical tip electrode for optical fabrication. Radio-frequency plasma is generated close to the electrode under atmospheric conditions, and a workpiece is scanned relative to the stationary electrode under three-axis motion control to remove target areas on a workpiece surface. Experimental results demonstrate that surface removal progresses although process gas is not forcibly supplied to the plasma. The correction of shape errors on conventionally polished spheres is performed. As a result, highly accurate smooth surfaces with the desired rms shape accuracy of 3 nm are successfully obtained, which confirms that the device is effective for the fabrication of optics.

  16. Simultaneous Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid Using an Iron Oxide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teo Peik-See

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of an electrochemical sensor based on an iron oxide/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (Fe3O4/rGO/GCE and its simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA and ascorbic acid (AA is described here. The Fe3O4/rGO nanocomposite was synthesized via a simple, one step in-situ wet chemical method and characterized by different techniques. The presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of rGO sheets was confirmed by FESEM and TEM images. The electrochemical behavior of Fe3O4/rGO/GCE towards electrocatalytic oxidation of DA was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV analysis. The electrochemical studies revealed that the Fe3O4/rGO/GCE dramatically increased the current response against the DA, due to the synergistic effect emerged between Fe3O4 and rGO. This implies that Fe3O4/rGO/GCE could exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity and remarkable electron transfer kinetics towards the oxidation of DA. Moreover, the modified sensor electrode portrayed sensitivity and selectivity for simultaneous determination of AA and DA. The observed DPVs response linearly depends on AA and DA concentration in the range of 1–9 mM and 0.5–100 µM, with correlation coefficients of 0.995 and 0.996, respectively. The detection limit of (S/N = 3 was found to be 0.42 and 0.12 µM for AA and DA, respectively.

  17. Sensitive determination of domperidone in biological fluids using a conductive polymer modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and sensitive method for domperidone (DP) determination has been developed by electropolymerizing a polymer film on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) in acidic solution using cyclic voltammetry. The modified sensor was characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical measurements were carried out using square wave voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry. The modified sensor exhibited an excellent catalytic response towards the oxidation of DP with a well-defined oxidation peak at 840 mV. The modified sensor exhibited linear calibration curve for DP over a concentration range of 0.1 μM to 100 μM in phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.2 with detection limit of 12.0 nM. The sensor was capable to determine DP effectively without any interference from the common metabolites like ascorbic acid, uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine. The analytical utilities of the sensor have been demonstrated by determining the DP in human fluids and pharmaceutical samples. Further, the modified sensor displayed voltammetric responses with high sensitivity, good selectivity and reproducibility which make it suitable for clinical diagnosis

  18. Mediatorless sugar/oxygen enzymatic fuel cells based on gold nanoparticle-modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoju; Falk, Magnus; Ortiz, Roberto; Matsumura, Hirotoshi; Bobacka, Johan; Ludwig, Roland; Bergelin, Mikael; Gorton, Lo; Shleev, Sergey

    2012-01-15

    We report on the fabrication and characterisation of a gold-nanoparticle (AuNP)-based mediatorless sugar/oxygen biofuel cell (BFC) operating in neutral sugar-containing buffers and human physiological fluids, such as blood and plasma. First, Corynascus thermophilus cellobiose dehydrogenase (CtCDH) and Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase (MvBOx), used as anodic and cathodic bioelements, respectively, were immobilised on gold electrodes modified with 20 nm AuNPs. Detailed characterisation and optimisation of a new CDH/AuNP-based bioanode were performed and the following fundamental parameters were obtained: (i) the redox potential of the haem-containing centre of the enzyme was measured to be 75 mV vs. NHE, (ii) the surface coverage of CtCDH was found to be 0.65 pmol cm(-2) corresponding to a sub-monolayer coverage of the thiol-modified AuNPs by the enzyme, (iii) a turnover number for CtCDH immobilised on thiol-modified AuNPs was calculated to be ca. 0.5 s(-1), and (iv) the maximal current densities as high as 40 μA cm(-2) were registered in sugar-containing neutral buffers. Second, both biomodified electrodes, namely the CtCDH/AuNP-based bioanode and the MvBOx/AuNP-based biocathode, were combined into a functional BFC and the designed biodevices were carefully investigated. The following characteristics of the mediator-, separator- and membrane-less, miniature BFC were obtained: in phosphate buffer; an open-circuit voltage of 0.68 V, a maximum power density of 15 μW cm(-2) at a cell voltage of 0.52 V and in human blood; an open-circuit voltage of 0.65 V, a maximum power density of 3 μW cm(-2) at a cell voltage of 0.45 V, respectively. The estimated half-lives of the biodevices were found to be >12, <8, and <2 h in a sugar-containing buffer, human plasma, and blood, respectively. The basic characteristics of mediatorless sugar/oxygen BFCs were significantly improved compared with previously designed biodevices, because of the usage of three-dimensional AuNP-modified

  19. Determination of cyanide in wastewaters using modified glassy carbon electrode with immobilized silver hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles on multiwall carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noroozifar, Meissam, E-mail: mnoroozifar@chem.usb.ac.ir [Analytical Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, P.O. Box 98155-147 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan [Inorganic Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taheri, Aboozar [Analytical Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, P.O. Box 98155-147 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} GC electrode modified with silver hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles (SHFNPs) immobilized on MWCNT. {yields} Modified electrode use for determination of Cyanide in waste water. {yields} The detection limit of the sensor is 8.3 nM. {yields} The linear range is from 40.0 nM to 150.0 {mu}M. - Abstract: The sensitive determination of cyanide in wastewaters using modified GC electrode with silver hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles (SHFNPs) immobilized on multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was reported. The immobilization of SHFNPs on MWCNT was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM image showed that the SHFNPs retained the spherical morphology after immobilized on MWCNT. The size of SHFNPs was examined around 27 nm. The GC/MWCNT-SHFNPs was used for the determination of cyanide in borax buffer (BB) solution (pH 8.0). Using square wave voltammetry, the current response of cyanide increases linearly while increasing its concentration from 40.0 nM to 150.0 {mu}M and a detection limit was found to be 8.3 nM (S/N = 3). The present modified electrode was also successfully used for the determination of 5.0 {mu}M cyanide in the presence of common contaminants at levels presenting in industrial wastewaters. The practical application of the present modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of cyanide in industrial wastewater samples. Moreover, the studied sensor exhibited high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-term stability.

  20. THE INDUSTRIAL UTILIZATION OF CHEMICAL MODIFIED AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xu; Runcang Sun; Huaiyu Zhan

    2004-01-01

    Various lignocellulosic materials such as wood,agricultural and forest residues has the potential to be valuable substitute for, or complement to,commercial sorbents for removing heavy metal ions or dyes from waste water or spilled oil from inland water or sea. More than 9 million tons of straw pulp are produced annually in china, which account for about 90% of the world′s total straw pulp. However,huge quantity of remain straw is not used as industrial raw material and is burnt in the fields or on the side of road. These resources can be chemical modified such as acetylation. Modified straws have the characteristics of low cost, high capacity, quick uptake, and easy to desorb. This paper reviews the current status of the technology for modified agricultural residues, which focus on hemicellulose and cellulose. The potential of these natural sorbents in main industry is also indicated.

  1. THE INDUSTRIAL UTILIZATION OF CHEMICAL MODIFIED AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengXu; RuncangSun; HuaiyuZhan

    2004-01-01

    Various lignocellulosic materials such as wood, agricultural and forest residues has the potential to be valuable substitute for, or complement to, commercial sorbents for removing heavy metal ions or dyes from waste water or spilled oil from inland water or sea. More than 9 million tons of straw pulp are produced annually in china, which account for about 90% of the world's total straw pulp. However, huge quantity of remain straw is not used as industrial raw material and is burnt in the fields or on the side of road. These resources can be chemical modified such as acetylation. Modified straws have the characteristics of low cost, high capacity, quick uptake, and easy to desorb. This paper reviews the current status of the technology for modified agricultural residues, which focus on hemicellulose and cellulose. The potential of these natural sorbents in main industry is also indicated.

  2. Highly selective amperometric sensor for the trace level detection of hydrazine at bismuth nanoparticles decorated graphene nanosheets modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Mani, Veerappan; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2014-06-01

    A highly selective amperometric sensor was developed for the trace level determination of hydrazine at bismuth nanoparticles (Bi) decorated graphene nanosheets (GR) composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). GR-Bi nanocomposite has been successfully prepared via simple and facile chemical reduction approach and its structure was characterized by various techniques. Surface morphological and X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation and high loading of Bi nanoparticles on graphene sheets. GR-Bi nanocomposite modified GCE exhibited greatly enhanced electrocatalytic performance towards electro-oxidation of hydrazine in terms of decrease in overpotential and increase in oxidation peak current (Ip). The kinetic parameters such as electron transfer coefficient (α) and diffusion coefficient (Do) of the hydrazine oxidation were determined to be 0.70 and 2.65×10(-5) cm(2) s(-1), respectively. An amperometric sensor has been fabricated which detects trace level concentration of hydrazine. The sensor exhibited a wide linear range from 20 nM to 0.28 mM and a very low detection limit (LOD) of 5 nM. Remarkably, this is the lowest LOD achieved for the determination of hydrazine in neutral pH among other reported electrochemical hydrazine sensors. In addition, the sensor selectively detects hydrazine even in the presence of 1000 fold excess quantity of common interferrants. The practical feasibility of the sensor has been assessed in water and urine samples with good recoveries. Furthermore, the sensor exhibited appreciable stability, repeatability and reproducibility results.

  3. Application of Carbon-Microsphere-Modified Electrodes for Electrochemistry of Hemoglobin and Electrocatalytic Sensing of Trichloroacetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available By using the hydrothermal method, carbon microspheres (CMS were fabricated and used for electrode modification. The characteristics of CMS were investigated using various techniques. The biocompatible sensing platform was built by immobilizing hemoglobin (Hb on the micrometer-sized CMS-modified electrode with a layer of chitosan membrane. On the cyclic voltammogram, a couple of quasi-reversible cathodic and anodic peaks appeared, showing that direct electrochemistry of Hb with the working electrode was achieved. The catalytic reduction peak currents of the bioelectrode to trichloroacetic acid was established in the linear range of 2.0~70.0 mmol·L−1 accompanied by a detection limit of 0.30 mmol·L−1 (3σ. The modified electrode displayed favorable sensitivity, good reproducibility and stability, which suggests that CMS is promising for fabricating third-generation bioelectrochemical sensors.

  4. Chemical characteristics and volatile profile of genetically modified peanut cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ee Chin; Dunford, Nurhan T; Chenault, Kelly

    2008-10-01

    Genetic engineering has been used to modify peanut cultivars for improving agronomic performance and pest resistance. Food products developed through genetic engineering have to be assessed for their safety before approval for human consumption. Preservation of desirable chemical, flavor and aroma attributes of the peanut cultivars during the genetic modifications is critical for acceptance of genetically modified peanuts (GMP) by the food industry. Hence, the main objective of this study is to examine chemical characteristics and volatile profile of GMP. The genetically modified peanut cultivars, 188, 540 and 654 were obtained from the USDA-ARS in Stillwater, Oklahoma. The peanut variety Okrun was examined as a control. The volatile analysis was performed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) equipped with an olfactory detector. The peanut samples were also analyzed for their moisture, ash, protein, sugar and oil compositions. Experimental results showed that the variations in nutritional composition of peanut lines examined in this study were within the values reported for existing cultivars. There were minor differences in volatile profile among the samples. The implication of this study is significant, since it shows that peanut cultivars with greater pest and fungal resistance were successfully developed without major changes in their chemical characteristics.

  5. Chemical characteristics and volatile profile of genetically modified peanut cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ee Chin; Dunford, Nurhan T; Chenault, Kelly

    2008-10-01

    Genetic engineering has been used to modify peanut cultivars for improving agronomic performance and pest resistance. Food products developed through genetic engineering have to be assessed for their safety before approval for human consumption. Preservation of desirable chemical, flavor and aroma attributes of the peanut cultivars during the genetic modifications is critical for acceptance of genetically modified peanuts (GMP) by the food industry. Hence, the main objective of this study is to examine chemical characteristics and volatile profile of GMP. The genetically modified peanut cultivars, 188, 540 and 654 were obtained from the USDA-ARS in Stillwater, Oklahoma. The peanut variety Okrun was examined as a control. The volatile analysis was performed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) equipped with an olfactory detector. The peanut samples were also analyzed for their moisture, ash, protein, sugar and oil compositions. Experimental results showed that the variations in nutritional composition of peanut lines examined in this study were within the values reported for existing cultivars. There were minor differences in volatile profile among the samples. The implication of this study is significant, since it shows that peanut cultivars with greater pest and fungal resistance were successfully developed without major changes in their chemical characteristics. PMID:19000610

  6. Development of sensitive amperometric hydrogen peroxide sensor using a CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C60-Cs-IL nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushani, Mahmoud; Bakyas, Kobra; Zare Dizajdizi, Behruz

    2016-07-01

    A sensitive hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor was constructed based on copper nanoparticles/methylene blue/multiwall carbon nanotubes-fullerene-chitosan-ionic liquid (CuNPs/MB/MWCNTs-C60-Cs-IL) nanocomposites. The MB/MWCNTs-C60-Cs-IL and CuNPs were modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by the physical adsorption and electrodeposition of copper nitrate solution, respectively. The physical morphology and chemical composition of the surface of modified electrode was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The electrochemical properties of CuNPs/MB/MWCNTs-C60-Cs-IL/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry techniques and the sensor exhibited remarkably strong electrocatalytic activities toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The peak currents possess a linear relationship with the concentration of H2O2 in the range of 0.2μM to 2.0mM, and the detection limit is 55.0nM (S/N=3). In addition, the modified electrode was used to determine H2O2 concentration in human blood serum sample with satisfactory results. PMID:27127028

  7. An improved biosensor for acetaldehyde determination using a bienzymatic strategy at poly(neutral red) modified carbon film electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Ghica, Mariana Emilia; Pauliukaite, Rasa; Marchand, Nicolas; Devic, Eric; Brett, Christopher M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Improved biosensors for acetaldehyde determination have been developed using a bienzymatic strategy, based on a mediator-modified carbon film electrode and co-immobilisation of NADH oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Modification of the carbon film electrode with poly(neutral red) mediator resulted in a sensitive, low-cost and reliable NADH detector. Immobilisation of the enzymes was performed using encapsulation in a sol-gel matrix or cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The bienzymatic biose...

  8. Electrochemical Reduction of Oxygen on Anthraquinone/Carbon Nanotubes Nanohybrid Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode in Neutral Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Gong; Guoquan Zhang; Song Wang

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of monohydroxy-anthraquinone/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MHAQ/MWCNTs) nanohybrid modified glassy carbon (MHAQ/MWCNTs/GC) electrodes in neutral medium were investigated; also reported was their application in the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The resulting MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). It was found that the ORR at the MHAQ/MWCNTs/GC electrode occurs ...

  9. Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) Ruthenium(Ⅱ) Doped Silica Film Modified Indium Tin Oxide Electrode and Its Electrochemiluminescent Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Hui; DU Yan; KANG Jian-Zhen; XU Guo-Bao; WANG Er-Kang

    2007-01-01

    An approach was reported to synthesize silica hybridized ruthenium bipyridyl complex through amidation reaction by covalent attachment of bis(bipyridyl)-4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridyl-ruthenium to (3-aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane.The hybrid complex then was gelatinized through acid catalytic hydrolysis method and a sol-gel modified indium tin oxide electrode was prepared via spin coating technique. As prepared indium tin oxide electrode possesses good stability therein with excellent electrochemiluminescence behavior.

  10. Photoelectrochemical Character of TiO2 Nanocrystalline Electrodes Sensitized by Aluminum Phthalocyanines Modified with Sulfonate Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Particular kinds of TiO2 nanocrystalline electrodes were sensitized by aluminum phthalocyanines modified with sulfonate groups [Al(OH)PcSn]. It was found that in the red region, the electrodes show obvious photoelectrical responses. The surface photovoltage spectra and photocurrent action spectra indicate that in the red region, the monomers of aluminum phthalocyanines have a greater influence on the determination of the photoelectrical response of TiO2 electrodes than the dimers. The dye-sensitized solar cells were obtained by using the aluminum phthalocyanines-sensitized TiO2 electrodes and Pt electrodes, which have an open circuit photovoltage of 360 mV, a short circuit photocurrent of 39.4 μA/cm2, a fill factor of 0.54 and a maximum power output of 7.65 μW/cm2 under a light intensity of 50 mW/cm2.

  11. Chemical composition and corrosion protection of silane films modified with CeO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work aims at understanding the role of CeO2 nanoparticles (with and without activation in cerium(III) solutions) used as fillers for hybrid silane coatings applied on galvanized steel substrates. The work reports the improved corrosion protection performance of the modified silane films and discusses the chemistry of the cerium-activated nanoparticles, the mechanisms involved in the formation of the surface coatings and its corrosion inhibition ability. The anti-corrosion performance was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) and d.c. potentiodynamic polarization. The chemical composition of silanised nanoparticles and the chemical changes of the silane solutions due to the presence of additives were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), respectively. The NMR and XPS data revealed that the modified silane solutions and respective coatings have enhanced cross-linking and that silane-cerium bonds are likely to occur. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the modified coatings have improved barrier properties and the SVET measurements highlight the corrosion inhibition effect of ceria nanoparticles activated with Ce(III) ions. Potentiodynamic polarization curves demonstrate an enhanced passive domain for zinc, in the presence of nanoparticles, in solutions simulating the cathodic environment.

  12. Photoelectrocatalytic analysis and electrocatalytic determination of hydroquinone by using a Cu2O-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite modified rotating ring-disk electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong; Duan, Kaiyue; Xue, Muyin; Du, Yongling; Wang, Chunming

    2016-08-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based Cu2O nanocomposites were prepared by a facile one-pot reaction process. The surface morphology, structure and chemical composition of Cu2O-rGO nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Cu2O-rGO modified Pt rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) was successfully fabricated for the photoelectrocatalytic analysis of hydroquinone (HQ). The photoelectrochemical behaviors of HQ were investigated by the hydrodynamic differential pulse voltammetry technique, using the Cu2O-rGO modified Pt RRDE as the working electrode. The effects of pH values, rotation rates, illumination time and applied bias potential have been discussed. The possible electroactive intermediate product, namely hydroxyhydroquinone, was obtained through the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of HQ on the Cu2O-rGO modified Pt disk electrode, which was compulsively transported and could only be detected at the bare Pt ring electrode at around +0.02 V with an oxidation signal. We found that the peak current at +0.02 V had a good linear relationship with the HQ concentration in the range from 5.0 × 10(-6) to 1.0 × 10(-3) M, with a low limit of detection and excellent reproducibility. The present work has demonstrated that Cu2O-rGO nanocomposites have enhanced photoelectrocatalytic ability for the degradation of organic pollutants and this modified RRDE technique can be potentially applied for the in situ determination of organic pollutants. PMID:27297492

  13. Stability of [Ru(II)(tpy)(bpy)(OH(2))](2+)-modified graphite electrodes during indirect electrolyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneste, Florence; Moinet, Claude; Ababou-Girard, Soraya; Solal, Francine

    2005-06-13

    The stability of a graphite felt electrode modified by covalent attachment of [Ru(II)(tpy)(bpy)(OH(2))](2+) is investigated during the indirect electrolyses of alcohols in a flow cell. The continuous increase of the local potential of the electrode during the electrolyses attests to its degradation. Cyclic voltammetry analyses of the modified electrode after electrolyses show a total decrease of 80-90% of the wave corresponding to the Ru(III/II) couple. The concentration of remaining alcohol measured at the outlet of the cell is almost constant during all the electrolyses but increase when the potential exceeds 0.95 V(SCE). At low potentials, the electrode can be regenerated by reaction with Ru(II)Cl(2)(DMSO)(tpy) and then CF(3)SO(3)H, followed by hydrolysis, showing that the bipyridine ligand remains covalently attached to the electrode. At high potentials, the graphite is oxidized and the catalyst is partly lost in the reaction medium. XPS analyses of Ru core levels reveal that the ruthenium disappeared after electrolysis, showing that the degradation of the modified electrode is due to the demetalation of the oxidized complex. PMID:15934767

  14. Anodic stripping voltammetric determination of arsenic(III) using a glassy carbon electrode modified with gold-palladium bimetallic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A glassy carbon electrode (GC E) was modified by casting gold-palladium (Au-Pd) nanoparticles onto its surface and then used for the determination of As(III) by stripping voltammetry. The structure and electrochemical properties of the nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Anodic stripping voltammetry of the modified electrode was performed in solutions of pH 4.5 containing various concentrations of arsenite. The modified GC E exhibited good response towards As(III), with a limit of detection of around 0.25 ppb which is much lower than the current EPA standard of 10 ppb. The electrode is stable and not interfered by Pb(II), Cd(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II). (author)

  15. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Silicotungstate Multilayer Films Modified on Glassy Carbon Electrode and Their Electrochemical Behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new electrode was modified by multilayer films composed of heteropolyanion (SiW12) and cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) through electrochemical growth. The modified electrode electrochemical behavior, the effect of solution ph and electrocatalytic response to the reduction of BrO3- and NO2- have been investigated. The result shows that the electrochemical process of multilayer films modified electrode including SiW12 is a reversible process by electrochemical step. One-electron process has no proton participation in the first step, and one-electron process is accompanied by one proton participation in the second step and two-electron process is accompanied by two protons participation in the third step. The films grow uniformly, and the peak currents increase with increasing layer numbers. The peak currents increase with scan rate, and the reduced potentials of multilayer films shift negatively with increasing pH. The electrochemical mechanism of multilayer films was suggested

  16. Electrochromic properties of WO{sub 3} thin film onto gold nanoparticles modified indium tin oxide electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Jiajia; Gu Ming [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Soochow University, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Di Junwei, E-mail: djw@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Soochow University, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) thin films, electrochemically deposited from hydrogen tetrachloroaurate onto transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film coated glass, have different color prepared by variation of the deposition condition. The color of GNP film can vary from pale red to blue due to different particle size and their interaction. The characteristic of GNPs modified ITO electrodes was studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and cyclic voltammetry. WO{sub 3} thin films were fabricated by sol-gel method onto the surface of GNPs modified electrode to form the WO{sub 3}/GNPs composite films. The electrochromic properties of WO{sub 3}/GNPs composite modified ITO electrode were investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. It was found that the electrochromic performance of WO{sub 3}/GNPs composite films was improved in comparison with a single component system of WO{sub 3}.

  17. Simultaneous determination of nitrophenol isomers at the single-wall carbon nanotube compound conducting polymer film modified electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui; WANG Zhenhui; ZHOU Shuping

    2005-01-01

    Based on the molecular recognition ability of conductive polymer and the peculiar properties of carbon nanotubes, a novel single wall nanotubes (SWNTs) compound poly(4- aminopyridine) modified electrode (SWNTs/POAPE) is prepared at glass carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemistry response of nitrophenol isomers is studied at the SWNTs/POAPE. The result indicates that o-, m- and p-nitrophenol are separated entirely at the SWNTs/POAPE interface. The electrode present here can be easily used to determine nitrophenol isomers simultaneously with higher sensitivity.

  18. Electrochemical study of functionalization on the surface of a chitin/platinum-modified glassy carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Kazuharu; Yugami, Asako; Terui, Norifumi; Kuramitz, Hideki

    2009-11-01

    To functionalize chitin surfaces using proteins, we developed a glucose oxidase (GOD)-chitin/platinum-modified glassy carbon paste electrode (GCPE) as a model. In a weakly acidic solution, negatively charged GOD were immobilized by the protonated acetylamide groups on chitin. When the electrode was immersed in a solution containing GOD, the enzyme was readily immobilized due to the electrostatic interaction. In addition, measurements were performed using electrodes made with powders of different sizes because sensor performance depends on the particle sizes of glassy carbon powder. PMID:19907096

  19. Electrochemical sensor for Isoniazid based on the glassy carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide–Au nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Zhuo, E-mail: guozhuochina@syuct.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 110142 (China); Wang, Ze-yu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 110142 (China); Wang, Hui-hua, E-mail: hhwang@suda.edu.cn [Shagang School of Iron and Steel, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China); Huang, Guo-qing; Li, Meng-meng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 110142 (China)

    2015-12-01

    A sensitive electrochemical sensor has been fabricated to detect Isoniazid (INZ) using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and Au nanocomposites (RGO–Au). RGO–Au nanocomposites were synthesized by a solution-based approach of chemical co-reduction of Au(III) and graphene oxide (GO), and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The Au nanoparticles separate the RGO sheets in the precipitate and prevent RGO sheets from aggregation upon π–π stacking interactions. RGO–Au nanocomposites were used to modify the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical properties of RGO–Au/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the RGO–Au/GCE exhibited remarkably strong electrocatalytic activities towards INZ. Under the optimized conditions, there was linear relationships between the peak currents and the concentrations in the range of 1.0 × 10{sup −7} M to 1.0 × 10{sup −3} M for INZ, with the limit of detection (LOD) (based on S/N = 3) of 1.0 × 10{sup −8} M for INZ. - Highlights: • RGO–Au nanocomposites were synthesized and characterized by chemical co-reduction of Au (III) and GO. • RGO–Au/GCE was used as a sensitive electrochemical sensor to detect Isoniazid. • RGO–Au/GCE exhibited strong electrocatalytic activities towards Isoniazid.

  20. A Comparative Study of Lead Oxide Modified Graphite Paste Electrodes and Solid Graphite Electrodes with Mechanically Immobilized Lead Oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharchuk, Nina; Meyer, Stefan; Lange, Britta; Scholz, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    The cyclic voltammetry of red PbO, α-PbO2, β-PbO2 and BaPbO3 was studied with two different types of electrodes in acidic and alkaline media. In one case, microcrystalline particles of lead oxides were mechanically immobilized on the surface of paraffin-impregnated graphite rod electrodes (PIGE), while in the other case, lead oxides were added to a paste of graphite and silicone oil. The overall behaviour of lead oxides in both electrodes is very similar to the well-known behaviour...

  1. DNA-modified electrodes fabricated using copper-free click chemistry for enhanced protein detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, Ariel L; Hill, Michael G; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2013-12-31

    A method of DNA monolayer formation has been developed using copper-free click chemistry that yields enhanced surface homogeneity and enables variation in the amount of DNA assembled; extremely low-density DNA monolayers, with as little as 5% of the monolayer being DNA, have been formed. These DNA-modified electrodes (DMEs) were characterized visually, with AFM, and electrochemically, and were found to facilitate DNA-mediated reduction of a distally bound redox probe. These low-density monolayers were found to be more homogeneous than traditional thiol-modified DNA monolayers, with greater helix accessibility through an increased surface area-to-volume ratio. Protein binding efficiency of the transcriptional activator TATA-binding protein (TBP) was also investigated on these surfaces and compared to that on DNA monolayers formed with standard thiol-modified DNA. Our low-density monolayers were found to be extremely sensitive to TBP binding, with a signal decrease in excess of 75% for 150 nM protein. This protein was detectable at 4 nM, on the order of its dissociation constant, with our low-density monolayers. The improved DNA helix accessibility and sensitivity of our low-density DNA monolayers to TBP binding reflects the general utility of this method of DNA monolayer formation for DNA-based electrochemical sensor development. PMID:24328347

  2. A novel electrochemical sensor of bisphenol A based on stacked graphene nanofibers/gold nanoparticles composite modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a novel and convenient electrochemical sensor based on stacked graphene nanofibers (SGNF) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) composite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was developed for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA). The AuNPs/SGNF modified electrode showed an efficient electrocatalytic role for the oxidation of BPA, and the oxidation overpotentials of BPA were decreased significantly and the peak current increased greatly compared with bare GCE and other modified electrode. The transfer electron number (n) and the charge transfer coefficient (α) were calculated with the result as n = 4, α = 0.52 for BPA, which indicated the electrochemical oxidation of BPA on AuNPs/SGNF modified electrode was a four-electron and four-proton process. The effective surface areas of AuNPs/SGNF/GCE increased for about 1.7-fold larger than that of the bare GCE. In addition, the kinetic parameters of the modified electrode were calculated and the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) was 0.51 s−1. Linear sweep voltammetry was applied as a sensitive analytical method for the determination of BPA and a good linear relationship between the peak current and BPA concentration was obtained in the range from 0.08 to 250 μM with a detection limit of 3.5 × 10−8 M. The modified electrode exhibited a high sensitivity, long-term stability and remarkable reproducible analytical performance and was successfully applied for the determination of BPA in baby bottles with satisfying results

  3. Electrochemical Detection of Clenbuterol in Pig Liver at Pyrrole-DNA Modified Boron-doped Diamond Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jing; LI Xiao-li; WU Xu-mei; HUAN Shuang-yan; SHEN Guo-li; YU Ru-qin

    2005-01-01

    The direct detection of clenbuterol(CL) in pig liver without any extraction separation at a pyrrole-DNA modified boron-doped diamond(BDD) electrode is reported. The pyrrole-DNA modified BDD electrode has a strong electrocatalytic effect on the redox reaction of CL. One oxidization and two reduction peaks of CL appear at 340.2, 299.8 and 166.6 mV(versus SCE), respectively. The pyrrole polymer alone cannot electrocatalyze the above reaction at a BDD electrode; the electrocatalytic effect of a BDD electrode modified with DNA membrane is unsufficient for the analytical detection of CL; the replacement of boron-doped diamond by glass carbon makes the electrocatalytic reaction impossible; the redox process is pH dependent. The influences of various experimental parameters on the pyrrole-DNA modified BDD electrode were investigated. A sensitive cyclic voltammetric response for CL was obtained in a linear range from 3.4×10-6 to 5×10-4 mol/L with a detection limit of 8.5×10-7 mol/L. A mean recovery of 102.7% of CL in the pig liver sample solution and a reproducibility of 3.2% were obtained.

  4. Electrochemical determination of hydrochlorothiazide and folic acid in real samples using a modified graphene oxide sheet paste electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitollahi, Hadi, E-mail: h.beitollahi@yahoo.com [Environment Department, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamzavi, Mozhdeh [Department of Chemistry, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Torkzadeh-Mahani, Masoud [Biotechnology Department, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    A new ferrocene-derivative compound, 2-chlorobenzoyl ferrocene, was synthesized and used to construct a modified graphene oxide sheet paste electrode. The electrooxidation of hydrochlorothiazide at the surface of the modified electrode was studied. Under optimized conditions, the square wave voltammetric (SWV) peak current of hydrochlorothiazide increased linearly with hydrochlorothiazide concentration in the range of 5.0 × 10{sup −8} to 2.0 × 10{sup −4} M and a detection limit of 20.0 nM was obtained for hydrochlorothiazide. The diffusion coefficient and kinetic parameters (such as electron transfer coefficient and the heterogeneous rate constant) for hydrochlorothiazide oxidation were also determined. The prepared modified electrode exhibits a very good resolution between the voltammetric peaks of hydrochlorothiazide and folic acid which makes it suitable for the detection of hydrochlorothiazide in the presence of folic acid in real samples. - Highlights: • A novel modified-graphene oxide nanosheet paste electrode has been fabricated. • This electrode reduced the oxidation potential of hydrochlorothiazide by about 315 mV. • Hydrochlorothiazide was measured in the range of 5.0 × 10{sup −8} to 2.0 × 10{sup −4} M. • The detection limit for hydrochlorothiazide was obtained at 20.0 nM. • It resolved the voltammetric waves of hydrochlorothiazide and folic acid.

  5. A sensitive and selective nitrite sensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with gold nanoparticles and sulfonated graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a highly sensitive and selective amperometric sensor for the determination of nitrite. A glassy carbon electrode was modified with a composite made from gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and sulfonated graphene (SG). The modified electrode displays excellent electrocatalytic activity in terms of nitrite oxidation by giving much higher peak currents (at even lower oxidation overpotential) than those found for the bare electrode, the AuNPs-modified electrode, and the SG-modified electrode. The sensor has a linear response in the 10 μM to 3.96 mM concentration range, a very good detection sensitivity (45.44 μA mM−1), and a lower detection limit of 0.2 μM of nitrite. Most common ions and many environmental organic pollutants do not interfere. The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of nitrite in water samples, and the results were found to be consistent with the values obtained by spectrophotometry. (author)

  6. Synthesis of modified polymer inclusion membranes for photo-electrodeposition of cadmium using polarized electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahia Cherif, Asma [Laboratory of Hydrometallurgy and Inorganic Molecular Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Arous, Omar, E-mail: omararous@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Hydrometallurgy and Inorganic Molecular Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Center of Research in Physical and Chemical Analysis CRAPC, BP 248 Algiers, RP 16004, Algiers (Algeria); Amara, Mourad [Laboratory of Hydrometallurgy and Inorganic Molecular Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Omeiri, Said [Center of Research in Physical and Chemical Analysis CRAPC, BP 248 Algiers, RP 16004, Algiers (Algeria); Laboratory of Storage and Valorization of Renewable Energies, Faculty of Chemistry, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Kerdjoudj, Hacene [Laboratory of Hydrometallurgy and Inorganic Molecular Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Trari, Mohamed [Laboratory of Storage and Valorization of Renewable Energies, Faculty of Chemistry, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, 16111, Algiers (Algeria)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homogeneous PIM membranes containing water soluble polymers have been obtained under new experimental conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoelectrodeposition of 'Cd' has been carried out using WO{sub 3} and CuFeO{sub 2} as electrode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using both photo-polarized electrodes enhances transference of cadmium compared to one. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membrane with poly-phosphoric acid (PPA) give a rise of transferred amount of Cd. - Abstract: In this work, we have developed a novel class of polymeric inclusion membranes (PIMs) for the cations separation. The membrane is made up of cellulose triacetate modified by poly-electrolytes (poly-phosphoric acid, polyvinyl pyrolidone, polyacrylic acid, polyvinyl alcohol and poly-anetholsulfonic acid) using 2-hydroxy-5-dodecylbenzaldehyde incorporated into the polymer as carrier and tris ethyl hexyl phosphate or glycerine as plasticizers. Different PIMs are synthesized and characterized by the Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The influence of the membrane nature is studied using supports with different physical characteristics (porosity, thickness, hydrophobia). As application, the transport of Cd{sup 2+} using PIMs coupled with photo-electrodes is investigated. The photo-catalytic results indicate that the combined system p-CuFeO{sub 2}/membrane/n-WO{sub 3} enhances considerably the electrons transfer toward the delafossite CuFeO{sub 2}. The position of the conduction band of CuFeO{sub 2} is looked to be the key issue for the photo electrochemical Cd{sup 2+} reduction.

  7. Nano-structured Ni(II)-curcumin modified glassy carbon electrode for electrocatalytic oxidation of fructose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nano-structured Ni(II)-curcumin (curcumin: 1,7-bis[4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl]-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) film is electrodeposited on a glassy carbon electrode in alkaline solution. The morphology of polyNi(II)-curcumin (NC) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM results show NC has a nano-globular structure in the range 20-50 nm. Using cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, chronoamperometry, steady-state polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the nano-structure NC film acts as an efficient material for the electrocatalytic oxidation of fructose. According to the voltammetric studies, the increase in the anodic peak current and subsequent decrease in the corresponding cathodic current, fructose was oxidized on the electrode surface via an electrocatalytic mechanism. The EIS results show that the charge-transfer resistance has as a function of fructose concentration, time interval and applied potential. The increase in the fructose concentration and time interval in fructose solution results in enhanced charge transfer resistance in Nyquist plots. The EIS results indicate that fructose electrooxidation at various potentials shows different impedance behaviors. At lower potentials, a semicircle is observed in the first quadrant of impedance plot. With further increase of the potential, a transition of the semicircle from the first to the second quadrant occurs. Also, the results obtained show that the rate of fructose electrooxidation depends on concentration of OH-. Electron transfer coefficient, diffusion coefficient and rate constant of the electrocatalytic oxidation reaction are obtained. The modified electrode was used as a sensor for determination of fructose with a good dynamic range and a low detection limit

  8. Nano-structured Ni(II)-curcumin modified glassy carbon electrode for electrocatalytic oxidation of fructose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elahi, M. Yousef [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, M.F. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mousavim@modares.ac.ir; Ghasemi, S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-12-30

    A nano-structured Ni(II)-curcumin (curcumin: 1,7-bis[4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl]-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) film is electrodeposited on a glassy carbon electrode in alkaline solution. The morphology of polyNi(II)-curcumin (NC) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM results show NC has a nano-globular structure in the range 20-50 nm. Using cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, chronoamperometry, steady-state polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the nano-structure NC film acts as an efficient material for the electrocatalytic oxidation of fructose. According to the voltammetric studies, the increase in the anodic peak current and subsequent decrease in the corresponding cathodic current, fructose was oxidized on the electrode surface via an electrocatalytic mechanism. The EIS results show that the charge-transfer resistance has as a function of fructose concentration, time interval and applied potential. The increase in the fructose concentration and time interval in fructose solution results in enhanced charge transfer resistance in Nyquist plots. The EIS results indicate that fructose electrooxidation at various potentials shows different impedance behaviors. At lower potentials, a semicircle is observed in the first quadrant of impedance plot. With further increase of the potential, a transition of the semicircle from the first to the second quadrant occurs. Also, the results obtained show that the rate of fructose electrooxidation depends on concentration of OH{sup -}. Electron transfer coefficient, diffusion coefficient and rate constant of the electrocatalytic oxidation reaction are obtained. The modified electrode was used as a sensor for determination of fructose with a good dynamic range and a low detection limit.

  9. Electro-oxidation of chlorophenols at glassy carbon electrodes modified with polyNi(II)complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the ligand macrocycle (phenylporphyrin (PP) or phthalocyanine (Pc)) and of the ligand substituent (-NH2 or -SO3-) on the catalytic activity for the electro-oxidation in a pH 11 buffer electrolyte of 2- and 4-chlorophenol (2-CP and 4-CP), 2,4- and 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP and 2,6-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP) at glassy carbon electrodes modified with electropolymerized Ni(II) macrocycles was studied. The polyphenolic residue deposited at the electrode surface was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, impedance measurements, ex situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). A band of aliphatic C=O stretching in the IR spectrum of the fouling film produced by potential cycling in 2,4,6-TCP indicated that the aromatic ring had been broken, yielding ketones, aldehydes and/or carboxylic acids. The sulphonated Ni(II) polymers, which showed the Ni(III)/Ni(II) process in the CV, had XP spectra typical of paramagnetic Ni(II), indicating that they contained Ni(OH)2 clusters. On the contrary, the CVs of the amino Ni(II) did not show the Ni(III)/Ni(II) process at all, this process appearing only after previous activation by potential cycling, and only to a small extent. As was to be expected, the XP spectra of activated amino films corresponded to diamagnetic Ni(II), showing that the concentration of Ni(OH)2 clusters was very small. The amino films were less active than the sulpho films for the oxidation of chlorophenols, in agreement with the lower concentration of Ni(OH)2 clusters in the former films. For all electrodes the highest activity was observed for 2,4,6-TCP, since its oxidation yields a phenolic residue which is much more porous than those produced by the other CPs.

  10. Nanowire-Modified Three-Dimensional Electrode Enabling Low-Voltage Electroporation for Water Disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Zheng-Yang; Xie, Xing; Yu, Tong; Lu, Yun; Feng, Chao; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2016-07-19

    More than 10% of the people in the world still suffer from inadequate access to clean water. Traditional water disinfection methods (e.g., chlorination and ultraviolet radiation) include concerns about the formation of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs), pathogen reactivation, and/or excessive energy consumption. Recently, a nanowire-assisted electroporation-disinfection method was introduced as an alternative. Here, we develop a new copper oxide nanowire (CuONW)-modified three-dimensional copper foam electrode using a facile thermal oxidation approach. An electroporation-disinfection cell (EDC) equipped with two such electrodes has achieved superior disinfection performance (>7 log removal and no detectable bacteria in the effluent). The disinfection mechanism of electroporation guarantees an exceedingly low operation voltage (1 V) and level of energy consumption (25 J L(-1)) with a short contact time (7 s). The low operation voltage avoids chlorine generation and thus reduces the potential of DBP formation. Because of irreversible electroporation damage on cell membranes, no regrowth and/or reactivation of bacteria occurs during storage after EDC treatment. Water disinfection using EDCs has great potential for practical applications. PMID:27341009

  11. Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes Modified with Cobalt Phthalocyanine for Selective Sulfur Detection in Cosmetic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Shih

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc films were deposited on the surface of a screen-printed carbon electrode using a simple drop coating method. The cyclic voltammogram of the resulting CoPc modified screen-printed electrode (CoPc/SPE prepared under optimum conditions shows a well-behaved redox couple due to the (CoI/CoII system. The CoPc/SPE surface demonstrates excellent electrochemical activity towards the oxidation of sulfur in a 0.01 mol·L−1 NaOH. A linear calibration curve with the detection limit (DL, S/N = 3 of 0.325 mg·L−1 was achieved by CoPc/SPE coupled with flow injection analysis of the sulfur concentration ranging from 4 to 1120 mg·L−1. The precision of the system response was evaluated (3.60% and 3.52% RSD for 12 repeated injections, in the range of 64 and 480 mg·L−1 sulfur. The applicability of the method was successfully demonstrated in a real sample analysis of sulfur in anti-acne creams, and good recovery was obtained. The CoPc/SPE displayed several advantages in sulfur determination including easy fabrication, high stability, and low cost.

  12. Preparation and Electrochemical Characterization of a Carbon Ceramic Electrode Modified with Ferrocenecarboxylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana A. Pessoa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the characterization of a carbon ceramic electrode modified with ferrocenecarboxylic acid (designated as CCE/Fc by electrochemical techniques and its detection ability for dopamine. From cyclic voltammetric experiments, it was observed that the CCE/Fc presented a redox pair at Epa = 405 mV and Epc = 335 mV (DE = 70 mV, related to the ferrocene/ferrocenium process. Studies showed a considerably increase in the redox currents at the same oxidation potential of ferrocene (Epa = 414 mV vs. Ag/AgCl in the presence of dopamine (DA, differently from those observed when using only the unmodified CCE, in which the anodic peak increase was considerably lower. From SWV experiments, it was observed that the AA (ascorbic acid oxidation at CCE/Fc occurred in a different potential than the DA oxidation (with a peak separation of approximately 200 mV. Moreover, CCE/Fc did not respond to different AA concentrations, indicating that it is possible to determine DA without the AA interference with this electrode.

  13. Direct electrochemistry behavior of Cytochrome c on silicon dioxide nanoparticles-modified electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A newfangled direct electrochemistry behavior of Cytochrome c (Cyt c) was found on glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with the silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles by physical adsorption. A pair of stable and well-defined redox peaks of Cyt c′ quasi-reversible electrochemical reaction were obtained with a heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant of 1.66×10-3 cm/s and a formal potential of 0.069 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) (0.263 V versus NHE) in 0.1 mol/L pH 6.8 PBS. Both the size and the amount of SiO2 nanoparticles could influence the electron transfer between Cyt c and the electrode. Electrostatic interaction which is between the negative nanoparticle surface and positively charged amino acid residues on the Cyt c surface is of importance for the stability and reproducibility toward the direct electron transfer of Cyt c. It is suggested that the modification of SiO2 nanoparticles proposes a novel approach to realize the direct electrochemistry of proteins.

  14. Nanowire-Modified Three-Dimensional Electrode Enabling Low-Voltage Electroporation for Water Disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Zheng-Yang; Xie, Xing; Yu, Tong; Lu, Yun; Feng, Chao; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2016-07-19

    More than 10% of the people in the world still suffer from inadequate access to clean water. Traditional water disinfection methods (e.g., chlorination and ultraviolet radiation) include concerns about the formation of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs), pathogen reactivation, and/or excessive energy consumption. Recently, a nanowire-assisted electroporation-disinfection method was introduced as an alternative. Here, we develop a new copper oxide nanowire (CuONW)-modified three-dimensional copper foam electrode using a facile thermal oxidation approach. An electroporation-disinfection cell (EDC) equipped with two such electrodes has achieved superior disinfection performance (>7 log removal and no detectable bacteria in the effluent). The disinfection mechanism of electroporation guarantees an exceedingly low operation voltage (1 V) and level of energy consumption (25 J L(-1)) with a short contact time (7 s). The low operation voltage avoids chlorine generation and thus reduces the potential of DBP formation. Because of irreversible electroporation damage on cell membranes, no regrowth and/or reactivation of bacteria occurs during storage after EDC treatment. Water disinfection using EDCs has great potential for practical applications.

  15. Anodic stripping voltammetry of antimony using gold nanoparticle-modified carbon screen-printed electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon screen-printed electrodes (CSPE) modified with gold nanoparticles present an interesting alternative in the determination of antimony using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Metallic gold nanoparticles deposits have been obtained by direct electrochemical deposition. Scanning electron microscopy measurements show that the electrochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles are deposited in aggregated form. Any undue effects caused by the presence of foreign ions in the solution were also analyzed to ensure that common interferents in the determination of antimony by ASV. The detection limit for Sb(III) obtained was 9.44 x 10-10 M. In terms of reproducibility, the precision of the above mentioned method in %R.S.D. values was calculated at 2.69% (n = 10). The method was applied to determine levels of antimony in seawater samples and pharmaceutical preparations

  16. Reaction of erythromycin with dissolved oxygen on gold nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue; FU Ying; WANG Jian-xiu; L(U) Hui-dan; XU Mao-tian

    2008-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the reaction of erythromycin (EM) with dissolved oxygen on gold nanoparticle-modified electrodes prepared via electrodeposition. A well-defined reduction peak at -0.420 V and a reoxidation peak at -0.055V were observed. With the addition of EM into the NaOH solution containing dissolved oxygen, the oxidation peak at -0.055 V was still indiscernible. However, a new oxidation peak at 0.200V appeared, which suggests the interaction between EM and dissolved oxygen. Therefore, this method can be used for the analysis of EM in tablets. The present method is simple, reproducible,and does not require complex analytical instruments.

  17. MODIFIED SCREEN-PRINTED CARBON ELECTRODES WITH TYROSINASE FOR DETERMINATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN SMOKED FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dragancea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A screen-printed carbon electrode modified with tyrosinase (SPCE-Tyr/Paa/Glut has been developed for the determination of phenol concentration in real samples. The resulting SPCE-Tyr/Paa/Glut was prepared in a one-step procedure, and was then optimized as an amperometric biosensor operating at 0 mV versus Ag/AgCl for phenol determination in flow injection mode. Phenol detection was realized by electrochemical reduction of quinone produced by tyrosinase activity. The possibility of using the developed biosensor to determine phenol concentrations in various smoked products (bacon, ham, chicken and salmon was also evaluated. Gas chromatography (GC method was used for result validation obtained in flow injection mode using amperometric biosensor. The result showed good correlation with those obtained by flowinjection analysis (FIA.

  18. Graphene/SnO2 nanocomposite-modified electrode for electrochemical detection of dopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nurzulaikha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A graphene-tin oxide (G-SnO2 nanocomposite was prepared via a facile hydrothermal route using graphene oxide and Sn precursor solution without addition of any surfactant. The hydrothermally synthesized G-SnO2 nanocomposite was characterized using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. A homogeneous deposition of SnO2 nanoparticles with an average particle size of 10 nm on the graphene was observed in the FESEM and HRTEM images. The G-SnO2 nanocomposite was used to fabricate a modified electrode for the electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV showed a limit of detection (LoD of 1 μM (S/N = 3 in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA.

  19. The electrochemical behavior of some podands at a benzo[c]cinnoline modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isbir, Aybueke A. [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Solak, Ali Osman [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: osolak@science.ankara.edu.tr; Uestuendag, Zafer [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Bilge, Selen [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Natsagdorj, Amgalan [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Kilic, Emine [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Kilic, Zeynel [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-08-15

    This paper describes the grafting of benzo[c]cinnoline (BCC) molecules on glassy carbon (GC) electrode surface. The attachment of BCC molecules to carbon substrate is induced by the electrochemical reduction of the corresponding diazonium salt. The modification of GC with BCC diazonium salt was done in aprotic solution and proved by blocking of dopamine electron transfer. The presence of BCC at the GC surface was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). On modified surface, the electrochemical behavior of two different types of podands and the catalytic effects of the GC-BCC surface were studied. The XPS was used to monitor element characteristics of the adsorbates on the GC surface and confirm the attachment of BCC molecules to the GC surface.

  20. Sensitive determination of carbidopa through the electrochemiluminescence of luminol at graphene-modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Morteza; Mirzanasiri, Nooshin; Rezapour, Morteza; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hasan; Faridbod, Farnoush; Norouzi, Parviz; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2015-06-01

    Using the concept of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL), a sensitive analytical method for the determination of carbidopa is described. Electro-oxidation of carbidopa on the surface of a graphene oxide (GO)-modified gold electrode (GE) leads to enhancement of the weak emission of oxidized luminol. Under optimum experimental conditions, the ECL signal increases linearly with increasing carbidopa concentrations over a range of 1.0 × 10(-9) -1.7 × 10(-7)  M, with a detection limit of 7.4 × 10(-10)  M. The proposed ECL method was successfully used for the determination of carbidopa in urine samples. PMID:25131492

  1. Electro-oxidation of ascorbic acid catalyzed on cobalt hydroxide-modified glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHASEM KARIM-NEZHAD

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of ascorbic acid on a cobalt hydroxide modified glassy carbon (CHM–GC electrode in alkaline solution was investigated. The process of the involved oxidation and its kinetics were established using the cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry techniques, as well as by steady state polarization measurements. The results revealed that cobalt hydroxide promotes the rate of oxidation by increasing the peak current; hence ascorbic acid is oxidized at lower potentials, which is thermodynamically more favorable. The cyclic voltammograms and chronoamperometry indicate a catalytic EC mechanism is operative with the electrogeneration of Co(IV as the electrochemical process. Also, the process is diffusion-controlled and the current–time responses follow Cottrellian behavior. This result was confirmed by steady state measurements. The rate constants of the catalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid and the electron-transfer coefficient are reported.

  2. Detection of Carbofuran with Immobilized Acetylcholinesterase Based on Carbon Nano tubes-Chitosan Modified Electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive and stable enzyme biosensor based on efficient immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to MWNTs-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with chitosan (CS) by layer-by-layer (LBL) technique for rapid determination of carbofuran has been devised. According to the inhibitory effect of carbamate pesticide on the enzymatic activity of AChE, we use carbofuran as a model pesticide. The inhibitory effect of carbofuran on the biosensor was proportional to concentration of carbofuran in the range from 10-10  g/L to 10-3 g/L with a detection limit of 10-12 g/L. This biosensor is a promising new method for pesticide analysis

  3. Film forming capacity of chemically modified corn starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Olivia V; García, María A; Zaritzky, Noemí E

    2008-09-01

    Native starch can be chemically modified to improve its functionality and to expand its uses. Modified starches were characterized and the rheological behavior of filmogenic suspensions was analyzed. The film forming capacity of different chemical modified corn starches was evaluated. Acetylated starch was selected by the characteristics of the resulted films; its optimum concentration was 5% w/w since their films exhibited the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP, 1.26×10(-10)g/msPa). The effect of glycerol as plasticizer on film properties depend on its concentration, being 1.5% w/w those that allows to obtain the lowest WVP value (1.64×10(-11)g/msPa), low film solubility in water and a more compact structure than those of unplasticized films. Mechanical behavior of plasticized acetylated starch films depends on glycerol concentration, being rigid and brittle the unplasticized ones, ductile those containing 1.5% w/w of glycerol and very flexible those with a higher plasticizer content. PMID:26048223

  4. Electrochemical reduction of lindane (γ-HCH) at NiCo2O4 modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • NiCo2O4, NiFe2O4, NiO, Co3O4, and Fe3O4 were synthesized by the hydrothermal route. • Modified electrodes based on these metal oxides were investigated in lindane reduction. • NiCo2O4 modified electrode exhibited the highest activity. • Reproducibility, stability, and interference studies were performed. -- Abstract: NiCo2O4 and NiFe2O4 were synthesized by the hydrothermal route using the molar composition, 2.2 CoCl2·6H2O:1.0 NiCl2·6H2O:9 urea:832 H2O and 2.2 FeCl2·4H2O:1.0 NiCl2·6H2O:9 urea:832 H2O, respectively. For the comparative study, NiO, Co3O4, and Fe3O4 were also prepared. Materials were characterized by a complementary combination of X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption, and Scanning electron microscopy. Non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors (using above-mentioned metal oxides) were constructed for the detection of lindane in the aqueous-methanol medium. Electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, and amperometry were used for the detection of lindane. Reproducibility, stability, and interference studies were performed to obtain the suitable non-enzymatic sensor. The analytical performance of the sensor was demonstrated for the detection of lindane in tap water samples

  5. Ni(II) decorated nano silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieves-modified carbon paste electrode as an electrocatalyst for electrooxidation of methanol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SEYED KARIM HASSANINEJAD-DARZI; MOSTAFA RAHIMNEJAD; SEYEDEH ELHAM MOKHTARI

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we reported amethod for the synthesis of nanosized silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieves that are important members of zeolites family. The synthesized SAPO was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) as well as infrared (IR) techniques. Then, the modified carbon paste electrode was prepared by nano SAPO molecular sieves and nickel (II) ion incorporated at this electrode. The electrochemical behaviour of the modified electrode (Ni-SAPO/CPE) towards the oxidation of methanol was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and hronoamperometry methods. It has been found that the oxidation current is extremely increased by using Ni-SAPO/CPE compared to the unmodified Ni-CPE, it seems that Ni$^{2+}$ inclusion into nano SAPO channels provides the active sites for catalysis of methanol oxidation. The effect of some parameters such as scan rate of potential, concentration of methanol, amount of SAPO was investigated on the oxidation of methanol at the surface of modified electrode. The values of electron transfer coefficient, charge-transfer rate constant and electrode surface coverage for the Ni(II)/Ni(III) couple in the surface of Ni-SAPO/CPE were found to be 0.555, 0.022 s$^{−1}$ and 5.995 $\\times$ 10$^{−6}$ mol cm$^{−2}$, respectively. Also, the diffusion coefficient and the mean value of catalytic rate constant for methanol and redox sites of modified electrode were obtained to be $1.16\\times 10^{−5}$ cm$^2$ s$^{−1}$ and $4.62\\times 10^4$ cm$^3$ mol$^{−1} s$^{−1}$, respectively. The good catalytic activity, high sensitivity, good selectivity and stability and easy in preparation rendered the Ni-SAPO/CPE to be a capable electrode for electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol.

  6. Glassy carbon electrodes modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the determination of ascorbic acid by square-wave voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used to modify the surface of a glassy carbon electrode to enhance its electroactivity. Nafion served to immobilise the carbon nanotubes on the electrode surface. The modified electrode was used to develop an analytical method for the analysis of ascorbic acid (AA by square-wave voltammetry (SWV. The oxidation of ascorbic acid at the modified glassy carbon electrode showed a peak potential at 315 mV, about 80 mV lower than that observed at the bare (unmodified electrode. The peak current was about threefold higher than the response at the bare electrode. Replicate measurements of peak currents showed good precision (3% rsd. Peak currents increased with increasing ascorbic acid concentration (dynamic range = 0.0047–5.0 mmol/L and displayed good linearity (R2 = 0.994. The limit of detection was 1.4 μmol/L AA, while the limit of quantitation was 4.7 μmol/L AA. The modified electrode was applied to the determination of the amount of ascorbic acid in four brands of commercial orange-juice products. The measured content agreed well (96–104% with the product label claim for all brands tested. Recovery tests on spiked samples of orange juice showed good recovery (99–104%. The reliability of the SWV method was validated by conducting parallel experiments based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with absorbance detection. The observed mean AA contents of the commercial orange juice samples obtained by the two methods were compared statistically and were found to have no significant difference (P = 0.05.

  7. Simultaneous voltammetric determination of tramadol and acetaminophen using carbon nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbani-Bidkorbeh, Fatemeh [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahrokhian, Saeed, E-mail: shahrokhian@sharif.ed [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Technology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Ali [Department of Drug and Food Control, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinarvand, Rassoul [Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6451, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-01

    A sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor was fabricated via the drop-casting of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) suspension onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The application of this sensor was investigated in simultaneous determination of acetaminophen (ACE) and tramadol (TRA) drugs in pharmaceutical dosage form and ACE determination in human plasma. In order to study the electrochemical behaviors of the drugs, cyclic and differential pulse voltammetric studies of ACE and TRA were carried out at the surfaces of the modified GCE (MGCE) and the bare GCE. The dependence of peak currents and potentials on pH, concentration and the potential scan rate were investigated for these compounds at the surface of MGCE. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used for the characterization of the film modifier and its morphology on the surface of GCE. The results of the electrochemical investigations showed that CNPs, via a thin layer model based on the diffusion within a porous layer, enhanced the electroactive surface area and caused a remarkable increase in the peak currents. The thin layer of the modifier showed a catalytic effect and accelerated the rate of the electron transfer process. Application of the MGCE resulted in a sensitivity enhancement and a considerable decrease in the anodic overpotential, leading to negative shifts in peak potentials. An optimum electrochemical response was obtained for the sensor in the buffered solution of pH 7.0 and using 2 muL CNPs suspension cast on the surface of GCE. Using differential pulse voltammetry, the prepared sensor showed good sensitivity and selectivity for the determination of ACE and TRA in wide linear ranges of 0.1-100 and 10-1000 muM, respectively. The resulted detection limits for ACE and TRA was 0.05 and 1 muM, respectively. The CNPs modified GCE was successfully applied for ACE and TRA determinations in pharmaceutical dosage forms and also for the determination of ACE in human plasma.

  8. Preparation of the Ag2O2-PbO2 Modified Electrode and Its Application towards Escherichia coli Fast Counting in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing GU; Wen ZHANG; Yu Feng YANG; Lei ZHENG; Zi Rong WU; Li Tong JIN

    2005-01-01

    A novel nano crystalline Ag2O2-PbO2 film chemically modified electrode (CME) was prepared and the CME was characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM). By chronoamperometry, the nano Ag2O2-PbO2 CME was used as bioelectrochemical sensor to determine the population of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water. Compared with conventional methods, it is found that the technique we used is fast and convenient in counting E.coli.

  9. A gold electrode modified with amino-modified reduced graphene oxide, ion specific DNA and DNAzyme for dual electrochemical determination of Pb(II) and Hg(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multilayered reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was functionalized with amino groups by treatment with nitrogen plasma. Raman spectroscopy showed plasma treatment not to substantially alter the chemical structure of rGO and that a wide range of functional nitrogen groups is evenly incorporated into the carbon lattice. The amino-modified rGO was used to design an electrochemical biosensor in which a DNAzyme, substrate DNA and Pb(II) and Hg(II) binding DNA were immobilized on the amino-rGO placed on a gold electrode. The high concentration of amino groups and the rough surface of the rGO favor DNA immobilization. Heavy metal ions are bound to the surface via specific interaction between DNA and the two ions which are detected by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at a potential of 0.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The detection limits for Pb(II) and Hg(II) are as low as 7.8 and 5.4 pM, respectively, and the analytical ranges extend from 0.01 to 100 nM. The sensor is highly specific and stable and therefore represents a highly promising tool for use in environmental monitoring. (author)

  10. Laccase on Black Pearl 2000 modified glassy carbon electrode: Characterization of direct electron transfer and biological sensing properties for pyrocatechol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Laccase can complete direct electron transfer process on BP2000 matrices. ► Laccase immobilized on BP2000 matrices has catalytic oxidation effect to pyrocatechol. ► A pyrocatechol biosensor has constructed been using Nafion/Lac-BP2000/GC electrode. ► Detection limit and linear range of the biosensor are 0.003 mM and 0.003–5.555 mM. - Abstract: In this paper, it was found that Laccase (Lac) could be stably immobilized on the glassy carbon electrode modified with Black Pearl 2000 (BP2000) and Nafion by a simple technique. The adsorption behavior of Lac immobilized on BP2000 matrix was characterized by environment scanning electron microscope (ESEM), ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), which demonstrated that BP2000 could facilitate the electron exchange between the active center of Lac and modified electrode. The direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis behavior of Lac on the modified electrode were characterized by cyclic voltammogram (CV) which indicated that Lac immobilized on the modified electrode displayed a direct, nearly reversible and surface-controlled redox reaction with an enhanced electron-transfer rate constant of 1.940 s−1 at the scan rate of 100 mV s−1 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) (pH 7.0). Furthermore, it was also discovered that, in the presence of O2, Lac immobilized on the modified electrode exhibited the electrocatalytic response to pyrocatechol, and the kinetic apparent Michaelis-constant (KMapp) obtained from the Lineweaver–Burk equation was 1.79 mM. The detection limit, linear range and sensitivity of the Lac biosensor were 0.003 mM, 0.003–5.555 mM and 99.84 μA mM−1 cm−2, respectively.

  11. Electrochemical properties of the hexacyanoferrate(II)–ruthenium(III) complex immobilized on silica gel surface chemically modified with zirconium(IV) oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panice, Lucimara B.; Oliveira, Elisangela A. de; Filho, Ricardo A.D. Molin; Oliveira, Daniela P. de [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Lazarin, Angélica M., E-mail: amlazarin2@uem.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Andreotti, Elza I.S.; Sernaglia, Rosana L. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Gushikem, Yoshitaka [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The cyano-bridged mixed valence ruthenium composite material was synthesized. • This newly synthesized compound was incorporated into a carbon paste electrode. • The electrode did not show significant changes in response after six months of use. • The modified electrode is very stable and reproducible. • The electrode sensor was successfully applied for ascorbic acid determination. - Abstract: The chemically modified silica gel with zirconium(IV) oxide was used to immobilize the [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 4−} complex ion initially. The reaction of this material with [Ru(edta)H{sub 2}O]{sup −} complex ion formed the immobilized cyano-bridged mixed valence ruthenium complex, (≡Zr){sub 5}[(edta)RuNCFe(CN){sub 5}]. This material was incorporated into a carbon paste electrode and, its electrochemical properties were investigated. However, for an ascorbic acid solution, an enhancement of the anodic peak current was detected due to electrocatalytic oxidation. The electrode presented the same response for at least 150 successive measurements, with a good repeatability. The modified electrode is very stable and reproducible. The sensor was applied for ascorbic acid determination in pharmaceutical preparation with success.

  12. Chemical treatments of the nanocrystalline porous TiO2 electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two types of nanocrystalline porous TiO2 electrodes were prepared by the hydrothermal and painting methods. The incident photon-to-current efficiency and photoelectrical conversion efficiency were both improved by chemical treatments of titanium tetrachloride and titanium isopropoxide. The surface roughness, quantities of adsorbed dye, photocurrent-voltage curves, IR spectra and UV-visible absorption spectra were measured, and the mechanism of chemical treatments was discussed.

  13. Amperometric Biosensors Based on Carbon Paste Electrodes Modified with Nanostructured Mixed-valence Manganese Oxides and Glucose Oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaoli; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-06-01

    Nanostructured multivalent manganese oxides octahedral molecular sieve (OMS), including cryptomelane-type manganese oxides and todorokite-type manganese oxides, were synthesized and evaluated for chemical sensing and biosensing at low operating potential. Both cryptomelane-type manganese oxides and todorokite-type manganese oxides are nanofibrous crystals with sub-nanometer open tunnels that provide a unique property for sensing applications. The electrochemical and electrocatalytic performance of OMS for the oxidation of H2O2 have been compared. Both cryptomelane-type manganese oxides and todorokite-type manganese oxides can be used to fabricate sensitive H2O2 sensors. Amperometric glucose biosensors are constructed by bulk modification of carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) with glucose oxidase as a biocomponent and nanostructured OMS as a mediator. A Nafion thin film was applied as an immobilization/encapsulation and protective layer. The biosensors were evaluated as an amperometric glucose detector at phosphate buffer solution with a pH 7.4 at an operating potential of 0.3 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The biosensor is characterized by a well-reproducible amperometric response, linear signal-to-glucose concentration range up to 3.5 mM and 1.75 mM, and detection limits (S/N = 3) of 0.1 mM and 0.05 mM for todorokite-type manganese oxide and cryptomelane-type manganese oxide modified electrodes, respectively. The biosensors based on OMS exhibit considerable good reproducibility and stability, and the construction and renewal are simple and inexpensive.

  14. Amperometric biosensors based on carbon paste electrodes modified with nanostructured mixed-valence manganese oxides and glucose oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoli; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-06-01

    Nanostructured, multivalent, manganese-oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS), including cryptomelane-type manganese oxides and todorokite-type manganese oxides, were synthesized and evaluated for chemical sensing and biosensing at low operating potential. Both cryptomelane-type manganese oxides and todorokite-type manganese oxides are nanofibrous crystals with subnanometer open tunnels that provide a unique property for sensing applications. The electrochemical and electrocatalytic performance of OMS for the oxidation of H2O2 have been compared. Both cryptomelane-type manganese oxides and todorokite-type manganese oxides can be used to fabricate sensitive H2O2 sensors. With glucose oxidase (GOx) as an enzyme model, amperometric glucose biosensors are constructed by bulk modification of carbon paste electrodes with GOx as a biocomponent and nanostructured OMS as a mediator. A Nafion thin film was applied as an immobilization/encapsulation and protective layer. The biosensors were evaluated as an amperometric glucose detector at phosphate buffer solution with a pH 7.4 at an operating potential of 0.3 V (vs Ag/AgCl). The biosensor is characterized by a well-reproducible amperometric response, linear signal-to-glucose concentration range up to 3.5 mmol/L and 1.75 mmol/L, and detection limits (S/N = 3) of 0.1 mmol/L and 0.05 mmol/L for todorokite-type manganese oxide and cryptomelane-type manganese oxide-modified electrodes, respectively. The biosensors based on OMS exhibit considerable good reproducibility and stability, and the construction and renewal are simple and inexpensive.

  15. Chemically modified oligonucleotides with efficient RNase H response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Birte; Boel, Anne Marie; Lobedanz, Sune;

    2008-01-01

    Ten different chemically modified nucleosides were incorporated into short DNA strands (chimeric oligonucleotides ON3-ON12 and ON15-ON24) and then tested for their capacity to mediate RNAse H cleavage of the complementary RNA strand. The modifications were placed at two central positions directly...... in the RNase H cleaving region. The RNA strand of duplexes with ON3, ON5 and ON12 were cleaved more efficiently than the RNA strand of the DNA:RNA control duplex. There seems to be no correlation between the thermal stability between the duplexes and RNase H cleavage....

  16. Chemically modified tetracyclines: The novel host modulating agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devulapalli Narasimha Swamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal pathogens and destructive host responses are involved in the initiation and progression of periodontitis. The emergence of host response modulation as a treatment concept has resulted from our improved understanding of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. A variety of drugs have been evaluated as host modulation agents (HMA, including Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS, bisphosphonates, tetracyclines, enamel matrix proteins and bone morphogenetic proteins. Chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs are one such group of drugs which have been viewed as potential host modulating agents by their anticollagenolytic property. The CMTs are designed to be more potent inhibitors of pro inflammatory mediators and can increase the levels of anti inflammatory mediators.

  17. Mechano-sorptive creep of Portuguese pinewood chemically modified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barroso Lopes Duarte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemical modification on mechano-sorptive creep in bending was studied by experimental work. Stakes with 20 × 20 × 400 mm RTL of Portuguese wood species (Pinus pinaster Aiton modified with 1,3-dimethylol-4,5- dihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU, m-methylated melamine resin (MMF, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS and amid wax (WA were measured under asymmetric moistening conditions over a period of 42 days (app. 1000 hours with stress level (SL of 12 MPa, according to ENV 1156.

  18. Chemically modified tetracyclines: The novel host modulating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Devulapalli Narasimha; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kapalavai, Vasavi

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal pathogens and destructive host responses are involved in the initiation and progression of periodontitis. The emergence of host response modulation as a treatment concept has resulted from our improved understanding of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. A variety of drugs have been evaluated as host modulation agents (HMA), including Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS), bisphosphonates, tetracyclines, enamel matrix proteins and bone morphogenetic proteins. Chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) are one such group of drugs which have been viewed as potential host modulating agents by their anticollagenolytic property. The CMTs are designed to be more potent inhibitors of pro inflammatory mediators and can increase the levels of anti inflammatory mediators. PMID:26392682

  19. An Electrochemical Microsensor Based on a AuNPs-Modified Microband Array Electrode for Phosphate Determination in Fresh Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the fabrication, characterization, and application of a gold microband array electrode (MAE for the determination of phosphate in fresh water samples. The working principle of this MAE is based on the reduction of a molybdophosphate complex using the linear sweep voltammetric (LSV method. The calibration of this microsensor was performed with standard phosphate solutions prepared with KH2PO4 and pH adjusted to 1.0. The microsensor consists of a platinum counter electrode, a gold MAE as working electrode, and an Ag/AgCl electrode as reference electrode. The microelectrode chips were fabricated by the Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS technique. To improve the sensitivity, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs were electrodeposited on the working electrode. With a linear range from 0.02 to 0.50 mg P/L, the sensitivity of the unmodified microsensor is 2.40 µA per (mg P/L (R2 = 0.99 and that of the AuNPs-modified microsensor is 7.66 µA per (mg P/L (R2 = 0.99. The experimental results showed that AuNPs-modified microelectrode had better sensitivity and a larger current response than the unmodified microelectrode.

  20. Development and characterization of fluorine tin oxide electrodes modified with high area porous thin films containing gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintana, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.quintana@uam.e [Dpto. Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental. Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad Autonoma de Madrid. Cantoblanco. 28049-Madrid (Spain); Atienzar, Pedro; Budroni, Gerolamo [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica de Valencia, UPV-CSIC, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Av. de los Naranjos s/n, 46022-Valencia (Spain); Mora, Laura; Hernandez, Lucas [Dpto. Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental. Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad Autonoma de Madrid. Cantoblanco. 28049-Madrid (Spain); Garcia, Hermenegildo; Corma, Avelino [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica de Valencia, UPV-CSIC, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Av. de los Naranjos s/n, 46022-Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-29

    Different electrode materials are prepared using fluoride doped tin oxide (FTO) electrodes modified with high area porous thin films of metal oxides containing gold nanoparticles. Three different metal oxides (TiO{sub 2}, MgO and SnO{sub 2}) have been assayed to this end. The effect of the metal oxide nature and gold loading on the structure and performance of the modified electrodes was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. XRD measurements reveal that MgO electrodes present the smallest gold nanoparticles after the sintering step however, the electrochemical response of these electrodes shows important problems of mass transport derived from the high porosity of these materials (Brunauer Emmett Teller area of 125 m{sup 2}/g). The excellent sintering properties of titania nanoparticles result in robust films attached to the FTO electrodes which allow more reliable and reproducible results from an electroanalytical point of view.

  1. CdS quantum dots modified CuO inverse opal electrodes for ultrasensitive electrochemical and photoelectrochemical biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Lei; Xu, Lin; Song, Jian; Xu, Ru; Liu, Dali; Dong, Biao; SONG, HONGWEI

    2015-01-01

    The CuO inverse opal photonic crystals (IOPCs) were synthesized by the sol-gel method and modified with CdS quantum dots by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). CdS QDs modified CuO IOPCs FTO electrodes of different SILAR cycles were fabricated and their electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (I–t). Structure and morphology of the samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microsc...

  2. Silver nanoparticle decorated poly(2-aminodiphenylamine) modified carbon paste electrode as a simple and efficient electrocatalyst for oxidation of formaldehyde

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Ojani; Saeid Safshekan; Jahan-Bakhsh Raoof

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the promising activity of silver nanoparticles on the surface of a poly(2-amino diphenylamine) modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) towards formaldehyde oxidation. Electro-deposition of the conducting polymer film on the CPE was carried out using consecutive cyclic voltammetry in an aqueous solution of 2-aminodiphenylamine and HCl. Nitrogen groups in the polymer backbone had a Ag ion accumulating effect, allowing Ag nanoparticles to be electrochemi-cally deposited on the surface of the electrode. The electrochemical and morphological characteris-tics of the modified electrode were investigated. The electro-oxidation of formaldehyde on the sur-face of electrode was studied using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry in aqueous solu-tion of 0.1 mol/L NaOH. The electro-oxidation onset potential was found to be around-0.4 V, which is unique in the literature. The effect of different concentrations of formaldehyde on the electrocat-alytic activity of the modified electrode was investigated. Finally, the diffusion coefficient of formal-dehyde in alkaline media was calculated to be 0.47 × 10-6 cm2/s using chronoamperometry.

  3. Potentiometric stripping analysis of arsenic using a graphene paste electrode modified with a thiacrown ether and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrochemical method is presented for the determination of arsenic at subnanomolar levels. It is based on potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) using a graphene paste electrode modified with the thiacrown 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane (TTCN) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The electrode surface was characterized by means of cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, chronocoulometry and scanning electron microscopy. The modified electrode displays a 15-fold enhancement in the PSA signal (dt/dE) compared to a conventional graphene paste electrode. Under optimized conditions, the signal is proportional to the concentration of As(III) in the range from 25 pM to 34 nM (r2 = 0.9977), and the detection limit (SD/s) is as low as 8 pM. The modified electrode was successfully applied to the determination of total arsenic [i.e., As(III) and As(V)] in pharmaceutical formulations, human hair, sea water, fruits, vegetables, soil, and wine samples. (author)

  4. Electrocatalysis of chemically synthesized noble metal nanoparticles on carbon electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ling; Ulstrup, Jens; Zhang, Jingdong

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs), such as platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) NPs are promising catalysts for dioxygen reduction and oxidation of molecules such as formic acid and ethanol in fuel cells. Carbon nanomaterials are ideal supporting materials for electrochemical catalysts due to their good...... conductivity, chemical inertness and low cost. Improvement of catalytic efficiency and stability of the NPs is, however, essential for their wider applications in electrochemical energy conversion/storage. The activities of noble metal catalysts depend not only on their size, composition, and shapes but also...

  5. Microfluidic electrochemical device and process for chemical imaging and electrochemical analysis at the electrode-liquid interface in-situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li; Zhu, Zihua; Marshall, Matthew J.

    2016-03-01

    A microfluidic electrochemical device and process are detailed that provide chemical imaging and electrochemical analysis under vacuum at the surface of the electrode-sample or electrode-liquid interface in-situ. The electrochemical device allows investigation of various surface layers including diffuse layers at selected depths populated with, e.g., adsorbed molecules in which chemical transformation in electrolyte solutions occurs.

  6. DNA biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with electropolymerized Eriochrome Black T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on an electrochemical DNA biosensor consisting of a glassy carbon electrode modified with a film of electropolymerized Eriochrome Black T (pEBT) that serves as a functional platform for the immobilization of probe DNA. pEBT was deposited via cyclic voltammetry, and the amino-modified DNA capture probe was covalently linked to the surface via a sulfanilamide coupling reaction. The single step of the assembly process was monitored by atomic force microscopy and electrochemistry. The surface density of DNA probe on the biosensor interface was calculated to be 1.7 × 10−10 mol cm−2 using methylene blue as an electroactive probe. Hybridization experiments showed the peak currents of methylene blue to decrease with increasing concentration of complementary sequence in the range from 5.0 f. to 5.0 pM. The detection limit is as low as 0.11 fM. Selectivity studies showed that the biosensor can discriminate a fully complementary sequence from a single-base mismatch, three-base mismatch, and a fully non-complementary sequence. The biosensor displays good stability and can be regenerated due to the beneficial effects of electropolymerization and covalent immobilization of probe DNA. (author)

  7. A highly performing electrochemiluminescent biosensor for glucose based on a polyelectrolyte-chitosan modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Hong [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety (Fuzhou University) and Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, 523 Gongye Road, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Wu Xiaoping [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety (Fuzhou University) and Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, 523 Gongye Road, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)], E-mail: wapple@fzu.edu.cn; Xu Huifeng; Wang Youmei; Chi Yuwu [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety (Fuzhou University) and Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, 523 Gongye Road, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Chen Guonan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety (Fuzhou University) and Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, 523 Gongye Road, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)], E-mail: gnchen@fzu.edu.cn

    2009-07-30

    A highly performing ECL glucose biosensor was developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) onto a membrane modified glassy carbon electrode, which was prepared by using poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) doped with chitosan. In order to obtain the optimal performance of the ECL biosensor, the composition of modified membranes and a series of measurement conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, this ECL biosensor was able to detect glucose in the range of 0.5-4.0 x 10{sup 4} nM with a detection limit of 0.1 nM (defined as the concentration that could be detected at the signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The relative standard deviation was 0.99% for 5 x 10{sup -8} mol/L glucose in repetitive measurements in the primary 12 potential cycles. This ECL biosensor offered the effectively improved stability of the electron transfer mediator and exhibited excellent properties for the ultrasensitive and selective determination of glucose with good reproducibility and stability. The present biosensor has also been used to determine the glucose concentrations in real serum samples. The recovery value for the assay of glucose ranged from 96.2 to 107% in the serum samples. The present biosensor displayed both specificity for glucose and retention of signal response even in a complex environment. Therefore, it provided an approach to the sensitive determination of glucose.

  8. Probing Chromatin-modifying Enzymes with Chemical Tools

    KAUST Repository

    Fischle, Wolfgang

    2016-02-04

    Chromatin is the universal template of genetic information in all eukaryotic organisms. Chemical modifications of the DNA-packaging histone proteins and the DNA bases are crucial signaling events in directing the use and readout of eukaryotic genomes. The enzymes that install and remove these chromatin modifications as well as the proteins that bind these marks govern information that goes beyond the sequence of DNA. Therefore, these so-called epigenetic regulators are intensively studied and represent promising drug targets in modern medicine. We summarize and discuss recent advances in the field of chemical biology that have provided chromatin research with sophisticated tools for investigating the composition, activity, and target sites of chromatin modifying enzymes and reader proteins.

  9. A reference electrode based on polyvinyl butyral (PVB) polymer for decentralized chemical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinovart, Tomàs [Departament de Química Orgànica i Química Analítica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Carrer Marcellí Domingo s/n 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Crespo, Gastón A. [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Rius, F. Xavier [Departament de Química Orgànica i Química Analítica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Carrer Marcellí Domingo s/n 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Andrade, Francisco J., E-mail: franciscojavier.andrade@urv.cat [Departament de Química Orgànica i Química Analítica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Carrer Marcellí Domingo s/n 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • A disposable solid-contact reference electrode for potentiometry is presented. • The device shows unsensitivity to most ions, redox potential and light. • Low-cost and good stability, ideal to build disposable potentiometric sensors. • Nanopores formed in the membrane control the flux of ions with the solution. Abstract: A new solid-state reference electrode using a polymeric membrane of polyvinyl butyral (PVB), Ag/AgCl and NaCl to be used in decentralized chemical measurements is presented. The electrode is made by drop-casting the membrane cocktail onto a glassy carbon (GC) substrate. A stable potential (less than 1 mV dec⁻¹ over a wide range of concentrations for the several chemical species tested is obtained. No significant influence to changes in redox potential, light and pH are observed. The response of this novel electrode shows good correlation when compared with a conventional double-junction reference electrode. Also good long-term stability (90 ± 33 μV/h) and a lifetime of approximately 4 months are obtained. Aspects related to the working mechanisms are discussed. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) studies reveal the presence of nanopores and channels on the surface, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of optimized electrodes show low bulk resistances, usually in the kΩ range, suggesting that a nanoporous polymeric structure is formed in the interface with the solution. Future applications of this electrode as a disposable device for decentralized measurements are discussed. Examples of the utilization on wearable substrates (tattoos, fabrics, etc) are provided.

  10. Glassy carbon electrode modified with gold nanoparticles and hemoglobin in a chitosan matrix for improved pH-switchable sensing of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemoglobin (Hb) has been demonstrated to endow electrochemical sensors with pH-switchable response because of the presence of carboxyl and amino groups. Hb was deposited in a chitosan matrix on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) that was previously coated with clustered gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) by electrodeposition. The switching behavior is active (“on”) to the negatively charged probe [Fe(CN)63−] at pH 4.0, but inactive (“off”) to the probe at pH 8.0. This switch is fully reversible by simply changing the pH value of the solution and can be applied for pH-controlled reversible electrochemical reduction of H2O2 catalyzed by Hb. The modified electrode was tested for its response to the different electroactive probes. The response to these species strongly depends on pH which was cycled between 4 and 8. The effect is also attributed to the presence of pH dependent charges on the surface of the electrode which resulted in either electrostatic attraction or repulsion of the electroactive probes. The presence of Hb, in turn, enhances the pH-controllable response, and the electrodeposited Au-NPs improve the capability of switching. This study reveals the potential of protein based pH-switchable materials and also provides a simple and effective strategy for fabrication of switchable chemical sensors as exemplified in a pH-controllable electrode for hydrogen peroxide. (author)

  11. 2D nanosheet molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) modified electrodes explored towards the hydrogen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Brownson, Dale A. C.; Smith, Graham C.; Sawtell, David A. G.; Kelly, Peter J.; Banks, Craig E.

    2015-10-01

    We explore the use of two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 nanosheets as an electrocatalyst for the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER). Using four commonly employed commercially available carbon based electrode support materials, namely edge plane pyrolytic graphite (EPPG), glassy carbon (GC), boron-doped diamond (BDD) and screen-printed graphite electrodes (SPE), we critically evaluate the reported electrocatalytic performance of unmodified and MoS2 modified electrodes towards the HER. Surprisingly, current literature focuses almost exclusively on the use of GC as an underlying support electrode upon which HER materials are immobilised. 2D MoS2 nanosheet modified electrodes are found to exhibit a coverage dependant electrocatalytic effect towards the HER. Modification of the supporting electrode surface with an optimal mass of 2D MoS2 nanosheets results in a lowering of the HER onset potential by ca. 0.33, 0.57, 0.29 and 0.31 V at EPPG, GC, SPE and BDD electrodes compared to their unmodified counterparts respectively. The lowering of the HER onset potential is associated with each supporting electrode's individual electron transfer kinetics/properties and is thus distinct. The effect of MoS2 coverage is also explored. We reveal that its ability to catalyse the HER is dependent on the mass deposited until a critical mass of 2D MoS2 nanosheets is achieved, after which its electrocatalytic benefits and/or surface stability curtail. The active surface site density and turn over frequency for the 2D MoS2 nanosheets is determined, characterised and found to be dependent on both the coverage of 2D MoS2 nanosheets and the underlying/supporting substrate. This work is essential for those designing, fabricating and consequently electrochemically testing 2D nanosheet materials for the HER.We explore the use of two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 nanosheets as an electrocatalyst for the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER). Using four commonly employed commercially available carbon based electrode

  12. Electrochemical oxidation of 4-chloro phenol over a carbon paste electrode modified with Zn Al layered double hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez F, D.; Palomar P, M.; Licona S, T. de J.; Romero R, M. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Materiales, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Valente, Jaime S., E-mail: mepp@correo.azc.uam.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central No. 152, 07730 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    A study is presented on the electrochemical oxidation of 4-chloro phenol (4cp) in aqueous solution using a bare carbon paste electrode, Cpe, and another one that was modified with Zn Al layered double hydroxides (Cpe/Zn Al-LDH). The electro-oxidation was effected at ph values ranging from 3 up to 11. It was found through cyclic voltammetry that this process was irreversible, namely, there were no reduction peaks, and that depending on the nature of the electrode, the anodic current was limited either by adsorption (Cpe) or diffusion (Cpe/Zn Al-LDH). The energy required and the oxidation reaction rate depended on the ph and on the nature of the electrode, such that the greater rates were obtained when the Cpe/Zn Al-LDH electrode and acid ph were used. The Zn Al-LDH was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  13. Electrochemical synthesis of nickel-iron layered double hydroxide: application as a novel modified electrode in electrocatalytic reduction of metronidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, Kamellia; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim

    2014-02-01

    A new and simple approach based on the electrochemical method was used for preparation of reproducible nanostructure thin film of Ni/Fe-layered double hydroxides (Ni/Fe-LDH) on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical behavior of the Ni/Fe-LDH deposited on GCE electrode is studied. Study of the scanning electron microscopy shows the formation of a nanostructure thin film on the glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical experiments show that Ni/Fe-LDH modified glassy carbon electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic reduction activity with Metronidazole. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of Metronidazole in tablets. The results were favorably compared to those obtained by the reported BP method.

  14. The Application of Nafion Metal Catalyst Free Carbon Nanotube Modified Gold Electrode: Voltammetric Zinc Detection in Serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wei; Bange, Adam; Riehl, Bill L.; Johnson, Jay M.; Papautsky, Ian; Heineman, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Metal catalyst free carbon nanotube (MCFCNT) whiskers were first used as an electrode modification material on a gold electrode surface for zinc voltammetric measurements. A composite film of Nafion and MCFCNT whiskers was applied to a gold electrode surface to form a mechanically stable sensor. The sensor was then used for zinc detection in both acetate buffer solution and extracted bovine serum solution. A limit of detection of 53 nM was achieved for a 120 s deposition time. The zinc in bovine serum was extracted via a double extraction procedure using dithizone in chloroform as a zinc chelating ligand. The modified electrode was found to be both reliable and sensitive for zinc measurements in both matrices. PMID:24436574

  15. Application of a gold electrode, modified by a self-assembled monolayer of 2-mercaptodecylhydroquinone, to the electroanalysis of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Seo, Kyoungja; Jeon, Il Cheol

    2003-02-01

    A gold electrode modified by a self-assembled monolayer of 2-mercaptodecylhydroquinone (H(2)Q(CH(2))(10)SH) was applied to investigate the electrochemical response of hemoglobin in aerated buffer solutions. Compared with a bare gold electrode, the monolayer of H(2)Q(CH(2))(10)SH could suppress the reduction wave of dissolved oxygen in the buffer while effectively promoting the rate of electron transfer between hemoglobin and the electrode. Thus, a convenient way for electroanalysis of hemoglobin in air was achieved at the H(2)Q(CH(2))(10)SH/Au electrode. A linear relationship existed between peak current and concentration of hemoglobin in the range 1 x 10(-7)-1 x 10(-6) mol L(-1).

  16. Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Hydroxylamine at a Quinizarine Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode: Application to Differential Pulse Voltammetry Detection of Hydroxylamine

    OpenAIRE

    MAZLOUMARDAKANI, Mohammad; KARAMI, Payam EBRAHIMI

    2008-01-01

    The electrocatalytic behavior of hydroxylamine was studied on a glassy carbon electrode modified by electrodeposition of quinizarine, using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and rotating disk voltammetry as diagnostic techniques. Cyclic voltammetry showed that the catalytic current of the system depends on the concentration of hydroxylamine. The magnitude of the peak current for quinizarine increased sharply in the presence of hydroxylamine and proportional to hydroxylamine conc...

  17. Electrochemical behavior of ruthenium-hexacyanoferrate modified glassy carbon electrode and catalytic activity towards ethanol electro oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Wendell M.; Marques, Aldalea L.B., E-mail: aldalea.ufma@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Tecnologica; Cardoso, William S.; Marques, Edmar P.; Bezerra, Cicero W.B. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Departamento de Qumica; Ferreira, Antonio Ap. P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Song, Chaojie; Zhang, Jiujun [Energy, Mining and Environment Portfolio, National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Ruthenium-based hexacyanoferrate (RuHCF) thin film modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared by drop evaporation method. The RuHCF modified electrode exhibited four redox couples in strong acidic solution (pH 1.5) attributed to Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-} ion and three ruthenium forms (Ru(II), Ru(III) and Ru(IV)), characteristic of ruthenium oxide compounds. The modified electrode displayed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in the potential region where electrochemical processes Ru(III)-O-Ru(IV) and Ru(IV)-O-Ru(VI) occur. Impedance spectroscopy data indicated that the charge transfer resistance decreased with the increase of the applied potential and ethanol concentration, indicating the use of the RuHCF modified electrode as an ethanol sensor. Under optimized conditions, the sensor responded linearly and rapidly to ethanol concentration between 0.03 and 0.4 mol L{sup -1} with a limit of detection of 0.76 mmol L{sup -1}, suggesting an adequate sensitivity in ethanol analyses. (author)

  18. An amperometric bienzymatic cholesterol biosensor based on functionalized graphene modified electrode and its electrocatalytic activity towards total cholesterol determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, Revanasiddappa; Shivappa Suresh, Gurukar; Melo, Jose Savio; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Venkatesha, Thimmappa Venkatarangaiah

    2012-09-15

    Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and cholesterol esterase (ChEt) have been covalently immobilized onto functionalized graphene (FG) modified graphite electrode. Enzymes modified electrodes were characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). FG accelerates the electron transfer from electrode surface to the immobilized ChOx, achieving the direct electrochemistry of ChOx. A well defined redox peak was observed, corresponding to the direct electron transfer of the FAD/FADH(2) of ChOx. The electron transfer coefficient (α) and electron transfer rate constant (K(s)) were calculated and their values are found to be 0.31 and 0.78 s(-1), respectively. For the free cholesterol determination, ChOx-FG/Gr electrode exhibits a sensitive response from 50 to 350 μM (R=-0.9972) with a detection limit of 5 μM. For total cholesterol determination, co-immobilization of ChEt and ChOx on modified electrode, i.e. (ChEt/ChOx)-FG/Gr electrode showed linear range from 50 to 300 μM (R=-0.9982) with a detection limit of 15 μM. Some common interferents like glucose, ascorbic acid and uric acid did not cause any interference, due to the use of a low operating potential. The FG/Gr electrode exhibits good electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). A wide linear response to H(2)O(2) ranging from 0.5 to 7 mM (R=-0.9967) with a sensitivity of 443.25 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) has been obtained. PMID:22967556

  19. Electrochemical Determination of Chlorpyrifos on a Nano-TiO₂Cellulose Acetate Composite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaravel, Ammasai; Chandrasekaran, Maruthai

    2015-07-15

    A rapid and simple method of determination of chlorpyrifos is important in environmental monitoring and quality control. Electrochemical methods for the determination of pesticides are fast, sensitive, reproducible, and cost-effective. The key factor in electrochemical methods is the choice of suitable electrode materials. The electrode materials should have good stability, reproducibility, more sensitivity, and easy method of preparation. Mercury-based electrodes have been widely used for the determination of chlorpyrifos. From an environmental point of view mercury cannot be used. In this study a biocompatible nano-TiO2/cellulose acetate modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared by a simple method and used for the electrochemical sensing of chlorpyrifos in aqueous methanolic solution. Electroanalytical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, and amperometry were used in this work. This electrode showed very good stability, reproducibility, and sensitivity. A well-defined peak was obtained for the reduction of chlorpyrifos in cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. A smooth noise-free current response was obtained in amperometric analysis. The peak current obtained was proportional to the concentration of chlorpyrifos and was used to determine the unknown concentration of chlorpyrifos in the samples. Analytical parameters such as LOD, LOQ, and linear range were estimated. Analysis of real samples was also carried out. The results were validated through HPLC. This composite electrode can be used as an alternative to mercury electrodes reported in the literature.

  20. Hollow NiO nanofibers modified by citric acid and the performances as supercapacitor electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The possible formation process of NiO nanofibers without citric acid (a), and modified by citric acid (b). When the nanofibers is modified by citric acid, the nickel citrate is produced by complexing action of citric acid and nickel nitrate. Because of the larger space steric hindrance, the structure is limited by the molecular geometry. Under high temperature, the hollow nanofibers composed of NiO slices formed after the removal of PVP. Highlights: ► The method of obtaining hollow nanofibers is raised for the first time. ► The prepared NiO nanofibers are hollow tube and comprised of many NiO sheets. ► The hollow structure facilitated the electrolyte penetration. ► The hollow NiO nanofibers have good electrochemical properties. -- Abstract: NiO nanofibers modified by citric acid (NiO/CA) for supercapacitor material have been fabricated by electrospinning process. The characterizations of the nanofibers are investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrochemical properties are characterized by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results show that the NiO/CA nanofibers are hollow tube and comprised of many NiO sheets. Furthermore, the NiO/CA nanofibers have good electrochemical reversibility and display superior capacitive performance with large capacitance (336 F g−1), which is 2.5 times of NiO electrodes. Moreover, the NiO/CA nanofibers show excellent cyclic performance after 1000 cycles

  1. Electrochemical behavior and voltammetric determination of p-methylaminophenol sulfate using LiCoO{sub 2} nanosphere modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei, E-mail: swyy26@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China); Deng, Ying; Liu, Jun; Liu, Weiming; Cheng, Yong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Yuanxiang [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China)

    2014-08-01

    In this study, LiCoO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized by the hydrothermal method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses, which exhibited flower-like nanospheres composed of uniform nanosheets. The synthesized LiCoO{sub 2} nanospheres were further used for the modification of 1-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate based carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE). The electrochemical performance of the modified electrode, LiCoO{sub 2}/CILE, was studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrooxidation of p-methylaminophenol sulfate (metol) on the modified electrode was further tested and electrochemical responses of metol were significantly enhanced owing to the presence of LiCoO{sub 2} nanospheres with large surface area and fast electron transfer rate. The electrochemical parameters such as the charge transfer coefficient, the number of electron transferred, the standard electrode reaction rate constant, and the apparent diffusion coefficient for metol electrooxidation were calculated as 0.51, 0.91, 0.92 s{sup −1} and 7.06 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, metol can be linearly detected in the concentration range from 0.4 to 400.0 μmol/L with a detection limit of 2.46 × 10{sup −7} mol/L (3σ). The optimized method was further applied to the detection of metol content in artificial wastewater samples with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • LiCoO{sub 2} nanospheres were synthesized and characterized. • LiCoO{sub 2} nanosphere modified carbon ionic liquid electrode was fabricated. • Electrochemical behaviors of metol on the modified electrode were investigated.

  2. 2D nanosheet molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) modified electrodes explored towards the hydrogen evolution reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley-Neale, Samuel J; Brownson, Dale A C; Smith, Graham C; Sawtell, David A G; Kelly, Peter J; Banks, Craig E

    2015-11-21

    We explore the use of two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 nanosheets as an electrocatalyst for the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER). Using four commonly employed commercially available carbon based electrode support materials, namely edge plane pyrolytic graphite (EPPG), glassy carbon (GC), boron-doped diamond (BDD) and screen-printed graphite electrodes (SPE), we critically evaluate the reported electrocatalytic performance of unmodified and MoS2 modified electrodes towards the HER. Surprisingly, current literature focuses almost exclusively on the use of GC as an underlying support electrode upon which HER materials are immobilised. 2D MoS2 nanosheet modified electrodes are found to exhibit a coverage dependant electrocatalytic effect towards the HER. Modification of the supporting electrode surface with an optimal mass of 2D MoS2 nanosheets results in a lowering of the HER onset potential by ca. 0.33, 0.57, 0.29 and 0.31 V at EPPG, GC, SPE and BDD electrodes compared to their unmodified counterparts respectively. The lowering of the HER onset potential is associated with each supporting electrode's individual electron transfer kinetics/properties and is thus distinct. The effect of MoS2 coverage is also explored. We reveal that its ability to catalyse the HER is dependent on the mass deposited until a critical mass of 2D MoS2 nanosheets is achieved, after which its electrocatalytic benefits and/or surface stability curtail. The active surface site density and turn over frequency for the 2D MoS2 nanosheets is determined, characterised and found to be dependent on both the coverage of 2D MoS2 nanosheets and the underlying/supporting substrate. This work is essential for those designing, fabricating and consequently electrochemically testing 2D nanosheet materials for the HER.

  3. Band bending and electrical transport at chemically modified silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopinski, Greg; Ward, Tim; Hul'Ko, Oleksa; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2002-03-01

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and electrical transport measurements have been used to investigate how various chemical modifications give rise to band bending and alter the conductivity of Si(111) surfaces. HREELS is a sensitive probe of band bending through observations of the low frequency free carrier plasmon mode. For hydrogen terminated surfaces, prepared by the standard etch in ammonium flouride, HREELS measurements on both n and n+ substrates are consistent with nearly flat bands. Chlorination of these surfaces results in substantial upward band bending due to the strong electron withdrawing nature of the chlorine, driving the surface into inversion. The presence of this inversion layer on high resistivity n-type samples is observed through a substantial enhancement of the surface conductivity (relative to the H-terminated surface), as well as through broadening of the quasi-elastic peak in the HREELS measurements. We have also begun to examine organically modified silicon surfaces, prepared by various wet chemical reactions with the H-terminated surface. Decyl modified Si(111) surfaces are seen to exhibit a small degree of band bending, attributed to extrinsic defect states cause by a small degree of oxidation accompanying the modification reaction. The prospects of using conductivity as an in-situ monitor of the rate of these reactions will be discussed.

  4. Prussian Blue bulk modified screen-printed electrodes for H(2)O(2) detection and for biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, M P; Pravda, M; Guilbault, G G

    2001-09-13

    A sensor for H(2)O(2) amperometric detection based on a Prussian Blue (PB) bulk modified carbon screen-printed electrode was developed. It has been optimised with respect to the lowest limit of detection achieved. PB was made chemically by the reaction of FeCl(3) with K(4)[Fe(CN)(6)]. The resulting powder, obtained by forced crystallisation induced by acetone, was dried and activated at 150 degrees C for 10 h. PB microparticles (carbon ink. The limit of detection achieved was 0.4 muM with the linear range up to 100 muM of H(2)O(2) with the sensitivity of 137 muA mM(-1) cm(-2), that was comparable with sensors based on electrodeposited PB film. The transducer was applied for a glucose biosensor, that exhibited LOD of 0.22 mM, linear range up to 3 mM, K(M)(app) of 4.6 mM, and the sensitivity of 3.21+/-0.16 muA mM(-1) cm(-2). The peroxide sensor, as well as the glucose biosensor, were totally insensitive to oxygen, ascorbate, urate, and paracetamol. PMID:18968406

  5. Application of a Cu-chitosan/multiwalled carbon nanotube film-modified electrode for the sensitive determination of rutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Mohammadi-Behzad, Leila; Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2016-01-15

    A new sensitive electrochemical sensor, a glassy carbon electrode modified with chemically cross-linked copper-complexed chitosan/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Cu-CS/MWCNT/GCE), for rutin analysis was constructed. Experimental investigations of the influence of several parameters showed that the rutin can effectively accumulate on the surface of the Cu-CS/MWCNT/GCE, which accumulation caused a pair of well-defined redox peaks in the electrochemical signal when measurements were carried out in Britton-Robinson buffer solution (pH 3, 0.04 M). The surface of the Cu-CS/MWCNT/GCE was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry analysis. In a rutin concentration range of 0.05-100 μM and under optimized conditions, a linear relationship between the oxidation peak current of rutin and its concentration was obtained with a detection limit of 0.01 μM. The Cu-CS/MWCNT/GCE showed good selectivity, stability, and reproducibility. Moreover, the sensor was used to determine the presence of rutin in fruits with satisfactory results.

  6. Modified carbon paste electrode as a tool for the evaluation of oxidative stability of rapeseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Žabčíková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon paste electrode was used for evaluation of oxidative stability of rapeseed oil samples using cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 mol.L-1 HCl as a supporting electrolyte. Rapeseed oil samples were exposed to daylight and oxygen in open glass baker at the laboratory condition in order to obtain oils with accelerated primary and secondary products of oxidation. The oxidation status was determinated by peroxide value and p-anisidine value. Total oxidative stability was expressed as TOTOX index. The edible oils were used for preparation (modification of the carbon paste composite material followed by the cyclic voltammetric measurement. Peroxide values significantly increased whereas p-anisinde value rather fluctuated during 40 days of storage in all the samples. Cyclic voltammograms showed anodic current peaks at 575 - 600 mV and cathodic current peaks at 400 - 425 mV. The oxidation and reduction waves diminished at pH ≥3.0 suggesting not only phenolic compounds contributed to the electrochemical characteristic of oil samples. The peroxide value or p-anisidine value did not correlate with oxidation or reduction peak currents at the potential 575 - 600 mV and 400 - 425 mV, respectively. Both cathodic and anodic currents increased with increasing TOTOX index exhibiting positive correlation with high Spearman correlation coefficient (r = 0.894 and r = 0.914 for anodic and cathodic current, respectively. Linear relationship was found for each sample individually. A caution has to be done when interpreting results since the correlation seems to be of oil sample specific. Nevertheless, the modified carbon paste electrode with rapeseed oil represents a suitable and alternative tool for determination of the oxidative state of edible oils without use of organic solvents.

  7. Anion Adsorption on an Au Colloid Monolayer Based Cysteamine-Modified Gold Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Anion adsorption behavior on Au colloid surface was investigated in virture of depositing monolayers of Au colloid on the self-assembled monolayers of cysteamine on a gold electrode. Po tential-dependent anion adsorption-desorption waves via the nonfaradaic current were obtained by means of cyclic voltammetry at Au colloid-modified gold electrodes in the potential range of -200-600 mV. The adsorption sequence in the order of adsorption peak potentials(Epa) is OH->citrate3->H2PO4->Cl->SO42->ClO4->NO3-. Among them, citrate3-exhibited an en tirely irreversible adsorption. A rise in temperature can increase the rates of adsorption-desorp tion and improve the reversibility of the adsorption-desorption of CI-, SO24-, CIO4-, NO3- and H2PO4-. The adsorption peak potentials shifted more negatively for ca. 63 mV as the anion con centrations were increased by a decade factor. The change of pH from 7 to 1 slightly affected the adsorption peak potentials of Cl- and NO3-. Au colloids with a smaller size (16 nm) gave rise to a better reversibility of the adsorption-desorption process and lower adsorption currents. The ex perimental results of citrate ions adsorption on Au colloid surface show that Au colloids with a smaller size prepared by sodium citrate method exhibited a higher stability in the solution in com parison to those with larger sizes because of its higher ratio of charge/mass. In other words, the smaller gold nanoparticles are covered with citrate ions monolayer that can also be formed at larg er gold nanoparticles by means of electrochemical scan.

  8. Electrocatalytical oxidation and sensitive determination of acetaminophen on glassy carbon electrode modified with graphene–chitosan composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Meixia; Gao, Feng [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Zhangzhou Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Wang, Qingxiang, E-mail: axiang236@126.com [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Zhangzhou Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Cai, Xili [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Zhangzhou Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Jiang, Shulian; Huang, Lizhang [Zhangzhou Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Institute, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Gao, Fei [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Zhangzhou Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China)

    2013-04-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of acetaminophen (ACOP) on a graphene–chitosan (GR–CS) nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronocoulometry (CC) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Electrochemical characterization showed that the GR–CS nanocomposite had excellent electrocatalytic activity and surface area effect. As compared with bare GCE, the redox signal of ACOP on GR–CS/GCE was greatly enhanced. The values of electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}), diffusion coefficient (D) and the surface adsorption amount (Γ{sup ⁎}) of ACOP on GR–CS/GCE were determined to be 0.25 s{sup −1}, 3.61 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1} and 1.09 × 10{sup −9} mol cm{sup −2}, respectively. Additionally, a 2e{sup −}/2H{sup +} electrochemical reaction mechanism of ACOP was deduced based on the acidity experiment. Under the optimized conditions, the ACOP could be quantified in the range from 1.0 × 10{sup −6} to 1.0 × 10{sup −4} M with a low detection limit of 3.0 × 10{sup −7} M based on 3S/N. The interference and recovery experiments further showed that the proposed method is acceptable for the determination of ACOP in real pharmaceutical preparations. Highlights: ► A chitosan–graphene nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared. ► The modified electrode was electrochemically characterized by CV and EIS. ► Electro-oxidation of acetaminophen was examined on the modified electrode. ► Sensing analysis of the modified electrode toward acetaminophen was studied.

  9. Nickel (II) incorporated AlPO-5 modified carbon paste electrode for determination of thioridazine in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiri, Mandana, E-mail: mandanaamiri@uma.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sohrabnezhad, Shabnam [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1914, Rasht. Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimi, Azad [Department of Chemistry, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    In this approach, synthesis of nickel (II) incorporated aluminophosphate (NiAlPO-5) was performed by using hydrothermal method. The diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques were applied in order to characterize synthesized compounds. The NiAlPO-5 was used as a modifier in carbon paste electrode for the selective determination of thioridazine which is an antidepressant drug. This research is the first example of an aluminophosphate being employed in electroanalysis. The effective catalytic role of the modified electrode toward thioridazine oxidation can be attributed to the electrocatalytic activity of nickel (II) in the aluminaphosphate matrix. In addition, NiAlPO-5 has unique properties such as the high specific surface area which increases the electron transfer of thioridazine. The effects of varying the percentage of modifier, pH and potential sweep rate on the electrode response were investigated. Differential pulse voltammetry was used for quantitative determination as a sensitive method. A dynamic linear range was obtained in the range of 1.0 × 10{sup −7}–1.0 × 10{sup −5} mol L{sup −1}. The determination of thioridazine in real samples such as commercial tablets and human serum was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Nickel aluminophosphate (NiAlPO-5) has been synthesized and characterized. • Nickel (II) in modified electrode shows electrocatalytic activity. • High specific surface area of NiAlPO-5 increases electron transfer of thioridazine. • Modified electrode has very good applicability for determination of thioridazine.

  10. Electro-oxidation of chlorophenols at glassy carbon electrodes modified with polyNi(II)complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrios, Cristhian [Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Departamento de Ciencias del Ambiente, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACh), casilla 40, correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Marco, Jose F.; Gutierrez, Claudio [Instituto de Quimica Fisica ' Rocasolano' , CSIC, C. Serrano, 119, 28006, Madrid (Spain); Ureta-Zanartu, Maria Soledad [Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Departamento de Ciencias del Ambiente, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACh), casilla 40, correo 33, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: soledad.ureta@usach.cl

    2009-11-01

    The effect of the ligand macrocycle (phenylporphyrin (PP) or phthalocyanine (Pc)) and of the ligand substituent (-NH{sub 2} or -SO{sub 3}{sup -}) on the catalytic activity for the electro-oxidation in a pH 11 buffer electrolyte of 2- and 4-chlorophenol (2-CP and 4-CP), 2,4- and 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP and 2,6-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP) at glassy carbon electrodes modified with electropolymerized Ni(II) macrocycles was studied. The polyphenolic residue deposited at the electrode surface was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, impedance measurements, ex situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). A band of aliphatic C=O stretching in the IR spectrum of the fouling film produced by potential cycling in 2,4,6-TCP indicated that the aromatic ring had been broken, yielding ketones, aldehydes and/or carboxylic acids. The sulphonated Ni(II) polymers, which showed the Ni(III)/Ni(II) process in the CV, had XP spectra typical of paramagnetic Ni(II), indicating that they contained Ni(OH){sub 2} clusters. On the contrary, the CVs of the amino Ni(II) did not show the Ni(III)/Ni(II) process at all, this process appearing only after previous activation by potential cycling, and only to a small extent. As was to be expected, the XP spectra of activated amino films corresponded to diamagnetic Ni(II), showing that the concentration of Ni(OH){sub 2} clusters was very small. The amino films were less active than the sulpho films for the oxidation of chlorophenols, in agreement with the lower concentration of Ni(OH){sub 2} clusters in the former films. For all electrodes the highest activity was observed for 2,4,6-TCP, since its oxidation yields a phenolic residue which is much more porous than those produced by the other CPs.

  11. Improvement of the electrochromic response of a low-temperature sintered dye-modified porous electrode using low-resistivity indium tin oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Watanabe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An indium tin oxide (ITO nanoparticle-based porous electrode sintered at low temperatures was investigated as a transparent electrode for electrochromic displays (ECDs. The electrochromic (EC response of the dye-modified ITO porous electrode sintered at 150 °C, which exhibited a generally low resistivity, was markedly superior to that of a conventional dye-modified TiO2 porous electrode sintered at the same temperature. Moreover, the EC characteristics of the dye-modified ITO porous electrode sintered at 150 °C were better than those of the high-temperature (450 °C sintered conventional dye-modified TiO2 porous electrode. These improvements in the EC characteristics of the dye-modified ITO porous electrode are attributed to its lower resistivity than that of the TiO2 porous electrodes. In addition to its sufficiently low resistivity attained under the sintering conditions required for flexible ECD applications, the ITO porous film had superior visible-light transparency and dye adsorption capabilities. We conclude that the process temperature, resistivity, optical transmittance, and dye adsorption capability of the ITO porous electrode make it a promising transparent porous electrode for flexible ECD applications.

  12. The performance of supercapacitor electrodes developed from chemically activated carbon produced from waste tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, I. Isil Gurten; Holmes, Stuart M.; Banford, Anthony; Aktas, Zeki

    2015-12-01

    Highly microporous and mesoporous activated carbons were produced from waste tea for application as supercapacitor electrodes, utilising a chemical activation method involving treatment with either K2CO3 or H3PO4. The area, pore structure characteristics and surface functionality of the activated carbons were evaluated to investigate the influence on electrochemical performance. The performance of the activated carbons as supercapacitor electrodes was tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV), impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) measurements, in an aqueous electrolyte. The results showed that the pore structure and type of the activated carbon have significant impact on the supercapacitor performance. Both waste tea-based activated carbon electrodes showed good cyclic stability. However, despite its lower specific surface area the highly microporous activated carbon produced with K2CO3, exhibited much better capacitive performance than that of the mesoporous activated carbon produced with H3PO4.

  13. Maltodextrins from chemically modified starches. Selected physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pycia, Karolina; Juszczak, Lesław; Gałkowska, Dorota; Witczak, Mariusz; Jaworska, Grażyna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of chemical modification of starch (cross-linking and/or stabilisation) on selected rheological and functional properties of maltodextrins of dextrose equivalent of 6, 11 and 16. It was found that values of glass transition temperatures were decreasing with dextrose equivalent of maltodextrin. The highest values of glass transition temperature (TG) were determined for maltodextrin of DE 6-obtained from distarch phosphate and acetylated distarch phosphate. Increase in DE value of maltodextrin was also accompanied by decrease and increase in values of intrinsic viscosity and the critical concentration, respectively; however, there was no significant effect of kind of chemical modification of starch on the values of these parameters. Maltodextrin solutions at concentrations of from 10 to 70 % exhibited Newtonian flow behaviour. In the case of 50% solutions of maltodextrins of DE 6 the highest viscosity was produced by maltodextrin from native potato starch, while the lowest one by maltodextrin from acetylated starch. On the other hand, among the maltodextrin of DE 11 this one produced from acetylated starch showed the highest viscosity. All the maltodextrins exhibited surfactant properties in a water-air system, with the strongest effect observed for maltodextrins produced from double chemically modified starches and from acetylated starch. The surface activity was increasing with increasing of the DE value of maltodextrin. Moreover, values of surface tension were decreasing with increasing in maltodextrin concentration in the system. PMID:27112878

  14. Understanding the mechanism of direct electrochemistry of mitochondria-modified electrodes from yeast, potato and bovine sources at carbon paper electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although mitochondria have been used for bio-electrochemistry for over 5 years, little is known about their direct electrochemistry mechanism. This paper focuses on developing a better understanding of the electron transfer mechanism of mitochondria from three different organisms at carbon electrodes. Yeast, potato and bovine mitochondria have been successfully isolated and immobilized onto Toray paper electrodes via vapor deposited silica. Organelle-modified electrodes were first characterized using cyclic voltammetry. Similar electrochemical signals were obtained for all organisms. Direct electron transfer was observed when a metabolite of the Krebs cycle was present in the buffer solution. Control experiments based on the immobilization of two electron carriers contained in mitochondria, cytochrome c and a quinone (coenzyme Q10), tend to show the electron transfer mechanism to the carbon material comes from the quinone pool of the organelles. As quinones are known to be pH-dependent, we further investigated the response of the electrochemical signal of the three isolated mitochondria and the two electron carriers separately. The half wave potentials obtained from the organelles appeared to be pH-dependent and their variations are comparable to coenzyme Q10 rather than cytochrome c. Finally, extraction of both the cytochrome c and the quinone pool from intact mitochondria was performed to validate our hypothesis that direct electrochemistry of mitochondria happens via the quinone pool. Electrochemistry of immobilized quinone-depleted mitochondria validated the hypothesis that the mitochondria are communicating with the electrodes through the quinone pool

  15. Analysis of polyphenols in white wine by CZE with amperometric detection using carbon nanotube-modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Mónica; Arribas, Alberto Sánchez; Bermejo, Esperanza; Zapardiel, Antonio; Chicharro, Manuel

    2011-04-01

    A method for the simultaneous detection of five polyphenols (caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic and gallic acids and (+)-catechin) by CZE with electrochemical detection was developed. Separation of these polyphenols was performed in a 100 mM borate buffer (pH 9.2) within 15 min. Under optimized separation conditions, the performance of glassy carbon (GC) electrodes modified with multiwalled carbon nanotube layer obtained from different dispersions was examined. GC electrode modified with a dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) in polyethylenimine has proven to be the most suitable CNT-based electrode for its application as amperometric detector for the CZE separation of the studied compounds. The excellent electrochemical properties of this electrode allowed the detection of the selected polyphenols at +200 mV and improved the efficiency and the resolution of their CZE separation. Limits of detection below 3.1 μM were obtained with linear ranges covering the 10⁻⁵ to 10⁻⁴  M range. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the detection (ferulic, caffeic and gallic acids and (+)-catechin) and the quantification (gallic acid and (+)-catechin) of polyphenols in two different white wines without any preconcentration step. A remarkable signal stability was observed on the electrode performance despite the presence of potential fouling substances in wine.

  16. New Modified-Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Paste Electrode for Electrocatalytic Oxidation and Determination of Hydrazine Using Square Wave Voltammetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali A. ENSAF; Mahsa LOTFI; Hassan KARIMI-MALEH

    2012-01-01

    The application of p-aminophenol as a suitable mediator, as a sensitive and selective voltammetric sensor for the determination of hydrazine using square wave voltammetric method were described. The modified multiwall carbon nanotubes paste electrode exhibited a good electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of hydrazine at pH = 7.0. The catalytic oxidation peak currents showed a linear dependence of the peaks current to the hydrazine concentrations in the range of 0.5–175 μmol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9975. The detection limit (S/N = 3) was estimated to be 0.3 μmol/L of hydrazine. The relative standard deviations for 0.7 and 5.0 μmol/L hydrazine were 1.7 and 1.1%, respectively. The modified electrode showed good sensitivity and selectivity. The diffusion coefficient (D = 9.5 × 10–4 cm2/s) and the kinetic parameters such as the electron transfer coefficient (α = 0.7) of hydrazine at the surface of the modified electrode were determined using electrochemical approaches. The electrode was successfully applied for the determination of hydrazine in real samples with satisfactory results.

  17. Photoamperometric flow injection analysis of glucose based on dehydrogenase modified quantum dots-carbon nanotube nanocomposite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertek, Bensu; Dilgin, Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    In this work, a core-shell quantum dot (QD, ZnS-CdS) was electrodeposited onto multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (ZnS-CdS/MWCNT/GCE) and following glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was immobilized onto QD modified electrode. The proposed electrode (GDH/ZnS-CdS/MWCNT/GCE) was effectively used for the photoelectrochemical biosensing of glucose in flow injection analysis (FIA) system using a home-made flow cell. Results from cyclic voltammetric and FI amperometric measurements have revealed that GDH/ZnS-CdS/MWCNT/GCE is capable of signaling photoelectrocatalytic activity toward NADH when the surface of enzyme modified electrode was irradiated with a light source (250W Halogen lamp). Thus, photoelectrochemical biosensing of glucose was monitored by recording current-time curve of enzymatically produced NADH at optimized conditions. The biosensor response was found linear over the range 0.010-2.0mM glucose with detection limits of 6.0 and 4.0μM for amperometric and photoamperometric methods, respectively. The relative standard deviations (n=5) for 0.5mM glucose were 5.8% and 3.8% for photoamperometric and amperometric results, respectively. The photoelectrochemical biosensor was successfully applied to the real samples. The results with this biosensor showed good selectivity, repeatability and sensitivity for monitoring glucose in amperometric and photoamperometric FIA studies. PMID:26944347

  18. Voltammetric studies of Azathioprine on the surface of graphite electrode modified with graphene nanosheets decorated with Ag nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadian, Elham; Iraji Zad, Azam; Shahrokhian, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    By using graphene nanosheets decorated with Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs-G) as an effective approach for the surface modification of pyrolytic graphite electrode (PGE), a sensing platform was fabricated for the sensitive voltammetric determination of Azathioprine (Aza). The prepared AgNPs-G nanosheets were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The electrochemical behavior of Aza was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. Comparing to the bare PGE, a remarkable enhancement was observed in the response characteristics of Aza on the surface of the modified electrode (AgNPs-G/PGE) as well as a noticeable decrease in its reduction overpotential. These results can be attributed to the incredible enlargement in the microscopic surface area of the electrode due to the presence of graphene nanosheets together with strong adsorption of Aza on its surface. The effect of experimental parameters such as accumulation time, the amount of modifier suspension and pH of the supporting electrolyte were also optimized toward obtaining the maximum sensitivity. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curve studies demonstrated that the peak current increased linearly with Aza concentrations in the range of 7 × 10(-7) to 1 × 10(-4)mol L(-1) with the detection limit of 68 nM. Further experiments revealed that the modified electrode can be successfully applied for the accurate determination of Aza in pharmaceutical preparations.

  19. Label-free, electrochemical detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus DNA with reduced graphene oxide-modified electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhijuan

    2011-05-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-modified glassy carbon electrode is used to detect the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) DNA by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Our experiments confirm that ssDNA, before and after hybridization with target DNA, are successfully anchored on the rGO surface. After the probe DNA, pre-adsorbed on rGO electrode, hybridizes with target DNA, the measured impedance increases dramatically. It provides a new method to detect DNA with high sensitivity (10-13M, i.e., 100 fM) and selectivity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  20. 12-Tungstophosphates Immobilized on Chemically Modified Mesoporous Silica SBA-15

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jing; YOU Wan-sheng; ZHU Zai-ming; SUN Zhen-gang; ZHANG Lan-cui; GU Yuan-peng

    2005-01-01

    A functionalized material, PW/SBA-15m, was prepared successfully in diluted H2SO4 aqueous solutions by immobilizing 12-tungstophosphates on chemically modified mesoporous silica SBA-15 and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, 31P MAS NMR, XRD and TEM. The results indicate that the framework of SBA-15 and the Keggin structure of PW12O3-40 were retained, and that 23%-33%(mass fraction) of PW12O3-40 was immobilized; the PW12O3-40 anions were finely dispersed on the pore wall of SBA-15. Having been leached in ethanol at 60 ℃ for 7 h, the loss of PW12O3-40 anions was not found.

  1. Electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH using a pencil graphite electrode modified with quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilgin, Yusuf; Kızılkaya, Bayram; Dilgin, Didem Giray; Gökçel, H İsmet; Gorton, Lo

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, the electrocatalytic oxidation of reduced β nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) was investigated using a pencil graphite electrode modified with quercetin (PGE/QH(2)). The PGE/QH(2) was prepared through two steps: (i) the pre-treatment of PGE at 1.40 V vs. Ag|AgCl|KCl((sat.)) in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer containing 0.1 M KCl for 60s and (ii) adsorption of QH(2) on the PGE via immersion of PGE into a 1.0mM QH(2) solution (in ethanol) for 60s. Cyclic voltammetric studies show that the peak potential of NADH oxidation shifts from +500 mV at bare PGE to +300 mV at PGE/QH(2). The electrocatalytic currents obtained from amperometric measurements at +300 mV vs. Ag|AgCl|KCl((sat.)) and in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.0 containing 0.1M KCl were linearly related to the concentration of NADH. Linear calibration plots are obtained in the concentration range from 0.5 μM to 100 μM. The limit of detection was found to be 0.15 μM. PMID:23107961

  2. Electrochemical activity of glutathione at a graphite electrode modified with gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Perevezentseva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical activity of the glutathione (GSH at the graphite electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNP-GCE is formed under the ratio of reactants and in solutions of supporting electrolytes of 0, 1 M NaOH, 0,1 М phosphate buffer (pH 6.86, 0,1 M HCl, 0,1 M NaClO4 is studied by the method of cyclic voltammetry. The dependence of the electrochemical activity of GSH on ratio of reagents HAuCl4:Na3C6H5O7:NaBH4, used to the preparation of sols, and the modification time of the GE surface with gold nanoparticles have been studied. The “inverse” cathodic peak of GSH at AuNP-GCE formed in the reaction mixture HAuCl4:Na3C6H5O7:NaBH4=1:1:4 is observed on the cathodic branch of cyclic voltammogram at Ec = 0.05 V in 0.1 M NaOH. The mechanism of electrochemical oxidation of the GSH on the surface of AuNP-GCE in 0.1 M NaOH is proposed.

  3. Freeze Drying Improves the Shelf-Life of Conductive Polymer Modified Neural Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himadri S. Mandal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Coating microelectrodes with conductive polymer is widely recognized to decrease impedance and improve performance of implantable neural devices during recording and stimulation. A concern for wide-spread use of this approach is shelf-life, i.e., the electrochemical stability of the coated microelectrodes prior to use. In this work, we investigated the possibility of using the freeze-drying process in order to retain the native low impedance state and, thereby, improve the shelf-life of conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT-PSS modified neural electrodes. Control PEDOT-PSS coated microelectrodes demonstrated a significant increase in impedance at 1 kHz after 41–50 days of room temperature storage. Based on equivalent circuit modeling derived from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, this increase in impedance could be largely attributed to a decrease in the interfacial capacitance consistent with a collapse and closing of the porous structure of the polymeric coating. Time-dependent electrochemical impedance measurements revealed higher stability of the freeze-dried coated microelectrodes compared to the controls, such that impedance values after 41–50 days appeared to be indistinguishable from the initial levels. This suggests that freeze drying PEDOT-PSS coated microelectrodes correlates with enhanced electrochemical stability during shelf storage.

  4. Voltammetric Determination of Codeine on Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Nafion/MWCNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Piech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A glassy carbon electrode modified with a Nafion/MWCNTs composite is shown to enable the determination of codeine using differential pulse voltammetry in phosphate buffer of pH 3.0. At a preconcentration time of 15 s, the calibration graph is linear in the 0.5 µM (0.15 mg·L−1 to 15 µM (4.5 mg·L−1 concentration range with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The detection limit at a preconcentration time of 120 s is as low as 4.5 μg·L−1. The repeatability of the method at a 0.6 μg·L−1 concentration level, expressed as the RSD, is 3.7% (for n=5. The method was successfully applied and validated by analyzing codeine in drug, human plasma, and urine samples.

  5. Femtomolar detection of mercuric ions using polypyrrole, pectin and graphene nanocomposites modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulraj, Abraham Daniel; Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Chen, Shen-Ming; Vasantha, Vairathevar Sivasamy; Wang, Sea-Fue

    2016-12-01

    Several nanomaterials and techniques for the detection of mercuric ions (Hg(2+)) have been developed in the past decade. However, simple, low-cost and rapid sensor for the detection of heavy metal ions yet remains an important task. Herein, we present a highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for the femtomolar detection of Hg(2+) based on polypyrrole, pectin, and graphene (PPy/Pct/GR) which was prepared by one step electrochemical potentiodyanamic method. The effect of concentration of pectin, polypyrrole and graphene were studied for the detection of Hg(2+). The influence of experimental parameters including effect of pH, accumulation time and accumulation potential were also studied. Different pulse anodic stripping voltammetry was chosen to detect Hg(2+) at PPy/Pct/GR/GCE modified electrode. The fabricated sensor achieved an excellent performance towards Hg(2+) detection such as higher sensitivity of 28.64μAμM(-1) and very low detection limit (LOD) of 4 fM at the signal to noise ratio of 3. The LOD of our sensor offered nearly 6 orders of magnitude lower than that of recommended concentration of Hg(2+) in drinking water by United States Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization. Compared to all previously reported electrochemical sensors towards Hg(2+) detection, our newly fabricated sensor attained a very LOD in the detection of Hg(2+). The practicality of our proposed sensor for the detection of Hg(2+) was successfully demonstrated in untreated tap water. PMID:27565958

  6. Label-free immunosensing of microcystin-LR using a gold electrode modified with gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hepatotoxic microcystins, especially microcystin-LR (MC-LR), are causing serious problems to public health and fisheries. We describe here a label-free amperometric immunosensor for rapid determination of MC-LR in water sample. The sensor was prepared by immobilizing antibody on a gold electrode coated with L-cysteine-modified gold nanoparticles. The stepwise self-assembly of the immunosensor was monitored and characterized by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and differential pulse voltammetry. A 0.60 mmol L-1 solution of hydroquinone was used as the electron mediator. The immunosensor was incubated with MC-LR at 25oC for 20 min, upon which the differential pulse voltammetric current changed linearly over the concentration range from 0.05 to 15.00 μg L-1, with a detection limit of 20 ng L-1. The developed biosensor was used to determine MC-LR in spiked crude algae samples. The recovery was in the range from 95. 6 to 105%. This method is simple, economical and efficient, this making it potentially suitable for field analysis of MC-LR in crude algae and water samples. (author)

  7. Chronocoulometry of wine on multi-walled carbon nanotube modified electrode: Antioxidant capacity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinova, Guzel; Kozlova, Ekaterina; Budnikov, Herman

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic antioxidants of wine were electrochemically oxidized on multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (MWNT/GCE) in phosphate buffer solution. Three oxidation peaks were observed at 0.39, 0.61 and 0.83V for red dry wine and 0.39, 0.80 and 1.18 V for white dry wine, respectively, using differential pulse voltammetry at pH 4.0. The oxidation potentials for individual phenolic antioxidants confirmed the integral nature of the analytical signals for the wines examined. A one-step chronocoulometric method at 0.83 and 1.18 V for red and white wines, respectively, has been developed for the evaluation of wine antioxidant capacity (AOC). The AOC is expressed in gallic acid equivalents per 1L of wine. The AOC of white wine was significantly less than red wine (386 ± 112 vs. 1224 ± 184, pwine and total antioxidant capacity, based on coulometric titration with electrogenerated bromine (r=0.8957 at n=5 and r=0.8986 at n=4 for red and white wines, respectively).

  8. Sensitive determination of carbendazim in orange juice by electrode modified with hybrid material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzino, Claudia A; Sgobbi, Lívia F; Canevari, Thiago C; Cancino, Juliana; Machado, Sergio A S

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the application of a glassy carbon electrode modified with a thin film of mesoporous silica/multiwalled carbon nanotubes for voltammetric determination of the fungicide carbendazim (CBZ). The hybrid material, (SiO2/MWCNT), was obtained by a sol-gel process using HF as the catalyst. The amperometric response to CBZ was measured at +0.73 V vs. Ag/AgCl by square wave voltammetry at pH 8.0. SiO2/MWCNT/GCE responded to CBZ in the linear range from 0.2 to 4.0 μmol L(-1). The calculated detection limit was 0.056 μmol L(-1), obtained using statistical methods. The SiO2/MWCNT/GCE sensor presented as the main characteristics high sensitivity, low detection limit and robustness, allowing CBZ determination in untreated real samples. In addition, this strategy afforded remarkable selectivity for CBZ against ascorbic and citric acid which are the main compounds of the orange juice. The excellent sensitivity and selectivity yielded feasible application for CBZ detection in orange juice sample.

  9. Carbon paste electrode modified with duplex molecularly imprinted polymer hybrid film for metronidazole detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ni; Deng, Jian; Cheng, Jianlin; Ju, Saiqin; Zhao, Haiqing; Xie, Jin; Qian, Duo; He, Jun

    2016-07-15

    A novel electrochemical sensor based on duplex molecularly imprinted polymer (DMIP) hybrid film modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) has been developed for highly sensitive and selective determination of metronidazole (MNZ). A conductive poly(anilinomethyltriethoxysilane) film is firstly electrodeposited on the surface of a CPE, and then a molecularly imprinted polysiloxane (MIPS) membrane is covalently covered on the film via sol-gel process. The as-constructed DMIP hybrid film, combining the advantages of MIPS and conducting MIP, can make feasible the direct and efficient signal transformation between the target analyte and the transducer, as well as enhance the imprinting recognition capability, mass transfer efficiency and the detection sensitivity. Under optimized conditions, the reduction peak currents of MNZ are linear to MNZ concentrations in the range from 4.0×10(-7) to 2.0×10(-4) molL(-1) with a detection limit of 9.1×10(-8)molL(-1). The RSD values vary from 2.9% to 4.7% for intra-day and from 3.4% to 4.2% for inter-day precision. The DMIP-based sensor has been successfully applied for the determination of MNZ in biological and pharmaceutical samples. The accuracy and reliability of the method is further confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography. PMID:26921552

  10. Highly efficient adsorption of chlorophenols onto chemically modified chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang-Chun; Meng, Xiang-Guang; Fu, Jing-Wei; Yang, Yu-Chong; Yang, Peng; Mi, Chun

    2014-02-01

    A novel chemically modified chitosan CS-SA-CD with phenol and β-cyclodextrin groups was prepared. The adsorptions of phenol, 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) on the functional chitosan from aqueous solution were investigated. CS-SA-CD exhibited excellent adsorption ability for chlorophenols especially for DCP and TCP. The maximum adsorption capacities of phenol, 2-CP, 4-CP, DCP and TCP on CS-SA-CD were 59.74, 70.52, 96.43, 315.46 and 375.94 mg/g, respectively. The scanning electron microscope and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analyses revealed that the introduction of phenol group changed the surface morphology and surface properties of chitosan. The modified chitosan CS-SA-CD possesses larger surface areas (4.72 m2/g), pore volume (7.29 × 10-3 mL/g) and average pore diameter (59.99 Å) as compared to those of chitosan 3.27 m2/g, 2.00 × 10-3 mL/g and 15.95 Å, respectively. The enhanced adsorption of chlorophenols was also attributed to the interaction of hydrogen bond between Cl atom and sbnd OH group. The adsorption of chlorophenols on CS-SA-CD followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Adsorbent could be regenerated easily and the regenerated CS-SA-CD remained 80-91% adsorption efficiency.

  11. A novel hydrazine electrochemical sensor based on a carbon nanotube-wired ZnO nanoflower-modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Bin, E-mail: binfang_47@yahoo.com.c [Anhui Key Laboratory of Chemo-Biosensor, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Beijing East Road, No. 1, Wuhu 241000 (China); Zhang Cuihong; Zhang Wei; Wang Guangfeng [Anhui Key Laboratory of Chemo-Biosensor, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Beijing East Road, No. 1, Wuhu 241000 (China)

    2009-12-15

    ZnO nanoflowers were synthesized by a simple process (ammonia-evaporation-induced synthetic method) and were applied to the hydrazine electrochemical sensor. The prepared material was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and was then immobilized onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) via multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to obtain ZnO/MWCNTs/GCE. The potential utility of the constructed electrodes was demonstrated by applying them to the analytical determination of hydrazine concentration. An optimized limit of detection of 0.18 muM was obtained at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and with a fast response time (within 3 s). Additionally, the ZnO/MWCNTs/GCE exhibited a wide linear range from 0.6 to 250 muM and higher sensitivity for hydrazine than did the ZnO modified electrode without immobilization of MWCNTs.

  12. Sensitive Adsorptive Voltammetric Method for Determination of Bisphenol A by Gold Nanoparticle/Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Modified Pencil Graphite Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Yesim Tugce; Abaci, Serdar

    2016-05-25

    A novel electrochemical sensor gold nanoparticle (AuNP)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) modified pencil graphite electrode (PGE) was developed for the ultrasensitive determination of Bisphenol A (BPA). The gold nanoparticles were electrodeposited by constant potential electrolysis and PVP was attached by passive adsorption onto the electrode surface. The electrode surfaces were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The parameters that affected the experimental conditions were researched and optimized. The AuNP/PVP/PGE sensor provided high sensitivity and selectivity for BPA recognition by using square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry (SWAdSV). Under optimized conditions, the detection limit was found to be 1.0 nM. This new sensor system offered the advantages of simple fabrication which aided the expeditious replication, low cost, fast response, high sensitivity and low background current for BPA. This new sensor system was successfully tested for the detection of the amount of BPA in bottled drinking water with high reliability.

  13. Electrochemical Study and Application on Shikonin at Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) Functionalized Graphene Sheets Modified Glass Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Jing; LI Ji-ping; CHEN Wen-xia; YANG Chun-xia; HU Fang-di; WANG Chun-ming

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of shikonin at a poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized graphene sheets modified glass carbon electrode(PDDA-GS/GCE) have been investigated.Shikonin could exhibit a pair of well-defined redox peaks at the PDDA-GS/GCE located at 0.681 V(Epa) and 0.662 V(Epc)[vs.saturated calomel electrode(SCE)] in 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffer solution(pH=2.0) with a peak-to-peak separation of about 20 mV,revealing a fast electron-transfer process.Moreover,the current response was remarkably increased at PDDAGS/GCE compared with that at the bare GCE.The electrochemical behaviors of shikonin at the modified electrode were investigated.And the results indicate that the reaction involves the transfer of two electrons,accompanied by two protons and the electrochemical process is a diffusional-controlled electrode process.The electrochemical parameters of shikonin at the modified electrode,the electron-transfer coefficient(α),the electron-transfer number(n) and the electrode reaction rate constant(ks) were calculated to be as 0.53,2.18 and 3.6 s-1,respectively.Under the optimal conditions,the peak current of differential pulse voltammetry(DPV) increased linearly with the shikonin concentration in a range from 9.472×10-8 mol/L to 3.789×10-6 mol/L with a detection limit of 3.157×10-8 mol/L.The linear regression equation was Ip=0.7366c+0.7855(R=0.9978; Ip:10 7 A,c:10-8 mol/L).In addition,the modified glass carbon electrode also exhibited good stability,selectivity and acceptable reproducibility that could be used for the sensitive,simple and rapid determination of shikonin in real samples.Therefore,the present work offers a new way to broaden the analytical application of graphene in pharmaceutical analysis.

  14. Poly(methylene blue) functionalized graphene modified carbon ionic liquid electrode for the electrochemical detection of dopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Wei, E-mail: swyy26@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China); College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Wang Yuhua; Zhang Yuanyuan; Ju Xiaomei; Li Guangjiu [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Sun Zhenfan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Poly(methylene blue) functionalized graphene was electrodeposited on the electrode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fabricated electrode showed better electrochemical performances. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dopamine was sensitive detected by the modified electrode. - Abstract: An ionic liquid 1-butylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate based carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) was used as the substrate electrode and a poly(methylene blue) (PMB) functionalized graphene (GR) composite film was co-electrodeposited on CILE surface by cyclic voltammetry. The PMB-GR/CILE exhibited better electrochemical performances with higher conductivity and lower electron transfer resistance. Electrochemical behavior of dopamine (DA) was further investigated by cyclic voltammetry and a pair of well-defined redox peaks appeared with the peak-to-peak separation ({Delta}E{sub p}) as 0.058 V in 0.1 mol L{sup -1} pH 6.0 phosphate buffer solution, which proved a fast quasi-reversible electron transfer process on the modified electrode. Electrochemical parameters of DA on PMB-GR/CILE were calculated with the electron transfer number as 1.83, the charge transfer coefficients as 0.70, the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant as 1.72 s{sup -1} and the diffusional coefficient (D) as 3.45 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, respectively. Under the optimal conditions with differential pulse voltammetric measurement, the linear relationship between the oxidation peak current of DA and its concentration was obtained in the range from 0.02 to 800.0 {mu}mol L{sup -1} with the detection limit as 5.6 nmol L{sup -1} (3{sigma}). The coexisting substances exhibited no interference and PMB-GR/CILE was applied to the detection of DA injection samples and human urine samples with satisfactory results.

  15. Poly(methylene blue) functionalized graphene modified carbon ionic liquid electrode for the electrochemical detection of dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Poly(methylene blue) functionalized graphene was electrodeposited on the electrode. ► The fabricated electrode showed better electrochemical performances. ► Dopamine was sensitive detected by the modified electrode. - Abstract: An ionic liquid 1-butylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate based carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) was used as the substrate electrode and a poly(methylene blue) (PMB) functionalized graphene (GR) composite film was co-electrodeposited on CILE surface by cyclic voltammetry. The PMB–GR/CILE exhibited better electrochemical performances with higher conductivity and lower electron transfer resistance. Electrochemical behavior of dopamine (DA) was further investigated by cyclic voltammetry and a pair of well-defined redox peaks appeared with the peak-to-peak separation (ΔEp) as 0.058 V in 0.1 mol L−1 pH 6.0 phosphate buffer solution, which proved a fast quasi-reversible electron transfer process on the modified electrode. Electrochemical parameters of DA on PMB–GR/CILE were calculated with the electron transfer number as 1.83, the charge transfer coefficients as 0.70, the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant as 1.72 s−1 and the diffusional coefficient (D) as 3.45 × 10−4 cm2 s−1, respectively. Under the optimal conditions with differential pulse voltammetric measurement, the linear relationship between the oxidation peak current of DA and its concentration was obtained in the range from 0.02 to 800.0 μmol L−1 with the detection limit as 5.6 nmol L−1 (3σ). The coexisting substances exhibited no interference and PMB–GR/CILE was applied to the detection of DA injection samples and human urine samples with satisfactory results.

  16. Fabrication of gallium hexacyanoferrate modified carbon ionic liquid paste electrode for sensitive determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallium hexacyanoferrate (GaHCFe) and graphite powder were homogeneously dispersed into n-dodecylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate and paraffin to fabricate GaHCFe modified carbon ionic liquid paste electrode (CILPE). Mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the fabrication of GaHCFe modified CILPE (GaHCFe-CILPE). A pair of well-defined redox peaks due to the redox reaction of GaHCFe through one-electron process was observed for the fabricated electrode. The fabricated GaHCFe-CILPE exhibited good electrocatalytic activity towards reduction and oxidation of H2O2. The observed sensitivities for the electrocatalytic oxidation and reduction of H2O2 at the operating potentials of + 0.8 and − 0.2 V were about 13.8 and 18.3 mA M−1, respectively. The detection limit (S/N = 3) for H2O2 was about 1 μM. Additionally, glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized on GaHCFe-CILPE using two methodology, entrapment into Nafion matrix and cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and bovine serum albumin, in order to fabricate glucose biosensor. Linear dynamic rage, sensitivity and detection limit for glucose obtained by the biosensor fabricated using cross-linking methodology were 0.1–6 mM, 0.87 mA M−1 and 30 μM, respectively and better than those obtained (0.2–6 mM, 0.12 mA M−1 and 50 μM) for the biosensor fabricated using entrapment methodology. - Highlights: • Gallium hexacyanoferrate modified carbon ionic liquid paste electrode was fabricated. • Mixture experimental design was used to optimize electrode fabrication. • Response trace plot was used to show the effect of electrode materials on response. • The sensor exhibited electrocatalytic activity towards H2O2 reduction and oxidation. • Glucose biosensor was fabricated by immobilization of glucose oxidase on sensor

  17. Electrochemical stability and restructuring and its impact on the electro-oxidation of CO: Pt modified Ru(0001) electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstfeld, A. K.; Klein, J.; Brimaud, S.; Behm, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Structural modifications during electrochemical measurements on well defined Pt modified Ru(0001) electrode surfaces, which were prepared and characterized under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions, and the influence of the restructuring on the CO oxidation reaction have been investigated in a set-up combining surface preparation and scanning tunneling microscopy characterization under UHV conditions (UHV-STM) and electrochemical flow cell measurements. Bare Ru(0001) and Pt monolayer island modified Ru(0001) electrodes with different Pt coverages were investigated, together with a Pt0.3Ru0.7/Ru(0001) monolayer surface alloy for comparison. Comparing bulk CO oxidation measurements performed upon cycling in base electrolyte (0.5 M H2SO4) to 0.90 VRHE with similar measurements performed after potential cycling to 1.05 VRHE, we find pronounced differences in the current-voltage characteristics, with a distinct new peak at low potentials in the positive-going scan in the latter case, which is centered at 0.67 VRHE. STM imaging performed before and after the electrocatalytic measurements revealed a distinct restructuring of the Pt monolayer island modified Ru(0001) surfaces upon potential cycling to 1.05 VRHE, while cycling to 0.90 VRHE maintains the original structure and morphology of the bimetallic surface. In contrast, for the bare Ru(0001) electrode, restructuring of steps is observed already upon potential cycling to 0.9 VRHE. Implications of these findings on the electrochemical stability of the electrodes as well as on the mechanistic understanding of the CO oxidation reaction on bimetallic PtRu electrode surfaces and on the activity of different mono- and bimetallic nanostructures are discussed.

  18. A highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor for catechol using conducting polymer reduced graphene oxide-metal oxide enzyme modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuraman, V; Muthuraja, P; Anandha Raj, J; Manisankar, P

    2016-10-15

    The fabrication, characterization and analytical performances were investigated for a catechol biosensor, based on the PEDOT-rGO-Fe2O3-PPO composite modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The graphene oxide (GO) doped conducting polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was prepared through electrochemical polymerization by potential cycling. Reduction of PEDOT-GO was carried out by amperometric method. Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized in ethanol by hydrothermal method. The mixture of Fe2O3, PPO and glutaraldehyde was casted on the PEDOT-rGO electrode. The surface morphology of the modified electrodes was studied by FE-SEM and AFM. Cyclic voltammetric studies of catechol on the enzyme modified electrode revealed higher reduction peak current. Determination of catechol was carried out successfully by Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) technique. The fabricated biosensor investigated shows a maximum current response at pH 6.5. The catechol biosensor exhibited wide sensing linear range from 4×10(-8) to 6.20×10(-5)M, lower detection limit of 7×10(-9)M, current maxima (Imax) of 92.55µA and Michaelis-Menten (Km) constant of 30.48µM. The activation energy (Ea) of enzyme electrode is 35.93KJmol(-1) at 50°C. There is no interference from d-glucose and l-glutamic acid, ascorbic acid and o-nitrophenol. The PEDOT-rGO-Fe2O3-PPO biosensor was stable for at least 75 days when stored in a buffer at about 4°C. PMID:26751827

  19. Cobalt hexacyanoferrate modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes/graphite composite electrode as electrochemical sensor on microfluidic chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xinchun [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 132 Waihuan East Road of Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen Zuanguang, E-mail: chenzg@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 132 Waihuan East Road of Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhong Yuwen, E-mail: yu0106@163.com [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Guangdong Province, 176 Xingangxi, Guangzhou 510300 (China); Yang Fan; Pan Jianbin; Liang Yajing [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 132 Waihuan East Road of Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoHCF nanoparticles modified MWCNTs/graphite electrode use for electrochemistry on electrophoresis microchip for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous, rapid, and sensitive electrochemical detection of hydrazine and isoniazid in real samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An exemplary work of CME sensor assembly onto microchip for determination of analytes with environmental significance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Manifestation of the applicability and flexibility of CME sensor for electroanalysis on microfluidic chip. - Abstract: Nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensor has received significant interest. In this work, cobalt hexacyanoferrate modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes/graphite composite electrode was electrochemically prepared and exploited as an amperometric detector for microchip electrophoresis. The prepared sensor displayed rapid and sensitive response towards hydrazine and isoniazid oxidation, which was attributed to synergetic electrocatalytic effect of cobalt hexacyanoferrate and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The sensitivity enhancement with nearly two orders of magnitude was gained, compared with the bare carbon paste electrode, with the detection limit of 0.91 {mu}M (S/N = 3) for hydrazine. Acceptable repeatability of the microanalysis system was verified by consecutive eleven injections of hydrazine without chip and electrode treatments, the RSDs for peak current and migration time were 3.4% and 2.1%, respectively. Meanwhile, well-shaped electrophoretic peaks were observed, mainly due to fast electron transfer of electroactive species on the modified electrode. The developed microchip-electrochemistry setup was successfully applied to the determination of hydrazine and isoniazid in river water and pharmaceutical preparation, respectively. Several merits of the novel electrochemical sensor coupled with microfluidic platform, such as comparative stability, easy fabrication and

  20. Enhanced Growth and Redox Characteristics of Some Conducting Polymers on Carbon Nanotube Modified Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Saraswathi

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Recent studies on the electrochemistry of a number of active compounds at carbon nanotube electrodes have proved beyond doubt their excellent electrocatalytic properties.Particularly,the advancements accomplished towards the functionalization of carbon nanotubes resulting in their enhanced solubilization in aqueous solutions have helped in the preparation of stable carbon nanotube electrodes.Glassy carbon has been invariably the preferred substrate for casting carbon nanotube electrodes.Such c...

  1. Amperometric bienzyme glucose biosensor based on carbon nanotube modified electrode with electropolymerized poly(toluidine blue O) film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wenju [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Wang Fang [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)] [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yao Yanli [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Hu Shengshui [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Shiu, Kwok-Keung, E-mail: kkshiu@hkbu.edu.h [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2010-09-30

    The amperometric bienzyme glucose biosensor utilizing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized in poly(toluidine blue O) (PTBO) film was constructed on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) modified glassy carbon electrode. The HRP layer could be used to analyze hydrogen peroxide with toluidine blue O (TBO) mediators, while the bienzyme system (HRP + GOx) could be utilized for glucose determination. Glucose underwent biocatalytic oxidation by GOx in the presence of oxygen to yield H{sub 2}O{sub 2} which was further reduced by HRP at the MWNT-modified electrode with TBO mediators. In the absence of oxygen, glucose oxidation proceeded with electron transfer between GOx and the electrode mediated by TBO moieties without H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. The bienzyme electrode offered high sensitivity for amperometric determination of glucose at low potential, displaying Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The bienzyme glucose biosensor displayed linear response from 0.1 to 1.2 mM with a sensitivity of 113 mA M{sup -1} cm{sup -2} at an applied potential of -0.10 V in air-saturated electrolytes.

  2. Determination of dopamine in presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid using poly (Spands Reagent) modified carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veera Manohara Reddy, Y; Prabhakara Rao, V; Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy, A; Lavanya, M; Venu, M; Lavanya, M; Madhavi, G

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we have fabricated a modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) by electropolymerisation of spands reagent (SR) onto surface of CPE using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The developed electrode was abbreviated as poly(SR)/CPE and the surface morphology of the modified electrode was studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The developed electrode showed higher electrocatalytic properties towards the detection of dopamine (DA) in 0.1M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH7.0. The effect of pH, scan rate, accumulation time and concentration of dopamine was studied at poly(SR)/CPE. The poly(SR)/CPE was successfully used as a sensor for the selective determination of DA in presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) without any interference. The poly(SR)/CPE showed a good detection limit of 0.7 μM over the linear dynamic range of 1.6 μM to 16 μM, which is extremely lower than the reported methods. The prepared poly(SR)/CPE exhibited good stability, high sensitivity, better reproducibility, low detection limit towards the determination of DA. The developed method was also applied for the determination of DA in real samples. PMID:26354279

  3. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of nitroimidazole derivative on multiwalled carbon nanotube modified electrodes: influence of size and functionalization of nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jara-Ulloa, Paola; Canete-Rosales, Paulina; Nunez-Vergara, Luis J; Squella, Juan A., E-mail: asquella@ciq.uchile.c [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty. Bioelectrochemistry Lab.

    2011-07-01

    1-Methyl-4-nitro-2-bromine methylimidazole (4-NimMeBr), was electrochemically reduced on mercury, glassy carbon and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) modified electrodes. 4-NimMeBr was adsorbed on the MWCNT modified electrode thus permitting the implementation of an adsorptive stripping voltammetric (ASV) method. We have used 4-NimMeBr as a prototype electroactive nitro compound to study the effect of both the size of the nanotubes and its functionalization by oxidation. The oxidized MWCNT forms better dispersions than the non-oxidized, producing electrode surface with higher density of MWCNT as was determined by electrochemical mapping using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). Under the optimized conditions, the peak current was proportional to the concentration of 4-NimMeBr in the range of 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1} to 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1} with detection and quantification limits of 4.41 x 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1} and 6.21 x 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1}, respectively. The sensibility of bare electrode was 0.01 {mu}A per mmol L{sup -1}, which was lower than the value of 5.34 and 6.97 mA per mmol L{sup -1} obtained using short and large oxidized MWCNT, respectively. (author)

  4. Electrical currents resulting from reduction/oxidation processes of tested particles on electrodes modified with metal-containing polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malev, V.V., E-mail: elchem@rbcmail.r [Department of Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University, Universitetsky pr. 26, 198504 Petergof, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tikhoretsky pr. 4, 194064 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Levin, O.V. [Department of Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University, Universitetsky pr. 26, 198504 Petergof, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-01

    Metal-containing films are considered as systems including a multitude of microelectrodes, the role of which is played by metal clusters distributed in both the film interior and film interfaces. In the case of electrode reactions occurring exclusively on the surface of such metal inclusions and the film thickness significantly exceeding clusters' radii, it is shown that the concentration of species participating in such processes (tested particles, further on) satisfies a diffusion equation complicated with an accompanying electrochemical reaction. By assuming reversibility of the electron transfer processes between polymer fragments, one can arrive at solutions of the derived equation and calculate the corresponding currents resulting from tested particles' reactions. The role of such factors of inclusion of metal clusters into conducting polymer films, as its density and inhomogeneity is discussed in the context of their influence on the measured currents of reduction/oxidation processes of tested particles. Non-stationary effects that might be observed in cycling voltammetry and potential clamp measurements with electrodes modified by metal-containing films are also analyzed. The performed analysis shows that electrochemical properties of the modified electrodes in question practically coincide with those of the electrodes made of the corresponding metals and immersed into the same solutions.

  5. Impedance spectroscopy study of a catechol-modified activated carbon electrode as active material in electrochemical capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cougnon, C.; Lebègue, E.; Pognon, G.

    2015-01-01

    Modified activated carbon (Norit S-50) electrodes with electrochemical double layer (EDL) capacitance and redox capacitance contributions to the electric charge storage were tested in 1 M H2SO4 to quantify the benefit and the limitation of the surface redox reactions on the electrochemical performances of the resulting pseudo-capacitive materials. The electrochemical performances of an electrochemically anodized carbon electrode and a catechol-modified carbon electrode, which make use both EDL capacitance of the porous structure of the carbon and redox capacitance, were compared to the performances obtained for the pristine carbon. Nitrogen gas adsorption measurements have been used for studying the impact of the grafting on the BET surface area, pore size distribution, pore volume and average pore diameter. The electrochemical behavior of carbon materials was studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EIS data were discussed by using a complex capacitance model that allows defining the characteristic time constant, the global capacitance and the frequency at which the maximum charge stored is reached. The EIS measurements were achieved at different dc potential values where a redox activity occurs and the evolution of the capacitance and the capacitive relaxation time with the electrode potential are presented. Realistic galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements performed at different current rates corroborate the results obtained by impedance.

  6. Electrocatalytic Activity and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Poly(Aniline-Co-Ortho-Phenylenediamine Modified Electrode on Ascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Parsa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The poly(aniline-co-ortho-phenylenediamine modified composite graphite (poly(Ani–co–oPDA/CG has shown excellent electrocatalytic response towards the oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA. The anodic peak potential (Epa of AA has shifted from +0.48 V (bare CG to +0.17 V (poly(Ani–co–oPDA/CG. The anodic peak currents (Ipa are linearly dependent upon the square root of scan rate indicating a favourable diffusion controlled process. The electro oxidation of AA on poly(Ani–co–oPDA/CG is more feasible in acidic medium than in either neutral or alkaline medium. This is shown by negative shift of Epa. The charge transfer resistance (Rct at the poly(Ani–co–oPDA/CG shows that the rate of the electro oxidation of AA changes with electrode potential. The Rct and diffusion process are dependant not only on applied potential and electrode material but also on the AA. The poly(aniline-co-ortho-phenylenediamine modified composite graphite (CG electrode has shown excellent electrocatalytic response towards the oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA. Charge transfer resistance (Rct at the poly(Ani–co–oPDA/CG shows that the rate of the electro oxidation of AA changes with electrode potential.

  7. Glutathione modified screen-printed carbon nanofiber electrode for the voltammetric determination of metal ions in natural samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ràfols, Clara; Serrano, Núria; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Ariño, Cristina; Esteban, Miquel

    2016-08-01

    This work reports the development of a glutathione modified electrode via electrografting on a screen-printed carbon nanofiber substrate (GSH-SPCNFE). GSH-SPCNFE was compared to a classical screen-printed carbon electrode modified with glutathione (GSH-SPCE) for the simultaneous voltammetric determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II). Their electrochemical characterization and analytical performance suggest that SPCNFE could be a much better support for GSH immobilization. The applicability of GSH-SPCNFE for the determination of low concentration levels of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions in environmental samples was successfully tested in a certified wastewater reference material by means of stripping voltammetry with a very high reproducibility and good trueness. PMID:27216650

  8. Zinc oxide modified with benzylphosphonic acids as transparent electrodes in regular and inverted organic solar cell structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Ilja; Reiter, Sina; Kniepert, Juliane; Piersimoni, Fortunato; Brenner, Thomas; Neher, Dieter, E-mail: neher@uni-potsdam.de [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Pätzel, Michael; Hildebrandt, Jana; Hecht, Stefan [Department of Chemistry and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor-Str. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-03-16

    An approach is presented to modify the work function of solution-processed sol-gel derived zinc oxide (ZnO) over an exceptionally wide range of more than 2.3 eV. This approach relies on the formation of dense and homogeneous self-assembled monolayers based on phosphonic acids with different dipole moments. This allows us to apply ZnO as charge selective bottom electrodes in either regular or inverted solar cell structures, using poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester as the active layer. These devices compete with or even surpass the performance of the reference on indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate. Our findings highlight the potential of properly modified ZnO as electron or hole extracting electrodes in hybrid optoelectronic devices.

  9. Voltammetric oxidation and determination of cinnarizine at glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Rajesh N; Hosamani, Ragunatharaddi R; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T

    2009-09-01

    The voltammetric oxidation of cinnarizine was investigated. In pH 2.5 Britton-Robinson buffer, cinnarizine shows an irreversible oxidation peak at about 1.20 V at a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-modified glassy carbon electrode. The cyclic voltammetric results indicate that MWCNT-modified glassy carbon electrode can remarkably enhance electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of cinnarizine. The electrocatalytic behavior was further exploited as a sensitive detection scheme for the cinnarizine determination by differential-pulse voltammetry. Under optimized conditions, the concentration range and detection limit are 9.0x10(-8) to 6.0x10(-6) M and 2.58x10(-9) M, respectively for cinnarizine. The proposed method was successfully applied to cinnarizine determination in pharmaceutical samples. The analytical performance of this sensor has been evaluated for the detection of analyte in urine as a real sample. PMID:19446444

  10. Ultrathin 2D Photodetectors Utilizing Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown WS2 With Graphene Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Haijie; Fan, Ye; Zhou, Yingqiu; Chen, Qu; Xu, Wenshuo; Warner, Jamie H

    2016-08-23

    In this report, graphene (Gr) is used as a 2D electrode and monolayer WS2 as the active semiconductor in ultrathin photodetector devices. All of the 2D materials are grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and thus pose as a viable route to scalability. The monolayer thickness of both electrode and semiconductor gives these photodetectors ∼2 nm thickness. We show that graphene is different to conventional metal (Au) electrodes due to the finite density of states from the Dirac cones of the valence and conduction bands, which enables the photoresponsivity to be modulated by electrostatic gating and light input control. We demonstrate lateral Gr-WS2-Gr photodetectors with photoresponsivities reaching 3.5 A/W under illumination power densities of 2.5 × 10(7) mW/cm(2). The performance of monolayer WS2 is compared to bilayer WS2 in photodetectors and we show that increased photoresponsivity is achieved in the thicker bilayer WS2 crystals due to increased optical absorption. This approach of incorporating graphene electrodes in lateral TMD based devices provides insights on the contact engineering in 2D optoelectronics, which is crucial for the development of high performing ultrathin photodetector arrays for versatile applications. PMID:27440384

  11. Influence of alkylammonium cation on multisweep cyclic voltammetry of Cu(II) on carbon paste electrode modified with montmorillonite

    OpenAIRE

    Navrátilová, Zuzana; Hranická, Zuzana

    2010-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry of Cu2+ on the carbon paste electrode modified either with montmorillonite SAz-1 or with montmorillonite SAz-1 pretreated with hexadecyltrimethylammonium cation was performed to find the hexadecyltrimethylammonium cation influence on the Cu2+ sorption. In addition, the hexadecyltrimethylammonium presence in the sorption solution was studied, too. In this case, a significant inhibition on the Cu2+ sorption was found. The inhibition is supposed to be a conse...

  12. EVALUATION OF ADSORPTION OF COPPER IONS IN THE PERLITE USING DIFFERENTIAL PULSE VOLTAMMETRY EMPLOYING A CHITOSAN MODIFIED GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE

    OpenAIRE

    NOGUEIRA, James Pyetro do Amaral; CARVALHO, Araújo Daniel; MARTINEZ-HUITLE, CarlosAlberto; FERNANDES, Nedja Suely

    2011-01-01

    In this work the perlite, an aluminosilicate constituted by 72.1% of SiO2 and 18.5% of Al2O3 was evaluated as an adsorbent of copper ions in aqueous solution using the differential pulse voltammetry technique employing a chitosan modified glassy carbon electrode (EMQ). The adsorption tests performed in the range from 5 to 30 min indicated that an adsorption of copper ions around 73% at time of 30 min was achivied.

  13. Electrochemical Method for Heavy Metals Detection by Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase Immobilized on Pt-nanoparticles Modified Graphite Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turdean G. L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The optimization and the characterization of a new amperometric biosensor based on acetylcholinestrase (AChE, immobilized on a graphite electrode modified with Pt-nanoparticles (PtNP, are reported. The G/PtNP-AChE biosensor was used for heavy metals detection. The degree of inhibition (%I, the kinetic constants of the inhibition process, as well as the influence of the PtNP presence on these parameters were estimated.

  14. Thiol anchoring and catalysis of gold nanoparticles at the liquid interface of thin-organic film-modified electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Mirceski, Valentin; Aleksovska, Angela; Pejova, Biljana; Ivanovski, Vladimir; Mitrova, Biljana; Mitreska, Nikolina; Gulaboski, Rubin

    2014-01-01

    The deposition of in-situ formed gold nanoparticles at the liquid/liquid (L/L) interface is studied by means of thin-organic-film-modified electrodes (TFE). The degree of ordering and aggregation of gold nanoparticles can be tuned by adding a lipophilic and hydrophilic thiol in the organic and aqueous phase, respectively. The ordered thiol-anchored gold nanoparticles exhibit pronounced catalytic effect toward electron-transfer reactions across the L/L interface.

  15. RuO2/Activated Carbon Composite Electrode Prepared by Modified Colloidal Procedure and Thermal Decomposition Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Zheng, Feng; Gan, Weiping; Luo, Xun

    2016-01-01

    RuO2/activated carbon (AC) composite electrode was prepared by a modified colloidal procedure and a thermal decomposition method. The precursor for RuO2/AC was coated on tantalum sheet and annealed at 150°C to 190°C for 3 h to develop thin-film electrode. The microstructure and morphology of the RuO2/AC film were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The TGA results showed the maximum loss of RuO2/AC composite film at 410°C, with residual RuO2 of 23.17 wt.%. The amorphous phase structure of the composite was verified by XRD analysis. SEM analysis revealed that fine RuO2 particles were dispersed in an activated carbon matrix after annealing. The electrochemical properties of RuO2/AC electrode were examined by cycling voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and cyclic behavior measurements. The specific capacitance of RuO2/AC electrode reached 245 F g-1. The cyclic behavior of RuO2/AC electrode was stable. Optimal annealing was achieved at 170°C for 3 h.

  16. Highly efficient adsorption of chlorophenols onto chemically modified chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Liang-Chun [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); National Center for Packaging Material Quality Supervision and Inspection, Chengdu Institute of Product Quality Supervision and Inspection, Chengdu 610064 (China); Meng, Xiang-Guang, E-mail: mengxgchem@163.com [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Fu, Jing-Wei [National Center for Packaging Material Quality Supervision and Inspection, Chengdu Institute of Product Quality Supervision and Inspection, Chengdu 610064 (China); Yang, Yu-Chong; Yang, Peng; Mi, Chun [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2014-02-15

    A novel chemically modified chitosan CS-SA-CD with phenol and β-cyclodextrin groups was prepared. The adsorptions of phenol, 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) on the functional chitosan from aqueous solution were investigated. CS-SA-CD exhibited excellent adsorption ability for chlorophenols especially for DCP and TCP. The maximum adsorption capacities of phenol, 2-CP, 4-CP, DCP and TCP on CS-SA-CD were 59.74, 70.52, 96.43, 315.46 and 375.94 mg/g, respectively. The scanning electron microscope and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analyses revealed that the introduction of phenol group changed the surface morphology and surface properties of chitosan. The modified chitosan CS-SA-CD possesses larger surface areas (4.72 m{sup 2}/g), pore volume (7.29 × 10{sup −3} mL/g) and average pore diameter (59.99 Å) as compared to those of chitosan 3.27 m{sup 2}/g, 2.00 × 10{sup −3} mL/g and 15.95 Å, respectively. The enhanced adsorption of chlorophenols was also attributed to the interaction of hydrogen bond between Cl atom and -OH group. The adsorption of chlorophenols on CS-SA-CD followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Adsorbent could be regenerated easily and the regenerated CS-SA-CD remained 80–91% adsorption efficiency.

  17. A reagentless non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor presented using electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutyala, Sankararao; Mathiyarasu, Jayaraman

    2016-12-01

    Herein, we report a simple, facile and reproducible non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor using electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The modified electrode was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV-Visible, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) analysis revealed that ERGO/GCE exhibited virtuous charge transfer properties for a standard redox systems and showed excellent performance towards electroreduction of H2O2. Amperometric study using ERGO/GCE showed high sensitivity (0.3μA/μM) and faster response upon the addition of H2O2 at an applied potential of -0.25V vs. Ag/AgCl. The detection limit is assessed to be 0.7μM (S/N=3) and the time to reach a stable study state current is <3s for a linear range of H2O2 concentration (1-16μM). In addition, the modified electrode exhibited good reproducibility and long-term stability. PMID:27612728

  18. Electrochemistry and determination of epinephrine using a mesoporous Al-incorporated SiO{sub 2} modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Yanhong; Yang Jinquan [Department of Chemistry, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wu Kangbing [Department of Chemistry, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)], E-mail: kbwu@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2008-05-30

    The potential application of Al-incorporated mesoporous SiO{sub 2} (denoted as Al-MCM-41) in electrochemistry as a novel electrode material was investigated. The peak currents of K{sub 3}[Fe(CN){sub 6}] remarkably increase and the peak potential separation obviously decreases at the mesoporous Al-MCM-41 modified carbon paste electrode (CPE). These phenomena suggest that the mesoporous Al-MCM-41 modified CPE possesses larger electrode area and electron transfer rate constant. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of epinephrine (EP) was investigated in different supporting electrolytes such as 0.01 mol L{sup -1} HClO{sub 4} and pH 7.0 phosphate buffer. It is found that the mesoporous Al-MCM-41 modified CPE exhibits catalytic ability to the oxidation of EP due to remarkable peak current enhancement and negative shift of peak potential. The electrochemical oxidation mechanism was also discussed. Finally, a novel electrochemical method was proposed for the determination of EP, which used to determine EP in urine samples.

  19. Electrochemistry and determination of epinephrine using a mesoporous Al-incorporated SiO{sub 2} modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yanhong; Yang, Jinquan; Wu, Kangbing [Department of Chemistry, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2008-05-30

    The potential application of Al-incorporated mesoporous SiO{sub 2} (denoted as Al-MCM-41) in electrochemistry as a novel electrode material was investigated. The peak currents of K{sub 3}[Fe(CN){sub 6}] remarkably increase and the peak potential separation obviously decreases at the mesoporous Al-MCM-41 modified carbon paste electrode (CPE). These phenomena suggest that the mesoporous Al-MCM-41 modified CPE possesses larger electrode area and electron transfer rate constant. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of epinephrine (EP) was investigated in different supporting electrolytes such as 0.01 mol L{sup -1} HClO{sub 4} and pH 7.0 phosphate buffer. It is found that the mesoporous Al-MCM-41 modified CPE exhibits catalytic ability to the oxidation of EP due to remarkable peak current enhancement and negative shift of peak potential. The electrochemical oxidation mechanism was also discussed. Finally, a novel electrochemical method was proposed for the determination of EP, which used to determine EP in urine samples. (author)

  20. The electrochemical preparation of FAD/ZnO with hemoglobin film-modified electrodes and their electroanalytical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuo-Chiang; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2006-03-15

    Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-modified zinc oxide self-assembly films were prepared using repeated cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical reaction of the hemoglobin with the FAD/ZnO self-assembly film-modified electrodes and their electrocatalytic properties were investigated. This paper describes the successful loading of the electrochemically active molecules of hemoglobin and FAD along with ZnO by electrochemical method. In addition to the cyclic voltammetry, an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance was used to study the growth mechanism and the properties of the films. The FAD/zinc oxide films exhibited a single redox couple, which corresponded to the FAD redox couple. The electrocatalytic properties of the O2, H2O2, trichloroacetic acid and SO(3)2- were studied by the FAD/zinc oxide films in the absence or in the presence of hemoglobin. The electrocatalytic reduction current had been developed from the cathodic peak of the FAD/zinc oxide redox couple. The electrocatalytic process involved an interaction of hemoglobin and FAD/GC film-modified electrode to increase the electrocatalytic reduction current. The electrocatalytic reduction of O2 using the FAD/zinc oxide films was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring-disk electrode methods.

  1. Aptamer biosensor for dopamine based on a gold electrode modified with carbon nanoparticles and thionine labeled gold nanoparticles as probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a biosensor for dopamine that is based on the use of a gold electrode modified with carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) coupled to thionine labeled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) acting as signal amplifiers. The biosensor was constructed by first modifying the CNPs on the gold electrode and adsorbing the thionine on the surface of the AuNPs, and then linking the complementary strand of the dopamine aptamer to the AuNPs via gold-thiol chemistry. Next, dopamine aptamer is added and the duplex is formed on the surface. On addition of a sample containing dopamine, it will interact with aptamer and cause the release of the electrochemical probe which then will be adsorbed on the surface of the CNP-modified gold electrode and detected by differential pulse voltammetry. The current is linearly related to the concentration of dopamine in the 30 nM to 6.0 μM ranges. The detection limit is as low as 10 nM, and the RSD is 3.1 % at a 0.3 μM level (for n = 11). The protocol was successfully applied to the determination of dopamine in spiked human urine samples. We perceive that this method holds promise as a widely applicable platform for aptamer-based electrochemical detection of small molecules. (author)

  2. Electrochemical Determination of Bisphenol A with Pencil Graphite Electrodes Modified with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Fe(II) Phthalocyaninetetrasulfonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Levent; Altuntas, Muhammet; Büyüksagis, Aysel; Türk, Hayrettin; Yurdakal, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Pencil graphite electrodes modified with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Fe(II) metallophthalocyaninetetrasulfonates (MePcTSs) were investigated for an electrochemical determination of bisphenol A (BPA). The electrochemical performances of the modified electrodes for different pH values in phosphate and the Britton-Robinson buffers were determined by cyclic voltammetry; the electrode performances were better in the Britton-Robinson buffer. NiPcTS and CoPcTS modifications of the electrodes had remarkable enhancements on their performances. The differential pulse voltammetry parameters for the electrodes were optimized, and we found that the electrochemical response versus the concentration of BPA is linear from 5.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-5) M for the NiPcTS and CoPcTS modified electrodes. The detection limits of these modified electrodes are 2.9 × 10(-7) and 4.3 × 10(-7) M, respectively, and the effects of interfering species are less than 5%. The results show that NiPcTS and CoPcTS modified pencil graphite electrodes could be used for electrochemical determinations of BPA for analytical purposes. PMID:27506715

  3. A nano-structured Ni(II)–chelidamic acid modified gold nanoparticle self-assembled electrode for electrocatalytic oxidation and determination of methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nano-structured Ni(II)–chelidamic acid (2,6-dicarboxy-4-hydroxypyridine) film was electrodeposited on a gold nanoparticle–cysteine–gold electrode. The morphology of Ni(II)–chelidamic acid gold nanoparticle self‐assembled electrode was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol on the surface of modified electrode was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry methods. The hydrodynamic amperometry at a rotating modified electrode at constant potential versus reference electrode was used for detection of methanol. Under optimized conditions the calibration plots are linear in the concentration range 0–50 mM with a detection limit of 15 μM. The formed matrix in our work possessed a 3D porous network structure with a large effective surface area, high catalytic activity and behaved like microelectrode ensembles. The modified electrode indicated reproducible behavior and a high level stability during the experiments, making it particularly suitable for analytical purposes. - Highlights: ► The Au electrode modified with thin Ni(II)/CHE-AuNP film shows stable and reproducible behavior. ► Long stability and excellent electrochemical reversibility were observed. ► This modified electrode shows excellent catalytic activity for methanol oxidation. ► Combination of unique properties of AuNP and Ni(II)/CHE resulted in improvement of current responses.

  4. Electroenzymatic Reactions With Oxygen on Laccase-Modified Electrodes in Anhydrous (Pure) Organic Solvent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yarapolov, A.; Shleev, S.; Zaitseva, E.;

    2007-01-01

    glassy carbon and graphite electrodes with adsorbed laccase. The influence of the time for drying the laccase solution at the electrode surface on the electroreduction of oxygen was studied. Investigating the electroenzymatic oxidation reaction of catechol and hydroquinone in DMSO reveals the formation...

  5. Pulse electroanalysis at gold-gold micro-trench electrodes: chemical signal filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Sara E C; Marken, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Bipotentiostatic control of micro- and nano-trench sensor systems provides new opportunities for enhancing signals (employing feedback currents) and for improved selectivity (by "chemical filtering"). In this study both phenomena are exploited with a gold-gold micro-trench electrode with ca. 70 microm width and ca. 800 microm trench depth. In "generator-collector mode", feedback current enhancement is demonstrated for the hydroquinone/ benzoquinone redox system. Next, a "modulator-sensor mode" experiment is developed in which one electrode potential is stepped into the negative potential region (employing the normal pulse voltammetry method) to induce an oscillating pH change locally in the micro-trench. The resulting shift in the hydroquinone/benzoquinone reversible potential causes a Faradaic sensor signal (employing chronoamperometry). This method provides a "chemical filter" by selecting pH-sensitive redox processes only, and by showing enhanced sensitivity in the region of low buffer capacity. The results for the chemically reversible hydroquinone/benzoquinone system are contrasted to the detection of the chemically irreversible ammonia oxidation.

  6. Highly sensitive sensor for picomolar detection of insulin at physiological pH, using GC electrode modified with guanine and electrodeposited nickel oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Abdollah; Noorbakhash, Abdollah; Sharifi, Ensieh; Semnani, Abolfazl

    2008-12-01

    The electrochemical behavior of insulin at glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with nickel oxide nanoparticles and guanine was investigated. Cyclic voltammetry technique has been used for electrodeposition of nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiOx) and immobilization of guanine on the surface GC electrode. In comparison to glassy carbon electrode modified with nickel oxide nanoparticles and bare GC electrode modified with adsorbed guanine, the guanine/nickel oxide nanoparticles/modified GC electrode exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the oxidation of insulin in physiological pH solutions at reduced overpotential. The modified electrode was applied for insulin detection using cyclic voltammetry or hydrodynamic amperometry techniques. It was found that the calibration curve was linear up to 4muM with a detection limit of 22pM and sensitivity of 100.9pA/pM under the optimized condition for hydrodynamic amperometry using a rotating disk modified electrode. In comparison to other electrochemical insulin sensors, this sensor shows many advantages such as simple preparation method without using any special electron transfer mediator or specific reagent, high sensitivity, excellent catalytic activity at physiological pH values, short response time, long-term stability and remarkable antifouling property toward insulin and its oxidation product. Additionally, it is promising for the monitoring of insulin in chromatographic effluents.

  7. Enzyme entrapment by β-cyclodextrin electropolymerization onto a carbon nanotubes-modified screen-printed electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Ángeles, G; Guix, M; Silva, W C; Ramírez-Silva, M T; Palomar-Pardavé, M; Romero-Romo, M; Merkoçi, A

    2010-12-15

    A novel enzyme entrapment approach based on an electropolymerization process utilizing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and glucose oxidase (GOx) is shown. Dopamine (DA) quantification is presented using a screen-printed electrode modified by electropolymerization of cyclodextrin with glucose oxidase, SPE/MWCNT/β-CD-GOx. In order to show the relevance of the enzyme entrapment strategy controlled by electropolymerization to develop a specific and efficient biosensor, the various parts composing the electrode: SPE, SPE/β-CD, SPE/GOx, SPE/β-CD/GOx, SPE/MWCNT/β-CD, SPE/MWCNT/GOx and SPE/MWCNT/β-CD/GOx were tested separately. It was shown that although DA determination can be achieved with all of them, the electrodes modified with MWCNT presented better analytical features that those built without MWCNT, the best being the one including all components. This biosensor displayed good reproducibility, repeatability, and prolonged life-time under cold storage conditions. Its DA limit of detection (LOD) was 0.48±0.02 μA in a linear range of 10-50 μM with a sensitivity of 0.0302±0.0003 μA μM(-1) that makes it comparable or even better than many other electrodes reported in the literature. Moreover, it was also shown that using this electrode, DA quantification can be done in the presence of interfering agents such as ascorbic and uric acid. These findings demonstrate that the approach employed is feasible for enzyme entrapment and may find applications in other biosensing systems, where better sensitivity, stability and fast response are required. PMID:20863684

  8. Determination of dopamine in presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid using poly (Spands Reagent) modified carbon paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we have fabricated a modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) by electropolymerisation of spands reagent (SR) onto surface of CPE using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The developed electrode was abbreviated as poly(SR)/CPE and the surface morphology of the modified electrode was studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The developed electrode showed higher electrocatalytic properties towards the detection of dopamine (DA) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.0. The effect of pH, scan rate, accumulation time and concentration of dopamine was studied at poly(SR)/CPE. The poly(SR)/CPE was successfully used as a sensor for the selective determination of DA in presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) without any interference. The poly(SR)/CPE showed a good detection limit of 0.7 μM over the linear dynamic range of 1.6 μM to 16 μM, which is extremely lower than the reported methods. The prepared poly(SR)/CPE exhibited good stability, high sensitivity, better reproducibility, low detection limit towards the determination of DA. The developed method was also applied for the determination of DA in real samples. - Highlights: • Electropolymerization of spands reagent was fabricated by cyclic voltammetry • The Poly (spands reagent) electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic activity for the detection of dopamine. • The detection limit for dopamine was found to be 0.7 μM. • The proposed method can be applied for DA in injection and human blood serum samples

  9. Determination of dopamine in presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid using poly (Spands Reagent) modified carbon paste electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veera Manohara Reddy, Y.; Prabhakara Rao, V.; Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy, A.; Lavanya, M.; Venu, M.; Lavanya, M.; Madhavi, G., E-mail: gmchem01@gmail.com

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we have fabricated a modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) by electropolymerisation of spands reagent (SR) onto surface of CPE using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The developed electrode was abbreviated as poly(SR)/CPE and the surface morphology of the modified electrode was studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The developed electrode showed higher electrocatalytic properties towards the detection of dopamine (DA) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.0. The effect of pH, scan rate, accumulation time and concentration of dopamine was studied at poly(SR)/CPE. The poly(SR)/CPE was successfully used as a sensor for the selective determination of DA in presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) without any interference. The poly(SR)/CPE showed a good detection limit of 0.7 μM over the linear dynamic range of 1.6 μM to 16 μM, which is extremely lower than the reported methods. The prepared poly(SR)/CPE exhibited good stability, high sensitivity, better reproducibility, low detection limit towards the determination of DA. The developed method was also applied for the determination of DA in real samples. - Highlights: • Electropolymerization of spands reagent was fabricated by cyclic voltammetry • The Poly (spands reagent) electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic activity for the detection of dopamine. • The detection limit for dopamine was found to be 0.7 μM. • The proposed method can be applied for DA in injection and human blood serum samples.

  10. Electrocatalytic oxidation behavior of L-cysteine at Pt microparticles modified nanofibrous polyaniline film electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Song-jiang; LUO Sheng-lian; ZHOU Hai-hui; KUANG Ya-fei; NING Xiao-hui

    2008-01-01

    Platinum(Pt)/nanofibrous polyaniline(PANI) electrode was prepared by pulse galvanostatic method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behavior of L-cysteine at the Pt/nanofibrous PANI electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The results indicate that the pH value of the solution and the Pt loading of the electrode have great effect on the electrocatalytic property of the Pt/nanofibrous PANI electrode; the suitable Pt loading of the electrode is 600 μg/cm2 and the suitable pH value of the solution is 4.5 for investigating L-cysteine oxidation. The L-cysteine sensor based on the Pt/nanofibrous PANI electrode has a good selectivity, reproducibility and stability. The Pt/nanofibrous PANI electrode is highly sensitive to L-cysteine, and the linear calibration curve for the oxidation of L-cysteine can be observed in the range of 0.2-5.0 mmol/L.

  11. Enhanced electrochemical stability of all-polymer redox supercapacitors with modified polypyrrole electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, A.M.P.; Kumar, A. [Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur 784 028, Assam (India)

    2006-10-27

    Redox supercapacitors are attracting increasing attention as high power electrochemical sources and can either be coupled with batteries to provide peak power or replace batteries for memory back-up. In the present work, all-polymer solid-state supercapacitors with LiClO{sub 4} and LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} doped polypyrrole electrodes and P(VDF-HFP)-PMMA based polymer gel electrolyte are fabricated. The polypyrrole electrodes are irradiated with 160MeV Ni{sup 12+} ions at 5x10{sup 10}, 5x10{sup 11} and 5x10{sup 12}ionscm{sup -2}. A comparative study is made between unirradiated and irradiated supercapacitors with polypyrrole-based electrodes. An average capacitance of about 200Fgm{sup -1} is obtained. On successive charging and discharging, the capacitance decreases for supercapacitors with unirradiated electrodes but remains stable when irradiated electrodes are used. In addition, the capacitance is slightly decreased compared with that for unirradiated electrodes. Charge-discharge studies show a decrease in total charge-discharge time for supercapacitors with irradiated electrodes. The capacitance values calculated from cyclic voltammograms are higher than those determined from charge-discharge plots due to the added contribution of a leakage current. The coulombic efficiency of all the supercapacitors is about 90%. (author)

  12. Combined voltammetric and spectroscopic investigation of binding interaction between nifedipine and human serum albumin on polyelectrolyte modified ITO electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The polyelectrolyte coated ITO surface was used as working electrode. • HSA was bounded onto modified electrode surface. • The interaction of nifedipine with HSA was studied. • Electrochemical and fluorescence techniques were used for characterization. -- Abstract: The binding interaction between the drug molecule, nifedipine (Nf), and the human serum albumin (HSA) on polyelectrolyte modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode has been investigated by the combination of electrochemical and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. Surface modification has also been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Contact Angle (CA) measurements in each step. The cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance parameters (peak potential difference (ΔEp)), peak current difference (ΔIp) and charge-transfer resistance (Rct) indicate that nifedipine strongly interacted with human serum albumin molecule on the polyelectrolyte modified ITO electrode surface. Stern–Volmer quenching constant Ka is inversely correlated with the temperature, which indicates that the probable quenching mechanism of the nifedipine-human serum albumin binding reaction is initiated by complex formation. The results obtained from these techniques showed that Nf could bind to HSA. The binding constant (Kb) and the number of binding sites (n) of the drug with HSA at different temperatures were determined. At 298 K, Kb was found as 4.04 × 10−3 and n was 1.08 for Nf-HSA. According to the van’t Hoff equation, the thermodynamic parameters, ΔG, ΔH and ΔS, were obtained, showing the involvement of hydrophobic and electrostatic force in this interaction

  13. Determination of Diclofenac on a Dysprosium Nanowire- Modified Carbon Paste Electrode Accomplished in a Flow Injection System by Advanced Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Moosavi-Movahedi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A new detection technique called Fast Fourier Transform Square-Wave Voltammetry (FFT SWV is based on measurements of electrode admittance as a function of potential. The response of the detector (microelectrode, which is generated by a redox processes, is fast, which makes the method suitable for most applications involving flowing electrolytes. The carbon paste electrode was modified by nanostructures to improve sensitivity. Synthesized dysprosium nanowires provide a more effective nanotube-like surface [1-4] so they are good candidates for use as a modifier for electrochemical reactions. The redox properties of diclofenac were used for its determination in human serum and urine samples. The support electrolyte that provided a more defined and intense peak current for diclofenac determination was a 0.05 mol L−1 acetate buffer pH = 4.0. The drug presented an irreversible oxidation peak at 850 mV vs. Ag/AgCl on a modified nanowire carbon paste electrode which produced high current and reduced the oxidation potential by about 100 mV. Furthermore, the signal-to-noise ratio was significantly increased by application of a discrete Fast Fourier Transform (FFT method, background subtraction and two-dimensional integration of the electrode response over a selected potential range and time window. To obtain the much sensivity the effective parameters such as frequency, amplitude and pH was optimized. As a result, CDL of 2.0 × 10−9 M and an LOQ of 5.0 × 10−9 M were found for the determination for diclofenac. A good recovery was obtained for assay spiked urine samples and a good quantification of diclofenac was achieved in a commercial formulation.

  14. Improving the detection of hydrogen peroxide of screen-printed carbon paste electrodes by modifying with nonionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chiun-Jye; Wang, Yen-Chi; Reiko, Ohara

    2009-10-19

    Nonionic surfactants, such as Triton X-100 and Tween-20, were shown in this study to improve the electrocatalytic activity of screen-printed carbon paste electrodes (SPCE). The electrochemical response of SPCE to hydrogen peroxide increased 8-10-fold with the modification of nonionic surfactants. In addition, the glucose biosensors fabricated from nonionic surfactant-modified SPCE exhibited 6.4-8.6-fold higher response to glucose than that fabricated from unmodified SPCE. A concentration effect is proposed for nonionic surfactant to bring neutral reactants to the surface of electrode. Moreover, nonionic surfactant-modified SPCE exhibits a capability of repetitive usage and good reproducibility (R.S.D.<5%) in the measurement of H(2)O(2). Interestingly, the nonionic surfactant-modified SPCE exhibited an opposite effect to ascorbic acid, a common electroactive agent, which causes interference during clinical diagnosis. The differential responses of nonionic surfactant-modified SPCE to H(2)O(2) and ascorbic acid suggest its potential in the development of biosensors for clinical diagnosis. PMID:19800476

  15. Covalent attachment of thionine onto gold electrode modified with cadmium sulfide nanoparticles: Improvement of electrocatalytic and photelectrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly developed strategy based on gold (Au) electrode modified with cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdSnp) and thionine (Th) was proposed toward electrocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) reduction. At first, a thin film of CdS nanoparticles was electrodeposited onto Au electrode. Then, the CdS/Au electrode was modified with mercaptoacetic acid (MAA), which not only acts as a stabilizing agent to prevent the chalcogenide CdS nanocrystals from aggregation but also as a linker for subsequent attachment of Th onto the CdS nanoparticles. The effective covalent immobilization of Th was achieved through amide bond formation reaction between -NH2 groups of Th and -COOH groups of MAA, using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as condensation agent. The Au/CdS/Th modified electrode showed a well-defined redox couple with surface confined characteristics at wide pH range (2–12). The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) and the surface coverage of immobilized Th on the modified electrode was obtained as 0.12 s−1 and 4.35 × 10−9 mole cm−2, respectively. The electrocatalytic activity and stability of the modified electrode toward hydrogen peroxide reduction was investigated and it was found that the Au/CdS/Th electrode illustrates excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H2O2 reduction at reduced overpotential. The detection limit, sensitivity and catalytic rate constant (kcat) of the modified electrode toward H2O2 were 55 nM, 3.4 μA μM−1 cm−2 and 3.75 (±0.1) × 103 M−1 s−1, respectively, at linear concentration range up to 10 mM. Upon light irradiation, about two-fold improvements were attained in sensitivity and detection limit of the modified electrode toward H2O2 electrocatalytic determination

  16. Fabrication of ZnO Nanorod Modified Electrode and Its Application to the Direct Electrochemical Determination of Hemoglobin and Cytochrome c

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成林; 刘梅川; 李平; 鲜跃仲; 程欲晓; 张芬芬; 王晓丽; 金利通

    2005-01-01

    A novel electrochemical method as a sensitive and convenient technique for the determination of heme proteins based on their interaction with ZnO nanorods was developed. A ZnO nanorod modified glassy carbon electrode (ZnO/GCE) was prepared and the electrochemical behaviors of heme proteins, such as hemoglobin (HB) and cytochrome c (Cyt-c), on this modified electrode have been studied. The results showed that both HB and Cyt-c could be oxidized on the modified electrode and the oxidation currents were linear to the concentrations of the analytes in aqueous solutions. In addition, the results of flow injection analysis (FIA) further suggested the high stability and reproducibility of the ZnO nanorod modified electrode. So this method can be applied to the determination of HB and Cyt-c in biological systems.

  17. A novel non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor based on single walled carbon nanotubes-manganese complex modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salimi, Abdollah, E-mail: absalimi@uok.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdioun, Monierosadat; Noorbakhsh, Abdollah [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdolmaleki, Amir [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156/83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghavami, Raoof [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-03-30

    A simple procedure was developed to prepare a glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and phenazine derivative of Mn-complex. With immersing the GC/CNTs modified electrode into Mn-complex solution for a short period of time 20-100 s, a stable thin layer of the complex was immobilized onto electrode surface. Modified electrode showed a well defined redox couples at wide pH range (1-12). The surface coverages and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k{sub s}) of immobilized Mn-complex were approximately 1.58 x 10{sup -10} mole cm{sup -2} and 48.84 s{sup -1}. The modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reduction. Detection limit, sensitivity, linear concentration range and k{sub cat} for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were, 0.2 {mu}M and 692 nA {mu}M{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, 1 {mu}M to 1.5 mM and 7.96({+-}0.2) x 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. Compared to other modified electrodes, this electrode has many advantageous such as remarkable catalytic activity, good reproducibility, simple preparation procedure and long term stability.

  18. Sensitive electrochemical sensor of tryptophan based on Ag-C core-shell nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Shuxian [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Li Weifeng, E-mail: liweifeng@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Long Yumei, E-mail: yumeilong@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Tu Yifeng; Deng, Anping [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2012-08-13

    Graphical abstract: Ag-C and Colloidal carbon sphere modified glassy carbon electrodes were prepared. It was clear that the Ag-C/GCE exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards Trp, which could result from the synergistic effect between Ag core and carbon shell. The Ag-C/GCE showed excellent analytical properties in the determination of Trp. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrochemical behavior of Ag-C core-shell nanocomposite was firstly proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-C/GC electrode exhibited favorable electrocatalytic properties towards Trp. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The good electrocatalysis was due to the synergistic effect of Ag-core and C-shell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ag-C/GC electrode displayed excellent analytical properties in determining Trp. - Abstract: We here reported a simple electrochemical method for the detection of tryptophan (Trp) based on the Ag-C modified glassy carbon (Ag-C/GC) electrode. The Ag-C core-shell structured nanoparticles were synthesized using one-pot hydrothermal method and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The electrochemical behaviors of Trp on Ag-C/GC electrode were investigated and exhibited a direct electrochemical process. The favorable electrochemical properties of Ag-C/GC electrode were attributed to the synergistic effect of the Ag core and carbon shell. The carbon shell cannot only protect Ag core but also contribute to the enhanced substrate accessibility and Trp-substrate interactions, while nano-Ag core can display good electrocatalytic activity to Trp at the same time. Under the optimum experimental conditions the oxidation peak current was linearly dependent on the Trp concentration in the range of 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} to 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M with a detection limit of 4.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} M (S/N = 3). In addition

  19. Glucose Biosensor Based on a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Polythionine and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Wenwei Tang; Lei Li; Lujun Wu; Jiemin Gong; Xinping Zeng

    2014-01-01

    A novel glucose biosensor was fabricated. The first layer of the biosensor was polythionine, which was formed by the electrochemical polymerisation of the thionine monomer on a glassy carbon electrode. The remaining layers were coated with chitosan-MWCNTs, GOx, and the chitosan-PTFE film in sequence. The MWCNTs embedded in FAD were like "conductive wires" connecting FAD with electrode, reduced the distance between them and were propitious to fast direct electron transfer. Combining with good ...

  20. Direct Electrochemistry of Cytochrome bo Oxidase at a series of Gold Nanoparticles-Modified Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Frederic; Meyer, Thomas; Lankiang, Styven; Choi, Sylvia K; Gennis, Robert B; Blanck, Christian; Schmutz, Marc; Hellwig, Petra

    2013-01-01

    New membrane-protein based electrodes were prepared incorporating cytochrome bo(3) from E. coli and gold nanoparticles. Direct electron transfer between the electrode and the immobilized enzymes was achieved, resulting in an electrocatalytic activity in presence of O(2). The size of the gold nanoparticles was shown to be important and smaller particles were shown to reduce the overpotential of the process. PMID:23335854

  1. Carbon Based Electrodes Modified with Horseradish Peroxidase Immobilized in Conducting Polymers for Acetaminophen Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Cristea; Robert Sandulescu; Anca Florea; Mihaela Tertis

    2013-01-01

    The development and optimization of new biosensors with horseradish peroxidase immobilized in carbon nanotubes-polyethyleneimine or polypyrrole nanocomposite film at the surface of two types of transducer is described. The amperometric detection of acetaminophen was carried out at −0.2 V versus Ag/AgCl using carbon based-screen printed electrodes (SPEs) and glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) as transducers. The electroanalytical parameters of the biosensors are highly dependent on their configur...

  2. Determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical preparation and fruit juice using modified carbon paste electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Žabčíková; Dai Long Vu; Libor Červenka; Vojtěch Tambor; Martina Vašatová

    2016-01-01

    Acrobic acid is key substance in the human metabolism and the rapid and accurate determination in food is of a great interest. Ascorbic acid is an electroactive compound, however poorly responded on the bare carbon paste electrodes. In this paper, brilliant cresyl blue and multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used for the modification of carbon paste electrode. Brilliant cresyl blue acts as a mediator improving the transition of electrons, whereas multiwalled carbon nanotubes increased the surf...

  3. Electrochemical Characterization and Determination of Phenol and Chlorophenols by Voltammetry at Single Wall Carbon Nanotube/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Modified Screen Printed Carbon Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Negash, Negussie; Alemu, Hailemichael; Tessema, Merid

    2015-01-01

    Screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) has been modified with single wall carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) composites for the determination of phenol and chlorophenols (phenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol). The effect of the modifiers on the electrode characteristics was evaluated and the responses were optimized for the voltammetric determination of phenol and chlorophenols. The parameters affecting the responses such as pH, sca...

  4. Amperometric sensing of anti-HIV drug zidovudine on Ag nanofilm-multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafati, Amir Abbas, E-mail: aa_rafati@basu.ac.ir; Afraz, Ahmadreza

    2014-06-01

    The zidovudine (ZDV) is the first drug approved for the treatment of HIV virus infection. The detection and determination of this drug are very importance in human serum because of its undesirable effects. A new ZDV sensor was fabricated on the basis of nanocomposite of silver nanofilm (Ag-NF) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) immobilized on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The modified electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) techniques. Results showed that the electrodeposited silver has a nanofilm structure and further electrochemical studies showed that the prepared nanocomposite has high electrocatalytic activity and is appropriate for using in sensors. The amperometric technique under optimal conditions is used for the determination of ZDV ranging from 0.1 to 400 ppm (0.37 μM–1.5 mM) with a low detection limit of 0.04 ppm (0.15 μM) (S/N = 3) and good sensitivity. The prepared sensor possessed accurate and rapid response to ZDV and shows an average recovery of 98.6% in real samples. - Highlights: • New anti-HIV drug sensor was fabricated on the basis of nanomaterials composite. • The GCE modified by prepared hydrophilic MWCNT silver nanoparticles. • Silver nanofilm electrodeposited on MWCNT/GCE and characterized by SEM, EDX, CV and LSV • Response of electrode to ZDV was thoroughly investigated by electrochemical techniques.

  5. Determination of 4-aminophenol using a glassy carbon electrode modified with a three-dimensionally ordered macroporous film of polycysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) film of polycysteine (poly-Cys) was used to modify a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to result in a sensor for 4-aminophenol. The new electrode was used to study the behavior of 4-aminophenol by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. In comparison to a bare GCE and a GCE modified with poly-Cys without using template, this electrode displays a larger peak current which may be attributed to the structure of poly-Cys and the large surface area of the macroporous structure. The anodic peak current at a working voltage of 195 mV is linearly related to the concentration of 4-aminophenol in two concentration intervals: 0.02 to 20 μM and 20 to 200 μM, respectively. The detection limit is 8 nM (at an S/N ratio of 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of 4-aminophenol in spiked water samples. (author)

  6. Electrocatalytic sensing of hydrogen peroxide using a screen printed carbon electrode modified with nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have synthesized nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons (N-GrNRs) by unzipping multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under strongly oxidizing conditions and subsequent doping with nitrogen by a low-temperature hydrothermal method. The N-GNRs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, and assembled on a disposable screen-printed carbon electrode to give a sensor for H2O2 that was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, chronocoulometry and chronoamperometry. The nano-modified electrode displays enhanced electron transfer ability, and has a large active surface and a large number of catalytically active sites that originate from the presence of nitrogen atoms. This results in a catalytic activity towards H2O2 reduction at near-neutral pH values that is distinctly improved compared to electrodes modified with CNTs or unzipped (non-doped) CNTs only. At a working potential of −0.4 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), the amperometric responses to H2O2 cover the 5 to 2785 μM concentration range, with a limit of detection as low as 1.72 μM. This enzyme-free electrochemical sensor exhibits outstanding selectivity and long-term stability for H2O2 detection. (author)

  7. A Metal Matrix CNTS Modified Electrode Fabricated Using Micromachining-Based Implantation Method for Improving Sensitivity and Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal matrix carbon nanotubes modified electrode (MCME has been fabricated by a novel process involving preparation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs/polyimide (PI composite film, wet, etching, sputtering, electroplating, and wet-etch releasing. Pretreated CNTs are dispersed in PI by mechanical ball milling and then CNTs solution is spin-coated on the substrate. The CNTs/PI composite film is etched away a layer of PI to expose tips of CNTs using buffering solution. These exposed tips of CNTs are covered by metal particles in sputtering process as metal seed layer, followed by metal supporting film formed by electroplating. The MCME is obtained after releasing PI film from the metal supporting film. The MCME shows well morphology of uniform distributional protruding tips of CNTs and increased electron transfer efficiency with strong bonding connection between CNTs and metal matrix, which greatly improves sensitivity and stability of the MCME. The oxidation peak of the MCME in cyclic voltammeter (CV test is 1.7 times more than that of CNTs suspension spin-coated metal electrode (SCME. The decline of peak current of the MCME after fifty cycles is only 1.8% much less than 67% of the SCME. Better sensitivity and stability may be helpful for CNTs modified electrodes wide application for trace test of many special materials.

  8. Amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide based on Hemoglobin/DNA/Poly-2,6-pyridinediamine modified gold electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong Zhongqiang [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yuan Ruo [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)], E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn; Chai Yaqin; Chen Shihong; Xie Yi [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2007-07-31

    An amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was fabricated based on immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) on DNA/Poly-2,6-pyridinediamine (PPD) modified Au electrode. PPD thin films were firstly electro-deposited on Au electrode surface which provide a template to attach negatively charged DNA molecules by electrostatic attraction. The adsorbed DNA network provides a good microenvironment for the immobilization of biomolecules and promotes electron transfer between the immobilized Hb and the electrode surface. The fabrication process of the biosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Experimental conditions influencing the biosensor performance such as pH, potential and temperature were assessed and optimized. The proposed biosensor displayed a good electrocatalytic response to the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, its linear range is 1.7 {mu}M to 3 mM with a detection limit of 1.0 {mu}M based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3 (S/N = 3) under the optimized conditions. The Michaelis-Menten constant K{sub m}{sup app} of Hb immobilized on the electrode surface was found to be 0.8 mM. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and stability. Importantly, this deposition methodology could be further developed for the immobilization of other proteins and biocompounds.

  9. Enhancing the Scratch Resistance by Introducing Chemical Bonding in Highly Stretchable and Transparent Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chuan Fei; Chen, Yan; Tang, Lu; Wang, Feng; Ren, Zhifeng

    2016-01-13

    Stretchable transparent electrodes are key elements in flexible electronics and e-skins. However, existing stretchable transparent electrodes, including graphene sheets, carbon nanotube, and metal nanowire networks, weakly adheres to the substrate by van der Waals forces. Such electrodes suffer from poor scratch-resistance or poor durability, and this issue has been one of the biggest problems for their applications in industry. Here we show that, by introducing a Au-S bond between a Au nanomesh (AuNM) and the underlying elastomeric substrate, the AuNM strongly adheres to the substrate and can withstand scratches of a pressure of several megapascals. We find that the strong chemical bond, on the other hand, leads to a stiffening effect and localized rupture of the AuNM upon stretching; thus the stretchability is poor. A prestraining process is applied to suppress the localized rupture and has successfully improved the stretchability: electrical resistance of the prestrained AuNM exhibits modest change by one-time stretching to 160%, or repeated stretching to 50% for 25 000 cycles. This conductor is an ideal platform for robust stretchable photoelectronics. The idea of introducing a covalent bond to improve the scratch-resistance may also be applied to other systems including Ag nanowire films, carbon nanotube films, graphene, and so forth. PMID:26674364

  10. Direct Electrochemical Oxidation of NADPH at a Low Potential on the Carbon Nanotube Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN, Jing(陈静); CAI, Chen-Xin(蔡称心)

    2004-01-01

    NADPH can be directly oxidized on a carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon (CNT/GC) electrode in phosphate buffer solution (pH=6.0) with a diminution of the overpotential of more than 700 mV. The anodic peak currents increase linearly with the increase of concentration of NADPH in the range of 5×10-7 to 1×10-3 mol/L with a detection limit of about 1×10-7 mol/L. The CNT/GC electrode exhibits high sensitivity, low potential and stability in detecting NADPH and thus might be used in biosensors to study the electrocatalytic reaction of important dehydrogenase-based biological systems.

  11. Kinetic Study of the Electro-Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrazine on Cobalt Hydroxide Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HASANZADEH,Mohammad; KARIM-NEZHAD,Ghasem; SHADJOU,Nasrin; KHALILZADEH,Balal; SAGHATFOROUSH,Lotali; ERSHAD,Sohrab; KAZEMAN,Isa

    2009-01-01

    Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine was investigated on a cobalt hydroxide modified glassy carbon (CHM-GC) electrode in alkaline solution.The process of oxidation involved and its kinetics were established by using cyclic voltammetry,chronoamperometry techniques as well as steady state polarization measurements.In cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies,in the presence of hydrazine the peak current increase of the oxidation of cobalt hydroxide is followed by a decrease in the corresponding cathodic current.This indicates that hydrazine is oxidized on the redox mediator that is immobilized on the electrode surface via an electrocatalytic mechanism.A mechanism based on the electrochemical generation of Co(IV) active sites and their subsequent consumption by the hydrazine in question was also investigated.

  12. A glassy carbon electrode modified with graphene and tyrosinase immobilized on platinum nanoparticles for sensing organophosphorus pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An amperometric biosensor is described for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides. It is based on the enzyme tyrosinase immobilized on platinum nanoparticles and the use of a glassy carbon electrode modified with graphene. Tyrosinase was immobilized on the electrode surface via electrostatic interaction between a monolayer of cysteamine and the enzyme. In the presence of catechol as a substrate, the pesticides chlorpyrifos, profenofos and malathion can be determined as a result of their inhibition of the enzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to o-quinone. Platinum nanoparticles and graphene effectively enhance the efficiency of the electrochemical reduction of o-quinone, thus improving sensitivity. Under optimum experimental conditions, the inhibition effect of the pesticides investigated is proportional to their concentrations in the lower ppb-range. The detection limits are 0.2, 0.8 and 3 ppb for chlorpyrifos, profenofos and malathion, respectively. The biosensor displays good repeatability and acceptable stability. (author)

  13. Determination of Sunset Yellow using a carbon paste electrode modified with a nanostructured resorcinol-formaldehyde resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes an electrochemical sensor for the dye additive Sunset Yellow (SY). It consists of a carbon paste electrode modified with nanostructured resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin. The RF resin warrants strong signal enhancement and a strongly increased oxidation peak currents of SY at 0.66 V (vs. SCE). The effects of pH value, amount of RF polymer, accumulation potential and time were optimized. The sensor has a linear response to SY in the 0.3 to 125 nM concentration range, and the limit of detection is 0.09 nM after a 2-min accumulation time. The electrode was applied to the analysis of samples of wastewater and drinks, and the results are consistent with those obtained by HPLC. (author)

  14. Electrochemical treatment of COD in biologically pretreated coking wastewater using Ti/RuO2-IrO2 electrodes combined with modified coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xu-wen; LIU Li-yuan; GONG Jing-wen; WANG Jian-bing; QIN Qiang; WANG Hao

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical treatment of COD contained in biologically pretreated coking wastewater treated by a three-dimensional electrode system with modified coke as the particle electrode was investigated.And the electrochemical perfomance of the coke modified with various active components was studied.The results show that the coke modified with Fe(NO3)2 has the lowest energy consumption and higher COD removal rate under the same condition,and the modified coke has better surface characteristics for the purpose of this study.In addition,the kinetic constant was also calculated.The study shows that the three-dimensional electrode system with Fe(NO3)2-modified coke can give a satisfactory solution in biologically pretreated coking wastewater.

  15. A novel non-enzyme hydrogen peroxide sensor based on an electrode modified with carbon nanotube-wired CuO nanoflowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have prepared a novel sensor for hydrogen peroxide that is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with a film containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes wired to CuO nanoflowers. The nanoflowers were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, and the electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electron microscopy. The response of the modified electrode towards hydrogen peroxide was investigated by CV and chronoamperometry and showed it to exhibit high electrocatalytic activity, with a linear range from 0. 5 μM to 82 μM and a detection limit of 0. 16 μM. The sensor also displays excellent selectivity and stability. (author)

  16. Analysis of total polyphenols in wines by FIA with highly stable amperometric detection using carbon nanotube-modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Alberto Sánchez; Martínez-Fernández, Marta; Moreno, Mónica; Bermejo, Esperanza; Zapardiel, Antonio; Chicharro, Manuel

    2013-02-15

    The use of glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) films for the continuous monitoring of polyphenols in flow systems has been examined. The performance of these modified electrodes was evaluated and compared to bare GCE by cyclic voltammetry experiments and by flow injection analysis (FIA) with amperometric detection monitoring the response of gallic, caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids in 0.050 M acetate buffer pH 4.5 containing 100 mM NaCl. The GCE modified with CNT dispersions in polyethyleneimine (PEI) provided lower overpotentials, higher sensitivity and much higher signal stability under a dynamic regime than bare GCEs. These properties allowed the estimation of the total polyphenol content in red and white wines with a remarkable long-term stability in the measurements despite the presence of potential fouling substances in the wine matrix. In addition, the versatility of the electrochemical methodology allowed the selective estimation of the easily oxidisable polyphenol fraction as well as the total polyphenol content just by tuning the detection potential at +0.30 or 0.70 V, respectively. The significance of the electrochemical results was demonstrated through correlation studies with the results obtained with conventional spectrophotometric assays for polyphenols (Folin-Ciocalteu, absorbance at 280 nm index and colour intensity index).

  17. Electrocatalytic oxidation and determination of insulin at nickel oxide nanoparticles-multiwalled carbon nanotube modified screen printed electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Banafsheh; Fakhari, Ali Reza

    2013-08-15

    Nickel oxide nanoparticles modified nafion-multiwalled carbon nanotubes screen printed electrode (NiONPs/Nafion-MWCNTs/SPE) were prepared using pulsed electrodeposition of NiONPs on the MWCNTs/SPE surface. The size, distribution and structure of the NiONPs/Nafion-MWCNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) and also the results show that NiO nanoparticles were homogeneously electrodeposited on the surfaces of MWCNTs. Also, the electrochemical behavior of NiONPs/Nafion-MWCNTs composites in aqueous alkaline solutions of insulin was studied by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It was found that the prepared nanoparticles have excellent electrocatalytic activity towards insulin oxidation due to special properties of NiO nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetric studies showed that the NiONPs/Nafion-MWCNTs film modified SPE, lowers the overpotentials and improves electrochemical behavior of insulin oxidation, as compared to the bare SPE. Amperometry was also used to evaluate the analytical performance of modified electrode in the quantitation of insulin. Excellent analytical features, including high sensitivity (1.83 μA/μM), low detection limit (6.1 nM) and satisfactory dynamic range (20.0-260.0 nM), were achieved under optimized conditions. Moreover, these sensors show good repeatability and a high stability after a while or successive potential cycling.

  18. Phosphomolybdic acid functionalized graphene loading copper nanoparticles modified electrodes for non-enzymatic electrochemical sensing of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaoyan; Cao, Xiyue; Xia, Jianfei; Gong, Shida; Wang, Zonghua; Lu, Lin

    2016-08-31

    A sensitive non-enzymatic glucose electrochemical biosensor (Cu/PMo12-GR/GCE) was developed based on the combination of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) and phosphomolybdic acid functionalized graphene (PMo12-GR). PMo12-GR films were modified on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) through electrostatic self-assembly with the aid of poly diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (PDDA). Then CuNPs were successfully decorated onto the PMo12-GR modified GCE through electrodeposition. The morphology of Cu/PMo12-GR/GCE was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry were used to investigate the electrochemical performances of the biosensor. The results indicated that the modified electrode displayed a synergistic effect of PMo12-GR sheets and CuNPs towards the electro-oxidation of glucose in the alkaline solution. At the optimal detection potential of 0.50 V, the response towards glucose presented a linear response ranging from 0.10 μM to 1.0 mM with a detection limit of 3.0 × 10(-2) μM (S/N = 3). In addition, Cu/PMo12-GR/GCE possessed a high selectivity, good reproducibility, excellent stability and acceptable recovery, which indicating the potential application in clinical field. PMID:27506342

  19. Fabrication of CuO nanosheets modified Cu electrode and its excellent electrocatalytic performance towards glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Liangliang; Liu, Bitao, E-mail: liubitao007@163.com

    2013-10-15

    Glucose (Glu) detection is of great importance in the fields of biological, environmental, and clinical analyses. In this study, CuO nanosheets (NSs) electrode prepared by a one-step synthesis route was applied to construct nonenzymatic glucose biosensor. The as-prepared CuO NSs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrocatalytic oxidation of the CuO NSs electrode towards glucose was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry. For the amperometric glucose detection, the low detection limit of 0.8 μM (S/N = 3) with linear range from 0.8 μM to 2200 μM can be obtained using the CuO NSs electrode. Under the applied potential of 0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl, the CuO NSs electrode exhibits a high sensitivity of 2792.64 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. It is believed that CuO NSs electrode is a promising material for the development of nonenzymatic electrochemical glucose sensors.

  20. Fabrication of CuO nanosheets modified Cu electrode and its excellent electrocatalytic performance towards glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liangliang; Liu, Bitao

    2013-10-01

    Glucose (Glu) detection is of great importance in the fields of biological, environmental, and clinical analyses. In this study, CuO nanosheets (NSs) electrode prepared by a one-step synthesis route was applied to construct nonenzymatic glucose biosensor. The as-prepared CuO NSs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrocatalytic oxidation of the CuO NSs electrode towards glucose was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry. For the amperometric glucose detection, the low detection limit of 0.8 μM (S/N = 3) with linear range from 0.8 μM to 2200 μM can be obtained using the CuO NSs electrode. Under the applied potential of 0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl, the CuO NSs electrode exhibits a high sensitivity of 2792.64 μA mM-1 cm-2. It is believed that CuO NSs electrode is a promising material for the development of nonenzymatic electrochemical glucose sensors.

  1. Fabrication of gallium hexacyanoferrate modified carbon ionic liquid paste electrode for sensitive determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi, Behzad, E-mail: haghighi@iasbs.ac.ir; Khosravi, Mehdi; Barati, Ali

    2014-07-01

    Gallium hexacyanoferrate (GaHCFe) and graphite powder were homogeneously dispersed into n-dodecylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate and paraffin to fabricate GaHCFe modified carbon ionic liquid paste electrode (CILPE). Mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the fabrication of GaHCFe modified CILPE (GaHCFe-CILPE). A pair of well-defined redox peaks due to the redox reaction of GaHCFe through one-electron process was observed for the fabricated electrode. The fabricated GaHCFe-CILPE exhibited good electrocatalytic activity towards reduction and oxidation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The observed sensitivities for the electrocatalytic oxidation and reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at the operating potentials of + 0.8 and − 0.2 V were about 13.8 and 18.3 mA M{sup −1}, respectively. The detection limit (S/N = 3) for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was about 1 μM. Additionally, glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized on GaHCFe-CILPE using two methodology, entrapment into Nafion matrix and cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and bovine serum albumin, in order to fabricate glucose biosensor. Linear dynamic rage, sensitivity and detection limit for glucose obtained by the biosensor fabricated using cross-linking methodology were 0.1–6 mM, 0.87 mA M{sup −1} and 30 μM, respectively and better than those obtained (0.2–6 mM, 0.12 mA M{sup −1} and 50 μM) for the biosensor fabricated using entrapment methodology. - Highlights: • Gallium hexacyanoferrate modified carbon ionic liquid paste electrode was fabricated. • Mixture experimental design was used to optimize electrode fabrication. • Response trace plot was used to show the effect of electrode materials on response. • The sensor exhibited electrocatalytic activity towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reduction and oxidation. • Glucose biosensor was fabricated by immobilization of glucose oxidase on sensor.

  2. A glucose oxidase sensor based on screen-printed carbon electrodes modified by polypyrrole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Li, Guang; Wu, Jieying; Wang, You; Liu, Jun

    2005-01-01

    A disposable amperometric biosensor for detecting blood glucose has been developed. The sensor is based on a screen-printed electrode prepared by electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole with glucose oxidase (GOD) and LiClO4 dopants. In citric acid buffer (pH5.0), GOD with negative charges is immobilized within electropositive polypyrrole matrices onto a carbon electrode surface. Afterward, the electron transfer mediator, potassium ferricyanide is immobilized by adsorption. Experimentally the compositions of pyrrole, LiClO4 and potassium ferricyanide are optimized. Amperometry is used for the determination of glucose concentration. Four microliters of glucose solution is needed for one test, and the response time of the sensor is 70s. The amperometric response of the enzyme electrode is linear in the range of 1-30 mM. PMID:17282595

  3. Electrochemical and in situ spectroelectrochemical studies of gold nanoparticles immobilized Nafion matrix modified electrode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Selvaraju; S Sivagami; S Thangavel; R Ramaraj

    2008-06-01

    Electrochemical and in situ spectroelectrochemical behaviours of phenosafranine (PS+) were studied at the gold nanoparticles (AuNps) immobilized Nafion (Nf) film coated glassy carbon (GC) and indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Cyclic voltammetric studies showed that the PS+ molecules strongly interact with the AuNps immobilized in the Nf matrix through the electrostatic interaction. The presence of AuNps in the Nf film improved the electrochemical characteristics of the incorporated dye molecules. The emission spectra of Nf–AuNps–PS+ films showed that the incorporated PS+ was quenched by AuNps and it could be explained based on the electronic interaction between the AuNps and PS+ molecules. The in situ spectroelectrochemical study showed an improved electrochemical characteristic of the incorporated PS+ molecules at the ITO/Nf–AuNps electrode when compared to the ITO/Nf electrode.

  4. Graphene quantum dot modified glassy carbon electrode for the determination of doxorubicin hydrochloride in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Hashemzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Low toxic graphene quantum dot (GQD was synthesized by pyrolyzing citric acid in alkaline solution and characterized by ultraviolet--visible (UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, spectrofluorimetery and dynamic light scattering (DLS techniques. GQD was used for electrode modification and electro-oxidation of doxorubicin (DOX at low potential. A substantial decrease in the overvoltage (−0.56 V of the DOX oxidation reaction (compared to ordinary electrodes was observed using GQD as coating of glassy carbon electrode (GCE. Differential pulse voltammetry was used to evaluate the analytical performance of DOX in the presence of phosphate buffer solution (pH 4.0 and good limit of detection was obtained by the proposed sensor. Such ability of GQD to promote the DOX electron-transfer reaction suggests great promise for its application as an electrochemical sensor.

  5. Electrochemistry of Hydroquinone Derivatives at Metal and Iodine-modified Metal Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The difference in the electrochemical behavior of hydroquinone and pyrocatechol at platinum and gold surfaces was analyzed using voltammetry and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the hydroquinone derivatives are adsorbed on a gold surface with vertical orientation, which makes the electron transfer between the bulk species and the electrode surface easier than that in the case of flat adsorption of hydroquinone derivatives that occurs at a platinum electrode. The formation of the vertical conformation and the rapid process of electron transfer were also confirmed by quantum chemistry calculations. In addition, the pre-adsorbed iodine on the electrodes played a key role on the adsorbed configuration and electron transfer of redox species.

  6. Graphene quantum dot modified glassy carbon electrode for the determination of doxorubicin hydrochloride in human plasma$

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nastaran Hashemzadeh; Mohammad Hasanzadeh; Nasrin Shadjou; Jamal Eivazi-Ziaei; Maryam Khoubnasabjafari; Abolghasem Jouyban

    2016-01-01

    Low toxic graphene quantum dot (GQD) was synthesized by pyrolyzing citric acid in alkaline solution and characterized by ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force micro-scopy (AFM), spectrofluorimetery and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. GQD was used for electrode modification and electro-oxidation of doxorubicin (DOX) at low potential. A substantial de-crease in the overvoltage ( ? 0.56 V) of the DOX oxidation reaction (compared to ordinary electrodes) was observed using GQD as coating of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Differential pulse voltammetry was used to evaluate the analytical performance of DOX in the presence of phosphate buffer solution (pH 4.0) and good limit of detection was obtained by the proposed sensor. Such ability of GQD to promote the DOX electron-transfer reaction suggests great promise for its application as an electrochemical sensor.

  7. Chemically modified graphite felt as an efficient cathode in electro-Fenton for p-nitrophenol degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Chemically modified graphite felt was prepared using ethanol and hydrazine hydrate as reagents. • Carbon nanoparticles with functional groups were deposited on the surface after modification. • The electrochemical activity for ORR and H2O2 generation on the modified electrode was improved. • The cathode modification effictively improved the EF performance for pollutant degradation. - Abstract: A simple method with low-cost chemical reagents ethanol and hydrazine hydrate was used to modify graphite felt as the cathode for electro-Fenton (EF) application, using p-nitrophenol (p-Np) as the model pollutant. Characterized by scanning electron microscope, contact angle, Raman spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the morphology and surface physicochemical properties after modification were observed considerably changed. After modification, some nanoparticles and oxygen and nitrogen-containing functional groups appeared on the cathode surface, which greatly improved the surface hydrophilic property and the electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction. The effects led to the hydrogen peroxide accumulation on the modified cathode markedly increased to 175.8 mg L−1, while that on the unmodified one was only 67.5 mg L−1. p-Np of initial 50 mg L−1 could be completely removed by EF using the modified cathode, and the mineralization ratio reached 51.4%, more than 2 times of the pristine one. After 10 cycles, the mineralization ratio of the modified cathode was still above 45%, suggesting that the modification method can provide an effective approach to improve EF performance, and thus benefits to promote its environmental applications

  8. An amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on Co3O4 nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hydrogen peroxide biosensor was constructed by combining the advantageous properties of MWCNTs and Co3O4. • Incorporating Co3O4 nanoparticles into MWCNTs/gelatin film increased the electron transfer. • Co3O4/MWCNTs/gelatin/HRP/Nafion/GCE showed strong anti-interference ability. • Hydrogen peroxide was successfully determined in disinfector with an average recovery of 100.78 ± 0.89. - Abstract: In this work a new type of hydrogen peroxide biosensor was fabricated based on the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by cross-linking on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with Co3O4 nanoparticles, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and gelatin. The introduction of MWCNTs and Co3O4 nanoparticles not only enhanced the surface area of the modified electrode for enzyme immobilization but also facilitated the electron transfer rate, resulting in a high sensitivity of the biosensor. The fabrication process of the sensing surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide was investigated by holding the modified electrode at −0.30 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The biosensor showed optimum response within 5 s at pH 7.0. The optimized biosensor showed linear response range of 7.4 × 10−7–1.9 × 10−5 M with a detection limit of 7.4 × 10−7. The applicability of the purposed biosensor was tested by detecting hydrogen peroxide in disinfector samples. The average recovery was calculated as 100.78 ± 0.89

  9. Modified carbon-free silver electrodes for the use as cathodes in lithium-air batteries with an aqueous alkaline electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmaier, Dennis; Wagner, Norbert; Friedrich, K. Andreas; Amin, Hatem M. A.; Baltruschat, Helmut

    2014-11-01

    Gas diffusion electrodes with silver catalysts show a high activity towards oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media but a rather poor activity towards oxygen evolution reaction. For the use in future lithium-air batteries with an aqueous alkaline electrolyte the activity of such electrodes must be improved significantly. As Co3O4 is a promising metal oxide catalyst for oxygen evolution in alkaline media, silver electrodes were modified with Co3O4. For comparison silver electrodes were also modified with IrO2. Due to the poor stability of carbon materials at high anodic potentials these gas diffusion electrodes were prepared without carbon support to improve especially the long-term stability. Gas diffusion electrodes were electrochemically investigated in an electrochemical half-cell arrangement. In addition to cyclic voltammograms electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was carried out. SEM and XRD were used for the physical and morphological investigations. Investigations showed that silver electrodes containing 20 wt.% Co3O4 exhibited the highest performance and highest long-term stability. For comparison, rotating - ring - disc - electrode experiments have been performed using model electrodes with thin catalyst layers, showing that the amount of hydrogen peroxide evolved is negligible.

  10. Graphene ultrathin film electrodes modified with bismuth nanoparticles and polyaniline porous layers for detection of lead and cadmium ions in acetate buffer solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhaomeng; Li, Lin; Liu, Erjia, E-mail: mejliu@ntu.edu.sg

    2013-10-01

    Graphene ultrathin films were synthesized by means of solid-state carbon diffusion from amorphous carbon (a-C) thin layers deposited on silicon substrates, which was catalyzed by nickel layers coated on the top of the a-C layers. The graphene films were used as working electrodes that were modified by a polyaniline (PANI) porous layer together with in-situ deposited bismuth (Bi) nanoparticles for the detection of trace heavy metal ions (Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+}) in acetate buffer solutions (pH 5.3) with square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The graphene electrodes modified with PANI porous layers and Bi nanoparticles had excellent repeatability, ultrahigh sensitivity (as low as 0.33 nM) and good resistance to passivation caused by the surface active species adsorbed on the electrode surfaces. - Highlights: • Graphene fabricated by nickel-catalyzed carbon diffusion in solid state • Graphene electrodes modified by bismuth nanoparticles and polyaniline layers • High resistance of modified graphene electrodes to passivation in acetate solutions • Ultra-low detection limits of lead and cadmium ions by modified graphene electrodes.

  11. Development of Novel Glucose and Pyruvate Biosensors at Poly(Neutral Red) Modified Carbon Film Electrodes. Application to Natural Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Ghica, Mariana Emilia; Brett, Christopher M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Amperometric biosensors based on the corresponding oxidase enzyme with poly(neutral red) redox mediator have been developed for the determination of glucose and pyruvate. The enzymes have been immobilized on top of poly(neutral red) modified carbon film electrodes with glutaraldehyde as the cross-linking agent. The biosensors were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The glucose biosensor exhibited a linear response in the range 90 muM to 1.8 mM w...

  12. Synergistic effect of a catechin-immobilized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-modified electrode on electrocatalysis of NADH in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasantha, V.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei, Taiwan 106 (China); Chen, S.-M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei, Taiwan 106 (China)]. E-mail: smchen78@ms15.hinet.net

    2006-10-25

    Catechin is a polyphenolic flavonoid that can be isolated from a variety of natural sources, including tea leaves, grape seeds, and the wood and bark of trees such as acacia and mahogany. In our experiments, catechin was immobilized on PEDOT/GC (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/glassy carbon)-modified electrodes and used as a mediator for NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) oxidation. The effect of the PEDOT thickness on the surface coverage of the catechin molecules was studied using cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical properties and the effect of pH on the redox properties of the immobilized catechin molecules were studied by cyclic voltammetry in phosphate solution. The electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH at different electrode surfaces such as the bare GC-, the PEDOT/GC-, the catechin/GC- and the catechin/PEDOT/GC-modified electrodes was explored in phosphate solution at pH 7. In the catechin/PEDOT/GC-modified electrode, the PEDOT film plays an important role in resolving the oxidation potentials of ascorbic acid and NADH into two peaks that occur at the same potential for the catechin/GC-modified electrode surface. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant for NADH oxidation at the catechin/PEDOT/GC-modified electrode was determined using the rotating disk electrode technique and found to be 9.88 x 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The amperometric determination of NADH at the catechin/PEDOT/GC electrode was tested. The sensitivity of the electrode was 19 nA/{mu}M.

  13. Amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide at nano-nickel oxide/thionine and celestine blue nanocomposite-modified glassy carbon electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noorbakhsh, Abdollah [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salimi, Abdollah [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 426, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: absalimi@uok.ac.ir

    2009-11-01

    A simple procedure was developed to prepare a glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with nickel oxide (NiOx) nanoparticles and water-soluble dyes. By immersing the GC/NiOx modified electrode into thionine (TH) or celestine blue (CB) solutions for a short period of time (5-120 s), a thin film of the proposed molecules was immobilized onto the electrode surface. The modified electrodes showed stable and a well-defined redox couples at a wide pH range (2-12), with surface confined characteristics. In comparison to usual methods for the immobilization of dye molecules, such as electropolymerization or adsorption on the surface of preanodized electrodes, the electrochemical reversibility and stability of these modified electrodes have been improved. The surface coverage and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k{sub s}) of thionin and celestin blue immobilized on a NiOx-GC electrode were approximately 3.5 x 10{sup -10} mol cm{sup -2}, 6.12 s{sup -1}, 5.9 x 10{sup -10} mol cm{sup -2} and 6.58 s{sup -1}, respectively. The results clearly show the high loading ability of the NiOx nanoparticles and great facilitation of the electron transfer between the immobilized TH, CB and NiOx nanoparticles. The modified electrodes show excellent electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide reduction at a reduced overpotential. The catalytic rate constants for hydrogen peroxide reduction at GC/NiOx/CB and GC/NiOx/TH were 7.96 ({+-}0.2) x 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} and 5.5 ({+-}0.2) x 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. The detection limit, sensitivity and linear concentration range for hydrogen peroxide detection were 1.67 {mu}M, 4.14 nA {mu}M{sup -1} nA {mu}M{sup -1} and 5 {mu}M to 20 mM, and 0.36 {mu}M, 7.62 nA {mu}M{sup -1}, and 1 {mu}M to 10 mM for the GC/NiOx/TH and GC/NiOx/CB modified electrodes, respectively. Compared to other modified electrodes, these modified electrodes have many advantages, such as remarkable catalytic activity, good

  14. Ultra-trace electrochemical impedance determination of bovine serum albumin by a two dimensional silica network citrate-capped gold nanoparticles modified gold electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Abdollah; Saeidikhah, Marzieh

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a gold electrode (GE) was modified by coating with two dimensional silica network/citrate capped gold nanoparticles-poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (GE-TDSN-CGNP-PDDA) for ultra-sensitive determination of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). After covalently binding of a silica network (in two-dimensional form) on the surface of a gold electrode, via twice in situ hydrolysis of 3-mercaptopropyl-tri-ethoxysilane, citrate capped gold nanoparticles (CGNP) were chemically adsorbed on the silica cage. Subsequently, PDDA was bonded to CGNP via electrostatic interaction of positively charged polymer and negatively charged stabilizer of CGNP. Analytical properties of GE-TDSN-CGNP-PDDA were studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The detection limit for measured BSA was found to be 8.4×10(-13) mol L(-1) and the measuring linear concentration range of the proposed sensor was 9.9×10(-12)-1.6×10(-10) mol L(-1) of BSA. In addition, GE-TDSN-CGNP-PDDA exhibited good stability with high selectivity and was applied for determination of BSA in some samples with satisfactory results.

  15. Organic photovoltaic cells with stable top metal electrodes modified with polyethylenimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Talha M; Zhou, Yinhua; Dindar, Amir; Shim, Jae Won; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Kippelen, Bernard

    2014-05-14

    Efficient organic photovoltaic cells (OPV) often contain highly reactive low-work-function calcium electron-collecting electrodes. In this work, efficient OPV are demonstrated in which calcium electrodes were avoided by depositing a thin layer of the amine-containing nonconjugated polymer, polyethylenimine (PEIE), between the photoactive organic semiconductor layer and stable metal electrodes such as aluminum, silver, or gold. Devices with structure ITO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/poly(3-hexylthiophene):indene-C60-bis-adduct (P3HT:ICBA)/PEIE/Al demonstrated overall photovoltaic device performance comparable to devices containing calcium electron-collecting electrodes, ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:ICBA/Ca/Al, with open-circuit voltage of 775±6 mV, short-circuit current density of 9.1±0.5 mA cm(-2), fill factor of 0.65±0.01, and power conversion efficiency of 4.6±0.3%, averaged over 5 devices at 1 sun.

  16. Amperometric sensors based on sawdust film modified electrodes: application to the electroanalysis of paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenne Dedzo, Gustave; Nanseu-Njiki, Charles Péguy; Ngameni, Emmanuel

    2012-09-15

    Natural or sodium hydroxide treated Ayous sawdusts were used to prepare thin film electrodes (denoted respectively as PSTFE and SSTFE). The sensors obtained exhibit good mechanical stability and a wide electrochemical potential range. Their electrochemical characterization revealed that they present a good capacity to accumulate cations, but are not useful for the electroanalysis of anions. In all cases, the signals were more intense and well defined on SSTFE compared to PSTFE. When applied to the electroanalysis of paraquat, a significant improvement of the current intensities was obtained on these electrodes compared to the bare glassy carbon electrode. The diffusion of this compound through the film which is the main process governing the electrochemical reaction at the electrode surface, is 2.2 times more important with SSTFE compared to PSTFE. After the optimization of the detection parameters, calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range 0.1-0.725 μmol L(-1) for PSTFE and 0.05-0.6 μmol L(-1) for SSTFE. The detection limits determined for a signal/noise ratio=3 are 5.49×10(-9) mol L(-1) for PSTFE and 3.02×10(-9) mol L(-1) for SSTFE.

  17. Development of a Hydrogen Peroxide Sensor Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Inkjet-Printed Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Cinti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A sensor for the simple and sensitive measurement of hydrogen peroxide has been developed which is based on screen printed electrodes (SPEs modified with Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs deposited using piezoelectric inkjet printing. PBNP-modified SPEs were characterized using physical and electrochemical techniques to optimize the PBNP layer thickness and electroanalytical conditions for optimum measurement of hydrogen peroxide. Sensor optimization resulted in a limit of detection of 2 × 10−7 M, a linear range from 0 to 4.5 mM and a sensitivity of 762 μA∙mM–1∙cm–2 which was achieved using 20 layers of printed PBNPs. Sensors also demonstrated excellent reproducibility (<5% rsd.

  18. Electrocatalytic oxidation of 2-mercaptoethanol using modified glassy carbon electrode by MWCNT in combination with unsymmetrical manganese (II) Schiff base complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohebbi, Sajjad, E-mail: smohebbi@uok.ac.ir; Eslami, Saadat

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • High electocatalytic efficiency and stability of modified hybrid electrode GC/MWCNTs/MnSaloph. • Direct reflection of catalytic activity of manganese complexes on electrocatalytic oxidation of 2-ME. • Decreasing overpotential and increasing catalytic peak current toward oxidation of 2-ME. • Deposition of range of novel substituted N{sub 2}O{sub 2} Saloph complexes of manganese(II) on GCE/MWCNT. • Enhancement of electrocatalytic oxidation activity upon electron donating substitutions on the Saloph. - Abstract: The performance of modified hybrid glassy carbon electrode with composite of carbon nanotubes and manganese complexes for the electrocatalytic oxidation of 2-mercaptoethanol is developed. GC electrode was modified using MWCNT and new N{sub 2}O{sub 2} unsymmetrical tetradentate Schiff base complexes of manganese namely Manganese Saloph complexes 1-5, with general formula Mn[(5-x-4-y-Sal)(5-x′-4-y′-Sal) Ph], where x, x′ = H, Br, NO{sub 2} and y, y′ = H, MeO. Direct immobilization of CNT on the surface of GCE is performed by abrasive immobilization, and then modified by manganese(II) complexes via direct deposition method. These novel modified electrodes clearly demonstrate the necessity of modifying bare carbon electrodes to endow them with the desired behavior and were identified by HRTEM. Also complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, MS, UV–vis and IR spectroscopy. Modified hybrid GC/MWCNT/MnSaloph electrode exhibits strong and stable electrocatalytic activity towards the electrooxidation of 2-mercaptoethanol molecules in comparison with bare glassy carbon electrode with advantages of very low over potential and high catalytic current. Such ability promotes the thiol’s electron transfer reaction. Also, electron withdrawing substituent on the Saloph was enhanced electrocatalytic oxidation activity.

  19. Biosensing of glucose in flow injection analysis system based on glucose oxidase-quantum dot modified pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, Özlem; Kızılkaya, Bayram; Uysal, Hüseyin; Dilgin, Yusuf

    2016-01-15

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was proposed in flow injection analysis (FIA) system using glucose oxidase (GOD) and Quantum dot (ZnS-CdS) modified Pencil Graphite Electrode (PGE). After ZnS-CdS film was electrochemically deposited onto PGE surface, GOD was immobilized on the surface of ZnS-CdS/PGE through crosslinking with chitosan (CT). A pair of well-defined reversible redox peak of GOD was observed at GOD/CT/ZnS-CdS/PGE based on enzyme electrode by direct electron transfer between the protein and electrode. Further, obtained GOD/CT/ZnS-CdS/PGE offers a disposable, low cost, selective and sensitive electrochemical biosensing of glucose in FIA system based on the decrease of the electrocatalytic response of the reduced form of GOD to dissolved oxygen. Under optimum conditions (flow rate, 1.3mL min(-1); transmission tubing length, 10cm; injection volume, 100μL; and constant applied potential, -500mV vs. Ag/AgCl), the proposed method displayed a linear response to glucose in the range of 0.01-1.0mM with detection limit of 3.0µM. The results obtained from this study would provide the basis for further development of the biosensing using PGE based FIA systems.

  20. Simultaneous determination of naphthol isomers at poly(3-methylthiophene)-nano-Au modified electrode with the enhancement of surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Linlin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Shandong Institute for Product Quality Inspection, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, Enli; Wang, Xiaolin; Chen, Jia [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Xiaoli, E-mail: zhangxl@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-08-01

    A polymer film incorporated gold nanoparticle modified electrode was fabricated. The fabricated process involved eletrodeposition of gold nanoparticles and electropolymerization of the 3-methylthiophene (abbreviated 3MT) onto the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The resulting electrode (P3MT-nano-Au/GCE) was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a simultaneous determination of naphthol isomers at P3MT-nano-Au/GCE was studied using semi-derivative voltammetry. Because of the synergistic effect of gold nanoparticles and poly(3MT), the sensitivity and distinguishability in the simultaneous determination of naphthol isomers were greatly increased. Besides, a further increase in the detecting sensitivity of naphthol isomers could be obtained in the presence of surfactant, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). Also, the role of different kinds of surfactants was texted and the action mechanism was discussed in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the linear calibration ranges of the determination of naphthols were 7.0 × 10{sup −7} to 1.5 × 10{sup −4} mol/L for 1-naphthol and 1.0 × 10{sup −6} to 1.5 × 10{sup −4} mol/L for 2-naphthol with detection limits of 1.0 × 10{sup −7} and 3.0 × 10{sup −7} mol/L (S/N = 3), respectively. - Highlights: • Nano-Au-polymer film was fabricated by eletrodeposition and electropolymerization. • Naphthol isomers were detected simultaneously. • Surfactant improved the sensitivity and selectivity.