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Sample records for chemically defined media

  1. Chemically defined media modifications to lower tryptophan oxidation of biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeltine, Laurie B; Knueven, Kristine M; Zhang, Yan; Lian, Zhirui; Olson, Donald J; Ouyang, Anli

    2016-01-01

    Oxidation of biopharmaceuticals is a major product quality issue with potential impacts on activity and immunogenicity. At Eli Lilly and Company, high tryptophan oxidation was observed for two biopharmaceuticals in development produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells. A switch from historical hydrolysate-containing media to chemically defined media with a reformulated basal powder was thought to be responsible, so mitigation efforts focused on media modification. Shake flask studies identified that increasing tryptophan, copper, and manganese and decreasing cysteine concentrations were individual approaches to lower tryptophan oxidation. When amino acid and metal changes were combined, the modified formulation had a synergistic impact that led to substantially less tryptophan oxidation for both biopharmaceuticals. Similar results were achieved in shake flasks and benchtop bioreactors, demonstrating the potential to implement these modifications at manufacturing scale. The modified formulation did not negatively impact cell growth and viability, product titer, purity, charge variants, or glycan profile. A potential mechanism of action is presented for each amino acid or metal factor based on its role in oxidation chemistry. This work served not only to mitigate the tryptophan oxidation issue in two Lilly biopharmaceuticals in development, but also to increase our knowledge and appreciation for the impact of media components on product quality.

  2. Optimization of chemically defined cell culture media--replacing fetal bovine serum in mammalian in vitro methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Valk, J; Brunner, D; De Smet, K;

    2010-01-01

    , reproducible and reduce the use of experimental animals. Good cell culture practice (GCCP) is an attempt to develop a common standard for in vitro methods. The implementation of the use of chemically defined media is part of the GCCP. This will decrease the dependence on animal serum, a supplement...... with an undefined and variable composition. Defined media supplements are commercially available for some cell types. However, information on the formulation by the companies is often limited and such supplements can therefore not be regarded as completely defined. The development of defined media is difficult...

  3. It is what it eats: Chemically defined media and the history of surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landecker, Hannah

    2016-06-01

    The cultivation of living organs, cells, animals, and embryos in the laboratory has been central to the production of biological knowledge. Over the twentieth century, the drive to variance control in the experimental setting led to systematic efforts to generate synthetic, chemically defined substitutes for complex natural foods, housing, and other substrates of life. This article takes up the history of chemically defined media with three aims in mind. First, to characterize patterns of decontextualization, tinkering, and negotiation between life and experimenter that occur across disparate histories of cultivation. Second, to highlight the paradoxical historicity of cultivated organisms generated to be freed from context, as they incorporate and embody the purified amino acids, vitamins, plastics, and other artificial supports developed in the name of experimental control. Third, to highlight the figure-ground reversal that occurs as these cells and organisms are reconsidered as accidentally good models of life in industrialized conditions of pollution and nutrient excess, due to the man-made nature of their surrounds. Methodologically, the history of surrounds is described as an epigenetic approach that focuses on the material relations between different objects and organisms previously considered quite separately, from explanted organs to bacteria to plant cells to rats to human embryos. PMID:26992285

  4. It is what it eats: Chemically defined media and the history of surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landecker, Hannah

    2016-06-01

    The cultivation of living organs, cells, animals, and embryos in the laboratory has been central to the production of biological knowledge. Over the twentieth century, the drive to variance control in the experimental setting led to systematic efforts to generate synthetic, chemically defined substitutes for complex natural foods, housing, and other substrates of life. This article takes up the history of chemically defined media with three aims in mind. First, to characterize patterns of decontextualization, tinkering, and negotiation between life and experimenter that occur across disparate histories of cultivation. Second, to highlight the paradoxical historicity of cultivated organisms generated to be freed from context, as they incorporate and embody the purified amino acids, vitamins, plastics, and other artificial supports developed in the name of experimental control. Third, to highlight the figure-ground reversal that occurs as these cells and organisms are reconsidered as accidentally good models of life in industrialized conditions of pollution and nutrient excess, due to the man-made nature of their surrounds. Methodologically, the history of surrounds is described as an epigenetic approach that focuses on the material relations between different objects and organisms previously considered quite separately, from explanted organs to bacteria to plant cells to rats to human embryos.

  5. Developmental competence and cryotolerance of caprine parthenogenetic embryos cultured in chemically defined media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo-Jae; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Hee; Yum, Soo-Young; Lee, Song-Jeon; Lim, Chae-Woong; Jang, Goo

    2016-07-15

    In animal reproduction technologies, the in vitro embryo culture system has advanced over the past few decades. However, in vitro cultured embryos still have reduced functional and physiological abilities compared with those from in vivo conditions, and many factors of oviduct and uterine environments have not yet been revealed. Here, we demonstrated the in vitro culture of domestic goat (Capra hircus) embryos using two types of culture media, modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF) and a two-step chemically defined medium (DI/II). To obtain parthenogenetic goat embryos, oocytes were matured in vitro in tissue culture media-199 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum for 22 to 24 hours, and activated with 5 μM, Ca(2+) ionomycin for 4 minutes, followed by 1.9 mM, 6-dimethylaminopurine treatment for 4 hours. After 2 days of embryo culture in different culture media, there were no significant differences in cleavage rates (96.6% vs. 95.4% in mSOF vs. DI/II, respectively). However, the DI/II group showed improved development competence to blastocysts (64.6% vs. 82.3% in mSOF vs. DI/II, respectively) and the total cell number of blastocysts (144.3 ± 9.2 vs. 264.4 ± 15.2 in mSOF vs. DI/II, respectively) at Day 7. After the cryopreservation of early-stage blastocysts at Day 6 via the conventional slow-freezing procedure, the surviving embryos were analyzed. The re-expansion rate after freezing and thawing was significantly higher in DI/II (39.66% vs. 67.69% in mSOF vs. DI/II, respectively), but there were no statistical differences in total cell numbers (142.3 ± 12.1 vs. 172.1 ± 11.6 in mSOF vs. DI/II, respectively), apoptotic index (4.9 ± 0.8% vs. 3.8 ± 0.7 in mSOF vs. DI/II, respectively), and the gene expression levels (BAX, GLUT1, MnSOD, and OCT4) among the re-expanded blastocysts. Overall, our data reported that the defined in vitro culture media for goat embryos were established with high efficiency, which will be very useful for

  6. Effect of methionine and cysteine deprivation on growth of different natural isolates of Lactobacillus spp. in chemically defined media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozo Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of natural isolates of lactobacilli from different ecological niches to grow in a chemically defined medium in the presence or absence of sulphur-containing amino acids, methionine and/or cysteine. The obtained results indicate that cysteine is essential for growth of L. paracasei subsp. paracasei BGHN14 and BGSJ2-8, while methionine is essential for isolates BGHN40, BGCG31, and BGHV54T of the species L. plantarum. Methionine is also essential for growth of L. rhamnosus BGHV58T. Other analyzed strains, such as L. plantarum BGSJ3-18, BGZB19, BGHV52Ta, and BGHV43T, require the presence of both amino acids for their growth.

  7. Chemically defined medium and Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Kozak, Elena; Conley, Catharine A.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C. elegans has been established as a powerful genetic system. Use of a chemically defined medium (C. elegans Maintenance Medium (CeMM)) now allows standardization and systematic manipulation of the nutrients that animals receive. Liquid cultivation allows automated culturing and experimentation and should be of use in large-scale growth and screening of animals. RESULTS: We find that CeMM is versatile and culturing is simple. CeMM can be used in a solid or liquid state, it can be stored unused for at least a year, unattended actively growing cultures may be maintained longer than with standard techniques, and standard C. elegans protocols work well with animals grown in defined medium. We also find that there are caveats to using defined medium. Animals in defined medium grow more slowly than on standard medium, appear to display adaptation to the defined medium, and display altered growth rates as they change the composition of the defined medium. CONCLUSIONS: As was suggested with the introduction of C. elegans as a potential genetic system, use of defined medium with C. elegans should prove a powerful tool.

  8. User Defined Structural Searches in MediaWiki

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Albertsen, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Wikipedia has been the poster child of user contributed content using the space of MediaWiki as the canvas on which to write. While well suited for authoring simple hypermedia documents, MediaWiki does not lend itself easily to let the author create dynamically assembled documents, or create pages...... that monitor other pages. While it is possible to create such "special" pages, it requires PHP coding and thus administrative rights to the MediaWiki server. We present in this paper work on a structural query language (MediaWiki Query Language - MWQL) to allow users to add dynamically evaluated searches...... to ordinary wiki-pages....

  9. Chemically Defined Medium and Caenorhabditis elegans: A Powerful Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, N. J.; Kozak, E.; Conley, C. A.

    2003-01-01

    C. elegans has been established as a powerful genetic system. Growth in a chemically defined medium (C. elegans Maintenance Medium (CeMM)) now allows standardization and systematic manipulation of the nutrients that animals receive. Liquid cultivation allows automated culturing and experimentation and should be of me in large-scale growth and screening of animals. Here we present our initial results from developing culture systems with CeMM. We find that CeMM is versatile and culturing is simple. CeMM can be used in a solid or liquid state, it can be stored unused for at least a year, unattended actively growing cultures may be maintained longer than with standard techniques, and standard C. elegans protocols work well with animals grown in defined medium. We also find that there are caveats of using defined medium. Animals in defined medium grow more slowly than on standard medium, appear to display adaptation to the defined medium, and display altered growth rates as they change defined medium composition. As was suggested with the introduction of C. elegans as a potential genetic system, use of defined medium with C. elegans should prove a powerful tool.

  10. Defining the Product Chemical Space of Monoterpenoid Synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Boxue; Poulter, C Dale; Jacobson, Matthew P

    2016-08-01

    Terpenoid synthases create diverse carbon skeletons by catalyzing complex carbocation rearrangements, making them particularly challenging for enzyme function prediction. To begin to address this challenge, we have developed a computational approach for the systematic enumeration of terpenoid carbocations. Application of this approach allows us to systematically define a nearly complete chemical space for the potential carbon skeletons of products from monoterpenoid synthases. Specifically, 18758 carbocations were generated, which we cluster into 74 cyclic skeletons. Five of the 74 skeletons are found in known natural products; some of the others are plausible for new functions, either in nature or engineered. This work systematizes the description of function for this class of enzymes, and provides a basis for predicting functions of uncharacterized enzymes. To our knowledge, this is the first computational study to explore the complete product chemical space of this important class of enzymes. PMID:27517297

  11. Nutritional models for space travel from chemically defined diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    Human nutritional requirements are summarized, including recommended daily intake and maximum safe chronic intake of nutrients. The biomedical literature on various types of chemically defined diets (CDD's), which are liquid, formulated diets for enteral and total parenteral nutrition, is reviewed. The chemical forms of the nutrients in CDD's are detailed, and the compositions and sources of representative commercial CDD's are tabulated. Reported effects of CDD's in medical patients, healthy volunteers, and laboratory animals are discussed. The effects include gastrointestinal side effects, metabolic imbalances, nutrient deficiencies and excesses, and psychological problems. Dietary factors contributing to the side effects are examined. Certain human nutrient requirements have been specified more precisely as a result of long-term use of CDD's, and related studies are included. CDD's are the most restricted yet nutritionally complete diets available.

  12. A chemically defined medium for rabbit embryo cryopreservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Bruyère

    = 0.066. We conclude that CRYO3 can be used as a chemically defined substitute for animal-based products in rabbit embryo cryopreservation solutions.

  13. Defining food sampling strategy for chemical risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wesolek, Nathalie; Roudot, Alain-Claude

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Collection of accurate and reliable data is a prerequisite for informed risk assessment and risk management. For chemical contaminants in food, contamination assessments enable consumer protection and exposure assessments. And yet, the accuracy of a contamination assessment depends on both chemical analysis and sampling plan performance. A sampling plan is always used when the contamination level of a food lot is evaluated, due to the fact that the whole lot can not be...

  14. Components of yeast (Sacchromyces cervisiae) extract as defined media additives that support the growth and productivity of CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, Maureen; Chan, Sarah; Jung, Vince; Kowbel, Vanessa; Mendoza, Meg; Miranda, Vivian; Butler, Michael

    2016-09-10

    Yeast and plant hydrolysates are used as media supplements to support the growth and productivity of CHO cultures for biopharmaceutical production. Through fractionation of a yeast lysate and metabolic analysis of a fraction that had bioactivity equivalent to commercial yeast extract (YE), bioactive components were identified that promoted growth and productivity of two recombinant CHO cell lines (CHO-Luc and CHO-hFcEG2) equivalent to or greater than YE-supplemented media. Autolysis of the yeast lysate was not necessary for full activity, suggesting that the active components are present in untreated yeast cells. A bioactive fraction (3KF) of the yeast lysate was isolated from the permeate using a 3kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filter. Supplementation of this 3KF fraction into the base media supported growth of CHO-Luc cells over eight passages equivalent to YE-supplemented media. The 3KF fraction was fractionated further by a cation exchange spin column using a stepwise pH elution. Metabolomic analysis of a bioactive fraction isolated at high pH identified several arginine and lysine-containing peptides as well as two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, with 3.5× and 4.5× higher levels compared to a fraction showing no bioactivity. The addition of a mixture of polyamines and their precursors (putrescine, spermine, spermidine, ornithine and citrulline) as well as increasing the concentration of some of the components of the original base medium resulted in a chemically-defined (CD) formulation that produced an equivalent viable cell density (VCD) and productivity of the CHO-Luc cells as the YE-supplemented medium. The VCD of the CHO-hFcEG2 culture in the CD medium was 1.9× greater and with equivalent productivity to the YE-supplemented media.

  15. Biological aspects of the DM28C clone of Trypanosoma cruzi after metacylogenesis in chemically defined media Aspectos biológicos do clone Dm 28c de Trypanosoma cruzi após metaciclogênese em meio quimicamente definido

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    Victor T. Contreras

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological characterization of the Trypanosoma cruzi clone Dm 28c in terms of its growth in LIT medium, cell-cycle, infectivity to mice and interaction with professional and non-professional phagocytic cells shows that it behaves as a bona fide T. cruzi representant. The biological properties of this myotropic clone do not change according to the origin of the trypomastigote forms (i. e., from triatomines, infected mice, cell-culture or from the chemically defined TAUP and TAU3AAG media. In addition Dm 28c metacyclic trypomastigotes from TAU3AAG medium display a high infectivity level to fibroblasts and muscle cells. Experiments on binding of cationized ferritin to trypomastigotes surface show the existence of cap-like structures of ferritin in regions near the kinetoplast. However the nature and role of these anionic sites remain to be determined. The results indicate that metacyclic trypomastigotes from Dm 28c clone obtained under chemically defined conditions reproduce the biological behaviour of T. cruzi, rendering this system very suitable for the study of cell-parasite interactions and for the isolation of trypanosome relevant macromolecules.A caracterização biológica do clone Dm 28c de Trypanosoma cruzi em termos do seu crescimento em meio LIT, ciclo celular, infectividade para camundongos e interação com células fagocíticas profissionais e não-profissionais, mostra que o mesmo comporta-se como um fiel representante da espécie T. cruzi. As propriedades biológicas deste clone miotrópico não mudam de acordo com a proveniência das formas tripomastigotas (i. e., de triatomíneos, de camundongos infectados, de cultura celular ou dos meios quimicamente definidos TAUP e TAU3AAG. Ainda mais, formas tripomastigotas metacíclicas do clone Dm 28c derivado do meio TAU3AAG apresentam um alto grau de infectividade para fibroblastos e células de músculo. Experimentos de ligação de ferritina cationizada à superfície de

  16. Switching industrial production processes from complex to defined media: method development and case study using the example of Penicillium chrysogenum

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    Posch Andreas E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are versatile cell factories and widely used for the production of antibiotics, organic acids, enzymes and other industrially relevant compounds at large scale. As a fact, industrial production processes employing filamentous fungi are commonly based on complex raw materials. However, considerable lot-to-lot variability of complex media ingredients not only demands for exhaustive incoming components inspection and quality control, but unavoidably affects process stability and performance. Thus, switching bioprocesses from complex to defined media is highly desirable. Results This study presents a strategy for strain characterization of filamentous fungi on partly complex media using redundant mass balancing techniques. Applying the suggested method, interdependencies between specific biomass and side-product formation rates, production of fructooligosaccharides, specific complex media component uptake rates and fungal strains were revealed. A 2-fold increase of the overall penicillin space time yield and a 3-fold increase in the maximum specific penicillin formation rate were reached in defined media compared to complex media. Conclusions The newly developed methodology enabled fast characterization of two different industrial Penicillium chrysogenum candidate strains on complex media based on specific complex media component uptake kinetics and identification of the most promising strain for switching the process from complex to defined conditions. Characterization at different complex/defined media ratios using only a limited number of analytical methods allowed maximizing the overall industrial objectives of increasing both, method throughput and the generation of scientific process understanding.

  17. Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in vitro embryo production in two different defined culture media

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    B. Gasparrini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro embryo production (IVEP is largely applied world wide to animal breeding. One of the principal steps of the IVEP is represented by embryo culture (Khurana and Niemann., 2000. In the past, embryos were grown in co-culture systems with other cells such as oviductal epithelial cells, cumulus cells, Buffalo rat liver (BRL and VERO cells (Duszewska et al., 2000. These cells are able to supply the nutrients for embryo development by their replication and metabolism. Nevertheless, the metabolic activity of these cells is also responsible of an early lowering of pH in the culture medium: that needs to be changed every two days. Furthermore, with this culture system it is impossible to standardize all the procedure: in fact the result is dependent from several variables, as the quality of the cells and their concentration in co-culture. The use of defined culture media is necessary to acquire a better comprehension of metabolism and biochemical requirements for IVEP........

  18. Defining digital literacy - What do young people need to know about digital media?

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    David Buckingham

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a rationale for the notion of «digital literacy» in education. Pointing to some of the limitations of previous proposals in this field, it outlines a framework based on four key concepts drawn from media education. It applies these concepts to the World Wide Web and to computer games, and discusses the role of digital media production by students in developing digital literacy. The article emphasises the importance of developing critical approaches to digital media as a necessary prerequisite for using them as resources for learning.

  19. A genotype of modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) that facilitates replication in suspension cultures in chemically defined medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Ingo; Horn, Deborah; John, Katrin; Sandig, Volker

    2013-01-21

    While vectored vaccines, based on hyperattenuated viruses, may lead to new treatment options against infectious diseases and certain cancers, they are also complex products and sometimes difficult to provide in sufficient amount and purity. To facilitate vaccine programs utilizing host-restricted poxviruses, we established avian suspension cell lines (CR and CR.pIX) and developed a robust, chemically defined, culturing process for production of this class of vectors. For one prominent member, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), we now describe a new strain that appears to replicate to greater yields of infectious units, especially in the cell-free supernatant of cultures in chemically defined media. The new strain was obtained by repeated passaging in CR suspension cultures and, consistent with reports on the exceptional genetic stability of MVA, sequencing of 135 kb of the viral genomic DNA revealed that only three structural proteins (A3L, A9L and A34R) each carry a single amino acid exchange (H639Y, K75E and D86Y, respectively). Host restriction in a plaque-purified isolate of the new genotype appears to be maintained in cell culture. Processing towards an injectable vaccine preparation may be simplified with this strain as a complete lysate, containing the main burden of host cell contaminants, may not be required anymore to obtain adequate yields.

  20. Chinese hamster ovary cell performance enhanced by a rational divide-and-conquer strategy for chemically defined medium development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaya; Zhang, Weiyan; Deng, Xiancun; Poon, Hong Fai; Liu, Xuping; Tan, Wen-Song; Zhou, Yan; Fan, Li

    2015-12-01

    Basal medium design is considered one of the most important steps in process development. To optimize chemically defined (CD) media efficiently and effectively for the biopharmaceutical industry, a two-step rational strategy was applied to optimize four antibody producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. In the first step, 48 of 52 components of our in-house medium were divided into three groups according to their characteristics. In the next step, these groups were optimized by spent medium analysis, response surface methodology and mixture design. Because these steps in our strategy involved dividing medium components into groups and subsequently adjusting the concentration of the components, we termed this medium development strategy "divide and conquer". By applying the strategy, we were able to improve the titers of CHO-S, CHO-DG44 and two CHO-K1 cell lines 1.92, 1.86, 2.92 and 1.62-fold, respectively, in 8 weeks with fewer than 60 tests. This divide-and-conquer strategy was efficient, effective, scalable and universal in our current study and offered a new approach to CD media development.

  1. Specific induction of fibronectin binding activity by hemoglobin in Candida albicans grown in defined media.

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, S.; Nègre, E; Cashel, J A; Guo, N; Lyman, C A; Walsh, T J; Roberts, D D

    1996-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is a major component of host extracellular matrix that may play an important role in the initiation and dissemination of Candida albicans infections. Expression of FN binding requires growth of C albicans blastoconidia in complex medium, and the regulation of FN receptor expression is poorly understood. We now demonstrate that hemoglobin is a potent and specific inducer of FN receptor expression and describe a defined medium supplemented with hemoglobin that greatly and stabl...

  2. Media, the Elite and Modernity. Defining the Modern among the Finnish Cultural Intelligentsia in the Twentieth Century

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    Jukka Kortti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how the Finnish intelligentsia has defined the modern and has reacted to modernity in the twentieth century. The cultural intelligentsia has had an important role in this process, since in Finland intellectuals and the state have historically had a close relationship. The article focuses on the role of the media in the making of the modern – both as an abstract concept and as a concrete programme for building a new society. The main examples come from the Finnish student magazine Ylioppilaslehti and Finnish television broadcasting. The main periods discussed are the cultural modernism of the 1950s, the societal modernism of the 1960s and the cultural postmodernism of the 1980s. These were the times when discussions about defining the modern reached even the public sphere in Finland. 

  3. Critical Chemical-Mechanical Couplings that Define Permeability Modifications in Pressure-Sensitive Rock Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derek Elsworth; Abraham Grader; Susan Brantley

    2007-04-25

    This work examined and quantified processes controlling changes in the transport characteristics of natural fractures, subjected to coupled thermal-mechanical-chemical (TMC) effects. Specifically, it examined the effects of mineral dissolution and precipitation mediated by mechanical effects, using laboratory through-flow experiments concurrently imaged by X-ray CT. These were conducted on natural and artificial fractures in cores using water as the permeant. Fluid and mineral mass balances are recorded and are correlated with in-sample saturation, porosity and fracture aperture maps, acquired in real-time by X-ray CT-imaging at a maximum spatial resolution of 15-50 microns per pixel. Post-test, the samples were resin-impregnated, thin-sectioned, and examined by microscopy to define the characteristics of dissolution and precipitation. The test-concurrent X-ray imaging, mass balances, and measurements of permeability, together with the post-test microscopy, were used to define dissolution/precipitation processes, and to constrain process-based models. These models define and quantify key processes of pressure solution, free-face dissolution, and shear-dilation, and the influence of temperature, stress level, and chemistry on the rate of dissolution, its distribution in space and time, and its influence on the mechanical and transport properties of the fracture.

  4. Comparison of media for recovery of total coliform bacteria from chemically treated water.

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, E W; Fox, K R; Nash, H D; Read, E.J.; Smith, A P

    1987-01-01

    Five broth media and two solid media were compared for their ability to quantitatively recover total coliform bacteria from chemically treated water. M-Endo LES and mT7 media were used in the membrane filter technique. Lauryl tryptose broth, lactose broth, presence-absence broth, lactose broth with twice the amount of lactose, and lauryl tryptose broth with twice the amount of sodium lauryl sulfate were used in the fermentation tube procedure. The differences in recovery were not significant ...

  5. Chemically Defined and Xeno-Free Cryopreservation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Melany; Bollag, Roni J; Yu, Jack C; Isales, Carlos M; Eroglu, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The stromal compartment of adipose tissue harbors multipotent cells known as adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). These cells can differentiate into various lineages including osteogenic, chrondrogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic; this cellular fraction may be easily obtained in large quantities through a clinically safe liposuction procedure. Therefore, ASCs offer exceptional opportunities for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, current practices involving ASCs typically use fetal bovine serum (FBS)-based cryopreservation solutions that are associated with risks of immunological reactions and of transmitting infectious diseases and prions. To realize clinical applications of ASCs, serum- and xeno-free defined cryopreservation methods are needed. To this end, an animal product-free chemically defined cryopreservation medium was formulated by adding two antioxidants (reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate), two polymers (PVA and ficoll), two permeating cryoprotectants (ethylene glycol and dimethylsulfoxide), a disaccharide (trehalose), and a calcium chelator (EGTA) to HEPES-buffered DMEM/F12. To limit the number of experimental groups, the concentration of trehalose, both polymers, and EGTA was fixed while the presence of the permeating CPAs and antioxidants was varied. ASCs suspended either in different versions of the defined medium or in the conventional undefined cryopreservation medium (10% dimethylsulfoxide+10% DMEM/F12+80% serum) were cooled to -70°C at 1°C/min before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Samples were thawed either in air or in a water bath at 37°C. The presence of antioxidants along with 3.5% concentration of each penetrating cryoprotectant improved the freezing outcome to the level of the undefined cryopreservation medium, but the plating efficiency was still lower than that of unfrozen controls. Subsequently, increasing the concentration of both permeating cryoprotectants to 5% further improved the plating

  6. Chemically Defined and Xeno-Free Cryopreservation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Melany; Bollag, Roni J.; Yu, Jack C.; Isales, Carlos M.; Eroglu, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The stromal compartment of adipose tissue harbors multipotent cells known as adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). These cells can differentiate into various lineages including osteogenic, chrondrogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic; this cellular fraction may be easily obtained in large quantities through a clinically safe liposuction procedure. Therefore, ASCs offer exceptional opportunities for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, current practices involving ASCs typically use fetal bovine serum (FBS)-based cryopreservation solutions that are associated with risks of immunological reactions and of transmitting infectious diseases and prions. To realize clinical applications of ASCs, serum- and xeno-free defined cryopreservation methods are needed. To this end, an animal product-free chemically defined cryopreservation medium was formulated by adding two antioxidants (reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate), two polymers (PVA and ficoll), two permeating cryoprotectants (ethylene glycol and dimethylsulfoxide), a disaccharide (trehalose), and a calcium chelator (EGTA) to HEPES-buffered DMEM/F12. To limit the number of experimental groups, the concentration of trehalose, both polymers, and EGTA was fixed while the presence of the permeating CPAs and antioxidants was varied. ASCs suspended either in different versions of the defined medium or in the conventional undefined cryopreservation medium (10% dimethylsulfoxide+10% DMEM/F12+80% serum) were cooled to -70°C at 1°C/min before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Samples were thawed either in air or in a water bath at 37°C. The presence of antioxidants along with 3.5% concentration of each penetrating cryoprotectant improved the freezing outcome to the level of the undefined cryopreservation medium, but the plating efficiency was still lower than that of unfrozen controls. Subsequently, increasing the concentration of both permeating cryoprotectants to 5% further improved the plating

  7. Specific induction of fibronectin binding activity by hemoglobin in Candida albicans grown in defined media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, S; Nègre, E; Cashel, J A; Guo, N; Lyman, C A; Walsh, T J; Roberts, D D

    1996-08-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is a major component of host extracellular matrix that may play an important role in the initiation and dissemination of Candida albicans infections. Expression of FN binding requires growth of C albicans blastoconidia in complex medium, and the regulation of FN receptor expression is poorly understood. We now demonstrate that hemoglobin is a potent and specific inducer of FN receptor expression and describe a defined medium supplemented with hemoglobin that greatly and stably enhances the binding activity of C. albicans for soluble FN. Enhancement of FN binding by hemoglobin in strain 44807 was concentration dependent and was maximal at 0.1% hemoglobin with 20- to 80-fold enhancement. The hemoglobin-induced FN binding to C. albicans was saturable, with a Kd of 2.7 X 10(-8) M. Enhancement required growth of C. albicans in hemoglobin-containing medium, since simply exposing blastoconidia to hemoglobin in a nongrowing status did not enhance binding. Induction was reversible following removal of hemoglobin from the growth medium and not associated with germination. Inorganic or protein-bound iron was not sufficient for the induction, since other iron-containing proteins or inorganic iron salts were inactive. Growth in the simple medium yeast nitrogen base supplemented with hemoglobin increased cell adhesion to immobilized FN and to cultured monolayers of bovine corneal endothelial cells. These data suggest that hemoglobin may be an important regulator of FN binding activity in C. albicans and thus may play a role in its pathogenesis. PMID:8757815

  8. Antimycobacterial activity of chemically defined natural substances from the Caribbean flora in Guadeloupe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, N; Abaul, J; Goh, K S; Devallois, A; Philogène, E; Bourgeois, P

    1998-04-01

    Eight chemically defined, naturally occurring compounds were extracted from the tropical flora of the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe: pilocarpine, an alkaloid from Pilocarpus racemosus; heraclenol and isomeranzin, coumarins from Triphasia trifolia; lochnerin, an indole alkaloid from Rauwolfia biauriculata; ibogaine and voacangine, indole alkaloids from Tabernaemontana citrifolia; texalin, an oxazole from Amyris elemifera; and canellal, a sesquiterpene dialdehyde from Canella winterana. An essential oil fraction from Canella winterana was also tested. The antimycobacterial activity of these substances was tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. avium and M. kansasii using the Middlebrook 7H11 agar medium, the Bactec 460-TB radiometric methodology, and determination of bacterial viable counts. Three compounds, namely ibogaine, voacangine and texalin, showed antimycobacterial activity. Investigations on the structure-modification and structure-activity relationships of these compounds may help determine new targets for future drug development. PMID:9626931

  9. Acetoin catabolism and acetylbutanediol formation by Bacillus pumilus in a chemically defined medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijun Xiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most low molecular diols are highly water-soluble, hygroscopic, and reactive with many organic compounds. In the past decades, microbial research to produce diols, e.g. 1,3-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol, were considerably expanded due to their versatile usages especially in polymer synthesis and as possible alternatives to fossil based feedstocks from the bioconversion of renewable natural resources. This study aimed to provide a new way for bacterial production of an acetylated diol, i.e. acetylbutanediol (ABD, 3,4-dihydroxy-3-methylpentan-2-one, by acetoin metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: When Bacillus pumilus ATCC 14884 was aerobically cultured in a chemically defined medium with acetoin as the sole carbon and energy source, ABD was produced and identified by gas chromatography--chemical ionization mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the key enzyme leading to ABD from acetoin has not been identified yet at this stage, this study proposed a new metabolic pathawy to produce ABD in vivo from using renewable resources--in this case acetoin, which could be reproduced from glucose in this study--making it the first facility in the world to prepare this new bio-based diol product.

  10. Chemically Defined and Xeno-Free Cryopreservation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melany López

    Full Text Available The stromal compartment of adipose tissue harbors multipotent cells known as adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs. These cells can differentiate into various lineages including osteogenic, chrondrogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic; this cellular fraction may be easily obtained in large quantities through a clinically safe liposuction procedure. Therefore, ASCs offer exceptional opportunities for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, current practices involving ASCs typically use fetal bovine serum (FBS-based cryopreservation solutions that are associated with risks of immunological reactions and of transmitting infectious diseases and prions. To realize clinical applications of ASCs, serum- and xeno-free defined cryopreservation methods are needed. To this end, an animal product-free chemically defined cryopreservation medium was formulated by adding two antioxidants (reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate, two polymers (PVA and ficoll, two permeating cryoprotectants (ethylene glycol and dimethylsulfoxide, a disaccharide (trehalose, and a calcium chelator (EGTA to HEPES-buffered DMEM/F12. To limit the number of experimental groups, the concentration of trehalose, both polymers, and EGTA was fixed while the presence of the permeating CPAs and antioxidants was varied. ASCs suspended either in different versions of the defined medium or in the conventional undefined cryopreservation medium (10% dimethylsulfoxide+10% DMEM/F12+80% serum were cooled to -70°C at 1°C/min before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Samples were thawed either in air or in a water bath at 37°C. The presence of antioxidants along with 3.5% concentration of each penetrating cryoprotectant improved the freezing outcome to the level of the undefined cryopreservation medium, but the plating efficiency was still lower than that of unfrozen controls. Subsequently, increasing the concentration of both permeating cryoprotectants to 5% further improved the

  11. A chemically defined culture medium containing Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 for the fabrication of stratified squamous epithelial cell grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslanova, Afag [Department of Surgery, Institute of Gastroenterology, Tokyo Women' s Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan); Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women' s Medical University, TWIns, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan); Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women' s Medical University, TWIns, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan); Yamamoto, Masakazu, E-mail: yamamoto.ige@twmu.ac.jp [Department of Surgery, Institute of Gastroenterology, Tokyo Women' s Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    With the development of a culture method for stratified squamous epithelial cells, tissue-engineered epithelial cell sheets have been successfully applied as clinical cell grafts. However, the implementation of these cell sheets without the use of any animal-derived materials is highly desirable. In this study, Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor Y-27632 was used to develop a chemically defined culture medium for the fabrication of stratified epithelial cell grafts consisting of human epidermal and oral keratinocytes, and the proliferation activity, cell morphology, and gene expressions of the keratinocytes were analyzed. The results of a colorimetric assay indicated that Y-27632 significantly promoted the proliferation of the keratinocytes in culture media both with and without fetal bovine serum (FBS), although there were no indications of Y-27632 efficacy on cell morphology and stratification of the keratinocytes in culture medium without any animal-derived materials. The results of quantitative RT-PCR revealed that gene expressions correlated with cell adhesion, cell–cell junction, proliferation markers, and stem/progenitor markers in cultured keratinocytes were not strongly affected by the addition of Y-27632 to the culture medium. Moreover, gene expressions of differentiation markers in stratified keratinocytes cultured in medium without FBS were nearly identical to those of keratinocytes co-cultured with 3T3 feeder cells. Interestingly, the expressions of differentiation markers in cultured stratified keratinocytes were suppressed by FBS, whereas they were reconstructed by either co-culture of a 3T3 feeder layer or addition of Y-27632 into the culture medium containing FBS. These findings indicate that Y-27632 is a useful supplement for the development of a chemically defined culture medium for fabrication of stratified epithelial cell grafts for clinical applications for the purpose of developing the culture medium with a lower risk of pathogen

  12. A chemically defined culture medium containing Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 for the fabrication of stratified squamous epithelial cell grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of a culture method for stratified squamous epithelial cells, tissue-engineered epithelial cell sheets have been successfully applied as clinical cell grafts. However, the implementation of these cell sheets without the use of any animal-derived materials is highly desirable. In this study, Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor Y-27632 was used to develop a chemically defined culture medium for the fabrication of stratified epithelial cell grafts consisting of human epidermal and oral keratinocytes, and the proliferation activity, cell morphology, and gene expressions of the keratinocytes were analyzed. The results of a colorimetric assay indicated that Y-27632 significantly promoted the proliferation of the keratinocytes in culture media both with and without fetal bovine serum (FBS), although there were no indications of Y-27632 efficacy on cell morphology and stratification of the keratinocytes in culture medium without any animal-derived materials. The results of quantitative RT-PCR revealed that gene expressions correlated with cell adhesion, cell–cell junction, proliferation markers, and stem/progenitor markers in cultured keratinocytes were not strongly affected by the addition of Y-27632 to the culture medium. Moreover, gene expressions of differentiation markers in stratified keratinocytes cultured in medium without FBS were nearly identical to those of keratinocytes co-cultured with 3T3 feeder cells. Interestingly, the expressions of differentiation markers in cultured stratified keratinocytes were suppressed by FBS, whereas they were reconstructed by either co-culture of a 3T3 feeder layer or addition of Y-27632 into the culture medium containing FBS. These findings indicate that Y-27632 is a useful supplement for the development of a chemically defined culture medium for fabrication of stratified epithelial cell grafts for clinical applications for the purpose of developing the culture medium with a lower risk of pathogen

  13. Optimisation of hybridoma cell growth and monoclonal antibody secretion in a chemically defined, serum- and protein-free culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Y J

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), for human use require chemical and biological purity. The best approach seems in vitro cultivation in a serum-, protein-free medium. A basal defined culture medium has been developed to sustain optimal hybridoma cell growth and MAb secretion. It consists of Iscove's Dulbecco's modified, Eagle's, Ham's F12 and NCTC 135 media in a 5:5:1 mixture (v/v/v), to which glucose is added to reach a final concentration of 25 mM, glutamine to 4-6 mM, 2-mercaptoethanol to 50 microM, Pluronic F68 to 0.01-0.1% (w/v), Hepes to 25 mM and NaHCO3 to 3 g/l. Hybridoma cells, derived from Sp 2/0 myeloma and secreting a MAb to a human milk fat globule membrane-associated high molecular weight glycoprotein, were cloned in this medium containing 1% (v/v) fetal calf serum and then sequentially adapted in serum-free medium further supplemented with transferrin and insulin, both at 10 micrograms/ml. Clones producing immunoreactive MAbs secrete a mean of 50 micrograms IgG/ml, i.e., ca. 80% of the concentration reached in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% serum. When cells were cultured in spinner flasks with a semi-continuous mode of cultivation (with a daily removal of 20% of the volume and its replacement by fresh culture medium), in serum-free medium further supplemented with 10 nM estradiol, a mixture of trace elements and albumin (at 30 micrograms/ml) complexed to linoleic acid, MAb secretion reached 100 micrograms/ml and became equal or higher to that obtained in serum-containing medium. MAb secretion was not decreased and was even significantly increased during the growth phase, when transferrin was replaced by another iron source, i.e., ferric citrate at 500 microM associated with 20 microM ascorbic acid. Finally, deletion of insulin and of albumin-linoleic acid did not affect significantly cell density nor MAb secretion. In conclusion, it appears from this study that semi-continuous cultivation in spinner flasks of hybridoma cells, after

  14. Large-scale production of megakaryocytes from human pluripotent stem cells by chemically defined forward programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Thomas; Evans, Amanda L.; Vasquez, Louella; Tijssen, Marloes R.; Yan, Ying; Trotter, Matthew W.; Howard, Daniel; Colzani, Maria; Arumugam, Meera; Wu, Wing Han; Dalby, Amanda; Lampela, Riina; Bouet, Guenaelle; Hobbs, Catherine M.; Pask, Dean C.; Payne, Holly; Ponomaryov, Tatyana; Brill, Alexander; Soranzo, Nicole; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Ghevaert, Cedric

    2016-01-01

    The production of megakaryocytes (MKs)—the precursors of blood platelets—from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) offers exciting clinical opportunities for transfusion medicine. Here we describe an original approach for the large-scale generation of MKs in chemically defined conditions using a forward programming strategy relying on the concurrent exogenous expression of three transcription factors: GATA1, FLI1 and TAL1. The forward programmed MKs proliferate and differentiate in culture for several months with MK purity over 90% reaching up to 2 × 105 mature MKs per input hPSC. Functional platelets are generated throughout the culture allowing the prospective collection of several transfusion units from as few as 1 million starting hPSCs. The high cell purity and yield achieved by MK forward programming, combined with efficient cryopreservation and good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compatible culture, make this approach eminently suitable to both in vitro production of platelets for transfusion and basic research in MK and platelet biology. PMID:27052461

  15. Large-scale production of megakaryocytes from human pluripotent stem cells by chemically defined forward programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Thomas; Evans, Amanda L; Vasquez, Louella; Tijssen, Marloes R; Yan, Ying; Trotter, Matthew W; Howard, Daniel; Colzani, Maria; Arumugam, Meera; Wu, Wing Han; Dalby, Amanda; Lampela, Riina; Bouet, Guenaelle; Hobbs, Catherine M; Pask, Dean C; Payne, Holly; Ponomaryov, Tatyana; Brill, Alexander; Soranzo, Nicole; Ouwehand, Willem H; Pedersen, Roger A; Ghevaert, Cedric

    2016-01-01

    The production of megakaryocytes (MKs)--the precursors of blood platelets--from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) offers exciting clinical opportunities for transfusion medicine. Here we describe an original approach for the large-scale generation of MKs in chemically defined conditions using a forward programming strategy relying on the concurrent exogenous expression of three transcription factors: GATA1, FLI1 and TAL1. The forward programmed MKs proliferate and differentiate in culture for several months with MK purity over 90% reaching up to 2 × 10(5) mature MKs per input hPSC. Functional platelets are generated throughout the culture allowing the prospective collection of several transfusion units from as few as 1 million starting hPSCs. The high cell purity and yield achieved by MK forward programming, combined with efficient cryopreservation and good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compatible culture, make this approach eminently suitable to both in vitro production of platelets for transfusion and basic research in MK and platelet biology. PMID:27052461

  16. Physiological study of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains in a novel chemically defined medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervaux, C; Ehrlich, S D; Maguin, E

    2000-12-01

    We developed a chemically defined medium called milieu proche du lait (MPL), in which 22 Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) strains exhibited growth rates ranging from 0.55 to 1 h(-1). MPL can also be used for cultivation of other lactobacilli and Streptococcus thermophilus. The growth characteristics of L. bulgaricus in MPL containing different carbon sources were determined, including an initial characterization of the phosphotransferase system transporters involved. For the 22 tested strains, growth on lactose was faster than on glucose, mannose, and fructose. Lactose concentrations below 0.4% were limiting for growth. We isolated 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutants from strains CNRZ397 and ATCC 11842. CNRZ397-derived mutants were all deficient for glucose, fructose, and mannose utilization, indicating that these three sugars are probably transported via a unique mannose-specific-enzyme-II-like transporter. In contrast, mutants of ATCC 11842 exhibited diverse phenotypes, suggesting that multiple transporters may exist in that strain. We also developed a protein labeling method and verified that exopolysaccharide production and phage infection can occur in MPL. The MPL medium should thus be useful in conducting physiological studies of L. bulgaricus and other lactic acid bacteria under well controlled nutritional conditions.

  17. Factors affecting exocellular polysaccharide production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus grown in a chemically defined medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, S; Furlan, S; Crepeau, M J; Cerning, J; Desmazeaud, M

    2000-08-01

    We developed a chemically defined medium (CDM) containing lactose or glucose as the carbon source that supports growth and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production of two strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The factors found to affect EPS production in this medium were oxygen, pH, temperature, and medium constituents, such as orotic acid and the carbon source. EPS production was greatest during the stationary phase. Composition analysis of EPS isolated at different growth phases and produced under different fermentation conditions (varying carbon source or pH) revealed that the component sugars were the same. The EPS from strain L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CNRZ 1187 contained galactose and glucose, and that of strain L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CNRZ 416 contained galactose, glucose, and rhamnose. However, the relative proportions of the individual monosaccharides differed, suggesting that repeating unit structures can vary according to specific medium alterations. Under pH-controlled fermentation conditions, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains produced as much EPS in the CDM as in milk. Furthermore, the relative proportions of individual monosaccharides of EPS produced in pH-controlled CDM or in milk were very similar. The CDM we developed may be a useful model and an alternative to milk in studies of EPS production.

  18. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to regional specific neural precursors in chemically defined medium conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaven Erceg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells (hESC provide a unique model to study early events in human development. The hESC-derived cells can potentially be used to replace or restore different tissues including neuronal that have been damaged by disease or injury. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cells of two different hESC lines were converted to neural rosettes using adherent and chemically defined conditions. The progenitor cells were exposed to retinoic acid (RA or to human recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF in the late phase of the rosette formation. Exposing the progenitor cells to RA suppressed differentiation to rostral forebrain dopamine neural lineage and promoted that of spinal neural tissue including motor neurons. The functional characteristics of these differentiated neuronal precursors under both, rostral (bFGF and caudalizing (RA signals were confirmed by patch clamp analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that our differentiation protocol has the capacity to generate region-specific and electrophysiologically active neurons under in vitro conditions without embryoid body formation, co-culture with stromal cells and without presence of cells of mesodermal or endodermal lineages.

  19. Culture of rat cerebral oligodendrocytes in a serum-free, chemically defined medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, J.W.; Lopes-Cardozo, M.; Romijn, H.J.; Golde, L.M.G. van

    1984-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes were isolated from the cerebra of young rats (5-10 days old) by trypsinization of the tissue followed by cell separation on Percoll gradients. The isolation was carried out in physiological, isotonic media. The cell yield was 2-4 × 10⁶ cells per brain; the plating efficiency was ≥70

  20. Scalable cultivation of human pluripotent stem cells on chemically-defined surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Michael Chi-Wei

    Human stem cells (SCs) are classified as self-renewing cells possessing great ability in therapeutic applications due of their ability to differentiate along any major cell lineage in the human body. Despite their restorative potential, widespread use of SCs is hampered by strenuous control issues. Along with the need for strict xeno-free environments to sustain growth in culture, current methods for growing human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) rely on platforms which impede large-scale cultivation and therapeutic delivery. Hence, any progress towards development of large-scale culture systems is severely hindered. In a concentrated effort to develop a scheme that can serve as a model precursor for large scale SC propagation in clinical use, we have explored methods for cultivating hPSCs on completely defined surfaces. We discuss novel approaches with the potential to go beyond the limitations presented by current methods. In particular, we studied the cultivation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) on surface which underwent synthetic or chemical modification. Current methods for hPSCs rely on animal-based extracellular matrices (ECMs) such as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) or feeders and murine sacoma cell-derived substrates to facilitate their growth. While these layers or coatings can be used to maximize the output of hPSC production, they cannot be considered for clinical use because they risk introducing foreign pathogens into culture. We have identified and developed conditions for a completely defined xeno-free substrate used for culturing hPSCs. By utilizing coupling chemistry, we can functionalize ester groups on a given surface and conjugate synthetic peptides containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif, known for their role in cell adhesion. This method offers advantages over traditional hPSC culture by keeping the modified substrata free of xenogenic response and can be scaled up in

  1. Derivation of mesenchymal stromal cells from pluripotent stem cells through a neural crest lineage using small molecule compounds with defined media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Fukuta

    Full Text Available Neural crest cells (NCCs are an embryonic migratory cell population with the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types that contribute to the craniofacial skeleton, cornea, peripheral nervous system, and skin pigmentation. This ability suggests the promising role of NCCs as a source for cell-based therapy. Although several methods have been used to induce human NCCs (hNCCs from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, further modifications are required to improve the robustness, efficacy, and simplicity of these methods. Chemically defined medium (CDM was used as the basal medium in the induction and maintenance steps. By optimizing the culture conditions, the combination of the GSK3β inhibitor and TGFβ inhibitor with a minimum growth factor (insulin very efficiently induced hNCCs (70-80% from hPSCs. The induced hNCCs expressed cranial NCC-related genes and stably proliferated in CDM supplemented with EGF and FGF2 up to at least 10 passages without changes being observed in the major gene expression profiles. Differentiation properties were confirmed for peripheral neurons, glia, melanocytes, and corneal endothelial cells. In addition, cells with differentiation characteristics similar to multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs were induced from hNCCs using CDM specific for human MSCs. Our simple and robust induction protocol using small molecule compounds with defined media enabled the generation of hNCCs as an intermediate material producing terminally differentiated cells for cell-based innovative medicine.

  2. How to Define Media in a Mediatized Society? A Media Pedagogical Proposal Inspired by Theoretical Ideas of ­Castells, Luhmann and Peirce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardo Herzig

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning processes of children, adolescents and adults do not only take place in formal contexts like school, but also in informal contexts, such as in the family or in one’s peer group, or in non-formal social contexts like clubs. In many of these learning processes media play a significant role – as an instrument and as a subject for learning. Therefore it is an important task for media education to describe and analyze such processes and to formulate pedagogical consequences for learning with and about media. To realize this challenge, it is helpful and necessary to develop a definition of media which is adequate for learning in different contexts of a mediatized society. We discuss three theoretical approaches: a network perspective, systems theory and semiotics to help us to create an appropriate definition of media offers. We use an everyday life example (communication with and via Facebook to illustrate our argument.

  3. Mass transfer in porous media with heterogeneous chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza S.M.A.G.Ulson de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the modeling of the mass transfer process in packed-bed reactors is presented and takes into account dispersion in the main fluid phase, internal diffusion of the reactant in the pores of the catalyst, and surface reaction inside the catalyst. The method of volume averaging is applied to obtain the governing equation for use on a small scale. The local mass equilibrium is assumed for obtaining the one-equation model for use on a large scale. The closure problems are developed subject to the length-scale constraints and the model of a spatially periodic porous medium. The expressions for effective diffusivity, hydrodynamic dispersion, total dispersion and the Darcy's law permeability tensors are presented. Solution of the set of final equations permits the variations of velocity and concentration of the chemical species along the packed-bed reactors to be obtained.

  4. The effect of chemically defined medium on spontaneous calcium signaling of in situ chondrocytes during long-term culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yilu; Park, Miri; Cheung, Enoch; Wang, Liyun; Lu, X Lucas

    2015-04-13

    Chemically defined serum-free medium has been shown to better maintain the mechanical integrity of articular cartilage explants than serum-supplemented medium during long-term in vitro culture, but little is known about its effect on cellular mechanisms. We hypothesized that the chemically defined culture medium could regulate the spontaneous calcium signaling of in situ chondrocytes, which may modulate the cellular metabolic activities. Bovine cartilage explants were cultured in chemically defined serum-free or serum-supplemented medium for four weeks. The spontaneous intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) signaling of in situ chondrocytes was longitudinally measured together along with the biomechanical properties of the explants. The spontaneous [Ca(2+)]i oscillations in chondrocytes were enhanced at the initial exposure of serum-supplemented medium, but were significantly dampened afterwards. In contrast, cartilage explants in chemically defined medium preserved the level of calcium signaling, and showed more responsive cells with higher and more frequent [Ca(2+)]i peaks throughout the four week culture in comparison to those in serum medium. Regardless of the culture medium that the explants were exposed, a positive correlation was detected between the [Ca(2+)]i responsive rate and the stiffness of cartilage (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient=0.762). A stable pattern of [Ca(2+)]i peaks was revealed for each chondrocyte, i.e., the spatiotemporal features of [Ca(2+)]i peaks from a cell were highly consistent during the observation period (15 min). This study showed that the beneficial effect of chemically defined culture of cartilage explants is associated with the spontaneous [Ca(2+)]i signaling of chondrocytes in cartilage.

  5. Effect of Chemical Reactions on the Hydrologic Properties of Fractured and Rubbelized Glass Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the effect of chemical reactions on the hydrologic properties of geological media, such as porosity, permeability and dispersivity, is critical to many natural and engineered sub-surface systems. Influence of glass corrosion (precipitation and dissolution) reactions on fractured and rubbelized (crushed) forms HAN28 and LAWBP1, two candidate waste glass forms for a proposed immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) disposal facility at the Hanford, WA site, was investigated. Flow and tracer transport experiments were conducted using fractured and rubbelized forms, before and after subjecting them to corrosion using Vapor Hydration Testing (VHT) at 200 C temperature and 200 psig pressure, causing the precipitation of alteration products. Data were analyzed using analytical expressions and CXTFIT, a transport parameter optimization code, for the estimation of the hydrologic characteristics before and after VHT. It was found that glass reactions significantly influence the hydrologic properties of ILAW glass media. Hydrologic properties of rubbelized glass decreased due to precipitation reactions, whereas those of fractured glass media increased due to reaction which led to unconfined expansion of fracture aperture. The results are unique and useful to better understand the effect of chemical reactions on the hydrologic properties of fractured and rubbelized stony media in general and glass media in particular

  6. A chemically-defined protocol for generating chondrocytes from human embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Progress in generating robust differentiation protocols for efficient and scalable production of defined cell lineages from human embryonic stem cells (hESc) has been slow. Amongst the obstacles to be addressed are those inherent to standard hESc culture and differentiation practices including the use of feeder cells, serum and animal-derived matrices. These components are biologically complex, undefined and highly variable between batches, inhibiting the development of consistently reproduci...

  7. How to Define Media in a Mediatized Society? A Media Pedagogical Proposal Inspired by Theoretical Ideas of ­Castells, Luhmann and Peirce

    OpenAIRE

    Bardo Herzig; Sandra Aßmann

    2014-01-01

    Learning processes of children, adolescents and adults do not only take place in formal contexts like school, but also in informal contexts, such as in the family or in one’s peer group, or in non-formal social contexts like clubs. In many of these learning processes media play a significant role – as an instrument and as a subject for learning. Therefore it is an important task for media education to describe and analyze such processes and to formulate pedagogical consequences for learning w...

  8. Concentration levels of endocrine disrupting chemicals in environmental media of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Junheon; Choi, Kyunghee; Kim, Sangdon; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Eunkyoung; Jeon, Sung-Hwan; Na, Jin-Gyun [National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction As the public is more concerned about endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the Ministry of Environment in Korea has designed and established a mid- and long-term research plan on EDCs. Since 1999, the National Institute of Environmental Research has investigated the impact of EDCs on the natural ecosystem and carried out the field test for environmental monitoring. The goal of this study was to measure the contamination level of EDCs in a variety of environmental media, such as water, sediment, soil and air and to provide a basis for the sound management of EDCs and policy-making for the control of EDCs in Korea. Environmental monitoring sites were selected at representative sites through the nation. In 2002, 310 samples were collected from 122 sites of water, sediment, soil and air. The target EDCs examined were 93 chemicals in 45 chemical groups including Dioxin, coplanar PCBs, PCBs. Results show that 46 chemicals (31 chemical groups) including dioxins were detected in at least one environmental medium, while 47 chemicals including aldrin were not detected in any environmental media. In this study, the results of the fourth year of environmental monitoring are reported.

  9. Effects of selenium, calcium and calcium ionophore on human oocytes in vitro maturation in a chemically defined medium

    OpenAIRE

    Hessam Roustaei; Mohammad Hasan Fallahian; Fatemeh Peyghambari; Raheleh Aram; Mohammad Ali Sabbaghi; Elham Saboori; Mehri Makki; Abbas Ahmadi

    2012-01-01

    Background: In vitro maturation (IVM) of human oocytes is an emerging procedure quickly incorporated into the world of assisted reproductive technologies. As an effective method of in vitro maturation, several studies have reported the critical role of differentions on activating the complex process involved in both gamete maturation and fertilization. Objective: In this study, we supplemented a chemically defined medium with different combinations of selenium, calcium and calcium ionophore c...

  10. Defining chemical expansion: the choice of units for the stoichiometric expansion coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrocchelli, Dario; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Bishop, Sean R.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical expansion refers to the spatial dilation of a material that occurs upon changes in its composition. When this dilation is caused by a gradual, iso-structural increase in the lattice parameter with composition, it is related to the composition change by the stoichiometric expansion coeffi...... are provided for changes in oxygen content in fluorite, perovskite, and Ruddlesden-Popper (K2NiF4) phase materials used in solid oxide fuel cells....

  11. A chemical tool box defines mitotic and interphase roles for Mps1 kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Weijie; Don W Cleveland

    2010-01-01

    In this issue, three groups (Hewitt et al. 2010. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.201002133; Maciejowski et al. 2010. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.201001050; Santaguida et al. 2010. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.201001036) use chemical inhibitors to analyze the function of the mitotic checkpoint kinase Mps1. These studies demonstrate that Mps1 kinase activity ensures accurate chromosome segregation through its recruitment to kinetochores of mitotic checkpoint proteins, formation of interphase a...

  12. Chemical Atmosphere-Snow-Sea Ice Interactions: defining future research in the field, lab and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Markus

    2015-04-01

    The air-snow-sea ice system plays an important role in the global cycling of nitrogen, halogens, trace metals or carbon, including greenhouse gases (e.g. CO2 air-sea flux), and therefore influences also climate. Its impact on atmospheric composition is illustrated for example by dramatic ozone and mercury depletion events which occur within or close to the sea ice zone (SIZ) mostly during polar spring and are catalysed by halogens released from SIZ ice, snow or aerosol. Recent field campaigns in the high Arctic (e.g. BROMEX, OASIS) and Antarctic (Weddell sea cruises) highlight the importance of snow on sea ice as a chemical reservoir and reactor, even during polar night. However, many processes, participating chemical species and their interactions are still poorly understood and/or lack any representation in current models. Furthermore, recent lab studies provide a lot of detail on the chemical environment and processes but need to be integrated much better to improve our understanding of a rapidly changing natural environment. During a 3-day workshop held in Cambridge/UK in October 2013 more than 60 scientists from 15 countries who work on the physics, chemistry or biology of the atmosphere-snow-sea ice system discussed research status and challenges, which need to be addressed in the near future. In this presentation I will give a summary of the main research questions identified during this workshop as well as ways forward to answer them through a community-based interdisciplinary approach.

  13. Physico-chemical gradients within the hydrothermal chimney Roane define sharp boundaries for microbial community ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, K. L.; Kelley, D. S.; Girguis, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    The unique physico-chemical gradients characteristic of hydrothermal vents provide diverse niches for prokaryotic communities. To date, our knowledge of environmental constraints on microbial colonization and metabolic activity within active sulfide structures has been limited by the lack of co-registered in situ chemistry and appropriate, taxonomic and metabolic genetic markers. Here we characterize de novo endolithic microbial colonization using a sulfide microbial incubator within the hydrothermal vent Roane during a one-year deployment, with co-registered temperature, fluid chemistry and mineralogy. Taxanomic assessment of phylogenetic diversity via 16S rDNA extracted from the outer (40-70°C) and middle (150-240°C) chambers of the incubator revealed patterns of distribution comparable to previously published observations. However, quantitative and statistical analyses of 16S rDNA sequences from two chambers revealed very distinct communities, with less than 5% of the identified operational taxonomic units common to both chambers. Analyses of metagenomic data suggest an elevated potential for motility and select biosynthetic pathways in the outer chamber community. In contrast, the middle chamber community exhibits a greater potential for quorum sensing, biofilm formation and archaeal lipid biosynthesis. Striking differences in metabolic potential were also apparent. These data suggest that the distribution, abundance and physiological capacity of these communities is strongly governed by chemical and physical variability of the environment.

  14. Culture of bovine ovarian follicle wall sections maintained the highly estrogenic profile under basal and chemically defined conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, R.B. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Reprodução, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Salles, L.P. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Silva, I. Oliveira e; Gulart, L.V.M. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Reprodução, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Souza, D.K. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Reprodução, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Faculdade de Ceilândia, Universidade de Brasília, Ceilândia, DF (Brazil); Torres, F.A.G. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Bocca, A.L. [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Silva, A.A.M. Rosa e [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Reprodução, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2013-08-16

    Follicle cultures reproduce in vitro the functional features observed in vivo. In a search for an ideal model, we cultured bovine antral follicle wall sections (FWS) in a serum-free defined medium (DM) known to induce 17β-estradiol (E{sub 2}) production, and in a nondefined medium (NDM) containing serum. Follicles were sectioned and cultured in NDM or DM for 24 or 48 h. Morphological features were determined by light microscopy. Gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor were determined by RT-PCR; progesterone (P{sub 4}) and E{sub 2} concentrations in the media were measured by radioimmunoassay. DM, but not NDM, maintained an FWS morphology in vitro that was similar to fresh tissue. DM also induced an increase in the expression of all steroidogenic enzymes, except FSH receptor, but NDM did not. In both DM and NDM, there was a gradual increase in P{sub 4} throughout the culture period; however, P{sub 4} concentration was significantly higher in NDM. In both media, E{sub 2} concentration was increased at 24 h, followed by a decrease at 48 h. The E{sub 2}:P{sub 4} ratio was higher in DM than in NDM. These results suggest that DM maintains morphological structure, upregulates the expression of steroidogenic enzyme genes, and maintains steroid production with a high E{sub 2}:P{sub 4} ratio in FWS cultures.

  15. Culture of bovine ovarian follicle wall sections maintained the highly estrogenic profile under basal and chemically defined conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follicle cultures reproduce in vitro the functional features observed in vivo. In a search for an ideal model, we cultured bovine antral follicle wall sections (FWS) in a serum-free defined medium (DM) known to induce 17β-estradiol (E2) production, and in a nondefined medium (NDM) containing serum. Follicles were sectioned and cultured in NDM or DM for 24 or 48 h. Morphological features were determined by light microscopy. Gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor were determined by RT-PCR; progesterone (P4) and E2 concentrations in the media were measured by radioimmunoassay. DM, but not NDM, maintained an FWS morphology in vitro that was similar to fresh tissue. DM also induced an increase in the expression of all steroidogenic enzymes, except FSH receptor, but NDM did not. In both DM and NDM, there was a gradual increase in P4 throughout the culture period; however, P4 concentration was significantly higher in NDM. In both media, E2 concentration was increased at 24 h, followed by a decrease at 48 h. The E2:P4 ratio was higher in DM than in NDM. These results suggest that DM maintains morphological structure, upregulates the expression of steroidogenic enzyme genes, and maintains steroid production with a high E2:P4 ratio in FWS cultures

  16. Effects of B vitamin deletion in chemically defined diets on brood development in Camponotus vicinus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, Mark E; Morrell, J J

    2014-08-01

    The potential contributions of B vitamins by a yeast associate to the nutrition of the carpenter ant Camponotus vicinus Mayr was examined as part of an effort to develop a chemically defined diet. This diet was used to test the effects of individual B vitamin and other nutrient deletions on larval development. The chemically defined diet contained amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and other growth factors in a liquid sucrose matrix. C. vicinus worker colonies with third- and fourth-instar larvae were fed a complete artificial diet or that diet with a component deleted for a 12-wk period. There was a significant effect of diet on larval growth and number of adult worker ants produced in the overall nutrient deletion test, but ant development was often better on incomplete diets with one B vitamin deleted compared with the complete holidic basal diet. Thiamine deletion resulted in significantly higher brood weights compared with the complete diet. Diets of sugar water plus all B vitamins, sugar water only, or a diet minus all B vitamins and cholesterol were associated with significantly lower brood weights. Significantly more adult worker ants were produced by worker colonies fed diets minus cholesterol, choline, thiamine, or riboflavin compared with the complete basal diet. The results suggest that the diet, while suitable for rearing, could benefit from further study to better define component levels. The potential relationship of C. vicinus with yeast associates is discussed in relation to further studies. PMID:25195415

  17. Effects of B vitamin deletion in chemically defined diets on brood development in Camponotus vicinus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, Mark E; Morrell, J J

    2014-08-01

    The potential contributions of B vitamins by a yeast associate to the nutrition of the carpenter ant Camponotus vicinus Mayr was examined as part of an effort to develop a chemically defined diet. This diet was used to test the effects of individual B vitamin and other nutrient deletions on larval development. The chemically defined diet contained amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and other growth factors in a liquid sucrose matrix. C. vicinus worker colonies with third- and fourth-instar larvae were fed a complete artificial diet or that diet with a component deleted for a 12-wk period. There was a significant effect of diet on larval growth and number of adult worker ants produced in the overall nutrient deletion test, but ant development was often better on incomplete diets with one B vitamin deleted compared with the complete holidic basal diet. Thiamine deletion resulted in significantly higher brood weights compared with the complete diet. Diets of sugar water plus all B vitamins, sugar water only, or a diet minus all B vitamins and cholesterol were associated with significantly lower brood weights. Significantly more adult worker ants were produced by worker colonies fed diets minus cholesterol, choline, thiamine, or riboflavin compared with the complete basal diet. The results suggest that the diet, while suitable for rearing, could benefit from further study to better define component levels. The potential relationship of C. vicinus with yeast associates is discussed in relation to further studies.

  18. Switching industrial production processes from complex to defined media: method development and case study using the example of Penicillium chrysogenum

    OpenAIRE

    Posch Andreas E; Spadiut Oliver; Herwig Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are versatile cell factories and widely used for the production of antibiotics, organic acids, enzymes and other industrially relevant compounds at large scale. As a fact, industrial production processes employing filamentous fungi are commonly based on complex raw materials. However, considerable lot-to-lot variability of complex media ingredients not only demands for exhaustive incoming components inspection and quality control, but unavoidably affects ...

  19. A Molecular and Chemical Perspective in Defining Melatonin Receptor Subtype Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Hou Wong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is primarily synthesized and secreted by the pineal gland during darkness in a normal diurnal cycle. In addition to its intrinsic antioxidant property, the neurohormone has renowned regulatory roles in the control of circadian rhythm and exerts its physiological actions primarily by interacting with the G protein-coupled MT1 and MT2 transmembrane receptors. The two melatonin receptor subtypes display identical ligand binding characteristics and mediate a myriad of signaling pathways, including adenylyl cyclase inhibition, phospholipase C stimulation and the regulation of other effector molecules. Both MT1 and MT2 receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system as well as many peripheral tissues, but each receptor subtype can be linked to specific functional responses at the target tissue. Given the broad therapeutic implications of melatonin receptors in chronobiology, immunomodulation, endocrine regulation, reproductive functions and cancer development, drug discovery and development programs have been directed at identifying chemical molecules that bind to the two melatonin receptor subtypes. However, all of the melatoninergics in the market act on both subtypes of melatonin receptors without significant selectivity. To facilitate the design and development of novel therapeutic agents, it is necessary to understand the intrinsic differences between MT1 and MT2 that determine ligand binding, functional efficacy, and signaling specificity. This review summarizes our current knowledge in differentiating MT1 and MT2 receptors and their signaling capacities. The use of homology modeling in the mapping of the ligand-binding pocket will be described. Identification of conserved and distinct residues will be tremendously useful in the design of highly selective ligands.

  20. Effect of glucose and pyruvate on nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of porcine oocytes in a chemically defined medium

    OpenAIRE

    FUNAHASHI, Hiroaki; Koike, Takayuki; Sakai, Ryoko

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine potential roles of glucose and pyruvate in nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of porcine oocytes. Oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCC), derived from 3 to 6 mm follicles, were cultured in a chemically defined medium (pyruvate-free mNCSU37-PVA), with or without 5.55 mM glucose, during in vitro maturation (IVM); in the absence of glucose, germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and nuclear maturation were prevented (P < 0.05). Subsequently, OCC were cultured for IVM in glucose-c...

  1. Novel Bio, Chemical, Environmental Sensing Based on New Model of Total Internal Reflection in Turbid Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Samir; Judge, Patrick; Phillip, Nathan; Boivin, Jordan; Scaffidi, Jonathan; Berberich, Jason; Bali, Lalit

    2014-05-01

    We have initiated a collaborative experimental research program that combines new advances in optical physics, field portable chemical analysis, and biosensing. Our goal is to discover and characterize new optical sensing methodologies in opaque, highly scattering (i.e., ``turbid'') media, and demonstrate new paradigms for optical sensing in research and industry. We have three specific objectives. First, we propose to fully characterize and validate a new model of total internal reflection (TIR) from highly turbid media thus enabling a first demonstration of non-invasive, in-situ, real-time particle sizing for the case of arbitrary scattering particle size-a holy grail in colloidal science. Second, we propose to implement a first demonstration of real-time non-invasive measurement of nanoparticle aggregation in highly turbid media. Third, we propose to use our new sensing methodology to demonstrate real-time in-situ label-free monitoring of molecular interactions and adsorption at surfaces. We gratefully acknowledge support from the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund and Miami University's Interdisciplinary Roundtable Fund. We also gratefully acknowledge experimental help from the Miami University Instrumentation Laboratory.

  2. Effect of commercially available chemically defined liquid diets on the intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation from the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverdy, J C; Aoys, E; Moss, G S

    1990-01-01

    The effect of chemically defined liquid diets on the intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation from the gut was studied in the rat. Seventy-five female Fischer rats were randomized to five groups of 15 animals each. Group I was fed rat chow and water, group II was fed Vivonex TEN, group III was fed Ensure, group IV was fed Enrich, and group V was fed Ensure plus ground corn cobs, a crude fiber source. Animals were fed their respective diets ad libitum for 1 week and then killed. Quantitative culture of the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and cecum was performed to determine bacterial translocation from the gut. A 66% translocation rate (10/15) of bacteria to MLN was observed in the animals fed Ensure and Enrich compared to 21% in the Vivonex TEN group (3/14) and 20% in the animals fed Ensure plus ground corn cobs (3/15). None of the animals in the control group eating their normal diets of rat chow and water developed positive MLN. Statistical significance (p less than 0.001) was achieved between the Ensure and Enrich groups when compared to controls but not between the Vivonex TEN and Ensure plus corn cobs. Cecal culture revealed a statistically significant rise in cecal bacteria in all groups when compared to the control group (group I). These results indicate that chemically defined liquid diets result in altered intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation from the gut. PMID:2325237

  3. Aqueous media treatment and decontamination of hazardous chemical and biological substances by contact plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usage of non-equilibrium contact plasma for processes of decontamination and neutralization in conditions of manifestation of chemical, biological and radiation terrorism takes on special significance due to portability of equipment and its mobility in places where toxic liquid media hazardous for people's health are located. Processes of decontamination of aqueous media, seminated with pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, treatment of water containing toxic heavy metals, cyanides, surface-active substances, and heavy radioactive elements, are investigated. Examples of activation processes in infected water and toxic aqueous solutions present convincing evidence of the way, how new quality technological approach for achievement of high enough degree of the said media treatment is used in each specific case. Among new properties of water activated as a result of action of non-equilibrium contact plasma, it is necessary to mention presence of cluster structure, confirmed by well-known spectral and physical-chemical methods, presence of peroxide compounds, active particles and radicals. Anti-microbial activity which is displayed under action of plasma in aqueous media (chemically pure water, drinking water, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, potassium iodide, as well as other inorganic compounds) towards wide range of pathogenic and conventionally pathogenic microorganisms allows use them as reliable, accessible and low-cost preparations for increasing the degree of safety of food products. Combination of such processes with known methods of filtration and ultra-filtration gives an efficient and available complex capable of withstanding any threats, which may arise for population and living organisms. Present-day level of machine-building, electrical engineering, and electronics allows predict creation of industrial plasma installations, adapted to conditions of various terrorist threats, with minimized power consumption and optimized technological parameters

  4. Heat and Moisture Transport in Unsaturated Porous Media -- A Coupled Model in Terms of Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Transport phenomena in porous media are commonplace in our daily lives. Examples and applications include heat and moisture transport in soils, baking and drying of food stuffs, curing of cement, and evaporation of fuels in wild fires. Of particular interest to this study are heat and moisture transport in unsaturated soils. Historically, mathematical models for these processes are derived by coupling classical Darcy's, Fourier's, and Fick's laws with volume averaged conservation of mass and energy and empirically based source and sink terms. Recent experimental and mathematical research has proposed modifications and suggested limitations in these classical equations. The primary goal of this thesis is to derive a thermodynamically consistent system of equations for heat and moisture transport in terms of the chemical potential that addresses some of these limitations. The physical processes of interest are primarily diffusive in nature and, for that reason, we focus on using the macroscale chemical potentia...

  5. Internal Domains of Natural Porous Media Revealed: Critical Locations for Transport, Storage, and Chemical Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachara, John M.; Brantley, Susan L.; Chorover, Jon D.; Ewing, Robert P.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Liu, Chongxuan; Perfect, E.; Rother, Gernot; Stack, Andrew G.

    2016-03-16

    Internal pore domains exist within rocks, lithic fragments, subsurface sediments and soil aggregates. These domains, which we term internal domains in porous media (IDPM), contain a significant fraction of their porosity as nanopores, dominate the reactive surface area of diverse porous media types, and are important locations for chemical reactivity and hydrocarbon storage. Traditionally difficult to interrogate, advances in instrumentation and imaging methods are providing new insights on the physical structures and chemical attributes of IDPM. In this review we: discuss analytical methods to characterize IDPM, evaluate what has been learned about their size distributions, connectivity, and extended structures; determine whether they exhibit unique chemical reactivity; and assess potential for their inclusion in reactive transport models. Three key findings are noteworthy. 1) A combination of methods now allows complete characterization of the porosity spectrum of natural materials and its connectivity; while imaging microscopies are providing three dimensional representations of the interconnected pore network. 2) Chemical reactivity in pores <10 nm is expected to be different from micro and macropores, yet research performed to date is inconclusive on the nature, direction, and magnitude of effect. 3) Existing continuum reactive transport models treat IDPM as a sub-grid feature with average, empirical, scale-dependent parameters; and are not formulated to include detailed information on pore networks. Overall we find that IDPM are key features controlling hydrocarbon release from shales in hydrofracking systems, organic matter stabilization and recalcitrance in soil, weathering and soil formation, and long term inorganic and organic contaminant behavior in the vadose zone and groundwater. We conclude with an assessment of impactful research opportunities to advance understanding of IDPM, and to incorporate their important effects in reactive transport models

  6. PENGARUH MEDIA KULTIVASI Chaetoceros gracilis TERHADAP KANDUNGAN KIMIAWI DAN POTENSI INHIBITOR PROTEASE [Effect of Chaetoceros gracilis Cultivation Media to the Chemical Content and Protease Inhibitor Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriani Setyaningsih*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae produce secondary metabolites with different characteristics for each genus, species or strain. A single species of microalgae can produce several bioactive compounds, including protease inhibitors which can prevent deterioration of fish. In this study, we observed the growth of Chaetoceros gracilis in the media NPSi and NPSi + NaHCO3 and determined the chemical content and the potency of protease inhibitor from Chaetoceros gracilis in both media. The culture was harvested at 8 and 15 days. Screening of protease inhibitor activity was performed by agar diffusion method. Protease inhibitor activity was tested on three pathogenic protease-producing bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. The pathogenic bacteria often contaminate foodstuffs. The results showed that media NPSi and NPSi + NaHCO3 affected protein and lipid content of C. gracilis, but the culture age did not affect them. The protein content of C. gracilis cultivated in NPSi media (34.75 and 32.94% was higher than in NPSi + NaHCO3 media (28.13 and 27.13%, while the lipid content was 16.36 and 18.06, 23.86 and 25.40% respectively. Extracts of C. gracilis grown in NPSi and NPSi+NaHCO3 media had inhibitory activity against the test bacteria. Inhibitory activity against E. coli was greater than S. aureus and B. cereus.

  7. Chemical Dissolution Pathways of MoS2 Nanosheets in Biological and Environmental Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongying; von dem Bussche, Annette; Qiu, Yang; Valentin, Thomas M; Gion, Kyle; Kane, Agnes B; Hurt, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    Material stability and dissolution in aqueous media are key issues to address in the development of a new nanomaterial intended for technological application. Dissolution phenomena affect biological and environmental persistence; fate, transport, and biokinetics; device and product stability; and toxicity pathways and mechanisms. This article shows that MoS2 nanosheets are thermodynamically and kinetically unstable to O2-oxidation under ambient conditions in a variety of aqueous media. The oxidation is accompanied by nanosheet degradation and release of soluble molybdenum and sulfur species, and generates protons that can colloidally destabilize the remaining sheets. The oxidation kinetics are pH-dependent, and a kinetic law is developed for use in biokinetic and environmental fate modeling. MoS2 nanosheets fabricated by chemical exfoliation with n-butyl-lithium are a mixture of 1T (primary) and 2H (secondary) phases and oxidize rapidly with a typical half-life of 1-30 days. Ultrasonically exfoliated sheets are in pure 2H phase, and oxidize much more slowly. Cytotoxicity experiments on MoS2 nanosheets and molybdate ion controls reveal the relative roles of the nanosheet and soluble fractions in the biological response. These results indicate that MoS2 nanosheets will not show long-term persistence in living systems and oxic natural waters, with important implications for biomedical applications and environmental risk. PMID:27267956

  8. Growth enhancement of the halotolerant Brevibacterium sp. JCM 6894 by methionine externally added to a chemically defined medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Haruo

    2014-01-01

    We examined amino acid requirements for the growth of the halotolerant Brevibacterium sp. JCM 6894 in the absence and presence of 1.2 M NaCl in a chemically defined medium. The experiment was also carried out in the presence of 1.2 M KCl. As a result, growth was highly enhanced by methionine in the absence and presence of KCl as well as NaCl up to 1.2 M. However, growth in the presence of 150 mM methionine was repressed by leucine (up to 100 mM)and valine (up to 100 mM). Concentration-dependent growth inhibition was observed in the presence of isoleucine (up to 150 mM) and threonine (up to 300 mM). When the cells were incubated in the absence of externally added K+, growth was strongly repressed, even in the presence of 150 mM methionine. The growth, however, recovered drastically by the addition of 1 mM KCl, regardless of the presence and absence of 1.2 M NaCl. These results indicate that methionine, which seems to be symported into cytoplasm with K+, plays an important role in the growth of the strain under salt stress. PMID:25252648

  9. Feasibility of Detecting Byproducts of Chemical Weapons Manufacturing in Environmental Media: A Preliminary Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, L; Reynolds, J G; Koester, C; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; Love, A H; Viani, B E

    2003-03-01

    Quantitative information on the environmental transport and fate of organophosphorus nerve agents has been limited to studies conducted at high concentration representative of acute doses (Munroe et al. 1999). Nerve agents have relatively rapidly degradation rates at acute levels, and first order degradation pathways and half-lives have been characterized. However, similar knowledge is lacking in the open literature on the long-term environmental persistence of nerve agents, their manufacturing precursors and byproducts, and their degradation products, particularly at sub-acute or chronic health levels. Although many recent publications reflect low-level detection methods for chemical weapons signature compounds extracted from a variety of different media (e.g. D'Agostino et al., 2001; Kataoka et al., 2001), little of this work answers questions regarding their adsorptive character and chemical persistence. However, these questions are a central theme to both the detection of illegal chemical weapons manufacturing, as well as determining long-term cleanup needs and health risks associated with potential terrorist acts using such agents. Adsorption onto environmental surfaces can enhance the persistence of organophosphorus compounds, particularly with strong chelators like phosphonic acids. In particular, organophosphorus compound adsorption can lead to irreversible binding (e.g. Aubin and Smith, 1992), and current methods of chemical extraction and solid-state detection are challenged to detect them. This may be particularly true if the adsorbed compound is of a low initial concentration because it may be that the most preferred adsorption sites form the strongest bonds. This is particularly true in mixed media having various adsorption domains that adsorb at different rates (e.g. Weber and Huang, 1996). For high enough initial concentrations, sorption sites become saturated and solvent extraction has a relatively high efficiency. It is no surprise that many

  10. Susceptibility of Microsporum canis arthrospores to a mixture of chemically defined essential oils: a perspective for environmental decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardoni, Simona; Tortorano, Annamaria; Mugnaini, Linda; Profili, Greta; Pistelli, Luisa; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pisseri, Francesca; Papini, Roberto; Mancianti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The zoophilic dermatophyte Microsporum canis has cats as natural reservoir, but it is able to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, where different clinical features of the so-called ringworm dermatophytosis have been described. Human infections are increasingly been reported in Mediterranean countries. A reliable control program against M. canis infection in cats should include an antifungal treatment of both the infected animals and their living environment. In this article, a herbal mixture composed of chemically defined essential oils (EOs) of Litsea cubeba (1%), Illicium verum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Pelargonium graveolens (0.5% each) was formulated and its antifungal activity assessed against M. canis arthrospores which represent the infective environmental stage of M. canis. Single compounds present in higher amounts in the mixture were also separately tested in vitro. Litsea cubeba and P. graveolens EOs were most effective (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.5%), followed by EOs of I. verum (MIC 2%) and F. vulgare (MIC 2.5%). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) values were 0.75% (L. cubeba), 1.5% (P. graveolens), 2.5% (I. verum) and 3% (F. vulgare). MIC and MFC values of the mixture were 0.25% and 0.5%, respectively. The daily spray of the mixture (200 μL) directly onto infected hairs inhibited fungal growth from the fourth day onwards. The compounds present in higher amounts exhibited variable antimycotic activity, with MIC values ranging from >10% (limonene) to 0.1% (geranial and neral). Thus, the mixture showed a good antifungal activity against arthrospores present in infected hairs. These results are promising for a further application of the mixture as an alternative tool or as an adjuvant in the environmental control of feline microsporosis. PMID:25854840

  11. Norepinephrine stimulates progesterone production in highly estrogenic bovine granulosa cells cultured under serum-free, chemically defined conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccinato Carla A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since noradrenergic innervation was described in the ovarian follicle, the actions of the intraovarian catecholaminergic system have been the focus of a variety of studies. We aimed to determine the gonadotropin-independent effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE in the steroid hormone profile of a serum-free granulosa cell (GC culture system in the context of follicular development and dominance. Methods Primary bovine GCs were cultivated in a serum-free, chemically defined culture system supplemented with 0.1% polyvinyl alcohol. The culture features were assessed by hormone measurements and ultrastructural characteristics of GCs. Results GCs produced increasing amounts of estradiol and pregnenolone for 144h and maintained ultrastructural features of healthy steroidogenic cells. Progesterone production was also detected, although it significantly increased only after 96h of culture. There was a highly significant positive correlation between estradiol and pregnenolone production in high E2-producing cultures. The effects of NE were further evaluated in a dose–response study. The highest tested concentration of NE (10 (−7 M resulted in a significant increase in progesterone production, but not in estradiol or pregnenolone production. The specificity of NE effects on progesterone productio n was further investigated by incubating GCs with propranolol (10 (−8 M, a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Conclusions The present culture system represents a robust model to study the impact of intrafollicular factors, such as catecholamines, in ovarian steroidogenesis and follicular development. The results of noradrenergic effects in the steroidogenesis of GC have implications on physiological follicular fate and on certain pathological ovarian conditions such as cyst formation and anovulation.

  12. Chemically differentiating ascorbate-mediated dissolution of quantum dots in cell culture media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Cheng-Kuan; Sun, Yuh-Chang

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the dynamic dissolution of quantum dots (QDs) in cell culture media, in this study we constructed an online automatic analytical system comprising a sequential in-tube solid phase extraction (SPE) device and an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometer. By means of selectively extracting QDs and cadmium ions (Cd2+) onto the interior surface of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tube, this novel SPE device could be used to determine the degree of QD dissolution through a simple adjustment of sample acidity. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to exploit PTFE tubing as a selective SPE adsorbent for the online chemical differentiation of QDs and Cd2+ ions with the goal of monitoring the phenomenon of QD dissolution in complicated biological matrices. We confirmed the analytical reliability of this system through comparison of the measured Cd-to-QD ratios to the expected values. When analyzing QDs and Cd2+ ions at picomolar levels, a temporal resolution of 8 min was required to load sufficient amounts of the analytes to meet the sensitivity requirements of the ICP mass spectrometer. To demonstrate the practicability of this developed method, we measured the dynamic variations in the Cd-to-QD705 ratio in the presence of ascorbate as a physiological stimulant to generate reactive oxygen species in cell culture media and trigger the dissolution of QDs; our results suggest that the ascorbate-induced QD dissolution was dependent on the time, treatment concentration, and nature of the biomolecule.To investigate the dynamic dissolution of quantum dots (QDs) in cell culture media, in this study we constructed an online automatic analytical system comprising a sequential in-tube solid phase extraction (SPE) device and an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometer. By means of selectively extracting QDs and cadmium ions (Cd2+) onto the interior surface of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tube, this novel SPE device could be

  13. Use of xenofree matrices and molecularly-defined media to control human embryonic stem cell pluripotency: effect of low physiological TGF-beta concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Isabelle; Barbet, Romain; Zhou, Yi-Ping; Li, Ma-Lin; Monier, Marie-Noëlle; Hatzfeld, Antoinette; Hatzfeld, Jacques A

    2008-06-01

    To monitor human embryonic stem cell (hESC) self-renewal without differentiation, we used quantitative RT-PCR to study a selection of hESC genes, including markers for self-renewal, commitment/differentiation, and members of the TGF-beta superfamily and DAN gene family. Indeed, low commitment/differentiation gene expression, together with a significant self-renewal gene expres sion, provides a better pluripotency index than self-renewal genes alone. We demonstrate that matrices derived from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can advantageously replace murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) or hMSC feeders. Moreover, a xenofree molecularly-defined SBX medium, containing a synthetic lipid carrier instead of albumin, can replace SR medium. The number of selected differentiation genes expressed by hESCs in these culture conditions was significantly lower than those expressed on MEF feeders in SR medium. In SBX, the positive effect of a non-physiological concentration of activin A (10-30 ng/mL) to reduce differentiation during self-renewal could also be obtained by physiological concentrations of TGF-beta(100-300 pg/mL). In contrast, these TGF-beta concentrations added to activin favored differentiation as previously observed with TGF-beta concentrations of 1 ng/mL or more. Compared to SR-containing medium, SBX medium promoted down-regulation of CER1 and LEFTIES and up-regulation of GREM1. Thus these genes better control self-renewal and pluripotency and prevent differentiation. A strategy is proposed to analyze, in more physiological, xenofree, molecularly-defined media and matrices, the numerous genes with still unknown functions controlling hESCs or human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). PMID:18513159

  14. A general approach for defining the macroscopic free energy density of saturated porous media at finite strains under non-isothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general approach is proposed for defining the macroscopic free energy density function (and its complement, the free enthalpy) of a saturated porous medium submitted to finite deformations under non-isothermal conditions, in the case of compressible fluid and solid constituents. Reference is made to an elementary volume treated as an 'open system', moving with the solid skeleton. The proposed free energy depends on the generalised strains (namely an appropriate measure of the strain of the solid skeleton and the variation in fluid mass content) and the absolute temperatures of the solid and fluid phases (which are assumed to differ from each other for the sake of generality). This macroscopic energy proves to be a potential for the generalised stresses (namely the associated measure of the total stress and the free enthalpy of the pore fluid per unit mass) and the entropies of the solid and fluid phases. In contrast with mixture theories, the resulting free energy is not the simple sum of the free energies of the single constituents. Two simplified cases are examined in detail, i.e. the semi-linear theory (originally proposed for isothermal conditions and extended here to non-isothermal problems) and the linear theory. The proposed approach paves the way to the consistent non-isothermal-hyper-elastic-plastic modelling of saturated porous media with a compressible fluid and solid constituents. (authors)

  15. Media and growth conditions for induction of secondary metabolite production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2012-01-01

    -defined media are suited for biochemical studies, but in order to get chemical diversity expressed in filamentous fungi, sources rich in amino acids, vitamins, and trace metals have to be added, such as yeast extract and oatmeal. A battery of solid agar media is recommended for exploration of chemical diversity...

  16. Defining the margin of terror - Explaining the chilling effect of insult and defamation laws on the media and artists in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Nordvik, Ragnhild Therese Valverde

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect that legislation on insult and defamation has on media practitioners and artists in Zimbabwe. The results of the study are based on analysis of data gathered through interviews with Zimbabwean journalists, editors, artists and scholars in March/April 2014. I look at factors that have an impact on the deterring effect of legislation and apply these theories to the data from Zimbabwe. The study documents that the media and art practitioners in Zimbabwe have multip...

  17. Reactive solute transport in physically and chemically heterogeneous porous media with multimodal reactive mineral facies: the Lagrangian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanian, Mohamad Reza; Ritzi, Robert W; Dai, Zhenxue; Huang, Chao Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Physical and chemical heterogeneities have a large impact on reactive transport in porous media. Examples of heterogeneous attributes affecting reactive mass transport are the hydraulic conductivity (K), and the equilibrium sorption distribution coefficient (Kd). This paper uses the Deng et al. (2013) conceptual model for multimodal reactive mineral facies and a Lagrangian-based stochastic theory in order to analyze the reactive solute dispersion in three-dimensional anisotropic heterogeneous porous media with hierarchical organization of reactive minerals. An example based on real field data is used to illustrate the time evolution trends of reactive solute dispersion. The results show that the correlation between the hydraulic conductivity and the equilibrium sorption distribution coefficient does have a significant effect on reactive solute dispersion. The anisotropy ratio does not have a significant effect on reactive solute dispersion. Furthermore, through a sensitivity analysis we investigate the impact of changing the mean, variance, and integral scale of K and Kd on reactive solute dispersion. PMID:25532767

  18. Reactive solute transport in physically and chemically heterogeneous porous media with multimodal reactive mineral facies: The Lagrangian approach

    CERN Document Server

    Soltanian, Mohamad Reza; Dai, Zhenxue; Huang, Chaocheng

    2014-01-01

    Physical and chemical heterogeneities have a large impact on reactive transport in porous media. Examples of heterogeneous attributes affecting reactive mass transport are the hydraulic conductivity (K), and the equilibrium sorption distribution coefficient (Kd). This paper uses the Deng et al. (2013) conceptual model for multimodal reactive mineral facies and a Lagrangian-based stochastic theory in order to analyze the reactive solute dispersion in three-dimensional anisotropic heterogeneous porous media with hierarchical organization of reactive minerals. An example based on real field data is used to illustrate the time evolution trends of reactive solute dispersion. The results show that the correlation between the hydraulic conductivity and the equilibrium sorption distribution coefficient does have a significant effect on reactive solute dispersion. The anisotropy ratio does not have a significant effect on reactive solute dispersion. Furthermore, through a sensitivity analysis we investigate the impact...

  19. The use of biodiversity as source of new chemical entities against defined molecular targets for treatment of malaria, tuberculosis, and T-cell mediated diseases: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Basso

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern approach to the development of new chemical entities against complex diseases, especially the neglected endemic diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria, is based on the use of defined molecular targets. Among the advantages, this approach allows (i the search and identification of lead compounds with defined molecular mechanisms against a defined target (e.g. enzymes from defined pathways, (ii the analysis of a great number of compounds with a favorable cost/benefit ratio, (iii the development even in the initial stages of compounds with selective toxicity (the fundamental principle of chemotherapy, (iv the evaluation of plant extracts as well as of pure substances. The current use of such technology, unfortunately, is concentrated in developed countries, especially in the big pharma. This fact contributes in a significant way to hamper the development of innovative new compounds to treat neglected diseases. The large biodiversity within the territory of Brazil puts the country in a strategic position to develop the rational and sustained exploration of new metabolites of therapeutic value. The extension of the country covers a wide range of climates, soil types, and altitudes, providing a unique set of selective pressures for the adaptation of plant life in these scenarios. Chemical diversity is also driven by these forces, in an attempt to best fit the plant communities to the particular abiotic stresses, fauna, and microbes that co-exist with them. Certain areas of vegetation (Amazonian Forest, Atlantic Forest, Araucaria Forest, Cerrado-Brazilian Savanna, and Caatinga are rich in species and types of environments to be used to search for natural compounds active against tuberculosis, malaria, and chronic-degenerative diseases. The present review describes some strategies to search for natural compounds, whose choice can be based on ethnobotanical and chemotaxonomical studies, and screen for their ability to bind to immobilized

  20. Heat and Moisture Transport in Unsaturated Porous Media -- A Coupled Model in Terms of Chemical Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Transport phenomena in porous media are commonplace in our daily lives. Examples and applications include heat and moisture transport in soils, baking and drying of food stuffs, curing of cement, and evaporation of fuels in wild fires. Of particular interest to this study are heat and moisture transport in unsaturated soils. Historically, mathematical models for these processes are derived by coupling classical Darcy's, Fourier's, and Fick's laws with volume averaged conservation of mass and ...

  1. Defining gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Joey Shapiro; Hendry, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The announcement confirming the discovery of gravitational waves created sensational media interest. But educational outreach and communication must remain high on the agenda if the general public is to understand such a landmark result.

  2. Non-integrating episomal plasmid-based reprogramming of human amniotic fluid stem cells into induced pluripotent stem cells in chemically defined conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamecka, Jaroslav; Salimova, Lilia; McClellan, Steven; van Kelle, Mathieu; Kehl, Debora; Laurini, Javier; Cinelli, Paolo; Owen, Laurie; Hoerstrup, Simon P; Weber, Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) represent an attractive potential cell source for fetal and pediatric cell-based therapies. However, upgrading them to pluripotency confers refractoriness toward senescence, higher proliferation rate and unlimited differentiation potential. AFSC were observed to rapidly and efficiently reacquire pluripotency which together with their easy recovery makes them an attractive cell source for reprogramming. The reprogramming process as well as the resulting iPSC epigenome could potentially benefit from the unspecialized nature of AFSC. iPSC derived from AFSC also have potential in disease modeling, such as Down syndrome or β-thalassemia. Previous experiments involving AFSC reprogramming have largely relied on integrative vector transgene delivery and undefined serum-containing, feeder-dependent culture. Here, we describe non-integrative oriP/EBNA-1 episomal plasmid-based reprogramming of AFSC into iPSC and culture in fully chemically defined xeno-free conditions represented by vitronectin coating and E8 medium, a system that we found uniquely suited for this purpose. The derived AF-iPSC lines uniformly expressed a set of pluripotency markers Oct3/4, Nanog, Sox2, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81 in a pattern typical for human primed PSC. Additionally, the cells formed teratomas, and were deemed pluripotent by PluriTest, a global expression microarray-based in-silico pluripotency assay. However, we found that the PluriTest scores were borderline, indicating a unique pluripotent signature in the defined condition. In the light of potential future clinical translation of iPSC technology, non-integrating reprogramming and chemically defined culture are more acceptable.

  3. Active biopolymers in green non-conventional media: a sustainable tool for developing clean chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Pedro; Bernal, Juana M; Nieto, Susana; Gomez, Celia; Garcia-Verdugo, Eduardo; Luis, Santiago V

    2015-12-21

    The greenness of chemical processes turns around two main axes: the selectivity of catalytic transformations, and the separation of pure products. The transfer of the exquisite catalytic efficiency shown by enzymes in nature to chemical processes is an important challenge. By using appropriate reaction systems, the combination of biopolymers with supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and ionic liquids (ILs) resulted in synergetic and outstanding platforms for developing (multi)catalytic green chemical processes, even under flow conditions. The stabilization of biocatalysts, together with the design of straightforward approaches for separation of pure products including the full recovery and reuse of enzymes/ILs systems, are essential elements for developing clean chemical processes. By understanding structure-function relationships of biopolymers in ILs, as well as for ILs themselves (e.g. sponge-like ionic liquids, SLILs; supported ionic liquids-like phases, SILLPs, etc.), several integral green chemical processes of (bio)catalytic transformation and pure product separation are pointed out (e.g. the biocatalytic production of biodiesel in SLILs, etc.). Other developments based on DNA/ILs systems, as pathfinder studies for further technological applications in the near future, are also considered.

  4. Chemicals identified in human biological media: a data base. Third annual report, October 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, M.V.; Baldauf, M.F.; Martin, F.M. (comps.)

    1981-12-01

    Data from almost 1600 of the 3800 body-burden documents collected to date have been entered in the data base as of October 1981. The emphasis on including recent literature and significant research documents has resulted in a chronological mix of articles from 1974 to the present. When body-burden articles are identified, data are extracted and entered in the data base by chemical and tissue/body fluid. Each data entry comprises a single record (or line entry) and is assigned a record number. If a particular document deals with more than one chemical and/or tissue, there will be multiple records for that document. For example, a study of 5 chemicals in each of 3 tissues has 15 different records (or 15 line entries) in the data base with 15 record numbers. Record numbers are assigned consecutively throughout the entire data base and appear in the upper left corner of the first column for each record.

  5. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Cocopeat-Based Media Mixtures and Their Effects on the Growth and Development of Celosia cristata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Awang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Cocopeat is considered as a good growing media component with acceptable pH, electrical conductivity and other chemical attributes but it has been recognized to have high water holding capacity which causes poor air-water relationship, leading to low aeration within the medium, thus affecting the oxygen diffusion to the roots. Incorporation of coarser materials into cocopeat could improve the aeration status of the media. Approach: Selected chemical and physical characteristics of five types of growing media comprising of (v/v 100% cocopeat, 70% cocopeat: 30% burnt rice hull, 70% cocopeat: 30% perlite, 70% cocopeat: 30% kenaf core fiber and 40% cocopeat: 60% kenaf core fiber were determined and their suitability as growing media was tested using Celosia cristata. Data on pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC and various aspects of air-water relationships of the media, as well on growth and flowering of test plant and leaf nutrient contents were collected. Results: Initial pH for 100% cocopeat and 70% cocopeat: 30% kenaf core fiber was higher than the other media but the values were eventually similar by the end of the study. The bulk density and EC of media containing burnt rice hull was markedly higher than the other media (0.12 g cm3 and 0.48 mS cm-1, respectively. Media comprising of 70% cocopeat: 30% burnt rice hull and 70% cocopeat: 30% perlite contained higher air content. The former held the highest volume of available water. Incorporation of burnt rice hull and perlite into cocopeat increased water absorption ability of the media which reached saturation earlier than the other media. Addition of burnt rice hull (30%, perlite (30% and kenaf core fiber (30% to cocopeat elevated the Air-Filled Porosity (AFP of the media. The growth and flowering of Celosia cristata were the greatest when grown in a mixture of 70% cocopeat: 30% burnt rice hull and perhaps linked with a good balance

  6. Modeling the Changes in Unsaturated Hydraulic Properties of Subsurface Media due to Chemical Reactions: A Film Depositional Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, V. L.; Bacon, D. H.; Saripalli, K. P.; Meyer, P. D.

    2001-12-01

    Precipitation and dissolution of minerals in the subsurface can cause a significant reduction in porosity and permeability by plugging pore throats in aquifer and reservoir media. Changes in these two basic properties of the medium also result in significant changes in the remaining 'derived properties' (i.e., relative permeability, fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfacial areas, pore and particle size distributions) and the constitutive relationships among these properties. Very few published works on modeling the influence of chemical reactions and fluid flow on porosity and permeability account for the spatial and temporal changes in the hydrologic properties on flow and transport. This study reports on the development of a methodology for modeling changes in permeability of unsaturated sub-surface media due to glass and mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions using a film depositional modeling approach. The model is based on the assumption that the mineral precipitate is deposited on the pore walls as a continuous film, causing a reduction in permeability. In this study, the film depositional model is developed for a discrete pore-size distribution, which is determined using the unsaturated hydraulic properties of the porous medium. This facilitates the process of dynamically updating the unsaturated hydraulic parameters used to describe fluid flow through the media. The resulting algorithms are implemented in the multiphase, multicomponent reactive transport code STORM (Sub-surface Transport over Reactive Multiphases). The modeling approach is tested using the Hanford's Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) repository, where the low-level waste from fuel fabrication activities is being vitrified and emplaced in the sub-surface. Results from simulation of the simultaneous dissolution of low-level glassified waste and secondary mineral precipitation show that the film depositional model based on the Mualem approach reasonably predicts permeability changes

  7. Hydrogenation of Furfural to Furfuryl Alcohol over Co-B Amorphous Catalysts Prepared by Chemical Reduction in Variable Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI, Hui; CHAI, Wei-Mei; LUO, Hong-Shan; LI, He-Xing

    2006-01-01

    Five Co-B amorphous alloy catalysts were prepared by chemical reduction in different media, including pure water and pure ethanol as well as the mixture of ethanol and water with variable ethanol content. Their catalytic properties were evaluated using liquid phase furfural hydrogenation to furfuryl alcohol as the probe reaction. It was found that the reaction media had no significant influence on either the amorphous structure of the Co-B catalyst or the electronic interaction between metallic Co and alloying B. This could successfully account for the fact that all the as-prepared Co-B catalysts exhibited almost the same selectivity to furfuryl alcohol and the same activity per surface area ( RSH ), which could be considered as the intrinsic activity, since the nature of active sites remained unchanged. However, the activity per gram of Co ( RmH ) of the as-prepared Co-B catalysts increased rapidly when the ethanol content in the water-ethanol mixture used as the reaction medium for catalyst preparation increased. This could be attributed to the rapid increase in the surface area possibly owing to the presence of more oxidized boron species which could serve as a support for dispersing the Co-B amorphous alloy particles.

  8. An Approach for Assessing the Signature Quality of Various Chemical Assays when Predicting the Culture Media Used to Grow Microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Aimee E.; Sego, Landon H.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Anderson, Richard M.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Weimar, Mark R.; Tardiff, Mark F.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate an approach for assessing the quality of a signature system designed to predict the culture medium used to grow a microorganism. The system was comprised of four chemical assays designed to identify various ingredients that could be used to produce the culture medium. The analytical measurements resulting from any combination of these four assays can be used in a Bayesian network to predict the probabilities that the microorganism was grown using one of eleven culture media. We evaluated combinations of the signature system by removing one or more of the assays from the Bayes network. We measured and compared the quality of the various Bayes nets in terms of fidelity, cost, risk, and utility, a method we refer to as Signature Quality Metrics

  9. Equipment for leak monitoring of walls separating media in power and chemical installations, mainly nuclear power plants steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equipment is described for leak monitoring of walls separating media in power and chemical installations. The partition walls consistf o two coaxial tubes. The inner surface of the outer tube and the outer surface of the inner tube are in contact. The contact surface is broken by at least one groove. Slots between both contact surfaces are connected to the intertube space into which one or more slots open. The configuration decreases or excludes the adverse effect of thermal resistance. In case of a medium penetrating in between the inner and the outer tubes, pressure in the slots, groove and intertube space changes. The change in the pressure value is recorded and is a measure of the average size of medium penetration. (J.B.)

  10. Conscious worst case definition for risk assessment, part I. A knowledge mapping approach for defining most critical risk factors in integrative risk management of chemicals and nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.S.; Thomsen, M.; Assmuth, T.;

    2010-01-01

    a conceptual modelling procedure that is able to define appropriate worst case conditions in complex risk management. The result of the analysis is an assembly of system models, denoted the Worst Case Definition (WCD) model, to set up and evaluate the conditions of multi-dimensional risk identification...... and effectively handles assumptions and definitions and allows the integration of different forms of knowledge, thereby supporting the inclusion of multifaceted risk components in cumulative risk management.......This paper helps bridge the gap between scientists and other stakeholders in the areas of human and environmental risk management of chemicals and engineered nanomaterials. This connection is needed due to the evolution of stakeholder awareness and scientific progress related to human...

  11. Protecting capacity against malaria of chemically defined tetramer forms based on the Plasmodium falciparum apical sushi protein as potential vaccine components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Magnolia; Bermúdez, Adriana; Guerrero, Yuly Andrea; Cortes-Vecino, Jesús Alfredo; Curtidor, Hernando; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Lozano, José Manuel

    2014-08-15

    Developing novel generations of subunit-based antimalarial vaccines in the form of chemically-defined macromolecule systems for multiple antigen presentation represents a classical problem in the field of vaccine development. Many efforts involving synthesis strategies leading to macromolecule constructs have been based on dendrimer-like systems, the condensation of large building blocks and conventional asymmetric double dimer constructs, all based on lysine cores. This work describes novel symmetric double dimer and condensed linear constructs for presenting selected peptide multi-copies from the apical sushi protein expressed in Plasmodium falciparum. These molecules have been proved to be safe and innocuous, highly antigenic and have shown strong protective efficacy in rodents challenged with two Plasmodium species. Insights into systematic design, synthesis and characterisation have led to such novel antigen systems being used as potential platforms for developing new anti-malarial vaccine candidates. PMID:25063026

  12. Chemically defined diet alters the protective properties of fructo-oligosaccharides and isomalto-oligosaccharides in HLA-B27 transgenic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya Koleva

    Full Text Available Non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO were shown to reduce inflammation in experimental colitis, but it remains unclear whether microbiota changes mediate their colitis-modulating effects. This study assessed intestinal microbiota and intestinal inflammation after feeding chemically defined AIN-76A or rat chow diets, with or without supplementation with 8 g/kg body weight of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO. The study used HLA-B27 transgenic rats, a validated model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, in a factorial design with 6 treatment groups. Intestinal inflammation and intestinal microbiota were analysed after 12 weeks of treatment. FOS and IMO reduced colitis in animals fed rat chow, but exhibited no anti-inflammatory effect when added to AIN-76A diets. Both NDO induced specific but divergent microbiota changes. Bifidobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae were stimulated by FOS, whereas copy numbers of Clostridium cluster IV were decreased. In addition, higher concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA were observed in cecal contents of rats on rat chow compared to the chemically defined diet. AIN-76A increased the relative proportions of propionate, iso-butyrate, valerate and iso-valerate irrespective of the oligosaccharide treatment. The SCFA composition, particularly the relative concentration of iso-butyrate, valerate and iso-valerate, was associated (P ≤ 0.004 and r ≥ 0.4 with increased colitis and IL-1 β concentration of the cecal mucosa. This study demonstrated that the protective effects of fibres on colitis development depend on the diet. Although diets modified specific cecal microbiota, our study indicates that these changes were not associated with colitis reduction. Intestinal inflammation was positively correlated to protein fermentation and negatively correlated with carbohydrate fermentation in the large intestine.

  13. Evaluation of different chemical preservatives to control Zygosaccharomyces rouxii growth in high sugar culture media

    OpenAIRE

    Rojo, María Cecilia; Arroyo López, Francisco Noé; Lerena, M. C.; Mercado, Laura A.; Torres, Álvaro; Combina, M.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is an osmophilic yeast responsible for a large amount of economic loss in high sugar food production. Statistical modelling techniques were used in the present study to assess the individual effects of different chemical preservatives (potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, dimethyldicarbonate, vanillin, ferulic, p-coumaric and caffeic acids) to control the growth of a cocktail of five yeast strains belonging to this species and isolated from spoilt ...

  14. Defining the Nation: National Identity in South Sudanese Media Discourse Eine Nation definieren: Die nationale Identität im südsudanesischen Mediendiskurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Frahm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines debates about national identity in the media landscape of post-referendum and post-independence South Sudan. Having never existed as a sovereign state and with its citizens being a minority group in Sudan, collective action among South Sudanese has historically been shaped in response to external pressures: in particular, the aggressive nation-building pursued by successive Khartoum governments that sought to Arabize and Islamize the South. Today, in the absence of a clear-cut enemy, it is a major challenge for South Sudan to devise a common identity that unites the putative nation beyond competing loyalties to ethnicity, tribe and family. Analysing opinion pieces from South Sudanese online media and placing them in the context of contemporary African nationalism, this article gives an initial overview of the issues that dominate the public debate on national identity: fear of tribalism and regionalism, commemoration of the liberation struggle, language politics, and the role of Christianity.Dieser Artikel widmet sich den Debatten, die in südsudanesischen Medien von der Nachreferendumszeit bis einige Monate nach der Unabhängigkeit über die nationale Identität geführt wurden. Der Südsudan hatte nie als souveräner Staat existiert und innerhalb des Sudan hatten die Südsudanesen eine Minderheit gebildet. In der Geschichte war gemeinschaftliches Handeln der Südsudanesen in erster Linie als Reaktion auf Druck von außen in Erscheinung getreten, insbesondere im Zusammenhang mit Arabisierungs- und Islamisierungsbestrebungen von Regierungen in Khartum. Heute fehlt ein eindeutiges Feindbild. Daher ist der Entwurf einer gemeinsamen Identität, die das Land über konkurrierende Loyalitäten zu Stamm, Ethnie oder Familie hinweg zu einen vermag, eine große Herausforderung für den Südsudan. Auf der Grundlage von Meinungsäußerungen in südsudanesischen Online-Zeitungen, die er zum „neuen“ afrikanischen

  15. Ethics and the Responsible Conduct of Research in the Chemical Community: The Unique Role and Challenges of the News Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, William G

    2015-01-01

    Journalists who cover scientific research, including chemistry research, have an obligation to report on alleged cases of research misconduct when knowledge of these surface. New Government definitions of research misconduct, beginning in the late 1990s with the Clinton Administration, have helped scientists, policymakers, as well as journalists sort out and make sense of alleged research misconduct. Journalistic reporting on research misconduct includes many challenges: gathering information from sources who are intimidated or afraid to speak, strict adherence to journalist ethics that take on a new dimension when careers, reputations, and research funding are at stake; efforts by government and institutional bureaucrats to dampen or thwart legitimate news coverage. The Internet, blogging, and social media have added still more complexity and ethical quandaries to this blend. The author, News Editor of Chemical & Engineering News published by the American Chemical Society, provides examples from his own career and that of colleagues. He suggests that an enhanced spirit of understanding and cooperation between journalists and members of the scientific community can lead to avenues of open discussion of research misconduct--discussions that might prevent and mitigate the very real damage caused by bad actors in science who betray themselves, their peers, and the body of modern day scientific knowledge when they make the decision to march into the darkness of dishonesty, plagiarism, or falsification.

  16. Chemically and biologically modified activated carbon sorbents for the removal of lead ions from aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed E; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M; Osman, Maher M; Ahmed, Somia B

    2012-01-01

    A method is described for hybridization of the adsorption and biosorption characteristics of chemically treated commercial activated carbon and baker's yeast, respectively, for the formation of environmental friendly multifunctional sorbents. Activated carbon was loaded with baker's yeast after acid-base treatment. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy were used to characterize these sorbents. Moreover, the sorption capabilities for lead (II) ions were evaluated. A value of 90 μmol g(-1) was identified as the maximum sorption capacity of activated carbon. Acid-base treatment of activated carbon was found to double the sorption capacity (140-180 μmol g(-1)). Immobilization of baker's yeast on the surface of activated carbon sorbents was found to further improve the sorption capacity efficiency of lead to 360, 510 and 560 μmol g(-1), respectively. Several important factors such as pH, contact time, sorbent dose, lead concentration and interfering ions were examined. Lead sorption process was studied and evaluated by several adsorption isotherms and found to follow the Langmuir and BET models. The potential applications of various chemically and biologically modified sorbents and biosorbents for removal of lead from real water matrices were also investigated via multistage micro-column technique and the results referred to excellent recovery values of lead (95.0-99.0 ± 3.0-5.0 %).

  17. Measurement of Effect of Chemical Reactions on the Hydrologic Properties of Fractured Glass Media Using a Tri-axial Flow and Transport Apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the effect of chemical reactions on the hydrologic properties of sub-surface media is critical to many natural and engineered sub-surface systems. Methods and information for such characterization of fractured media are severely lacking. Influence of glass corrosion (precipitation and dissolution) reactions on fractured glass blocks HAN28 and LAWBP1, two candidate waste glass forms for a proposed immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) disposal facility at the Hanford, WA site, was investigated. Flow and tracer transport experiments were conducted in such randomly and multiply fractured ILAW glass blocks, before and after subjecting them to corrosion using Vapor Hydration Testing (VHT) at 200 C temperature and 200 psig (1379 KPa) pressure, causing the precipitation of alteration products. A tri-axial fractured media flow and transport experimental apparatus, which allows the simultaneous measurement of flow and transport properties and their anisotropy, has been designed and built for this purpose. Such apparatus for fractured media characterization are being reported in the literature only recently. Hydraulic properties of fractured blocks were measured in different orientations and along different cardinal directions, before and after glass corrosion reactions. Miscible displacement experiments using a non-reactive dye were also conducted, before and after glass corrosion reactions, to study the tracer transport behavior through such media. Initial efforts to analyze breakthrough curve (BTC) data using a 1D Advection Dispersion Equation (ADE) solution revealed that a different fractured media transport model may be necessary for such interpretation. It was found that glass reactions can have a significant influence on the hydrologic properties of fractured ILAW glass media. The methods and results are unique and useful to better understand the effect of chemical reactions on the hydrologic properties of fractured geomedia in general and glass media in

  18. Measurement of effect of chemical reactions on the hydrologic properties of fractured glass media using a tri-axial flow and transport apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saripalli, K. Prasad; Lindberg, Michael J.; Meyer, Philip D.

    2006-09-01

    SummaryUnderstanding the effect of chemical reactions on the hydrologic properties of sub-surface media is critical to many natural and engineered sub-surface systems. Methods and information for such characterization of fractured media are severely lacking. Influence of glass corrosion (precipitation and dissolution) reactions on fractured glass blocks HAN28 and LAWBP1, two candidate waste glass forms for a proposed immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) disposal facility at the Hanford, WA site, was investigated. Flow and tracer transport experiments were conducted in such randomly and multiply fractured ILAW glass blocks, before and after subjecting them to corrosion using vapor hydration testing (VHT) at 200 °C temperature and 200 psig (1379 KPa) pressure, causing the precipitation of alteration products. A tri-axial fractured media flow and transport experimental apparatus, which allows the simultaneous measurement of flow and transport properties and their anisotropy, has been designed and built for this purpose. Such apparatus for fractured media characterization are being reported in the literature only recently. Hydraulic properties of fractured blocks were measured in different orientations and along different cardinal directions, before and after glass corrosion reactions. Miscible displacement experiments using a non-reactive dye were also conducted, before and after glass corrosion reactions, to study the tracer transport behavior through such media. Initial efforts to analyze breakthrough curve (BTC) data using a 1D advection dispersion equation (ADE) solution revealed that a different fractured media transport model, which accurately accounts for the heterogeneous transport behavior in 3D, may be necessary for such interpretation. It was found that glass reactions could have a significant influence on the hydrologic properties of fractured ILAW glass media. The methods and results are useful to better understand the effect of chemical reactions on

  19. A Theoretical Analysis of Colloid Attachment and Straining in Chemically Heterogeneous Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradford, Scott A.; Torkzaban, Saeed; Shapiro, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    to attachment. In contrast, the effects of rc and q on Sf* were diminished by hr in comparison to attachment. Colloid immobilization adjacent to macroscopic roughness locations shares many similarities to grain–grain contact points and may be viewed as a type of straining process. In general, attachment...... attachment conditions. This model considers resistance due to deformation and the horizontal component of the adhesive force (FAT), spatial variations in the pore scale velocity distribution, and the influence of hr on lever arms for TH and TA. Values of Sf* were calculated for a wide range...... of physicochemical properties to gain insight into mechanisms and factors influencing colloid immobilization. Colloid attachment processes were demonstrated to depend on solution ionic strength (IS), the colloid radius (rc), the Young’s modulus (K), the amount of chemical heterogeneity (P+), and the Darcy velocity...

  20. Chemicals identified in human biological media: a data base. Third annual report, October 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, M.V.; Baldauf, M.F.; Martin, F.M. (comps.)

    1981-12-01

    Part 2 contains the data base in tabular format. There are two sections, the first with records on nondrug substances, and the second with records on drugs. Chemicals in each section are arranged alphabetically by CAS preferred name, CAS registry number, formula, atomic weight, melting point, boiling point, and vapor pressure. Tissues are listed alphabetically with exposure route, analytical method, number of cases, range, and mean - when available in the source document. A variety of information may also be included that is pertinent to the range and mean as well as experimental design, demography, health effects, pathology, morphology, and toxicity. Review articles are included in the data base; however, no data have been extracted from such documents because the original research articles are included.

  1. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally ...

  2. Purification of an equine apotransferrin variant (thyromedin) essential for thyroid hormone dependent growth of GH1 rat pituitary tumor cells in chemically defined culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbasku, D A; Stewart, B H; Pakala, R; Eby, J E; Sato, H; Roscoe, J M

    1991-01-01

    Pituitary tumor cells require thyroid hormones for growth in vivo [Sorrentino, J. M., Kirkland, W. L., & Sirbasku, D. A. (1976) J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 56, 1155-1158]. In vitro, GH1 rat pituitary tumor cells were studied in a serum-free defined medium (PCM-10) formulated with Ham's F12 and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's media (1:1, v/v) supplemented with 2.2 g/L sodium bicarbonate, 15 mM 4-(2-hydroxy-ethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (pH 7.2), 10 micrograms/mL human transferrin, 50 microM ethanolamine, 10 micrograms/mL insulin, 10 ng/mL selenous acid, 0.1 nM 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and 500 micrograms/mL bovine serum albumin and in the same medium without T3 (PCM-0). The cells only grew in PCM-10 when low concentrations of horse serum were added. Attempts to replace the serum factor requirement with known growth factors and adhesion proteins were unsuccessful. The Mr 65,000-72,000 serum factor regulating T3-induced growth (thyromedin) was purified to homogeneity and identified as equine transferrin R and/or D by amino acid sequencing. The ED50 in PCM-10 was 17-40 micrograms/mL (260-620 nM) while in PCM-0 half-maximum growth was not achieved at 200 micrograms/mL. Concentrations of 75 micrograms/mL in PCM-10 caused 80% of serum-stimulated growth rate. Removal of iron from thyromedin, and assay in iron salts reduced PCM-10, increased the specific activity 110-270-fold to ED50 150 ng/mL (2.3 nM); at 1.0 micrograms/mL, growth in PCM-10 was 16-fold greater than in PCM-0. Iron saturation of thyromedin caused total loss of biological activity. We conclude that the horse transferrin variant isolated in this report is active as apotransferrin. PMID:1988026

  3. Defining Responsibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The notion of a“responsible China”was first put forward by former U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Robert Zoellick,when he said in an address in September 2005 that he hoped China would be a“stakeholder”with the United States in the current international system and should take its responsibilities in international affairs.American and Western media picked up on the term and now China also refers to itself as a”responsible big nation." Although both sides speak of“responsibility,”they mean different things by it.In the view of Wu Jianmin,President of the International Bureau of Exhibitions and former Chinese Ambassador to France,China’s “responsibilities”are mainly in the following areas:

  4. Conscious worst case definition for risk assessment, part I: a knowledge mapping approach for defining most critical risk factors in integrative risk management of chemicals and nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Peter B; Thomsen, Marianne; Assmuth, Timo; Grieger, Khara D; Baun, Anders

    2010-08-15

    This paper helps bridge the gap between scientists and other stakeholders in the areas of human and environmental risk management of chemicals and engineered nanomaterials. This connection is needed due to the evolution of stakeholder awareness and scientific progress related to human and environmental health which involves complex methodological demands on risk management. At the same time, the available scientific knowledge is also becoming more scattered across multiple scientific disciplines. Hence, the understanding of potentially risky situations is increasingly multifaceted, which again challenges risk assessors in terms of giving the 'right' relative priority to the multitude of contributing risk factors. A critical issue is therefore to develop procedures that can identify and evaluate worst case risk conditions which may be input to risk level predictions. Therefore, this paper suggests a conceptual modelling procedure that is able to define appropriate worst case conditions in complex risk management. The result of the analysis is an assembly of system models, denoted the Worst Case Definition (WCD) model, to set up and evaluate the conditions of multi-dimensional risk identification and risk quantification. The model can help optimize risk assessment planning by initial screening level analyses and guiding quantitative assessment in relation to knowledge needs for better decision support concerning environmental and human health protection or risk reduction. The WCD model facilitates the evaluation of fundamental uncertainty using knowledge mapping principles and techniques in a way that can improve a complete uncertainty analysis. Ultimately, the WCD is applicable for describing risk contributing factors in relation to many different types of risk management problems since it transparently and effectively handles assumptions and definitions and allows the integration of different forms of knowledge, thereby supporting the inclusion of multifaceted risk

  5. Defining Life

    OpenAIRE

    Benner, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Any definition is intricately connected to a theory that gives it meaning. Accordingly, this article discusses various definitions of life held in the astrobiology community by considering their connected “theories of life.” These include certain “list” definitions and a popular definition that holds that life is a “self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution.” We then act as “anthropologists,” studying what scientists do to determine which definition-theories of life they ...

  6. Organic compounds as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in acidic media: correlation between inhibition efficiency and chemical structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, Elizandra C.S.; Chrisman, Erika C.A.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2009-12-19

    The use of inhibitors for mild steels corrosion control which are in contact with aggressive environment is an accepted practice in acid treatment of oil-wells. Organic compounds have been studied to evaluate their corrosion inhibition potential. Film-forming corrosion inhibitors, commonly used to protect oil-field equipment, can be absorbed on the steel surface to give structurally ordered layers. Therefore, the electrons should act as an important role for this adsorption. Studies reveal that organic compounds show significant inhibition efficiency. For this purpose, their molecules should contain N, O and S heteroatoms in various functional groups, long hydrocarbon linear or branched radical and anion and cation active components. However, most of these compounds are not only expensive but also toxic to living beings. According to the 'Green Chemistry' rules, corrosion inhibitors based on organic compounds should be cheap, with low toxicity and have high inhibition efficiency. In this study, the effects of some organic compounds with different groups such as amide, ether, phenyldiamine, anime and aminophenol on the corrosion behavior of mild steel in acidic media have been investigated. The experimental data were obtained by gravimetric measurements. The results show that these compounds reveal a promising corrosion inhibition where phenyldiamine is the most efficient. The effect of molecular structure on the corrosion inhibition efficiency was investigated by semi-empirical quantum chemical calculations. The electronic properties such as highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels, and LUMO-HOMO energy gap orbital density were calculated. The relations between the inhibition efficiency and some quantum parameters are discussed and correlations are proposed. The highest values for the HOMO densities were found in the vicinity nitrogen atom, indicating that it is the most probable adsorption center

  7. The Electric Media Conspiracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    Media defines a process of marking time. I can only make my own marks as producer and consumer of my own media forms. Man is, all at once, life sound and life motion--a mark through time, leaving a trail of images behind. Media is a natural extension of being human. (SR)

  8. Media in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, Franca

    This 2-part report summarizes Dutch policy on mass media and reviews the status of cable television in the Netherlands. The first part defines the underlying principles of a national policy on mass media in relation to the press, commercial and educational television broadcasting, radio, cable television, and media research. Parliamentary debate…

  9. Media for study of growth kinetics and envelope properties of iron-deprived bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Kadurugamuwa, J L; Anwar, H; Brown, M.R.; Shand, G H; Ward, K H

    1987-01-01

    Ion-exchange chromatography was used to remove iron from complex and chemically defined laboratory media. The kinetics of metal cation removal from the media was investigated by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and the results indicated that over 90% of the iron could be eliminated from certain complex media by this treatment. The treated medium was used for growth studies in a gram-positive and a number of gram-negative organisms that were isolated from infections in humans. High-m...

  10. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1979. [Pyrochemical/dry processing; waste encapsulation in metal; transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    For pyrochemical and dry processing materials development included exposure to molten metal and salt of Mo-0.5% Ti-0.07% Ti-0.01% C, Mo-30% W, SiC, Si/sub 2/ON/sub 2/, ZrB/sub 2/-SiC, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, HfB/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, nickel nitrate-infiltrated W, W-coated Mo, and W-metallized alumina-yttria. Work on Th-U salt transport processing included solubility of Th in liquid Cd, defining the Cd-Th and Cd-Mg-Th phase diagrams, ThO/sub 2/ reduction experiments, and electrolysis of CaO in molten salt. Work on pyrochemical processes and associated hardware for coprocessing U and Pu in spent FBR fuels included a second-generation computer model of the transport process, turntable transport process design, work on the U-Cu-Mg system, and U and Pu distribution coefficients between molten salt and metal. Refractory metal vessels are being service-life tested. The chloride volatility processing of Th-based fuel was evaluated for its proliferation resistance, and a preliminary ternary phase diagram for the Zn-U-Pu system was computed. Material characterization and process analysis were conducted on the Exportable Pyrochemical process (Pyro-Civex process). Literature data on oxidation of fissile metals to oxides were reviewed. Work was done on chemical bases for the reprocessing of actinide oxides in molten salts. Flowsheets are being developed for the processing of fuel in molten tin. Work on encapsulation of solidified radioactive waste in metal matrix included studies of leach rate of crystalline waste materials and of the impact resistance of metal-matrix waste forms. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, adsorption of Sr on oolitic limestone was studied, as well as the migration of Cs in basalt. Fitting of data on the adsorption of iodate by hematite to a mathematical model was attempted.

  11. Quantitative and qualitative shifts in defensive metabolites define chemical defense investment during leaf development in Inga, a genus of tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Natasha L; Forrister, Dale L; Endara, María-José; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Selective pressures imposed by herbivores are often positively correlated with investments that plants make in defense. Research based on the framework of an evolutionary arms race has improved our understanding of why the amount and types of defenses differ between plant species. However, plant species are exposed to different selective pressures during the life of a leaf, such that expanding leaves suffer more damage from herbivores and pathogens than mature leaves. We hypothesize that this differential selective pressure may result in contrasting quantitative and qualitative defense investment in plants exposed to natural selective pressures in the field. To characterize shifts in chemical defenses, we chose six species of Inga, a speciose Neotropical tree genus. Focal species represent diverse chemical, morphological, and developmental defense traits and were collected from a single site in the Amazonian rainforest. Chemical defenses were measured gravimetrically and by characterizing the metabolome of expanding and mature leaves. Quantitative investment in phenolics plus saponins, the major classes of chemical defenses identified in Inga, was greater for expanding than mature leaves (46% and 24% of dry weight, respectively). This supports the theory that, because expanding leaves are under greater selective pressure from herbivores, they rely more upon chemical defense as an antiherbivore strategy than do mature leaves. Qualitatively, mature and expanding leaves were distinct and mature leaves contained more total and unique metabolites. Intraspecific variation was greater for mature leaves than expanding leaves, suggesting that leaf development is canalized. This study provides a snapshot of chemical defense investment in a speciose genus of tropical trees during the short, few-week period of leaf development. Exploring the metabolome through quantitative and qualitative profiling enables a more comprehensive examination of foliar chemical defense investment.

  12. Students' Perceptions, Attitudes, and Incorporation of Demonstrations, Popular Media Videos, and Animations Concerning Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Sarah Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Students often struggle with learning complex chemistry concepts. In today's society with the advances in multimedia technology, educators have a variety of tools available to help students learn these concepts. These tools include demonstrations, videos in the popular media, and animations; referred to collectively as multimethods. With the…

  13. Mixed-Media File Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Hendrikus Gerardus Petrus

    1999-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of implementing mixed-media storage systems. In this work a mixed-media file system is defined to be a system that stores both conventional (best-effort) file data and real-time continuous-media data. Continuous-media data is usually bulky, and servers storing and r

  14. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  15. Generation of eye field/optic vesicle-like structures from human embryonic stem cells under two-dimensional and chemically defined conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Maryam; Parivar, Kazem; Safari, Fatemeh; Tondar, Mahdi

    2015-03-01

    Despite the enormous progress in studying retinal cell differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), none of the reported protocols have produced a cost-effective eye field cells with the capability to further differentiate into retinal derivatives. In this study, by drawing chemicals on our four-step differentiation strategy, we demonstrated the ability of hESCs in assembling such qualifications to follow human retinogenesis in a serum- and feeder-free adherent condition. Two-dimensional (2D) populations of eye field cells arose within early forebrain progeny upon hESCs differentiation. Gene expression analysis showed that the treatment of hESCs with a combination of selected small molecules (SMs) gave rise to the higher expressions of eye field-specific genes, PAX6, RX, and SIX3. Thereafter, a subset of cells gained the transient features of advancing retinal differentiation, including optic vesicle (OV)-like structures, which expressed MITF and CHX10 in a manner imitated in vivo human retinal development. The competency of derived cells in differentiation to retinal derivatives was further investigated. The gene analysis of the cells showed more propensity for generating retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) than neural retina (NR). The generation of OV-like structures in 2D cultures can shed light on molecular events governing retinal specification. It can also facilitate the study of human retinal development.

  16. Chemical enrichment and separation of uranyl ions in aqueous media using novel polyurethane foam chemically grafted with different basic dyestuff sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahat, M F; Moawed, E A; Farag, A B

    2007-01-15

    The new type of the grafted polyurethane foam sorbents were prepared by coupling polyether polyol, toluene diisocyanate and basic dyestuff (Methylene blue, Rhodamine B and Brilliant green). The Me.B-PUF, Rh.B-PUF and Br.G-PUF were characterized using UV/vis, IR and TGA. The adsorption properties and chromatographic behaviour of these new adsorbents for preconcentration and separation of uranium(VI) ions at low concentrations from aqueous thiocyanate media were investigated by a batch process. The maximum sorption of U(VI) was in the pH ranges 1-4. The kinetics of sorption of the U(VI) by the Grafted-PUF were found to be fast with half life of sorption (t(1/2)) in 2.43min. The average sorption capacity of different sorbents 0.124meqg(-1) for uranyl ions, enrichment factors approximately 40 and the recovery 98-100% were achieved (R.S.D. approximately 0.73%). The basic dyestuff Grafted-PUF could be used many times without decreasing their capacities significantly. The value of the Gibbs free energy (DeltaG) for the sorbents is -7.3kJmol(-1), which reflects the spontaneous nature of sorption process. The sorption mechanism of the metal ion onto Grafted-PUF was also discussed. PMID:19071294

  17. Chemical stability of amorphous materials: specific and general media effects in the role of water in the degradation of freeze-dried zoniporide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Suman A; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y; Medek, Ales; Hong, Jinyang; Pikal, Michael J

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the present work was to determine whether hydrolysis in a model lyophile was influenced by general media effects with water-changing properties of the medium or via a specific mechanism of water as a reactant. Four formulations of zoniporide and sucrose (1:10) were prepared with variable amounts of sorbitol [0%-25% (w/v) of total solids). These formulations were then equilibrated at 6% and 11% relative humidity using saturated salt solutions. The lyophile cakes were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetery (DSC), (isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC), solid- state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance (DFR) spectroscopy. DSC and IMC were used to assess the global molecular mobility. ssNMR relaxation times were measured to access local mobility. The DFR was used to determine the solid-state acidity expressed as the Hammett acidity function. Stability of samples was evaluated at 40°C by monitoring potency and purity by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results were interpreted in terms of the various roles of water: media effect, plasticization, polarity, and reactant. The kinetics of hydrolysis was observed to be correlated with either/both specific "chemical" effects, that is, water reactant as well as media effect, specifically global molecular mobility of the matrix. Increase in reaction rate with increase in water content is not linear and is a weaker dependence than in some hydrolytic reactions in organic solvents. A moderate amount of an inert plasticizer, sorbitol, conferred additional stabilization, possibly by restricting the amplitude and frequency of fast motions that are on a small length scale.

  18. Chemical stability of amorphous materials: specific and general media effects in the role of water in the degradation of freeze-dried zoniporide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Suman A; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y; Medek, Ales; Hong, Jinyang; Pikal, Michael J

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the present work was to determine whether hydrolysis in a model lyophile was influenced by general media effects with water-changing properties of the medium or via a specific mechanism of water as a reactant. Four formulations of zoniporide and sucrose (1:10) were prepared with variable amounts of sorbitol [0%-25% (w/v) of total solids). These formulations were then equilibrated at 6% and 11% relative humidity using saturated salt solutions. The lyophile cakes were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetery (DSC), (isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC), solid- state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance (DFR) spectroscopy. DSC and IMC were used to assess the global molecular mobility. ssNMR relaxation times were measured to access local mobility. The DFR was used to determine the solid-state acidity expressed as the Hammett acidity function. Stability of samples was evaluated at 40°C by monitoring potency and purity by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results were interpreted in terms of the various roles of water: media effect, plasticization, polarity, and reactant. The kinetics of hydrolysis was observed to be correlated with either/both specific "chemical" effects, that is, water reactant as well as media effect, specifically global molecular mobility of the matrix. Increase in reaction rate with increase in water content is not linear and is a weaker dependence than in some hydrolytic reactions in organic solvents. A moderate amount of an inert plasticizer, sorbitol, conferred additional stabilization, possibly by restricting the amplitude and frequency of fast motions that are on a small length scale. PMID:22461087

  19. OpenGeoSys: an open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THM/C) processes in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we describe the OpenGeoSys (OGS) project, which is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical processes in porous media. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework (using primarily the Finite Element Method (FEM)) for solving multifield problems in porous and fractured media for applications in geoscience and hydrology. To this purpose OGS is based on an object-oriented FEM concept including a broad spectrum of interfaces for pre- and postprocessing. The OGS idea has been in development since the mid-eighties; meanwhile we are working on its 6th version. We provide a short historical note about the continuous process of concept and software development having evolved through Fortran, C, and C++ implementations. The idea behind OGS is to provide an open platform to the community, outfitted with professional software-engineering tools such as platform-independent compiling and automated benchmarking. A comprehensive benchmarking book has been prepared for publication. Benchmarking has been proven to be a valuable tool for cooperation between different developer teams, for example, for code comparison and validation purposes (DEVOVALEX, CO2BENCH and SSBENCH projects). On one hand, object-orientation (OO) provides a suitable framework for distributed code development; however, the parallelization of OO codes still lacks efficiency. High-performance-computing efficiency of OO codes is subject to future research (accompanying poster).

  20. Non-equilibrium thermo-chemical heat storage in porous media: Part 2 – A 1D computational model for a calcium hydroxide reaction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal energy storage technologies can facilitate the transition to an energy system based largely on renewable sources and enable efficiency gains for industrial processes in general. Due to their specific advantages, various concepts of thermo-chemical storage systems are being developed. They share characteristic features of mass and heat transport that are strongly coupled through a variety of physical and chemical phenomena. To facilitate the understanding of the coupled multi-physics processes inside such systems, a versatile conceptual model for directly permeated reactive beds was developed in part 1 of this work. It was based on thermodynamic principles and the Theory of Porous Media. The model was then implemented into OpenGeoSys, a scientific finite element simulation software. In this article, the model is specified to the well-studied calcium hydroxide reaction system to illustrate its practical applicability. Sensitivity analyses reveal the influence of particle diameter, porosity, permeability, mass flux, and reaction rate. Two distinct “reaction waves” are identified to migrate through the reactor. The power required to pump the gas stream was decomposed into parts related to the classical mechanical pressure drop and to the chemical reaction. The results can be used for the optimization of thermochemical heat storage systems. - Highlights: • Detailed investigation of coupled multiphysics in thermochemical heat storage. • Thermodynamically consistent model for thermochemical heat storage systems. • Analysis of thermal power depending on material and process parameters. • Two reaction waves are identified that traverse the reactor. • Mechanical pumping power splits into mechanically and chemically induced parts

  1. A new methodology for studying nanoparticle interactions in biological systems: Dispersing titania in biocompatible media using chemical stabilisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Garcia, Sonia; Chen, Lan; Morris, Michael A.; Dawson, Kenneth A.

    2011-11-01

    We report here a highly successful and original protocol for the dispersion of nanoparticles in biocompatible fluids for in vitro and in vivo studies of the nanoparticle-biology interaction. Titania is chosen as a suitable model as it is one of the priority materials listed by the OECD and small particles of the anatase structure are extensively used as e.g. photocatalysts in solar cells. Consequently, its delivery into the environment and its interaction with biological organisms is unavoidable. Therefore, its biological effect needs to be understood. In this work, we prepared stable nanoparticle dispersions of anatase aggregates using citrate stabilisations between 45 and 55 nm at concentrations of up to 10 mg mL-1. The optimum pH for this type of suspension was 7, resulting in ζ-potentials of approximately -50 mV. The stabilised aggregates were the subject of dialysis to produce stable dispersions without the chemical stabiliser, thus allowing studies in the absence of potentially toxic chemicals. Different sizing techniques such as Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) and Differential Centrifuge Sedimentation (DCS) were used to characterise the different suspensions. The results obtained with each of these techniques are compared and a critical analysis of the suitability of each technique is given.We report here a highly successful and original protocol for the dispersion of nanoparticles in biocompatible fluids for in vitro and in vivo studies of the nanoparticle-biology interaction. Titania is chosen as a suitable model as it is one of the priority materials listed by the OECD and small particles of the anatase structure are extensively used as e.g. photocatalysts in solar cells. Consequently, its delivery into the environment and its interaction with biological organisms is unavoidable. Therefore, its biological effect needs to be understood. In this work, we prepared stable nanoparticle dispersions of anatase aggregates

  2. Radiocontrast media (its versions)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compositions, physical and chemical properties and the method of preparing radiocontrast media for using in X-ray diagnosis are presented. Radiocontrast media of bismuth oxyhalide and polyethylene, in which to improve radiocontrast zinc stearate and polyethelene of different densities are used, are descrabed

  3. Lie Group Solution for Free Convective Flow of a Nanofluid Past a Chemically Reacting Horizontal Plate in a Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rashidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM is employed to investigate the steady laminar incompressible free convective flow of a nanofluid past a chemically reacting upward facing horizontal plate in a porous medium taking into account heat generation/absorption and the thermal slip boundary condition. Using similarity transformations developed by Lie group analysis, the continuity, momentum, energy, and nanoparticle volume fraction equations are transformed into a set of coupled similarity equations. The OHAM solutions are obtained and verified by numerical results using a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method. The effect of the emerging flow controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, and nanoparticle volume fraction have been presented graphically and discussed. Good agreement is found between analytical and numerical results of the present paper with published results. This close agreement supports our analysis and the accuracy of the numerical computations. This paper also includes a representative set of numerical results for reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers in a table for various values of the parameters. It is concluded that the reduced Nusselt number increases with the Lewis number and reaction parameter whist it decreases with the order of the chemical reaction, thermal slip, and generation parameters.

  4. [Effect of physico-chemical properties of polyacrylamide gel media on the growth of Escherichia coli colonies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, V B; Bulatova, R F; Domotenko, L V; Inkovskaia, T E; Artiukhin, V I

    1992-01-01

    We studied the growth of Escherichia coli LE-392 colonies on polyacrylamide gels (PAAG) depending on the physico-chemical properties of the latter, i.e. polymer concentration in the gel, swelling degree, bound water content (fm), spin-lattice relaxation and spin-spin relaxation times of water molecule protons, and modulus of elasticity (G0). S- or R-type colonies formed depending on gel properties; the diametral growth rate of S colonies was 3 times less compared with that on the control agar medium (Tryptose broth). The procedure is proposed for preparation of PAAG which rules out syneresis. Functional relations between the polymer concentrations in uniformly swelling gels and concentrations of copolymers in the reaction mixture, fm and G0 were revealed. The fm and G0 parameters can be used for controlling the quality of PAAG.

  5. Application of mechano-chemical synthesis for protective coating on steel grinding media prior to ball milling of copper

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Lahiri; K Balasubramanian

    2007-04-01

    One of the major sources of contamination during mechanical milling/alloying is from the surface erosion of the container and the grinding medium. This can either be prevented by using grinding medium and container of same material of the milled material or by adding a coating of the milled material on them. The paper describes the observations made during a mechano-chemical reaction, being used for coating the balls and vials in a planetary ball mill. Visual observation, XRD, optical micrography and EDS analysis were used to understand the progress of the reaction. Copper was successfully coated on the steel balls and vials. The method can easily be adopted in daily production purposes, prior to mechanical milling of a Cu-based powder for prevention of Fe contamination.

  6. Terrorism as Media Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Proving that terrorism should be seen as a media event (as defined by Dayan and Katzafter 9/11 and treated accordingly. We have turned to the work of Dayan and Katz and GeorgeGerbner’s for a definition of media events and of violence in the mass media. This paper is ahermeneutical interpretation of the concept of terrorism and its relation to communication. We haveput forward a better understanding of the complex concept of terrorism and its definitions in the massmedia context. Terrorism nowadays should always be defined within its inherent relation with themedia. The article is the first to define terrorism as media evenit in Dayan and Katz’s terms.

  7. The Natural Activation Ability of Subsurface Media During In-Situ Chemical Oxidation of 1,4-Dioxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, N.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Zhong, H.; Li, M.

    2015-12-01

    The ability of soils and sediments to produce in-situ activation of persulfate was investigated for treatment of 1,4-dioxane (dioxane). Experiments were conducted with both batch-reactor and column systems to examine reaction rates and activation mechanisms. Four soils and aquifer sediments were used. ICP-MS, SEM-EDS, and XRD analyses were used to characterize geochemical properties. For the batch experiments, degradation of dioxane was significantly greater in the presence of each of the four subsurface geomedia compared to the controls with no geomedia. This indicates that all four geomedia induced persulfate activation. The use of a binary oxidant system, with the addition of hydrogen peroxide, further enhanced dioxane degradation. It is hypothesized that iron associated with the geomedia is primarily responsible for activation, and that the degree of degradation enhancement relates in part to iron content. For the miscible-displacement experiments, slight retardation and minimal mass loss of persulfate was observed for transport in the column packed with the selected soil. And no dioxane degradation was observed, likely due to the low hydraulic residence time. Conversely, oxidant decomposition, sulfate generation, and dioxane degradation were observed upon injection of persulfate and H2O2. The results of this study indicate that geomedia can induce activation of persulfate to enhance in-situ chemical oxidation applications.

  8. Documentary Media and Religious Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Therese Mäder

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers four spaces where media processes involve religious communities and agents: the spaces of production, of representation, of media communication, and of distribution network and institutional framework for circulation. These three spaces systematise the research question posed to the specific source. Furthermore the concept documentary media as viewed from a semio-pragmatic perspective is introduced. Discussion of the commercial series I’m a Mormon shows how different modes define documentary media according to the three spaces.

  9. Experimental and Quantum chemical studies on the inhibition potential of some Quinoxaline derivatives for mild steel in acid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya.J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition potential of four Quinoxaline derivatives namely 1,4-dihydroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, (3E-3-hydrazinylidene-3,4-dihydroquinoxalin-2(1H-one, 1-[(2E-3-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinoxalin-2(1H-ylidene]urea and 1-[(2E-3-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinoxalin-2(1H-ylidene]thiourea have been investigated against mild steel in 1M H2SO4 solution using conventional weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The percentage inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increase in the inhibitor concentration due to the adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the metal surface. In addition, it was established that the adsorption follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Moreover, some thermodynamic data were calculated and discussed. The density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311G (d,p basis set level was performed for two inhibitors namely 1,4-dihydroquinoxaline-2,3-dione and (3E-3-hydrazinylidene-3,4-dihydroquinoxalin-2(1H-one. The quantum chemical parameters such as highest occupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (ELUMO, energy gap (∆E, dipole moment (µ, softness (σ, hardness (η, electronegativity (χ, Mulliken atomic charges, the fraction of electrons transferred from the inhibitor to the metal surface (∆N and the total energy (TE have been calculated for these compounds. It was found that theoretical data support the experimental results.

  10. Culturing Selenastrum capricornutum (Chlorophyta) in a synthetic algal nutrient medium with defined mineral particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, J.S.; Davis, J.A.; Chang, Cecily C.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Algal nutrient studies in chemically-defined media typically employ a synthetic chelator to prevent iron hydroxide precipitation. Micronutrient-particulate interactions may, however, significantly affect chemical speciation and hence biovailability of these nutrients in natural waters. A technique is described by which Selenastrum capricornutum Printz (Chlorophyta) may be cultured in a medium where trace metal speciation (except iron) is controlled, not by organic chelation, but by sorption onto titanium dioxide. Application of this culturing protocol in conjunction with results from sorption studies of nutrient ions on mineral particles provides a means of studying biological impacts of sorptive processes in aquatic environments. ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  11. Teaching Media Literacy with Graphic Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnin, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Background: A current problem in media literacy studies is whether or not to categorize graphic novels as media literacy texts. Thus, this article begins with a review of current media literacy research and its emphasis on defining media literacy texts as texts that rely on both print literacies and image literacies. Because graphic novels rely on…

  12. Hanford Defined Wastes model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the methodology behind the Hanford Defined Wastes (HDW) model for estimating the contents of Hanford high level waste (HLW) tanks. The HDW model is based on historical process and transaction histories for each tank and has four major components: Waste Status and Transaction Record Summary (WSTRS), Tank Layer Model (TLM), Supernatant Mixing Model (SMM), and HDW Compositions. Three examples of the application of HDW model estimates are described, including comparisons with global site inventories, comparisons with per tank assays, and comparisons of HDW TOC (Total Organic Carbon) estimates with existing hydrogen watch list tanks. The HDW model provides a cross check on existing assumptions for the global site inventory of wastes. Note that existing inventories for Hanford are based on much the same source information as the HDW model, chemicals used and process flowsheet data. Despite that, the HDW model predicts that the sodium inventory for Hanford tanks is 40,300 MT (metric tonnes), which is only 58% of the previous baseline estimate of 69,000 MT. There are other significant differences for inventories of chromium, iron, and nitrate as well. There are two causes for these differences; (1) previous neglect of chemical inventory placed into the ground at Hanford; (2) double counting attributed to tank inventory that was retrieved, reprocessed, and returned to the tanks. This double-counted inventory was counted once when it first went into the tanks and then again after it was reprocessed. The HDW model estimates also can provide a basis for targeting tanks for organic safety issues. In particular, the HDW model has shown that 88% of flammable gas watch list tanks have HDW estimated organic concentrations in excess of 0.64 wt% TOC. Derivation of variabilities for the HDW model estimates and other potential uses will also be outlined

  13. Cell culture media impact on drug product solution stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdie, Jennifer L; Kowle, Ronald L; Langland, Amie L; Patel, Chetan N; Ouyang, Anli; Olson, Donald J

    2016-07-01

    To enable subcutaneous administration of monoclonal antibodies, drug product solutions are often needed at high concentrations. A significant risk associated with high drug product concentrations is an increase in aggregate level over the shelf-life dating period. While much work has been done to understand the impact of drug product formulation on aggregation, there is limited understanding of the link between cell culture process conditions and soluble aggregate growth in drug product. During cell culture process development, soluble aggregates are often measured at harvest using cell-free material purified by Protein A chromatography. In the work reported here, cell culture media components were evaluated with respect to their impact on aggregate levels in high concentration solution drug product during accelerated stability studies. Two components, cysteine and ferric ammonium citrate, were found to impact aggregate growth rates in our current media (version 1) leading to the development of new chemically defined media and concentrated feed formulations. The new version of media and associated concentrated feeds (version 2) were evaluated across four cell lines producing recombinant IgG4 monoclonal antibodies and a bispecific antibody. In all four cell lines, the version 2 media reduced aggregate growth over the course of a 12 week accelerated stability study compared with the version 1 media, although the degree to which aggregate growth decreased was cell line dependent. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:998-1008, 2016.

  14. Reactive Transport Modeling of Chemical and Isotope Data to Identify Degradation Processes of Chlorinated Ethenes in a Diffusion-Dominated Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambon, J. C.; Damgaard, I.; Jeannottat, S.; Hunkeler, D.; Broholm, M. M.; Binning, P. J.; Bjerg, P. L.

    2012-12-01

    Chlorinated ethenes are among the most widespread contaminants in the subsurface and a major threat to groundwater quality at numerous contaminated sites. Many of these contaminated sites are found in low-permeability media, such as clay tills, where contaminant transport is controlled by diffusion. Degradation and transport processes of chlorinated ethenes are not well understood in such geological settings, therefore risk assessment and remediation at these sites are particularly challenging. In this work, a combined approach of chemical and isotope analysis on core samples, and reactive transport modeling has been used to identify the degradation processes occurring at the core scale. The field data was from a site located at Vadsby, Denmark, where chlorinated solvents were spilled during the 1960-70's, resulting in contamination of the clay till and the underlying sandy layer (15 meters below surface). The clay till is heavily contaminated between 4 and 15 mbs, both with the mother compounds PCE/TCE and TCA and the daughter products (DCE, VC, ethene, DCA), indicating the occurrence of natural dechlorination of both PCE/TCE and TCA. Intact core samples of length 0.5m were collected from the source zone (between 6 and 12 mbs). Concentrations and stable isotope ratios of the mother compounds and their daughter products, as well as redox parameters, fatty acids and microbial data, were analyzed with discrete sub-sampling along the cores. More samples (each 5 mm) were collected around the observed higher permeability zones such as sand lenses, sand stringers and fractures, where a higher degradation activity was expected. This study made use of a reactive transport model to investigate the appropriateness of several conceptual models. The conceptual models considered the location of dechlorination and degradation pathways (biotic reductive dechlorination or abiotic β-elimination with iron minerals) in three core profiles. The model includes diffusion in the matrix

  15. Solution-phase parallel synthesis of a pharmacophore library of HUN-7293 analogues: a general chemical mutagenesis approach to defining structure-function properties of naturally occurring cyclic (depsi)peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Bilban, Melitta; Foster, Carolyn A; Boger, Dale L

    2002-05-15

    HUN-7293 (1), a naturally occurring cyclic heptadepsipeptide, is a potent inhibitor of cell adhesion molecule expression (VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin), the overexpression of which is characteristic of chronic inflammatory diseases. Representative of a general approach to defining structure-function relationships of such cyclic (depsi)peptides, the parallel synthesis and evaluation of a complete library of key HUN-7293 analogues are detailed enlisting solution-phase techniques and simple acid-base liquid-liquid extractions for isolation and purification of intermediates and final products. Significant to the design of the studies and unique to solution-phase techniques, the library was assembled superimposing a divergent synthetic strategy onto a convergent total synthesis. An alanine scan and N-methyl deletion of each residue of the cyclic heptadepsipeptide identified key sites responsible for or contributing to the biological properties. The simultaneous preparation of a complete set of individual residue analogues further simplifying the structure allowed an assessment of each structural feature of 1, providing a detailed account of the structure-function relationships in a single study. Within this pharmacophore library prepared by systematic chemical mutagenesis of the natural product structure, simplified analogues possessing comparable potency and, in some instances, improved selectivity were identified. One potent member of this library proved to be an additional natural product in its own right, which we have come to refer to as HUN-7293B (8), being isolated from the microbial strain F/94-499709.

  16. Media education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents.

  17. Media education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents. PMID:20876180

  18. Definable deduction relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉平

    1999-01-01

    The nonmonotonic deduction relation in default reasoning is defined with fixed point style, which has the many-extension property that classical logic is not possessed of. These two kinds of deductions both have boolean definability property, that is, their extensions or deductive closures can be defined by boolean formulas. A generalized form of fixed point method is employed to define a class of deduction relations, which all have the above property. Theorems on definability and atomless boolean algebras in model theory are essential in dealing with this assertion.

  19. Development of Animal Models of Otitis Media

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Moo Kyun; Lee, Byung Don

    2013-01-01

    Otitis media is defined as inflammation of the middle ear, including the auditory ossicles and the Eustachian tube. Otitis media is a major health problem in many societies. The causes of otitis media includes infection and anatomic/physiologic, host, and environmental factors. In general, otitis media is a childhood disease, and anatomic and physiologic changes have great effects on its development. Thus, in vitro or human experimental studies of otitis media are difficult. Several experimen...

  20. Mediatization Theory and Digital Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2011-01-01

    In the 20th century, the term "media logic" was introduced to denote the influence of independent mass media on political systems and other institutions. In recent years the idea has been reworked and labelled "mediatization" to widen the framework by including new media and new areas of applicat......In the 20th century, the term "media logic" was introduced to denote the influence of independent mass media on political systems and other institutions. In recent years the idea has been reworked and labelled "mediatization" to widen the framework by including new media and new areas...... of application.  In Section Two the paper discusses different conceptualizations. It is argued that even if they bring new insights, they cannot be unified into one concept, and that they also lack a consistent definition of digital media. Section three provides a definition of digital media in order to identify...... new trajectories made possible by these media, which have led into a new media matrix built around the internet and mobile devices. It will be argued that the new media matrix cannot be understood from a point of view defined by the framework of 20th century mass media because digital media open new...

  1. Media Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Gelu Mihai LEICU; Laura Rita PITARIU

    2015-01-01

    Media are part of our lives today. Our pupils watch TV, play online games, blog, upload videos on YouTube, use Facebook, etc. Messages transmitted by the media flow constantly into our and their minds. Media literacy provides us with a range of information and abilities which help us analyse, evaluate, and even create messages in various modes of the media. Students are encouraged to think critically about the media they consume. Hobbs has found out that media literacy implies: a set of skill...

  2. Multiforms, dyadics, and electromagnetic media

    CERN Document Server

    Lindell, Ismo V

    2015-01-01

    This book applies the four-dimensional formalism with an extended toolbox of operation rules, allowing readers to define more general classes of electromagnetic media and to analyze EM waves that can exist in them. End-of-chapter exercises. Formalism allows readers to find novel classes of media. Covers various properties of electromagnetic media in terms of which they can be set in different classes.

  3. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it....

  4. Defining Quantum Control Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Mingsheng; Yu, Nengkun; Feng, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A remarkable difference between quantum and classical programs is that the control flow of the former can be either classical or quantum. One of the key issues in the theory of quantum programming languages is defining and understanding quantum control flow. A functional language with quantum control flow was defined by Altenkirch and Grattage [\\textit{Proc. LICS'05}, pp. 249-258]. This paper extends their work, and we introduce a general quantum control structure by defining three new quantu...

  5. Media Activism in XXIst Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutu Pisleag

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The new instruments and means in social media practically reinvented the social activism and the “activists” are better defined through these means than by the causes they manifest for. The easy auto organization through social media opens the possibility that the one involved to manifest in real time, more efficiently, in national, regional or global sized spaces.

  6. Historically defined autobiographical periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Lee, Peter J.;

    2012-01-01

    The chapter reviews a research programme that has demonstrated the existence of historically defined autobiographical periods and identified the conditions that bring them about. Data from four samples of World War II-generation adults show that historically defined autobiographical periods endure...

  7. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, V C

    1999-01-01

    For decades, media violence has been viewed as largely a Western problem. New studies indicate that Indian children have increasing access to the media and that media violence will subject them to the same problems as Western children: imitation, desensitization, fear, and inappropriate attitudes about violence and aggression. Solutions exist but will have to be implemented within the next decade to protect Indian children and adolescents from the harmful effects of media violence.

  8. Social Media and Bullshit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Kleis Nielsen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand the role of social media in society, we have to understand how social media are understood. We need to analyze how different actors and organizations see and think about technology, the forms of knowledge that people draw on as they make sense of, develop, and use social media. Central among these is bullshit. This short essay discusses bullshit as defined by the philosopher Harry Frankfurt as statements made with little or no concern for their truth-value or justification and argues that social media are accompanied by unusually large amounts of bullshit for two reasons. First, they confront us with epistemological problems and are hard to understand. Second, there is a large demand for knowledge about what they mean, a powerful political economy that generates a lot of statements about social media, including substantial amounts of bullshit. Given the rapid development of social media and their growing importance, this is unlikely to change in the near future. Bullshit is here to stay, and we need to take it seriously intellectually and analytically to understand social media.

  9. Media identities and media-influenced indentifications Visibility and identity recognition in the media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Fco. Sampedro Blanco

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The media establish, in large part, the patterns of visibility and public recognition of collective identities. We define media identities as those that are the object of production and diffusion by the media. From this discourse, the communities and individuals elaborate media-influenced identifications; that is, processes of recognition or banishment; (rearticulating the identity markers that the media offer with other cognitive and emotional sources. The generation and appropriation of the identities are subjected to a media hierarchisation that influences their normalisation or marginalisation. The identities presented by the media and assumed by the audience as part of the official, hegemonic discourse are normalised, whereas the identities and identifications formulated in popular and minority terms are marginalised. After presenting this conceptual and analytical framework, this study attempts to outline the logics that condition the presentation, on the one hand, andthe public recognition, on the other hand, of contemporary identities.

  10. Reactive transport modeling of chemical and isotope data to identify degradation processes of chlorinated ethenes in a diffusion-dominated media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Damgaard, Ida; Jeannottat, Simon;

    zones in the low-permeability media. Previous studies have shown that degradation might be limited to high permeability zones in clay tills, thus limiting the applicability of remediation strategies based on enhanced biodegradation. Therefore the occurrence of degradation inside the clay matrix......Chlorinated ethenes are among the most widespread contaminants in the subsurface and a major threat to groundwater quality at numerous contaminated sites. Many of these contaminated sites are found in low-permeability media, such as clay tills, where contaminant transport is controlled by diffusion...

  11. How to define surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to explore and compare ways of defining surveillance. In order to give meaning to concepts that describe the realities of society, social theory is needed. Therefore social theory is employed in this paper for discussing ways of defining surveillance. “Living in ‘surveillance societies’ may throw up challenges of a fundamental – ontological – kind” (Lyon, 1994, p.19. Social theory is a way of clarifying such ontological questions that concern the basic nature and reality of surveillance. A distinction between neutral and negative concepts of surveillance is drawn. Some potential disadvantages of neutral concepts of surveillance are outlined. This paper wants to contribute to the discussion of how to best define surveillance and wants to show that one of the main theoretical differences and questions in surveillance theory is if surveillance should be defined as a negative or a neutral concept.

  12. Creative Media Ideas for the Gym

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Aaron; Reed, Julian

    2004-01-01

    This article offers readers ideas for using mass media to enhance their physical education program. Generally, media is the term used to define the way in communicating with a large number of people. Technically, media is divided into two categories: print and film (electronic). Print (journals, newspapers, books, etc.) is "put to paper" to create…

  13. Media Education around the World: Brief History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    UNESCO defines media education as the priority field of the cultural educational development in the XXI century. The article presents the development of media education since the beginning of it up to our days. The sections of the article are the main periods for the development of the media education. In each section more countries are mentioned.…

  14. Decomposition of Electromagnetic Q and P Media

    CERN Document Server

    Lindell, I V

    2015-01-01

    Two previously studied classes of electromagnetic media, labeled as those of Q media and P media, are decomposed according to the natural decomposition introduced by Hehl and Obukhov. Six special cases based on either non-existence or sole existence of the three Hehl-Obukhov components, are defined for both medium classes.

  15. Defining Documentary Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film......A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film...

  16. Making Sense of Society Through Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Bruns

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available All media are social—they are after all media, in between, intermediating between producers and consumers of content, information, conversation, between the actors in the media and the audiences who read, listen, and watch. And the sociality of the media does not stop there: the processes of media production are social processes just as much as the activities of media audiencing. So strictly speaking, all media are social media. But only a particular subset of all media are fundamentally defined by their sociality, and thus distinguished from the mainstream media of print, radio, and television. It is the actual uses which are made of any medium which determine whether it is indeed a social medium—so let us investigate their roles in and interplay with the societies in which they operate.

  17. Media, risk and science

    CERN Document Server

    Allan, Stuart

    2002-01-01

    How is science represented by the media? Who defines what counts as a risk, threat or hazard, and why? In what ways do media images of science shape public perceptions? What can cultural and media studies tell us about current scientific controversies? "Media, Risk and Science" is an exciting exploration into an array of important issues, providing a much needed framework for understanding key debates on how the media represent science and risk. In a highly effective way, Stuart Allan weaves together insights from multiple strands of research across diverse disciplines. Among the themes he examines are: the role of science in science fiction, such as "Star Trek"; the problem of 'pseudo-science' in "The X-Files"; and how science is displayed in science museums. Science journalism receives particular attention, with the processes by which science is made 'newsworthy' unravelled for careful scrutiny. The book also includes individual chapters devoted to how the media portray environmental risks, HIV-AIDS, food s...

  18. Nouns to Define Homophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo Arias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The term ‘homophobia’ was introduced in the academic context more than 40 years ago. However, its meaning has changed over time. Objective. To review the nouns used in the last twelve years to define homophobia. Methodology. The authors conducted a systematic search in Medline through Pubmed that included editorials, letters to editors, comments and narrative reviews, in English and Spanish. A qualitative analysis (Grounded theory was applied to analyze nouns used to define homophobia since 2001 through 2012. Results. Authors reviewed three papers including ten nouns to define homophobia, the most common noun was fear. The terms were grouped into two domains: negative attitude and discomfort with homosexuality. Conclusion. Fear is the most used word to describe homophobia. The terms were grouped into two domains: negative attitude and discomfort toward homosexuality.

  19. Media Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabel, Lars

    2015-01-01

    News and other kinds of journalistic stories, 16-17 hours a day, all year round, on all platforms, also the moderated social media. The key research thesis behind this article is that the continuous and speedy stream of news stories and media content now is becoming the centre of the production...... processes and the value creation in converged multimedia newsrooms. The article identify new methods and discuss editorial challenges in handling media flow....

  20. Mass Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶全荣

    2006-01-01

    @@ Every day,we are all influenced by the mass media.Although some critics of the media claim that these means of communication are used mainly to control our thinking and get us to buy products that we don't need,the media also contribute to keeping people informed.In other words,while dangers do exist,the benefits of the media far outweigh(超过)the disadvantages.Most of the messages brought to viewers,listeners,and readers are designed either to inform or to entertain,and neither of these goals can be considered dangerous or harmful.

  1. Kinetics of early in vitro development of bovine in vivo- and in vitro-derived zygotes produced and/or cultured in chemically defined or serum-containing media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, P; Booth, P J; Callesen, H

    2002-01-01

    development was affected by serum during IVM-IVF and culture. The first and fourth cell cycles were prolonged by 4-5 h in the absence of serum during IVM-IVF, whereas the presence of serum during culture decreased the duration of the fourth cell cycle and triggered premature blastulation. The results...

  2. Defining the Native: Local Print Media Coverage of the NMAI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Akim D.

    2005-01-01

    "Dressed in their finest traditional garb--and chatting on cell phones-- the procession of Native Americans is one of the most fascinating and touching events of the Indian Museum?s opening day," asserted an anonymous copywriter in a lead-in to a Washington Post article on September 22, 2004. This single sentence captured some of the major…

  3. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

  4. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  5. Defining Data Science

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yangyong; Xiong, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Data science is gaining more and more and widespread attention, but no consensus viewpoint on what data science is has emerged. As a new science, its objects of study and scientific issues should not be covered by established sciences. Data in cyberspace have formed what we call datanature. In the present paper, data science is defined as the science of exploring datanature.

  6. Print media vs internet media

    OpenAIRE

    Koganuramath, M. M.; Angadi, Mallikarjun

    1999-01-01

    The Information Technology has revolutionised the communication media with the emergence of Internet. This paper describes the pace of change in print media to On-line journalism. The process has began with On-line journalism utilising Internet wherein websites are replacing the print media. Most of the On-line newspapers are free, interactive and archival in nature and it provides users to search the information on newspapers through various access points i.e. by contributors, title, and dat...

  7. Media for study of growth kinetics and envelope properties of iron-deprived bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadurugamuwa, J L; Anwar, H; Brown, M R; Shand, G H; Ward, K H

    1987-05-01

    Ion-exchange chromatography was used to remove iron from complex and chemically defined laboratory media. The kinetics of metal cation removal from the media was investigated by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and the results indicated that over 90% of the iron could be eliminated from certain complex media by this treatment. The treated medium was used for growth studies in a gram-positive and a number of gram-negative organisms that were isolated from infections in humans. High-molecular-weight outer membrane proteins that are known to be induced under iron-depleted growth conditions (iron-regulated membrane proteins) were observed when a number of gram-negative pathogens were cultivated in the treated media. Iron uptake by Staphylococcus aureus varied, depending on the iron content of the medium. PMID:3108311

  8. Media darling

    CERN Multimedia

    Chalmers, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    He is the media-friendly face of particle physics, appearing on countless TV and radio shows in the run-up to the opening of CERN's Large Hadron Collider. Matthew Chalmers discovers how Brian Cox finds the time to be both a physicist and a media personality. (2 pages)

  9. Mixed Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erin

    2010-01-01

    While institutions do not often have a hook as compelling as an eagerly awaited movie, great content is critical for media relations success--and coupling it with the right distribution channel can ensure the story finds the right audience. Even better, retooling it for several media platforms can extend the life and reach of a story. The changes…

  10. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  11. Define Digital Vernacular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 李海英; James Stevens; Rough Nelson

    2014-01-01

    As science and technology developed, the tools of humans developed from humans’hands, to mechanical and digital technologies. The tools influ-ence almost everything in the humans’world, so does vernacular. The digital vernacular could be understood as using digital technology to vernacular; the digital means technologies. It also could be understood as doing vernacular in a digital way;the digital means data and information, in other words it can be seeking truth from facts. Define digital vernacular is not only what is digital vernacular, but also about how to do the digital vernacular and what kind of attitude we should hold to-ward the digital vernacular. Define digital vernacular as both thinking and doing.

  12. DEFINING SUCCESS IN PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigues de Farias Filho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Project Management Discipline has been widely used in the last years for companies around the world and these companies have been investing large amounts on surveys, training and consulting in order to get benefits for the organizations that need to create competitive advantage in the high competitive Market and to achieve their business strategy goals. Studies from the major world authors show many ways to define success at the organizations. In Brazil, the Benchmarking Study in GP from the PMI Chapters in 2009, show most studied companies don’t have a process do assess whether they are achieving the expected business goals with their investments in Project Management. This article goal is to demonstrate many ways to define success in project, which will facilitate the process to assess whether the companies are achieving these expected goals. The methodology used was a literature review, collecting publications, textbooks and documents from subject-matter-experts.

  13. Defining talent management components

    OpenAIRE

    Golchin Shafieian

    2014-01-01

    In today's world of global trade, it can guarantee success and excellence of organizations against competitors is talented human resources in an organization, especially at the managerial level. But the challenges that organizations face include: attracting, evaluating, exploring, and developing and keeping talent. The main objective of this study is to define the components of talent management in the University of Chaloos, in order to provide a way to reduce the challenges and short comings...

  14. Software Defined Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Roncero Hervás, Óscar

    2014-01-01

    Software Defined Networks (SDN) is a paradigm in which routing decisions are taken by a control layer. In contrast to conventional network structures, the control plane and forwarding plane are separated and communicate through standard protocols like OpenFlow. Historically, network management was based on a layered approach, each one isolated from the others. SDN proposes a radically different approach by bringing together the management of all these layers into a single controller. It is th...

  15. SDN : Software defined networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklund, Petter

    2014-01-01

    This report is a specialization in Software defined networking. SDN really comes to revolutionize the industry and it’s under constant development. But is the technology ready to be launched into operation yet? The report would initially involve a number of problems that today's network technology is facing. It then follows a deeper description of what this software-based networking technology really is and how it works. Further, the technique is being tested in a lab assignment, using a prog...

  16. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  17. OpenGeoSys: An open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THM/C) processes in porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolditz, O.; Bauer, S.; Bilke, L.;

    )) for solving multi-field problems in porous and fractured media for applications in geoscience, hydrology and energy storage. To this purpose OGS is based on an object-oriented FEM concept including a broad spectrum of interfaces for pre- and postprocessing. The OGS idea has been in development since the mid....... A comprehensive benchmarking book has been published (Kolditz et al. [1]), second volume is in print. Benchmarking has been proven to be a valuable tool for cooperation between different developer teams. On one hand, object-orientation (OO) provides a suitable framework for distributed code development; however...

  18. Defining Business Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Trequattrini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present scientific contribution is to investigate from the business economics standpoing the emerging phenomenon of company networks. In particular, through the analysis of the theory of networks will be proposed the principal categories of business networks, and even before this the concept of the network will be defined. The proposed research, qualitatively, represents the point of departure for the study of the network phenomenon in light of the current economic phase termed “economy of knowledge”. Moreover, the research questions are the following: From where does the theory of networks arise? Do company networks consider themselves equal to knowledge networks?

  19. Defining Business Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Trequattrini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present scientific contribution is to investigate from the businesseconomics standpoing the emerging phenomenon of company networks. In particular,through the analysis of the theory of networks will be proposed the principal categories ofbusiness networks, and even before this the concept of the network will be defined. Theproposed research, qualitatively, represents the point of departure for the study of thenetwork phenomenon in light of the current economic phase termed “economy of knowledge”.Moreover, the research questions are the following: From where does the theory of networksarise? Do company networks consider themselves equal to knowledge networks?

  20. Social media

    OpenAIRE

    Sova, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with social media and is trying to characterize them with focus on their development which led to the creation of social networks. The history of the internet is very short, but its development was giant, and only few people can imagine the world without it. Social media grew in parallel to the internet, so they are its integral part from the beginning. Social media were slowly replacing press, because they gave us a new dimension in the form of immediate feedback. They also...

  1. Benchmarking of commercially available CHO cell culture media for antibody production

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, David; Damjanovic, Lukas; Kaisermayer, Christian; Kunert, Renate

    2015-01-01

    In this study, eight commercially available, chemically defined Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture media from different vendors were evaluated in batch culture using an IgG-producing CHO DG44 cell line as a model. Medium adaptation revealed that the occurrence of even small aggregates might be a good indicator of cell growth performance in subsequent high cell density cultures. Batch experiments confirmed that the culture medium has a significant impact on bioprocess performance, but hi...

  2. Software-Defined Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂华; 杨晓君; 刘淘英

    2015-01-01

    The cluster architecture has played an important role in high-end computing for the past 20 years. With the advent of Internet services, big data, and cloud computing, traditional clusters face three challenges: 1) providing flexible system balance among computing, memory, and I/O capabilities;2) reducing resource pooling overheads;and 3) addressing low performance-power efficiency. This position paper proposes a software-defined cluster (SDC) architecture to deal with these challenges. The SDC architecture inherits two features of traditional cluster: its architecture is multicomputer and it has loosely-coupled interconnect. SDC provides two new mechanisms: global I/O space (GIO) and hardware-supported native access (HNA) to remote devices. Application software can define a virtual cluster best suited to its needs from resources pools provided by a physical cluster, and traditional cluster ecosystems need no modification. We also discuss a prototype design and implementation of a 32-processor cloud server utilizing the SDC architecture.

  3. Defining talent management components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golchin Shafieian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In today's world of global trade, it can guarantee success and excellence of organizations against competitors is talented human resources in an organization, especially at the managerial level. But the challenges that organizations face include: attracting, evaluating, exploring, and developing and keeping talent. The main objective of this study is to define the components of talent management in the University of Chaloos, in order to provide a way to reduce the challenges and short comings and also to look for ways to improve employee performance is discussed. This study is based on data collected from all employees of the University of Chaloos in August 2013; through two questionnaires have been developed. The statistical population has been considered 407 persons in these universities and according the Morgan Table, 198 persons were selected as sample of among research society. More over, 28 questions are used for determining components of talent management. Finally, we concluded that the component of talent management have been properly defined in the Universities of Chaloos.

  4. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, E; Strasburger, V C

    1998-04-01

    American media are the most violent in the world, and American society is now paying a high price in terms of real life violence. Research has confirmed that mass media violence contributes to aggressive behavior, fear, and desensitization of violence. Television, movies, music videos, computer/video games are pervasive media and represent important influences on children and adolescents. Portraying rewards and punishments and showing the consequences of violence are probably the two most essential contextual factors for viewers as they interpret the meaning of what they are viewing on television. Public health efforts have emphasized public education, media literacy campaign for children and parents, and an increased use of technology to prevent access to certain harmful medial materials. PMID:9568012

  5. Community Media: Muting the Democratic Media Discourse?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentier, N.; Lie, R.; Servaes, J.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the concept of community media. Components that construct the identity of community media; Multi-theoretical approaches for analysis of community media; Definition of community media based on the concept of alternative media; Link between community media and civil society; Problems faced

  6. From Augmentation Media to Meme Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuzuru

    Computers as meta media are now evolving from augmentation media vehicles to meme media vehicles. While an augmentation media system provides a seamlessly integrated environment of various tools and documents, meme media system provides further functions to edit and distribute tools and documents. Documents and tools on meme media can easily…

  7. Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, Katrin; Meckel, Martin Sebastian; Stahl, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Anlässlich der 10. Wissenschaftlichen Tagung „Soziale Medien“ am 27. und 28. Juni 2013 im Statistischen Bundesamt in Wiesbaden und in Fortsetzung des 2010 erschienenen Recherche Spezial Web 2.0 – Alle machen mit! werden in dieser Ausgabe in sechs Kapiteln Nachweise zu Veröffentlichungen und Forschungsprojekte der letzten drei Jahre zusammengestellt, die sich mit der Rolle von Social Media in verschiedenen Nutzungskontexten befassen. Social-Media-Dienste sind mittlerweile fester Bestandtei...

  8. Impact of Bhavana Samskara on physico-chemical parameters with special reference to Gandhaka Rasayana prepared by different media and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Shuchi; Prajapati, P K; Shukla, V J; Ravishankar, B

    2010-07-01

    Gandhaka Rasayana is frequently used in the management of different skin disorders (Kushtha). It is a herbo-mineral preparation prepared by Shuddha Gandhaka Bhavit with 11 herbal drugs in a serial manner for eight times each. Therefore, it was used as a model drug and four samples were prepared by adopting different methods and media. The physicochemical parameters were evaluated. The effect of increasing the number of Bhavana (lavigation) on particle size of the drug was examined. Similarly, an attempt was also made to differntiate the structure (surface anatomy) of the drug with Bhavana and without Bhavana by using a very sophisticated x-ray photo electron spectrometer (XPS) study. Overall, a remarkable difference was observed in the samples with Bhavana and without Bhavana. PMID:22131744

  9. Defining critical thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovatt, Abbie

    2014-05-01

    Nursing education has long struggled to define critical thinking and explain how the process of critical thinking fits into the context of nursing. Despite this long time struggle, nurses and nurse educators continue to strive to foster critical thinking skills in nursing students as intuitively most nurses believe that critical thinking is necessary to function competently in the workplace. This article explores the most recent work of Dr. Stephen Brookfield and ties the concepts which are explored in Brookfield's work to nursing practice. Brookfield identifies that learners understand the meaning of critical thinking the best when the process is first demonstrated. Role modeling is a method educators can use to demonstrate critical thinking and is a strategy which nurses often use in the clinical area to train and mentor new nursing staff. Although it is not a new strategy in nursing education, it is a valuable strategy to engage learners in critical thinking activities. PMID:24418065

  10. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Grayver, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...

  11. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  12. TOUGH2, Unsaturated Ground Water and Heat Transfer - T2VOC, H2O, Air, VOC Flow Simulation in Porous Multidimensional Media - iTOUGH2, Inverse Modeling for TOUGH2 Multiphase Flow Simulators - TOUGHREACT, Chemically reactive non-isothermal flows of multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media - TMVOCV1.0, Multicomponent, multiphase, nonisothermal flows of water, soil gas, volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) - ECO2N, a TOUGH2 fluid property module for mixtures of water-NaCl-CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    multiphase, multicomponent, non-isothermal flows in fractured-porous media. TOUGHREACT is a numerical simulation program for chemically reactive non-isothermal flows of multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media. TMVOC is a simulator for multicomponent, multiphase, nonisothermal flows of water, soil gas, and several volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). TMVOC is designed for applications to contamination problems that involve hydrocarbon fuel or organic solvent spills in saturated and unsaturated zones. ECO2N is a fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator (Version 2.0) that was designed for applications to geologic sequestration of CO2 in saline aquifers. 2 - Method of solution: TOUGH2V2.0 performs a fully-coupled, simultaneous solution of mass and energy balance for multi-component, multi-phase fluids in permeable media coupled with a multiphase extension of Darcy's Law, and Fickian diffusion and dispersion. iTOUGH2 solves the inverse problem by automatically calibrating a TOUGH2 model against observed data. Any TOUGH2 input parameter can be estimated based on any observation for which a corresponding TOUGH2 output can be calculated. iTOUGH2 runs in three application modes: - Sensitivity Analysis; - Parameter Estimation; - Uncertainty Propagation Analysis. TMVOC input files are very similar to T2VOC input files. Slight revisions in T2VOC input files are required in data blocks CHEMP for VOC parameters. ECO2N: The partitioning of H2O and CO2 between liquid and gas phases is modeled as a function of temperature, pressure, and salinity, using the recently developed correlations of Spycher and Pruess (2005). Dissolution and precipitation of salt is treated by means of local equilibrium solubility. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Storage requirements increase with number of grid blocks (mesh size). Maximum problem dimensions can be specified through parameter statements in the main program, or through an include file

  13. Defining the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon; Maslin, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Time is divided by geologists according to marked shifts in Earth's state. Recent global environmental changes suggest that Earth may have entered a new human-dominated geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Should the Anthropocene - the idea that human activity is a force acting upon the Earth system in ways that mean that Earth will be altered for millions of years - be defined as a geological time-unit at the level of an Epoch? Here we appraise the data to assess such claims, first in terms of changes to the Earth system, with particular focus on very long-lived impacts, as Epochs typically last millions of years. Can Earth really be said to be in transition from one state to another? Secondly, we then consider the formal criteria used to define geological time-units and move forward through time examining whether currently available evidence passes typical geological time-unit evidence thresholds. We suggest two time periods likely fit the criteria (1) the aftermath of the interlinking of the Old and New Worlds, which moved species across continents and ocean basins worldwide, a geologically unprecedented and permanent change, which is also the globally synchronous coolest part of the Little Ice Age (in Earth system terms), and the beginning of global trade and a new socio-economic "world system" (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by a temporary drop in atmospheric CO2, centred on 1610 CE; and (2) the aftermath of the Second World War, when many global environmental changes accelerated and novel long-lived materials were increasingly manufactured, known as the Great Acceleration (in Earth system terms) and the beginning of the Cold War (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by the peak in radionuclide fallout in 1964. We finish by noting that the Anthropocene debate is politically loaded, thus transparency in the presentation of evidence is essential if a formal definition of the Anthropocene is to avoid becoming a debate about bias. The

  14. A pilot scale trickling filter with pebble gravel as media and its performance to remove chemical oxygen demand from synthetic brewery wastewater*

    OpenAIRE

    Habte Lemji, Haimanot; Eckstädt, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the performance of a biotrickling filter for the treatment of wastewaters produced by a company manufacturing beer was the aim of this study. A pilot scale trickling filter filled with gravel was used as the experimental biofilter. Pilot scale plant experiments were made to evaluate the performance of the trickling filter aerobic and anaerobic biofilm systems for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients from synthetic brewery wastewater. Performance evaluation data of ...

  15. Dialogue instead of a monologue : advertisers' expectations towards the media

    OpenAIRE

    Tolvanen, Kristiina

    2011-01-01

    Stakeholders’ expectations can define the future of the media. Due to advertising revenues, producing audiences desirable for advertisers has been considered as a central function of media. Furthermore, it has been claimed that mass media today would not exist without advertisers. If media organizations want to survive, they will have to acknowledge the expectations that their stakeholders such as advertisers have towards them in the new media environment. Even though meeting stakeholders’ ex...

  16. Media Education around the World: Brief History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available UNESCO defines media education as the priority field of the cultural educational development in the XXI century. The article presents the development of media education since the beginning of it up to our days. The sections of the article are the main periods for the development of the media education. In each section more countries are mentioned. The first movements in media education were made in 1920s in France. The media education in Great Britain and Russia is also old, dating back to 1920s. Nowadays media education became important in many countries. Along with Britain, France still remains one of the most active European countries to develop the media and ICT education. Recently quite a few books, collections of articles textbooks and other publication have been published in Great Britain, and translated into foreign languages. Schools in Germany began their media education practice with its integration into the required curriculum and media culture is taught in the majority of German universities. Canada, Australia and USA have a developed media education. In spite of the difficulties in the 1990s, media literacy has good prospects in Russia. We can also see the fast progress of media education in other Eastern European countries. Hungary became the first European country to introduce obligatory media education courses in secondary schools.

  17. Identification of the specified impurities of silver sulfadiazine using a screening of degradation products in different stress physico-chemical media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioroiu, Bogdan I; Lazar, Mihai I; Bello-López, Miguel A; Fernandez-Torres, Rut

    2013-11-15

    Determination of silver sulfadiazine degradation products in several stress media was carried out by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detector (DAD) and hybrid mass spectrometer triple quadrupole-linear trap. The optimal chromatographic method used a Hypercarb column with a stationary phase 100% carbon, a mobile phase composed by a mixture 45:55 formic acid 1% solution and acetonitrile and detection at 275 nm. Structure elucidation was carried out on the mass spectrometry system using same chromatographic conditions and based on MS/MS techniques. Under these conditions up to 9 possible impurities were demonstrated to be degradation products respecting silver sulfadiazine evolution under different stress conditions: temperature, acid, basic, oxidation, reduction and catalyzed photodegradation. Sulfacetamide, sulfanilic acid (4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid), aniline, pyrimidin-2-amine, 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide, 4-methylidenesulfanilaniline, 4-aminophenol, 4-amino-n-methyl benzenesulfonamide and benzenesulfonic acid were identified by mass spectrometry in order to cover the possible degradation paths of silver sulfadiazine. Kinetics were also evaluated to obtain the prediction of shelf life of the substance. The linearity domain for the method was between 0.0005 mg/ml and 0.25mg/ml for each compound. Recovery factors in accuracy determination were between 95 and 105% relative to target concentrations of silver sulfadiazine and the quantitation limit was 0.00025 mg/ml.

  18. Defining an emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future. PMID:26470448

  19. Media Training

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    With the LHC starting up soon, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. The training is open for everybody. Make sure you arrive early enough to get a seat - there are only 200 seats in the Globe. The session will also be webcast: http://webcast.cern.ch/

  20. Novel process of bio-chemical ammonia removal from air streams using a water reflux system and zeolite as filter media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum von Eckstaedt, Sebastian; Charles, Wipa; Ho, Goen; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    A novel biofilter that removes ammonia from air streams and converts it to nitrogen gas has been developed and operated continuously for 300 days. The ammonia from the incoming up-flow air stream is first absorbed into water and the carrier material, zeolite. A continuous gravity reflux of condensed water from the exit of the biofilter provides moisture for nitrifying bacteria to develop and convert dissolved ammonia (ammonium) to nitrite/nitrate. The down-flow of the condensed water reflux washes down nitrite/nitrate preventing ammonium and nitrite/nitrate accumulation at the top region of the biofilter. The evaporation caused by the inflow air leads to the accumulation of nitrite to extremely high concentrations in the bottom of the biofilter. The high nitrite concentrations favour the spontaneous chemical oxidation of ammonium by nitrite to nitrogen (N2). Tests showed that this chemical reaction was catalysed by the zeolite filter medium and allowed it to take place at room temperature. This study shows that ammonia can be removed from air streams and converted to N2 in a fully aerated single step biofilter. The process also overcomes the problem of microorganism-inhibition and resulted in zero leachate production.

  1. Novel process of bio-chemical ammonia removal from air streams using a water reflux system and zeolite as filter media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum von Eckstaedt, Sebastian; Charles, Wipa; Ho, Goen; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    A novel biofilter that removes ammonia from air streams and converts it to nitrogen gas has been developed and operated continuously for 300 days. The ammonia from the incoming up-flow air stream is first absorbed into water and the carrier material, zeolite. A continuous gravity reflux of condensed water from the exit of the biofilter provides moisture for nitrifying bacteria to develop and convert dissolved ammonia (ammonium) to nitrite/nitrate. The down-flow of the condensed water reflux washes down nitrite/nitrate preventing ammonium and nitrite/nitrate accumulation at the top region of the biofilter. The evaporation caused by the inflow air leads to the accumulation of nitrite to extremely high concentrations in the bottom of the biofilter. The high nitrite concentrations favour the spontaneous chemical oxidation of ammonium by nitrite to nitrogen (N2). Tests showed that this chemical reaction was catalysed by the zeolite filter medium and allowed it to take place at room temperature. This study shows that ammonia can be removed from air streams and converted to N2 in a fully aerated single step biofilter. The process also overcomes the problem of microorganism-inhibition and resulted in zero leachate production. PMID:26363328

  2. Streaming Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, John

    2009-01-01

    At a time when the evolutionary pace of new media resembles the real-time mutation of certain microorganisms, the age-old question of how best to connect with constituents can seem impossibly complex--even for an elite institution plugged into the motherboard of Silicon Valley. Identifying the most effective vehicle for reaching a particular…

  3. Media democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Pels, D.

    2008-01-01

    The present article compendiously presents the interlinked and abruptly developing processes of media democracy and political matters’ personalization. The writer expressly opts for these processes which can radically rejuvenate communication and trust among citizens and politicians and therefore reinforce, up to a certain extend, modern democracy’s function itself.

  4. Use of chemically derivatized n-type silicon photoelectrodes in aqueous media: photooxidation of iodide, hexacyanoiron(II), and hexaammineruthenium(II) at ferrocene-derivatized photoanodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocarsly, A.B.; Walton, E.G.; Wrighton, M.S.

    1980-05-07

    A procedure is described for the chemical derivatization of the surface of n-type semiconductor photoanodes to yield photosensitive interfaces for use in a large number of thermodynamically uphill oxidation processes. (1,1'-ferrocenediyl)dichlorosilane was used to derivatize n-type Si to yield a photoanode that can be used under conditions where the naked (nonderivatized) n-type Si undergoes photoanodic corrosion yielding an insulating SiO/sub x/ surface layer. The results of use of this derivatized n-type Si in aqueous solutions to investigate the photooxidation of iodide, hexacyanoiron(II), and hexaammineruthenium(II) are reported. This type photoelectrode has an operation range that is nearly ideal from the point of solar energy conversion. (BLM)

  5. Chemical stability of ecomustine, a new antitumor agent in aqueous and biological media as assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Abed, I; Roger, P; Gosse, C; Atassi, G; Gouyette, A

    1991-01-01

    Ecomustine, or CY233 (NSC-609224), is a new water-soluble nitrosoureido sugar derived from acosamine. A high-performance liquid chromatographic assay (HPLC) developed to quantify the unchanged drug in aqueous solutions and biological specimens enabled us to study the chemical stability as a function of pH, light, and temperature. In buffered aqueous solutions, the kinetics of degradation of CY233 is a first-order process. The log k-pH profile demonstrated hydroxide ion-catalyzed solvolysis. The drug is most stable at pH 4, more stable than some other nitrosoureas in 5% glucose (t1/2, 62-67 h) and in 0.9% isotonic saline (t1/2, 25-37 h) solutions. Based on these findings, blood samples should be collected in cold tubes (4 degrees C) containing citrate buffer (pH 4) and all manipulations should be protected from heat and light. PMID:1998985

  6. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in acidic media using newly synthesized heterocyclic organic molecules: Correlation between inhibition efficiency and chemical structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouici, H. B., E-mail: ouici.houari@yahoo.fr; Guendouzi, A., E-mail: guendouzzi@yahoo.fr [Departement of Chimistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Saïda (Algeria); Benali, O. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Saida (Algeria)

    2015-03-30

    The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 5% HCl solutions by some new synthesized organic compounds namely 3-(2-methoxyphenyl) 5-mercapto-1. 2. 4-triazole (2-MMT), 3-(3-methoxyphenyl) 5-mercapto-1. 2. 4-triazole (3-MMT) and 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl) 5-mercapto-1. 2. 4-triazole (2-HMT) was investigated using weight loss and potentiostatic polarization techniques. These measurements reveal that the inhibition efficiency obtained by these compounds increased by increasing their concentration. The inhibition efficiency follows the order 2-MMT >3-MMT >2-HMT. Polarization studies show that these compounds are of the mixed type but dominantly act as a cathodic inhibitors for mild steel in 5% HCl solutions. These inhibitors function through adsorption following Langmuir isotherm. Activation energy and Gibbs free energy for adsorption of inhibitors are calculated. Molecular modeling has been conducted to correlate the corrosion inhibition properties with the calculated quantum chemical parameters.

  7. Functional democracy and mass media: a critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Naribo Opuamie-Ngoa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper comprises two parts. The first part defines democracy and attempts an examination of the role of the media in a functional democracy. In an attempt to explain issues in the media and public opinion within the realm of democracy, the paper explores etymological origins of media, arguing that what the media ought to be differs from what is obtainable.
    Part two examines the media’s role in various African countries when they were under colonial rule and the continent’s push for self-rule, observing that post-colonial Africa witnessed a bifurcated partisan media.
    The paper, with specific reference to the role of the media in present day South Africa and Nigeria, concludes that, for the proper role of promoting a healthy culture of democracy in society, today’s news media needs to reflect society’s concerns and the media’s interest in democratic equity.

  8. Social media as communicative genres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Lomborg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As a focus of study, ‘social media’ tend to lack definitional clarity and grounding in theories of media and text. This paper establishes and discusses a conceptual framework for defining social media as communicative genres, constituted by the interplay between interactive functionalities configured at the software level and the invocation and appropriation of various software functionalities to achieve specific purposes in and through users’ actual communicative practices. I suggest that social media might be seen as particularly dynamic genres, subject to continuous disruption and uncertainty,owing to their deinstitutionalised and participatory character, and the shifting roles of producers and recipients in the networks and conversations that make up social media content.

  9. On Media Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This monograph analyzes the theory and practice of media education and media literacy. The book also includes the list of Russian media education literature and addresses of websites of the associations for media education.

  10. Otitis media with effusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    OME; Secretory otitis media; Serous otitis media; Silent otitis media; Silent ear infection; Glue ear ... drains from the tube and is swallowed. Otitis media with effusion (OME) and ear infections are connected ...

  11. Development of Serum-Free Media for Lepidopteran Insect Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leslie C L; Reid, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Baculovirus-based Insect Cell Technology (ICT) is widely used for the expression of recombinant heterologous proteins and baculovirus bioinsecticides, and has recently gained momentum as a commercial manufacturing platform for human and veterinary vaccines. The three key components of ICT are the Lepidopteran insect cell line, the baculovirus vector, and the growth medium. Insect cell growth media have evolved significantly in the past five decades, from basal media supplemented with hemolymph or animal serum, to highly optimized serum-free media and feeds (SFM and SFF) capable of supporting very high cell densities and recombinant protein yields. The substitution of animal sera with protein hydrolysates in SFM results in greatly reduced medium costs and much improved process scalability. However, both sera and hydrolysates share the disadvantage of lot-to-lot variability, which is detrimental to process reproducibility. Hence, the industrialization of ICT would benefit greatly from chemically defined media (CDM) for insect cells, which are not yet commercially available. On the other hand, applications such as baculovirus bioinsecticides would need truly low cost serum-free media and feeds (LC-SFM and LC-SFF) for economic viability, which require the substitution of a majority of expensive added amino acids with even higher levels of hydrolysates, hence increasing the risk of a variable process. CDM developments are anticipated to benefit both conventional and low cost ICT applications, by identifying key growth factors in hydrolysates for more targeted media and feed design. PMID:26820858

  12. Media Education Initiatives by Media Organizations: The Uses of Media Literacy in Hong Kong Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Donna; Lee, Alice Y. L.

    2014-01-01

    As more media organizations have engaged in media education, this paper investigates the goals and practices of these activities. This article coins media education initiatives by media organizations with the term "media-organization media literac"y (MOML). Four MOML projects in Hong Kong were selected for examination. Built on critical…

  13. Media and Sexism (An Instructional Manual for Secondary School Teachers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerly, Carolyn M.

    This manual presents background information and teaching activities for secondary school instruction on the relationship of sex roles and the media in American society. Section I provides background for teachers by defining basic terms, presenting a brief history of the mass media, and discussing why media are thought to play a strong role in…

  14. Variations in Humanized and Defined Culture Conditions Supporting Derivation of New Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Judy M; Ferrier, Patricia M; Gardner, John O;

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of "humanized" (i.e., free of animal sourced reagents) and ultimately chemically defined culture systems for human embryo stem cell (hESC) isolation and culture is of importance to improving their efficacy and safety in research and therapeutic applications. This can be achieved...... serum-free medium (SFM) containing only human sourced and recombinant protein. Further, outgrowth of embryonic cells from whole blastocysts in both media could be achieved for up to 1 week without reliance on feeder cells. All variant conditions sustained undifferentiated cell status, a stable karyotype......, with a transitional requirement for human feeder cells. This represents another sequential step in the generation of therapeutic grade stem cells with reduced risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission....

  15. Children's Media Comprehension: The Relationship between Media Platform, Executive Functioning Abilities, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Children's media comprehension was compared for material presented on television, computer, or touchscreen tablet. One hundred and thirty-two children were equally distributed across 12 groups defined by age (4- or 6-years-olds), gender, and the three media platforms. Executive functioning as measured by attentional control, cognitive…

  16. Social media best practices in emergency management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siskey, Ashley; Islam, Tanveer

    2016-01-01

    Social media platforms have become popular as means of communications in emergency management. Many people use social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter on a daily basis including during disaster events. Emergency management agencies (EMAs) need to recognize the value of not only having a presence on social media but also actively engaging stakeholders and the public on these sites. However, identifying best practices for the use of social media in emergency management is still in its infancy. The objective of this article is to begin to create or further define best practices for emergency managers to use social media sites particularly Facebook and Twitter in four key areas: 1) implementation, 2) education, 3) collaboration, and 4) communication. A list of recommendations of best practices is formulated for each key area and results from a nationwide survey on the use of social media by county EMAs are discussed in this article.

  17. Social Media Use in Child Welfare Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Edward Sage

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The scholarly child welfare literature offers little information about the use of social media by child welfare workers. We conducted a study of 171 child welfare workers across several states using an online survey. The resulting data offer insights from workers about current practices related to social media use in a child welfare work setting. Most respondents see social media as an acceptable tool for conducting child welfare assessments. Respondents describe strains and benefits of social media use. It is recommended that agencies provide guidance on ethical decision-making for using social media as a work-related tool. Agencies should also provide policy clearly defining social media use and misuse.

  18. International Media Assistance: Experiences and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Myers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an introduction to this special issue this article deals firstly with defining and clarifying terms and concepts which are used in the context of international media assistance. Secondly, the themes of the different articles in this collection are enumerated: these are broadly the how to of media assistance, evaluation and the ongoing debate about proving impact of media assistance project; negotiating the tensions between the state and the media and finally, the fundamental question of why and to what purpose is assistance to the media sector given in the first place. The first two of these themes are developed in slightly more depth. The piece is rounded off with some further reflections on the history both of the idea of media assistance and of the way it has been practiced in recent decades. It finally looks at the ways research in this field may develop in the future.

  19. Social Media as a Marketing Tool for a Small Business

    OpenAIRE

    Honkaniemi, Noora

    2015-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis focuses on social media and utilising it as a marketing strategy for a photography entrepreneur in Tampere. Marketing theories and the concept of social media are defined in order to facilitate understanding the case in a more constructive manner. Social media platforms are introduced through literature and web materials. The purpose was to give a general guideline in marketing through various social media platforms. The objective was to gain knowledge of the more popul...

  20. Marketing through Social Media : Case: Comparison of Social Media Marketing Approaches of B2C Companies for Company X

    OpenAIRE

    Rantapelkonen Ahlberg, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Rantapelkonen Ahlberg, Jaana. 2010. Social Media Marketing. Case: Comparison of Social Media Marketing Approaches of B2C Companies for Company X. Master’s Thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 42 (74). The objective of this thesis is to provide insights on how Company X can use Social Media as a marketing and branding tool in consumer marketing in the Swedish market. More specifically, this study attempts to define what kinds of social media are u...

  1. what facts that are influence on media policy and how to shape media in the national and international relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冰阳

    2015-01-01

    <正>Business dictionary(n.d.)provides information,which"media"can be defined in communication channels through education,entertainment,promotional message or data are disseminated."Media"also including narrowcasting medium and broadcasting,like,television,radio,newspaper,magazines also Internet.In addition,"media"is a popular way for people to get everyday news.For instance"media"can be a role to produce

  2. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  3. Geographic Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  4. Measuring News Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksl, Adam; Ashley, Seth; Craft, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    News media literacy refers to the knowledge and motivations needed to identify and engage with journalism. This study measured levels of news media literacy among 500 teenagers using a new scale measure based on Potter's model of media literacy and adapted to news media specifically. The adapted model posits that news media literate individuals…

  5. SAFETY IN ONLINE MEDIA – FREEDOM OF THE MEDIA; SAFETY OF MEDIA ACTORS AND MEDIA EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Moeller, Ch

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, prepared for the international conference ‘Mass Media – Society – Education: Media Safety Problems’ at the Chelyabinsk State University’s Department for Journalism and Media Education from September 30 – October 3, 2013, I would like to address three dimensions of media safety and security in online media.

  6. New Media Vision for IYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, P. L.; Koppelman, M.

    2008-11-01

    The International Year of Astronomy New Media Committee seeks to provide and promote online astronomy experiences in the places that people work, play and learn; create content that will expose people to astronomy, provide them regular content, and create special opportunities for learning; distribute content for active (pull) and passive (push) channels and through guerilla marketing technique; use a diverse suite of technologies to reach people on multiple platforms and in diverse online settings. To make these goals a reality we have brought together a diverse group of astronomy new media practitioners to both mentor grass roots efforts and spearhead national initiatives. You are invited to partner you programs with the New Media Task Group. In this paper we lay out are goals and define our vision.

  7. Defined Contribution vs Defined Pension: Reforming the Legal Retirement Age

    OpenAIRE

    Lacomba, Juan Antonio; Lagos, Francisco Miguel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effects of changing Social Security parameters on the optimal legal retirement age. Two Social Security Systems are studied, with opposite results. When the pension scheme has a defined contribution, a more redistributive system will delay the preferred legal retirement age. On the other hand, when the pension benefit is the defined parameter, the increase in the redistribution level will lower this preferred age.

  8. Equilibrium Chemical Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, Tatsuo; Sasa, Shin-ichi

    1997-01-01

    An equilibrium reversible cycle with a certain engine to transduce the energy of any chemical reaction into mechanical energy is proposed. The efficiency for chemical energy transduction is also defined so as to be compared with Carnot efficiency. Relevance to the study of protein motors is discussed. KEYWORDS: Chemical thermodynamics, Engine, Efficiency, Molecular machine.

  9. Media and Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Media and Democracy addresses key topics and themes in relation to democratic theory, media and technology, comparative media studies, media and history, and the evolution of media research. For example: How does TV entertainment contribute to the democratic life of society? Why are Americans less informed about politics and international affairs than Europeans? How should new communications technology and globalisation change our understanding of the democratic role of the media? ...

  10. Social media marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Chudán, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    The “Social media marketing” diploma thesis focuses on social media marketing, with an analysis of potential social media sites usage as the main goal. The theoretical part focuses on social media and social media marketing. The practical part contains a case study, in which social media marketing on Facebook is created. A strategy proposal is made, based on the case study, emphasizing suitable ways of a proper use of Facebook for marketing, identifying various hurdles that companies are faci...

  11. Corporate Media Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Kempen, Petrus Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The media can make or break a reputation. This being said, it seems to be essential for companies, governments and institutions to pay specific attention to corporate media management in their daily operations. However, this thesis shows that they often neglect to pay adequate attention to corporate media management. This is primarily due to the complexity of the corporate media process and corporate media management and the scope of a possible media impact. This thesis argues that corporate ...

  12. Turkish Media Elites

    OpenAIRE

    D. Ali Arslan

    2008-01-01

    The media is one of the most important institutions in society. It is a reality that media play very substantial role in the production and social distribution of knowledge. In addition to that, mass media provides the greatest communication opportunities to the people. Also, contemporary media provides very distinctive weapons to obtain power, wealth and prestige in the society. If media owners and elites are so powerful, the identification of media elites is of great importance. Hence, this...

  13. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  14. Electrochemical, Chemical and Enzymatic Oxidations of Phenothiazines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Hayen, H.; Leeuwen, van S.M.; Karst, U.; Bodoki, E.; Lotrean, S.; Sandulescu, R.; Mora Diaz, N.; Dominguez, O.; Arcos, J.; Kauffmann, J.-M.

    2005-01-01

    The oxidation of several phenothiazine drugs (phenothiazine, promethazine hydrochloride, promazine hydrochloride, trimeprazine hydrochloride and ethopropazine hydrochloride) has been carried out in aqueous acidic media by electrochemical, chemical and enzymatic methods. The chemical oxidation was pe

  15. Advertising on social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Goyal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports the latest trends of advertising on social media. Social media advertising means to gain traffic or attention of online users through social media sites. Today, when a user thinks about buying something, he first comes to the internet, searches for that product, compares its price with other competing brands and takes a decision, which one to buy. In this write-up, author has discussed many aspects concerning advertising through social media, viz., what is social media? What is the impact of social media on mainstream media, why to advertise on social media? and what should be the strategy for advertising on social media. The author is of the view that in the year 2013, $4 billion will be spent on social media advertising across the globe and social media industry will generate over 1,00,000 new jobs all around the world.

  16. Multiband Software Defined Radar for Soil Discontinuities Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Costanzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiband Software Defined Radar based on orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing technique is proposed in this work for an accurate soil discontinuities detection, taking into account also the dispersive behavior of media. A multilayer soil structure is assumed as a validation test to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, by accurately retrieving the unknown thicknesses and permittivities of the soil layers.

  17. Chemical Structure and Dynamics annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colson, S.D.; McDowell, R.S.

    1998-03-01

    The Chemical Structure and Dynamics (CS and D) program is a major component of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide a state-of-the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. The authors respond to the need for a fundamental, molecular level understanding of chemistry at a wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by: (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in environmental chemistry and in nuclear waste processing and storage; and (3) developing state-of-the-art analytical methods for characterizing complex materials of the types found in stored wastes and contaminated soils, and for detecting and monitoring trace atmospheric species. The focus of the research is defined primarily by DOE`s environmental problems: fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface environment, processing and storage of waste materials, cellular effects of chemical and radiological insult, and atmospheric chemistry as it relates to air quality and global change. Twenty-seven projects are described under the following topical sections: Reaction mechanisms at interfaces; High-energy processes at environmental interfaces; Cluster models of the condensed phase; and Miscellaneous.

  18. Chemical Structure and Dynamics annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Structure and Dynamics (CS and D) program is a major component of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide a state-of-the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. The authors respond to the need for a fundamental, molecular level understanding of chemistry at a wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by: (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in environmental chemistry and in nuclear waste processing and storage; and (3) developing state-of-the-art analytical methods for characterizing complex materials of the types found in stored wastes and contaminated soils, and for detecting and monitoring trace atmospheric species. The focus of the research is defined primarily by DOE's environmental problems: fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface environment, processing and storage of waste materials, cellular effects of chemical and radiological insult, and atmospheric chemistry as it relates to air quality and global change. Twenty-seven projects are described under the following topical sections: Reaction mechanisms at interfaces; High-energy processes at environmental interfaces; Cluster models of the condensed phase; and Miscellaneous

  19. Convection in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Nield, Donald A

    1992-01-01

    This book provides a user-friendly introduction to the topic of convection in porous media The authors as- sume that the reader is familiar with the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer, but otherwise the book is self-contained The book will be useful both as a review (for reference) and as a tutorial work, suitable as a textbook in a graduate course or seminar The book brings into perspective the voluminous research that has been performed during the last two decades The field has recently exploded because of worldwide concern with issues such as energy self-sufficiency and pollution of the environment Areas of application include the insulation of buildings and equipment, energy storage and recovery, geothermal reservoirs, nuclear waste disposal, chemical reactor engineering, and the storage of heat-generating materials such as grain and coal Geophysical applications range from the flow of groundwater around hot intrusions to the stability of snow against avalanches

  20. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  1. Body image and media use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Bayer, Angela M

    2005-06-01

    This article reviews the literature on body image and media use among adolescents. We begin by defining body image and how it is constructed, especially among young people. We then offer information on when one's body image perception is askew with one's perception of personal ideal, which can result in disordered eating, including obesity, anorexia, and bulimia. Next, we describe the research literature on media use and its relationship to adolescents' body image perceptions and discuss content analyses and correlational, experimental, and qualitative studies. Lastly, we recommend, beyond conducting further and improved research studies, interventions and policies that may have an impact on body image and media use.

  2. Media Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O’Sullivan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is hard not to become discouraged whenever an environmental “state of the planet” report is issued. Inevitably, we seem to be that much closer to an ill defined but much-discussed “ecological tipping point” past which we are told there is no return. The obstacles to global ecological sustainability are particularly overwhelming in light of the triple ecological challenge: the attachment of consumers, especially in the developed countries, to their unsustainable and insatiable lifestyle; the relentless pursuit of corporate profit by companies that serve the consumer market; and the legitimate desire of the socially and economically marginalized populations of the developing countries for an equitable share of the world’s resources.

  3. Media and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Media and Body Image Home For Patients Search FAQs Media and Body ... and Body Image TFAQ002, June 2016 PDF Format Media and Body Image Especially For Teens How can the media make ...

  4. Convection in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Bejan, A

    2006-01-01

    Provides an introduction to convection in porous media, such as fibrous insulation, geological strata, and catalytic reactors. This third edition covers ""designed"" porous media, the theory of deformable media, modeling viscous dissipation in hyperporous media, and more. It is useful for researchers, practicing engineers and students.

  5. Media Violence and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebel, Jo

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of the UNESCO global study on media violence and children which was conducted between 1996 and 1997. Highlights include the role of the media, media heroes as role models, media violence and aggression, differences by gender, rural versus urban environments, the pervasiveness of television, and recommendations. (Author/LRW)

  6. Why Media Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatis, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Whether media affect learning has been debated for decades. The discussion of media's effectiveness has raised questions about the usefulness of comparison studies, not only in assessing applications of technology but in other areas as well. Arguments that media do not affect learning are re-examined and issues concerning media effects on expert…

  7. The Media Mixer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus; Mortensen, Christian Hviid

    2011-01-01

    throughout the Internet, most notably on web 2.0 sites like YouTube. The Media Museum has embraced the remix paradigm with the development of an interactive media experience centre called the Media Mixer. Here the museum users can produce, deconstruct, reconstruct and finally publish and share digital media...... content. The media content is created by the user in the museum's physical environment, but it can be mixed with material from web archives. It is the intention that the users learn about media through participatory and creative processes with media where the borders between producing, playing...... and learning are blurred....

  8. Sources of toxicity and exposure information for identifying chemicals of high concern to children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the large number of chemicals in commerce without adequate toxicity characterization data, coupled with an ineffective federal policy for chemical management in the United States, many states are grappling with the challenge to identify toxic chemicals that may pose a risk to human health and the environment. Specific populations (e.g., children, elderly) are particularly sensitive to these toxic chemicals. In 2008, the Children's Safe Product Act (CSPA) was passed in Washington State. The CSPA included specific requirements to identify High Priority Chemicals (HPCs) and Chemicals of High Concern to Children (CHCCs). To implement this legislation, a methodology was developed to identify HPCs from authoritative scientific and regulatory sources on the basis of toxicity criteria. Another set of chemicals of concern was then identified from authoritative sources, based on their potential exposure to children. Exposure potential was evaluated by identifying chemicals detected in biomonitoring studies (i.e., human tissues), as well as those present in residential exposure media (e.g., indoor air, house dust, drinking water, consumer products). Accordingly, CHCCs were defined as HPCs that also appear in biomonitoring studies or relevant exposure media. For chemicals with unique Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) numbers, we identified 2044 HPCs and 2219 chemicals with potential exposure to children, resulting in 476 CHCCs. The process of chemical identification is dynamic, so that chemicals may be added or subtracted as new information becomes available. Although beyond the scope of this paper, the 476 CHCCs will be prioritized in a more detailed assessment, based on the strength and weight of evidence of toxicity and exposure data. Our approach was developed to be flexible which allows the addition or removal of specific sources of toxicity or exposure information, as well as transparent to allow clear identification of inputs. Although the methodology was

  9. Defining Usability of PN Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Ahola, Titta; Fleury, Alexandre;

    In this deliverable usability and user experience are defined in relation to MAGNET Beyond technologies, and it is described how the main MAGNET Beyond concepts can be evaluated through the involvement of users. The concepts include the new "Activity based communication approach" for interacting ...

  10. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam;

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...

  11. Mass media research

    OpenAIRE

    Meulemann, Heiner; Hagenah, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    "Mass media are defind as media which have their proper program and constitute their own audience. Mass media research, accordingly, deals with the production of programs and the consumption of the audience. For both perspectives, research topics are justified, data sources are introduced, and recommendation for the research infrastructure are given. As for media production, the establishment of a central media content archive is recommended where content analytic time series of public agenci...

  12. Understanding social media logic

    OpenAIRE

    José van Dijck; Thomas Poell

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mech­anics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media lo...

  13. Social media influencer marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Isosuo, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The marketing field is changing simultaneously with the digital world. Social media is getting more and more important to marketers, and there is a need to stand out in the social media noise. Social media influencer marketing could be a good alternative to other types of marketing. A need from the consignor and the interest of the author were the motivations for conducting the study. Sääskilahti Consulting has a social media influencer network Somevaikuttajat, which is offering social media ...

  14. COMPLAINING BEHAVIOUR IN SOCIAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Stříteský

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to present the issue of dealing with negative word-of-mouth under the newly created conditions of social media and formulate a set of rules for dealing with negative contributions in social networks such as Facebook. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents findings from both a quantitative survey of Czech Facebook users and expert interviews. Findings – The results of the survey that was done among internet users has proven, that Czech Facebook users are fully aware of the fact that by complaining publicly via social media they can get a company in a serious trouble and want to use it to their advantage. Expert interviews agreed on necessity of good knowledge of the community, quick response to the posts and careful consideration of deleting negative contributions. Research limitations/implications – the empirical research is focused on the Czech market that is specific in the field of internet user behaviour. Findings are primarily valid solely for the social network Facebook. Other platforms may differ in complaining behaviour of the users. Practical implications – research findings show, that social media play an important role in complaining behaviour of Czech internet users. This fact results in the necessity of the presence in social media and careful monitoring the word-of-mouth. Crucial factors of successful communication in social media are knowledge of the com munity, quick response to the posts and careful consideration of deleting negative contributions.Originality/Value – Word of mouth, nowadays the most powerful marketing tool and the strongest argument in the decision making process, is now not limited to the circle of nearest friends of family. Social media gives people a voice that is immediate and can have impact. Without an effective and fast reaction of the company, a serious harm can be suffered. The significance of social network Facebook in complaining behaviour of Czech consumers is assessed

  15. Data not seen: The uses and shortcomings of social media metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy K. Baym

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at the use of online data, especially social media metrics, to assess media audiences, with particular focus on musicians. It shows how audiences are defined by different sets of people, and grounds the use of social media to understand audiences in the history of mass media audience measurement. The second half of the paper focuses on visible social media metrics — likes, followers, and other such counts — outlining their appeal as measures and highlighting their fallibility...

  16. Citizenship in Media Discourse in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Marko, Davor

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to systematize existing research on media reporting related to various aspects of citizenship, and to contribute with a primary analysis of media content, in order to define how the leading print media in four states (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia) reported on these issues. After establishing the profile of each state, this paper provides a profile of the analysed media, followed by a short summary of how these media reported on selected citi...

  17. The Case for Alternative Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Gehl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available What are “alternative social media”? How can we distinguish alternative social media from mainstream social media? Why are social media alternatives important? How do they work? Why do people make them? What do they tell us about contemporary corporate social media and its related phenomena: surveillance, privacy, power, self-expression, and sociality? This essay answers these questions by theorizing alternative social media. The empirical data for this alternative social media theory are drawn from previous work on alternative sites such as Diaspora, rstat.us, Twister, GNU social, and the Dark Web Social Network. These cases are used to build a generalized conceptual framework. However, this article does not solely theorize from these examples, but rather seeks to contextualize and historicize alternative social media theory within larger bodies of work. In addition to generalization from examples, the theory is informed by two threads. The first thread is the work of alternative media scholars such as Nick Couldry, Chris Atton, and Clemencia Rodriguez, who have done the historical and theoretical work to define alternative media. The second thread is a synthesis of works exploring the technical side of contemporary media, coming from new fields such as software studies. The threads and empirical analyses of sites such as Diaspora, Quitter, and rstat.us are combined into a theoretical matrix that can account for the processes and technical infrastructures that comprise social media alternatives and explain why they are distinct from sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Google, as well as why they are important.

  18. Health-related media use among youth audiences in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glik, Deborah; Massey, Philip; Gipson, Jessica; Dieng, Thierno; Rideau, Alexandre; Prelip, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing rapid changes in access to and use of new internet and digital media technologies. The purpose of this study was to better understand how younger audiences are navigating traditional and newer forms of media technologies, with particular emphasis on the skills and competencies needed to obtain, evaluate and apply health-related information, also defined as health and media literacy. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted throughout Senegal in September 2012 with youth aged 15-25. Using an iterative coding process based on grounded theory, four themes emerged related to media use for health information among Senegalese youth. They include the following: (i) media utilization; (ii) barriers and conflicts regarding media utilization; (iii) uses and gratifications and (iv) health and media literacy. Findings suggest that Senegalese youth use a heterogeneous mix of media platforms (i.e. television, radio, internet) and utilization often occurs with family members or friends. Additionally, the need for entertainment, information and connectedness inform media use, mostly concerning sexual and reproductive health information. Importantly, tensions arise as youth balance innovative and interactive technologies with traditional and conservative values, particularly concerning ethical and privacy concerns. Findings support the use of multipronged intervention approaches that leverage both new media, as well as traditional media strategies, and that also address lack of health and media literacy in this population. Implementing health-related interventions across multiple media platforms provides an opportunity to create an integrated, as opposed to a disparate, user experience.

  19. Defining the Polar Field Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David H.

    2013-01-01

    The polar fields on the Sun are directly related to solar cycle variability. Recently there has been interest in studying an important characteristic of the polar fields: the timing of the polar field reversals. However this characteristic has been poorly defined, mostly due to the limitations of early observations. In the past, the reversals have been calculated by averaging the flux above some latitude (i.e. 55deg or 75deg). Alternatively, the reversal could be defined by the time in which the previous polarity is completely canceled and replaced by the new polarity at 90de, precisely at the pole. We will use a surface flux transport model to illustrate the differences in the timing of the polar field reversal based on each of these definitions and propose standardization in the definition of the polar field reversal. The ability to predict the timing of the polar field reversal using a surface flux transport model will also be discussed.

  20. Defining Clusters of Related Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes Delgado; Porter, Michael E.; Scott Stern

    2014-01-01

    Clusters are geographic concentrations of industries related by knowledge, skills, inputs, demand, and/or other linkages. A growing body of empirical literature has shown the positive impact of clusters on regional and industry performance, including job creation, patenting, and new business formation. There is an increasing need for cluster-based data to support research, facilitate comparisons of clusters across regions, and support policymakers and practitioners in defining regional strate...

  1. Defining the TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER ALLIANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlbom, Gabriella; Åman, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project was to define the Technology Transfer Alliance (TTA), a nonprofit organization for Higher Education Institutions supporting capacity building in ICT and renewable energy through a project-driven learning. TTA is today still only an idea, waiting to be launched, which is why the goals for this bachelor thesis are to establish partnerships with institutions that will support the reaching of the goals of TTA, as well as providing a more solid definition of the functions o...

  2. AIDS defining disease: Disseminated cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Anupama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated cryptococcosis is one of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome defining criteria and the most common cause of life threatening meningitis. Disseminated lesions in the skin manifest as papules or nodules that mimic molluscum contagiosum (MC. We report here a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient who presented with MC like lesions. Disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed by India ink preparation and histopathology. The condition of the patient improved with amphotercin B.

  3. Defining and measuring ecological specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Devictor, Vincent; Clavel, Joanne; Julliard, Romain; Lavergne, Sébastien; Mouillot, David; Thuiller, Wilfried; Venail, Patrick; Villéger, Sébastien; Mouquet, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    1.  Ecological specialization is one of the main concepts in ecology and conservation. However, this concept has become highly context-dependent and is now obscured by the great variability of existing definitions and methods used to characterize ecological specialization. 2.  In this study, we clarify this concept by reviewing the strengths and limitations of different approaches commonly used to define and measure ecological specialization. We first show that ecological specialization can e...

  4. The definability of physical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonai S. Sant'Anna

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Our main purpose here is to make some specific considerations about the definability of physical concepts like mass, force, time, space, spacetime, and closed systems in the context of physical theories. Our starting motivation is a simple example of a collection of definitions of closed system in the literature of physics and philosophy of physics. Next we discuss the problem of definitions in theoretical physics from the point of view of modern theories of definition.

  5. The definability of physical concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Adonai S. Sant'Anna

    2005-01-01

    Our main purpose here is to make some specific considerations about the definability of physical concepts like mass, force, time, space, spacetime, and closed systems in the context of physical theories. Our starting motivation is a simple example of a collection of definitions of closed system in the literature of physics and philosophy of physics. Next we discuss the problem of definitions in theoretical physics from the point of view of modern theories of definition.

  6. Defining and teaching veterinary professionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Mossop, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive research and discussion around the notion of medical professionalism, veterinary professionalism is an understudied area. The aim of this study was to define the concept of veterinary professionalism and analyse the hidden curriculum of a new veterinary school, in order to produce a new curriculum of professionalism. This study used a constructivist grounded theory method to develop the definition. An iterative approach, using interviews and focus groups, collected inform...

  7. Software Defined Radio Transceiver Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Corley, Gerry; Sanchez Mora , Magdalena; Farrell, Ronan

    2008-01-01

    This document presents the design and implementation of a low cost reconfigurable radio transceiver platform. The platform will be used as a research tool in the investigation of software defined radio techniques. The hardware presented is an evolution of work presented at the 2006 RIA colloquium. The platform consists of four hardware elements, namely a radio transmitter, a radio receiver, a baseband interface and a PC to perform signal processing and configuration. Data and control c...

  8. Urban Social Media Inequality: Definition, Measurements, and Application

    CERN Document Server

    Indaco, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    Social media content shared today in cities, such as Instagram images, their tags and descriptions, is the key form of contemporary city life. It tells people where activities and locations that interest them are and it allows them to share their urban experiences and self-representations. Therefore, any analysis of urban structures and cultures needs to consider social media activity. In our paper, we introduce the novel concept of social media inequality. This concept allows us to quantitatively compare patterns in social media activities between parts of a city, a number of cities, or any other spatial areas. We define this concept using an analogy with the concept of economic inequality. Economic inequality indicates how some economic characteristics or material resources, such as income, wealth or consumption are distributed in a city, country or between countries. Accordingly, we can define social media inequality as the measure of the distribution of characteristics from social media content shared in ...

  9. Media Pluralism and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the western world, a diverse and pluralistic media landscape is deemed essential for democracy. But how universal is media pluralism as a concept underpinning media policies? To what extent do normative approaches, regulatory dimensions and monitoring systems differ throughout the world......? Adopting a truly global, theoretical and multidisciplinary perspective, Media Pluralism and Diversity advances our understanding of media pluralism across the globe. It compares metrics developed in different parts of the world to assess levels of, or threats to, media pluralism. It identifies common...... challenges for media pluralism policies in the light of a fast changing media environment. The book is unique in that it confronts insights from all parts of the world and from a broad range of disciplines including law, economics, media studies, and sociology....

  10. Unpacking New Media Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Thanq “victor” Chen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century has marked an unprecedented advancement of new media. New media has become so pervasive that it has penetrated into every aspect of our society. New media literacy plays an essential role for any citizen to participate fully in the 21st century society. Researchers have documented that literacy has evolved historically from classic literacy (reading-writing-understanding to audiovisual literacy to digital literacy or information literacy and recently to new media literacy. A review of literature on media literacy reveals that there is a lack of thorough analysis of unique characteristics of new media and its impacts upon the notion of new media literacy. The purpose of the study is to unpack new media literacy and propose a framework for a systematic investigation of new media literacy.

  11. Mass Media: The Invisible Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glessing, Robert J.; White, William P.

    This anthology for students of media consists of essays and articles grouped under four topics: media forms, media content, media environments, and "the last word." Media forms deals with the nature of these kinds of media: electronic, print, film, music, and comics, graffiti, and clothing. Media content contains articles on the news, advertising,…

  12. Social Media Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael Andreas; Ravasi, Davide; Colleoni, Elanor

    Social media enable millions of users to create and disseminate narratives about organizations that increase their public exposure and shape public perceptions. In this paper, we draw on the sociology of news production and research on computer-mediated communication to discuss how different...... motivational drivers and contextual conditions associated with the formation of narratives in traditional news media and social media influence their content, diffusion, and impact significantly. Our analysis suggests that current theories of media reputation may provide an incomplete representation...... of the phenomenon, and highlight theoretically relevant differences and interrelationships between reputational dynamics involving news media and social media....

  13. The Impact of E-Media on Customer Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmood Rehmani; Muhammad Ishfaq Khan

    2011-01-01

    In this research paper, authors investigated the social media (e-discussion, websites, online chat, email etc) parameters that have effect over the customers buying decisions. The research focused on the development of research model to test the impact of social media on the customer purchase intention. The literature review done to explore the work done on social media. The authors identify the problem and defined the objectives of the studies. In order to achieve them, a research model is p...

  14. Chemical warfare in freshwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, Gabi

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field expe

  15. Software Defined DCF77 Receiver

    OpenAIRE

    F. Zaplata; M. Kasal

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows the solution of time stamp software defined receiver integration into low cost com-mercial devices. The receiver is based on a general pur-pose processor and its analog to digital converter. The amplified signal from a narrow-band antenna is connected to the converter and no complicated filtration has to be used. All signal processing is digitally provided by the processor. During signal reception, the processor stays available for its main tasks and signal processing con-sum...

  16. Software Defined DCF77 Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zaplata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the solution of time stamp software defined receiver integration into low cost com-mercial devices. The receiver is based on a general pur-pose processor and its analog to digital converter. The amplified signal from a narrow-band antenna is connected to the converter and no complicated filtration has to be used. All signal processing is digitally provided by the processor. During signal reception, the processor stays available for its main tasks and signal processing con-sumes only a small part of its computational power.

  17. UNIQLO, Define Your Own Fashion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ Yes,women like and enjoy shopping.Always,they want to buy some well-designed clothes with the most 'in'factors; and what's of the great importance,they would like to hear the words:"wow! You fit the wear well!"However,the most satisfied right things could not be always waiting for you there or you would not help complaining the so-fast changing trends day by day.At that time,why not to seek some delights from the basic classic collections?UNIQLO maybe is a choice for you to define your own fashion.

  18. AMAMM - All Media Are Mixed Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    All Media Are Mixed Media Alle medier er blandingsmedier. Alle kunstarter er kompositte. Alle sanser er sammensatte. Alle medialiteter er miksede og mangfoldige. Alle er AMAMM. Denne påstand står centralt i ord-, billed- og medie-teoretikeren W.J.T. Mitchells forfatterskab. I hosstående bog tager...

  19. Marketing and the Printed Media: Getting the Promotional Job Done.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara A. W.

    1981-01-01

    Defines publicity, advertising, and promotion. Explains the four principles of using media in educational marketing: know the goal of the promotion, the interests and biases of newspapers and radio and television stations, the programs of other local educational services, and the definition of newsworthiness for the various media. (DD)

  20. Learning Through Media; An IMC Handbook for Chelmsford Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, James; Wallace, Daniel

    This handbook is designed to provide basic information that is necessary to use the Chelmsford School System's Instructional Media Center (IMC). It defines six different media (print, sound, television, photography, movies and design) and suggests a series of separate classroom production activities in each. An emphasis is given to the ways in…

  1. Editorial "Strategic management and social media: the leading edge"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivas-Lujan, Miguel R.; Bondarouk, Tanya; Olivas-Lujan, M.R.; Bondarouk, T.V.

    2013-01-01

    This volume is a bridge made up by exemplary contributions linking strategic perspectives with the use of social media — the most recent family of technologies that are evolving rapidly and exciting businesses as well as all sectors of society. Social media, defined by Kaplan and Haenlein (2010, p.

  2. Remediation of Media Markets toward Media Entrepreneurship, how recession reconstructed media industry

    OpenAIRE

    Khajeheian, Datis; Roshandel Arbatani, Teher

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates evolution of media industry toward the media small and entrepreneur firms, which partly stimulates by global recession. Four questions has been asked:1) What is the effect of recession on media market and on entrepreneurial activities of small media firms and innovators? ,2)What is the strength of media entrepreneurs to rely on it, in emerging media market?, 3)Is focus of media entrepreneurs different from established and large media companies?,4) how media market shoul...

  3. Defining Life: The Virus Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism—the virus—producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  4. Ten Rules for Dealing with Negative Contributions in Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Stránská

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media is becoming a key part of business communication strategy. Despite all the advantages, social media also poses a threat to business reputation. Dissatisfied customers can reach a large audience and share their negative experiences with others. This paper deals with the impact of social media on the practice of public relations. The goal of the paper is to formulate a set of rules for dealing with negative contributions and generally with crisis communication in social media. It is based on two surveys. Individual interviews with social media experts are the core part of the analysis. They are complemented by questioning of consumers to get deeper insight into complaining behavior via social media. The defined set of rules provides a useful tool for the social media crisis management.

  5. Sociale media als leermiddel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubens, Wilfred

    2012-01-01

    Rubens, W. (2012, 5 juni). Sociale media als leermiddel. Presentatie over het gebruik van sociale media binnen het onderwijs, verzorgd tijdens een ouderraadbijeenkomst van de Katholieke Scholengemeenschap Etten-Leur, Etten-Leur, Nederland.

  6. MODERN MEDIA EDUCATION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The author supposed that media education models can be divided into the following groups:- educational-information models (the study of the theory, history, language of media culture, etc., based on the cultural, aesthetic, semiotic, socio-cultural theories of media education;- educational-ethical models (the study of moral, religions, philosophical problems relying on the ethic, religious, ideological, ecological, protectionist theories of media education;- pragmatic models (practical media technology training, based on the uses and gratifications and ‘practical’ theories of media education;- aesthetical models (aimed above all at the development of the artistic taste and enriching the skills of analysis of the best media culture examples. Relies on the aesthetical (art and cultural studies theory; - socio-cultural models (socio-cultural development of a creative personality as to the perception, imagination, visual memory, interpretation analysis, autonomic critical thinking, relying on the cultural studies, semiotic, ethic models of media education.

  7. Media and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild; Waade, Anne Marit

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account......Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account...

  8. Trends in media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Donald F; Foehr, Ulla G

    2008-01-01

    American youth are awash in media. They have television sets in their bedrooms, personal computers in their family rooms, and digital music players and cell phones in their backpacks. They spend more time with media than any single activity other than sleeping, with the average American eight- to eighteen-year-old reporting more than six hours of daily media use. The growing phenomenon of "media multitasking"--using several media concurrently--multiplies that figure to eight and a half hours of media exposure daily. Donald Roberts and Ulla Foehr examine how both media use and media exposure vary with demographic factors such as age, race and ethnicity, and household socioeconomic status, and with psychosocial variables such as academic performance and personal adjustment. They note that media exposure begins early, increases until children begin school, drops off briefly, then climbs again to peak at almost eight hours daily among eleven- and twelve-year-olds. Television and video exposure is particularly high among African American youth. Media exposure is negatively related to indicators of socioeconomic status, but that relationship may be diminishing. Media exposure is positively related to risk-taking behaviors and is negatively related to personal adjustment and school performance. Roberts and Foehr also review evidence pointing to the existence of a digital divide--variations in access to personal computers and allied technologies by socioeconomic status and by race and ethnicity. The authors also examine how the recent emergence of digital media such as personal computers, video game consoles, and portable music players, as well as the media multitasking phenomenon they facilitate, has increased young people's exposure to media messages while leaving media use time largely unchanged. Newer media, they point out, are not displacing older media but are being used in concert with them. The authors note which young people are more or less likely to use several

  9. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bharadwaj, R; A. Patel, S. Chokdeepanich, Ph.D.; G.G. Chase, Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a t...

  10. Advertising on social media

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Goyal

    2013-01-01

    This communication reports the latest trends of advertising on social media. Social media advertising means to gain traffic or attention of online users through social media sites. Today, when a user thinks about buying something, he first comes to the internet, searches for that product, compares its price with other competing brands and takes a decision, which one to buy. In this write-up, author has discussed many aspects concerning advertising through social media, viz., what is social me...

  11. Mobile media and children

    OpenAIRE

    Haddon, L.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores a range of research issues relating to children and mobile media, including the potential growth of children’s screen time, the regulation of children’s use of these media, the challenge of managing increasing media options, effects on children’s perception of time, problems posed for parental surveillance and the domestication of mobile media within peer groups. All of these are viewed in the context of broader societal change, evolving norms of childhood and parenthood...

  12. Unpacking New Media Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Der-Thanq “victor” Chen; Jing Wu; Yu-Mei Wang

    2011-01-01

    The 21st century has marked an unprecedented advancement of new media. New media has become so pervasive that it has penetrated into every aspect of our society. New media literacy plays an essential role for any citizen to participate fully in the 21st century society. Researchers have documented that literacy has evolved historically from classic literacy (reading-writing-understanding) to audiovisual literacy to digital literacy or information literacy and recently to new media literacy. A...

  13. Children and the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Everette E.; Pease, Edward C.

    1996-01-01

    Throughout history the media has primarily been produced by adults, for adults, about adults. Increasingly, children have become a matter of high priority in the modern media society, and as they have, they have also become the subject of much concern. From debates in Congress about the detrimental effects of movies, comic books, and video games over the last century to efforts to court children as media consumers, there is a clear recognition that the media are not now and probably ne...

  14. Defining life: synthesis and conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. Section 1 defends that the recognition of "life" has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. Section 2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. Section 3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about "life". The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (Section 4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. Section 5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers

  15. Defining Life: Synthesis and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. §1 defends that the recognition of “life” has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. §2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. §3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about “life”. The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (§4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. §5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers to two conditions

  16. A media education perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nohl, Arnd-Michael

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This contribution introduces, from a media education perspective, two concepts which may be useful for further theoretical reflection upon the rich empirical material provided in the other articles of this special issue. The first concept, 'cultures of media practice', refers to habitualized patterns of media practice collectively shared by members of a specific social group. The articles provide m...

  17. Youth Media and Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Chelsey

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses how capacity is conceived of and understood in youth media/civic education programming, and how beliefs about agency, development, relationality and youth manifests in the discourses, programmes, and practices of organizations operating youth media programmes. Through attention to a youth media and development programme in…

  18. Managing Media Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Deuze

    2015-01-01

    People are more involved with media than ever but news about media as an industry is less than optimistic. The number of people across the creative industries who are losing jobs illustrates all too well. Media managers seem at a loss in developing survival strategies, and specifically in organizing

  19. Guidelines for Media Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Elske; Verwijs, Carla; Moonen, Jef

    This paper presents two types of approaches to media selection--rational-choice approaches and social-influence approaches. It is argued that designers should combine the two types of approaches in a bottom-up/top-down media-selection process. As examples of the two types of approaches, two conceptual frameworks are described--task/media fit and…

  20. Media and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Piotrowski; H.G.M. Vossen; P.M. Valkenburg

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have shown that the relationship between media and childhood is not unidirectional but reciprocal. In this article, both directions of the media-child development relationship are presented. We discuss how child development predisposes children's media use and preferences by revi

  1. Children's Media Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Amy B.

    2008-01-01

    Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems…

  2. Sizing Up Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jerold

    2010-01-01

    Most people are aware of the increasing importance of social media to institutional advancement, and many colleges and universities have started investing resources in these media. The next step is to measure the impact of social media on the institution and evaluate the success of one's efforts. Every advancement leader should understand how…

  3. Mapping digital media: Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Waal; A. Leurdijk; L. Nordeman; T. Poell

    2012-01-01

    The Mapping Digital Media project examines the global opportunities and risks created by the transition from traditional to digital media. Covering 60 countries, the project examines how these changes affect the core democratic service that any media system should provide: news about political, econ

  4. SOCIAL MEDIA IN BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    ХАДАРЦЕВА Л.С.; ДЗАХОЕВА С.Л.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses frequently used business applications for social media, including recruiting, employee engagement and communication, tools for business intelligence, and expanding learning opportunities among employees. Social media are becoming powerful business tools. They are helping employers with everything, beginning from recruitment to communications. These applications turn social media into collaborative tools to improve work and product.

  5. Youth media lifestyles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kruistum, Claudia; Leseman, Paul Pm; de Haan, Mariëtte

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the concept of "media lifestyles" is adopted in order to develop a comprehensive approach toward youth engagement in communication media. We explore how 503 Dutch eighth grade students with full access to new technology combine a broad range of media by focusing on their engagement

  6. Modern Media Education Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The author supposed that media education models can be divided into the following groups: (1) educational-information models (the study of the theory, history, language of media culture, etc.), based on the cultural, aesthetic, semiotic, socio-cultural theories of media education; (2) educational-ethical models (the study of moral, religions,…

  7. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani;

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage...... buffering, scheduling, and processing over the network. On the other hand, NC has shown great potential for increasing robustness and performance when deployed on intermediate nodes in the network. This new paradigm changes the dynamics of network protocols, requiring new designs that exploit its potential....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...

  8. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe;

    2015-01-01

    Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm....... The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, which may also incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the upcoming 5G networks. This article not only proposes the fundamentals...

  9. Like, comment, share and all that jazz : social media as communication and marketing tool case: Social media marketing approaches used by MaiJazz music festival

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaskovic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Social networks have become an integral part of everyday life for many. With an increasing number of companies using social media to communicate and build relationships with their customers, social media might be considered as the newest element of the marketing mix. The thesis’ objective is to explore the use of social media communication tools used by the jazz music festival, MaiJazz, in Stavanger, to define key social media objectives and to develop metrics or indicators ...

  10. Should the scope of human mixture risk assessment span legislative/regulatory silos for chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard M; Martin, Olwenn V; Faust, Michael; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Current chemicals regulation operates almost exclusively on a chemical-by-chemical basis, however there is concern that this approach may not be sufficiently protective if two or more chemicals have the same toxic effect. Humans are indisputably exposed to more than one chemical at a time, for example to the multiple chemicals found in food, air and drinking water, and in household and consumer products, and in cosmetics. Assessment of cumulative risk to human health and/or the environment from multiple chemicals and routes can be done in a mixture risk assessment (MRA). Whilst there is a broad consensus on the basic science of mixture toxicology, the path to regulatory implementation of MRA within chemical risk assessment is less clear. In this discussion piece we pose an open question: should the scope of human MRA cross legislative remits or 'silos'? We define silos as, for instance, legislation that defines risk assessment practice for a subset of chemicals, usually on the basis of substance/product, media or process orientation. Currently any form of legal mandate for human MRA in the EU is limited to only a few pieces of legislation. We describe two lines of evidence, illustrated with selected examples, that are particularly pertinent to this question: 1) evidence that mixture effects have been shown for chemicals regulated in different silos and 2) evidence that humans are co-exposed to chemicals from different silos. We substantiate the position that, because there is no reason why chemicals allocated to specific regulatory silos would have non-overlapping risk profiles, then there is also no reason to expect that MRA limited only to chemicals within one silo can fully capture the risk that may be present to human consumers. Finally, we discuss possible options for implementation of MRA and we hope to prompt wider discussion of this issue. PMID:26573369

  11. Radiophobic media 'virus'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiophobia as a phenomenon of the individual's behaviour, as well as of the human communities dates from the time when the atomic energy became a subject of a permanent interest and attention. In the Central and Eastern European Countries, in particular in Bulgaria, it is identified most of all with the changes towards the democratisation of the society. During the last decade the subject was under a strong political influence. The Chernobyl tragedy radically readjusted public attitude towards nuclear power plants in countries like Bulgaria. However, it has not been possible not to notice also the defined stage and manipulation effects during the last years. Here the essential role was played by the media and the Eco-movements. When countries like the United States of America, Japan or France start solving atomic energy issues they do this from the position of their high social and living standard level. In Bulgaria the strategy applied in US, Japan and France was not applicable. The insufficient, partial information on the background, organisation principles, safety culture and social importance of the NPP, including the possibility of manipulation, points to the elementary concept of the atomic energy. For example, while the experts put the risk arising from the use of atomic energy on the 20th place, a significant part of the public classifies it on the first place. And on the contrary - if the experts consider the X-ray equipment as the 7th of the most dangerous technical phenomena, the general public put it as far as the 22nd place. According to the American journal 'Nuclear Industry' people in general think that the disposed radioactive waste is disseminated through the air, the population inhales it and gets cancer. It is not clear for the majority that the storage of radioactive waste was a problem solved from the technological point of view a long time ago. Often the media use this fact by deliberately attacking the 'blank spaces' in the human knowledge

  12. Prosocial effects of media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Marjorie J

    2012-06-01

    Parents, teachers, health care providers, and other caring adults worry about the harmful influence of media messages and images on children and teens and wonder how to recognize and encourage positive and healthy use of media. For decades, experts have commented on the power of media. Media depictions can lead to negative attitudes and behavior in some young viewers. This article discusses whether prosocial, tolerant, and cooperative attitudes and behavior can be learned and imitated by children and adolescents and whether media can nurture or stimulate creativity or actively promote health and well-being in young consumers.

  13. The Concept of Media

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Beat

    1997-01-01

    Internet as a synonyme of the"new media" not only contains and disseminates information worldwide - like electronic broadcast media - , it is also capable of processing information in an interactive manner, since it is computer-based, i.e., its information objects are virtual machines. Thus, the potential of the new media is urging us to reconsider the notion of media. Since we witness that formal logic is constituting the concept of the computer, we need a new model of"media" to describe, un...

  14. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bharadwaj

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a thick layered media can improve performance by about 40%. The results also show the improved performance is not monotonically correlated to the average fiber angle of the medium.

  15. Asian Media Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research, ......, they have written a book on the social practices and cultural attitudes of people producing, reading, watching and listening to different kinds of media in Japan, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, Singapore and India.......This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research...

  16. Comprehension of digital media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Hwan

    2008-11-15

    This book is divided four parts. The first part describes media and mark on sign and media, what is the sign?, interpretation of sign and semiotics. The second part is for production sign theory and origin of digital revolution such as the problem of origin of digital revolution, homogeneity of producing goods and sign : triple triangle model for production sign theory, triple triangle model for producing goods, triple triangle model of producing sign and triple triangle model of art works. The third parts deals with development of the media and meaning of digital revolution with four changes : invention of letter, appearance of printed media and establishment modernity, appearance electronic media and mess media and appearance of digital media. The last part mentions ontology of world wide web.

  17. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated proposes the Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) program to facilitate the development of a Software Defined Radio...

  18. Understanding Social Media Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José van Dijck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mech­anics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpin­ning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass me­dia logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmabil­ity, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increas­ingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at work in social media logic, we reassess the constellation of power relationships in which social practices unfold, raising questions such as: How does social media logic modify or enhance ex­isting mass media logic? And how is this new media logic exported beyond the boundaries of (social or mass media proper? The underlying principles, tactics, and strategies may be relat­ively simple to identify, but it is much harder to map the complex connections between plat­forms that distribute this logic: users that employ them, technologies that

  19. Culture et medias (Culture and the Media).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abastado, Claude

    1982-01-01

    The traditional conception of pluralistic culture is contrasted with a new, separate form of culture: mass media culture. Its components are noted: medium, message, "mosaic," and strategy, and methodology for its study is discussed. (MSE)

  20. Media relations after the introduction of social media

    OpenAIRE

    Mesila, Helin

    2010-01-01

    In the light of the popularity of social media on one hand, and the contradictive relationships between journalists and public relations practitioners on the other hand, the thesis studies media relations after the introduction of social media. The study focuses on media relations in Estonian public relations scenery. The research answers to the questions: - What are media relations today? - What are the functions of social media and media relations in organizational communication? ...

  1. CLASSICAL MEDIA RELATIONS AND NEW MEDIA RELATIONS IN SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2014-01-01

    Media relations in sport mean maintenance of networks and positive relationships with people in the media to obtain positive media exposure for a sport product (informal and formal information sessions with media representatives). Because of the pervasive influence the media has on marketing success, sport marketers must make concerted efforts to create a positive relationship between their sport event and the media. They may accomplish this by providing the media with press releases, having ...

  2. MediaNet: a multimedia information network for knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Ana B.; Smith, John R.; Chang, Shih-Fu

    2000-10-01

    In this paper, we present MediaNet, which is a knowledge representation framework that uses multimedia content for representing semantic and perceptual information. The main components of MediaNet include conceptual entities, which correspond to real world objects, and relationships among concepts. MediaNet allows the concepts and relationships to be defined or exemplified by multimedia content such as images, video, audio, graphics, and text. MediaNet models the traditional relationship types such as generalization and aggregation but adds additional functionality by modeling perceptual relationships based on feature similarity. For example, MediaNet allows a concept such as car to be defined as a type of a transportation vehicle, but which is further defined and illustrated through example images, videos and sounds of cars. In constructing the MediaNet framework, we have built on the basic principles of semiotics and semantic networks in addition to utilizing the audio-visual content description framework being developed as part of the MPEG-7 multimedia content description standard. By integrating both conceptual and perceptual representations of knowledge, MediaNet has potential to impact a broad range of applications that deal with multimedia content at the semantic and perceptual levels. In particular, we have found that MediaNet can improve the performance of multimedia retrieval applications by using query expansion, refinement and translation across multiple content modalities. In this paper, we report on experiments that use MediaNet in searching for images. We construct the MediaNet knowledge base using both WordNet and an image network built from multiple example images and extracted color and texture descriptors. Initial experimental results demonstrate improved retrieval effectiveness using MediaNet in a content-based retrieval system.

  3. Television in a New Media Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Car

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first decade of the 21st century has brought about comprehensive changes for media and communications in general. The new multimedia landscape has broken traditional boarders between telecommunications, the audiovisual industry, and information technology. Still, the border between traditional and new media is quite defined, yet there exists a tendency to mitigate it. Changes in media content production will play the dominant role in that process, as well the fact that the three-step flows of communication encompass new configurations of one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many communication across the online/offline divide. In such processes of development and transformation, video content, once reserved exclusively for film and television using the one-way channel of communication (from content provider to viewers, now plays an increasingly important role. New media provides opportunities for video content to use three-step flows of communication, which subsequently enables space for new video genres and formats. This article presents the results of the study entitled, ”Media Accountability”, and compares them with the author’s own research on television news and with Forrester’s research on youth as a media audience. Finally, this article provides insights on the future of television as a medium and its existence as a traditional medium.

  4. Sub-Saharan Africa's media and neocolonialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domatob, J K

    1988-01-01

    Given the heavy Western metropolitan bias of the media in sub-Saharan Africa, the ideology of neocolonialism continues to exert a dominant influence on economic, social, political, and cultural life. This neocolonial influence is further reinforced by advertising that champions a consumerist culture centered around Western goods. The capital of multinational firms plays a crucial role in the strategy of media imperialism. The dramatic growth of monopolies and the creation of military-industrial-information conglomerates in the 1970s and 1980s have been reflected in the international exchange of information and the interlinkage of mass communication systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Another media strategy that reinforces neocolonialism is the use of satellite communication. If cultural autonomy is defined as sub-Saharan Africa's capacity to decide on the allocation of its environmental resources, then cultural synchronization is a massive threat to that autonomy. Few African nations have the resources or expertise necessary to design, establish, or maintain communication systems that could accurately reflect their own culture. Nonetheless, there are some policy options. Personnel can be trained to respect African values and to recognize the dangers of neocolonial domination. The production of indigenous programs could reduce the media's foreign content. The incorporation of traditional drama and dance in the media could enhance this process. Above all, a high degree of planning is necessary if sub-Saharan African states intend to tackle the media and its domination by neocolonialist ideology. PMID:12281808

  5. Measuring engagement effectiveness in social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Sun, Tong; Peng, Wei; Li, Tao

    2012-03-01

    Social media is becoming increasingly prevalent with the advent of web 2.0 technologies. Popular social media websites, such as Twitter and Facebook, are attracting a gigantic number of online users to post and share information. An interesting phenomenon under this trend involves that more and more users share their experiences or issues with regard to a product, and then the product service agents use commercial social media listening and engagement tools (e.g. Radian6, Sysomos, etc.) to response to users' complaints or issues and help them tackle their problems. This is often called customer care in social media or social customer relationship management (CRM). However, all these existing commercial social media tools only provide an aggregated level of trends, patterns and sentiment analysis based on the keyword-centric brand relevant data, which have little insights for answering one of the key questions in social CRM system: how effective is our social customer care engagement? In this paper, we focus on addressing the problem of how to measure the effectiveness of engagement for service agents in customer care. Traditional CRM effectiveness measurements are defined under the scenario of the call center, where the effectiveness is mostly based on the duration time per call and/or number of answered calls per day. Different from customer care in a call center, we can obtain detailed conversations between agents and customers in social media, and therefore the effectiveness can be measured by analyzing the content of conversations and the sentiment of customers.

  6. Organizational Communication and Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

      The paper reflects an interest in the relation between organizational communication and media. It tries to answer the question, how we can observe the relationship between organizational communication and media. It is a work-in-progress which tries to combine organizational studies inspired...... of Niklas Luhmann (Tække & Paulsen 2008, Tække 2008a) with analysis of how organizations communicate in and about media. Using systems theory and form theory, it puts forward a theoretical framework and a strategy for analysing organisational communication in and about media. The medium aspect is inspired...... by the medium theory (Meyrowitz 1985, Finnemann 2005), but framed through media sociography (Tække 2006). In traditional organizational studies the medium perspective is missing or only indirectly observed. In medium theory, on the other hand, the same can be said about organizational studies. Media sociography...

  7. Genre in media production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Bruun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available How do we explain changes in media genres? Are they the result of economic, technological or other kinds of structural forces; or are they the result of the change-producing agency of the media producers? And how are changes in media texts connected to contextual conditions for media production on micro-, meso- or macro levels? This article suggests that a theoretical approach using a pragmatic and socio-cognitive understanding of genre will help us to address these questions. This approach can highlight the interplay between human agency and different kinds of structural forces involved in specific professional media production cultures. Furthermore, it has the potential to integrate media texts and especially the micro- and meso levels of production. Using lessons learned and findings from my recent production study of Danish television satire, the article will argue three major methodological as well as knowledge-producing advantages of a genre approach.

  8. Pervasive media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooler, C; Flora, J A

    1996-01-01

    In this review, we focus our discussion on studies examining effects on children and young adults. We believe that the current epidemic of youth violence in the United States justifies a focus on this vulnerable segment of society. We consider media effects on individual children's behaviors, such as imitating aggressive acts. In addition, we examine how the media influence young people's perceptions of norms regarding interpersonal relationships. Next, we assess mass media effects on societal beliefs, or what children and adolescents think the "real world" is like. We suggest these media influences are cumulative and mutually reinforcing, and discuss the implications of repeated exposure to prominent and prevalent violent media messages. Finally, we catalog multiple intervention possibilities ranging from education to regulation. From a public health perspective, therefore, we evaluate the effects that pervasive media messages depicting violence have on young people and present multiple strategies to promote more healthful outcomes. PMID:8724228

  9. MASS MEDIA ROLE IN THE FORMATION OF ALL-RUSSIA IDENTITY AND CIVIC PATRIOTISM

    OpenAIRE

    Mulikova Natalya Anatolyevna

    2012-01-01

    The problems of the formation of all-Russia identity and civic patriotism in connection with mass media are envisaged in the article; the main vectors for the solution of the declared problem are defined here. The attention is accorded to the specifity of the problematics in respect to the print and electronic mass media. The article aim is to define the directions for the mass media development concerning all-Russia values and patriotic ideas extrapolation on the mass consciousness. The decl...

  10. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Emergency Medicine Patient Use of New Media

    OpenAIRE

    Post, Lori Ann; Vaca, Federico E.; Biroscak, Brian J; Dziura, James; Brandt, Cynthia; Bernstein, Steven L.; Taylor, Richard, imp.; Jagminas, Liudvikas; D'Onofrio, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about “new media” use, defined as media content created or consumed on demand on an electronic device, by patients in emergency department (ED) settings. The application of this technology has the potential to enhance health care beyond the index visit. Objective The objectives are to determine the prevalence and characteristics of ED patients’ use of new media and to then define and identify the potential of new media to transcend health care barriers and improve t...

  11. Chemical sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrach, Murray R. (Inventor); Chutjian, Ara (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A chemical sensing apparatus and method for the detection of sub parts-per-trillion concentrations of molecules in a sample by optimizing electron utilization in the formation of negative ions is provided. A variety of media may be sampled including air, seawater, dry sediment, or undersea sediment. An electrostatic mirror is used to reduce the kinetic energy of an electron beam to zero or near-zero kinetic energy.

  12. Discourse-picture of the world and discourse-picture of cortege reciprocity presented in elite media

    OpenAIRE

    Popova, Aliona

    2010-01-01

    Discourse of elite media is my research field. Elite media define outlets or programmes having a (inter)national impact, although their audience may be relatively small and geographically limited; these media are opinion leaders; they are an elite group that affects the decisions made in other media (Jamieson, Kathleen Hall 1992). There are three case studies covered in the research paper. The case studies are based on different in size and volume printed elite media texts, and they ar...

  13. Dematerialization through electronic media?

    OpenAIRE

    Coroama, Vlad C; Moberg, Åsa; Hilty, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    While the traditional roles of the computer as a machine for scientific calculations, text editing, and graphic design are still significant, computers are increasingly perceived as means of accessing information and interacting with other people – i.e., as electronic media. The aim of this chapter is to analyze digital electronic media and their effects on environmental sustainability. Two fields of application are addressed: electronic media that may replace or augment traditional print med...

  14. Organizational Communication and Media

    OpenAIRE

    Tække, Jesper

    2008-01-01

     The paper reflects an interest in the relation between organizational communication and media. It tries to answer the question, how we can observe the relationship between organizational communication and media. It is a work-in-progress which tries to combine organizational studies inspired of Niklas Luhmann (Tække & Paulsen 2008, Tække 2008a) with analysis of how organizations communicate in and about media. Using systems theory and form theory, it puts forward a theoretical framework a...

  15. What is Media Innovation?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand and explain current developments in the media landscape, using the lens of innovation and innovation theory adds value to media research. This chapter gives a theoretical introduction to the concept of innovation. It argues that media innovations may be related to product innovation, process innovation, position innovation, paradigmatic innovation and social innovation, and that innovation may involve different degrees of novelty. The chapter also highlights key influen...

  16. Social Media: Human Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Couldry

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the idea that research into media communications and information has recently undergone a normative turn as more and more writers reflect on the ever deeper embedding of our lives in media, and the possible costs that this entails. Possible ways forward for deepening and addressing this normative turn are explored, based on the particular contribution to media and communications research of social theory.

  17. Proactive media relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper looks at a proactive approach to media relations whereby news events are planned, shaped, and timed according to their impact and significance. Focus is given to both written materials and media training. Recommendations are given on why media training should be used as well as how press releases and fact sheets should be written to assist reporters in covering complex technologies and project milestones

  18. Marketing w social media

    OpenAIRE

    Dorenda-Zaborowicz, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The precise definition of social media marketing is hard to establish, but it can be said that it is the methodical use of new technologies and social networks to achieve specific goals for a company. In simple terms social marketing means advertising a company through many different media, like viral videos and blogs, to achieve its maximum exposure. Nevertheless, social media marketing may also refer to advertising certain social issues, such as NGOs’ or civic actions’ promotion. Precyzy...

  19. Strategy and New Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby

    2015-01-01

    Despite current attention to the materiality of organizations and the performative role of tools, devices, artefacts and objects in processes of strategy-making, the impact of new media has not been thoroughly conceptualized in the strategy literature. We argue that new media challenge core...... of new media, this research agenda should be informed by a socio-material sensibility, network thinking and a longitudinal perspective. Keywords...

  20. Editorial: Pedagogical Media Ecologies

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothee M. Meister; Theo Hug; Friesen Norm

    2014-01-01

    From educational gaming through portable e-readers to cell phones, media are interpenetrating educational spaces and activities. Accordingly, understanding media in environmental or ecological terms has become increasingly important for education internationally. In North America, for example, the centenary of McLuhan’s birth has focused attention on approaches to media – whether oral, textual, electronic or digital– as a kind of environment in which education takes place. In parts of Europe,...

  1. Gamification in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Pellikka, H. (Harri)

    2014-01-01

    As social media keeps expanding and alternatives for existing services arise, the need for engaging and sustaining users increases as well. One method for engaging users is the use of gamification. The purpose of this study was to found a basis of knowledge of the current state of gamification social media. The study was conducted as qualitative content analysis, analysing 18 social media sites of different types. The analysis concentrated on the game elements incorporated i...

  2. THE PROBLEM OF CREATION AND CONSUMING OF MEDIA CONTENT OF INNOVATIVE PR

    OpenAIRE

    Berezenko Vita Vitalyevna

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses on the theoretical level the media content of innovative public relations which can be conveyed via the possibilities of online communication; it also defines the characteristic features of the media content drawing attention of scientific community ( scholars). The purpose of this article - review of the production and consumption of media content of innovative PR in Ukraine at the theoretical level. Problems of creating and consuming of innovative PR media content are d...

  3. Role of cultivation media in the development of yeast strains for large scale industrial use

    OpenAIRE

    Görgens Johann; Gorwa-Grauslund Marie; Larsson Christer U; Karhumaa Kaisa; Hahn-Hägerdal Bärbel; van Zyl Willem H

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The composition of cultivation media in relation to strain development for industrial application is reviewed. Heterologous protein production and pentose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae are used to illustrate the influence of media composition at different stages of strain construction and strain development. The effects of complex, defined and industrial media are compared. Auxotrophic strains and strain stability are discussed. Media for heterologous protein production and...

  4. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  5. The Media Mixer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus; Mortensen, Christian Hviid

    the museum users can produce, deconstruct, reconstruct and finally publish and share digital media content. The media content is created by the user in the museums physical environment, but it can be mixed with material from local or global archives. In that way the gap between the analogue and the digital...... domains is bridged, and it is our intention that the users learn about media through a creative process where the border between creating, playing and learning is blurred. There are many challenges in evolving a museum based on analogue print media to an interactive and participatory site but we suggest...

  6. Overview: new media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Gwenn Schurgin

    2012-06-01

    Pediatricians care for children's growth and development from the time they are born until they become adults. In addition, pediatricians must be vigilant for external influences. Technology influences children of all ages. Seventy-five percent of teenagers own cell phones, with 25% using them for social media. Technology can lead to an increase in skills and social benefits but there is also the potential for harm such as sexting, cyberbullying, privacy issues, and Internet addiction, all of which can affect health. Pediatricians must become well versed in the new media to provide media-oriented anticipatory guidance and advice on media-related issues. PMID:22643166

  7. The digital media handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dewdney, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The new edition of The Digital Media Handbook presents an essential guide to the historical and theoretical development of digital media, emphasising cultural continuity alongside technological change, and highlighting the emergence of new forms of communication in contemporary networked culture.Andrew Dewdney and Peter Ride present detailed critical commentary and descriptive historical accounts, as well as a series of interviews from a range of digital media practitioners, including producers, developers, curators and artists.The Digital Media Handbook highlights key concerns of today's prac

  8. Antennas in inhomogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A; Wait, J R

    2013-01-01

    Antennas in Inhomogeneous Media details the methods of analyzing antennas in such inhomogeneous media. The title covers the complex geometrical configurations along with its variational formulations. The coverage of the text includes various conditions the antennas are subjected to, such as antennas in the interface between two media; antennas in compressible isotropic plasma; and linear antennas in a magnetoionic medium. The selection also covers insulated loops in lossy media; slot antennas with a stratified dielectric or isotropic plasma layers; and cavity-backed slot antennas. The book wil

  9. Sosiaalinen media ja markkinointi

    OpenAIRE

    Salmela, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana oli mainostoimisto Media M1. Media M1 on Jyväskyläläinen mainostoimisto, jossa suunnitellaan ja toteutetaan markkinointia printti- ja digimedioihin. Opinnäytetyön aiheeksi valittiin sosiaalinen media ja sen hyödyntäminen markkinoinnissa. Nykyaikana yhä useampi yritys on alkanut siirtyä markkinoimaan myös sosiaalisessa mediassa. Tämän takia Media M1 halusi saada ajankohtaisen selvityksen palveluiden tilanteesta. Opinnäytetyössä selvitettiin sosiaalisen median...

  10. Overview: new media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Gwenn Schurgin

    2012-06-01

    Pediatricians care for children's growth and development from the time they are born until they become adults. In addition, pediatricians must be vigilant for external influences. Technology influences children of all ages. Seventy-five percent of teenagers own cell phones, with 25% using them for social media. Technology can lead to an increase in skills and social benefits but there is also the potential for harm such as sexting, cyberbullying, privacy issues, and Internet addiction, all of which can affect health. Pediatricians must become well versed in the new media to provide media-oriented anticipatory guidance and advice on media-related issues.

  11. Overview of Chemicals of Emerging Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminants of emerging concern or environmental emerging contaminants, are chemicals, products and materials that are detected with increasing frequency in all environmental media including surface, ground water and drinking water. Examples of these contaminants include pharmac...

  12. Some Media Relations Success Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperbeck, John M.

    1997-01-01

    A panel of 29 extension faculty/staff members who work well with the media were interviewed to identify ways to improve their media relations. Reasons for working with the media, ways to develop relationships with media representatives, and suggestions for creating a more favorable climate for media relations in universities were noted. (JOW)

  13. The understanding of the R7T7 glass blocks long term behavior: chemical and transport coupling in fractured media; Comprehension de l'alteration a long terme des colis de verre R7T7: etude du couplage chimie transport dans un milieu fissure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomat, L

    2008-04-15

    The long term behavior of nuclear waste glass blocks depends highly on chemical reactions which occur at the surface in contact with water. Studies carried out on inactive fractured glass blocks show that fracture networks play a significant part in reactive surface area. Nevertheless, the complexity of results interpretation, due to a weak knowledge of fracture networks and local lixiviation conditions, does not allow us to comprehend the physical and chemical mechanisms involved. Model cracks are a key step to study chemical and transport coupling in fractured media. Crack lixiviation in aggressive conditions (pH{>=}11) show that the crack's position (horizontal or vertical) determines the dominant transport mechanism (respectively diffusion or convection induced by gravity). This gravity driven flow seems to be negligible in lower pH conditions. The convective velocity is estimated by a 1D model of reactive transport. Two other parameters are studied: the influence of thermal gradient and the influence of interconnected cracks on alteration. A strong retroactive effect of convection, due to thermal gradient, on the alteration kinetic is observed inside the crack. These works lead to a complete alteration experiment of a 163 crack network subject to a thermal gradient. The use of the geochemical software, HYTEC, within the framework of this study shows the potential of the software which is however limited by the kinetics law used. (author)

  14. Nihility in non-reciprocal bianisotropic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ra’di Younes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we consider electromagnetic response of non-reciprocal bianisotropic materials in some extreme regimes. The magneto-electric coupling is modeled by symmetric and antisymmetric uniaxial dyadics, which correspond to the so called artificial Tellegen media and moving media, respectively. Extreme electromagnetic properties of uniaxial non-reciprocal bianisotropic materials in the limiting case of nihility, when both permittivity and permeability of the media tend to zero, and only the magneto-electric parameters define the material response, are studied. Among other interesting effects, we show that the moving nihility materials provide the extreme asymmetry in the phase shift of transmitted waves propagating along the opposite directions. Furthermore, we reveal a possibility to create an angular filter with extreme sensitivity to the incidence angle, also using moving nihility slabs.

  15. Urban composts as an alternative for peat in forestry nursery growing media

    OpenAIRE

    López Núñez, Rafael; Cabrera, Francisco; Madejón, Engracia; Sancho, Felipe; Álvarez, José María

    2008-01-01

    Including urban composts in nursery growing media could reduce peat use and promote new markets for these products. The objective of this work was to study the effects of compost incorporation in forestry nursery growing media. Growing media were prepared mixing composts (0-75% in volume) from biosolids, municipal solid waste and pruning waste with peat. As control treatment, a peat-based substrate was employed. Hydrophysical and chemical properties of growing media were determined. Moreover ...

  16. Corporate Media Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, Petrus Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The media can make or break a reputation. This being said, it seems to be essential for companies, governments and institutions to pay specific attention to corporate media management in their daily operations. However, this thesis shows that they often neglect to pay adequate attention to corporate

  17. Mobile Media Photography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Shanks, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mobile media photography marks a shift in orientation from the image towards photography as a mode of engagement. This leads is to explore the processes of experience and documentation that mobile media help to constitute. We unfold two aspects of the process of photography: photography as temporal...

  18. Introduction to Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riler, Robert

    Designed for senior high school students, this one semester course focuses on four aspects of modern media: television, film, radio, and advertising. Each topic is worked into a weekly lesson plan format that stresses the active involvement of students in the learning process. The course outline contains lists of objectives and media materials…

  19. Reconceptualizing (new media literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Aczel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce a theoretical-critical approach which shall revisit elements and cast light upon subsets of (new media literacy. It endeavours to draw community, spatial, procedural and aural literacy (auralacy into consideration, relating them to the complex of media literacy, striving to provide invigorating insights into its conceptual foundations and integrated perspectives for its pedagogy.

  20. Understanding social media logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Dijck; T. Poell

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mech­anics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions a

  1. Building Social Media Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriter, William N.; Ramsden, Jason T.; Sheninger, Eric C.

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating social media tools into your professional practices does not have to be intimidating as long as you are willing to tackle five action steps. It is far easier to articulate the strengths--and to imagine the possibilities--of social media spaces as tools for communication and professional development when you are actively using those…

  2. Trends in Media Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Donald F.; Foehr, Ulla G.

    2008-01-01

    American youth are awash in media. They have television sets in their bedrooms, personal computers in their family rooms, and digital music players and cell phones in their backpacks. They spend more time with media than any single activity other than sleeping, with the average American eight- to eighteen-year-old reporting more than six hours of…

  3. Japanese Media in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sachiko Oda

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)

  4. Trolling new media: violent extremist groups recruiting through social media

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With the advent and subsequent growth of several new media technologies, violent extremist groups have incorporated social media into recruiting strategies. How are violent extremist groups using social media for recruiting? This thesis explores several new media technologies—websites, blogs, social media, mobile phones, and online gaming—to determine if violent extremist groups rely on social media for recruiting. By comparing the com...

  5. Media Sociography on Weblogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    Weblogs are not only one of the newest technical media for communication, but also one of the most difficult to understand. Are weblogs a kind of mass medium, a personal medium like an online diary, or a medium that gives space for communities to grow? Or are weblogs a medium that enable all...... these possibilities depended on the actual use? This paper throws some light on what weblogs are by using the methodology of Media Sociography (Tække 2003, 2004a, 2004b and 2004c). Media Sociography is a strategy for analysing mediated social systems or in other words a strategy for describing the social in relation...... to the media it is based on. Theoretically seen it is inspired of two theoretical paradigms the Sociological Systems Theory of Niklas Luhmann and the Media Theory (also called the Toronto school). Empirically the paper primary draws on the literature about weblogs, which could be framed as CMC...

  6. Social Media in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nabeth, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    By using social media, many companies try to exploit new forms of interaction, collaboration, and knowledge sharing through leveraging the social, collaborative dimension of social software. The traditional collective knowledge management model based on a top-down approach is now opening up new...... avenues for a bottom-up approach incorporating a more personal knowledge management dimension, which could be synergized into collective knowledge using the social-collaborative dimension of social media. This article addresses the following questions: (1) How can social media support the management...... of personal and collective knowledge using a synergetic approach? (2) Do the personal and collective dimensions compete with each other or can they reinforce each other in a more effective manner using social media? Our findings indicate that social media supports both the personal and collective dimensions...

  7. Social Media Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael; Colleoni, Elanor; Ravasi, Davide

    directly to corporate performance and actions. Secondly, prominent reputation measurements couple stakeholders´ believes to reputation drivers through the use of predefined scales and items. We argue that with the rise of social media a company´s reputation has increasingly become autonomous from corporate...... actions, which demands a greater decoupling of stakeholders´ perceptions from corporate signals or actions in corporate reputation research. We develop the concept of social media reputation as the overall evaluation of a company presented in social media and present a new approach of measuring reputation...... based on social media data that accounts for the autonomy of stakeholder´s perception of a firm. We compare and contrast this novel social media reputation measure (SMRM) with traditional reputation measurements and find that SMRM is a valuable measurement to capture the autonomy of the stakeholders...

  8. Creative Digital Media Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    The presentation reviews the interplay of dialogic (Bakhtin, 1981) and multimodal theories on media production practices, with attention to visual communication (Kress and van Leeuwen, 2001, 2006). This theoretical approach aids in reflecting on digital media practices as novel (new) sign systems......, which remix older sign systems. Meanings are seen as not produced in a sign, but through dialogic processes within and between multimodal texts, and within the authors and viewers (audience). The evolution of language as a dialogic process is also impacted by a new media ecology and new economy based...... on collaboration (Benkler, 2006). The shift toward visual modes and digital media practices pose many pedagogical challenges for academics. I want to raise questions on how to teach “dialogically” with and through creative, digital media practices based on my plans for a course in Fall, 2011, where students...

  9. Subsidizing Media Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske; Hobel, Emil

    2016-01-01

    and economically sustainable activity, the institutionalization of financial support for media innovation constitute one way for policy makers to bring (parts of) the journalistic environment up-to-date with the digital age, thereby improving the conditions for an informed citizenry in the future (Kammer...... analytical approaches (inspired by the methodology of "qualitative media analysis", cf. Altheide & Schneider, 2013), the paper analyzes to what extent the administration reflects a support of the welfare framework the subsidy scheme exists within. It asks (1) which types of news-media innovation gets......When the Danish Parliament revised the media-subsidy framework in 2013/2014, one of the new initiatives was the introduction of a pool of funding earmarked to establishing and developing new news media – the so-called “innovation fund”. So, as the news industry struggles to keep journalism a viable...

  10. Chemical species of europium (III) in ionic force media 0.02M, 0.1M, and 0.7M NaClO4 at 298 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to know the effects of the controlled or accidental liberation of the europium in the environment, it is necessary to know its chemical behavior in found conditions in oceans, ground and surface water. The behavior of this element in these environments can be controlled mainly by the hydrolysis and its interaction with inorganic and organic ions. (Author)

  11. On defining semantics of extended attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1980-01-01

    Knuth has introduced attribute grammars (AGs) as a tool to define the semanitcs of context-free languages. The use of AGs in connection with programming language definitions has mostly been to define the context-sensitive syntax of the language and to define a translation in code for a hypothetic...

  12. Social media modeling and computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hoi, Steven CH; Boll, Susanne; Xu, Dong; Jin, Rong; King, Irwin

    2011-01-01

    Presents contributions from an international selection of preeminent experts in the field Discusses topics on social-media content analysis, and examines social-media system design and analysis Describes emerging applications of social media

  13. Influence of media on collective debates

    CERN Document Server

    Quattrociocchi, Walter; Scala, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The information system (T.V., newspapers, blogs, social network platforms) and its inner dynamics play a fundamental role on the evolution of collective debates and thus on the public opinion. In this work we address such a process focusing on how the current inner strategies of the information system (competition, customer satisfaction) once combined with the gossip may affect the opinions dynamics. A reinforcement effect is particularly evident in the social network platforms where several and incompatible cultures coexist (e.g, pro or against the existence of chemical trails and reptilians, the new world order conspiracy and so forth). We introduce a computational model of opinion dynamics which accounts for the coexistence of media and gossip as separated but interdependent mechanisms influencing the opinions evolution. Individuals may change their opinions under the contemporary pressure of the information supplied by the media and the opinions of their social contacts. We stress the effect of the media ...

  14. MASS MEDIA''S MANIPULATIVE POTENTIAL IN POLITICAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSHCHINA L.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the invention of telegraph, radio and television which enable contacts with a large audience, the social impact of communication via the mass media has been a subject of intense research by political and social scientists. Thus the paper discusses the nature of manipulation in political discourse and its ambivalent role in the modern society. The solution of the research tasks is carried out on the basis of the complex methodological base which defines the general orientation and the principles of research, as well as its scientific results, including the general philosophical methodological concept of dialectic materialism in accordance with the principles of unity of form and content, cause and effect, general communication of the phenomena. In conclusion, it summarizes that mentioned above phenomenon is both serious and dangerous, being capable to influence people’s consciousness, depriving them of their critical thinking, and even dooming them to the passivity of life.

  15. MediaTracker system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial objectives of this effort were to provide a hardware and software platform that can address the requirements for the accountability of classified removable electronic media and vault access logging. The Media Tracker system software assists classified media custodian in managing vault access logging and Media Tracking to prevent the inadvertent violation of rules or policies for the access to a restricted area and the movement and use of tracked items. The MediaTracker system includes the software tools to track and account for high consequence security assets and high value items. The overall benefits include: (1) real-time access to the disposition of all Classified Removable Electronic Media (CREM), (2) streamlined security procedures and requirements, (3) removal of ambiguity and managerial inconsistencies, (4) prevention of incidents that can and should be prevented, (5) alignment with the DOE's initiative to achieve improvements in security and facility operations through technology deployment, and (6) enhanced individual responsibility by providing a consistent method of dealing with daily responsibilities. In response to initiatives to enhance the control of classified removable electronic media (CREM), the Media Tracker software suite was developed, piloted and implemented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory beginning in July 2000. The Media Tracker software suite assists in the accountability and tracking of CREM and other high-value assets. One component of the MediaTracker software suite provides a Laboratory-approved media tracking system. Using commercial touch screen and bar code technology, the MediaTracker (MT) component of the MediaTracker software suite provides an efficient and effective means to meet current Laboratory requirements and provides new-engineered controls to help assure compliance with those requirements. It also establishes a computer infrastructure at vault entrances for vault access logging, and can accommodate

  16. Social media for radiologists: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Ranschaert, Erik R.; van Ooijen, P. M. A.; Lee, Simon; Ratib, Osman; Parizel, P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Social media, which can be defined as dynamic and interactive online communication forums, are becoming increasingly popular, not only for the general public but also for radiologists. In addition to assisting radiologists in finding useful profession-related information and interactive educational material in all kinds of formats, they can also contribute towards improving communication with peers, clinicians, and patients. The growing use of social networking in healthcare also has...

  17. MASS MEDIA'S MANIPULATIVE POTENTIAL IN POLITICAL DISCOURSE

    OpenAIRE

    GUSHCHINA L.V.; AGAPOVA S.G.; AGAPOVA E.A.

    2015-01-01

    Since the invention of telegraph, radio and television which enable contacts with a large audience, the social impact of communication via the mass media has been a subject of intense research by political and social scientists. Thus the paper discusses the nature of manipulation in political discourse and its ambivalent role in the modern society. The solution of the research tasks is carried out on the basis of the complex methodological base which defines the general orientation and the pr...

  18. Optimisation in radiotherapy I. Defining the problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimisation in radiotherapy should incorporate a very wide set of variables, including the combinations of dose due to external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, internally administered radionuclides and the effects of chemotherapy, surgery, hyperthermia, other biological and chemical defenses, alternative treatment techniques, lifestyle and mental state of the patient, the economics of cancer treatment and consideration of tolerable levels of adverse effects and palliation. A full treatment optimisation would consider the influence and covariance of all these variables and any future techniques, as well as the complex constraints imposed by the biological systems being irradiated. This series of reviews concentrates on optimisation of radiotherapy through the treatment planning component of the treatment process - an area of radiotherapy research that has received a great deal of attention as the attached lists of references will testify. It hopes to provide the medical physics and engineering community (and hopefully the clinical community) with a background into the mathematical bases for the manipulation of radiation for clinical benefit. It also examines the potential benefits of research into these techniques in the light of recent approaches to optimisation in radiotherapy, and provides pointers to more concise accounts in the literature. In this first article, the incentive for radiotherapy optimisation research is established, and the actual radiotherapy optimisation problem (in terms of the manipulation of degrees of freedom in radiation delivery) is defined. The degrees of freedom associated with radiotherapy treatment are identified, and it is shown how these degrees of freedom translate into the mathematical parameters of the problem, including the dose distributions they produce. The constraints and objectives of the problem are also discussed from both physical and radiobiological perspectives. (author)

  19. CLASSICAL MEDIA RELATIONS AND NEW MEDIA RELATIONS IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Media relations in sport mean maintenance of networks and positive relationships with people in the media to obtain positive media exposure for a sport product (informal and formal information sessions with media representatives. Because of the pervasive influence the media has on marketing success, sport marketers must make concerted efforts to create a positive relationship between their sport event and the media. They may accomplish this by providing the media with press releases, having news conferences, having media-day events (in which the media are invited to interact with the players, coaches, and administrators, providing media guides for the respective sport events and so on. Each of these activities promotes active involvement from the media, which will subsequently contribute to relationship building with the community.

  20. Media Spaces, Places and Palpable Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Margit; Kyng, Morten

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly describe how emergency response in major incidents typically is carried out, in terms of division of work, collaboration and use of technologies. We then describe two prototypes we are developing, meant to support those who act in emergency response. Use of these prototy...... the media space cannot be defined as a limited group of users. We also rise questions to the formality of communication, where we see the communication going on in emergency response, as a mix of formal and informal communication.......In this paper, we briefly describe how emergency response in major incidents typically is carried out, in terms of division of work, collaboration and use of technologies. We then describe two prototypes we are developing, meant to support those who act in emergency response. Use of these...... prototypes form what can be termed as media spaces - but rise questions to the traditional understanding of the media space concept - since the emergency response media spaces are not ‘set up' in predefined physical settings, do allow use of a range of (not necessarily predefined) media, and the people in...

  1. Social Depth, Social Media and Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Babacan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Social media showing itself in every aspect of daily life and changing and transforming individuals and society relations at all points. Due to the structural form, social media mainly allows individual use; but on the other hand, its development through a network connecting individuals makes it entirely social. In this respect, understanding the relationship between social media and youth, as one of dozens of elements that comprise the social structure and as one of the most important dynamics, is becoming extremely important. Meanwhile, an effort should be developed around the concept of ‘social depth’ which can be defined as the sum of many different elements of the social structure. What should be understood from social depth is construction of a mind that does not ignore the humanity accumulation of history but not fall into anachronism, seize and apprehend today and show will. And ability to penetrate this mind into all the elements and cells of social structure. In other words, what is necessary for harmony of a healthy body is mind and will. In this aspect, our study, which discusses theoretically social media usage of youth around the concept of social depth, focuses on understanding and apprehending the relationship of youth with social media around fundamental mind creating social depth.

  2. Media in Contemporary Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arslan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a reality that media play very substantial role in the production and social distribution of knowledge. İn addition to that, mass media provides the greatest communication opportunities to the people. Also, contemporary media provides very distinctive weapons to obtain power, wealth and prestige in the society. This study aims to analyse contemporary Turkish media. Turkey is one of the most rapidly developing and urbanising countries in the world. Parallel to this rapid development and urbanisation, Turkey has lived through a very important media revolution through out the 1990s. Several international and hundreds of local and national television channels, and more than a thousand radio stations have been broadcasting in contemporary Turkey. As in some other countries, the media are predominantly owned and controlled either by large business groups or the state who dominate economic and political power in Turkey. The Turkish media are financially dependent not only on the state but also on the private entrepreneurs who are the owners of  large scale capital

  3. Media Literacy in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Perovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Few countries in the world have introduced media education into their curriculums. Montenegro became one of them in 2009, when “media literacy” was introduced as an optional subject for 16 and 17 year old students of Gymnasium high schools. This article presents the findings of the first and only research conducted so far on media education in Montenegro. It is a national case study which examines the potential of media education to change the school culture and accelerate education system reform towards embracing the new digital education paradigm in the future. The focus is on the results of research conducted through in-depth interviews with media literacy teachers all over the country. Despite the many challenges, all teachers identify the potential of media education to strengthen some of the key competences of the students and to improve their motivation and academic performance. They also identify potential to change positively school culture by transforming teachers into “cultural mediators” (Morcellini, 2007 and by supporting the formation of a “participative culture” (Jenkins & Kelley, 2013 in schools. This research recommends focusing education reform on spreading the media education pedagogy to the entire curriculum in order to embrace the new digital education paradigm in the future.

  4. Chemical carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical compounds benefits society in a number of ways. Pesticides, for instance, enable foodstuffs to be produced in sufficient quantities to satisfy the needs of millions of people, a condition that has led to an increase in levels of life expectancy. Yet, at times, these benefits are offset by certain disadvantages, notably the toxic side effects of the chemical compounds used. Exposure to these compounds can have varying effects, ranging from instant death to a gradual process of chemical carcinogenesis. There are three stages involved in chemical carcinogenesis. These are defined as initiation, promotion and progression. Each of these stages is characterised by morphological and biochemical modifications and result from genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. These genetic modifications include: mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, cell death and DNA repair - i.e. mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressing genes. The epigenetic factors, also considered as being non-genetic in character, can also contribute to carcinogenesis via epigenetic mechanisms which silence gene expression. The control of responses to carcinogenesis through the application of several chemical, biochemical and biological techniques facilitates the identification of those basic mechanisms involved in neoplasic development. Experimental assays with laboratory animals, epidemiological studies and quick tests enable the identification of carcinogenic compounds, the dissection of many aspects of carcinogenesis, and the establishment of effective strategies to prevent the cancer which results from exposure to chemicals.A sociedade obtém numerosos benefícios da utilização de compostos químicos. A aplicação dos pesticidas, por exemplo, permitiu obter alimento em quantidade suficiente para satisfazer as necessidades alimentares de milhões de pessoas, condição relacionada com o aumento da esperança de vida. Os benefícios estão, por

  5. The media politics of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the ways in which news values shape the reporting of oil spills and the constraints under which media practitioners work. A series of oil spills since the late 1960s [including the Torrey Canyon (1967), the Exxon Valdez (1989), and the Sea Empress (1996)] have attracted considerable attention from the news media. The focus is upon the dynamics through which news sources, with their own particular vested interests, compete to secure representation of the issues. Media discourse on risk and the environment is, to a significant extent, a discourse dependent upon the voices of official ''experts''. Environmental organizations, industry, scientists and government offer their own particular competing accounts of the ''reality'' of the situation. Issues concerning differential access to the news media are crucial when considering who comes to define the event. Accordingly, the article examines the strategies adopted by the various news sources involved in influencing the symbolic representation of public issues. Media practitioners are faced with great problems in interpreting and explaining these competing claims. Relatively few journalists and broadcasters have a scientific training and perhaps one of the greatest problems is that by simplifying complex scientific information one inevitably distorts it. Frequently researchers make the assumption that it is possible to demonstrate a direct causal link between news media coverage and public attitudes. However, the paper calls for great caution in interpreting ''public opinion'' concerning environmental issues and concludes by arguing that news media representations may more usefully be viewed as the outcome of a battle among a selective range of news sources, each seeking to provide their own definition of the public representation of the issues. (author)

  6. Templated Growth of Magnetic Recording Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Vignesh

    Current and potential next-generation magnetic recording technologies are based on the writing and reading of bits on a magnetic thin film with a granular microstructure, with grains of the magnetic material surrounded by an amorphous segregant. In order to realize the highest achievable data storage capabilities, there is a need for better control of the magnetic media microstructure, particularly in terms of minimizing grain size and grain boundary thickness distributions. In this work, a guided magnetic media growth is attempted by creating a pre-fabricated template with a specific material and morphology. The template is designed in such a way that, when magnetic media consisting of the magnetic alloy and segregant are sputtered, the sites on the template result in a controlled two-phase growth of magnetic media. The template is fabricated using self-assembling block copolymers, which can be used to fabricate nanostructures with a regular hexagonal lattice of spheres of one block in the other's matrix. These are then used as etch-masks to fabricate the template. In this thesis, we describe the approach used to fabricate these templates and demonstrate the two-phase growth of magnetic recording media. In such an approach, the magnetic grain size is defined by the uniform pitch of the block copolymer pattern, resulting in a uniform microstructure with much better grain size distribution than can be obtained with conventional un-templated media growth. The templated growth technique is also a suitable additive technique for the fabrication of Bit Patterned Media, another potential next-generation technology wherein the magnetic bits are isolated patterned islands. Combining nanoimprint lithography with templated growth, we can generate a long range spatially ordered array of magnetic islands with no etching of the magnetic material.

  7. Corporeal-Locomotive Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft

    activities and experiences across the abovementioned gameworlds. As a consequence, the article points towards the centrality of expressive first-person corporeality and locomotion in digital games – a circumstance that sets the practice and experience of digital games apart from media practices...... and experiences such as reading or listening to a story and watching a movie or theatre play and other traditional or new media forms. These circumstances make the article question whether digital games can be understood as (new) media form at all and, thus, it points towards a possible new vocabulary...

  8. Islam and Media

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Shuhaimi Bin Haji Ishak; Sohirin Mohammad Solihin

    2012-01-01

    The most important roles of the media are agenda-setting and representation. The media, particularly from the West, seems to feature Islam constantly in the negative light. The portrayal of the negative image of Islam takes place by constructing an image of Islam with terrorism, violence, extremism and antipathy to the West. A more recent phenomenon of Western media towards Islam is the fanning of ‘Islamophobia’ a form of concerted efforts directed to frighten the world of the hostility and e...

  9. Consolidating Social Media Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Munar, Ana Maria; Larson, Mia

    2014-01-01

    This study revisits and integrates the insights of recent studies on emergent social media strategies deployed by destination and event management organisations. In a comparative analysis Munar (2012) identified four generic approaches pursued by national tourism boards in the Nordic region, while......). This paper discusses the complementary nature of these conceptual proposals and advances an integrated conceptual framework of social media strategies. Based on the empirical findings of a case study that revisits evolving digital and social media strategies of European DMOs this paper maps the dynamics...

  10. Does social media reduce 'corporate media influence' on journalism?: The Case of Turkish Media

    OpenAIRE

    Ceren Sozeri

    2011-01-01

    McChesney described one of the biggest problem of journalism as “the journalists have any power to be autonomous from owners and advertisers” (2008:58). Most of media market have been dominated by a few media companies, furthermore a few media conglomerates who had expanded with merger and acquisitions transactions control the biggest part of the global media and entertainment industry. This concentration of media power and penetration of commercial interest in the news media has been seen as...

  11. Fractional Fokker-Planck Equation for Fractal Media

    OpenAIRE

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2006-01-01

    We consider the fractional generalizations of equation that defines the medium mass. We prove that the fractional integrals can be used to describe the media with noninteger mass dimensions. Using fractional integrals, we derive the fractional generalization of the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation (Smolukhovski equation). In this paper fractional Fokker-Planck equation for fractal media is derived from the fractional Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. Using the Fourier transform, we get the Fokker-Planc...

  12. Social media use of older adults: a mini-review

    OpenAIRE

    Leist, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Background. Maintaining social relationships has been defined as a core element of aging well. With a considerable amount of older adults living alone, social media provides the possibility to engage in meaningful social contact, e. g., by joining online social networks and online discussion forums. Objective. The review encompasses current knowledge of prerequisites in social media use of older adults such as functional capacity, ICT-related knowledge, and favorable attitudes towards social ...

  13. The space for social media in structured online learning

    OpenAIRE

    Salmon, Gilly; Ross, Bella; Pechenkina, Ekaterina; Chase, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the benefits of using social media in an online educational setting, with a particular focus on the use of Facebook and Twitter by participants in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) developed to enable educators to learn about the Carpe Diem learning design process. We define social media as digital social tools and environments located outside of the provision of a formal university-provided Learning Management System. We use data collected via interviews and surve...

  14. Negative messages spread rapidly and widely on social media

    OpenAIRE

    Tsugawa, Sho; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relation between the sentiment of a message on social media and its virality, defined as the volume and the speed of message diffusion. We analyze 4.1 million messages (tweets) obtained from Twitter. Although factors affecting message diffusion on social media have been studied previously, we focus on message sentiment, and reveal how the polarity of message sentiment affects its virality. The virality of a message is measured by the number of message repostings (retweets) ...

  15. The Importance of Social Media in Business Models on Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Nicodim Liliana; Negoi Eugen Remus; Tileaga Cosmin

    2012-01-01

    Social media is a term that reflects the rapid development of technology and the skills and knowledge users, a complex concept for which there is no universally accepted definition. The term defines generic, a set of online communication channels, social networks and transmission of information, including social networks, groups, forums, blogs and various content platforms that facilitate transmission and instant communication (Safko, L., The Social Media Bible, John Willey & Sons, New Jersey...

  16. PERAN MEDIA SOSIAL DI INTERNET PADA PENERAPAN PROSES KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sartika Kurniali

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge management application on the internet keeps growing. It happens because the Internet offers new opportunities to use the knowledge assets, defines and spreads type of new knowledge assets, even to outside the organization. On the internet, appear social media that enable internet-based knowledge sharing system. As we know social media is not something new and has undergone many changes that allow for more interactive interaction and much greater number of users now. The re...

  17. Contrast Media Injector Technology - Renal Safety During Coronarography

    OpenAIRE

    Mujicic, Ermina; Kevric, Ekrem; Rasic, Senija; Selimovic, Amina; Granov, Nermir; Music, Dinka

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study sought to assess whether the volume and osmolarity of contrast media (CM) influences the occurrence of contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) following coronarography procedure. CIN can be defined as an increase in the serum concentration of creatinine greater than a 25% from baseline during the period of 12 to 48 hours after the administration of radiocontrast media. Material and methods: We examined 100 patients without diabetes with serum creatinine concentration from 45 mmol/l...

  18. Consolidating Social Media Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Munar, Ana Maria; Larson, Mia

    2014-01-01

    This study revisits and integrates the insights of recent studies on emergent social media strategies deployed by destination and event management organisations. In a comparative analysis Munar (2012) identified four generic approaches pursued by national tourism boards in the Nordic region, while...... Gyimóthy & Larson (2014) portrayed three digital value co-creation strategies deployed by festival social media. Both frameworks provided novel analytical typologies which identified a series of categories (mimetic, analytic, immersion, advertising and insourcing, crowdsourcing and community consolidation......). This paper discusses the complementary nature of these conceptual proposals and advances an integrated conceptual framework of social media strategies. Based on the empirical findings of a case study that revisits evolving digital and social media strategies of European DMOs this paper maps the dynamics...

  19. Media and ICT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Media and information and communication technologies (ICTs) have in the past decades been placed firmly on the educational agenda, and will continue to maintain this position, not least as catalysts for educational change. This issue is reflected in the anthology as it aims to respond to the ques......Media and information and communication technologies (ICTs) have in the past decades been placed firmly on the educational agenda, and will continue to maintain this position, not least as catalysts for educational change. This issue is reflected in the anthology as it aims to respond...... to the question of how the presence of media and ICT in and outside schools both change and qualify educational practice as well as how the cooperation between media, cultures, aesthetics and social relations affect and support new demands on education. The book represents different academic perspectives...

  20. Research in Learning Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Westera, W. (2009). Research in Learning Media, CELSTEC lab. Presentation on behalf of a delegation of Teleac/NOT and the scientific board of the Veringa chair. February, 13, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  1. Media and Security Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Media And Security Team led by Prof. Min Wu was established in Fall 2001 at University of Maryland, College Park. A number of research and education activities...

  2. Social Media Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stohl, Cynthia; Etter, Michael; Banghart, Scott;

    2015-01-01

    of these trends is examined through a content analysis of 112 publicly available social media policies from the largest corporations in the world. The extent to which social media policies facilitate and/or constrain the communicative sensibilities and values associated with contemporary notions of CSR...... negotiation and participation in the social responsibilities of corporations. Moreover, policies generally enact organizational communication practices that are contrary to international CSR guidelines (e.g., the UN Global Compact and other international agreements). Findings suggest that social media...... policies represent a relatively unrecognized development in the institutionalization of CSR communicative norms and practices that call into question the promising affordances of social media for the inclusion of various voices in the public negotiation of what constitutes corporate social responsibility....

  3. Social Media and Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael

    New research in the Danish upper secondary schools shows that social media like Facebook is the number one attention diverts from the interaction about educational subjects in the classroom. At the same time international research shows that there is a great potential in using social media...... the past seven years (Paulsen & Tække 2009, 2010; Tække & Paulsen 2010). To find out if and how the gap can be reduced, we have initiated the action research project The Socio Media Education Experiment, and in the paper we explain both the background for the project and its preliminary results....... The overriding purpose of the paper is to provide a research-based input to the discussion about the role of social media in schools....

  4. Technetium Sorption Media Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents information and references to aid in the selection of 99Tc sorption media for feasibility studies regarding the removal of 99Tc from Hanford's low activity waste. The report contains literature search material for sorption media (including ion exchange media) for the most tested media to date, including SuperLig 639, Reillex HPQ, TAM (Kruion), Purolite A520E and A530E, and Dowex 1X8. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which comprises both the Hanford Site tank farms and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities in a safe, environmentally compliant, cost-effective and energy-effective manner.

  5. Stochastic porous media equations

    CERN Document Server

    Barbu, Viorel; Röckner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on stochastic porous media equations, this book places an emphasis on existence theorems, asymptotic behavior and ergodic properties of the associated transition semigroup. Stochastic perturbations of the porous media equation have reviously been considered by physicists, but rigorous mathematical existence results have only recently been found. The porous media equation models a number of different physical phenomena, including the flow of an ideal gas and the diffusion of a compressible fluid through porous media, and also thermal propagation in plasma and plasma radiation. Another important application is to a model of the standard self-organized criticality process, called the "sand-pile model" or the "Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model". The book will be of interest to PhD students and researchers in mathematics, physics and biology.

  6. TECHNETIUM SORPTION MEDIA REVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB; KELLY SE; ROBBINS RA; ADAMS RD; THORSON MA; HAASS CC

    2011-08-25

    This report presents information and references to aid in the selection of 99Tc sorption media for feasibility studies regarding the removal of 99Tc from Hanford's low activity waste. The report contains literature search material for sorption media (including ion exchange media) for the most tested media to date, including SuperLig 639, Reillex HPQ, TAM (Kruion), Purolite A520E and A530E, and Dowex 1X8. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which comprises both the Hanford Site tank farms and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities in a safe, environmentally compliant, cost-effective and energy-effective manner.

  7. Media studies for scientists

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    "Science, with its inherent uncertainties, can be hard to put across to the public. But blaming 'sloppy' journalism is too easy. If researchers are to make their points effectively, they should learn more about how the media work" (1 page).

  8. Mixed-Media Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The fun of creating collages is there are unlimited possibilities for the different kinds of materials one can use. In this article, the author describes how her eighth-grade students created an owl using mixed media.

  9. Spotlight on the media

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Do you want to know more about how the media works, how to deal with journalists? How to maximise opportunity and minimise threat? Then please join us on 22 November. This session will cover how to work effectively with the media, including print, radio and TV. You’ll get an insight into how journalists and news rooms operate. You’ll learn to recognise both soft balls and traps - and develop the techniques for dealing with them. The challenges of explaining CERN to any media outlet will be dealt with too. This interactive presentation, given by Jessica Pryce-Jones, Managing Director of the consultancy firm iOpener Ltd, and Nisha Pillai, news anchor for BBC World, will be illustrated with various case studies. How to deal with the media: maximising opportunity and minimising threat Thursday 22 November, from 4.30 pm, Main Auditorium, Bldg. 500 Coffee break before the event at 4.00 pm

  10. Capillary Condensation in Confined Media

    CERN Document Server

    Charlaix, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    We review here the physics of capillary condensation of liquids in confined media, with a special regard to the application in nanotechnologies. The thermodynamics of capillary condensation and thin film adsorption are first exposed along with all the relevant notions. The focus is then shifted to the modelling of capillary forces, to their measurements techniques (including SFA, AFM and crack tips) and to their influence on AFM imaging techniques as well as on the static and dynamic friction properties of solids (including granular heaps and sliding nanocontacts). A great attention is spent in investigating the delicate role of the surface roughness and all the difficulties involved in the reduction of the probe size to nanometric dimensions. Another major consequence of capillary condensation in nanosystems is the activation of several chemical and corrosive processes that can significantly alter the surface properties, such as dissolution/redeposition of solid materials and stress-corrosion crack propagati...

  11. Communications and media services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcculla, James W.; Kukowski, James F.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's internal and external communication methods are reviewed. NASA information services for the media, for the public, and for employees are discussed. Consideration is given to electron information distribution, the NASA TV-audio system, the NASA broadcast news service, astronaut appearances, technology and information exhibits, speaker services, and NASA news reports for internal communications. Also, the NASA worldwide electronic mail network is described and trends for future NASA communications and media services are outlined.

  12. Media Brands and Branding

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Strong brands are necessary in media because technology has increased thenumber of content providers and made it possible for many more competitors toseek the attention and loyalty of audiences and advertisers. Brands are crucialin separating media companies and their products from those of competitors,in creating continuity of quality and service across extended product lines, andin helping develop strong bonds with consumers. This book discusses communicative tactics and the building of med...

  13. On commercial media bias

    OpenAIRE

    Germano, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    Within the spokes model of Chen and Riordan (2007) that allows for non-localized competition among arbitrary numbers of media outlets, we quantify the effect of concentration of ownership on quality and bias of media content. A main result shows that too few commercial outlets, or better, too few separate owners of commercial outlets can lead to substantial bias in equilibrium. Increasing the number of outlets (commercial and non-commercial) tends to bring down this bias; but the strong...

  14. Digital Media Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles

    Provides a philosophical-ethical "toolkit" for analyzing central ethical issues evoked by our use of new media, including privacy, copyright, violent and sexual content online, and cross-cultural communication online.......Provides a philosophical-ethical "toolkit" for analyzing central ethical issues evoked by our use of new media, including privacy, copyright, violent and sexual content online, and cross-cultural communication online....

  15. Drupal 7 media

    CERN Document Server

    Tal, Liran

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical, hands-on guide packed with examples that will help you build rich Drupal 7 media web applications.If you are a Drupal site builder and you wish to spice up your web applications with rich media content, then this book is for you. A basic understanding of HTML, JavaScript, and basic PHP module development in Drupal would be helpful, but is not necessary.

  16. Social Media Cocreation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how social media becomes a part of integrated marketing communications of festival organizations. The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize the co-creation of festival experiences online by comparing managerial strategies and communicative patterns of three large....... Based on the empirical findings, we propose an analytical framework to improve our understanding of the management of social media communications, offering three distinct value co-creation strategies in a festival context....

  17. Utilization of media monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Tiihonen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The objective of the study is to discover the role of media monitoring in companies. In more detail, the utilization methods of the media monitoring results will be examined. This information will be portrayed on a three leveled information processing cycle of “The Knowing Organization” to discover how deep the information is processed in reality. Knowledge and intelligence are often represented as an aid for decision making and this research will broaden the scope by evaluating the ...

  18. Social media analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hynouš, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Diploma thesis deals with the use of social media in business. It divides types of online communication by marketing tactics and thereafter describes them. It gives a detailed description of social networks, blogs, forums, social bookmarking services, shared multimedia and virtual worlds. Shortcomings of social media and the dangers impending their users are also mentioned in the thesis. One of the serious problems is cyberbullying. In the analytical part especially the activities of users an...

  19. Magnetohydrodynamics of Fractal Media

    OpenAIRE

    Vasily E. Tarasov

    2007-01-01

    The fractal distribution of charged particles is considered. An example of this distribution is the charged particles that are distributed over fractal. The fractional integrals are used to describe fractal distribution. These integrals are considered as approximations of integrals on fractals. Typical turbulent media could be of a fractal structure and the corresponding equations should be changed to include the fractal features of the media. The magnetohydrodynamics equations for fractal me...

  20. Consolidating Social Media Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Munar, Ana Maria; Larson, Mia

    2014-01-01

    This study revisits and integrates the insights of recent studies on emergent social media strategies deployed by destination and event management organisations. In a comparative analysis Munar (2012) identified four generic approaches pursued by national tourism boards in the Nordic region, while Gyimóthy & Larson (2014) portrayed three digital value co-creation strategies deployed by festival social media. Both frameworks provided novel analytical typologies which identified a series of...

  1. Competition among mass media

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiek, Maksymilian

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates how mass media provide information to readers or viewers who have diverse interests. The problem of a mass medium comes from the fact that there is a constraint on how much information can be delivered. It is shown that the mass medium optimally provides information that is somewhat useful to all agents, but not perfect to anybody in particular. This benchmark model is then used to investigate competition among mass media with differentiated products. In the equilibriu...

  2. Media and Sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Roberto de Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    One of the distinctive marks of current capitalism is the presence of mass media constituting the psyche in different aspects. Today, we observe the multiplication of many contents with erotic appeal in the media and the effects of this process are still to be known, particularly in the matter of sexuality. Concretely, what we have is that the practices and the effective conceptions of sexuality are suffering an accelerated transformation that involves the abandonment of the traditional pract...

  3. Social Media, Social Kids: Sociocultural Implications of 21st Century Media for Development in the Preteen Period.

    OpenAIRE

    Tehranian, Yalda

    2013-01-01

    Sociocultural theory emphasizes the role of culture and society on individual development (Davydov, 1995; Vygotsky, 1978). In the 21st century, media have become an essential feature of society, with the current generation of youth being the first to be defined by technology and innovation (Gardner, 2013). An examination of television, a media that can reflect cultural trends, found that the value of fame was the top portrayed value (out of a list of 16 values) in 2007, while it was near th...

  4. Using Social Media The Inside Out: A qualitative study of four different local models for organizing social media in organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Haugsbakken, Halvdan

    2016-01-01

    The research focus has been to understand how social media is used, interpreted and is part of social practice among a variety of people who work in organizations affiliated to the Norwegian Public Sector, research defined to capture technology initiatives during the period 2008-14. Organization researchers have limited knowledge on how social media is used in organizations, leading to calls for increased research. The study is an answer to fill that knowledge gap. The thesis is in...

  5. Cadmium Resistance Screening in Nitrilotriacetate-Buffered Minimal Media

    OpenAIRE

    Angle, J. S.; Chaney, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    Media used to determine the MICs of heavy metals for bacteria are unreliable because organic components in the media bind or chelate most of the metal being studied. To define specific metal activity in media and to maintain metal activity at a constant level, HEPES-MES [N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N′ -2-ethanesulfonic acid−2-(N-morpholine)ethanesulfonic acid] salts medium with arabinose medium was modified, and the modified medium was used to examine the MIC of cadmium for Rhizobium fredii US...

  6. The Impact of E-Media on Customer Purchase Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmood Rehmani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, authors investigated the social media (e-discussion, websites, online chat, email etc parameters that have effect over the customers buying decisions. The research focused on the development of research model to test the impact of social media on the customer purchase intention. The literature review done to explore the work done on social media. The authors identify the problem and defined the objectives of the studies. In order to achieve them, a research model is proposed that followed by the development of research hypotheses to testify the model.

  7. Mobile Cloud for Personalized Any-Media Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhumip Khasnabish

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we define mobile cloud computing and describe how it can be used for delivering advanced any-media services to both nomadic and mobile users. We focus on service delivery that is localized and personalized and suggest that virtualization and tighter cross-layer communication allows for convergence and seamless transition of services. These are also creating new and never-before seen ways of developing and delivering personalized any-media services. We discuss current paradigms for implementing cloud-based any-media services that generate revenue. Future research topics and requirements for evolving network and service elements are also discussed.

  8. Software Defined Networking (Dagstuhl Seminar 12363)

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Pan; Koponen, Teemu

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the talks and discussions of Dagstuhl Seminar 12363 "Software Defined Networking". The presented talks represent a spectrum of industrial and academic work as well as both technical and organizational developments surrounding Software Defined Networking (SDN). The topic of SDN has garnered significant attention over the past few years in the networking community and beyond, and indeed the term "Software Defined Networking" itself carries different meani...

  9. Self-media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2015-01-01

    The self and identity are not only topics related to the selfies. They are connected to the development of media since the renaissance, the self-media. This is the thesis of the following. The subject, the self, is most clearly exposed in the face, and face and identity becomes important in the m......The self and identity are not only topics related to the selfies. They are connected to the development of media since the renaissance, the self-media. This is the thesis of the following. The subject, the self, is most clearly exposed in the face, and face and identity becomes important...... in the media since the renaissance. The selfies is just the newest development is this tradition, which began with the invention of the mirror, the book (printing), and the small painting. They all put the subject as both maker and receiver in the center. It was the beginning of the modern subject....... The development continued throughout the coming centuries. The selfies is the newest creation to discover, explore, visualize and find the self of the subject. The following will thus emphasis the self, the face, where the self is most noticeably expressed and seen, and the self-media, where the individual can...

  10. Percolation in Heterogeneous Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a theoretical reflection on the problematic of the modeling of heterogeneous media, that is on the way of their simple representation conserving their characteristic features. Two particular problems are addressed in this thesis. Firstly, we study the transport in porous media, that is in a heterogeneous media which structure is quenched. A pore space is represented in a simple way - a pore is symbolized as a tube of a given length and a given diameter. The fact that the correlations in the distribution of pore sizes are taken into account by a construction of a hierarchical network makes possible the modeling of porous media with a porosity distributed over several length scales. The transport in the hierarchical network shows qualitatively different phenomena from those observed in simpler models. A comparison of numerical results with experimental data shows that the hierarchical network gives a good qualitative representation of the structure of real porous media. Secondly, we study a problem of the transport in a heterogeneous media which structure is evolving during the time. The models where the evolution of the structure is not influenced by the transport are studied in detail. These models present a phase transition of the same nature as that observed on the percolation networks. We propose a new theoretical description of this transition, and we express critical exponents describing the evolution of the conductivity as a function of fundamental exponents of percolation theory. (author)

  11. Otitis media: conceptos actuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Sierra Fernández

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available La otitis media aguda es uno de los motivos más frecuentes de consulta en la edad pediátrica. Los gérmenes que con mayor frecuencia se aíslan en el oído medio de estos pacientes son el Streptococcus pneumoniae, el Haemophilus influenzae, la Moraxella catarrhalis y el Streptococcus pyogenes. El patrón de resistencia antibiótica de estas bacterias varía dependiendo de la región geográfica. y es la base fundamental para establecer recomendaciones terapéuticas. El análisis en Costa Rica. de la microbiología de la otitis media aguda, otitis media recurrente y otitis media catalogada como falla terapéutica, sugiere que la amoxicilina en una dosis de 50 mg/Kg/día por 10 días, debe ser considerada el antibiótico de primera línea en los casos de otitis media aguda. En los pacientes con otitis media recurrente, falla antimicrobiana o cuando se sospeche la presencia de un Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a la penicilina, se debe considerar el uso de amoxicilina en dosis más elevadas, amoxicilina con ácido clavulánico, macrólidos o ceftrlaxona.

  12. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software Defined Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation Inc, (IAI) is currently developing a software defined radio (SDR) platform that can adaptively switch between different modes of operation...

  13. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated (CLX) proposes the development of a Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) that leverages the inherent advantages of an...

  14. Advertising media selection and planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Moorman; P.C. Neijens; E.G. Smit

    2010-01-01

    Reach, frequency, and timing are key concepts in selecting TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, out-of-home, direct mail, Internet, and other media for advertising campaigns. We discuss these concepts and their role in media selection and media planning processes. We also describe media and audience fa

  15. Lipid and protein maps defining arterial layers in atherosclerotic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Martin-Lorenzo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical atherosclerosis cannot be predicted and novel therapeutic targets are needed. The molecular anatomy of healthy and atherosclerotic tissue is pursued to identify ongoing molecular changes in atherosclerosis development. Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI accounts with the unique advantage of analyzing proteins and metabolites (lipids while preserving their original localization; thus two dimensional maps can be obtained. Main molecular alterations were investigated in a rabbit model in response to early development of atherosclerosis. Aortic arterial layers (intima and media and calcified regions were investigated in detail by MALDI-MSI and proteins and lipids specifically defining those areas of interest were identified. These data further complement main findings previously published in J Proteomics (M. Martin-Lorenzo et al., J. Proteomics. (In press; M. Martin-Lorenzo et al., J. Proteomics 108 (2014 465–468. [1,2].

  16. Lipid and protein maps defining arterial layers in atherosclerotic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Lorenzo, Marta; Balluff, Benjamin; Maroto, Aroa S; Carreira, Ricardo J; van Zeijl, Rene J M; Gonzalez-Calero, Laura; de la Cuesta, Fernando; Barderas, Maria G; Lopez-Almodovar, Luis F; Padial, Luis R; McDonnell, Liam A; Vivanco, Fernando; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria

    2015-09-01

    Subclinical atherosclerosis cannot be predicted and novel therapeutic targets are needed. The molecular anatomy of healthy and atherosclerotic tissue is pursued to identify ongoing molecular changes in atherosclerosis development. Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI) accounts with the unique advantage of analyzing proteins and metabolites (lipids) while preserving their original localization; thus two dimensional maps can be obtained. Main molecular alterations were investigated in a rabbit model in response to early development of atherosclerosis. Aortic arterial layers (intima and media) and calcified regions were investigated in detail by MALDI-MSI and proteins and lipids specifically defining those areas of interest were identified. These data further complement main findings previously published in J Proteomics (M. Martin-Lorenzo et al., J. Proteomics. (In press); M. Martin-Lorenzo et al., J. Proteomics 108 (2014) 465-468.) [1,2]. PMID:26217810

  17. Filter Media Tests Under Simulated Martian Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars will require the optimal utilization of planetary resources. One of its abundant resources is the Martian atmosphere that can be harvested through filtration and chemical processes that purify and separate it into its gaseous and elemental constituents. Effective filtration needs to be part of the suite of resource utilization technologies. A unique testing platform is being used which provides the relevant operational and instrumental capabilities to test articles under the proper simulated Martian conditions. A series of tests were conducted to assess the performance of filter media. Light sheet imaging of the particle flow provided a means of detecting and quantifying particle concentrations to determine capturing efficiencies. The media's efficiency was also evaluated by gravimetric means through a by-layer filter media configuration. These tests will help to establish techniques and methods for measuring capturing efficiency and arrestance of conventional fibrous filter media. This paper will describe initial test results on different filter media.

  18. ICI optical data storage tape: An archival mass storage media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddick, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    At the 1991 Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, ICI Imagedata presented a paper which introduced ICI Optical Data Storage Tape. This paper placed specific emphasis on the media characteristics and initial data was presented which illustrated the archival stability of the media. More exhaustive analysis that was carried out on the chemical stability of the media is covered. Equally important, it also addresses archive management issues associated with, for example, the benefits of reduced rewind requirements to accommodate tape relaxation effects that result from careful tribology control in ICI Optical Tape media. ICI Optical Tape media was designed to meet the most demanding requirements of archival mass storage. It is envisaged that the volumetric data capacity, long term stability and low maintenance characteristics demonstrated will have major benefits in increasing reliability and reducing the costs associated with archival storage of large data volumes.

  19. Development of improved defined media for Clostridium botulinum serotypes A, B, and E.

    OpenAIRE

    Whitmer, M E; Johnson, E A

    1988-01-01

    The minimal nutritional growth requirements were determined for strains Okra B and Iwanai E, which are representatives of groups I and II, respectively, of Clostridium botulinum. These type B and E strains differed considerably in their nutrient requirements. The organic growth factors required in high concentrations by the Okra B strain (group I) were arginine and phenylalanine. Low concentrations (less than or equal to 0.1 g/liter) of eight amino acids (methionine, leucine, valine, isoleuci...

  20. The Romanian Media - An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Media Sector from the last 17 years can be described as a dinamic one. In the current study, which is also a part of national report of the Grundtvig 2 project "The Influence of Media in Adult Education Development" 06-G2-94-TM-RO-C, we divided the media sector into: printed media, audio-visual media, media based on web and new media. Within this article, I tried to present a short history, state of the art, as well as the tendencies on short term, for each of them.

  1. Children's media policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Amy B

    2008-01-01

    Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems from the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment protection against government interference in free speech, including commercial speech. Courts, Jordan says, have repeatedly had to weigh the rights of commercial entities to say what they please against the need to protect vulnerable citizens such as children. This balancing act is complicated even further, she says, because many government regulations apply only to broadcast television and not to non-broadcast media such as the Internet or cable television, though Congress has addressed the need to protect children's privacy online. The need to protect both free speech and children has given rise to a fluid media policy mix of federal mandates and industry self-regulation. Jordan describes the role of the three branches of the federal government in formulating and implementing media policy. She also notes the jockeying for influence in policymaking by industry lobbies, child advocacy groups, and academic researchers. The media industry itself, says Jordan, is spurred to self-regulation when public disapproval grows severe enough to raise the possibility of new government action. Jordan surveys a range of government and industry actions, from legislatively required parental monitoring tools, such as the V-Chip blocking device on television sets, to the voluntary industry ratings systems governing television, movies, and video games, to voluntary social website disclosures to outright government bans, such as indecency and child privacy information collection. She considers the success of these efforts in limiting children's exposure to damaging content and in improving parents

  2. Otitis media: conceptos actuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Sierra Fernández

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available La otitis media aguda es uno de los motivos más frecuentes de consulta en la edad pediátrica. Los gérmenes que con mayor frecuencia se aíslan en el oído medio de estos pacientes son el Streptococcus pneumoniae, el Haemophilus influenzae, la Moraxella catarrhalis y el Streptococcus pyogenes. El patrón de resistencia antibiótica de estas bacterias varía dependiendo de la región geográfica. y es la base fundamental para establecer recomendaciones terapéuticas. El análisis en Costa Rica. de la microbiología de la otitis media aguda, otitis media recurrente y otitis media catalogada como falla terapéutica, sugiere que la amoxicilina en una dosis de 50 mg/Kg/día por 10 días, debe ser considerada el antibiótico de primera línea en los casos de otitis media aguda. En los pacientes con otitis media recurrente, falla antimicrobiana o cuando se sospeche la presencia de un Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a la penicilina, se debe considerar el uso de amoxicilina en dosis más elevadas, amoxicilina con ácido clavulánico, macrólidos o ceftrlaxona.Otitis media is one of the most common causes of consultation among the pediatric population. The pathogens most frequently isolated from middle ear fluid are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pyogenes. Antimicrobial resistance patterns vary by region and their knowledge is considered important in order to achieve proper antimicrobial selection. In Costa Rica the microbiology of patients with acute, recurrent and tteattnent failure otitis media has been recently analyzed. The results of these studies indicate that amoxicillin at 50 mg/kg/day for 10 days should be considered first line of therapy for patients with acute otitis media. In patients with recurrent otitis media, therapeutic failures or in patients at risk of having a penicillin non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae, one of the second line agents should be considered.

  3. Defined medium simulating genital tract secretions for growth of vaginal microflora.

    OpenAIRE

    Geshnizgani, A M; Onderdonk, A B

    1992-01-01

    A chemically defined medium that simulates female genital tract secretions was developed for the growth of the vaginal microflora. Qualitative and quantitative studies of the growth of predominant components of the vaginal microflora indicated that all vaginal isolates tested were able to grow in this defined medium.

  4. Editorial: Pedagogical Media Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee M. Meister

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available From educational gaming through portable e-readers to cell phones, media are interpenetrating educational spaces and activities. Accordingly, understanding media in environmental or ecological terms has become increasingly important for education internationally. In North America, for example, the centenary of McLuhan’s birth has focused attention on approaches to media – whether oral, textual, electronic or digital– as a kind of environment in which education takes place. In parts of Europe, the so-called mediatic turn – following on the linguistic and iconic turns – has similarly emphasized the role of media as a condition for the possibility of educational activities and programs. With a few exceptions1 the papers in this special issue were first presented at the conference «Educational Media Ecologies: International Perspectives» which took place at the University of Paderborn, Germany, on March 27–28, 2012.2 The event was an interdisciplinary and transatlantic endeavor to bring together a wide range of perspectives on various issues relevant to educational media ecologies,3 and on related debates on mediation, medialization, mediatization, and mediality.4 The purpose of this volume, like the conference, is to foster and deepen international dialogue in the area of educational media. Areas of research and scholarship relevant to this dialogue include educational media, media literacy, educational philosophy, and media and cultural studies. The contributions, described below, put conceptual issues as well as social practices and applications at the center of the debate. Klaus Rummler opens the issue by clarifying the concept of ecology itself. Referencing a range of work over the past 50 years, Rummler describes how ecological models have been cast in sociological, semiotic, cultural, mediatic and other terms, and he explains the implications of these various perspectives for the study of educational contexts. Rummler also

  5. Bureaucratic Corruption and Mass Media

    OpenAIRE

    Suphachol Suphachalasai

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between a bureaucracy and mass media industry, and its implications to corruption. We develop a bureaucratic model of corruption with mass media. A representative profit maximizing media firm seeks for corruption news to be printed and sold. Channels through which competition in media industry and press freedom affect equilibrium corruption in a bureaucracy are modeled. Different degrees of media freedom and competition affect production and employment...

  6. Branding media with event marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Tuppurainen, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Media branding has been receiving increasing academic attention in recent years. Competition for audiences and advertisers has increased with the fragmentation of the media field into more niche providers. Media branding is recognized as a means to create competitive advantage in this highly competitive field. Event marketing is regarded as an effective way of creating engagement around brands, and some media companies of today have incorporated event marketing into their media sales strategy...

  7. Defining Dynamic Graphics by a Graphical Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛其昌; 戴汝为

    1991-01-01

    A graphical language which can be used for defining dynamic picture and applying control actions to it is defined with an expanded attributed grammar.Based on this a system is built for developing the presentation of application data of user interface.This system provides user interface designers with a friendly and high efficient programming environment.

  8. On linear electromagnetic constitutive laws that define almost-complex structures

    CERN Document Server

    Delphenich, D H

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that not all linear electromagnetic constitutive laws will define almost-complex structure on the bundle of 2-forms on the spacetime manifold when composed with the Poincare duality isomorphism, but only a restricted class of them that includes linear spatially isotropic and some bi-isotropic laws. Although this does not trivialize the formulation of the basic equations equations of pre-metric electromagnetism, it does affect their reduction to metric electromagnetism by its effect on the types of media that are reducible, and possibly its effect on the way that such media support the propagation of electromagnetic waves.

  9. Explosion propagation in inert porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, G

    2012-02-13

    Porous media are often used in flame arresters because of the high surface area to volume ratio that is required for flame quenching. However, if the flame is not quenched, the flow obstruction within the porous media can promote explosion escalation, which is a well-known phenomenon in obstacle-laden channels. There are many parallels between explosion propagation through porous media and obstacle-laden channels. In both cases, the obstructions play a duel role. On the one hand, the obstruction enhances explosion propagation through an early shear-driven turbulence production mechanism and then later by shock-flame interactions that occur from lead shock reflections. On the other hand, the presence of an obstruction can suppress explosion propagation through momentum and heat losses, which both impede the unburned gas flow and extract energy from the expanding combustion products. In obstacle-laden channels, there are well-defined propagation regimes that are easily distinguished by abrupt changes in velocity. In porous media, the propagation regimes are not as distinguishable. In porous media the entire flamefront is affected, and the effects of heat loss, turbulence and compressibility are smoothly blended over most of the propagation velocity range. At low subsonic propagation speeds, heat loss to the porous media dominates, whereas at higher supersonic speeds turbulence and compressibility are important. This blending of the important phenomena results in no clear transition in propagation mechanism that is characterized by an abrupt change in propagation velocity. This is especially true for propagation velocities above the speed of sound where many experiments performed with fuel-air mixtures show a smooth increase in the propagation velocity with mixture reactivity up to the theoretical detonation wave velocity. PMID:22213663

  10. Chemical effects of ionizing radiation and sonic energy in the context of chemical evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation and sonic energy are considered as sources for chemical evolution processes. These sources have still a modest place in the interdisciplinary approach for the prebiological synthesis of organic compounds. Studies in Radiation Chemistry and Sonochemistry can provide a deeper insight into the chemical processes that may have importance for prebiotic chemistry. The present work concerns the analysis of some chemical reactions induced by ionizing radiation or cavitation in aqueous media that may be relevant to chemical evolution studies. (author)

  11. Doing social media analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Brooker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the few years since the advent of ‘Big Data’ research, social media analytics has begun to accumulate studies drawing on social media as a resource and tool for research work. Yet, there has been relatively little attention paid to the development of methodologies for handling this kind of data. The few works that exist in this area often reflect upon the implications of ‘grand’ social science methodological concepts for new social media research (i.e. they focus on general issues such as sampling, data validity, ethics, etc.. By contrast, we advance an abductively oriented methodological suite designed to explore the construction of phenomena played out through social media. To do this, we use a software tool – Chorus – to illustrate a visual analytic approach to data. Informed by visual analytic principles, we posit a two-by-two methodological model of social media analytics, combining two data collection strategies with two analytic modes. We go on to demonstrate each of these four approaches ‘in action’, to help clarify how and why they might be used to address various research questions.

  12. Contemplative Media Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Healey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The psychological and socio-economic implications of digital technologies call for scholarship that engages questions about the nature of human consciousness, the construction of the self and the ethics of technical development. In this article, I outline a framework for an approach called contemplative media studies. This approach incorporates several different scholarly threads, namely: via critical political-economic media scholarship, a focus on achieving social and economic justice through policy initiatives and structural reform; via media and religious scholarship, an interest in the religious dimensions of digital culture and the role of media in shaping religious identity; and via contemplative studies, an appreciation of the applicability of contemplative principles to research methods and theory. This framework allows us to examine the spiritual ideology that drives the construction of commercial digital platforms and to ask whether alternative platforms might better catalyze human development. Anchored in a critical commitment to socio-economic justice, contemplative media studies is aimed at articulating an ethically-responsive and economically-sustainable architecture of human flourishing.

  13. Final Report - Montana State University - Microbial Activity and Precipitation at Solution-Solution Mixing Zones in Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, Robin [Montana State University

    2014-10-31

    impact on ancillary constituents (i.e., Sr) was determined. Model simulations accompanied the experimental efforts. Benefits and Outcomes of the Project. The research contributed towards defining the key physical, chemical, and biological processes influencing the form and mobility of DOE priority contaminants (e.g., 60Co, 90Sr, U) in the subsurface. The work conducted and reported herein, will in the future (i) contribute to controlling the juxtaposition of microbial activity, contaminants and amendments, (ii) promote new strategies for delivering amendments, and (iii) allow new approaches for modifying permeability and flow in porous media. We feel that the work has already translated directly to improving the efficiency of amendment based remediation strategies. Products. The results of the project have been published in a number of peer reviewed journal articles. The abstracts and citations to those articles, given in section 2.0 below, make up the bulk of this final report.

  14. Utilization of New Media by Traditional Media Companies in Indonesian Media Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tjokrodinata, Charlie

    2014-01-01

    The rise of social media represents a new challenge to the traditional media industry. Some traditional media companies either shy away on the idea of utilizing social media to enhance their services, but many others actually embrace this as an opportunity to reposition themselves within the industry. This study tries to figure out the extent of the proliferation of social media by the traditional players. The research approach focused on case study methodology through quantitative and qualit...

  15. Iodinated contrast media and the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Steven D

    2008-01-01

    One of the principal complications of radiographic procedures utilizing intravascular iodinated contrast media is acute kidney injury. Although several clinical and procedural factors impact a patient's risk for contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI), substantial attention has been focused on the relationship between the type of contrast agent used and renal injury. Multiple contrast agents are available for clinical use, each defined by a series of physicochemical properties. The evolution from high osmolal to low osmolal and, more recently, iso-osmolal contrast media has led to several clinical trials and meta-analyses comparing the nephrotoxicity of different contrast agents. This article summarizes the physicochemical properties that define and differentiate iodinated contrast media, discusses the purported relationship between these properties and kidney injury, and describes the salient findings of clinical trials and meta-analyses that have compared the nephrotoxic effects of contrast agents. Although ongoing and future studies will further elucidate our understanding of the relationship between iodinated contrast and risk for CIAKI, a sound understanding of the currently available data will help inform evidence-based decisions on the use of these agents in clinical practice.

  16. Chemical evolution and life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaterre Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In research on the origins of life, the concept of “chemical evolution” aims at explaining the transition from non-living matter to living matter. There is however strong disagreement when it comes to defining this concept more precisely, and in particular with reference to a chemical form of Darwinian evolution: for some, chemical evolution is nothing but Darwinian evolution applied to chemical systems before life appeared; yet, for others, it is the type of evolution that happened before natural selection took place, the latter being the birthmark of living systems. In this contribution, I review the arguments defended by each side and show how both views presuppose a dichotomous definition of “life”.

  17. SELF-MEDIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2014-01-01

    The self and identity are not only issues connected to the selfies. They are connected to the development of media since the renaissance; this is the thesis of the following key-note. The subject, the self, is most clearly exposed in the face, and face and identity becomes important in the media...... since the renaissance. The selfies is just the newest development is this tradition, which began with the invention of the mirror, the book (printing), and the miniature painting. They all put the subject as both maker and receiver in the center. This was the birth of the modern subject. The development...... continued throughout the coming centuries. The selfies is the latest invention to discover, explore, visualize and find the self of the subject. The following will therefore naturally focus on the self, the face where the self is most clearly expressed and seen, and the self-media, where the subject can...

  18. Foams in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsden, S.S.

    1986-07-01

    In 1978 a literature search on selective blocking of fluid flow in porous media was done by Professor S.S. Marsden and two of his graduate students, Tom Elson and Kern Huppy. This was presented as SUPRI Report No. TR-3 entitled ''Literature Preview of the Selected Blockage of Fluids in Thermal Recovery Projects.'' Since then a lot of research on foam in porous media has been done on the SUPRI project and a great deal of new information has appeared in the literature. Therefore we believed that a new, up-to-date search should be done on foam alone, one which would be helpful to our students and perhaps of interest to others. This is a chronological survey showing the development of foam flow, blockage and use in porous media, starting with laboratory studies and eventually getting into field tests and demonstrations. It is arbitrarily divided into five-year time periods. 81 refs.

  19. Open Media Training Session

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Marchant, Nadia

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever wondered how the media work and why some topics make it into the news and other don't? Would you like to know how to (and how not to) give an interview to a journalist? With the LHC preparing for first collisions at high energies, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. Follow the webcast: http://webcast.cern.ch/

  20. Media for Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article develops the concept media for reflection in the interest of conceptualizing the interpretative frames that enable and limit reflection in management and leadership education. The concept ‘media for reflection’ allows us to conceptualize the social and cultural mediation of reflection...... without reducing reflection to an effect of the social structures and cultural norms in which it is embedded. Based on the developed theoretical framework, this article analyses how a renaissance ‘mirror for princes’ and contemporary research-based management education mediate reflection. The content...... of the mediations is analysed as well as the societal and organizational background. Furthermore, the means by which the two media enable and limit reflection in different ways is compared. Finally, the article discusses possible implications of the analysis in terms of management and leadership education....

  1. Social Media Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Raman, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Social media marketing can be understood as a group of Internet-based applications that build on the foundations of Web 2.0 and that then allows the creation and exchange of ‘User Generated Content’. In the ‘Bowling’ marketing world, marketers target certain customer groups and send out...... their advertising messages like bowling balls. They use traditional media to hit as many bowling pins as possible. One key characteristic of this bowling marketing game is the large amount of control the company retains over marketing communication because consumers are given only limited freedom of action. Clearly...... this is a very direct one-way communication approach. In a social media marketing world, the bowling metaphor does not fit anymore. On this arena marketing can be better described as playing “Pinball”: Companies serve up a “marketing ball” (brands and brand-building messages) into a dynamic and chaotic market...

  2. Media and Sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the distinctive marks of current capitalism is the presence of mass media constituting the psyche in different aspects. Today, we observe the multiplication of many contents with erotic appeal in the media and the effects of this process are still to be known, particularly in the matter of sexuality. Concretely, what we have is that the practices and the effective conceptions of sexuality are suffering an accelerated transformation that involves the abandonment of the traditional practices. In this context, we can ask about the sense that is attributed to sexuality experiences and evaluate the impact of the different "manners of being" which are referred to sexuality and systematically diffused by the media. Therefore, we can explore the implications of this new scenery for different social realities: the family institution, the affectionate and loving relationships, the school and professional everyday life, as well as the formulation of public politics in this field.

  3. Internet and Cross Media Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anja Bechmann

    2006-01-01

    , the Internet continues to play a minor role when compared to older media. The content of the cross media concepts and organizations' history are crucial elements in deciding the priority and use of platforms. Methodologically, the article approaches cross media and the roles of the Internet on a micro......Convergence is one of the hot topics in Internet studies. Recently, however, media organizations have turned their focus to cross media communication. Media organizations are interested in optimizing communication across platforms such as TV, radio, websites, mobile telephones and newspapers....... The aim of this article is to examine the roles of the Internet when emphasis is put on cross media rather than convergence. This article proposes not one unidirectional convergent tendency but manifold roles of the Internet in cross media communication. Inside the media organizations, however...

  4. H{sub 2}(v = 0,1) + C{sup +}({sup 2} P) {yields} H+CH{sup +} STATE-TO-STATE RATE CONSTANTS FOR CHEMICAL PUMPING MODELS IN ASTROPHYSICAL MEDIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanchet, Alexandre; Bulut, Niyazi; Roncero, Octavio [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental (IFF-CSIC), C.S.I.C., Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Godard, B.; Cernicharo, Jose [Centro de Astrobilogia, CSIC-INTA, Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Halvick, Philippe, E-mail: octavio.roncero@csic.es [Institut des Sciences Moleculaires, Universite de Bordeaux, CNRS UMR 5255, 351 cours de la Liberation, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2013-04-01

    State-to-state rate constants for the title reaction are calculated using the electronic ground state potential energy surface and an accurate quantum wave-packet method. The calculations are performed for H{sub 2} in different rovibrational states, v = 0, 1 and J = 0 and 1. The simulated reaction cross section for v = 0 shows a rather good agreement with the experimental results of Gerlich et al., both with a threshold of 0.36 eV and within the experimental error of 20%. The total reaction rate coefficients simulated for v = 1 are two times smaller than those estimated by Hierl et al. from cross sections measured at different temperatures and neglecting the contribution from v > 1 with an uncertainty factor of two. Thus, part of the disagreement is attributed to the contributions of v > 1. The computed state-to-state rate coefficients are used in our radiative transfer model code applied to the conditions of the Orion Bar photodissociation region, and leads to an increase of the line fluxes of high-J lines of CH{sup +}. This result partially explains the discrepancies previously found with measurements and demonstrates that CH{sup +} excitation is mostly driven by chemical pumping.

  5. Death in media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavićević Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of media in a construction of public image speech and presentation of death. The main research questions could be posed as follows: does the media discourse confirm a thesis about modern society as the one which intensely avoids encounter with Death, or does it defy it? Frequent images or hints of death in visual media in films informative and entertainment programs-suggest certain changes related to this issue in the past few decades. This analysis focuses on printed media hence the paper assesses numerous issues of the daily journal Politika from 1963, 1972, 1973, 1979, 1985, 1991, 1995, 1999, 2007 and 2008, as well as some other daily journals after 2000. The analysis confirms a strong connection between the current political systems and ideology and speech about death. In addition, it reveals a political usage of this event but also speaks up about cultural and historical models, underlying all other constructions. During the 1960's and 1970's, the presentations, including the speech about death relied on the traditional understandings about inevitability of death and dying, and alternatively on atheistic beliefs related to the progress and wellbeing of the society. In this particular discourse, death was present to a limited degree, serving primarily to glorify socialist order. The end of the 1970's witnessed an increase in the glorification of the death, correlated with the decrease of the dominant political ideology. On the other hand, the 1990's brought about more presence of the national and religious symbolism and glorification of the dead as heroes. After 2000, mercantilism is evident throughout the media. All of the media broadcast drastic images of death and dead, thus providing an answer to the posed question at the beginning of this paper about the relationship of the modern society towards death but nevertheless, this still leaves out many implicit consequences and possible meanings.

  6. Hypertextuality and Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Etter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Texts and conversations are central to the constitution of organizations. Through the use of social media technologies, organizational members and nonorganizational members alike have the capacity to author organizational texts that co-constitute an organization as an entity with a specific...... identity in a situational space and time. The implications of this ability are underexplored. This study focused on how two organizations used the social media technology Twitter to interact with their constituents. The article adopts communication-centered and sociomateriality perspectives to illustrate...

  7. The Mass Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Laursen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    spaces. We postulate that citizens’ levels of awareness and knowledge of EU matters depend on the EU institutions’ ability to reach European citizens directly or indirectly through a wide range of channels, including the mass media. Citizens’ participation in political debates, however, requires more......(s). The EU institutions also need to communicate frames of interpretation around political issues. In this chapter we analyse the EU institutions’ external communication and specifically their media relations efforts, and suggest improvements in view of remedying some of the legitimacy problems that the EU...

  8. Smartphones as locative media

    CERN Document Server

    Frith, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone adoption has surpassed 50% of the population in more than 15 countries, and there are now more than one million mobile applications people can download to their phones. Many of these applications take advantage of smartphones as locative media, which is what allows smartphones to be located in physical space. Applications that take advantage of people's location are called location-based services, and they are the focus of this book. Smartphones as locative media raise important questions about how we understand the complicated relationship between the Internet and physical space

  9. HTML5 Media

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Shelley

    2011-01-01

    If you're a web developer or designer familiar with CSS and JavaScript, this tightly focused introduction shows you how to add HTML5 media elements to your web pages, and how to provide custom controls for letting web visitors interact with the content. You'll also learn how to provide subtitles and captions, using file formats that work in browsers now. This book includes code samples and downloadable examples to help you take full advantage of audio and video in your web pages. Ensure your audio or video works in all browsers that support HTML5 media elementsLearn about widely supported me

  10. Multisided Media Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstädt, Nadine

    Media markets recently have been identified as multisided markets. The application of the theory of multisided markets provides a better understanding of such markets. It enriched the hitherto economic approach and led to new insights and perspectives especially for the antitrust authorities when...... evaluating competition constraints and mergers. This paper reviews the theory of multisided markets and subsequently applies it to media markets. Finally the paper draws attention to the new perspectives and insights the theory provides but also brings open research questions to light....

  11. Biorelevant dissolution media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilardia-Arana, David; Kristensen, Henning G; Müllertz, Anette

    2006-01-01

    Biorelevant dissolution media containing bile salt and lecithin at concentrations appropriate for fed and fasted state are useful when testing oral solid formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs. Dilution of amphiphile solutions affects the aggregation state of the amphiphiles because bile salt....... Dilution of the two- and four component media caused enlargement of the mixed micelles and formation of vesicles. The solubility of estradiol in the buffer solution was increased with addition of the amphiphiles. A good correlation (R(2) = 0.987) was found between estradiol solubility and mass...

  12. Social Media and Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffrey, Jarrar

    2011-01-01

    During different time era’s different methods of communications has developed and changed the everyday life. Social media has become the way of communication in the 21st-century, enabling us to express our thoughts, ideas and feelings in a complete new way. This way of communication have also had a huge impact on corporations, where they have realized that without a proper plan and social media strategy they have no chance to stand out in the rapidly changing digital space. To ensure a succes...

  13. Acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Gretchen

    2014-03-01

    One in 4 children will have at least 1 episode of acute otitis media (AOM) by age 10 years. AOM results from infection of fluid that has become trapped in the middle ear. The bacteria that most often cause AOM are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Differentiating AOM from otitis media with effusion (OME) is a critical skill for physicians, as accurate diagnosis will guide appropriate treatment of these conditions. Although fluid is present in the middle ear in both conditions, the fluid is not infected in OME as is seen in AOM patients.

  14. Tests for bioequivalence of control media and test media in studies of toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, W.P.; McDonald, L.L. [Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc., Cheyenne, WY (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Statistical tests of the classical (null) hypothesis--that there is no difference in effects of control media and tested--are commonly used to make statistical inferences toward the no-observed-adverse-effect concentration. However, failing to rejects this hypothesis is not considered as scientific proof the hypothesis is true. An effect may exist, but high variation due to inadequate replication, variation in experimental units, or imprecise measurement techniques may yield data for which the hypothesis is not rejected. An experiment may also be too precise, yielding effects that are statistically significant but not biologically important. The authors propose the use of tests of bioequivalence of control media and test media to alleviate these unsatisfactory characteristics of tests and of the classical hypotheses for regulatory decisions. They review and illustrate the test for bioequivalence using acute and chronic toxicity data. They also define a procedure for determining the level of effect at which there will be high power to refute the hypothesis that there is a lack of bioequivalence if in fact the biological response in the control media is identical to the responses in the test media.

  15. Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this research is to propose a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-band, multi-mode, miniaturized frequency-agile EVA software defined radio...

  16. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software Defined Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI is actively developing Software Defined Radio platforms that can adaptively switch between different modes of operation by modifying both transmit waveforms and...

  17. Defining of the BDX930 Assembly Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, R. S.; Moore, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    A definition of the BDX930 assembly language is presented. Various definition problems and suggested solutions are included. A class of defined recognizers based on boolean valued nowrecursive functions is employed in preprocessing.

  18. Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of Phase 2 is to build a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-mode, miniaturized EVA Software Defined Radio (SDR) that supports data telemetry,...

  19. Radiation Tolerant Software Defined Video Processor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MaXentric's is proposing a radiation tolerant Software Define Video Processor, codenamed SDVP, for the problem of advanced motion imaging in the space environment....

  20. Chemical use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of research and activities related to chemical use on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. The chemicals used on the Refuge...

  1. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  2. Benchmarking of commercially available CHO cell culture media for antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, David; Damjanovic, Lukas; Kaisermayer, Christian; Kunert, Renate

    2015-06-01

    In this study, eight commercially available, chemically defined Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture media from different vendors were evaluated in batch culture using an IgG-producing CHO DG44 cell line as a model. Medium adaptation revealed that the occurrence of even small aggregates might be a good indicator of cell growth performance in subsequent high cell density cultures. Batch experiments confirmed that the culture medium has a significant impact on bioprocess performance, but high amino acid concentrations alone were not sufficient to ensure superior cell growth and high antibody production. However, some key amino acids that were limiting in most media could be identified. Unbalanced glucose and amino acids led to high cell-specific lactate and ammonium production rates. In some media, persistently high glucose concentrations probably induced the suppression of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation, known as Crabtree effect, which resulted in high cell-specific glycolysis rates along with a continuous and high lactate production. In additional experiments, two of the eight basal media were supplemented with feeds from two different manufacturers in six combinations, in order to understand the combined impact of media and feeds on cell metabolism in a CHO fed-batch process. Cell growth, nutrient consumption and metabolite production rates, antibody production, and IgG quality were evaluated in detail. Concentrated feed supplements boosted cell concentrations almost threefold and antibody titers up to sevenfold. Depending on the fed-batch strategy, fourfold higher peak cell concentrations and eightfold increased IgG titers (up to 5.8 g/L) were achieved. The glycolytic flux was remarkably similar among the fed-batches; however, substantially different specific lactate production rates were observed in the different media and feed combinations. Further analysis revealed that in addition to the feed additives, the basal medium can make a considerable

  3. Content Marketing via Online Media in Interior Design Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jakešová, Nina

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to provide an overview of current knowledge in the field of content marketing. Based on that, it defines key requirements for successful content marketing via online media. The system can be further used for creating or re defining content marketing for any company that wishes to effectively attract and retain their customers by providing them with valuable information. In the practical part, the thesis discusses the case of Insidecor, a company providing a web portal that show...

  4. Media Philosophy— A Reasonable Programme?

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Siegfried J.

    2008-01-01

    It is beyond any doubt that media have an enormous impact on our media-culture societies. Media in?uence our perception and our knowledge, our memory as well as our emotions. They create public spheres and public opinions and give rise to media realities. Media shape our socialisation and our communality. They transform economy, politics, science, religion and law. “What we know about our society, even about our world we are living in, we know via the mass media.” (Luhmann 1996:9; my translat...

  5. TAXATION OF SOCIAL MEDIA ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rifat ORTAÇ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the use of Internet and in particular social media as advertising tools brings the question of how the advertisement in social media should be taxed. This is not only seen as a problem in our country, but in the international platform as well. In the first part of the study, the definition of social media is given; in the second part, Social Media Brand Communities and Fun Pages are discussed; in the third part, a comparison of Social Media Con- tents and Public Goods, Global Public Goods and Club Goods is made; in the fourth part that Conclusion and Suggestions how social media is taxed is discussed.

  6. Optimum Criteria for Developing Defined Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic aspects concerning distributed applications are presented: definition, particularities and importance. For distributed applications linear, arborescent, graph structures are defined with different versions and aggregation methods. Distributed applications have associated structures which through their characteristics influence the costs of the stages in the development cycle and the exploitation costs transferred to each user. The complexity of the defined structures is analyzed. The minimum and maximum criteria are enumerated for optimizing distributed application structures.

  7. User Defined Spreadsheet Functions in Excel

    OpenAIRE

    Tyszkiewicz, Jerzy; Balson, Dermot

    2012-01-01

    Creating user defined functions (UDFs) is a powerful method to improve the quality of computer applications, in particular spreadsheets. However, the only direct way to use UDFs in spreadsheets is to switch from the functional and declarative style of spreadsheet formulas to the imperative VBA, which creates a high entry barrier even for proficient spreadsheet users. It has been proposed to extend Excel by UDFs declared by a spreadsheet: user defined spreadsheet functions (UDSFs). In this pap...

  8. Defining service innovation: a review and synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Witell, Lars; Snyder, Hannah; Gustafsson, Anders; Fombelle, Paul; Kristensson, Per

    2016-01-01

    Research on service innovation appears in several research disciplines, with important contributions in marketing, management, and operations research. Although the concept is widely used, few research papers have explicitly defined service innovation. This dearth of research is the motivation for the present study. Through a systematic review of 1301 articles on service innovation appearing in academic journals between 1979 and 2014, this article examines research defining service innovation...

  9. Social media use by physicians: a qualitative study of the new frontier of medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Lauren; Evans, Yolanda; Pumper, Megan; Moreno, Megan A.

    2016-01-01

    Background A growing number of physicians are using social media as a professional platform for health communication. The purpose of this study was to understand perspectives and experiences of these “early adopter” physician bloggers and social media users. Methods This was an exploratory qualitative study involving in-depth semi-structured telephone interviews of physicians who were early adopters, defined as physicians who used social media to distribute health information. Participants we...

  10. Recent developments in nonionic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over forty contributions by various European and non-European teams provide an insight on the pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and clinical aspects of non-ionic contrast media, as well as on related experiments with animals. Special attention is devoted to initial results achieved with the newly developed non-ionic hexajodinated dimer 'Iotrolan'. The contributions discussing a common aspect of main interest have been arranged into the following chapters: General aspects of the clinical application of iodinated X-ray contrast media - Physico-chemical, biochemical, and general pharmacologic aspects - Angiography - Kidneys and urinary tract - Neural tolerance, myelography - Lymphography and body cavities - Pharmacokinetics. The advantages of non-ionic contrast media are confirmed by their wide clinical applicability with respect to local and general tolerability. Problems arising from the use of non-ionic contrast media, such as reduced diuresis as compared to ionic substances, and lower inhibition of blood clotting, are discussed in individual contributions. The question of the reduction in the risk of lethal incidents when using these new substances remains unanswered, since the rarity of such events makes statistical confirmation difficult. (orig./GDG) With 103 figs., 137 tabs

  11. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  12. New Media and Leadership: Social Media and Open Organizational Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Viorica Pauș

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to identify and analyze the extent to which new media have penetrated the Romanian organizations’ internal communication and have influenced the leadership. We intend also to consider how social media becomes a tool for organizational communication and contributes to the creation of a new kind of leadership associated with open communication. We start from the premise that new media and social media can contribute to the leader’s mission to create around him a vision and makes...

  13. Against the Media – The Media of Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Krivak, Marijan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary praxis of mediation, and a phenomenon usually known as »media theory«, brings with itself the issue of epochal break with traditional culture of textuality, and all inherited ways of knowledge transmission. This represents conceptual narrowing of media to machines for electronic and digital processing of verbal, visual and sonic information. McLuhan`s hot media of print and papers were replaced, at the beginning, by cold media of TV and movies, and finally, by even cooler medi...

  14. Information, Media and Elections: Incentives for Media Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Serena Marianna Drufuca

    2014-01-01

    Media play an essential role in democracy by making available valuable information for electoral decisions. In a framework of political economy of mass media, I inquiry the possibility of capture by rent-seeking o cers in a heterogeneous electoral environment. This allow me to discuss when relevant information is traded, when government captures media and what e ect this has on political outcomes. I nd media capture to be a pervasive phenomenon which implies minimum costs on politicians' side...

  15. American Education in the Electric Age. New Perspectives on Media and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinge, Peter L., Ed.

    A reexamination of the role of the mass media in the educational process is presented. Part One establishes the current status of American society and education as seen by Alvin Toffler and Peter L. Klinge, the editor. Also, Charles E. Silberman compares the problems of media with those of education. Part Two attempts to clearly define the effects…

  16. 基于均匀设计与支持向量回归的棉铃虫幼虫全纯人工饲料配方优化%Optimization of chemically defined diet for larvae of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera)based on uniform design and support vector regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周世豪; 李俊; 姚润贤; 张星; 袁哲明

    2012-01-01

    昆虫全纯人工饲料配方是精细研究昆虫营养生理的前提.本研究以棉铃虫Helicoverpa armigera幼虫为供试对象,以本研究室前期发展的多因素多水平配方优化实验设计与分析方法UD-SVR为指导,以略加修改的苹浅褐卷蛾Epiphyas postvittana幼虫全纯人工饲料为初始配方,先优化20种天然氨基酸,再优化蔗糖等其他8种非氨基酸营养组分,经4轮97个处理组合,获得一个棉铃虫幼虫全纯人工饲料满意配方,平均蛹重、化蛹率分别由初始配方的0.160 g和10.4%高效增至满意配方的0.255 g和97.9%.该全纯人工饲料满意配方的获得,不但再次证实了 UD-SVR方法的有效性,同时为进一步深入研究棉铃虫营养需求与营养代谢奠定了基础.%In order to get a satisfying formula of the chemically artificial diet for larvae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, we used UD-SVR, an experimental design and analysis method reported by our preliminary studies, for formula optimization. Based on the benchmark diet of a chemically artificial diet for the larvae of the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana, the contents of 20 natural amino acids were optimized first, and the contents of 8 non-amino acid nutrients including sucrose were optimized then. After 4 rounds of optimization with total 97 schemes, an optimal formula of the chemically artificial diet for the cotton bollworm larvae was obtained. When the H. Armigera larvae fed on this diet, their mean pupal weight and the pupation rate were 0. 255 g and 97. 9% , respectively; when the larvae fed on the benchmark diet, however, the above two indices were only 0. 160 g and 10. 4% ,respectively. The results reconfirmed the effectiveness of UD-SVR in the complex prescription optimization. More importantly, the optimized chemically artificial diet for the cotton bollworm provides the basis for further research on the requirement and metabolism of nutrition compounds in the moth.

  17. Media and Multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugunasiri, Suwanda H. J.

    1983-01-01

    Argues that Canadian media are not more multiculturally sensitive because (1) they are owned and operated by Whites (mostly of British background), who fail to see that Canada's racial composition has changed; and (2) their profit motive restricts social responsiveness. Offers a model of how personal multiculturalism can lead to a multicultural…

  18. Ethics and media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Álvarez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Preguntarse por la ética y los Mass Media,no es fácil. Es una interpelación impregnada de complejidad por la pluralidad de los Media, unida a la dificultad para entender un fenómeno relativamente actual. Además, para lograr acercarnos a una repuesta seria y profunda es importante replantear la ética de otro modo. Los Media, en tanto que tecnologías, como todas las ciencias, debido a la influencia del cartesianismo, han estado fuera de toda relación ética. Quienes los manejan, todavía creen que por pretender a la objetividad y a la neutralidad ya están en la ética. Veamos un poco las derivas en las que ingresan los Media a causa de su disyunción con la ética y los grandes olvidos en los que ha caído, sobre todo en lo que se refiere a la ética y a la verdad.

  19. Filtration in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    There is a considerable and ongoing effort aimed at understanding the transport and the deposition of suspended particles in porous media, especially non-Fickian transport and non-exponential deposition of particles. In this work, the influential parameters in filtration models are studied...

  20. Media and Multiplicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years continental Europe has experienced a resurgence of right-wing party politics, nationalism and xenophobia. In this nationalist revival the media and advanced communications technologies have played a significant role, as evidenced by the debates following cases such as the Da......In the past few years continental Europe has experienced a resurgence of right-wing party politics, nationalism and xenophobia. In this nationalist revival the media and advanced communications technologies have played a significant role, as evidenced by the debates following cases...... such as the Danish cartoon controversy, and Dutch politician Geert Wilders’s film, Fitna. Simultaneously, however, the media is more diverse and rhizomatic than ever and offers potential for cosmopolitanism, transnational ethical relations as well as radical anti-racist and anti-fascist interventions. This article...... explores the tensions within the relation between journalistic practice and the construction of the idea of the nation and the multiplicity of media and cultures which inhabit the spheres of journalism and nation....