WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical zip codes

  1. Zip Code Level Enrollment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The dataset includes is the number of Qualified Health Plan selections by ZIP code for 36 states that are participating in the Federally-facilitated Marketplace or...

  2. Zip Codes - MDC_WCSZipcode

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The WCSZipcode polygon feature class was created by Miami-Dade Enterprise Technology Department to be used in the WCS batch jobs to assign the actual zip code of...

  3. Zip Codes, ZipCodes2004, Published in 2004, Daggett County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zip Codes dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'ZipCodes2004'. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  4. Deaths by ZIP Code by Age, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset is for death of California residents, by Zip Code, by age group by place of residence. The death counts per age group, represents the deaths to...

  5. Zip Codes, zipcodes - Zip codes located in Glynn County, Published in 2008, Glynn County Board of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zip Codes dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'zipcodes - Zip codes located in Glynn County'. Data by...

  6. Leading Causes of Death By ZIP Code 1989-1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Deaths by Cause of Death, by Zip Code 1989-1998 (By Place of Residence): This dataset is for death of California residents, by cause of death, by Zip Code, for year...

  7. Leading Causes of Death by ZIP Code, 1999-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Deaths by Cause of Death, by Zip Code 1999-2013 (By Place of Residence): This dataset is for death of California residents, by cause of death, by Zip Code, for year...

  8. Death by ZIP Code by Gender, 2012 - 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset is for death of California residents, by Zip Code, by gender. The death counts per gender represent the deaths to California residents, regardless of...

  9. Disparities in obesity rates: Analysis by ZIP code area

    OpenAIRE

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D.; Solet, David

    2007-01-01

    Obesity in the USA has been linked to individual income and education. Less is known about its geographic distribution. The goal of this study was to determine whether obesity rates in King County, Seattle, Washington state, at the ZIP code scale were associated with area-based measures of socioeconomic status and wealth. Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed. At the ZIP code scale, crude obesity rates varied six-fold. In a model adjusting for covariates and s...

  10. Zip Codes, zip codes, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zip Codes dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as...

  11. Zip Codes, Provides USPS Zip Code boundaries, Published in 2012, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Clark County Planning and Zoning Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zip Codes dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2012. It is described as 'Provides...

  12. Zip Codes - ZCTA_TIGER05_IN: ZIP Code Tabulation Areas for Indiana in 2005 (United States Census Bureau, 1:100,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — ZCTA_TIGER05_IN.SHP is a polygon shapefile that contains ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTA's) for the state of Indiana. This data set has been updated using the U.S....

  13. Zip Codes, MFRDC has zip code boundaries for Dooly, Crisp, Macon, Taylor, Schley, Marion and Webster counties., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Middle Flint RDC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zip Codes dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale as of 2008. It is described as 'MFRDC has zip code boundaries for Dooly, Crisp, Macon, Taylor, Schley,...

  14. 2015 Plan Selections by ZIP Code in the Health Insurance Marketplace

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The dataset here provides the total number of Qualified Health Plan selections by ZIP Code for 37 states for the second Health Insurance Marketplace open enrollment...

  15. Home Price Sensitivity to Capital Market Factors: Analysis of Zip Code Data

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Christopher W.; Eli Beracha

    2010-01-01

    To what extent do capital market factors affect home prices? This paper examines quarterly changes in median sales prices for homes across more than 3,000 U.S. ZIP Codes in 203 metropolitan areas from 2001 to 2006 to investigate home price sensitivity to returns on U.S. stocks and bonds. The findings reveal that home-price changes are positively related to returns on stocks and bonds, on average. They also show that home prices in higher priced ZIP Codes have greater exposure to capital marke...

  16. Simultaneous Detection of Different MicroRNA Types Using the ZIP-Code Array System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaupt, Sonja U.; Rupp, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important negative regulators of gene expression. Their implication in tumorigenesis is based on their dysregulation in many human cancer diseases. Interestingly, in tumor cells, an altered ratio of precursor and mature miRNA levels has been described. Consequently, differences in miRNA type levels have a high potential as biomarkers and comparative high-throughput-based detection might permit a more accurate characterization of subtypes, especially in the case of very heterogeneous tumor entities. Several molecular methods exist for the detection of mature and precursor miRNAs. DNA microarrays are predestinated as a high-throughput method for comprehensive miRNA detection in tumors. However, the simultaneous array-based detection of both these miRNA types is limited because the mature miRNA sequence is identically present in both forms. Here we present a ZIP-code DNA microarray-based system in combination with a novel labeling approach, which enables the simultaneous detection of precursor and mature miRNAs in one single experiment. Using synthetic miRNA templates, we demonstrate the specificity of the method for the different miRNA types, as well as the detection range up to four orders of magnitude. Moreover, mature and precursor miRNAs were detected and validated in human tumor cells. PMID:24078866

  17. Simultaneous Detection of Different MicroRNA Types Using the ZIP-Code Array System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja U. Weishaupt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important negative regulators of gene expression. Their implication in tumorigenesis is based on their dysregulation in many human cancer diseases. Interestingly, in tumor cells, an altered ratio of precursor and mature miRNA levels has been described. Consequently, differences in miRNA type levels have a high potential as biomarkers and comparative high-throughput-based detection might permit a more accurate characterization of subtypes, especially in the case of very heterogeneous tumor entities. Several molecular methods exist for the detection of mature and precursor miRNAs. DNA microarrays are predestinated as a high-throughput method for comprehensive miRNA detection in tumors. However, the simultaneous array-based detection of both these miRNA types is limited because the mature miRNA sequence is identically present in both forms. Here we present a ZIP-code DNA microarray-based system in combination with a novel labeling approach, which enables the simultaneous detection of precursor and mature miRNAs in one single experiment. Using synthetic miRNA templates, we demonstrate the specificity of the method for the different miRNA types, as well as the detection range up to four orders of magnitude. Moreover, mature and precursor miRNAs were detected and validated in human tumor cells.

  18. Diagnosis of HNF-1α mutations on a PNA zip-code microarray by single base extension

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Jae Yang; Park, Hyun Gyu; Jung, Sung-Ouk; Park, Jaechan

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we exploited the superior features of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) to develop an efficient PNA zip-code microarray for the detection of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α (HNF-1α) mutations that cause type 3 maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). A multi-epoxy linker compound was synthesized and used to achieve an efficient covalent linking of amine-modified PNA to an aminated glass surface. PCR was performed to amplify the genomic regions containing the mutation sites. ...

  19. Zip Code Manager

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The system used to associate what Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP) and Federal Employees Dental/Vision Program (FEDVIP) health, dental, and vision...

  20. Enhanced Gene Expression Rather than Natural Polymorphism in Coding Sequence of the OsbZIP23 Determines Drought Tolerance and Yield Improvement in Rice Genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishek Dey

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major limiting factors for productivity of crops including rice (Oryza sativa L.. Understanding the role of allelic variations of key regulatory genes involved in stress-tolerance is essential for developing an effective strategy to combat drought. The bZIP transcription factors play a crucial role in abiotic-stress adaptation in plants via abscisic acid (ABA signaling pathway. The present study aimed to search for allelic polymorphism in the OsbZIP23 gene across selected drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive rice genotypes, and to characterize the new allele through overexpression (OE and gene-silencing (RNAi. Analyses of the coding DNA sequence (CDS of the cloned OsbZIP23 gene revealed single nucleotide polymorphism at four places and a 15-nucleotide deletion at one place. The single-copy OsbZIP23 gene is expressed at relatively higher level in leaf tissues of drought-tolerant genotypes, and its abundance is more in reproductive stage. Cloning and sequence analyses of the OsbZIP23-promoter from drought-tolerant O. rufipogon and drought-sensitive IR20 cultivar showed variation in the number of stress-responsive cis-elements and a 35-nucleotide deletion at 5'-UTR in IR20. Analysis of the GFP reporter gene function revealed that the promoter activity of O. rufipogon is comparatively higher than that of IR20. The overexpression of any of the two polymorphic forms (1083 bp and 1068 bp CDS of OsbZIP23 improved drought tolerance and yield-related traits significantly by retaining higher content of cellular water, soluble sugar and proline; and exhibited decrease in membrane lipid peroxidation in comparison to RNAi lines and non-transgenic plants. The OE lines showed higher expression of target genes-OsRab16B, OsRab21 and OsLEA3-1 and increased ABA sensitivity; indicating that OsbZIP23 is a positive transcriptional-regulator of the ABA-signaling pathway. Taken together, the present study concludes that the enhanced gene

  1. Enhanced Gene Expression Rather than Natural Polymorphism in Coding Sequence of the OsbZIP23 Determines Drought Tolerance and Yield Improvement in Rice Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Avishek; Samanta, Milan Kumar; Gayen, Srimonta; Sen, Soumitra K; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of the major limiting factors for productivity of crops including rice (Oryza sativa L.). Understanding the role of allelic variations of key regulatory genes involved in stress-tolerance is essential for developing an effective strategy to combat drought. The bZIP transcription factors play a crucial role in abiotic-stress adaptation in plants via abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway. The present study aimed to search for allelic polymorphism in the OsbZIP23 gene across selected drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive rice genotypes, and to characterize the new allele through overexpression (OE) and gene-silencing (RNAi). Analyses of the coding DNA sequence (CDS) of the cloned OsbZIP23 gene revealed single nucleotide polymorphism at four places and a 15-nucleotide deletion at one place. The single-copy OsbZIP23 gene is expressed at relatively higher level in leaf tissues of drought-tolerant genotypes, and its abundance is more in reproductive stage. Cloning and sequence analyses of the OsbZIP23-promoter from drought-tolerant O. rufipogon and drought-sensitive IR20 cultivar showed variation in the number of stress-responsive cis-elements and a 35-nucleotide deletion at 5'-UTR in IR20. Analysis of the GFP reporter gene function revealed that the promoter activity of O. rufipogon is comparatively higher than that of IR20. The overexpression of any of the two polymorphic forms (1083 bp and 1068 bp CDS) of OsbZIP23 improved drought tolerance and yield-related traits significantly by retaining higher content of cellular water, soluble sugar and proline; and exhibited decrease in membrane lipid peroxidation in comparison to RNAi lines and non-transgenic plants. The OE lines showed higher expression of target genes-OsRab16B, OsRab21 and OsLEA3-1 and increased ABA sensitivity; indicating that OsbZIP23 is a positive transcriptional-regulator of the ABA-signaling pathway. Taken together, the present study concludes that the enhanced gene expression rather than

  2. Evaluating geographic imputation approaches for zip code level data: an application to a study of pediatric diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puett Robin C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in the study of place effects on health, facilitated in part by geographic information systems. Incomplete or missing address information reduces geocoding success. Several geographic imputation methods have been suggested to overcome this limitation. Accuracy evaluation of these methods can be focused at the level of individuals and at higher group-levels (e.g., spatial distribution. Methods We evaluated the accuracy of eight geo-imputation methods for address allocation from ZIP codes to census tracts at the individual and group level. The spatial apportioning approaches underlying the imputation methods included four fixed (deterministic and four random (stochastic allocation methods using land area, total population, population under age 20, and race/ethnicity as weighting factors. Data included more than 2,000 geocoded cases of diabetes mellitus among youth aged 0-19 in four U.S. regions. The imputed distribution of cases across tracts was compared to the true distribution using a chi-squared statistic. Results At the individual level, population-weighted (total or under age 20 fixed allocation showed the greatest level of accuracy, with correct census tract assignments averaging 30.01% across all regions, followed by the race/ethnicity-weighted random method (23.83%. The true distribution of cases across census tracts was that 58.2% of tracts exhibited no cases, 26.2% had one case, 9.5% had two cases, and less than 3% had three or more. This distribution was best captured by random allocation methods, with no significant differences (p-value > 0.90. However, significant differences in distributions based on fixed allocation methods were found (p-value Conclusion Fixed imputation methods seemed to yield greatest accuracy at the individual level, suggesting use for studies on area-level environmental exposures. Fixed methods result in artificial clusters in single census tracts. For studies

  3. Zipping Wetting

    CERN Document Server

    Sbragaglia, Mauro; Pirat, Christophe; Borkent, Bram M; Lammertink, Rob G H; Wessling, Matthias; Lohse, Detlef

    2007-01-01

    Water droplets can completely wet micro-structured superhydrophobic surfaces. The {\\it dynamics} of this rapid process is analyzed by ultra-high-speed imaging. Depending on the scales of the micro-structure, the wetting fronts propagate smoothly and circularly or -- more interestingly -- in a {\\it stepwise} manner, leading to a growing {\\it square-shaped} wetted area: entering a new row perpendicular to the direction of front propagation takes milliseconds, whereas once this has happened, the row itself fills in microseconds ({\\it ``zipping''}). Numerical simulations confirm this view and are in quantitative agreement with the experiments.

  4. Zip Codes, Originally based off of ZCTA then adjusted based on tax parcel mailing addresses., Published in 2013, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Waupaca County Land Information.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zip Codes dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 2013. It is described as...

  5. A Comparison of the Nutritional Quality of Food Products Advertised in Grocery Store Circulars of High- versus Low-Income New York City Zip Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danna Ethan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Grocery stores can be an important resource for health and nutrition with the variety and economic value of foods offered. Weekly circulars are a means of promoting foods at a sale price. To date, little is known about the extent that nutritious foods are advertised and prominently placed in circulars. This study’s aim was to compare the nutritional quality of products advertised on the front page of online circulars from grocery stores in high- versus low-income neighborhoods in New York City (NYC. Circulars from grocery stores in the five highest and five lowest median household income NYC zip codes were analyzed. Nutrition information for food products was collected over a two-month period with a total of 805 products coded. The study found no significant difference between the nutritional quality of products advertised on the front page of online circulars from grocery stores in high- versus low-income neighborhoods in New York City (NYC. In both groups, almost two-thirds of the products advertised were processed, one-quarter were high in carbohydrates, and few to no products were low-sodium, high-fiber, or reduced-, low- or zero fat. Through innovative partnerships with health professionals, grocery stores are increasingly implementing in-store and online health promotion strategies. Weekly circulars can be used as a means to regularly advertise and prominently place more healthful and seasonal foods at an affordable price, particularly for populations at higher risk for nutrition-related chronic disease.

  6. QUIC: a chemical kinetics code for use with the chemical equilibrium code QUIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemical rate kinetics code QUIC is described, along with a support code RATE. QUIC is designed to allow chemical kinetics calculations on a wide variety of chemical environments while operating in the overlay environment of the chemical equilibrium code QUIL. QUIC depends upon a rate-data library called LIBR. This library is maintained by RATE. RATE enters into the library all reactions in a standardized format. The code QUIC, operating in conjunction with QUIL, is interactive and written to be used from a remote terminal, with paging control provided. Plotted output is also available

  7. QUIL: a chemical equilibrium code. [HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, J.L.

    1977-02-01

    A chemical equilibrium code QUIL is described, along with two support codes FENG and SURF. QUIL is designed to allow calculations on a wide range of chemical environments, which may include surface phases. QUIL was written specifically to calculate distributions associated with complex equilibria involving fission products in the primary coolant loop of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. QUIL depends upon an energy-data library called ELIB. This library is maintained by FENG and SURF. FENG enters into the library all reactions having standard free energies of reaction that are independent of concentration. SURF enters all surface reactions into ELIB. All three codes are interactive codes written to be used from a remote terminal, with paging control provided. Plotted output is also available.

  8. Enhanced Gene Expression Rather than Natural Polymorphism in Coding Sequence of the OsbZIP23 Determines Drought Tolerance and Yield Improvement in Rice Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Avishek Dey; Milan Kumar Samanta; Srimonta Gayen; Sen, Soumitra K; Maiti, Mrinal K.

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of the major limiting factors for productivity of crops including rice (Oryza sativa L.). Understanding the role of allelic variations of key regulatory genes involved in stress-tolerance is essential for developing an effective strategy to combat drought. The bZIP transcription factors play a crucial role in abiotic-stress adaptation in plants via abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway. The present study aimed to search for allelic polymorphism in the OsbZIP23 gene across selec...

  9. Chemical speciation code CHEMSPEC and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption and migration behavior of a radionuclide in geological media heavily depends on its chemical forms in a given chemical environment.In order to predict the temporal and spatial distribution of radionuclides around a disposal site when its canister is damaged,it is necessary to develop coupled chemical speciation-solute transport models and relevant software.For that reason,we wrote a new chemical speciation program CHEMSPEC.In this paper,the principles and structure of CHEMSPEC are briefly described,and the strategy and algorithms that were used in this code are interpreted in some detail,such as the measures adopted to prevent divergence in iteratively solving the mass balance equations,the "predictor-corrector" algorithm for calculation of the number and quantities of solid species formed,and the alternate use of "freezing" and "defreezing" oxidation states in handling of co-existent redox and precipitation equilibria.Four examples are given to illustrate CHEMSPEC’s features and capabilities.

  10. Zip Codes, This Layer was originally created as a 10-county dataset, then recently expanded to its current extent. In many cases, the boundaries have been significantly changed by ARC's GIS Division using a variety of sources to improve their accuracy, including ESR, Published in 2006, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Atlanta Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zip Codes dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. It is described as 'This Layer was...

  11. Optimization of KINETICS Chemical Computation Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donastorg, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    NASA JPL has been creating a code in FORTRAN called KINETICS to model the chemistry of planetary atmospheres. Recently there has been an effort to introduce Message Passing Interface (MPI) into the code so as to cut down the run time of the program. There has been some implementation of MPI into KINETICS; however, the code could still be more efficient than it currently is. One way to increase efficiency is to send only certain variables to all the processes when an MPI subroutine is called and to gather only certain variables when the subroutine is finished. Therefore, all the variables that are used in three of the main subroutines needed to be investigated. Because of the sheer amount of code that there is to comb through this task was given as a ten-week project. I have been able to create flowcharts outlining the subroutines, common blocks, and functions used within the three main subroutines. From these flowcharts I created tables outlining the variables used in each block and important information about each. All this information will be used to determine how to run MPI in KINETICS in the most efficient way possible.

  12. Home Medical Device Retailers by ZIP Code

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MAP:http://cdphdata.maps.arcgis.com/apps/PanelsLegend/index.html?appid=fafb2... This table represents a current listing of Home Medical Device Retailers (HMDR)...

  13. Two-dimensional chemical mapping for non-coding RNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Kladwang, Wipapat; VanLang, Christopher C.; Cordero, Pablo; Das, Rhiju

    2011-01-01

    Non-coding RNA molecules fold into precise base pairing patterns to carry out critical roles in genetic regulation and protein synthesis. We show here that coupling systematic mutagenesis with high-throughput SHAPE chemical mapping enables accurate base pair inference of domains from ribosomal RNA, ribozymes, and riboswitches. For a six-RNA benchmark that challenged prior chemical/computational methods, this mutate-and-map strategy gives secondary structures in agreement with crystallographic...

  14. Chemical Neurostimulation Using Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Microfluidic Chips

    OpenAIRE

    Azizi, Farouk; Lu, Hui; Chiel, Hillel J.; Mastrangelo, Carlos H

    2010-01-01

    We report the implementation of a chemical neurostimulation technique using microfluidic devices. The microfluidic chip in this research is used for the in vitro study of the nervous system of Aplysia californica under localized chemical stimulation. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device is a one-bit pulse code modulator that digitally controls the concentration of the non-hydrolysable cholinergic agonist carbachol injected directly above a ganglion. The chip was successful in repeatedly and...

  15. A chemical reaction network solver for the astrophysics code NIRVANA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, U.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Chemistry often plays an important role in astrophysical gases. It regulates thermal properties by changing species abundances and via ionization processes. This way, time-dependent cooling mechanisms and other chemistry-related energy sources can have a profound influence on the dynamical evolution of an astrophysical system. Modeling those effects with the underlying chemical kinetics in realistic magneto-gasdynamical simulations provide the basis for a better link to observations. Aims: The present work describes the implementation of a chemical reaction network solver into the magneto-gasdynamical code NIRVANA. For this purpose a multispecies structure is installed, and a new module for evolving the rate equations of chemical kinetics is developed and coupled to the dynamical part of the code. A small chemical network for a hydrogen-helium plasma was constructed including associated thermal processes which is used in test problems. Methods: Evolving a chemical network within time-dependent simulations requires the additional solution of a set of coupled advection-reaction equations for species and gas temperature. Second-order Strang-splitting is used to separate the advection part from the reaction part. The ordinary differential equation (ODE) system representing the reaction part is solved with a fourth-order generalized Runge-Kutta method applicable for stiff systems inherent to astrochemistry. Results: A series of tests was performed in order to check the correctness of numerical and technical implementation. Tests include well-known stiff ODE problems from the mathematical literature in order to confirm accuracy properties of the solver used as well as problems combining gasdynamics and chemistry. Overall, very satisfactory results are achieved. Conclusions: The NIRVANA code is now ready to handle astrochemical processes in time-dependent simulations. An easy-to-use interface allows implementation of complex networks including thermal processes

  16. Molecular codes in biological and chemical reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Görlich

    Full Text Available Shannon's theory of communication has been very successfully applied for the analysis of biological information. However, the theory neglects semantic and pragmatic aspects and thus cannot directly be applied to distinguish between (bio- chemical systems able to process "meaningful" information from those that do not. Here, we present a formal method to assess a system's semantic capacity by analyzing a reaction network's capability to implement molecular codes. We analyzed models of chemical systems (martian atmosphere chemistry and various combustion chemistries, biochemical systems (gene expression, gene translation, and phosphorylation signaling cascades, an artificial chemistry, and random reaction networks. Our study suggests that different chemical systems possess different semantic capacities. No semantic capacity was found in the model of the martian atmosphere chemistry, the studied combustion chemistries, and highly connected random networks, i.e. with these chemistries molecular codes cannot be implemented. High semantic capacity was found in the studied biochemical systems and in random reaction networks where the number of second order reactions is twice the number of species. We conclude that our approach can be applied to evaluate the information processing capabilities of a chemical system and may thus be a useful tool to understand the origin and evolution of meaningful information, e.g. in the context of the origin of life.

  17. Geochemical modelling of groundwater evolution using chemical equilibrium codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemical equilibrium codes are a modern tool in studying interaction between groundwater and solid phases. The most common used programs and application subjects are shortly presented in this article. The main emphasis is laid on the approach method of using calculated results in evaluating groundwater evolution in hydrogeological system. At present in geochemical equilibrium modelling also kinetic as well as hydrologic constrains along a flow path are taken into consideration

  18. LSENS, a general chemical kinetics and sensitivity analysis code for homogeneous gas-phase reactions. 2: Code description and usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Bittker, David A.

    1994-01-01

    LSENS, the Lewis General Chemical Kinetics Analysis Code, has been developed for solving complex, homogeneous, gas-phase chemical kinetics problems and contains sensitivity analysis for a variety of problems, including nonisothermal situations. This report is part 2 of a series of three reference publications that describe LSENS, provide a detailed guide to its usage, and present many example problems. Part 2 describes the code, how to modify it, and its usage, including preparation of the problem data file required to execute LSENS. Code usage is illustrated by several example problems, which further explain preparation of the problem data file and show how to obtain desired accuracy in the computed results. LSENS is a flexible, convenient, accurate, and efficient solver for chemical reaction problems such as static system; steady, one-dimensional, inviscid flow; reaction behind incident shock wave, including boundary layer correction; and perfectly stirred (highly backmixed) reactor. In addition, the chemical equilibrium state can be computed for the following assigned states: temperature and pressure, enthalpy and pressure, temperature and volume, and internal energy and volume. For static problems the code computes the sensitivity coefficients of the dependent variables and their temporal derivatives with respect to the initial values of the dependent variables and/or the three rate coefficient parameters of the chemical reactions. Part 1 (NASA RP-1328) derives the governing equations describes the numerical solution procedures for the types of problems that can be solved by lSENS. Part 3 (NASA RP-1330) explains the kinetics and kinetics-plus-sensitivity-analysis problems supplied with LSENS and presents sample results.

  19. A synopsis of CHEMKIN, a general-purpose chemical kinetics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CHEMKIN package consists of two major FORTRAN codes - the INTERPRETER and the gas-phase subroutine library. The INTERPRETER is a FORTRAN code that reads a symbolic description of an arbitrary, user-specified chemical reaction mechanism. The output of the INTERPRETER is a data file which forms a link to the gas-phase subroutine library. This library is a collection of about 200 modular FORTRAN subroutines which may be called to return thermodynamic properties, chemical production rates, derivatives of thermodynamic properties, derivatives of chemical production rates, or sensitivity parameters. Thermodynamic properties for the chemical species are given in terms of polynomial fits to the specific heats, and are stored on a thermodynamic data base. The data base is exactly the same format as the one used in the NASA chemical equilibrium code. Therefore, the user may either supply his own data base or use the NASA data base directly

  20. The Educational and Moral Significance of the American Chemical Society's The Chemist's Code of Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, Samuel V.

    2003-05-01

    While the usefulness of the case study method in teaching research ethics is frequently emphasized, less often noted is the educational value of professional codes of ethics. Much can be gained by having students examine codes and reflect on their significance. This paper argues that codes such as the American Chemical Society‘s The Chemist‘s Code of Conduct are an important supplement to the use of cases and describes one way in which they can be integrated profitably into a class discussion of research ethics.

  1. VULCAN: an Open-Source, Validated Chemical Kinetics Python Code for Exoplanetary Atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Shang-Min; Lyons, James R.; Grosheintz, Luc; Rimmer, Paul B.; Kitzmann, Daniel; Heng, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We present an open-source and validated chemical kinetics code for studying hot exoplanetary atmospheres, which we name VULCAN. It is constructed for gaseous chemistry from 500 to 2500 K using a reduced C- H-O chemical network with about 300 reactions. It uses eddy diffusion to mimic atmospheric dynamics and excludes photochemistry. We have provided a full description of the rate coefficients and thermodynamic data used. We validate VULCAN by reproducing chemical equilibrium and by comparing ...

  2. CHEMKIN: a general-purpose, problem-independent, transportable, FORTRAN chemical kinetics code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CHEMKIN package is comprised of two major components -- the INTERPRETER and the gas-phase subroutine library. The INTERPRETER is a FORTRAN code which is used to read a symbolic description of an arbitrary, user-specific chemical reaction mechanism. The output of the INTERPRETER is a data file which forms a link to the gas-phase subroutine library. This library is a collection of about 200 modular FORTRAN subroutines which may be called to return thermodynamic properties, chemical production rates, derivatives of thermodynamic properties, derivatives of chemical production rates, or sensitivity parameters. Thermodynamic properties for the chemical species are given in terms of polynomial fits to the specific heats, and are stored on a thermodynamic data base. The data base is in exactly the same format as the one used in the NASA chemical equilibrium code. Therefore, the user may either supply his own data base or use the NASA data base directly

  3. Modelling Chemical Equilibrium Partitioning with the GEMS-PSI Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulik, D.; Berner, U.; Curti, E

    2004-03-01

    Sorption, co-precipitation and re-crystallisation are important retention processes for dissolved contaminants (radionuclides) migrating through the sub-surface. The retention of elements is usually measured by empirical partition coefficients (Kd), which vary in response to many factors: temperature, solid/liquid ratio, total contaminant loading, water composition, host-mineral composition, etc. The Kd values can be predicted for in-situ conditions from thermodynamic modelling of solid solution, aqueous solution or sorption equilibria, provided that stoichiometry, thermodynamic stability and mixing properties of the pure components are known (Example 1). Unknown thermodynamic properties can be retrieved from experimental Kd values using inverse modelling techniques (Example 2). An efficient, advanced tool for performing both tasks is the Gibbs Energy Minimization (GEM) approach, implemented in the user-friendly GEM-Selector (GEMS) program package, which includes the Nagra-PSI chemical thermodynamic database. The package is being further developed at PSI and used extensively in studies relating to nuclear waste disposal. (author)

  4. Modelling Chemical Equilibrium Partitioning with the GEMS-PSI Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorption, co-precipitation and re-crystallisation are important retention processes for dissolved contaminants (radionuclides) migrating through the sub-surface. The retention of elements is usually measured by empirical partition coefficients (Kd), which vary in response to many factors: temperature, solid/liquid ratio, total contaminant loading, water composition, host-mineral composition, etc. The Kd values can be predicted for in-situ conditions from thermodynamic modelling of solid solution, aqueous solution or sorption equilibria, provided that stoichiometry, thermodynamic stability and mixing properties of the pure components are known (Example 1). Unknown thermodynamic properties can be retrieved from experimental Kd values using inverse modelling techniques (Example 2). An efficient, advanced tool for performing both tasks is the Gibbs Energy Minimization (GEM) approach, implemented in the user-friendly GEM-Selector (GEMS) program package, which includes the Nagra-PSI chemical thermodynamic database. The package is being further developed at PSI and used extensively in studies relating to nuclear waste disposal. (author)

  5. LSENS, a general chemical kinetics and sensitivity analysis code for gas-phase reactions: User's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Bittker, David A.

    1993-01-01

    A general chemical kinetics and sensitivity analysis code for complex, homogeneous, gas-phase reactions is described. The main features of the code, LSENS, are its flexibility, efficiency and convenience in treating many different chemical reaction models. The models include static system, steady, one-dimensional, inviscid flow, shock initiated reaction, and a perfectly stirred reactor. In addition, equilibrium computations can be performed for several assigned states. An implicit numerical integration method, which works efficiently for the extremes of very fast and very slow reaction, is used for solving the 'stiff' differential equation systems that arise in chemical kinetics. For static reactions, sensitivity coefficients of all dependent variables and their temporal derivatives with respect to the initial values of dependent variables and/or the rate coefficient parameters can be computed. This paper presents descriptions of the code and its usage, and includes several illustrative example problems.

  6. Asthma Emergency Department Visit Rates by ZIP Code

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MAP:http://tinyurl.com/AsthmaMap This dataset contains counts and rates (per 10,000) of asthma (ICD9-CM, 493.0-493.9) emergency department visits among California...

  7. Generalized PP and Zip Subrings of Matrix Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ZHONG-KUI; QIAO HU-SHENG

    2010-01-01

    Let R be an abelian ring. We consider a special subring An, relative to the ring An is a generalized right PP-ring (right zip ring) if and only if the ring R is a generalized right PP-ring (right zip ring). Our results yield more examples of generalized right PP-rings and right zip rings.

  8. Crucial steps to life: From chemical reactions to code using agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzany, Guenther

    2016-02-01

    The concepts of the origin of the genetic code and the definitions of life changed dramatically after the RNA world hypothesis. Main narratives in molecular biology and genetics such as the "central dogma," "one gene one protein" and "non-coding DNA is junk" were falsified meanwhile. RNA moved from the transition intermediate molecule into centre stage. Additionally the abundance of empirical data concerning non-random genetic change operators such as the variety of mobile genetic elements, persistent viruses and defectives do not fit with the dominant narrative of error replication events (mutations) as being the main driving forces creating genetic novelty and diversity. The reductionistic and mechanistic views on physico-chemical properties of the genetic code are no longer convincing as appropriate descriptions of the abundance of non-random genetic content operators which are active in natural genetic engineering and natural genome editing. PMID:26723230

  9. Experimental verification of the depletion code (ORIGEN-S) by chemical assay method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnup of the fuel rod taken from spent fuel assemblies C15, G23 and J14 discharged from Kori-1 was examined by destructive chemical assay and determined by Nd-148 mass spectrometry method. And then they were compared with the calculated burnup of ORIGEN-S for the code verification by using activity ratio Eu-154/ Cs-137. As a result of the comparison, burnup of Nd-148 chemical method has a good agreement with the calculated burnup within 1% error in C-15 and G23 rod, and within 8% in the J-14 rod

  10. The genetic code degeneracy and the amino acids chemical composition are connected

    OpenAIRE

    Negadi, Tidjani

    2009-01-01

    We show that our recently published Arithmetic Model of the genetic code based on Godel Encoding is robust against symmetry transformations, specially Rumer s one U > G, A > C, and constitutes a link between the degeneracy structure and the chemical composition of the 20 canonical amino acids. As a result, several remarkable atomic patterns involving hydrogen, carbon, nucleon and atom numbers are derived. This study has no obvious practical application(s) but could, we hope, add some new know...

  11. Zinc transporter ZIP10 forms a heteromer with ZIP6 which regulates embryonic development and cell migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathryn M.; Muraina, Issa A.; Brethour, Dylan; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold; Nimmanon, Thirayost; Ziliotto, Silvia; Kille, Peter; Hogstrand, Christer

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that zinc and its transporters are involved in cell migration during development and in cancer. In the present study, we show that zinc transporter ZIP10 (SLC39A10) stimulates cell motility and proliferation, both in mammalian cells and in the zebrafish embryo. This is associated with inactivation of GSK (glycogen synthase kinase)-3α and -3β and down-regulation of E-cadherin (CDH1). Morpholino-mediated knockdown of zip10 causes delayed epiboly and deformities of the head, eye, heart and tail. Furthermore, zip10 deficiency results in overexpression of cdh1, zip6 and stat3, the latter gene product driving transcription of both zip6 and zip10. The non-redundant requirement of Zip6 and Zip10 for epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is consistent with our finding that they exist as a heteromer. We postulate that a subset of ZIPs carrying prion protein (PrP)-like ectodomains, including ZIP6 and ZIP10, are integral to cellular pathways and plasticity programmes, such as EMT. PMID:27274087

  12. CEQCSY: a new code for chemical equilibrium calculation in multiphased systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the CEC Chemval/mirage project, a method is presented for calculating the thermodynamic equilibrium state of a multiphase system, by minimizing its Gibbs free energy constrained by mass balances. Compared to the other algorithms available in the literature, the method has three main characteristics: - the sets of equations corresponding to the conditions of homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria are simultaneously solved, - a mathematical criterion for bringing a new multicomponent phase in the system is rigorously demontrated. - It enables a detailed representation of the multisite solid solutions with constraints called site closure relation. The code CEQCSY (Chemical Equilibrium in Complex SYstem) uses this formalism, and works with the thermodynamic data base from the EQ3/6 code. This choice makes easier several compared tests with EQ6: quartz dissolution in water, water-atmospheric air equilibrium, theoretical re-equilibrium of seawater, hydrothermal alteration of granite including solid solutions. The test results demonstrate the high efficiency and velocity of the code CEQCSY, when working on equilibrium state of multiphase systems. This high velocity was the aim of this work, in order to couple with thermic, hydrodynamic or mechanic codes

  13. AtbZIP19和 AtbZIP23蛋白的原核表达%Prokaryotic expression of AtbZIP19 and AtbZIP23 proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙成磊; 董万春; 韩娇; 管灵霞; 阳立波; 曹树青

    2015-01-01

    Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors are involved in various biological functions such as plant grow th regulation ,flower development ,seed maturation ,senescence ,light signal trans‐duction ,wounding responses ,pathogen defence and responses to various environment stresses .To construct the eukaryotic expression plasmids of AtbZIP19 and AtbZIP23 ,total RNA was extracted from Arabidopsis seedlings ,and cDNA fragments of AtbZIP19 and AtbZIP23 were PCR‐amplified through reverse‐transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR) and inserted into the pET‐32a+vector to build up constructions of pET‐32a‐bZIP19 and pET‐32a‐bZIP23 .These plasmids were identi‐fied by DNA sequencing .The recombinant plasmids were transfected into BL 21(DE3) and expressed through sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis ,and the AtbZIP19 and AtbZIP23 proteins were detected to be prokaryotic .%bZ I P类转录因子参与调控多种生物学过程,包括植物生长、花的发育、种子的成熟、衰老、光信号传导、损伤修复、病菌防御以及对各种环境胁迫的响应等。文章构建 AtbZIP19和 AtbZIP23基因的原核表达载体,并在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中进行了蛋白表达;提取拟南芥植株总RNA ,通过RT‐PCR克隆AtbZIP19与AtbZIP23基因cDNA 全长;将pET‐32a+载体和聚合酶链反应(PCR)产物进行双酶切,通过DNA连接反应将2个基因定向克隆到pET‐32a+质粒中;经菌液PCR和测序鉴定获得阳性克隆后,将重组质粒转化至大肠杆菌原核表达菌株BL21(DE3),经异丙基硫代半乳糖苷(IPTG)诱导后表达得到目的蛋白。

  14. VULCAN: an Open-Source, Validated Chemical Kinetics Python Code for Exoplanetary Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Shang-Min; Grosheintz, Luc; Rimmer, Paul B; Kitzmann, Daniel; Heng, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We present an open-source and validated chemical kinetics code for studying hot exoplanetary atmospheres, which we name VULCAN. It is constructed for gaseous chemistry from 500 to 2500 K using a reduced C- H-O chemical network with about 300 reactions. It uses eddy diffusion to mimic atmospheric dynamics and excludes photochemistry. We have provided a full description of the rate coefficients and thermodynamic data used. We validate VULCAN by reproducing chemical equilibrium and by comparing its output versus the disequilibrium-chemistry calculations of Moses et al. and Rimmer & Helling. It reproduces the models of HD 189733b and HD 209458b by Moses et al., which employ a network with nearly 1600 reactions. Further validation of VULCAN is made by examining the theoretical trends produced when the temperature-pressure profile and carbon-to-oxygen ratio are varied. Assisted by a sensitivity test designed to identify the key reactions responsible for producing a specific molecule, we revisit the quenching ap...

  15. LSENS, A General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code for Homogeneous Gas-Phase Reactions. Part 2; Code Description and Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Bittker, David A.

    1994-01-01

    LSENS, the Lewis General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code, has been developed for solving complex, homogeneous, gas-phase chemical kinetics problems and contains sensitivity analysis for a variety of problems, including nonisothermal situations. This report is part II of a series of three reference publications that describe LSENS, provide a detailed guide to its usage, and present many example problems. Part II describes the code, how to modify it, and its usage, including preparation of the problem data file required to execute LSENS. Code usage is illustrated by several example problems, which further explain preparation of the problem data file and show how to obtain desired accuracy in the computed results. LSENS is a flexible, convenient, accurate, and efficient solver for chemical reaction problems such as static system; steady, one-dimensional, inviscid flow; reaction behind incident shock wave, including boundary layer correction; and perfectly stirred (highly backmixed) reactor. In addition, the chemical equilibrium state can be computed for the following assigned states: temperature and pressure, enthalpy and pressure, temperature and volume, and internal energy and volume. For static problems the code computes the sensitivity coefficients of the dependent variables and their temporal derivatives with respect to the initial values of the dependent variables and/or the three rate coefficient parameters of the chemical reactions. Part I (NASA RP-1328) derives the governing equations and describes the numerical solution procedures for the types of problems that can be solved by LSENS. Part III (NASA RP-1330) explains the kinetics and kinetics-plus-sensitivity-analysis problems supplied with LSENS and presents sample results.

  16. Distribution and chemical coding of neurons in intramural ganglia of the porcine urinary bladder trigone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon Pidsudko

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the distribution and chemical coding of neurons in the porcine intramural ganglia of the urinary bladder trigone (IG-UBT demonstrated using combined retrograde tracing and double-labelling immunohistochemistry. Retrograde fluorescent tracer Fast Blue (FB was injected into the wall of both the left and right side of the bladder trigone during laparotomy performed under pentobarbital anaesthesia. Ten-microm-thick cryostat sections were processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence with antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH, neuropeptide Y (NPY, somatostatin (SOM, galanin (GAL, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, substance P (SP, Leu5-enkephalin (LENK and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT. IG-UBT neurons formed characteristic clusters (from a few to tens neuronal cells found under visceral peritoneum or in the outer muscular layer. Immunohistochemistry revealed four main populations of IG-UBT neurons: SOM- (ca. 35%, SP- (ca. 32%, ChAT- and NPY- immunoreactive (-IR (ca. 23% as well as non-adrenergic non-cholinergic nerve cells (ca. 6%. This study has demonstrated a relatively large population of differently coded IG-UBT neurons, which constitute an important element of the complex neuro-endocrine system involved in the regulation of the porcine urogenital organ function.

  17. TRUPACT-II Content Codes (TRUCON), Revision 8 and list of chemicals and materials in TRUCON (chemical list), Revision 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic Package Transporter (TRUPACT-II) Content Codes document (TRUCON) represents the development of a new content code system for shipping contact handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste in TRUPACT-II. It will be used to convert existing waste forms, content codes, and any other identification codes into a system that is uniform throughout for all the Department of Energy (DOE) sites. These various codes can be grouped under the newly formed shipping content codes without any loss of waste characterization information. The TRUCON document provides a parametric description for each content code for waste generated and compiles this information for all ten DOE sites. Compliance with waste generation, processing and certification procedures at the sites (outlined in the TRUCON document for each content code) ensures that prohibited waste forms are not present in the waste. The content code essentially gives a description of the CH-TRU waste material in terms of processes and packaging, and the generation location. This helps to provide cradle-to-grave traceability of the waste material so that the various actions required to assess its qualification as payload for the TRUPACT-II package can be performed

  18. RETRAN code analysis of Tsuruga-2 plant chemical volume control system (CVCS) reactor coolant leakage incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Chemical Volume Control System (CVCS) reactor primary coolant leakage incident, which occurred in Tsuruga-2 (4-loop PWR, 3,423 MWt, 1,160 MWe) on July 12, 1999, it took about 14 hours before the leakage isolation. The delayed leakage isolation and a large amount of leakage have become a social concern. Effective procedure modification was studied. Three betterments were proposed based on a qualitative analysis to reduce the pressure and temperature of the primary loop as fast as possible by the current plant facilities while maintaining enough subcooling of the primary loop. I analyzed the incident with RETRAN code in order to quantitatively evaluate the leakage reduction when these betterments are adopted. This paper is very new because it created a typical analysis method for PWR plant behavior during plant shutdown procedure which conventional RETRAN transient analyses rarely dealt with. Also the event time is very long. To carry out this analysis successfully, I devised new models such as an Residual Heat Removal System (RHR) model etc. and simplified parts of the conventional model. Based on the analysis results, I confirmed that leakage can be reduced by about 30% by adopting these betterments. Then the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) modified the operational procedure for reactor primary coolant leakage events adopting these betterments. (author)

  19. The chemical coding of 5-hydroxytryptamine containing enteroendocrine cells in the mouse gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Yohan; Fakhry, Josiane; Fothergill, Linda; Callaghan, Brid; Ringuet, Mitchell; Hunne, Billie; Bravo, David M; Furness, John B

    2016-06-01

    The majority of 5-HT (serotonin) in the body is contained in enteroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa. From the time of their discovery over 80 years ago, the 5-HT-containing cells have been regarded as a class of cell that is distinct from enteroendocrine cells that contain peptide hormones. However, recent studies have cast doubt on the concept of there being distinct classes of enteroendocrine cells, each containing a single hormone or occasionally more than one hormone. Instead, data are rapidly accumulating that there are complex patterns of colocalisation of hormones that identify multiple subclasses of enteroendocrine cells. In the present work, multiple labelling immunohistochemistry is used to investigate patterns of colocalisation of 5-HT with enteric peptide hormones. Over 95 % of 5-HT cells in the duodenum also contained cholecystokinin and about 40 % of them also contained secretin. In the jejunum, about 75 % of 5-HT cells contained cholecystokinin but not secretin and 25 % contained 5-HT plus both cholecystokinin and secretin. Small proportions of 5-HT cells contained gastrin or somatostatin in the stomach, PYY or GLP-1 in the small intestine and GLP-1 or somatostatin in the large intestine. Rare or very rare 5-HT cells contained ghrelin (stomach), neurotensin (small and large intestines), somatostatin (small intestine) and PYY (in the large intestine). It is concluded that 5-HT-containing enteroendocrine cells are heterogeneous in their chemical coding and by implication in their functions. PMID:26803512

  20. MEMS variable capacitance devices utilizing the substrate: II. Zipping varactors

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro

    2010-03-22

    This paper, the second and last in this series, introduces PolyMUMPS zipping varactors that exploit the substrate and provide a high tuning range and a high quality factor. Building on the important findings of part I of this paper, the substrate was utilized effectively once again in the design and fabrication of zipping varactors to attain devices with very good performance. Two zipping varactors are proposed, analysed theoretically, simulated, fabricated and tested successfully. The tuning range, quality factor and actuation voltage of those varactors are 4.5, 16.4, 55 V and 4.2, 17, 55 V respectively. Finally, and based on one of the proposed zipping varactors, a very large capacitance value varactor array, with a tuning range of 5.3, was designed and tested. To the best of our knowledge, these zipping varactors exhibit the best reported characteristics in PolyMUMPS to date within their category in terms of tuning range, quality factor, required actuation voltage and total area consumed. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. LSENS: A General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code for homogeneous gas-phase reactions. Part 3: Illustrative test problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittker, David A.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan

    1994-01-01

    LSENS, the Lewis General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code, has been developed for solving complex, homogeneous, gas-phase chemical kinetics problems and contains sensitivity analysis for a variety of problems, including nonisothermal situations. This report is part 3 of a series of three reference publications that describe LSENS, provide a detailed guide to its usage, and present many example problems. Part 3 explains the kinetics and kinetics-plus-sensitivity analysis problems supplied with LSENS and presents sample results. These problems illustrate the various capabilities of, and reaction models that can be solved by, the code and may provide a convenient starting point for the user to construct the problem data file required to execute LSENS. LSENS is a flexible, convenient, accurate, and efficient solver for chemical reaction problems such as static system; steady, one-dimensional, inviscid flow; reaction behind incident shock wave, including boundary layer correction; and perfectly stirred (highly backmixed) reactor. In addition, the chemical equilibrium state can be computed for the following assigned states: temperature and pressure, enthalpy and pressure, temperature and volume, and internal energy and volume. For static problems the code computes the sensitivity coefficients of the dependent variables and their temporal derivatives with respect to the initial values of the dependent variables and/or the three rate coefficient parameters of the chemical reactions.

  2. Chemical coding and chemosensory properties of cholinergic brush cells in the mouse gastrointestinal and biliary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard eSchütz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mouse gastro-intestinal and biliary tract mucosal epithelia harbor choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-positive brush cells with taste cell-like traits. With the aid of two transgenic mouse lines that express green fluorescent protein (EGFP under the control of the ChAT promoter (EGFPChAT and by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we found that EGFPChAT cells were clustered in the epithelium lining the gastric groove. EGFPChAT cells were numerous in the gall bladder and bile duct, and found scattered as solitary cells along the small and large intestine. While all EGFPChAT cells were also ChAT-positive, expression of the high-affinity choline transporter (ChT1 was never detected. Except for the proximal colon, EGFPChAT cells also lacked detectable expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT. EGFPChAT cells were found to be separate from enteroendocrine cells, however they were all immunoreactive for cytokeratin 18 (CK18, transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5, and for cyclooxygenases 1 (COX1 and 2 (COX2. The ex vivo stimulation of colonic EGFPChAT cells with the bitter substance denatonium resulted in a strong increase in intracellular calcium, while in other epithelial cells such an increase was significantly weaker and also timely delayed. Subsequent stimulation with cycloheximide was ineffective in both cell populations. Given their chemical coding and chemosensory properties, EGFPChAT brush cells thus may have integrative functions and participate in induction of protective reflexes and inflammatory events by utilizing ACh and prostaglandins for paracrine signaling.

  3. The promising chemical kinetics for the simulation of propane-air combustion with KIVA-II code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, S. J.; Gorla, Rama S. R.; Kundu, Krishna P.

    1993-01-01

    The development of chemical kinetics for the simulation of propane-air combustion with the use of computer code KIVA-II since 1989 is summarized here. In order to let readers understand the general feature well, a brief description of the KIVA-II code, specially related with the chemical reactions is also given. Then the results of recent work with 20 reaction mechanism is presented. It is also compared with the 5 reaction mechanism. It may be expected that the numerical stability of the 20 reaction mechanism is better as compared to that of 5 reaction mechanism, but the CPU time of the CRAY computer is much longer. Details are presented in the paper.

  4. A High Performance Chemical Simulation Preprocessor and Source Code Generator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerical simulations of chemical kinetics are a critical component of aerospace research, Earth systems research, and energy research. These simulations enable a...

  5. A comparison of three elliptical galaxy photo-chemical evolution codes

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, B K

    1996-01-01

    Working within the classic supernovae-driven wind framework for elliptical galaxy evolution, we perform a systematic investigation into the discrepancies between the predictions of three contemporary codes -- Arimoto & Yoshii (1987, A&A, 173, 23), Bressan et al. (1994, ApJS, 94, 63), and Gibson (1996a, MNRAS, 278, 829; 1996b, MNRAS, submitted). By being primarily concerned with reproducing the present-day colour-metallicity-luminosity (CML) relations amongst ellipticals, the approaches taken in the theoretical modelling have managed to obscure many of the hidden differences between the codes. Targeting the timescale for the onset of the initial galactic wind t_GW as a primary ``difference'' indicator, we demonstrate exactly how and why each code is able to claim successful reproduction of the CML relations, despite possessing apparently incompatible input ingredients.

  6. Moderate Zinc Deficiency Reduces Testicular Zip6 and Zip10 Abundance and Impairs Spermatogenesis in Mice123

    OpenAIRE

    Croxford, Thomas P.; McCormick, Nicholas H.; Kelleher, Shannon L.

    2011-01-01

    Male infertility accounts for ~40% of cases of failure to conceive. Testes have a strict zinc (Zn) requirement and severe Zn deficiency compromises spermatogenesis, sperm viability, and motility, compromising fertility in men. Despite the high prevalence of marginal Zn deficiency in humans, less emphasis has been placed on understanding the consequences on male reproduction. Swiss Webster mice were used to visualize Zip protein expression during spermatogenesis using immunohistochemistry. Dat...

  7. Identification and functional analysis of two ZIP metal transporters of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.; Zhao, F.J.; Ghandilyan, A.; Logoteta, B.; Olortegui Guzman, M.C.; Schat, H.; Wang, X.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The heavy metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens expresses several ZIP-like genes at higher levels than their orthologues in non-hyperaccumulator species, but it is not clear why. To elucidate the function of the T. caerulescens orthologues of the Arabidopsis thaliana ZIP5 and ZIP6 gen

  8. Responses of the L5178Y mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay. V: 27 coded chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, D.B.; Brown, A.G.; Howgate, S.; McBride, D.; Riach, C. (Inveresk Research International Limited, Musselburgh (Scotland)); Caspary, W.J. (National Inst. of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-seven chemicals were tested for their mutagenic potential in the L5178Y tk{sup +}/tk{sup {minus}} mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay. Cultures were exposed to the chemicals for 4 hr, then cultured for 2 days before plating in soft agar with or without trifluorothymidine (TFT), 3 {mu}g/ml. The chemicals were tested at least twice. Statistically significant responses were obtained with acid orange 10, aniline, benzaldehyde o-chloroaniline, chlorodibromomethane, cytembena, 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromomethyl) cyclohexane, dieldrin, lithocholic acid, oxytetracycline, phenazopyridine HCl, 1phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, solvent yellow 14, tetraethylthiuram disulfide (disulfiram), 2,4-toluene diisocyanate, and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate. Apart from phenazopyridine HCl, acid orange 10, and solvent yellow 14, rat liver S9 mix was not a requirement for the mutagenic activity of these compounds.

  9. Chemical alteration of cement materials in a radioactive waste repository environment. 3. Development of reactive transport computational code combined with incongruent dissolution model of calcium silicate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For long-term performance assessment of a cementitious disposal system for TRU waste, a so-called reactive transport computational code, being a numerical simulation code coupled a geochemical model suited to the system includes cement hydrate and a solute transport model, so-called reactive transport computational code, has been developed. The thermodynamic model previously developed in our institute for incongruent dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel, which is a principal product of hydrated cement phase, was incorporated into a geochemical code, Harphrq, to evaluate chemical equilibrium conditions containing cement hydrates. This modification of the code enables a user to evaluate adequately the chemical equilibrium of a system including cement hydrate, such as a dissolution/precipitation of C-S-H gel and/or a change of Ca/Si ratio in C-S-H gel. The modified geochemical code was coupled onto a simplified solute transport code using a compartment model. The coupled code could simulate the processes where various chemical species in aqueous phase migrate through the homogeneous porous materials while locally maintaining chemical equilibrium. The developed reactive transport computational code was verified by comparison with experimental results on batch-type dissolution tests and column-type alteration tests under flow-through conditions of ordinary Portland cement hydrate. Predictive calculation results by the developed code were reasonably accordant with the experimental results, e.g. the distribution of constituent minerals and the composition of pore water in altered ordinary Portland cement hydrate. The validity of the developed code was therefore verified. Analysis on the results by the calculation could indicates special features such as a distribution of Ca/Si ratio in C-S-H gel along the water-flow in the column, and a re-precipitation of C-S-H gel in the downstream side of the dissolution front of C-S-H gel. (author)

  10. Responses of the L5178Y mouse Lymphoma cell forward mutation assay. V: 27 coded chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, D B; Brown, A G; Howgate, S; McBride, D; Riach, C; Caspary, W J

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-seven chemicals were tested for their mutagenic potential in the L5178Y tk+/tk- mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay using procedures based upon those described by McGregor et al. (McGregor DB, Martin R, Cattanach P, Edwards I, McBride D, Caspary WJ (1987): Environ Mol Mutagen 9:143-160). Cultures were exposed to the chemicals for 4 hr, then cultured for 2 days before plating in soft agar with or without trifluorothymidine (TFT), 3 micrograms/ml. The chemicals were tested at least twice. Statistically significant responses were obtained with acid orange 10, aniline, benzaldehyde, o-chloroaniline, chlorodibromomethane, cytembena, 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromomethyl) cyclohexane, dieldrin, lithocholic acid, oxytetracycline, phenazopyridine HCl, 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, solvent yellow 14, tetraethylthiuram disulfide (disulfiram), 2,4-toluene diisocyanate, and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate. Apart from phenazopyridine HCl, acid orange 10, and solvent yellow 14, rat liver S9 mix was not a requirement for the mutagenic activity of these compounds. Chemical not identified as mutagens were N-4-acetylaminofluorene, chlorpheniramine maleate, chloropropamide, 1,4-dioxane, endrin, ethylene glycol, iron dextran, methapyrilene, sodium(2-ethylhexyl)alcohol PMID:1902415

  11. Generation and Characterization of Mice Lacking the Zinc Uptake Transporter ZIP3

    OpenAIRE

    Dufner-Beattie, Jodi; Huang, Zhixin L.; Geiser, Jim; Xu, Wenhao; Andrews, Glen K.

    2005-01-01

    The mouse ZIP3 (SLC39A3) gene encodes an eight-transmembrane-domain protein that has been conserved in mammals and can function to transport zinc. To analyze the expression of ZIP3 in the early embryo and neonate and to determine its in vivo function, we generated ZIP3 null mice in which the ZIP3 open reading frame was replaced with that of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter. EGFP fluorescence revealed that ZIP3 was expressed in the inner cell mass of the blastocyst and la...

  12. Further assessment of the chemical modelling of iodine in IMPAIR 3 code using ACE/RTF data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cripps, R.C.; Guentay, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-01

    This paper introduces the assessment of the computer code IMPAIR 3 (Iodine Matter Partitioning And Iodine Release) which simulates physical and chemical iodine processes in a LWR containment with one or more compartments under conditions relevant to a severe accident in a nuclear reactor. The first version was published in 1992 to replace both the multi-compartment code IMPAIR 2/M and the single-compartment code IMPAIR 2.2. IMPAIR 2.2 was restricted to a single pH value specified before programme execution and precluded any variation of pH or calculation of H{sup +} changes during program execution. This restriction is removed in IMPAIR 3. Results of the IMPAIR 2.2 assessment using ACE/RTF Test 2 and the acidic phase of Test 3 B data were presented at the 3rd CSNI Workshop. The purpose of the current assessment is to verify the IMPAIR 3 capability to follow the whole test duration with changing boundary conditions. Besides revisiting ACE/RTF Test 3B, Test 4 data were also used for the current assessment. A limited data analysis was conducted using the outcome of the current ACEX iodine work to understand the iodine behaviour observed during these tests. This paper presents comparisons of the predicted results with the test data. The code capabilities are demonstrated to focus on still unresolved modelling problems. The unclear behaviour observed in the gaseous molecular iodine behaviour and its inconclusive effect on the calculated behaviour in the acidic phase of the Test 4 and importance of the catalytic effect of stainless steel are also indicated. (author) 18 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs.

  13. An unusual zip gun suicide--medicolegal and ballistic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejna, Petr; Safr, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Home-made guns are imitations of typical firearms and usually have handgun characteristics. This article presents an unusual case of a suicide carried out by means of a fatal gunshot wound to the head using a home-made zip gun. A 49-year-old male, with a history of paranoid psychosis was found dead in the dwelling place of a family house. The investigation at the crime scene did not lead to suspicion of a gunshot wound because of the unusual nature of the firearm used. A medical examiner diagnosed an opened head injury as the primary cause of the victim's death. The autopsy findings provided immediate grounds for further inspection of the crime scene. Subsequently, a simple zip gun, which had been overlooked during the scene investigation, was discovered. An undeformed projectile recovered from the victim's head was consistent with the use of the home-made firearm. Following the completion of the investigations and autopsy, the death was classified as a suicide. PMID:19818107

  14. Volatile codes: Correlation of olfactory signals and reception in Drosophila-yeast chemical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidler, Nicole H; Liu, Cheng; Hamby, Kelly A; Zalom, Frank G; Syed, Zainulabeuddin

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila have evolved strong mutualistic associations with yeast communities that best support their growth and survival, resulting in the development of novel niches. It has been suggested that flies recognize their cognate yeasts primarily based on the rich repertoire of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) derived from the yeasts. Thus, it remained an exciting avenue to study whether fly spp. detect and discriminate yeast strains based on odor alone, and if so, how such resolution is achieved by the olfactory system in flies. We used two fly species known to exploit different niches and harboring different yeasts, D. suzukii (a pest of fresh fruit) and D. melanogaster (a saprophytic fly and a neurogenetic model organism). We initially established the behavioral preference of both fly species to six Drosophila-associated yeasts; then chemically analyzed the VOC profile of each yeast which revealed quantitative and qualitative differences; and finally isolated and identified the physiologically active constituents from yeast VOCs for each drosophilid that potentially define attraction. By employing chemical, behavioral, and electrophysiological analyses, we provide a comprehensive portrait of the olfactory neuroethological correlates underlying fly-yeast coadaptation in two drosophilids with distinct habitats. PMID:26391997

  15. IRE1/bZIP60-mediated unfolded protein response plays distinct roles in plant immunity and abiotic stress responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian A Moreno

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER-mediated protein secretion and quality control have been shown to play an important role in immune responses in both animals and plants. In mammals, the ER membrane-located IRE1 kinase/endoribonuclease, a key regulator of unfolded protein response (UPR, is required for plasma cell development to accommodate massive secretion of immunoglobulins. Plant cells can secrete the so-called pathogenesis-related (PR proteins with antimicrobial activities upon pathogen challenge. However, whether IRE1 plays any role in plant immunity is not known. Arabidopsis thaliana has two copies of IRE1, IRE1a and IRE1b. Here, we show that both IRE1a and IRE1b are transcriptionally induced during chemically-induced ER stress, bacterial pathogen infection and treatment with the immune signal salicylic acid (SA. However, we found that IRE1a plays a predominant role in the secretion of PR proteins upon SA treatment. Consequently, the ire1a mutant plants show enhanced susceptibility to a bacterial pathogen and are deficient in establishing systemic acquired resistance (SAR, whereas ire1b is unaffected in these responses. We further demonstrate that the immune deficiency in ire1a is due to a defect in SA- and pathogen-triggered, IRE1-mediated cytoplasmic splicing of the bZIP60 mRNA, which encodes a transcription factor involved in the expression of UPR-responsive genes. Consistently, IRE1a is preferentially required for bZIP60 splicing upon pathogen infection, while IRE1b plays a major role in bZIP60 processing upon Tunicamycin (Tm-induced stress. We also show that SA-dependent induction of UPR-responsive genes is altered in the bzip60 mutant resulting in a moderate susceptibility to a bacterial pathogen. These results indicate that the IRE1/bZIP60 branch of UPR is a part of the plant response to pathogens for which the two Arabidopsis IRE1 isoforms play only partially overlapping roles and that IRE1 has both bZIP60-dependent and bZIP60-independent

  16. In vivo binding of hot pepper bZIP transcription factor CabZIP1 to the G-box region of pathogenesis-related protein 1 promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We find that salicylic acid and ethephon treatment in hot pepper increases the expression of a putative basic/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor gene, CabZIP1. CabZIP1 mRNA is expressed ubiquitously in various organs. The green fluorescent protein-fused transcription factor, CabZIP1::GFP, can be specifically localized to the nucleus, an action that is consistent with the presence of a nuclear localization signal in its protein sequence. Transient overexpression of the CabZIP1 transcription factor results in an increase in PR-1 transcripts level in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that CabZIP1 binds to the G-box elements in native promoter of the hot pepper pathogenesis-related protein 1 (CaPR-1) gene in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that CabZIP1 plays a role as a transcriptional regulator of the CaPR-1 gene

  17. Stress sensing in plants by the ER stress sensor/transducer, bZIP28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu eSrivastava

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two classes of ER stress sensors are known in plants, membrane associated bZIP transcription factors and RNA splicing factors. ER stress occurs under adverse environmental conditions and results from the accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER lumen. One of the membrane-associated transcription factors activated by heat and ER stress agents is bZIP28. In its inactive form, bZIP28 is a type II protein with a single pass transmembrane domain, residing in the ER. bZIP28’s N-terminus, containing a transcriptional activation domain, is oriented towards the cytoplasm and its C-terminal tail is inserted into the ER lumen. In response to stress, bZIP28 exits the ER and moves to the Golgi where it is proteolytically processed, liberating its cytosolic component which relocates to the nucleus to upregulate stress-response genes. bZIP28 is thought to sense stress through its interaction with the major ER chaperone, BIP. BiP binds to bZIP28’s lumenal domain under unstressed conditions and retains it in the ER. BIP binds to the intrinsically disordered regions on bZIP28’s lumen-facing tail. A truncated form of bZIP28, without its C-terminal tail is not retained in the ER but migrates constitutively to the nucleus. Upon stress, BiP releases bZIP28 allowing it to exit the ER. One model to account for the release of bZIP28 by BiP is that BiP is competed away from bZIP28 by the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER. However, other forces such as changes in energy charge levels, redox conditions or interaction with DNAJ proteins may also promote release of bZIP28 from BiP. Movement of bZIP28 from the ER to the Golgi is assisted by the interaction of elements of the COPII machinery with the cytoplasmic domain of bZIP28. Thus, the mobilization of bZIP28 in response to stress involves the dissociation of factors that retain it in the ER and the association of factors that mediate its further organelle-to-organelle movement.

  18. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Current 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Eddy County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Union County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Curry County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Grant County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. New Mexico, 2010 Census 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA5)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  6. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. Accessibility to Essential Medicines in New York City by Zip Code Income Levels and Boroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Addo-Atuah, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to essential medicines is fundamental to medication adherence, continuity of care and hence population health outcomes and overall quality of life. Disparities in the availability and the cost of these medications in New York City, especially for low income neighborhoods, would compound the underlying health disparities in these neighborhoods. This study examined the physical and financial accessibility to 8 of the 150 Most Frequently Prescribed Drugs in New York, 2 each for Asthma, Diabetes, Hypertension, and Hyperlipidemia, 4 conditions that are among the top 10 most costly conditions in the United States. The study did not find any significant differences in mean drug prices between the high, medium, and low income neighborhoods in the City. However, the significantly different income levels and uninsured rates across neighborhood income strata in the City (p<0.001 for both, coupled with the high disease burden and other underlying disparities in low income neighborhoods, would point to potential affordability challenges for needed medications in these neighborhoods. On the other hand, significant differences in mean prices between the 5 City boroughs were found for 3 of the study drugs: Advair®, p=0.009; Amlodipine 10mg, p<0.001; and Lisinopril 10mg, p=0.046. No such significant differences were observed for the mean prices of the other 5 study drugs-Proventil HFA,® Metformin HCL 500mg, Glipizide ER 5mg, Simvastatin 20mg, and Atorvastatin 10mg. The study findings did not also suggest that drug prices are dictated by the number of pharmacies in a neighborhood.Further studies would be needed to better understand the complexities associated with the accessibility of essential medicines in New York City. These studies could include qualitative ones which would examine the perceptions and experiences of City residents with respect to the accessibility of prescribed medications as the basis for targeted interventions directed at promoting access to needed medications for all New Yorkers.

  9. Hospital Inpatient Prevention Quality Indicators (PQI) for Adult Discharges by Zip Code (SPARCS): Beginning 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset is one of two datasets that contain observed and expected rates for Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Prevention Quality Indicators – Adult...

  10. New Mexico 2000 Census 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA3)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  11. New Mexico 2000 Census 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA3)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  12. Structural insights of ZIP4 extracellular domain critical for optimal zinc transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tuo; Sui, Dexin; Hu, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The ZIP zinc transporter family is responsible for zinc uptake from the extracellular milieu or intracellular vesicles. The LIV-1 subfamily, containing nine out of the 14 human ZIP proteins, is featured with a large extracellular domain (ECD). The critical role of the ECD is manifested by disease-causing mutations on ZIP4, a representative LIV-1 protein. Here we report the first crystal structure of a mammalian ZIP4-ECD, which reveals two structurally independent subdomains and an unprecedented dimer centred at the signature PAL motif. Structure-guided mutagenesis, cell-based zinc uptake assays and mapping of the disease-causing mutations indicate that the two subdomains play pivotal but distinct roles and that the bridging region connecting them is particularly important for ZIP4 function. These findings lead to working hypotheses on how ZIP4-ECD exerts critical functions in zinc transport. The conserved dimeric architecture in ZIP4-ECD is also demonstrated to be a common structural feature among the LIV-1 proteins.

  13. Discovery of ZIP transporters that participate in cadmium damage to testis and kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been known for decades that cadmium (Cd) must enter the cell to cause damage, but there was no mechanism to explain genetic differences in response to Cd toxicity until 2005. Starting with the mouse Cdm locus associated with differences in Cd-induced testicular necrosis between inbred strains, a 24.6-centiMorgan region on chromosome 3 was reduced ultimately to 880 kb; in this segment is the Slc39a8 gene encoding the ZIP8 Zn2+/HCO3- symporter. In endothelial cells of the testis vasculature, Cd-sensitive mice exhibit high ZIP8 expression, Cd-resistant mice exhibit very low expression. A 168.7-kb bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) from a 129S6 (Cd-sensitive) BAC library containing the Slc39a8 gene was inserted into the Cd-resistant C57BL/6J genome: Cd treatment produced testicular necrosis in BAC-transgenic BTZIP8-3 mice but not in non-transgenic littermates, thereby proving that the Slc39a8 gene is indeed the Cdm locus. Cd-induced renal failure also occurred in these BTZIP8-3 mice. Immunohistochemistry showed highly expressed ZIP8 protein in the renal proximal tubular epithelial apical surface, suggesting that ZIP8 participates in Cd-induced renal failure. Slc39a14, most closely evolutionarily related to Slc39a8, encodes differentially-spliced products ZIP14A and ZIP14B that display properties similar to ZIP8. ZIP8 in alveolar cells brings environmental Cd into the organism and ZIP14 in intestinal enterocytes carries Cd into the organism and into the hepatocyte. We believe these two transporters function endogenously as Zn2+/HCO3- symporters important in combating inflammation and carrying out other physiological functions; Cd is able to displace the endogenous cation, enter the cell, and produce tissue damage and disease.

  14. A DI-LEUCINE SORTING SIGNAL IN ZIP1 (SLC39A1) MEDIATES ENDOCYTOSIS OF THE PROTEIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been demonstrated that the plasma membrane expression of ZIP1 was regulated by endocytic mechanisms. In zinc-replete conditions, the level of surface expressed ZIP1 was low due to the rapid internalization of ZIP1 from the cytoplasmic membrane. The aim of the present work was to identify sort...

  15. hZIP1 zinc uptake transporter down regulation and zinc depletion in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajdacsy-Balla André

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic and molecular mechanisms responsible for and associated with the development and progression of prostate malignancy are largely unidentified. The peripheral zone is the major region of the human prostate gland where malignancy develops. The normal peripheral zone glandular epithelium has the unique function of accumulating high levels of zinc. In contrast, the ability to accumulate zinc is lost in the malignant cells. The lost ability of the neoplastic epithelial cells to accumulate zinc is a consistent factor in their development of malignancy. Recent studies identified ZIP1 (SLC39A1 as an important zinc transporter involved in zinc accumulation in prostate cells. Therefore, we investigated the possibility that down-regulation of hZIP1 gene expression might be involved in the inability of malignant prostate cells to accumulate zinc. To address this issue, the expression of hZIP1 and the depletion of zinc in malignant versus non-malignant prostate glands of prostate cancer tissue sections were analyzed. hZIP1 expression was also determined in malignant prostate cell lines. Results hZIP1 gene expression, ZIP1 transporter protein, and cellular zinc were prominent in normal peripheral zone glandular epithelium and in benign hyperplastic glands (also zinc accumulating glands. In contrast, hZIP1 gene expression and transporter protein were markedly down-regulated and zinc was depleted in adenocarcinomatous glands and in prostate intra-epithelial neoplastic foci (PIN. These changes occur early in malignancy and are sustained during its progression in the peripheral zone. hZIP1 is also expressed in the malignant cell lines LNCaP, PC-3, DU-145; and in the nonmalignant cell lines HPr-1 and BPH-1. Conclusion The studies clearly establish that hZIP1 gene expression is down regulated and zinc is depleted in adenocarcinomatous glands. The fact that all the malignant cell lines express hZIP1 indicates that the down

  16. Arabidopsis HD-Zip II transcription factors control apical embryo development and meristem function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Luana; Carabelli, Monica; Ruzza, Valentino; Possenti, Marco; Sassi, Massimiliano; Peñalosa, Andrés; Sessa, Giovanna; Salvi, Sergio; Forte, Valentina; Morelli, Giorgio; Ruberti, Ida

    2013-05-01

    The Arabidopsis genome encodes ten Homeodomain-Leucine zipper (HD-Zip) II proteins. ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX 2 (ATHB2), HOMEOBOX ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA 1 (HAT1), HAT2, HAT3 and ATHB4 are regulated by changes in the red/far red light ratio that induce shade avoidance in most of the angiosperms. Here, we show that progressive loss of HAT3, ATHB4 and ATHB2 activity causes developmental defects from embryogenesis onwards in white light. Cotyledon development and number are altered in hat3 athb4 embryos, and these defects correlate with changes in auxin distribution and response. athb2 gain-of-function mutation and ATHB2 expression driven by its promoter in hat3 athb4 result in significant attenuation of phenotypes, thus demonstrating that ATHB2 is functionally redundant to HAT3 and ATHB4. In analogy to loss-of-function mutations in HD-Zip III genes, loss of HAT3 and ATHB4 results in organ polarity defects, whereas triple hat3 athb4 athb2 mutants develop one or two radialized cotyledons and lack an active shoot apical meristem (SAM). Consistent with overlapping expression pattern of HD-Zip II and HD-Zip III gene family members, bilateral symmetry and SAM defects are enhanced when hat3 athb4 is combined with mutations in PHABULOSA (PHB), PHAVOLUTA (PHV) or REVOLUTA (REV). Finally, we show that ATHB2 is part of a complex regulatory circuit directly involving both HD-Zip II and HD-Zip III proteins. Taken together, our study provides evidence that a genetic system consisting of HD-Zip II and HD-Zip III genes cooperates in establishing bilateral symmetry and patterning along the adaxial-abaxial axis in the embryo as well as in controlling SAM activity. PMID:23578926

  17. ZIP4 Regulates Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth by Activating IL-6/STAT3 Pathway via Zinc Finger Transcription Factor CREB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqing; Bharadwaj, Uddalak; Logsdon, Craig D.; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi; Li, Min

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies indicate a strong correlation of zinc transporter ZIP4 and pancreatic cancer progression; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We have recently found that ZIP4 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathway through which ZIP4 regulates pancreatic cancer growth. Experimental Design The expression of cyclin D1, IL-6, and STAT3 in pancreatic cancer xenografts and cells were examined by real time PCR, Bio-Plex cytokine assay, and Western blot, respectively. The activity of CREB is examined by a promoter activity assay. Results Cyclin D1 was significantly increased in the ZIP4 overexpressing MIA PaCa-2 cells (MIA-ZIP4)-injected orthotopic xenografts and was downregulated in the ZIP4 silenced ASPC-1 (ASPC-shZIP4) group. The phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), an upstream activator of cyclin D1, was increased in MIA-ZIP4 cells, and decreased in ASPC-shZIP4 cells. IL-6, a known upstream activator for STAT3, was also found to be significantly increased in the MIA-ZIP4 cells and xenografts, and decreased in the ASPC-shZIP4 group. Overexpression of ZIP4 led to a 75% increase of IL-6 promoter activity, and caused increased phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Conclusions Our study suggest that ZIP4 overexpression causes increased IL-6 transcription via CREB, which in turn activates STAT3, and leads to increased cyclin D1 expression, resulting in increased cell proliferation and tumor progression in pancreatic cancer. These results elucidated a novel pathway in ZIP4-mediated pancreatic cancer growth, and suggest new therapeutic targets including ZIP4, IL-6, and STAT3 in pancreatic cancer treatment. PMID:20160059

  18. Genome-wide characterization and analysis of bZIP transcription factor gene family related to abiotic stress in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Yang, Hubiao; Yan, Yan; Wei, Yunxie; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Zuo, Jiao; Peng, Ming; Li, Kaimian

    2016-01-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor family plays crucial roles in various aspects of biological processes. Currently, no information is available regarding the bZIP family in the important tropical crop cassava. Herein, 77 bZIP genes were identified from cassava. Evolutionary analysis indicated that MebZIPs could be divided into 10 subfamilies, which was further supported by conserved motif and gene structure analyses. Global expression analysis suggested that MebZIPs showed similar or distinct expression patterns in different tissues between cultivated variety and wild subspecies. Transcriptome analysis of three cassava genotypes revealed that many MebZIP genes were activated by drought in the root of W14 subspecies, indicating the involvement of these genes in the strong resistance of cassava to drought. Expression analysis of selected MebZIP genes in response to osmotic, salt, cold, ABA, and H2O2 suggested that they might participate in distinct signaling pathways. Our systematic analysis of MebZIPs reveals constitutive, tissue-specific and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MebZIP genes for further functional characterization in planta, yields new insights into transcriptional regulation of MebZIP genes, and lays a foundation for understanding of bZIP-mediated abiotic stress response. PMID:26947924

  19. Evaluation of the L5178Y mouse lymphoma cell mutagenesis assay: intralaboratory results for sixty-three coded chemicals tested at Litton Bionetics, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhr, B C; Caspary, W J

    1988-01-01

    The reliability of the L5178Y TK+/- forward mutation assay as a rapid screen for genotoxicity was evaluated by testing 63 coded chemicals. Replicate treatments were used, and at least two independent experiments were performed for each test condition. The test conditions consisted of no exogenous activation, activation by Aroclor 1254-induced Fischer 344 rat liver S9 homogenate, and in some cases activation by noninduced Fischer 344 rat liver S9. The results were organized into tables that show the mutant colony counts, mutant frequency, and toxicity for each test chemical treatment, positive control treatment, and solvent negative control cultures. The repeat experiments were highly consistent and yielded contradictory evaluations for only a few of the chemicals studied. Fifty-one of the chemicals (81%) were evaluated as mutagenic under one or both of the test conditions. A range in minimum effective concentrations of almost 10(6)-fold (0.008 to 5,000 micrograms/ml) was observed among the mutagenic chemicals. Nine chemicals (14%) were considered to be nonmutagenic. Three chemicals (progesterone, p-rosaniline HCl, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane) gave responses that were not easily evaluated under any test condition: evidence for mutagenesis was obtained in some experiments but not for all repeat studies. Under nonactivation conditions, specifically, the mutagenic activities of 4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)benzophenone, progesterone, and p-rosaniline HCl remained uncertain. With S9 activation, uncertain evidence for mutagenesis was obtained for 2-naphthylamine, progesterone, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. In some cases, changes in the treatment conditions could lead to different evaluations of the mutagenic activity, and these possibilities are discussed in the descriptive evaluations of each chemical. Comparisons of the observed responses with published results were possible for 29 of the compounds and yielded highly confirmatory evaluations. PMID:3416838

  20. Effects of superglue fuming on materials characterization of zip-lock polyethylene bags for route forensic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using cyanoacrylate or 'superglue' fuming to develop latent dermatoglyphic prints significantly altered the volatile and semivolatile compounds within the material of polyethylene zip-lock bags. Comparisons of SPME-GC/MS analyses of poly bags obtained before and after application of a glue fuming fingermark-developing technique resulted in markedly different material profiles of the bags. Not only were species added to the chemical composition of a bag, but other compounds that had been initially present were removed. These effects are particularly important for nuclear forensic investigations in the realm of route (pathway) analyses, and may also be of general interest to criminalistics laboratories that examine illicit drugs and their packaging. (author)

  1. BAR-CODE BASED WEIGHT MEASUREMENT STATION FOR PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTAINERS AT THE MINING AND CHEMICAL COMBINE RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING PLANT NEAR KRASNOYARSK, SIBERIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the technical tasks being implemented to computerize the physical inventory taking (PIT) at the Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK) radiochemical plant under the US/Russian cooperative nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program. Under the MPC and A program, Lab-to-Lab task agreements with GKhK were negotiated that involved computerized equipment for item verification and confirmatory measurement of the Pu containers. Tasks under Phase I cover the work for demonstrating the plan and procedures for carrying out the comparison of the Pu container identification on the container with the computerized inventory records. In addition to the records validation, the verification procedures include the application of bar codes and bar coded TIDs to the Pu containers. Phase II involves the verification of the Pu content. A plan and procedures are being written for carrying out confirmatory measurements on the Pu containers

  2. Zinc transporter ZIP14 functions in hepatic zinc, iron and glucose homeostasis during the innate immune response (endotoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolunay Beker Aydemir

    Full Text Available ZIP14 (slc39A14 is a zinc transporter induced in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. ZIP14 induction accompanies the reduction in serum zinc (hypozincemia of acute inflammation. ZIP14 can transport Zn(2+ and non-transferrin-bound Fe(2+ in vitro. Using a Zip14(-/- mouse model we demonstrated that ZIP14 was essential for control of phosphatase PTP1B activity and phosphorylation of c-Met during liver regeneration. In the current studies, a global screening of ZIP transporter gene expression in response to LPS-induced endotoxemia was conducted. Following LPS, Zip14 was the most highly up-regulated Zip transcript in liver, but also in white adipose tissue and muscle. Using ZIP14(-/- mice we show that ZIP14 contributes to zinc absorption from the gastrointestinal tract directly or indirectly as zinc absorption was decreased in the KOs. In contrast, Zip14(-/- mice absorbed more iron. The Zip14 KO mice did not exhibit hypozincemia following LPS, but do have hypoferremia. Livers of Zip14-/- mice had increased transcript abundance for hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1, ferritin and transferrin receptor-1 and greater accumulation of iron. The Zip14(-/- phenotype included greater body fat, hypoglycemia and higher insulin levels, as well as increased liver glucose and greater phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and increased GLUT2, SREBP-1c and FASN expression. The Zip14 KO mice exhibited decreased circulating IL-6 with increased hepatic SOCS-3 following LPS, suggesting SOCS-3 inhibited insulin signaling which produced the hypoglycemia in this genotype. The results are consistent with ZIP14 ablation yielding abnormal labile zinc pools which lead to increased SOCS-3 production through G-coupled receptor activation and increased cAMP production as well as signaled by increased pSTAT3 via the IL-6 receptor, which inhibits IRS 1/2 phosphorylation. Our data show the role of ZIP14 in the hepatocyte is multi-functional since zinc and iron trafficking are

  3. Zinc Transporter ZIP14 Functions in Hepatic Zinc, Iron and Glucose Homeostasis during the Innate Immune Response (Endotoxemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beker Aydemir, Tolunay; Chang, Shou-Mei; Guthrie, Gregory J.; Maki, Alyssa B.; Ryu, Moon-Suhn; Karabiyik, Afife; Cousins, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    ZIP14 (slc39A14) is a zinc transporter induced in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. ZIP14 induction accompanies the reduction in serum zinc (hypozincemia) of acute inflammation. ZIP14 can transport Zn2+ and non-transferrin-bound Fe2+ in vitro. Using a Zip14−/− mouse model we demonstrated that ZIP14 was essential for control of phosphatase PTP1B activity and phosphorylation of c-Met during liver regeneration. In the current studies, a global screening of ZIP transporter gene expression in response to LPS-induced endotoxemia was conducted. Following LPS, Zip14 was the most highly up-regulated Zip transcript in liver, but also in white adipose tissue and muscle. Using ZIP14−/− mice we show that ZIP14 contributes to zinc absorption from the gastrointestinal tract directly or indirectly as zinc absorption was decreased in the KOs. In contrast, Zip14−/− mice absorbed more iron. The Zip14 KO mice did not exhibit hypozincemia following LPS, but do have hypoferremia. Livers of Zip14−/− mice had increased transcript abundance for hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1, ferritin and transferrin receptor-1 and greater accumulation of iron. The Zip14−/− phenotype included greater body fat, hypoglycemia and higher insulin levels, as well as increased liver glucose and greater phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and increased GLUT2, SREBP-1c and FASN expression. The Zip14 KO mice exhibited decreased circulating IL-6 with increased hepatic SOCS-3 following LPS, suggesting SOCS-3 inhibited insulin signaling which produced the hypoglycemia in this genotype. The results are consistent with ZIP14 ablation yielding abnormal labile zinc pools which lead to increased SOCS-3 production through G-coupled receptor activation and increased cAMP production as well as signaled by increased pSTAT3 via the IL-6 receptor, which inhibits IRS 1/2 phosphorylation. Our data show the role of ZIP14 in the hepatocyte is multi-functional since zinc and iron trafficking are

  4. The zinc transporter ZIP12 regulates the pulmonary vascular response to chronic hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lan; Oliver, Eduardo; Maratou, Klio; Atanur, Santosh S; Dubois, Olivier D; Cotroneo, Emanuele; Chen, Chien-Nien; Wang, Lei; Arce, Cristina; Chabosseau, Pauline L; Ponsa-Cobas, Joan; Frid, Maria G; Moyon, Benjamin; Webster, Zoe; Aldashev, Almaz; Ferrer, Jorge; Rutter, Guy A; Stenmark, Kurt R; Aitman, Timothy J; Wilkins, Martin R

    2015-08-20

    The typical response of the adult mammalian pulmonary circulation to a low oxygen environment is vasoconstriction and structural remodelling of pulmonary arterioles, leading to chronic elevation of pulmonary artery pressure (pulmonary hypertension) and right ventricular hypertrophy. Some mammals, however, exhibit genetic resistance to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. We used a congenic breeding program and comparative genomics to exploit this variation in the rat and identified the gene Slc39a12 as a major regulator of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodelling. Slc39a12 encodes the zinc transporter ZIP12. Here we report that ZIP12 expression is increased in many cell types, including endothelial, smooth muscle and interstitial cells, in the remodelled pulmonary arterioles of rats, cows and humans susceptible to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. We show that ZIP12 expression in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells is hypoxia dependent and that targeted inhibition of ZIP12 inhibits the rise in intracellular labile zinc in hypoxia-exposed pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells and their proliferation in culture. We demonstrate that genetic disruption of ZIP12 expression attenuates the development of pulmonary hypertension in rats housed in a hypoxic atmosphere. This new and unexpected insight into the fundamental role of a zinc transporter in mammalian pulmonary vascular homeostasis suggests a new drug target for the pharmacological management of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26258299

  5. ZipA binds to FtsZ with high affinity and enhances the stability of FtsZ protofilaments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Kuchibhatla

    Full Text Available A bacterial membrane protein ZipA that tethers FtsZ to the membrane is known to promote FtsZ assembly. In this study, the binding of ZipA to FtsZ was monitored using fluorescence spectroscopy. ZipA was found to bind to FtsZ with high affinities at three different (6.0, 6.8 and 8.0 pHs, albeit the binding affinity decreased with increasing pH. Further, thick bundles of FtsZ protofilaments were observed in the presence of ZipA under the pH conditions used in this study indicating that ZipA can promote FtsZ assembly and stabilize FtsZ polymers under unfavorable conditions. Bis-ANS, a hydrophobic probe, decreased the interaction of FtsZ and ZipA indicating that the interaction between FtsZ and ZipA is hydrophobic in nature. ZipA prevented the dilution induced disassembly of FtsZ polymers suggesting that it stabilizes FtsZ protofilaments. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled ZipA was found to be uniformly distributed along the length of the FtsZ protofilaments indicating that ZipA stabilizes FtsZ protofilaments by cross-linking them.

  6. Feedback Regulation of ABA Signaling and Biosynthesis by a bZIP Transcription Factor Targets Drought-Resistance-Related Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Wei; Tang, Ning; Yang, Jun; Peng, Lei; Ma, Siqi; Xu, Yan; Li, Guoliang; Xiong, Lizhong

    2016-08-01

    The OsbZIP23 transcription factor has been characterized for its essential role in drought resistance in rice (Oryza sativa), but the mechanism is unknown. In this study, we first investigated the transcriptional activation of OsbZIP23. A homolog of SnRK2 protein kinase (SAPK2) was found to interact with and phosphorylate OsbZIP23 for its transcriptional activation. SAPK2 also interacted with OsPP2C49, an ABI1 homolog, which deactivated the SAPK2 to inhibit the transcriptional activation activity of OsbZIP23. Next, we performed genome-wide identification of OsbZIP23 targets by immunoprecipitation sequencing and RNA sequencing analyses in the OsbZIP23-overexpression, osbzip23 mutant, and wild-type rice under normal and drought stress conditions. OsbZIP23 directly regulates a large number of reported genes that function in stress response, hormone signaling, and developmental processes. Among these targets, we found that OsbZIP23 could positively regulate OsPP2C49, and overexpression of OsPP2C49 in rice resulted in significantly decreased sensitivity of the abscisic acid (ABA) response and rapid dehydration. Moreover, OsNCED4 (9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase4), a key gene in ABA biosynthesis, was also positively regulated by OsbZIP23. Together, our results suggest that OsbZIP23 acts as a central regulator in ABA signaling and biosynthesis, and drought resistance in rice. PMID:27325665

  7. Slc39a7/zip7 plays a critical role in development and zinc homeostasis in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Slc39a7/Zip7, also known as Ke4, is a member of solute carrier family 39 (Slc39a and plays a critical role in regulating cell growth and death. Because the function of Zip7 in vivo was unclear, the present study investigated the function of zip7 in vertebrate development and zinc metabolism using zebrafish as a model organism. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using real-time PCR to determine the gene expression pattern of zip7 during zebrafish development, we found that zip7 mRNA is expressed throughout embryonic development and into maturity. Interestingly, whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that while zip7 mRNA is ubiquitously expressed until 12 hours post-fertilization (hpf; at 24 hpf and beyond, zip7 mRNA was specifically detected only in eyes. Morpholino-antisense (MO gene knockdown assay revealed that downregulation of zip7 expression resulted in several morphological defects in zebrafish including decreased head size, smaller eyes, shorter palates, and shorter and curved spinal cords. Analysis by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF showed reduced concentrations of zinc in brain, eyes, and gills of zip7-MO-injected embryos. Furthermore, incubation of the zip7 knockdown embryos in a zinc-supplemented solution was able to rescue the MO-induced morphological defects. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that zip7 is required for eye, brain, and skeleton formation during early embryonic development in zebrafish. Moreover, zinc supplementation can partially rescue defects resulting from zip7 gene knockdown. Taken together, our data provide critical insight into a novel function of zip7 in development and zinc homeostasis in vivo in zebrafish.

  8. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  9. A modified detector concept for SuperCDMS: The HiZIP and its charge performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Kedar Mohan [Queen' s U.

    2013-01-01

    SuperCDMS (Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search) is a leading direct dark mat-ter search experiment which uses solid state detectors (Ge crystals) at milliKelvintemperatures to look for nuclear recoils caused by dark matter interactions in the de-tector. `Weakly Interacting Massive Particles' (WIMPs) are the most favoured darkmatter candidate particles. SuperCDMS, like many other direct dark matter searchexperiments, primarily looks for WIMPs. The measurement of both the ionizationand the lattice vibration (phonon) signals from an interaction in the detector allow itto discriminate against electron recoils which are the main source of background forWIMP detection.SuperCDMS currently operates about 9 kg of Ge detectors at the Soudan under-ground lab in northern Minnesota. In its next phase, SuperCDMS SNOLAB plansto use 100-200 kg of target mass (Ge) which would allow it to probe more of theinteresting and and as of yet unexplored parameter space for WIMPs predicted bytheoretical models. The SuperCDMS Queen's Test Facility is a detector test facilitywhich is intended to serve as detector testing and detector research and developmentpurposes for the SuperCDMS experiment.A modifed detector called the HiZIP (Half-iZIP), which is reduced in complex-ity in comparison to the currently used iZIP (interleaved Z-sensitive Ionization and Phonon mediated) detectors, is studied in this thesis. The HiZIP detector designalso serves to discriminate against background from multiple scatter events occurringclose to the surfaces in a single detector. Studies carried out to compare the surfaceevent leakage in the HiZIP detector using limited information from iZIP data takenat SuperCDMS test facility at UC Berkley produce a highly conservative upper limitof 5 out of 10,000 events at 90% condence level. This upper limit is the best amongmany different HiZIP congurations that were investigated and is comparable to theupper limit calculated for an HiZIP detector in the same way

  10. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of bZIP Transcription Factors in Brassica oleracea under Cold Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Indeok; Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Kang, Jong-Goo; Chung, Mi-Young; Kim, Young-Wook; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Cabbages (Brassica oleracea L.) are an important vegetable crop around world, and cold temperature is among the most significant abiotic stresses causing agricultural losses, especially in cabbage crops. Plant bZIP transcription factors play diverse roles in biotic/abiotic stress responses. In this study, 119 putative BolbZIP transcription factors were identified using amino acid sequences from several bZIP domain consensus sequences. The BolbZIP members were classified into 63 categories based on amino acid sequence similarity and were also compared with BrbZIP and AtbZIP transcription factors. Based on this BolbZIP identification and classification, cold stress-responsive BolbZIP genes were screened in inbred lines, BN106 and BN107, using RNA sequencing data and qRT-PCR. The expression level of the 3 genes, Bol008071, Bol033132, and Bol042729, was significantly increased in BN107 under cold conditions and was unchanged in BN106. The upregulation of these genes in BN107, a cold-susceptible inbred line, suggests that they might be significant components in the cold response. Among three identified genes, Bol033132 has 97% sequence similarity to Bra020735, which was identified in a screen for cold-related genes in B. rapa and a protein containing N-rich regions in LCRs. The results obtained in this study provide valuable information for understanding the potential function of BolbZIP transcription factors in cold stress responses. PMID:27314020

  11. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiong, Jingwen; Mcdonald, Glenn K.; Genc, Yusuf;

    2014-01-01

    were also generated to further understand the functions of HvZIP7 in metal transport. HvZIP7 is strongly induced by Zn deficiency, primarily in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, and its protein was localized in the plasma membrane. These properties are similar to its closely related homologs in...... dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays...

  12. ZmbZIP60 mRNA is spliced in maize in response to ER stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yanjie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse environmental conditions produce ER stress and elicit the unfolded protein response (UPR in plants. Plants are reported to have two "arms" of the ER stress signaling pathway-one arm involving membrane-bound transcription factors and the other involving a membrane-associated RNA splicing factor, IRE1. IRE1 in yeast to mammals recognizes a conserved twin loop structure in the target RNA. Results A segment of the mRNA encoding ZmbZIP60 in maize can be folded into a twin loop structure, and in response to ER stress this mRNA is spliced, excising a 20b intron. Splicing converts the predicted protein from a membrane-associated transcription factor to one that is targeted to the nucleus. Splicing of ZmbZIP60 can be elicited in maize seedlings by ER stress agents such as dithiothreitol (DTT or tunicamycin (TM or by heat treatment. Younger, rather than older seedlings display a more robust splicing response as do younger parts of leaf, along a developmental gradient in a leaf. The molecular signature of an ER stress response in plants includes the upregulation of Binding Protein (BIP genes. Maize has numerous BIP-like genes, and ER stress was found to upregulate one of these, ZmBIPb. Conclusions The splicing of ZmbZIP60 mRNA is an indicator of ER stress in maize seedlings resulting from adverse environmental conditions such as heat stress. ZmbZIP60 mRNA splicing in maize leads predictively to the formation of active bZIP transcription factor targeted to the nucleus to upregulate stress response genes. Among the genes upregulated by ER stress in maize is one of 22 BIP-like genes, ZmBIPb.

  13. Molecular evolution and gene expression differences within the HD-Zip transcription factor family of Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hude; Yu, Lijuan; Li, Zhanjie; Liu, Hui; Han, Ran

    2016-04-01

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors regulate developmental processes and stress responses in plants, and they vary widely in gene number and family structure. In this study, 55 predicted maize HD-Zip genes were systematically analyzed with respect to their phylogenetic relationships, molecular evolution, and gene expression in order to understand the functional diversification within the family. Phylogenetic analysis of HD-Zip proteins from Zea mays, Oryza sativa, Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, and Physcomitrella patens showed that they group into four classes. We inferred that the copy numbers of classes I and III genes were relatively conserved in all five species. The 55 maize HD-Zip genes are distributed randomly on the ten chromosomes, with 15 segmental duplication and 4 tandem duplication events, suggesting that segmental duplications were the major contributors in the expansion of the maize HD-Zip gene family. Expression analysis of the 55 maize HD-Zip genes in different tissues and drought conditions revealed differences in the expression levels and patterns between the four classes. Promoter analysis revealed that a number of stress response-, hormone response-, light response-, and development-related cis-acting elements were present in their promoters. Our results provide novel insights into the molecular evolution and gene expression within the HD-Zip gene family in maize, and provide a solid foundation for future functional study of the HD-Zip genes in maize. PMID:26979310

  14. Zip it!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Crystal

    2012-07-01

    When it comes to enforcing HIPAA data security and privacy standards, the federal government means business. In fact, the government is conducting a national pilot program to audit 150 physicians and others that HIPAA covers as the first phase of a concerted effort to crack down on HIPAA violations. PMID:22777862

  15. The Zinc Transporter Zip14 Influences c-Met Phosphorylation and Hepatocyte Proliferation During Liver Regeneration in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    AYDEMIR, TOLUNAY BEKER; SITREN, HARRY S.; COUSINS, ROBERT J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Zinc homeostasis in cells is maintained through tight regulation of zinc influx, efflux, and distribution to intracellular organelles by zinc transporters. The Zrt-Irt-like protein (ZIP) transporters facilitate zinc influx to the cytosol. Expression of the ZIP family member Zip14 can be induced by inflammatory cytokines, which also initiate liver regeneration. Hepatocyte proliferation is required for liver regeneration. Zinc regulates cell proliferation, tissue growth, and many mitogenic signaling pathways; we investigated its role in hepatocytes. METHODS Wild-type and Zip14−/− mice that underwent partial hepatectomy (70% of liver removed) were used as models of liver regeneration. We also analyzed AML12 hepatocytes that overexpressed Zip14. Proliferation was assessed with proliferating cell nuclear antigen, CD1, and Ki67 markers and along with assays of zinc content was related to protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2 signaling. RESULTS Zip14 was up-regulated and hepatic zinc content increased during liver regeneration. Increased hepatic zinc inhibited activity of the phosphatase PTP1B and increased phosphorylation of c-Met, which promoted hepatocyte proliferation. AML12 cells that overexpressed Zip14 increased in zinc content and proliferation; PTP1B was inhibited and phosphorylation of c-Met increased. The increases in hepatic levels of zinc and hepatocyte proliferation that occurred following partial hepatectomy were not observed in Zip14−/− mice. CONCLUSIONS The transporter Zip14 mediates hepatic uptake of zinc during liver regeneration and for hepatocyte proliferation. These findings indicate that zinc transporter activity regulates liver tissue growth by sequestering zinc. Reagents that regulate ZIP14 activity might be developed as therapeutics to promote liver regeneration in patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:22374166

  16. Zinc fortification decreases ZIP1 gene expression of some adolescent females with appropriate plasma zinc levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Rosa O; Santiago, Alejandra; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; de la Barca, Ana M Calderón; García, Hugo S

    2014-06-01

    Zinc homeostasis is achieved after intake variation by changes in the expression levels of zinc transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary intake (by 24-h recall), absorption, plasma zinc (by absorption spectrophotometry) and the expression levels (by quantitative PCR), of the transporters ZIP1 (zinc importer) and ZnT1 (zinc exporter) in peripheral white blood cells from 24 adolescent girls before and after drinking zinc-fortified milk for 27 day. Zinc intake increased (p 0.05) near 150 µg/dL, but increased by 31 µg/dL (p 0.05) the plasma level of adolescent girls but for 6/24 participants from group A in spite of the formerly appropriation, which cellular zinc uptake decreased as assessed by reduction of the expression of ZIP1. PMID:24922175

  17. Rice bZIP protein, REB, interacts with GCN4 motif in promoter of Waxy gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG; Shijun; (程世军); WANG; Zongyang(王宗阳); HONG; Mengmin(洪孟民)

    2002-01-01

    A bifactorial endosperm box (EB), which contains an endosperm motif (EM) and a GCN4 motif, was found in rice Wx promoter. EB was found in 5′ upstream region of many seed storage protein genes accounting for these genes expression exclusive in endosperm among various cereals. Many reports demonstrated that the bZIP transcription activators isolated from wheat, barley and maize, etc. regulate the gene expression through binding to the GCN4 motif. In this research, we showed that GCN4 sequence could be recognized by nuclear proteins extracted from immature rice seeds. Furthermore, a rice bZIP protein, REB was isolated by using PCR method and REB fusion protein was expressed in E. coli. The results of gel shift analysis showed that REB could recognize and bind to the GCN4 motif in the Wx gene in addition to binding to the target sequence in the promoter of α-globulin.

  18. Zipping and Entanglement in Flagellar Bundle of E. Coli: Role of Motile Cell Body

    CERN Document Server

    Adhyapak, Tapan Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The course of a peritrichous bacterium such as E. coli crucially depends on the level of synchronization and self-organization of several rotating flagella. However, the rotation of each flagellum generates counter body movements which in turn affect the flagellar dynamics. Using a detailed numerical model of an E. coli, we demonstrate that flagellar entanglement, besides fluid flow relative to the moving body, dramatically changes the dynamics of flagella from that compared to anchored flagella. In particular, bundle formation occurs through a zipping motion in a remarkably rapid time, affected little by initial flagellar orientation. A simplified analytical model supports our observations. Finally, we illustrate how entanglement, hydrodynamic interactions, and body movement contribute to zipping and bundling.

  19. Capsella rubella TGA4, a bZIP transcription factor, causes delayed flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Li Maofu; Wang Hua; Yang Yuan; Jin Wanmei

    2016-01-01

    Flowering time is usually regulated by many environmental factors and endogenous signals. TGA family members are bZIP transcription factors that bind to the octopine synthase element, which has been closely linked to defense/stress responses. Most TGA factors interact with non-expressor of PR1 (NPR1) and plant defense responses are strengthened by this interaction. TGA1and TGA4factors bind to NPR1 only in salicylic acid (SA)-induced leaves, suggesting that ...

  20. The loss of circadian PAR bZip transcription factors results in epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Gachon F.; Fonjallaz P.; Damiola F; Gos P.; Kodama T.; Zakany J.; Duboule D.; Petit B.; Tafti M.; Schibler U.

    2004-01-01

    DBP (albumin D-site-binding protein), HLF (hepatic leukemia factor), and TEF (thyrotroph embryonic factor) are the three members of the PAR bZip (proline and acidic amino acid-rich basic leucine zipper) transcription factor family. All three of these transcriptional regulatory proteins accumulate with robust circadian rhythms in tissues with high amplitudes of clock gene expression, such as the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the liver. However, they are expressed at nearly invariable level...

  1. Aberrant expression of zinc transporter ZIP4 (SLC39A4) significantly contributes to human pancreatic cancer pathogenesis and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Yuqing; Liu, Zijuan; Bharadwaj, Uddalak; Wang, Hao; Wang, Xinwen; Zhang, Sheng; Liuzzi, Juan P; Chang, Shou-Mei; Cousins, Robert J; Fisher, William E; Brunicardi, F Charles; Logsdon, Craig D; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi

    2007-11-20

    Zinc is an essential trace element and catalytic/structural component used by many metalloenzymes and transcription factors. Recent studies indicate a possible correlation of zinc levels with the cancer risk; however, the exact role of zinc and zinc transporters in cancer progression is unknown. We have observed that a zinc transporter, ZIP4 (SLC39A4), was substantially overexpressed in 16 of 17 (94%) clinical pancreatic adenocarcinoma specimens compared with the surrounding normal tissues, and ZIP4 mRNA expression was significantly higher in human pancreatic cancer cells than human pancreatic ductal epithelium (HPDE) cells. This indicates that aberrant ZIP4 up-regulation may contribute to the pancreatic cancer pathogenesis and progression. We studied the effects of ZIP4 overexpression in pancreatic cancer cell proliferation in vitro and pancreatic cancer progression in vivo. We found that forced expression of ZIP4 increased intracellular zinc levels, increased cell proliferation by 2-fold in vitro, and significantly increased tumor volume by 13-fold in the nude mice model with s.c. xenograft compared with the control cells. In the orthotopic nude mice model, overexpression of ZIP4 not only increased the primary tumor weight (7.2-fold), it also increased the peritoneal dissemination and ascites incidence. Moreover, increased cell proliferation and higher zinc content were also observed in the tumor tissues that overexpressed ZIP4. These data reveal an important outcome of aberrant ZIP4 expression in contributing to pancreatic cancer pathogenesis and progression. It may suggest a therapeutic strategy whereby ZIP4 is targeted to control pancreatic cancer growth. PMID:18003899

  2. The Elucidation of the Interactome of 16 Arabidopsis bZIP Factors Reveals Three Independent Functional Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Carles Marco; Berendzen, Kenneth Wayne; Malik, Waqas Ahmed; Mahn, Stefan; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Zentgraf, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    The function of the bZIP transcription factors is strictly dependent on their ability to dimerize. Heterodimerization has proven to be highly specific and is postulated to operate as a combinatorial mechanism allowing the generation of a large variety of dimers with unique qualities by specifically combining a small set of monomers; an assumption that has not yet been tested systematically. Here, the interaction pattern and the transactivation properties of 16 Arabidopsis thaliana bZIPs are examined in transiently transformed Arabidopsis protoplasts to deliver a perspective on the relationship between bZIP dimerization and function. An interaction matrix of bZIPs belonging to the C, G, H, and S1 bZIP groups was resolved by Bimolecular Fluorescent Complementation (BiFC) coupled to quantitative flow cytometric analysis, while an extensive GUS reporter gene assay was carried out to determine the effect of different bZIP pairs on the expression of four different known bZIP-targeted promoters. Statistical data treatment and complementary bioinformatic analysis were performed to substantiate the biological findings. According to these results, the 16 bZIPs interact in three isolated networks, within which their members dimerize non-specifically and exhibit a significant level of functional redundancy. A coherent explanation for these results is supported by in silico analysis of differences in the length, structure and composition of their leucine zippers and appears to explain their dimerization specificity and dynamics observed in vivo quite well. A model in which the bZIP networks act as functional units is proposed. PMID:26452049

  3. An Aspergillus nidulans bZIP response pathway hardwired for defensive secondary metabolism operates through aflR

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Wenbing; Amaike, Saori; Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Wang, Clay C.; Bok, JinWoo; Rohlfs, Marko; Keller, Nancy P

    2012-01-01

    The eukaryotic bZIP transcription factors are critical players in organismal response to environmental challenges. In fungi, the production of secondary metabolites (SMs) is hypothesized as one of the responses to environmental insults, e.g. attack by fungivorous insects, yet little data to support this hypothesis exists. Here we establish a mechanism of bZIP regulation of SMs through RsmA, a recently discovered YAP-like bZIP protein. RsmA greatly increases SM production by binding to two sit...

  4. The Zinc Transporter Zip5 (Slc39a5) Regulates Intestinal Zinc Excretion and Protects the Pancreas against Zinc Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Geiser; Robert C De Lisle; Andrews, Glen K.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ZIP5 localizes to the baso-lateral membranes of intestinal enterocytes and pancreatic acinar cells and is internalized and degraded coordinately in these cell-types during periods of dietary zinc deficiency. These cell-types are thought to control zinc excretion from the body. The baso-lateral localization and zinc-regulation of ZIP5 in these cells are unique among the 14 members of the Slc39a family and suggest that ZIP5 plays a role in zinc excretion. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:...

  5. 2000 Census 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. 2000 Census 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. 2000 Census 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. 2000 Census 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  10. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  11. 2000 Census 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  13. 2000 Census 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Overexpression of ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 Enhances Iron and Zinc Accumulation in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzhen Li

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are important micronutrients for both the growth and nutrient availability of crop plants, and their absorption is tightly controlled by a metal uptake system. Zinc-regulated transporters, iron-regulated transporter-like proteins (ZIP, is considered an essential metal transporter for the acquisition of Fe and Zn in graminaceous plants. Several ZIPs have been identified in maize, although their physiological function remains unclear. In this report, ZmIRT1 was shown to be specifically expressed in silk and embryo, whereas ZmZIP3 was a leaf-specific gene. Both ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 were shown to be localized to the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ZmIRT1 or ZmZIP3 were generated, and the metal contents in various tissues of transgenic and wild-type plants were examined based on ICP-OES and Zinpyr-1 staining. The Fe and Zn concentration increased in roots and seeds of ZmIRT1-overexpressing plants, while the Fe content in shoots decreased. Overexpressing ZmZIP3 enhanced Zn accumulation in the roots of transgenic plants, while that in shoots was repressed. In addition, the transgenic plants showed altered tolerance to various Fe and Zn conditions compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, the genes associated with metal uptake were stimulated in ZmIRT1 transgenic plants, while those involved in intra- and inter- cellular translocation were suppressed. In conclusion, ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 are functional metal transporters with different ion selectivities. Ectopic overexpression of ZmIRT1 may stimulate endogenous Fe uptake mechanisms, which may facilitate metal uptake and homeostasis. Our results increase our understanding of the functions of ZIP family transporters in maize.

  16. Clinical coding. Code breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Steve

    2005-02-24

    --The advent of payment by results has seen the role of the clinical coder pushed to the fore in England. --Examinations for a clinical coding qualification began in 1999. In 2004, approximately 200 people took the qualification. --Trusts are attracting people to the role by offering training from scratch or through modern apprenticeships. PMID:15768716

  17. Overexpression of the transporters AtZIP1 and AtMTP1 in cassava changes zinc accumulation and partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eGaitan-Solis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Zinc deficiency in humans is a serious problem worldwide with an estimated one third of populations at risk for insufficient zinc in diet which leads to impairment of cognitive abilities and immune system function. The goal of this research was to increase the bioavailable zinc in the edible portion of cassava roots to improve the overall zinc nutrition of populations that rely on cassava as a dietary staple. To increase zinc concentrations, two A. thaliana genes coding for ZIP1 and MTP1 were overexpressed with a tuber-specific or constitutive promoter. Eighteen transgenic events from four constructs, out of a total of 73 events generated, showed significantly higher zinc concentrations in the edible portion of the storage root compared to the non-transgenic controls. The zinc content in the transgenic lines ranged from 4 - 73 mg/Kg Dry Weight (DW as compared to the non-transgenic control which contained 8 mg/Kg. Striking changes in whole plant phenotype such as smaller plant size and chlorotic leaves were observed in transgenic lines that over accumulated zinc. In a confined field trial five transgenic events grown for 12 months showed a range of zinc concentrations from 18 – 217 mg/Kg DW. Although the overexpression of zinc transporters was successful in increasing the zinc concentrations in 25% of the transgenic lines generated, it also resulted in a decrease in plant and tuber size and overall yield due to what appears to be zinc deficiency in the aerial parts of the plant.

  18. Permutation codes

    OpenAIRE

    Ericson, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Slepians permutation codes are investigated in detail. In particular we optimize the initial vector and derive all dominating codes in dimension n 2 6. With the exception of the simplex and biorthogonal codes - which are always included as special cases of permutation codes - there are probably no further good codes in higher dimensions.

  19. Physiological changes and expression characteristics of ZIP family genes under zinc deifciency in navel orange (Citrus sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Fei; FU Xing-zheng; WANG Nan-qi; XI Jian-long; HUANG Yi; ZHOU Wei; LING Li-li; PENG Liang-zhi

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deifciency is widespread among citrus plants, but information about the mechanisms for Zn deifciency response in these plants is scarce. In the present study, different navel orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) leaves with various yelowing levels were sampled in our experimental orchard, and upon estimation of nutrient contents, Zn deifciencies were diagnosed as mild, moderate, and severe. Further analysis of chlorophyl content, photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and expression levels ofZn/Iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) family genes were conducted in the sampled Zn-deifcient leaves. The results showed that chlorophyl contents and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) seemed to decrease with reduced Zn contents. In addition, comparison of severe Zn-deifcient and normal leaves revealed that activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) increased signiifcantly, whereas that of Zn-containing enzymes such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) signiifcantly reduced with decreasing Zn contents. As expected, expression of the ZIP family genes,ZIP1,ZIP3, andZIP4, was induced by Zn deifciencies. These results deepen our understanding of Zn deifciency in citrus plants as wel as provide useful preliminary information for further research.

  20. Gastric and Colonic Zinc Transporter ZIP11 (Slc39a11) in Mice Responds to Dietary Zinc and Exhibits Nuclear Localization123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alyssa B.; Aydemir, Tolunay Beker; Guthrie, Gregory J.; Samuelson, Don A.; Chang, Shou-Mei; Cousins, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc transporters have been characterized to further understand the absorption and metabolism of dietary zinc. Our goal was to characterize zinc transporter Slc39a11 (ZIP11) expression and its subcellular localization within cells of the murine gastrointestinal tract of mice and to determine if dietary zinc regulates ZIP11. The greatest ZIP11 expression was in the stomach, cecum, and colon. Both Zip11 mRNA and ZIP11 protein were shown to be downregulated during dietary zinc restriction (<1 mg Zn/kg) in the murine stomach tissue but were unaffected in the colon. Acute repletion with zinc did not restore Zip11 mRNA levels in the stomach. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed high ZIP11 levels in the lower regions of gastric glands and parietal cells of the stomach. IHC analysis of the colon showed a marked ZIP11 abundance within the cytoplasm of the colonic epithelial cells. IHC also showed an increase in ZIP11 expression in the colon during zinc restriction. There is a robust abundance of ZIP11 in the nuclei of cells of both stomach and colon. Our experiments suggest that when dietary zinc intake is compromised, the colon may increase zinc transporter expression to improve the efficiency for absorption via increased expression of specific zinc transporters, including ZIP11 and also zinc transporter Slc39a4. In conclusion, ZIP11 is highly expressed within the murine stomach and colon and appears to be partially regulated by dietary zinc intake within these tissues. ZIP11 may play a specialized role in zinc homeostasis within these tissues, helping to maintain mucosal integrity and function. PMID:24089422

  1. Dissection of the Zipping-and-Assembly Mechanism for Folding of Model Proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zipping-and-assembly mechanism (ZAM) is a new mechanism describing the kinetics of protein folding. To dissect the validity of this mechanism for various protein-like systems, a prediction test based on three-dimensional HP lattice models is carried out. It is found that only the native structures of a part of protein-like models could be predicted with a ZAM-based method. The detailed comparisons between the model proteins which are predicted or failed with the ZAM-based method suggest that the ZAM is likely to be applicable for the model proteins with the weak hydrophobicity, the low contact order for native conformations, and the large separation between the energies of native state and denatured states. These observations bring us more information about the protein-like systems for which the ZAM could be applied. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  2. Shoot meristem function and leaf polarity: the role of class III HD-ZIP genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Byrne

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The shoot apical meristem comprises an organized cluster of cells with a central region population of self-maintaining stem cells providing peripheral region cells that are recruited to form differentiated lateral organs. Leaves, the principal lateral organ of the shoot, develop as polar structures typically with distinct dorsoventrality. Interdependent interactions between the meristem and developing leaf provide essential cues that serve both to maintain the meristem and to pattern dorsoventrality in the initiating leaf. A key component of both processes are the class III HD-ZIP genes. Current findings are defining the developmental role of members of this family and are identifying multiple mechanisms controlling expression of these genes.

  3. 与可再封包装全球领袖Zip-Pak的近距离接触!——访Zip-Pak市场发展经理王弢女士%Close to the world's leader in resealable closure Zip-Pak-interview with Ms. Tracy Wang, Market Development Manager of Zip-Pak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培珍; 牛牧

    2009-01-01

    @@ 因为易携性和便利性等优点,拉链技术正在得到越来越广泛的应用.在确保每次使用都不泄漏的同时,拉链还同样具有很好气密性.Zip-Pak公司是一家专门从事拉链生产的专业公司,拥有200多项包装拉链方面的专利,经过长期的发展,目前已经成为全球可再封包装技术的领先企业.

  4. Using Virtual Field Trips to Connect Students with University Scientists: Core Elements and Evaluation of zipTrips™

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, Omolola A.; Hetzel, Kristin; Parker, Loran Carleton; Loizzo, Jamie; Burgess, Wilella D.; Paul Robinson, J.

    2012-10-01

    Physical field trips to scientists' work places have been shown to enhance student perceptions of science, scientists and science careers. Although virtual field trips (VFTs) have emerged as viable alternatives (or supplements) to traditional physical fieldtrips, little is known about the potential of virtual field trips to provide the same or similar science career exploration advantages as physical field trips. The overarching goal of this paper is to describe a VFT, zipTrips™, designed to provide middle school students, especially those in resource limited rural areas, with access to university scientists. Using zipTrips as a case example, the paper identifies and describes some of the core characteristics and elements of high quality authentic VFTs that foster student-scientist interactions. In addition, the paper uses program evaluation data to examine the impact of zipTrips on student perceptions of scientists.

  5. Major zircon megacryst suites of the Indo-Pacific lithospheric margin (ZIP) and their petrogenetic and regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Lin; Graham, Ian; Yaxley, Gregory; Armstrong, Richard; Giuliani, Gaston; Hoskin, Paul; Nechaev, Victor; Woodhead, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Zircon megacrysts (± gem corundum) appear in basalt fields of Indo-Pacific origin over a 12,000 km zone (ZIP) along West Pacific continental margins. Age-dating, trace element, oxygen and hafnium isotope studies on representative zircons (East Australia-Asia) indicate diverse magmatic sources. The U-Pb (249 to 1 Ma) and zircon fission track (ZFT) ages (65 to 1 Ma) suggest thermal annealing during later basalt transport, with migrating lithosphere. In contrast, East Asian-Russian ZIP sites reflect later basaltic magmatism (migrating lithosphere and slab subduction.

  6. Coupling of folding and DNA-binding in the bZIP domains of Jun-Fos heterodimeric transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldeen, Kenneth L; McDonald, Caleb B; Deegan, Brian J; Farooq, Amjad

    2008-05-01

    In response to mitogenic stimuli, the heterodimeric transcription factor Jun-Fos binds to the promoters of a diverse array of genes involved in critical cellular responses such as cell growth and proliferation, cell cycle regulation, embryogenic development and cancer. In so doing, Jun-Fos heterodimer regulates gene expression central to physiology and pathology of the cell in a specific and timely manner. Here, using the technique of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), we report detailed thermodynamics of the bZIP domains of Jun-Fos heterodimer to synthetic dsDNA oligos containing the TRE and CRE consensus promoter elements. Our data suggest that binding of the bZIP domains to both TRE and CRE is under enthalpic control and accompanied by entropic penalty at physiological temperatures. Although the bZIP domains bind to both TRE and CRE with very similar affinities, the enthalpic contributions to the free energy of binding to CRE are more favorable than TRE, while the entropic penalty to the free energy of binding to TRE is smaller than CRE. Despite such differences in their thermodynamic signatures, enthalpy and entropy of binding of the bZIP domains to both TRE and CRE are highly temperature-dependent and largely compensate each other resulting in negligible effect of temperature on the free energy of binding. From the plot of enthalpy change versus temperature, the magnitude of heat capacity change determined is much larger than that expected from the direct association of bZIP domains with DNA. This observation is interpreted to suggest that the basic regions in the bZIP domains are largely unstructured in the absence of DNA and only become structured upon interaction with DNA in a coupled folding and binding manner. Our new findings are rationalized in the context of 3D structural models of bZIP domains of Jun-Fos heterodimer in complex with dsDNA oligos containing the TRE and CRE consensus sequences. Taken together, our study demonstrates that enthalpy is

  7. Interleukin-6 regulates the zinc transporter Zip14 in liver and contributes to the hypozincemia of the acute-phase response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzi, Juan P.; Lichten, Louis A.; Rivera, Seth; Blanchard, Raymond K.; Aydemir, Tolunay Beker; Knutson, Mitchell D.; Ganz, Tomas; Cousins, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Infection and inflammation produce systemic responses that include hypozincemia and hypoferremia. The latter involves regulation of the iron transporter ferroportin 1 by hepcidin. The mechanism of reduced plasma zinc is not known. Transcripts of the two zinc transporter gene families (ZnT and Zip) were screened for regulation in mouse liver after turpentine-induced inflammation and LPS administration. Zip14 mRNA was the transporter transcript most up-regulated by inflammation and LPS. IL-6 knockout (IL-6–/–) mice did not exhibit either hypozincemia or the induction of Zip14 with turpentine inflammation. However, in IL-6–/– mice, LPS produced a milder hypozincemic response but no Zip14 induction. Northern analysis showed Zip14 up-regulation was specific for the liver, with one major transcript. Immunohistochemistry, using an antibody to an extracellular Zip14 epitope, showed both LPS and turpentine increased abundance of Zip14 at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes. IL-6 produced increased expression of Zip14 in primary hepatocytes cultures and localization of the protein to the plasma membrane. Transfection of mZip14 cDNA into human embryonic kidney cells increased zinc uptake as measured by both a fluorescent probe for free Zn2+ and 65Zn accumulation, as well as by metallothionein mRNA induction, all indicating that Zip14 functions as a zinc importer. Zip14 was localized in plasma membrane of the transfected cells. These in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrate that Zip14 expression is up-regulated through IL-6, and that this zinc transporter most likely plays a major role in the mechanism responsible for hypozincemia that accompanies the acute-phase response to inflammation and infection. PMID:15863613

  8. Genome-wide analyses of the bZIP family reveal their involvement in the development, ripening and abiotic stress response in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Wang, Lianzhe; Tie, Weiwei; Yan, Yan; Ding, Zehong; Liu, Juhua; Li, Meiying; Peng, Ming; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors play important roles in multiple biological processes. However, less information is available regarding the bZIP family in the important fruit crop banana. In this study, 121 bZIP transcription factor genes were identified in the banana genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MabZIPs were classified into 11 subfamilies. The majority of MabZIP genes in the same subfamily shared similar gene structures and conserved motifs. The comprehensive transcriptome analysis of two banana genotypes revealed the differential expression patterns of MabZIP genes in different organs, in various stages of fruit development and ripening, and in responses to abiotic stresses, including drought, cold, and salt. Interaction networks and co-expression assays showed that group A MabZIP-mediated networks participated in various stress signaling, which was strongly activated in Musa ABB Pisang Awak. This study provided new insights into the complicated transcriptional control of MabZIP genes and provided robust tissue-specific, development-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MabZIP genes for potential applications in the genetic improvement of banana cultivars. PMID:27445085

  9. Speech coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersho, Allen

    1990-05-01

    Recent advances in algorithms and techniques for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The advent of powerful single-ship signal processors has made it cost effective to implement these new and sophisticated speech coding algorithms for many important applications in voice communication and storage. Some of the main ideas underlying the algorithms of major interest today are reviewed. The concept of removing redundancy by linear prediction is reviewed, first in the context of predictive quantization or DPCM. Then linear predictive coding, adaptive predictive coding, and vector quantization are discussed. The concepts of excitation coding via analysis-by-synthesis, vector sum excitation codebooks, and adaptive postfiltering are explained. The main idea of vector excitation coding (VXC) or code excited linear prediction (CELP) are presented. Finally low-delay VXC coding and phonetic segmentation for VXC are described.

  10. code {poems}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishac Bertran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available "Exploring the potential of code to communicate at the level of poetry," the code­ {poems} project solicited submissions from code­writers in response to the notion of a poem, written in a software language which is semantically valid. These selections reveal the inner workings, constitutive elements, and styles of both a particular software and its authors.

  11. 76 FR 75939 - ZipGlobal Holdings, Inc., Symbollon Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Microholdings US, Inc., ComCam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ZipGlobal Holdings, Inc., Symbollon Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Microholdings US, Inc., ComCam... statements. 2. Symbollon Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (f/k/a Symbollon Corp.) is a Delaware corporation with...

  12. Arabidopsis IRE1 catalyses unconventional splicing of bZIP60 mRNA to produce the active transcription factor

    KAUST Repository

    Nagashima, Yukihiro

    2011-07-01

    IRE1 plays an essential role in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in yeast and mammals. We found that a double mutant of Arabidopsis IRE1A and IRE1B (ire1a/ire1b) is more sensitive to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin than the wild-type. Transcriptome analysis revealed that genes whose induction was reduced in ire1a/ire1b largely overlapped those in the bzip60 mutant. We observed that the active form of bZIP60 protein detected in the wild-type was missing in ire1a/ire1b. We further demonstrated that bZIP60 mRNA is spliced by ER stress, removing 23 ribonucleotides and therefore causing a frameshift that replaces the C-terminal region of bZIP60 including the transmembrane domain (TMD) with a shorter region without a TMD. This splicing was detected in ire1a and ire1b single mutants, but not in the ire1a/ire1b double mutant. We conclude that IRE1A and IRE1B catalyse unconventional splicing of bZIP60 mRNA to produce the active transcription factor.

  13. Systematic analysis of sequences and expression patterns of drought-responsive members of the HD-Zip gene family in maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Members of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip gene family encode transcription factors that are unique to plants and have diverse functions in plant growth and development such as various stress responses, organ formation and vascular development. Although systematic characterization of this family has been carried out in Arabidopsis and rice, little is known about HD-Zip genes in maize (Zea mays L.. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, we described the identification and structural characterization of HD-Zip genes in the maize genome. A complete set of 55 HD-Zip genes (Zmhdz1-55 were identified in the maize genome using Blast search tools and categorized into four classes (HD-Zip I-IV based on phylogeny. Chromosomal location of these genes revealed that they are distributed unevenly across all 10 chromosomes. Segmental duplication contributed largely to the expansion of the maize HD-ZIP gene family, while tandem duplication was only responsible for the amplification of the HD-Zip II genes. Furthermore, most of the maize HD-Zip I genes were found to contain an overabundance of stress-related cis-elements in their promoter sequences. The expression levels of the 17 HD-Zip I genes under drought stress were also investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. All of the 17 maize HD-ZIP I genes were found to be regulated by drought stress, and the duplicated genes within a sister pair exhibited the similar expression patterns, suggesting their conserved functions during the process of evolution. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal a comprehensive overview of the maize HD-Zip gene family and provide the first step towards the selection of Zmhdz genes for cloning and functional research to uncover their roles in maize growth and development.

  14. Divergence and Conservation of the Major UPR Branch IRE1-bZIP Signaling Pathway across Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingrui; Zhang, Changwei; Wang, Aiming

    2016-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is crucial to life by regulating the cellular response to the stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) imposed by abiotic and biotic cues such as heat shock and viral infection. The inositol requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) signaling pathway activated by the IRE1-mediated unconventional splicing of HAC1 in yeast, bZIP60 in plants and XBP1 in metazoans, is the most ancient branch of the UPR. In this study, we systematically examined yeast IRE1p-HAC1, plant IRE1A/IRE1B-bZIP60 and human hIRE1-XBP1 pairs. We found that, unlike bZIP60, XBP1 is unable to functionally swap HAC1p in yeast, and that the inter-species heterotypic interactions among HAC1p, bZIP60 and XBP1 are not permitted. These data demonstrate evolutionary divergence of the downstream signaling of IRE1-bZIP. We also discovered that the dual cytosolic domains of plant IRE1s act in vivo in a mechanism consistent with IRE1p and hIRE1, and that plant IRE1B not only interacts with IRE1p but also forms typical IRE1 dynamic foci in yeast. Thus, the upstream components of the IRE1 signaling branch including IRE1 activation and action mechanisms are highly conserved. Taken together these data advance the molecular understanding of evolutionary divergence and conservation of the IRE1 signaling pathway across kingdoms. PMID:27256815

  15. Model and code development for numerical experiments on the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical and chemical processes in the near-field of a high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expected processes in the near-field of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository after emplacement of engineered barrier system (EBS) are the coupled processes among radioactive decay heat from vitrified waste, infiltration of groundwater into buffer material, swelling pressure of buffer material due to saturation, and chemical reaction between EBS material and porewater. After the second progress report on research and development for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan (H12 report), Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute has initiated the model and code development for numerical experiments on the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes, in order to understand and predict the near-field long-term evolution. The focal point of this research is to predict (1) near-field chemistry for overpack corrosion and radionuclide migration; and (2) near-field long-term integrity by chemical degradation. This report presents the status and future activities on the model and code development for numerical experiments on the coupled THMC processes in the near-field of a HLW repository. (author)

  16. Monitoring structural changes in intrinsically disordered proteins using QCM-D: application to the bacterial cell division protein ZipA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Gil, Pablo; Tsortos, Achilleas; Vélez, Marisela; Gizeli, Electra

    2016-05-01

    The sensitivity of QCM-D to molecular hydrodynamic properties is applied in this work to study conformational changes of the intrinsically disordered protein ZipA. Acoustic measurements can clearly follow ZipA's unstructured domain expansion and contraction with salt content and be correlated with changes in the hydrodynamic radius of 1.8 nm or less. PMID:27109863

  17. Survey of source term codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The type, scope and role of current source term codes is reviewed. Issues and problems that are generic to most or all such codes are identified. These include numerical problems, fundamental physical and chemical databases, uncertainties in fuel degradation and thermal-hydraulics calculations, how to benchmark systems application codes against mechanistic codes and weaknesses in phenomenological modelling. It is concluded that further code development to address these issues is justified. This should be tightly coupled to experimental work within an internationally agreed framework. (Author)

  18. Responses of the L5178Y tk/sup +//tk/sup -/ mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay. II. 18 coded chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, D.B.; Brown, A.; Cattanach, P.; Edwards, I.; McBride, D.; Caspary, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Eighteen chemicals were tested for their mutagenic potential in the L5178Y tk/sup +///sup -/ mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay by the use of procedures based upon those described previously. Cultures were exposed to the chemicals for 4 hr, then cultured for 2 days before plating in soft agar with or without trifluorothymidine (TFT), 3 ..mu..g/ml. The chemicals were tested at least twice. Significant responses were obtained with benzofuran, benzyl chloride, bromodichloromethane, butylated hydroxytoluene, chlorendic acid, o-chlorobenzalmalonitrile, 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane, dimethyl formamide, dimethyl hydrogen phosphite, furfural, glutaraldehyde, hydroquinone, 8-hydroxyquinoline, and resorcinol. Apart from bromodichloromethane, butylated hydroxytoluene and dimethyl hydrogen phosphite, rat liver S9 mix was not a requirement for the activity of any of these compounds. Chemicals not identified as mutagens were water, tert-butyl alcohol, pyridine, and witch hazel.

  19. The lack of foundation in the mechanism on which are based the physico-chemical theories for the origin of the genetic code is counterposed to the credible and natural mechanism suggested by the coevolution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Massimo

    2016-06-21

    I analyze the mechanism on which are based the majority of theories that put to the center of the origin of the genetic code the physico-chemical properties of amino acids. As this mechanism is based on excessive mutational steps, I conclude that it could not have been operative or if operative it would not have allowed a full realization of predictions of these theories, because this mechanism contained, evidently, a high indeterminacy. I make that disapproving the four-column theory of the origin of the genetic code (Higgs, 2009) and reply to the criticism that was directed towards the coevolution theory of the origin of the genetic code. In this context, I suggest a new hypothesis that clarifies the mechanism by which the domains of codons of the precursor amino acids would have evolved, as predicted by the coevolution theory. This mechanism would have used particular elongation factors that would have constrained the evolution of all amino acids belonging to a given biosynthetic family to the progenitor pre-tRNA, that for first recognized, the first codons that evolved in a certain codon domain of a determined precursor amino acid. This happened because the elongation factors recognized two characteristics of the progenitor pre-tRNAs of precursor amino acids, which prevented the elongation factors from recognizing the pre-tRNAs belonging to biosynthetic families of different precursor amino acids. Finally, I analyze by means of Fisher's exact test, the distribution, within the genetic code, of the biosynthetic classes of amino acids and the ones of polarity values of amino acids. This analysis would seem to support the biosynthetic classes of amino acids over the ones of polarity values, as the main factor that led to the structuring of the genetic code, with the physico-chemical properties of amino acids playing only a subsidiary role in this evolution. As a whole, the full analysis brings to the conclusion that the coevolution theory of the origin of the

  20. Conservation of IRE1-Regulated bZIP74 mRNA Unconventional Splicing in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Involved in ER Stress Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun-Jie Lu; Zheng-Ting Yang; Ling Sun; Le Sun; Ze-Ting Song; Jian-Xiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a fundamental process in plant cells that is vulnerable to many environmental stresses.When unfolded or misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER,the well-conserved unfolded protein response (UPR) is initiated to mitigate the ER stress by enhancing the protein folding capability and/or accelerating the ER-associated protein degradation.Here,we report the conservation of the activation mechanism of OsbZIP74 (also known as OsbZIP50),an important ER stress regulator in monocot plant rice (Oryza sativa L.).Under normal conditions,OsbZIP74 mRNA encodes a basic leucine-zipper transcription factor with a putative transmembrane domain.When treating with ER stress-inducing agents such as tunicamycin and DTT,the conserved double stem-loop structures of OsbZIP74 mRNA are spliced out.Thereafter,the resulting new OsbZIP74 mRNA produces the nucleus-localized form of OsbZIP74 protein,eliminating the hydrophobic region.The activated form of OsbZIP74 has transcriptional activation activity in both yeast cells and Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts.The induction of OsbZIP74 splicing is much suppressed in the OsIRE1 knockdown rice plants,indicating the involvement of OsIRE1 in OsbZIP74 splicing.We also demonstrate that the unconventional splicing of OsbZIP74 mRNA is associated with heat stress and salicylic acid,which is an important plant hormone in systemic acquired resistance against pathogen or parasite.

  1. The bZIP Protein VIP1 Is Involved in Touch Responses in Arabidopsis Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugama, Daisuke; Liu, Shenkui; Takano, Tetsuo

    2016-06-01

    VIP1 is a bZIP transcription factor in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). VIP1 transiently accumulates in the nucleus when cells are exposed to hypoosmotic conditions, but its physiological relevance is unclear. This is possibly because Arabidopsis has approximately 10 close homologs of VIP1 and they function redundantly. To examine their physiological roles, transgenic plants overexpressing a repression domain-fused form of VIP1 (VIP1-SRDXox plants), in which the gene activation mediated by VIP1 is expected to be repressed, were generated. Because hypoosmotic stress can mimic mechanical stimuli (e.g. touch), the touch-induced root-waving phenotypes and gene expression patterns in those transgenic plants were examined. VIP1-SRDXox plants exhibited more severe root waving and lower expression of putative VIP1 target genes. The expression of the VIP1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein partially suppressed the VIP1-SRDX-induced increase in root waving when expressed in the VIP1-SRDXox plants. These results suggest that VIP1 can suppress the touch-induced root waving. The VIP1-SRDX-induced increase in root waving was also suppressed when the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid or the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, which is known to activate auxin biosynthesis, was present in the growth medium. Root cap cells with the auxin marker DR5rev::GFP were more abundant in the VIP1-SRDXox background than in the wild-type background. Auxin is transported via the root cap, and the conditions of outermost root cap layers were abnormal in VIP1-SRDXox plants. These results raise the possibility that VIP1 influences structures of the root cap and thereby regulates the local auxin responses in roots. PMID:27208231

  2. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  3. Code Cactus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This code handles the following problems: -1) Analysis of thermal experiments on a water loop at high or low pressure; steady state or transient behavior; -2) Analysis of thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of water-cooled and moderated reactors, at either high or low pressure, with boiling permitted; fuel elements are assumed to be flat plates: - Flowrate in parallel channels coupled or not by conduction across plates, with conditions of pressure drops or flowrate, variable or not with respect to time is given; the power can be coupled to reactor kinetics calculation or supplied by the code user. The code, containing a schematic representation of safety rod behavior, is a one dimensional, multi-channel code, and has as its complement (FLID), a one-channel, two-dimensional code. (authors)

  4. SnRK1-triggered switch of bZIP63 dimerization mediates the low-energy response in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Andrea; Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Wurzinger, Bernhard; Anrather, Dorothea; Simeunovic, Andrea; Weiste, Christoph; Valerio, Concetta; Dietrich, Katrin; Kirchler, Tobias; Nägele, Thomas; Vicente Carbajosa, Jesús; Hanson, Johannes; Baena-González, Elena; Chaban, Christina; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang; Teige, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic adjustment to changing environmental conditions, particularly balancing of growth and defense responses, is crucial for all organisms to survive. The evolutionary conserved AMPK/Snf1/SnRK1 kinases are well-known metabolic master regulators in the low-energy response in animals, yeast and plants. They act at two different levels: by modulating the activity of key metabolic enzymes, and by massive transcriptional reprogramming. While the first part is well established, the latter function is only partially understood in animals and not at all in plants. Here we identified the Arabidopsis transcription factor bZIP63 as key regulator of the starvation response and direct target of the SnRK1 kinase. Phosphorylation of bZIP63 by SnRK1 changed its dimerization preference, thereby affecting target gene expression and ultimately primary metabolism. A bzip63 knock-out mutant exhibited starvation-related phenotypes, which could be functionally complemented by wild type bZIP63, but not by a version harboring point mutations in the identified SnRK1 target sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05828.001 PMID:26263501

  5. Comparative study of dermal components and plasma TGF-β1 levels in Slc39a13/Zip13-KO mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Takuya; Ogura, Takayuki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Minaguchi, Jun; Yamauchi, Takeshi; Fukada, Toshiyuki; Koyama, Yoh-ichi; Takehana, Kazushige

    2015-11-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of disorders caused by abnormalities that are identified in the extracellular matrix. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a crucial role in formation of the extracellular matrix. It has been reported that the loss of function of zinc transporter ZRT/IRT-like protein 13 (ZIP13) causes the spondylocheiro dysplastic form of EDS (SCD-EDS: OMIM 612350), in which dysregulation of the TGF-β1 signaling pathway is observed, although the relationship between the dermis abnormalities and peripheral TGF-β1 level has been unclear. We investigated the characteristics of the dermis of the Zip13-knockout (KO) mouse, an animal model for SCD-EDS. Both the ratio of dermatan sulfate (DS) in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) components and the amount of collagen were decreased, and there were very few collagen fibrils with diameters of more than 150 nm in Zip13-KO mice dermis. We also found that the TGF-β1 level was significantly higher in Zip13-KO mice serum. These results suggest that collagen synthesis and collagen fibril fusion might be impaired in Zip13-KO mice and that the possible decrease of decorin level by reduction of the DS ratio probably caused an increase of free TGF-β1 in Zip13-KO mice. In conclusion, skin fragility due to defective ZIP13 protein may be attributable to impaired extracellular matrix synthesis accompanied by abnormal peripheral TGF-β homeostasis. PMID:26050750

  6. Magnetic resonance diagnosis of posterior horn tears of the lateral meniscus using a thin axial plane: the zip sign - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''zip'' sign is a newly described form of meniscal tear progressing from the distal insertion of menisco-femoral ligaments (MFLs) through the lateral meniscal wall; the tear occurs during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the zip sign on knee MRI within the context of ACL injuries. From a series of 261 MR examinations for acute knee injury, we selected 97 patients with both MR and arthroscopic data for a retrospective blinded review. The zip sign was defined on axial thin MR sections as a straight line from the distal insertion of MFLs in association with five sagittal images lateral to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) where the MFLs were identified. Sensitivity and specificity in detecting lateral meniscal tears before and after having defined the zip sign were calculated. Sensitivity in detecting the tears of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus (PHLM) reached 87.5% (CI 0.68-0.97) after zip sign criteria were defined. The zip sign has excellent inter-observer agreement, K > 0.90. The zip sign indicates a lesion at the insertion site of MFLs into the PHLM on thin axial images associated with sagittal MR sections that may improve MR sensitivity in detecting PHLM tears. (orig.)

  7. The phylogeny of C/S1 bZIP transcription factors reveals a shared algal ancestry and the pre-angiosperm translational regulation of S1 transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peviani, Alessia; Lastdrager, Jeroen; Hanson, Johannes; Snel, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Basic leucine zippers (bZIPs) form a large plant transcription factor family. C and S1 bZIP groups can heterodimerize, fulfilling crucial roles in seed development and stress response. S1 sequences also harbor a unique regulatory mechanism, termed Sucrose-Induced Repression of Translation (SIRT). The conservation of both C/S1 bZIP interactions and SIRT remains poorly characterized in non-model species, leaving their evolutionary origin uncertain and limiting crop research. In this work, we explored recently published plant sequencing data to establish a detailed phylogeny of C and S1 bZIPs, investigating their intertwined role in plant evolution, and the origin of SIRT. Our analyses clarified C and S1 bZIP orthology relationships in angiosperms, and identified S1 sequences in gymnosperms. We experimentally showed that the gymnosperm orthologs are regulated by SIRT, tracing back the origin of this unique regulatory mechanism to the ancestor of seed plants. Additionally, we discovered an earlier S ortholog in the charophyte algae Klebsormidium flaccidum, together with a C ortholog. This suggests that C and S groups originated by duplication from a single algal proto-C/S ancestor. Based on our observations, we propose a model wherein the C/S1 bZIP dimer network evolved in seed plants from pre-existing C/S bZIP interactions. PMID:27457880

  8. Divergence of the bZIP Gene Family in Strawberry, Peach, and Apple Suggests Multiple Modes of Gene Evolution after Duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Long; Zhong, Yan; Cheng, Zong-Ming; Xiong, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors are the most diverse members of dimerizing transcription factors. In the present study, 50, 116, and 47 bZIP genes were identified in Malus domestica (apple), Prunus persica (peach), and Fragaria vesca (strawberry), respectively. Species-specific duplication was the main contributor to the large number of bZIPs observed in apple. After WGD in apple genome, orthologous bZIP genes corresponding to strawberry on duplicated regions in apple genome were retained. However, in peach ancestor, these syntenic regions were quickly lost or deleted. Maybe the positive selection contributed to the expansion of clade S to adapt to the development and environment stresses. In addition, purifying selection was mainly responsible for bZIP sequence-specific DNA binding. The analysis of orthologous pairs between chromosomes indicates that these orthologs derived from one gene duplication located on one of the nine ancient chromosomes in the Rosaceae. The comparative analysis of bZIP genes in three species provides information on the evolutionary fate of bZIP genes in apple and peach after they diverged from strawberry. PMID:26770968

  9. Magnetic resonance diagnosis of posterior horn tears of the lateral meniscus using a thin axial plane: the zip sign - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoye, P.Y.; Ravey, J.N.; Dubois, C.; Barbier, L.P.; Ferretti, G. [CHU Grenoble, Clinique Universitaire de Radiologie et d' Imagerie Medicale, B.P 217, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Courvoisier, A.; Saragaglia, D. [CHU Grenoble, Clinique Universitaire de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Traumatologique, Grenoble (France)

    2011-01-15

    The ''zip'' sign is a newly described form of meniscal tear progressing from the distal insertion of menisco-femoral ligaments (MFLs) through the lateral meniscal wall; the tear occurs during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the zip sign on knee MRI within the context of ACL injuries. From a series of 261 MR examinations for acute knee injury, we selected 97 patients with both MR and arthroscopic data for a retrospective blinded review. The zip sign was defined on axial thin MR sections as a straight line from the distal insertion of MFLs in association with five sagittal images lateral to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) where the MFLs were identified. Sensitivity and specificity in detecting lateral meniscal tears before and after having defined the zip sign were calculated. Sensitivity in detecting the tears of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus (PHLM) reached 87.5% (CI 0.68-0.97) after zip sign criteria were defined. The zip sign has excellent inter-observer agreement, K > 0.90. The zip sign indicates a lesion at the insertion site of MFLs into the PHLM on thin axial images associated with sagittal MR sections that may improve MR sensitivity in detecting PHLM tears. (orig.)

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of a tomato cDNA encoding a systemically wound-inducible bZIP DNA-binding protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, B.; Vian, A.; Henry-Vian, C.; Davies, E.

    2000-01-01

    Localized wounding of one leaf in intact tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants triggers rapid systemic transcriptional responses that might be involved in defense. To better understand the mechanism(s) of intercellular signal transmission in wounded tomatoes, and to identify the array of genes systemically up-regulated by wounding, a subtractive cDNA library for wounded tomato leaves was constructed. A novel cDNA clone (designated LebZIP1) encoding a DNA-binding protein was isolated and identified. This clone appears to be encoded by a single gene, and belongs to the family of basic leucine zipper domain (bZIP) transcription factors shown to be up-regulated by cold and dark treatments. Analysis of the mRNA levels suggests that the transcript for LebZIP1 is both organ-specific and up-regulated by wounding. In wounded wild-type tomatoes, the LebZIP1 mRNA levels in distant tissue were maximally up-regulated within only 5 min following localized wounding. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) prevented the rapid wound-induced increase in LebZIP1 mRNA levels, while the basal levels of LebZIP1 transcripts were higher in the ABA mutants notabilis (not), sitiens (sit), and flacca (flc), and wound-induced increases were greater in the ABA-deficient mutants. Together, these results suggest that ABA acts to curtail the wound-induced synthesis of LebZIP1 mRNA.

  11. Properties of Zip4 accumulation during zinc deficiency and its usefulness to evaluate zinc status: a study of the effects of zinc deficiency during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ayako; Nakagawa, Miki; Tsujimura, Natsuki; Miyazaki, Shiho; Kizu, Kumiko; Goto, Tomoko; Komatsu, Yusuke; Matsunaga, Ayu; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Narita, Hiroshi; Kambe, Taiho; Komai, Michio

    2016-03-01

    Systemic and cellular zinc homeostasis is elaborately controlled by ZIP and ZnT zinc transporters. Therefore, detailed characterization of their expression properties is of importance. Of these transporter proteins, Zip4 functions as the primarily important transporter to control systemic zinc homeostasis because of its indispensable function of zinc absorption in the small intestine. In this study, we closely investigated Zip4 protein accumulation in the rat small intestine in response to zinc status using an anti-Zip4 monoclonal antibody that we generated and contrasted this with the zinc-responsive activity of the membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP). We found that Zip4 accumulation is more rapid in response to zinc deficiency than previously thought. Accumulation increased in the jejunum as early as 1 day following a zinc-deficient diet. In the small intestine, Zip4 protein expression was higher in the jejunum than in the duodenum and was accompanied by reduction of ALP activity, suggesting that the jejunum can become zinc deficient more easily. Furthermore, by monitoring Zip4 accumulation levels and ALP activity in the duodenum and jejunum, we reasserted that zinc deficiency during lactation may transiently alter plasma glucose levels in the offspring in a sex-specific manner, without affecting homeostatic control of zinc metabolism. This confirms that zinc nutrition during lactation is extremely important for the health of the offspring. These results reveal that rapid Zip4 accumulation provides a significant conceptual advance in understanding the molecular basis of systemic zinc homeostatic control, and that properties of Zip4 protein accumulation are useful to evaluate zinc status closely. PMID:26702153

  12. Genome-wide identification, classification and analysis of HD-ZIP gene family in citrus, and its potential roles in somatic embryogenesis regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Zheng; Wu, Xiao-Meng; Chai, Li-Jun; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2015-12-10

    The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors, which belong to a class of Homeobox proteins, has been reported to be involved in different biological processes of plants, including growth and development, photomorphogenesis, flowering, fruit ripening and adaptation responses to environmental stresses. In this study, 27 HD-Zip genes (CsHBs) were identified in Citrus. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and characteristics of individual gene or protein, the HD-Zip gene family in Citrus can be classified into 4 subfamilies, i.e. HD-Zip I, HD-Zip II, HD-Zip III, and HD-Zip IV containing 16, 2, 4, and 5 members respectively. The digital expression patterns of 27 HD-Zip genes were analyzed in the callus, flower, leaf and fruit of Citrus sinensis. The qRT-PCR and RT-PCR analyses of six selected HD-Zip genes were performed in six citrus cultivars with different embryogenic competence and in the embryo induction stages, which revealed that these genes were differentially expressed and might be involved in citrus somatic embryogenesis (SE). The results exhibited that the expression of CsHB1 was up-regulated in somatic embryo induction process, and its expression was higher in citrus cultivars with high embryogenic capacity than in cultivars recalcitrant to form somatic embryos. Moreover, a microsatellite site of three nucleotide repeats was found in CsHB1 gene among eighteen citrus genotypes, indicating the possible association of CsHB1 gene to the capacity of callus induction. PMID:26232336

  13. Chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) beam quality predictions using 3D Navier-Stokes (MINT) and wave optics (OCELOT) codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampson, Alan I.; Plummer, David N.; Erkkila, John H.; Crowell, Peter G.; Helms, Charles A.

    1998-05-01

    This paper describes a series of analyses using the 3-d MINT Navier-Stokes and OCELOT wave optics codes to calculate beam quality in a COIL laser cavity. To make this analysis tractable, the problem was broken into two contributions to the medium quality; that associated with microscale disturbances primarily from the transverse iodine injectors, and that associated with the macroscale including boundary layers and shock-like effects. Results for both microscale and macroscale medium quality are presented for the baseline layer operating point in terms of single pass wavefront error. These results show that the microscale optical path difference effects are 1D in nature and of low spatial order. The COIL medium quality is shown to be dominated by macroscale effects; primarily pressure waves generated from flow/boundary layer interactions on the cavity shrouds.

  14. Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe ...

  15. Botulinum toxin type A induces changes in the chemical coding of substance P-immunoreactive dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossowska, Agnieszka; Lepiarczyk, Ewa; Mazur, Urszula; Janikiewicz, Paweł; Markiewicz, Włodzimierz

    2015-11-01

    Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a potent neurotoxin which blocks acetylcholine release from nerve terminals, and therefore leads to cessation of somatic motor and/or parasympathetic transmission. Recently it has been found that BTX also interferes with sensory transmission, thus, the present study was aimed at investigating the neurochemical characterization of substance P-immunoreactive (SP-IR) bladder-projecting sensory neurons (BPSN) after the toxin treatment. Investigated neurons were visualized with retrograde tracing method and their chemical profile was disclosed with double-labelling immunohistochemistry using antibodies against SP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), galanin (GAL), calbindin (CB), and somatostatin (SOM). In the control group (n = 6), 45% of the total population of BPSN were SP-IR. Nearly half of these neurons co-expressed PACAP or CGRP (45% and 35%, respectively), while co-localization of SP with GAL, nNOS, SOM or CB was found less frequently (3.7%, 1.8%, 1.2%, and 0.7%, respectively). In BTX-treated pigs (n = 6), toxin-injections caused a decrease in the number of SP-IR cells containing CGRP, SOM or CB (16.2%, 0.5%, and 0%, respectively) and a distinct increase in these nerve cells immunopositive to GAL (27.2%). The present study demonstrates that BTX significantly modifies the chemical phenotypes of SP-IR BPSN. PMID:26580655

  16. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  17. Intra-hippocampal administration of ZIP alleviates depressive and anxiety-like responses in an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Li-li; Tong, Lei; Xu, Bao-Ku; Fu, Chang-Hai; Shu, Wan; Peng, Jun-Bo; Wang, Zhen-yu

    2014-01-01

    Background Given that impairment of fear extinction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), effective pharmacological interventions that facilitate fear extinction may provide alternative strategies to conventional treatment. It is generally accepted that the zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP), a controversial inhibitor of protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ), could erase certain types of previously established long-term memories. However, it is unclear whether ZIP...

  18. AtbZIP34 is required for Arabidopsis pollen wall patterning and the control of several metabolic pathways in developing pollen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibalová, Antónia; Reňák, David; Matczuk, Katarzyna; Dupľáková, Nikoleta; Cháb, David; Twell, D.; Honys, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 5 (2009), s. 581-601. ISSN 0167-4412 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/06/0896; GA ČR GA522/09/0858; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : bZIP transcription factor * AtbZIP34 * Male gametophyte development Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.978, year: 2009

  19. Evidence that Human Prostate Cancer is a ZIP1-Deficient Malignancy that could be Effectively Treated with a Zinc Ionophore (Clioquinol) Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, Leslie C; Franklin, Renty B; Zou, Jing; Naslund, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research, no efficacious chemotherapy exists for the treatment of prostate cancer. Malignant prostate zinc levels are markedly decreased in all cases of prostate cancer compared to normal/benign prostate. ZIP1 zinc transporter down regulation decreases zinc to prevent its cytotoxic effects. Thus, prostate cancer is a “ZIP1-deficient” malignancy. A zinc ionophore (e.g. Clioquinol) treatment to increase malignant zinc levels is a plausible treatment of prostate cancer. Howeve...

  20. The nuclear protein GmbZIP110 has transcription activation activity and plays important roles in the response to salinity stress in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhaolong; Ali, Zulfiqar; Xu, Ling; He, Xiaolan; Huang, Yihong; Yi, Jinxin; Shao, Hongbo; Ma, Hongxiang; Zhang, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Plant basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors play important roles in many biological processes and are involved in the regulation of salt stress tolerance. Previously, our lab generated digital gene expression profiling (DGEP) data to identify differentially expressed genes in a salt-tolerant genotype of Glycine soja (STGoGS) and a salt-sensitive genotype of Glycine max (SSGoGM). This DGEP data revealed that the expression (log2 ratio) of GmbZIP110 was up-regulated 2.76-fold and 3.38-fold in SSGoGM and STGoGS, respectively. In the present study, the salt inducible gene GmbZIP110 was cloned and characterized through phylogenetic analysis, subcellular localization and in silico transcript abundance analysis in different tissues. The functional role of this gene in salt tolerance was studied through transactivation analysis, DNA binding ability, expression in soybean composite seedlings and transgenic Arabidopsis, and the effect of GmbZIP110 on the expression of stress-related genes in transgenic Arabidopsis was investigated. We found that GmbZIP110 could bind to the ACGT motif, impact the expression of many stress-related genes and the accumulation of proline, Na+ and K+, and enhanced the salt tolerance of composite seedlings and transgenic Arabidopsis. Integrating all these results, we propose that GmbZIP110 plays a critical role in the response to salinity stress in soybean and has high potential usefulness in crop improvement. PMID:26837841

  1. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yili; Zhu, Wenbo; Hu, Xiaochen; Sun, Congcong; Li, Yanlin; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Qinhu; Pei, Guoliang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Guo, Aiguang; Zhao, Huixian; Lu, Haibin; Mu, Xiaoqian; Hu, Jingjiang; Zhou, Xiaona; Xie, Chang Gen

    2016-01-01

    bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP) are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5). Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14) and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13), are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy) or LUC (LUCIFERASE) expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage. PMID:27414644

  2. NSURE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSURE stands for Near-Surface Repository code. NSURE is a performance assessment code. developed for the safety assessment of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Part one of this report documents the NSURE model, governing equations and formulation of the mathematical models, and their implementation under the SYVAC3 executive. The NSURE model simulates the release of nuclides from an engineered vault, their subsequent transport via the groundwater and surface water pathways tot he biosphere, and predicts the resulting dose rate to a critical individual. Part two of this report consists of a User's manual, describing simulation procedures, input data preparation, output and example test cases

  3. User's manual for SIN: a one-dimensional hydrodynamic code for problems that include chemical reactions, elastic--plastic flow, spalling, phase transitions, melting, Forest Fire, detonation build-up, and Sesame tabular equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CDC 7600 or CRAY computer FORTRAN code for computing one-dimensional hydrodynamic problems in slab, cylindrical, or spherical geometry with realistic equations of state is described. Features available in the code include chemical reactions using an Arrhenius rate law, the C-J volume burn, or, for slabs, a gamma-law Taylor wave; sharp-shock burn, Forest Fire; elastic--plastic flow using the Hooke's law--Von Mises yield model and Kennedy melt law; and spalling using the Whiteman and Skidmore model of the tensile stress at spalling as a linear function of the square root of the stress rate. The HOM equation of state is used to compute the equation of state for detonation products, undecomposed explosives, mixtures of the two, and condensed components which may have an instantaneous phase change. The Sesame tabular equation of state, Barnes equation of state, explosive build-up equation of state, and a solid-foam equation of state are included. Sample input and output are given for several typical types of problems. 2 tables

  4. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  5. Beyond Stabilizer Codes II: Clifford Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Klappenecker, Andreas; Roetteler, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Knill introduced a generalization of stabilizer codes, in this note called Clifford codes. It remained unclear whether or not Clifford codes can be superior to stabilizer codes. We show that Clifford codes are stabilizer codes provided that the abstract error group has an abelian index group. In particular, if the errors are modelled by tensor products of Pauli matrices, then the associated Clifford codes are necessarily stabilizer codes.

  6. MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MCNP code is the major Monte Carlo coupled neutron-photon transport research tool at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and it represents the most extensive Monte Carlo development program in the United States which is available in the public domain. The present code is the direct descendent of the original Monte Carlo work of Fermi, von Neumaum, and Ulam at Los Alamos in the 1940s. Development has continued uninterrupted since that time, and the current version of MCNP (or its predecessors) has always included state-of-the-art methods in the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, basic cross section data, geometry capability, variance reduction, and estimation procedures. The authors of the present code have oriented its development toward general user application. The documentation, though extensive, is presented in a clear and simple manner with many examples, illustrations, and sample problems. In addition to providing the desired results, the output listings give a a wealth of detailed information (some optional) concerning each state of the calculation. The code system is continually updated to take advantage of advances in computer hardware and software, including interactive modes of operation, diagnostic interrupts and restarts, and a variety of graphical and video aids

  7. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  8. Gene expression of the zinc transporter ZIP14 (SLC39a14) is affected by weight loss and metabolic status and associates with PPARγ in human adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Trine Maxel; Smidt, Kamille; Larsen, Agnete;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The expansion and function of adipose tissue are important during the development of insulin resistance and inflammation in obesity. Zinc dyshomeostasis is common in obese individuals. In the liver, zinc influx transporter ZIP14, affects proliferation and glucose metabolism but the role...... of clinical importance, including body mass index, triglyceride, and insulin resistance, were inversely correlated with ZIP14. During early adipogensis an up-regulation of ZIP14 gene expression was found. PPARγ gene expression was positively correlated with the ZIP14 gene expression in both adipose...... of ZIP14 in adipose tissue is still unknown. This study investigates ZIP14 gene expression in human adipose tissue before and after weight loss as well as the regulation of ZIP14 during early adipogenesis. METHODS: Fourteen obese individuals were investigated before and after a 10 week weight loss...

  9. CANAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANAL code presented here optimizes a realistic iron free extraction channel which has to provide a given transversal magnetic field law in the median plane: the current bars may be curved, have finite lengths and cooling ducts and move in a restricted transversal area; terminal connectors may be added, images of the bars in pole pieces may be included. A special option optimizes a real set of circular coils

  10. NOVEL BIPHASE CODE -INTEGRATED SIDELOBE SUPPRESSION CODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feixue; Ou Gang; Zhuang Zhaowen

    2004-01-01

    A kind of novel binary phase code named sidelobe suppression code is proposed in this paper. It is defined to be the code whose corresponding optimal sidelobe suppression filter outputs the minimum sidelobes. It is shown that there do exist sidelobe suppression codes better than the conventional optimal codes-Barker codes. For example, the sidelobe suppression code of length 11 with filter of length 39 has better sidelobe level up to 17dB than that of Barker code with the same code length and filter length.

  11. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing in...

  12. Concatenated codes with convolutional inner codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Thommesen, Christian; Zyablov, Viktor

    1988-01-01

    The minimum distance of concatenated codes with Reed-Solomon outer codes and convolutional inner codes is studied. For suitable combinations of parameters the minimum distance can be lower-bounded by the product of the minimum distances of the inner and outer codes. For a randomized ensemble of...... concatenated codes a lower bound of the Gilbert-Varshamov type is proved...

  13. Quantum Cyclic Code

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Sagarmoy

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we define and study \\emph{quantum cyclic codes}, a generalisation of cyclic codes to the quantum setting. Previously studied examples of quantum cyclic codes were all quantum codes obtained from classical cyclic codes via the CSS construction. However, the codes that we study are much more general. In particular, we construct cyclic stabiliser codes with parameters $[[5,1,3

  14. It's Not Education by Zip Code Anymore--But What is It? Conceptions of Equity under the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, Mindy L.; Griffith, Kelly; Tyler, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards Initiative is a standards-based reform in which 45 U.S. states and the District of Columbia have agreed to participate. The reform seeks to anchor primary and secondary education across these states in one set of demanding, internationally benchmarked standards. Thereby, all students will be prepared for further…

  15. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2016, 2010 nation, U.S., 2010 Census 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA5) National

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  16. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2015, 2010 nation, U.S., 2010 Census 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA5) National

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  17. The Zinc Concentration in the Diet and the Length of the Feeding Period Affect the Methylation Status of the ZIP4 Zinc Transporter Gene in Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karweina, Diana; Kreuzer-Redmer, Susanne; Müller, Uwe; Franken, Tobias; Pieper, Robert; Baron, Udo; Olek, Sven; Zentek, Jürgen; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2015-01-01

    High doses of zinc oxide are commonly used in weaned pig diets to improve performance and health. Recent reports show that this may also lead to an imbalanced zinc homeostasis in the animal. For a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of different zinc intakes, we performed a feeding experiment to assess potential epigenetic regulation of the ZIP4 gene expression via DNA methylation in the small intestine of piglets. Fifty-four piglets were fed diets with 57 (LZn), 164 (NZn) or 2,425 (HZn) mg Zn/kg feed for one or four weeks. The ZIP4 expression data provided significant evidence for counter-regulation of zinc absorption with higher dietary zinc concentrations. The CpG +735 in the second exon had a 56% higher methylation in the HZn group compared to the others after one week of feeding (8.0·10-4 < p < 0.035); the methylation of this CpG was strongly negatively associated with the expression of the long ZIP4 transcripts (p < 0.007). In the LZn and NZn diets, the expression of the long ZIP4 transcripts were lower after four vs. one week of feeding (2.9·10-4 < p < 0.017). The strongest switch leading to high DNA methylation in nearly all analysed regions was dependent on feeding duration or age in all diet groups (3.7·10-10 < p < 0.099). The data suggest that DNA methylation serves as a fine-tuning mechanism of ZIP4 gene regulation to maintain zinc homeostasis. Methylation of the ZIP4 gene may play a minor role in the response to very high dietary zinc concentration, but may affect binding of alternate zinc-responsive transcription factors. PMID:26599865

  18. The Zinc Concentration in the Diet and the Length of the Feeding Period Affect the Methylation Status of the ZIP4 Zinc Transporter Gene in Piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Karweina

    Full Text Available High doses of zinc oxide are commonly used in weaned pig diets to improve performance and health. Recent reports show that this may also lead to an imbalanced zinc homeostasis in the animal. For a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of different zinc intakes, we performed a feeding experiment to assess potential epigenetic regulation of the ZIP4 gene expression via DNA methylation in the small intestine of piglets. Fifty-four piglets were fed diets with 57 (LZn, 164 (NZn or 2,425 (HZn mg Zn/kg feed for one or four weeks. The ZIP4 expression data provided significant evidence for counter-regulation of zinc absorption with higher dietary zinc concentrations. The CpG +735 in the second exon had a 56% higher methylation in the HZn group compared to the others after one week of feeding (8.0·10-4 < p < 0.035; the methylation of this CpG was strongly negatively associated with the expression of the long ZIP4 transcripts (p < 0.007. In the LZn and NZn diets, the expression of the long ZIP4 transcripts were lower after four vs. one week of feeding (2.9·10-4 < p < 0.017. The strongest switch leading to high DNA methylation in nearly all analysed regions was dependent on feeding duration or age in all diet groups (3.7·10-10 < p < 0.099. The data suggest that DNA methylation serves as a fine-tuning mechanism of ZIP4 gene regulation to maintain zinc homeostasis. Methylation of the ZIP4 gene may play a minor role in the response to very high dietary zinc concentration, but may affect binding of alternate zinc-responsive transcription factors.

  19. ZIP2DL: An Elastic-Plastic, Large-Rotation Finite-Element Stress Analysis and Crack-Growth Simulation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaomin; Newman, James C., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    ZIP2DL is a two-dimensional, elastic-plastic finte element program for stress analysis and crack growth simulations, developed for the NASA Langley Research Center. It has many of the salient features of the ZIP2D program. For example, ZIP2DL contains five material models (linearly elastic, elastic-perfectly plastic, power-law hardening, linear hardening, and multi-linear hardening models), and it can simulate mixed-mode crack growth for prescribed crack growth paths under plane stress, plane strain and mixed state of stress conditions. Further, as an extension of ZIP2D, it also includes a number of new capabilities. The large-deformation kinematics in ZIP2DL will allow it to handle elastic problems with large strains and large rotations, and elastic-plastic problems with small strains and large rotations. Loading conditions in terms of surface traction, concentrated load, and nodal displacement can be applied with a default linear time dependence or they can be programmed according to a user-defined time dependence through a user subroutine. The restart capability of ZIP2DL will make it possible to stop the execution of the program at any time, analyze the results and/or modify execution options and resume and continue the execution of the program. This report includes three sectons: a theoretical manual section, a user manual section, and an example manual secton. In the theoretical secton, the mathematics behind the various aspects of the program are concisely outlined. In the user manual section, a line-by-line explanation of the input data is given. In the example manual secton, three types of examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and illustrate the use of this program.

  20. Cloning of three ZIP/Nramp transporter genes from a Ni hyperaccumulator plant thlaspi japonicum and their Ni2+ transport abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuno, Takahumi; Usui, Koji; Horie, Kenji; Nosaka, Shiro; Mizuno, Naoharu; Obata, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    Ni homeostasis is essential for plant cell activity, but the mechanisms of Ni-transport and delivery are unknown. To elucidate the role of ZIP and NRAMP metal-transporters for Ni2+-transport and homeostasis, we cloned their homologous genes from the Ni hyperaccumulator Thlaspi japonicum, and investigated their Ni-transporting abilities by expression in yeast. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two Zip transporter genes (TjZnt1, TjZnt2) and one Nramp transporter gene cloned had high homol...

  1. Quantum Convolutional BCH Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Aly, S A; Klappenecker, A; Roetteler, M; Sarvepalli, P K; Aly, Salah A.; Grassl, Markus; Klappenecker, Andreas; Roetteler, Martin; Sarvepalli, Pradeep Kiran

    2007-01-01

    Quantum convolutional codes can be used to protect a sequence of qubits of arbitrary length against decoherence. We introduce two new families of quantum convolutional codes. Our construction is based on an algebraic method which allows to construct classical convolutional codes from block codes, in particular convolutional BCH codes. These codes have the property that they contain their Euclidean, respectively Hermitian, dual codes. Hence, they can be used to define quantum convolutional codes by the stabilizer code construction. We compute BCH-like bounds on the free distances which can be controlled as in the case of block codes, and establish that the codes have non-catastrophic encoders.

  2. Concatenated Conjugate Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, M

    2006-01-01

    A conjugate code pair is defined as a pair of linear codes either of which contains the dual of the other. A conjugate code pair represents the essential structure of the corresponding Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) quantum code. It is known that conjugate code pairs are applicable to (quantum) cryptography. We give a construction method for efficiently decodable conjugate code pairs.

  3. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  4. The ZIP5 ectodomain co-localizes with PrP and may acquire a PrP-like fold that assembles into a dimer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin L Pocanschi

    Full Text Available The cellular prion protein (PrP(C was recently observed to co-purify with members of the LIV-1 subfamily of ZIP zinc transporters (LZTs, precipitating the surprising discovery that the prion gene family descended from an ancestral LZT gene. Here, we compared the subcellular distribution and biophysical characteristics of LZTs and their PrP-like ectodomains. When expressed in neuroblastoma cells, the ZIP5 member of the LZT subfamily was observed to be largely directed to the same subcellular locations as PrP(C and both proteins were seen to be endocytosed through vesicles decorated with the Rab5 marker protein. When recombinantly expressed, the PrP-like domain of ZIP5 could be obtained with yields and levels of purity sufficient for structural analyses but it tended to aggregate, thereby precluding attempts to study its structure. These obstacles were overcome by moving to a mammalian cell expression system. The subsequent biophysical characterization of a homogeneous preparation of the ZIP5 PrP-like ectodomain shows that this protein acquires a dimeric, largely globular fold with an α-helical content similar to that of mammalian PrP(C. The use of a mammalian cell expression system also allowed for the expression and purification of stable preparations of Takifugu rubripes PrP-1, thereby overcoming a key hindrance to high-resolution work on a fish PrP(C.

  5. Extreme population differences in the human zinc transporter ZIP4 (SLC39A4 are explained by positive selection in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Engelken

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme differences in allele frequency between West Africans and Eurasians were observed for a leucine-to-valine substitution (Leu372Val in the human intestinal zinc uptake transporter, ZIP4, yet no further evidence was found for a selective sweep around the ZIP4 gene (SLC39A4. By interrogating allele frequencies in more than 100 diverse human populations and resequencing Neanderthal DNA, we confirmed the ancestral state of this locus and found a strong geographical gradient for the derived allele (Val372, with near fixation in West Africa. In extensive coalescent simulations, we show that the extreme differences in allele frequency, yet absence of a classical sweep signature, can be explained by the effect of a local recombination hotspot, together with directional selection favoring the Val372 allele in Sub-Saharan Africans. The possible functional effect of the Leu372Val substitution, together with two pathological mutations at the same codon (Leu372Pro and Leu372Arg that cause acrodermatitis enteropathica (a disease phenotype characterized by extreme zinc deficiency, was investigated by transient overexpression of human ZIP4 protein in HeLa cells. Both acrodermatitis mutations cause absence of the ZIP4 transporter cell surface expression and nearly absent zinc uptake, while the Val372 variant displayed significantly reduced surface protein expression, reduced basal levels of intracellular zinc, and reduced zinc uptake in comparison with the Leu372 variant. We speculate that reduced zinc uptake by the ZIP4-derived Val372 isoform may act by starving certain pathogens of zinc, and hence may have been advantageous in Sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, these functional results may indicate differences in zinc homeostasis among modern human populations with possible relevance for disease risk.

  6. Attenuation of progressive hearing loss in DBA/2J mice by reagents that affect epigenetic modifications is associated with up-regulation of the zinc importer Zip4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Mutai

    Full Text Available Various factors that are important for proper hearing have been identified, including serum levels of zinc. Here we investigated whether epigenetic regulatory pathways, which can be modified by environmental factors, could modulate hearing. RT-PCR detected expression of genes encoding DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase (Hdac in the postnatal as well as adult mouse auditory epithelium. DBA/2J mice, which are a model for progressive hearing loss, were injected subcutaneously with one or a combination of the following reagents: L-methionine as a methyl donor, valproic acid as a pan-Hdac inhibitor, and folic acid and vitamin B12 as putative factors involved in age-related hearing loss. The mice were treated from ages 4 to 12 weeks (N ≥ 5, and auditory brainstem response (ABR thresholds were measured at 8, 16, and 32 kHz. Treatment of the mice with a combination of L-methionine and valproic acid (M+V significantly reduced the increase in the ABR threshold at 32 kHz. Treatment with any of these reagents individually produced no such effect. Microarray analyses detected 299 gene probes that were significantly up- or down-regulated in the cochleae of mice treated with M+V compared with the control vehicle-treated mice. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed significant up-regulation of a zinc importer gene, Zip4, in the cochleae of mice treated with M+V. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated an intense Zip4 signal in cochlear tissues such as the lateral wall, organ of Corti, and spiral ganglion. Finally, mice treated with the Zip4 inducer (--epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate showed a significant reduction in the increase of the ABR threshold at 32 kHz and up-regulation of Zip4 expression in the cochlea. This study suggests that epigenetic regulatory pathways can modify auditory function and that zinc intake in the cochlea via Zip4 mediates maintenance of mammalian hearing.

  7. Twisted Permutation Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Neil I.; Praeger, Cheryl E.; Spiga, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We introduce twisted permutation codes, which are frequency permutation arrays analogous to repetition permutation codes, namely, codes obtained from the repetition construction applied to a permutation code. In particular, we show that a lower bound for the minimum distance of a twisted permutation code is the minimum distance of a repetition permutation code. We give examples where this bound is tight, but more importantly, we give examples of twisted permutation codes with minimum distance...

  8. Transitive nonpropelinear perfect codes

    OpenAIRE

    Mogilnykh, I. Yu.; Solov'eva, F. I.

    2014-01-01

    A code is called transitive if its automorphism group (the isometry group) of the code acts transitively on its codewords. If there is a subgroup of the automorphism group acting regularly on the code, the code is called propelinear. Using Magma software package we establish that among 201 equivalence classes of transitive perfect codes of length 15 from \\cite{ost} there is a unique nonpropelinear code. We solve the existence problem for transitive nonpropelinear perfect codes for any admissi...

  9. Homological stabilizer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev’s toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev’s toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: ► We show that Kitaev’s toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. ► We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. ► We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. ► We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

  10. Model Children's Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  11. zipHMMlib:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Andreas; Kristiansen, Martin; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm;

    2013-01-01

    Background Hidden Markov models are widely used for genome analysis as they combine ease of modelling with efficient analysis algorithms. Calculating the likelihood of a model using the forward algorithm has worst case time complexity linear in the length of the sequence and quadratic in the number...

  12. Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1996-01-01

    The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...... including an outer BCH code correcting a few bit errors....

  13. Differential regulation of meristem size, morphology and organization by the ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Tali; Candela, Héctor; Landau, Udi; Asis, Lior; Zelinger, Einat; Carles, Cristel C; Williams, Leor Eshed

    2016-05-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) of angiosperm plants is a small, highly organized structure that gives rise to all above-ground organs. The SAM is divided into three functional domains: the central zone (CZ) at the SAM tip harbors the self-renewing pluripotent stem cells and the organizing center, providing daughter cells that are continuously displaced into the interior rib zone (RZ) or the surrounding peripheral zone (PZ), from which organ primordia are initiated. Despite the constant flow of cells from the CZ into the RZ or PZ, and cell recruitment for primordium formation, a stable balance is maintained between the distinct cell populations in the SAM. Here we combined an in-depth phenotypic analysis with a comparative RNA-Seq approach to characterize meristems from selected combinations of clavata3 (clv3), jabba-1D (jba-1D) and erecta (er) mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana We demonstrate that CLV3 restricts meristem expansion along the apical-basal axis, whereas class III HD-ZIP and ER pathways restrict meristem expansion laterally, but in distinct and possibly perpendicular orientations. Our k-means analysis reveals that clv3, jba-1D/+ and er lead to meristem enlargement by affecting different aspects of meristem function; for example, clv3 displays an increase in the stem cell population, whereas jba-1D/+ er exhibits an increase in mitotic activity and in the meristematic cell population. Our analyses demonstrate that a combined genetic and mRNA-Seq comparative approach provides a precise and sensitive method to identify cell type-specific transcriptomes in a small structure, such as the SAM. PMID:26989178

  14. The ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP Pathways Display Synergistic Interactions in Regulating Floral Meristem Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udi Landau

    Full Text Available In angiosperms, the production of flowers marks the beginning of the reproductive phase. At the emergence of flower primordia on the flanks of the inflorescence meristem, the WUSCHEL (WUS gene, which encodes a homeodomain transcription factor starts to be expressed and establishes de novo stem cell population, founder of the floral meristem (FM. Similarly to the shoot apical meristem a precise spatial and temporal expression pattern of WUS is required and maintained through strict regulation by multiple regulatory inputs to maintain stem cell homeostasis. However, following the formation of a genetically determined fixed number of floral organs, this homeostasis is shifted towards organogenesis and the FM is terminated. In here we performed a genetic study to test how a reduction in ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP pathways affects floral meristem activity and flower development. We revealed strong synergistic phenotypes of extra flower number, supernumerary whorls, total loss of determinacy and extreme enlargement of the meristem as compared to any double mutant combination indicating that the three pathways, CLV3, ER and HD-ZIPIII distinctively regulate meristem activity and that they act in parallel. Our findings yield several new insights into stem cell-driven development. We demonstrate the crucial requirement for coupling floral meristem termination with carpel formation to ensure successful reproduction in plants. We also show how regulation of meristem size and alternation in spatial structure of the meristem serve as a mechanism to determine flower organogenesis. We propose that the loss of FM determinacy due to the reduction in CLV3, ER and HD-ZIPIII activity is genetically separable from the AGAMOUS core mechanism of meristem termination.

  15. Affine Grassmann codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Beelen, Peter; Ghorpade, Sudhir Ramakant

    2010-01-01

    We consider a new class of linear codes, called affine Grassmann codes. These can be viewed as a variant of generalized Reed-Muller codes and are closely related to Grassmann codes.We determine the length, dimension, and the minimum distance of any affine Grassmann code. Moreover, we show that...... affine Grassmann codes have a large automorphism group and determine the number of minimum weight codewords....

  16. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both the...... coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  17. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  18. Polyphase alternating codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Markkanen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p–1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p–1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We handle a few specific examples in detail. The new codes offer an enlarged collection of code lengths for radar experiments.

  19. Coding for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on exercises help you learn to code like a pro No coding experience is required for Coding For Dummies,your one-stop guide to building a foundation of knowledge inwriting computer code for web, application, and softwaredevelopment. It doesn't matter if you've dabbled in coding or neverwritten a line of code, this book guides you through the basics.Using foundational web development languages like HTML, CSS, andJavaScript, it explains in plain English how coding works and whyit's needed. Online exercises developed by Codecademy, a leading online codetraining site, help hone coding skill

  20. Pepper CabZIP63 acts as a positive regulator during Ralstonia solanacearum or high temperature-high humidity challenge in a positive feedback loop with CaWRKY40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Zhiqin; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Tong; Liang, Jiaqi; Wen, Jiayu; Liu, Yanyan; Li, Jiazhi; Shi, Lanping; Tang, Qian; Shi, Wei; Hu, Jiong; Liu, Cailing; Zhang, Yangwen; Lin, Wei; Wang, Rongzhang; Yu, Huanxin; Mou, Shaoliang; Hussain, Ansar; Cheng, Wei; Cai, Hanyang; He, Li; Guan, Deyi; Wu, Yang; He, Shuilin

    2016-04-01

    CaWRKY40 is known to act as a positive regulator in the response of pepper (Capsicum annuum) to Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation (RSI) or high temperature-high humidity (HTHH), but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Herein, we report that CabZIP63, a pepper bZIP family member, participates in this process by regulating the expression of CaWRKY40. CabZIP63 was found to localize in the nuclei, be up-regulated by RSI or HTHH, bind to promoters of both CabZIP63(pCabZIP63) and CaWRKY40(pCaWRKY40), and activate pCabZIP63- and pCaWRKY40-driven β-glucuronidase expression in a C- or G-box-dependent manner. Silencing of CabZIP63 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in pepper plants significantly attenuated their resistance to RSI and tolerance to HTHH, accompanied by down-regulation of immunity- or thermotolerance-associated CaPR1, CaNPR1, CaDEF1, and CaHSP24. Hypersensitive response-mediated cell death and expression of the tested immunity- and thermotolerance-associated marker genes were induced by transient overexpression (TOE) of CabZIP63, but decreased by that of CabZIP63-SRDX. Additionally, binding of CabZIP63 to pCaWRKY40 was up-regulated by RSI or HTHH, and the transcript level of CaWRKY40 and binding of CaWRKY40 to the promoters of CaPR1, CaNPR1, CaDEF1 and CaHSP24 were up-regulated by TOE of CabZIP63. On the other hand, CabZIP63 was also up-regulated transcriptionally by TOE of CaWRKY40. The data suggest collectively that CabZIP63 directly or indirectly regulates the expression of CaWRKY40 at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level, forming a positive feedback loop with CaWRKY40 during pepper's response to RSI or HTHH. Altogether, our data will help to elucidate the underlying mechanism of crosstalk between pepper's response to RSI and HTHH. PMID:26936828

  1. Coupling CFD code with system code and neutron kinetic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyskocil, Ladislav, E-mail: Ladislav.Vyskocil@ujv.cz; Macek, Jiri

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Coupling interface between CFD code Fluent and system code Athlet was created. • Athlet code is internally coupled with neutron kinetic code Dyn3D. • Explicit coupling of overlapped computational domains was used. • A coupled system of Athlet/Dyn3D+Fluent codes was successfully tested on a real case. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to develop the coupling interface between CFD code Fluent and system code Athlet internally coupled with neutron kinetic code Dyn3D. The coupling interface is intended for simulation of complex transients such as Main Steam Line Break scenarios, which cannot be modeled separately first by system and neutron kinetic code and then by CFD code, because of the feedback between the codes. In the first part of this article, the coupling method is described. Explicit coupling of overlapped computational domains is used in this work. The second part of the article presents a demonstration simulation performed by the coupled system of Athlet/Dyn3D and Fluent. The “Opening a Steam Dump to the Atmosphere” test carried out at the Temelin NPP (VVER-1000) was simulated by the coupled system. In this simulation, the primary and secondary circuits were modeled by Athlet, mixing in downcomer and lower plenum was simulated by Fluent and heat generation in the core was calculated by Dyn3D. The results of the simulation with Athlet/Dyn3D+Fluent were compared with the experimental data and the results from a calculation performed with Athlet/Dyn3D without Fluent.

  2. Coupling CFD code with system code and neutron kinetic code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Coupling interface between CFD code Fluent and system code Athlet was created. • Athlet code is internally coupled with neutron kinetic code Dyn3D. • Explicit coupling of overlapped computational domains was used. • A coupled system of Athlet/Dyn3D+Fluent codes was successfully tested on a real case. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to develop the coupling interface between CFD code Fluent and system code Athlet internally coupled with neutron kinetic code Dyn3D. The coupling interface is intended for simulation of complex transients such as Main Steam Line Break scenarios, which cannot be modeled separately first by system and neutron kinetic code and then by CFD code, because of the feedback between the codes. In the first part of this article, the coupling method is described. Explicit coupling of overlapped computational domains is used in this work. The second part of the article presents a demonstration simulation performed by the coupled system of Athlet/Dyn3D and Fluent. The “Opening a Steam Dump to the Atmosphere” test carried out at the Temelin NPP (VVER-1000) was simulated by the coupled system. In this simulation, the primary and secondary circuits were modeled by Athlet, mixing in downcomer and lower plenum was simulated by Fluent and heat generation in the core was calculated by Dyn3D. The results of the simulation with Athlet/Dyn3D+Fluent were compared with the experimental data and the results from a calculation performed with Athlet/Dyn3D without Fluent

  3. The Proteomic Code: a molecular recognition code for proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Jan C

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Proteomic Code is a set of rules by which information in genetic material is transferred into the physico-chemical properties of amino acids. It determines how individual amino acids interact with each other during folding and in specific protein-protein interactions. The Proteomic Code is part of the redundant Genetic Code. Review The 25-year-old history of this concept is reviewed from the first independent suggestions by Biro and Mekler, through the works of Blalock, Root-Bernstein, Siemion, Miller and others, followed by the discovery of a Common Periodic Table of Codons and Nucleic Acids in 2003 and culminating in the recent conceptualization of partial complementary coding of interacting amino acids as well as the theory of the nucleic acid-assisted protein folding. Methods and conclusions A novel cloning method for the design and production of specific, high-affinity-reacting proteins (SHARP is presented. This method is based on the concept of proteomic codes and is suitable for large-scale, industrial production of specifically interacting peptides.

  4. Teseo code validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report some validation tests for the TESEO code are described. The TESEO code was developed at ENEA - Clementel Center in the framework of the C2RV code sequence. This code sequence produces multigroup resonance cross sections for fast reactor analysis. It consists of the codes TESEO, MC2-II, GERES, ANISN, MEDIL. The TESEO code processes basic nuclear data in ENDF-B format and produces an ultrafine group (2082 groups) cross section library for the MC2-II code. To validate the TESEO algorithms, the data produced by TESEO code were compared with the data produced by other well-tested codes which use different algorithms. No substantial differences was found between these data and the data produced by TESEO code. TESEO algorithms showed high reliability. A detailed study of TESEO calculation options was carried out. Their use and functions are shown to inform the user of the code

  5. Conserved Ser residues in the basic region of the bZIP-type transcription factor HBP-1a(17): importance in DNA binding and possible targets for phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshi, T; Moda, I; Minami, M; Okanami, M; Iwabuchi, M

    1998-01-01

    HBP-1a(17) is representative of a group of plant bZIP-type transcription factors which includes HBP-1a proteins and G-box-binding factors. We found kinase activity in wheat nuclear extract that phosphorylated HBP-1a(17). Experiments using recombinant HBP-1a(17) derivatives as substrates revealed that all three of the Ser residues in the basic region, Ser-261, Ser-265, and Ser-269, were phosphorylated in a Ca(2+)-stimulated manner. DNA-binding analysis of mutants with a Ser-to-Glu change, prepared to mimic the phosphorylated proteins, indicated that introduction of a negative charge at position 265 or 269 prevents HBP-1a(17) from binding DNA not only in the homodimer of mutants but also in heterodimers with a wild-type protein. It is therefore suggested that the phosphorylation regulates the function of HBP-1a(17) at least at the level of DNA binding. Since Ser-265 and Ser-269 are highly conserved among the plant bZIP-type factors known to date, a common Ca(2+)-mediated regulatory mechanism may exert an effect on the bZIP-type factors through phosphorylation of these conserved Ser residues. PMID:9484468

  6. Locally Orderless Registration Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  7. Decentralized Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Fragouli, C.; Soljanin, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes deterministic algorithms for decentralized network coding. Decentralized coding allows to locally specify the coding operations at network nodes without knowledge of the overall network topology, and to accommodate future changes in the network such as addition of receivers. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first deterministic decentralized algorithms proposed for network coding.

  8. The Aesthetics of Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    code, etc.). The presentation relates this artistic fascination of code to a media critique expressed by Florian Cramer, claiming that the graphical interface represents a media separation (of text/code and image) causing alienation to the computer’s materiality. Cramer is thus the voice of a new ‘code...... discusses code as the artist’s material and, further, formulates a critique of Cramer. The seductive magic in computer-generated art does not lie in the magical expression, but nor does it lie in the code/material/text itself. It lies in the nature of code to do something – as if it was magic: in the...

  9. HEXOKINASE 1 is required for glucose-induced repression of bZIP63, At5g22920 and BT2 in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eKunz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Simple sugars, like glucose and sucrose, act as signals to modulate the expression of hundreds of genes in plants. Frequently, however, it remains unclear whether this regulation is induced by the sugars themselves or by their derivatives generated in the course of carbohydrate (CH metabolism. In the present study, we tested the relevance of different CH metabolism and allocation pathways affecting expression patterns of five selected sugar-responsive genes (bZIP63, At5g22920, BT2, MGD2 and TPS9 in Arabidopsis thaliana. In general, the expression followed diurnal changes in the overall sugar availability. However, under steady growth conditions, this response was hardly impaired in the mutants for CH metabolizing/ transporting proteins (adg1, sex1, sus1-4, sus5/6 and tpt2, including also hexokinase1 (HXK1 loss- and gain-of-function plants - gin2.1 and oe3.2, respectively. In addition, transgenic plants carrying pbZIP63::GUS showed no changes in reporter-gene-expression when grown on sugar under steady-state conditions. In contrast, short-term treatments of agar-grown seedlings with 1% glucose or sucrose induced pbZIP63::GUS repression, which became even more apparent in seedlings grown in liquid media. Subsequent analyses of liquid-grown gin2.1 and oe3.2 seedlings revealed that glucose-dependent regulation of the five selected genes was not affected in gin2.1, whereas it was enhanced in oe3.2 plants for bZIP63, At5g22920 and BT2. The sugar treatments had no effect on ATP/ADP ratio, suggesting that changes in gene expression were not linked to cellular energy status. Overall, the data suggest that HXK1 does not act as glucose sensor controlling bZIP63, At5g22920 and BT2 expression, but it is nevertheless required for production of a downstream metabolic signal regulating their expression.

  10. A new code SORD for simulation of polarized light scattering in the Earth atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkin, Sergey; Lyapustin, Alexei; Sinyuk, Aliaksandr; Holben, Brent

    2016-05-01

    We report a new publicly available radiative transfer (RT) code for numerical simulation of polarized light scattering in plane-parallel Earth atmosphere. Using 44 benchmark tests, we prove high accuracy of the new RT code, SORD (Successive ORDers of scattering1, 2). We describe capabilities of SORD and show run time for each test on two different machines. At present, SORD is supposed to work as part of the Aerosol Robotic NETwork3 (AERONET) inversion algorithm. For natural integration with the AERONET software, SORD is coded in Fortran 90/95. The code is available by email request from the corresponding (first) author or from ftp://climate1.gsfc.nasa.gov/skorkin/SORD/ or ftp://maiac.gsfc.nasa.gov/pub/SORD.zip

  11. QR Codes 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  12. Polyphase alternating codes

    CERN Document Server

    Markkanen, Markku

    2007-01-01

    This work introduces a method for constructing polyphase alternating codes in which the length of a code transmission cycle can be $p^m$ or $p-1$, where $p$ is a prime number and $m$ is a positive integer. The relevant properties leading to the construction alternating codes and the algorithm for generating alternating codes is described. Examples of all practical and some not that practical polyphase code lengths are given.

  13. Constructing quantum codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Quantum error correcting codes are indispensable for quantum information processing and quantum computation.In 1995 and 1996,Shor and Steane gave first several examples of quantum codes from classical error correcting codes.The construction of efficient quantum codes is now an active multi-discipline research field.In this paper we review the known several constructions of quantum codes and present some examples.

  14. Polyphase alternating codes

    OpenAIRE

    M. Markkanen; Vierinen, J.; Markkanen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p–1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p–1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We ...

  15. Computer Code for Nanostructure Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filikhin, Igor; Vlahovic, Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Due to their small size, nanostructures can have stress and thermal gradients that are larger than any macroscopic analogue. These gradients can lead to specific regions that are susceptible to failure via processes such as plastic deformation by dislocation emission, chemical debonding, and interfacial alloying. A program has been developed that rigorously simulates and predicts optoelectronic properties of nanostructures of virtually any geometrical complexity and material composition. It can be used in simulations of energy level structure, wave functions, density of states of spatially configured phonon-coupled electrons, excitons in quantum dots, quantum rings, quantum ring complexes, and more. The code can be used to calculate stress distributions and thermal transport properties for a variety of nanostructures and interfaces, transport and scattering at nanoscale interfaces and surfaces under various stress states, and alloy compositional gradients. The code allows users to perform modeling of charge transport processes through quantum-dot (QD) arrays as functions of inter-dot distance, array order versus disorder, QD orientation, shape, size, and chemical composition for applications in photovoltaics and physical properties of QD-based biochemical sensors. The code can be used to study the hot exciton formation/relation dynamics in arrays of QDs of different shapes and sizes at different temperatures. It also can be used to understand the relation among the deposition parameters and inherent stresses, strain deformation, heat flow, and failure of nanostructures.

  16. Construction of Codes for Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Elsenhans, Andreas-Stephan; Wassermann, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    Based on ideas of K\\"otter and Kschischang we use constant dimension subspaces as codewords in a network. We show a connection to the theory of q-analogues of a combinatorial designs, which has been studied in Braun, Kerber and Laue as a purely combinatorial object. For the construction of network codes we successfully modified methods (construction with prescribed automorphisms) originally developed for the q-analogues of a combinatorial designs. We then give a special case of that method which allows the construction of network codes with a very large ambient space and we also show how to decode such codes with a very small number of operations.

  17. Intracoin - International Nuclide Transport Code Intercomparison Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the project is to obtain improved knowledge of the influence of various strategies for radionuclide transport modelling for the safety assessment of final repositories for nuclear waste. This is a report of the first phase of the project which was devoted to a comparison of the numerical accuracy of the computer codes used in the study. The codes can be divided into five groups, namely advection-dispersion models, models including matrix diffusion and chemical effects and finally combined models. The results are presented as comparisons of calculations since the objective of level 1 was code verification. (G.B.)

  18. TIPONLINE Code Table

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coded items are entered in the tiponline data entry program. The codes and their explanations are necessary in order to use the data

  19. Balanced Permutation Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrys, Ryan; Milenkovic, Olgica

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by charge balancing constraints for rank modulation schemes, we introduce the notion of balanced permutations and derive the capacity of balanced permutation codes. We also describe simple interleaving methods for permutation code constructions and show that they approach capacity

  20. SEVERO code - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This user's manual contains all the necessary information concerning the use of SEVERO code. This computer code is related to the statistics of extremes = extreme winds, extreme precipitation and flooding hazard risk analysis. (A.C.A.S.)

  1. Cloning of three ZIP/Nramp transporter genes from a Ni hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi japonicum and their Ni2+-transport abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Takafumi; Usui, Koji; Horie, Kenji; Nosaka, Shiro; Mizuno, Naoharu; Obata, Hitoshi

    2005-08-01

    Ni homeostasis is essential for plant cell activity, but the mechanisms of Ni-transport and delivery are unknown. To elucidate the role of ZIP and NRAMP metal-transporters for Ni2+-transport and homeostasis, we cloned their homologous genes from the Ni hyperaccumulator Thlaspi japonicum, and investigated their Ni-transporting abilities by expression in yeast. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two Zip transporter genes (TjZnt1, TjZnt2) and one Nramp transporter gene cloned had high homologies with TcZNT1 and TcZNT2 of Thlaspi caerulescens and AtNRAMP4 of Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively, and were predicted as integral membrane proteins with 6 or 12 transmembrane domains. TjZNT1 and TjZNT2 had two long histidine-rich domains in the putative cytoplasmic domain between transmembrane domains III and IV. TjNRAMP4 conserved a consensus transporter motif between transmembrane domains VIII and IX. The yeast transformed with TjZNT1 or TjZNT2 showed a marked increase in Ni2+ tolerance with the gene expression. In contrast, the expression of TjNramp4 caused elevation of Ni2+ sensitivity and Ni2+ concentration. These data suggest that ZIP/NRAMP transporters participate in Ni2+ homeostasis of Ni hyperaccumulator plants. TjZNT1 had Zn2+-, Cd2+- and Mn2+-transporting abilities and TjZNT2 also had Zn2+- and Mn2+-transporting abilities, but TjNRAMP4 could transport Ni2+ but not Zn2+, Cd2+ or Mn2+. PMID:16198592

  2. Unfolding the color code

    OpenAIRE

    Kubica, Aleksander; Yoshida, Beni; Pastawski, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The topological color code and the toric code are two leading candidates for realizing fault-tolerant quantum computation. Here we show that the color code on a $d$-dimensional closed manifold is equivalent to multiple decoupled copies of the $d$-dimensional toric code up to local unitary transformations and adding or removing ancilla qubits. Our result not only generalizes the proven equivalence for $d=2$, but also provides an explicit recipe of how to decouple independent components of the ...

  3. The Zinc Concentration in the Diet and the Length of the Feeding Period Affect the Methylation Status of the ZIP4 Zinc Transporter Gene in Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Karweina; Susanne Kreuzer-Redmer; Uwe Müller; Tobias Franken; Robert Pieper; Udo Baron; Sven Olek; Jürgen Zentek; Gudrun A Brockmann

    2015-01-01

    High doses of zinc oxide are commonly used in weaned pig diets to improve performance and health. Recent reports show that this may also lead to an imbalanced zinc homeostasis in the animal. For a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of different zinc intakes, we performed a feeding experiment to assess potential epigenetic regulation of the ZIP4 gene expression via DNA methylation in the small intestine of piglets. Fifty-four piglets were fed diets with 57 (LZn), 164 (NZn) or 2,...

  4. Interferon-γ Promotes Inflammation and Development of T-Cell Lymphoma in HTLV-1 bZIP Factor Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mitagami, Yu; Yasunaga, Jun-ichirou; Kinosada, Haruka; Ohshima, Koichi; Matsuoka, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is an etiological agent of several inflammatory diseases and a T-cell malignancy, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) is the only viral gene that is constitutively expressed in HTLV-1-infected cells, and it has multiple functions on T-cell signaling pathways. HBZ has important roles in HTLV-1-mediated pathogenesis, since HBZ transgenic (HBZ-Tg) mice develop systemic inflammation and T-cell lymphomas, which are similar phenotypes to...

  5. Informal control code logic

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    General definitions as well as rules of reasoning regarding control code production, distribution, deployment, and usage are described. The role of testing, trust, confidence and risk analysis is considered. A rationale for control code testing is sought and found for the case of safety critical embedded control code.

  6. Informal Control code logic

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, Jan A.

    2010-01-01

    General definitions as well as rules of reasoning regarding control code production, distribution, deployment, and usage are described. The role of testing, trust, confidence and risk analysis is considered. A rationale for control code testing is sought and found for the case of safety critical embedded control code.

  7. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow the...

  8. ARC Code TI: CODE Software Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CODE is a software framework for control and observation in distributed environments. The basic functionality of the framework allows a user to observe a...

  9. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of...

  10. The Procions` code; Le code Procions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deck, D.; Samba, G.

    1994-12-19

    This paper presents a new code to simulate plasmas generated by inertial confinement. This multi-kinds kinetic code is done with no angular approximation concerning ions and will work in plan and spherical geometry. First, the physical model is presented, using Fokker-Plank. Then, the numerical model is introduced in order to solve the Fokker-Plank operator under the Rosenbluth form. At the end, several numerical tests are proposed. (TEC). 17 refs., 27 figs.

  11. Universal Rateless Codes From Coupled LT Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Aref, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    It was recently shown that spatial coupling of individual low-density parity-check codes improves the belief-propagation threshold of the coupled ensemble essentially to the maximum a posteriori threshold of the underlying ensemble. We study the performance of spatially coupled low-density generator-matrix ensembles when used for transmission over binary-input memoryless output-symmetric channels. We show by means of density evolution that the threshold saturation phenomenon also takes place in this setting. Our motivation for studying low-density generator-matrix codes is that they can easily be converted into rateless codes. Although there are already several classes of excellent rateless codes known to date, rateless codes constructed via spatial coupling might offer some additional advantages. In particular, by the very nature of the threshold phenomenon one expects that codes constructed on this principle can be made to be universal, i.e., a single construction can uniformly approach capacity over the cl...

  12. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    , Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important to...... understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical...

  13. Codes from difference sets

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Cunsheng

    2014-01-01

    This is the first monograph on codebooks and linear codes from difference sets and almost difference sets. It aims at providing a survey of constructions of difference sets and almost difference sets as well as an in-depth treatment of codebooks and linear codes from difference sets and almost difference sets. To be self-contained, this monograph covers necessary mathematical foundations and the basics of coding theory. It also contains tables of best BCH codes and best cyclic codes over GF(2) and GF(3) up to length 125 and 79, respectively. This repository of tables can be used to benchmark

  14. (Sigma-Delta) Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Boulagouaz, M.; Leroy, A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the notion of cyclic ($f(t),\\sigma,\\delta$)-codes for $f(t)\\in \\Ore$. These codes generalize the $\\theta$-codes as introduced by D. Boucher, F. Ulmer, W. Geiselmann \\cite{BGU}. We construct generic and control matrices for these codes. As a particular case the ($\\si,\\de$)-$W$-code associated to a Wedderburn polynomial are defined and we show that their control matrices are given by generalized Vandermonde matrices. All the Wedderburn polynomials of $\\mathbb F_q[t;\\t...

  15. XSOR codes users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ''XSOR''. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms

  16. NAGRADATA. Code key. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference manual provides users of the NAGRADATA system with comprehensive keys to the coding/decoding of geological and technical information to be stored in or retreaved from the databank. Emphasis has been placed on input data coding. When data is retreaved the translation into plain language of stored coded information is done automatically by computer. Three keys each, list the complete set of currently defined codes for the NAGRADATA system, namely codes with appropriate definitions, arranged: 1. according to subject matter (thematically) 2. the codes listed alphabetically and 3. the definitions listed alphabetically. Additional explanation is provided for the proper application of the codes and the logic behind the creation of new codes to be used within the NAGRADATA system. NAGRADATA makes use of codes instead of plain language for data storage; this offers the following advantages: speed of data processing, mainly data retrieval, economies of storage memory requirements, the standardisation of terminology. The nature of this thesaurian type 'key to codes' makes it impossible to either establish a final form or to cover the entire spectrum of requirements. Therefore, this first issue of codes to NAGRADATA must be considered to represent the current state of progress of a living system and future editions will be issued in a loose leave ringbook system which can be updated by an organised (updating) service. (author)

  17. Permutation codes for sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, T.; Jelinek, F.; Wolf, J. K.

    1972-01-01

    Source encoding techniques based on permutation codes are investigated. For a broad class of distortion measures it is shown that optimum encoding of a source permutation code is easy to instrument even for very long block lengths. Also, the nonparametric nature of permutation encoding is well suited to situations involving unknown source statistics. For the squared-error distortion measure a procedure for generating good permutation codes of a given rate and block length is described. The performance of such codes for a memoryless Gaussian source is compared both with the rate-distortion function bound and with the performance of various quantization schemes. The comparison reveals that permutation codes are asymptotically ideal for small rates and perform as well as the best entropy-coded quantizers presently known for intermediate rates. They can be made to compare favorably at high rates, too, provided the coding delay associated with extremely long block lengths is tolerable.

  18. Testing algebraic geometric codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Property testing was initially studied from various motivations in 1990’s. A code C  GF (r)n is locally testable if there is a randomized algorithm which can distinguish with high possibility the codewords from a vector essentially far from the code by only accessing a very small (typically constant) number of the vector’s coordinates. The problem of testing codes was firstly studied by Blum, Luby and Rubinfeld and closely related to probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs). How to characterize locally testable codes is a complex and challenge problem. The local tests have been studied for Reed-Solomon (RS), Reed-Muller (RM), cyclic, dual of BCH and the trace subcode of algebraicgeometric codes. In this paper we give testers for algebraic geometric codes with linear parameters (as functions of dimensions). We also give a moderate condition under which the family of algebraic geometric codes cannot be locally testable.

  19. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  20. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  1. The zinc transporter SLC39A13/ZIP13 is required for connective tissue development; its involvement in BMP/TGF-beta signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Fukada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn is an essential trace element and it is abundant in connective tissues, however biological roles of Zn and its transporters in those tissues and cells remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that mice deficient in Zn transporter Slc39a13/Zip13 show changes in bone, teeth and connective tissue reminiscent of the clinical spectrum of human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS. The Slc39a13 knockout (Slc39a13-KO mice show defects in the maturation of osteoblasts, chondrocytes, odontoblasts, and fibroblasts. In the corresponding tissues and cells, impairment in bone morphogenic protein (BMP and TGF-beta signaling were observed. Homozygosity for a SLC39A13 loss of function mutation was detected in sibs affected by a unique variant of EDS that recapitulates the phenotype observed in Slc39a13-KO mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hence, our results reveal a crucial role of SLC39A13/ZIP13 in connective tissue development at least in part due to its involvement in the BMP/TGF-beta signaling pathways. The Slc39a13-KO mouse represents a novel animal model linking zinc metabolism, BMP/TGF-beta signaling and connective tissue dysfunction.

  2. The manganese-responsive regulator MntR represses transcription of a predicted ZIP family metal ion transporter in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Meike; Frunzke, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Manganese is an important trace element required as an enzyme cofactor and for protection against oxidative stress. In this study, we characterized the DtxR-type transcriptional regulator MntR (cg0741) of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 as a manganese-dependent repressor of the predicted ZIP family metal transporter Cg1623. Comparative transcriptome analysis of a ΔmntR strain and the wild type led to the identification of cg1623 as potential target gene of MntR which was about 50-fold upregulated when cells were grown in glucose minimal medium. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, a conserved 18 bp inverted repeat (TGTTCAATGCGTTGAACA) was identified as binding motif of MntR in the cg1623 promoter and confirmed by mutational analysis. Promoter fusion of Pcg1623 to eyfp confirmed that the MntR-dependent repression is only abolished in the absence of manganese. However, neither deletion of mntR nor cg1623 resulted in a significant growth phenotype in comparison to the wild type--strongly suggesting the presence of further manganese uptake and efflux systems in C. glutamicum. The control of cg1623 by the DtxR-type regulator MntR represents the first example of a predicted ZIP family protein that is regulated in a manganese-dependent manner in bacteria. PMID:25790484

  3. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  4. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  5. Security of QR Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Kapsalis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The 2-dimensional barcodes known as QR (Quick Response) Codesare increasing their popularity as they appear in more places in theurban environment. QR Codes can be considered as physical hyper-linksthat give the ability to users to access, through their mobile devicesthat are able to scan QR Codes, additional information located in aweb-page. Apart from marketing, QR Codes have been also adopted indifferent areas such as the on-line payments. This development alongwith the trend that some of ...

  6. Practices in Code Discoverability

    OpenAIRE

    Teuben, Peter; Allen, Alice; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Shamir, Lior

    2012-01-01

    Much of scientific progress now hinges on the reliability, falsifiability and reproducibility of computer source codes. Astrophysics in particular is a discipline that today leads other sciences in making useful scientific components freely available online, including data, abstracts, preprints, and fully published papers, yet even today many astrophysics source codes remain hidden from public view. We review the importance and history of source codes in astrophysics and previous efforts to d...

  7. The aeroelastic code FLEXLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, B. [Stork Product Eng., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    To support the discussion on aeroelastic codes, a description of the code FLEXLAST was given and experiences within benchmarks and measurement programmes were summarized. The code FLEXLAST has been developed since 1982 at Stork Product Engineering (SPE). Since 1992 FLEXLAST has been used by Dutch industries for wind turbine and rotor design. Based on the comparison with measurements, it can be concluded that the main shortcomings of wind turbine modelling lie in the field of aerodynamics, wind field and wake modelling. (au)

  8. Progressive fractal coding

    OpenAIRE

    Kopilovic, Ivan; Saupe, Dietmar; Hamzaoui, Raouf

    2001-01-01

    Progressive coding is an important feature of compression schemes. Wavelet coders are well suited for this purpose because the wavelet coefficients can be naturally ordered according to decreasing importance. Progressive fractal coding is feasible, but it was proposed only for hybrid fractal-wavelet schemes. We introduce a progressive fractal image coder in the spatial domain. A Lagrange optimization based on rate-distortion performance estimates determines an optimal ordering of the code bit...

  9. Opening up codings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Heinemann, Trine

    2015-01-01

    We welcome Tanya Stivers’s discussion (Stivers, 2015/this issue) of coding social interaction and find that her descriptions of the processes of coding open up important avenues for discussion, among other things of the precise ad hoc considerations that researchers need to bear in mind, both when....... Instead we propose that the promise of coding-based research lies in its ability to open up new qualitative questions....

  10. Phonological coding during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-11-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  11. Locally Repairable Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Papailiopoulos, Dimitris S.; Dimakis, Alexandros G.

    2012-01-01

    Distributed storage systems for large-scale applications typically use replication for reliability. Recently, erasure codes were used to reduce the large storage overhead, while increasing data reliability. A main limitation of off-the-shelf erasure codes is their high-repair cost during single node failure events. A major open problem in this area has been the design of codes that {\\it i)} are repair efficient and {\\it ii)} achieve arbitrarily high data rates. In this paper, we explore the r...

  12. QR codes for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Find out how to effectively create, use, and track QR codes QR (Quick Response) codes are popping up everywhere, and businesses are reaping the rewards. Get in on the action with the no-nonsense advice in this streamlined, portable guide. You'll find out how to get started, plan your strategy, and actually create the codes. Then you'll learn to link codes to mobile-friendly content, track your results, and develop ways to give your customers value that will keep them coming back. It's all presented in the straightforward style you've come to know and love, with a dash of humor thrown

  13. ARC Code TI: ACCEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACCEPT consists of an overall software infrastructure framework and two main software components. The software infrastructure framework consists of code written to...

  14. Tokamak Systems Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged

  15. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 365); } else { $('#your-zip').html('Error retrieving zip code'); } } else { $('#your-zip').html('Error retrieving zip code'); } } }); } else { getTeamRaisersByDistance(getCookie('geolocation')); } } function getZipError(err) { if ( ...

  16. Research on universal combinatorial coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Mo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The conception of universal combinatorial coding is proposed. Relations exist more or less in many coding methods. It means that a kind of universal coding method is objectively existent. It can be a bridge connecting many coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding is lossless and it is based on the combinatorics theory. The combinational and exhaustive property make it closely related with the existing code methods. Universal combinatorial coding does not depend on the probability statistic characteristic of information source, and it has the characteristics across three coding branches. It has analyzed the relationship between the universal combinatorial coding and the variety of coding method and has researched many applications technologies of this coding method. In addition, the efficiency of universal combinatorial coding is analyzed theoretically. The multicharacteristic and multiapplication of universal combinatorial coding are unique in the existing coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding has theoretical research and practical application value. PMID:24772019

  17. Water Safety Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sign In Espanol Local Red Cross ( ) Change Chapter Edit Zip Code Edit Zip Code Shop the Red Cross Store Toggle ... Sign In Espanol Local Red Cross ( ) Change Chapter Edit Zip Code Edit Zip Code Shop the Red ...

  18. Disaster Recovery Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sign In Espanol Local Red Cross ( ) Change Chapter Edit Zip Code Edit Zip Code Shop the Red Cross Store Toggle ... Sign In Espanol Local Red Cross ( ) Change Chapter Edit Zip Code Edit Zip Code Shop the Red ...

  19. Origin and evolution of the genetic code: the universal enigma

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene V Koonin; Novozhilov, Artem S

    2009-01-01

    The genetic code is nearly universal, and the arrangement of the codons in the standard codon table is highly non-random. The three main concepts on the origin and evolution of the code are the stereochemical theory, according to which codon assignments are dictated by physico-chemical affinity between amino acids and the cognate codons (anticodons); the coevolution theory, which posits that the code structure coevolved with amino acid biosynthesis pathways; and the error minimization theory ...

  20. AZIMUT code abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brief description of the AZIMUT code for calculation the neutron flux in a cluster cell is presented. Code takes into account 1 and 2 azimuthal harmonics in the one-group P3-approximation and uses the heterogeneous approach. 2 refs

  1. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene; Dahlgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven...

  2. Nuremberg code turns 60

    OpenAIRE

    Thieren, Michel; Mauron, Alex

    2007-01-01

    This month marks sixty years since the Nuremberg code – the basic text of modern medical ethics – was issued. The principles in this code were articulated in the context of the Nuremberg trials in 1947. We would like to use this anniversary to examine its ability to address the ethical challenges of our time.

  3. Code of Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…

  4. Computerized mega code recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, T W; Bock, H C

    1988-04-01

    A system has been developed to facilitate recording of advanced cardiac life support mega code testing scenarios. By scanning a paper "keyboard" using a bar code wand attached to a portable microcomputer, the person assigned to record the scenario can easily generate an accurate, complete, timed, and typewritten record of the given situations and the obtained responses. PMID:3354937

  5. Codes of Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    Most schools have a code of conduct, pledge, or behavioral standards, set by the district or school board with the school community. In this article, the author features some schools that created a new vision of instilling code of conducts to students based on work quality, respect, safety and courtesy. She suggests that communicating the code…

  6. Code A1 Revised

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the revised safety code A1 entitled 'MEDICAL CODE' is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/335476/last_released Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Secretariat, e-mail : sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  7. Safety Code A12

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2005-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Code A12 (Code A12) entitled "THE SAFETY COMMISSION (SC)" is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/479423/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Unit Secretariat, e-mail: sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  8. Fracture flow code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrology of the SCV site will be modelled utilizing discrete fracture flow models. These models are complex, and can not be fully cerified by comparison to analytical solutions. The best approach for verification of these codes is therefore cross-verification between different codes. This is complicated by the variation in assumptions and solution techniques utilized in different codes. Cross-verification procedures are defined which allow comparison of the codes developed by Harwell Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Golder Associates Inc. Six cross-verification datasets are defined for deterministic and stochastic verification of geometric and flow features of the codes. Additional datasets for verification of transport features will be documented in a future report. (13 figs., 7 tabs., 10 refs.) (authors)

  9. Transformation invariant sparse coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    Sparse coding is a well established principle for unsupervised learning. Traditionally, features are extracted in sparse coding in specific locations, however, often we would prefer invariant representation. This paper introduces a general transformation invariant sparse coding (TISC) model. The...... model decomposes images into features invariant to location and general transformation by a set of specified operators as well as a sparse coding matrix indicating where and to what degree in the original image these features are present. The TISC model is in general overcomplete and we therefore invoke...... sparse coding to estimate its parameters. We demonstrate how the model can correctly identify components of non-trivial artificial as well as real image data. Thus, the model is capable of reducing feature redundancies in terms of pre-specified transformations improving the component identification....

  10. Code blue: seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerth, Matthew T; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Noe, Katherine H; Sirven, Joseph I

    2011-06-01

    Eyewitnesses frequently perceive seizures as life threatening. If an event occurs on the hospital premises, a "code blue" can be called which consumes considerable resources. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of code blue calls for seizures and seizure mimickers. A retrospective review of a code blue log from 2001 through 2008 identified 50 seizure-like events, representing 5.3% of all codes. Twenty-eight (54%) occurred in inpatients; the other 22 (44%) events involved visitors or employees on the hospital premises. Eighty-six percent of the events were epileptic seizures. Seizure mimickers, particularly psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, were more common in the nonhospitalized group. Only five (17.9%) inpatients had a known diagnosis of epilepsy, compared with 17 (77.3%) of the nonhospitalized patients. This retrospective survey provides insights into how code blues are called on hospitalized versus nonhospitalized patients for seizure-like events. PMID:21546315

  11. The Role of Plant bZIP Transcription Factors in Abiotic Stress%植物bZIP转录因子在非生物胁迫中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉静; 邹杰; 刘爱玲; 陈信波

    2012-01-01

    The abiotic stress factors, drought, salt and extreme temperature, have seriously impact on plant growth. The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors, which were identified in various plants, have been proved to be involved in responding process to various abiotic stresses. The role of plant bZIP transcription factors in the response to abiotic stress and its latest advances were reviewed.%非生物胁迫因子如干旱、高温、低温和盐碱等严重影响着植物的生长发育,碱性亮氨酸拉链( bZIP)类转录因子与非生物逆境胁迫响应有密切关联.综述了植物bZIP类转录因子在应答非生物逆境胁迫中的作用及研究进展.

  12. A Hydrochemical Hybrid Code for Astrophysical Problems. I. Code Verification and Benchmarks for Photon-Dominated Region (PDR)

    OpenAIRE

    Motoyama, Kazutaka; Morata, Oscar; Shang, Hsien; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Hasegawa, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    A two dimensional hydrochemical hybrid code, KM2, is constructed to deal with astrophysical problems that would require coupled hydrodynamical and chemical evolution. The code assumes axisymmetry in cylindrical coordinate system, and consists of two modules: a hydrodynamics module and a chemistry module. The hydrodynamics module solves hydrodynamics using a Godunov-type finite volume scheme and treats included chemical species as passively advected scalars. The chemistry module implicitly sol...

  13. Application of RS Codes in Decoding QR Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Suxia(朱素霞); Ji Zhenzhou; Cao Zhiyan

    2003-01-01

    The QR Code is a 2-dimensional matrix code with high error correction capability. It employs RS codes to generate error correction codewords in encoding and recover errors and damages in decoding. This paper presents several QR Code's virtues, analyzes RS decoding algorithm and gives a software flow chart of decoding the QR Code with RS decoding algorithm.

  14. Report number codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name

  15. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  16. Distributed multiple description coding

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Huihui; Zhao, Yao

    2011-01-01

    This book examines distributed video coding (DVC) and multiple description coding (MDC), two novel techniques designed to address the problems of conventional image and video compression coding. Covering all fundamental concepts and core technologies, the chapters can also be read as independent and self-sufficient, describing each methodology in sufficient detail to enable readers to repeat the corresponding experiments easily. Topics and features: provides a broad overview of DVC and MDC, from the basic principles to the latest research; covers sub-sampling based MDC, quantization based MDC,

  17. Classical Holographic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Brehm, Enrico M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce classical holographic codes. These can be understood as concatenated probabilistic codes and can be represented as networks uniformly covering hyperbolic space. In particular, classical holographic codes can be interpreted as maps from bulk degrees of freedom to boundary degrees of freedom. Interestingly, they are shown to exhibit features similar to those expected from the AdS/CFT correspondence. Among these are a version of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula and intriguing properties regarding bulk reconstruction and boundary representations of bulk operations. We discuss the relation of our findings with expectations from AdS/CFT and, in particular, with recent results from quantum error correction.

  18. Speaking In Code

    OpenAIRE

    Croxall, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Brian Croxall Emory University Over the last five years, there have been countless articles written about the digital humanities. It’s been called both the savior and the death knell of scholarship in the twenty-first century. But what do we mean when we say “digital humanities”? How “digital” and how “humanities” need we be? Why is so much faith being placed in code and code words? In this presentation, Brian Croxall argues that digital humanists need to speak in code less frequently and tha...

  19. Cryptography cracking codes

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    While cracking a code might seem like something few of us would encounter in our daily lives, it is actually far more prevalent than we may realize. Anyone who has had personal information taken because of a hacked email account can understand the need for cryptography and the importance of encryption-essentially the need to code information to keep it safe. This detailed volume examines the logic and science behind various ciphers, their real world uses, how codes can be broken, and the use of technology in this oft-overlooked field.

  20. Laser propagation code study

    OpenAIRE

    Rockower, Edward B.

    1985-01-01

    A number of laser propagation codes have been assessed as to their suitability for modeling Army High Energy Laser (HEL) weapons used in an anti- sensor mode. We identify a number of areas in which systems analysis HEL codes are deficient. Most notably, available HEL scaling law codes model the laser aperture as circular, possibly with a fixed (e.g. 10%) obscuration. However, most HELs have rectangular apertures with up to 30% obscuration. We present a beam-quality/aperture shape scaling rela...

  1. Enigma fuel performance code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Enigma fuel performance code has been developed jointly by BNFL and the CEGB's Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories. Its development arose from the need for a code capable of analysing all aspects of light water reactor (LWR) fuel behaviour which would also provide a suitable framework for future submodel development. The submodels incorporated into Enigma reflect the significant progress which has been made in recent years in modelling the important physical processes which determine fuel behaviour. The Enigma code has been subjected to an extensive programme of validation which has demonstrated its suitability for LWR performance analysis. (author)

  2. FORIST unfolding code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FERDOR method is widely used to unfold neutron energy spectra from pulse-height distributions measured with NE-213 spectrometers. Two unfolding codes COOLC (developed at ORNL) and FORIST (modified version of COOLC developed at UIUC) implement the FERDOR method and are distributed by RSIC. Each code package contains an NE-213 response matrix, sample input data, and sample output. The smoothing (window) widths which are distributed with COOLC are not the most appropriate for all neutron spectrum measurements. The FORIST code determines an optimum set of window widths according to the desired statistical error in the smoothed spectrum

  3. Health Code Number (HCN) Development Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrocchi, Rocky; Craig, Douglas K.; Bond, Jayne-Anne; Trott, Donna M.; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2013-09-01

    This report provides the detailed description of health code numbers (HCNs) and the procedure of how each HCN is assigned. It contains many guidelines and rationales of HCNs. HCNs are used in the chemical mixture methodology (CMM), a method recommended by the department of energy (DOE) for assessing health effects as a result of exposures to airborne aerosols in an emergency. The procedure is a useful tool for proficient HCN code developers. Intense training and quality assurance with qualified HCN developers are required before an individual comprehends the procedure to develop HCNs for DOE.

  4. Presentation of the NABE calculation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the NABE code is to follow up the physical and chemical parameters of a concrete cell when large amounts of sodium are released by accident in the reactor building. The code contains several modules: behaviour of the concrete, heating-up, water and CO2 release, reactions between liquid and vapor sodium with the concrete breakdown products, combustion of sodium and hydrogen (water), power released by the fission products in the liquid, the gas and the concrete, behaviour of the atmosphere of the cell (pressure, temperature, leaks), sodium vaporization and boiling, and condensation on the cold walls

  5. Coupled hydro - transport analysis study of geochemical reaction due to unsaturated around the disposal tunnel. Application of the coupled thermo - hydro - mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes model/analysis code in the geological disposal for the high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) around the disposal tunnel affects such as the corrosive environment of the over-pack, re-saturation period of the buffer material, and environmental condition of the nuclear species migration on the geological disposal for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It is necessary to consider aftermath of EDZ in initial condition of the realistic numerical simulation of the long-term behavior of near-filed HLW repository after emplacement of engineered barrier system. This report presents the analysis assessment geochemical reaction with the development of the unsaturated zone around the disposal tunnel by developed the coupled Thermo - Hydro - Mechanical and Chemical (THMC) processes model/analysis code. As a result, the THMC processes analysis model apply a change of the solution composition by degasification of the carbon dioxide gas to the pore water and the change of the oxidation-reduction potential due to unsaturated zone around the disposal tunnel. (author)

  6. FORTRAN code-evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, J. D.; Kleir, R.

    1977-01-01

    Automated code evaluation system can be used to detect coding errors and unsound coding practices in any ANSI FORTRAN IV source code before they can cause execution-time malfunctions. System concentrates on acceptable FORTRAN code features which are likely to produce undesirable results.

  7. No More Perfect Codes: Classification of Perfect Quantum Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhuo; Xing, Lijuan

    2009-01-01

    We solve the problem of the classification of perfect quantum codes. We prove that the only nontrivial perfect quantum codes are those with the parameters . There exist no other nontrivial perfect quantum codes.

  8. CBP Phase I Code Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is to develop a reasonable and credible set of software tools to predict the structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cement barriers used in nuclear applications over extended time frames (greater than 100 years for operating facilities and greater than 1000 years for waste management). The simulation tools will be used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near surface engineered waste disposal systems including waste forms, containment structures, entombments, and environmental remediation. These cementitious materials are exposed to dynamic environmental conditions that cause changes in material properties via (i) aging, (ii) chloride attack, (iii) sulfate attack, (iv) carbonation, (v) oxidation, and (vi) primary constituent leaching. A set of state-of-the-art software tools has been selected as a starting point to capture these important aging and degradation phenomena. Integration of existing software developed by the CBP partner organizations was determined to be the quickest method of meeting the CBP goal of providing a computational tool that improves the prediction of the long-term behavior of cementitious materials. These partner codes were selected based on their maturity and ability to address the problems outlined above. The GoldSim Monte Carlo simulation program (GTG 2010a, GTG 2010b) was chosen as the code integration platform (Brown and Flach 2009b). GoldSim (current Version 10.5) is a Windows based graphical object-oriented computer program that provides a flexible environment for model development (Brown and Flach 2009b). The linking of GoldSim to external codes has previously been successfully demonstrated (Eary 2007, Mattie et al. 2007). GoldSim is capable of performing deterministic and probabilistic simulations and of modeling radioactive decay and constituent transport. As part of the CBP project, a general Dynamic Link Library (DLL) interface

  9. CBP PHASE I CODE INTEGRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.; Brown, K.; Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is to develop a reasonable and credible set of software tools to predict the structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cement barriers used in nuclear applications over extended time frames (greater than 100 years for operating facilities and greater than 1000 years for waste management). The simulation tools will be used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near surface engineered waste disposal systems including waste forms, containment structures, entombments, and environmental remediation. These cementitious materials are exposed to dynamic environmental conditions that cause changes in material properties via (i) aging, (ii) chloride attack, (iii) sulfate attack, (iv) carbonation, (v) oxidation, and (vi) primary constituent leaching. A set of state-of-the-art software tools has been selected as a starting point to capture these important aging and degradation phenomena. Integration of existing software developed by the CBP partner organizations was determined to be the quickest method of meeting the CBP goal of providing a computational tool that improves the prediction of the long-term behavior of cementitious materials. These partner codes were selected based on their maturity and ability to address the problems outlined above. The GoldSim Monte Carlo simulation program (GTG 2010a, GTG 2010b) was chosen as the code integration platform (Brown & Flach 2009b). GoldSim (current Version 10.5) is a Windows based graphical object-oriented computer program that provides a flexible environment for model development (Brown & Flach 2009b). The linking of GoldSim to external codes has previously been successfully demonstrated (Eary 2007, Mattie et al. 2007). GoldSim is capable of performing deterministic and probabilistic simulations and of modeling radioactive decay and constituent transport. As part of the CBP project, a general Dynamic Link Library (DLL) interface was

  10. OCA Code Enforcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Office of the County Attorney (OCA) processes Code Violation Citations issued by County agencies. The citations can be viewed by issued department, issued date...

  11. Importance of Building Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Banerjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum standards for constructed objects such as buildings and non building structures. The main purpose of building codes are to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or private authority. Building codes are generally intended to be applied by architects, engineers, constructors and regulators but are also used for various purposes by safety inspectors, environmental scientists, real estate developers, subcontractors, manufacturers of building products and materials, insurance companies, facility managers, tenants and others.

  12. The fast code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, L.N.; Wilson, R.E. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The FAST Code which is capable of determining structural loads on a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data are given at two wind speeds for the ESI-80. The FAST Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade bending, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffnesses, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms, and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST Code and test results is good. (au)

  13. Induction technology optimization code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A code has been developed to evaluate relative costs of induction accelerator driver systems for relativistic klystrons. The code incorporates beam generation, transport and pulsed power system constraints to provide an integrated design tool. The code generates an injector/accelerator combination which satisfies the top level requirements and all system constraints once a small number of design choices have been specified (rise time of the injector voltage and aspect ratio of the ferrite induction cores, for example). The code calculates dimensions of accelerator mechanical assemblies and values of all electrical components. Cost factors for machined parts, raw materials and components are applied to yield a total system cost. These costs are then plotted as a function of the two design choices to enable selection of an optimum design based on various criteria. (Author) 11 refs., 3 figs

  14. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof....

  15. Der Code der Transparenz

    OpenAIRE

    Alloa, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    In allen Bereichen der Gesellschaft werden gegenwärtig Forderungen nach mehr Transparenz laut. Was steht hinter diesem Wort? Für Emmanuel Alloa wohnt der Transparenzforderung die Paradoxie inne, ein "codefreier Code" sein zu wollen.

  16. The moment code BEDLAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Channell, P.J.; Healy, L.M.; Lysenko, W.P.

    1985-10-01

    This paper describes the status of BEDLAM and presents the results of some tests. We simulated a section of radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, neglecting space charge, to test the new code. Agreement with a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation was excellent. We also verified that the fourth-order solution is more accurate than the second-order solution, which indicates the convergence of the method. We believe these results justify the continued development of moment simulation codes.

  17. Code-Pointer Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Volodymyr Kuznetsov; Laszlo Szekeres; Mathias Payer; George Candea; Sekar, R.; Dawn Song

    2014-01-01

    Systems code is often written in low-level languages like C/C++, which offer many benefits but also delegate memory management to programmers. This invites memory safety bugs that attackers can exploit to divert control flow and compromise the system. Deployed defense mechanisms (e.g., ASLR, DEP) are incomplete, and stronger defense mechanisms (e.g., CFI) often have high overhead and limited guarantees [19, 15, 9]. We introduce code-pointer integrity (CPI), a new design point that guarantees...

  18. Towards advanced code simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) uses advanced thermohydraulic codes extensively to support PWR safety analyses. A system has been developed to allow fully interactive execution of any code with graphical simulation of the operator desk and mimic display. The system operates in a virtual machine environment, with the thermohydraulic code executing in one virtual machine, communicating via interrupts with any number of other virtual machines each running other programs and graphics drivers. The driver code itself does not have to be modified from its normal batch form. Shortly following the release of RELAP5 MOD1 in IBM compatible form in 1983, this code was used as the driver for this system. When RELAP5 MOD2 became available, it was adopted with no changes needed in the basic system. Overall the system has been used for some 5 years for the analysis of LOBI tests, full scale plant studies and for simple what-if studies. For gaining rapid understanding of system dependencies it has proved invaluable. The graphical mimic system, being independent of the driver code, has also been used with other codes to study core rewetting, to replay results obtained from batch jobs on a CRAY2 computer system and to display suitably processed experimental results from the LOBI facility to aid interpretation. For the above work real-time execution was not necessary. Current work now centers on implementing the RELAP 5 code on a true parallel architecture machine. Marconi Simulation have been contracted to investigate the feasibility of using upwards of 100 processors, each capable of a peak of 30 MIPS to run a highly detailed RELAP5 model in real time, complete with specially written 3D core neutronics and balance of plant models. This paper describes the experience of using RELAP5 as an analyzer/simulator, and outlines the proposed methods and problems associated with parallel execution of RELAP5

  19. Secure Fractal Image Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Lian, Shiguo

    2007-01-01

    In recent work, various fractal image coding methods are reported, which adopt the self-similarity of images to compress the size of images. However, till now, no solutions for the security of fractal encoded images have been provided. In this paper, a secure fractal image coding scheme is proposed and evaluated, which encrypts some of the fractal parameters during fractal encoding, and thus, produces the encrypted and encoded image. The encrypted image can only be recovered by the correct ke...

  20. Coding of auditory space

    OpenAIRE

    Konishi­, Masakazu

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral, anatomical, and physiological approaches can be integrated in the study of sound localization in barn owls. Space representation in owls provides a useful example for discussion of place and ensemble coding. Selectivity for space is broad and ambiguous in low-order neurons. Parallel pathways for binaural cues and for different frequency bands converge on high-order space-specific neurons, which encode space more precisely. An ensemble of broadly tuned place-coding neurons may conv...

  1. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  2. PEAR code review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a necessary component in the continuous improvement and refinement of methodologies employed in the nuclear industry, regulatory agencies need to periodically evaluate these processes to improve confidence in results and ensure appropriate levels of safety are being achieved. The independent and objective review of industry-standard computer codes forms an essential part of this program. To this end, this work undertakes an in-depth review of the computer code PEAR (Public Exposures from Accidental Releases), developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to assess accidental releases from CANDU reactors. PEAR is based largely on the models contained in the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) N288.2-M91. This report presents the results of a detailed technical review of the PEAR code to identify any variations from the CSA standard and other supporting documentation, verify the source code, assess the quality of numerical models and results, and identify general strengths and weaknesses of the code. The version of the code employed in this review is the one which AECL intends to use for CANDU 9 safety analyses. (author)

  3. On Expanded Cyclic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yingquan

    2008-01-01

    The paper has a threefold purpose. The first purpose is to present an explicit description of expanded cyclic codes defined in $\\GF(q^m)$. The proposed explicit construction of expanded generator matrix and expanded parity check matrix maintains the symbol-wise algebraic structure and thus keeps many important original characteristics. The second purpose of this paper is to identify a class of constant-weight cyclic codes. Specifically, we show that a well-known class of $q$-ary BCH codes excluding the all-zero codeword are constant-weight cyclic codes. Moreover, we show this class of codes achieve the Plotkin bound. The last purpose of the paper is to characterize expanded cyclic codes utilizing the proposed expanded generator matrix and parity check matrix. We analyze the properties of component codewords of a codeword and particularly establish the precise conditions under which a codeword can be represented by a subbasis. With the new insights, we present an improved lower bound on the minimum distance of...

  4. KENO-V code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KENO-V code is the current release of the Oak Ridge multigroup Monte Carlo criticality code development. The original KENO, with 16 group Hansen-Roach cross sections and P1 scattering, was one ot the first multigroup Monte Carlo codes and it and its successors have always been a much-used research tool for criticality studies. KENO-V is able to accept large neutron cross section libraries (a 218 group set is distributed with the code) and has a general P/sub N/ scattering capability. A supergroup feature allows execution of large problems on small computers, but at the expense of increased calculation time and system input/output operations. This supergroup feature is activated automatically by the code in a manner which utilizes as much computer memory as is available. The primary purpose of KENO-V is to calculate the system k/sub eff/, from small bare critical assemblies to large reflected arrays of differing fissile and moderator elements. In this respect KENO-V neither has nor requires the many options and sophisticated biasing techniques of general Monte Carlo codes

  5. Recent developments in the CONTAIN-LMR code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through an international collaborative effort, a special version of the CONTAIN code is being developed for integrated mechanistic analysis of the conditions in liquid metal reactor (LMR) containments during severe accidents. The capabilities of the most recent code version, CONTAIN LMR/1B-Mod.1, are discussed. These include new models for the treatment of two condensables, sodium condensation on aerosols, chemical reactions, hygroscopic aerosols, and concrete outgassing. This code version also incorporates all of the previously released LMR model enhancements. The results of an integral demonstration calculation of a sever core-melt accident scenario are given to illustrate the features of this code version. 11 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  6. Accumulative Landings System Code Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Code Tables Used In Landings System. These tables assign meanings to the codes that appear in the data tables. Code tables exist for species, gear, state, county,...

  7. Product Codes for Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    2002-01-01

    Many optical communicaton systems might benefit from forward-error-correction. We present a hard-decision decoding algorithm for the "Block Turbo Codes", suitable for optical communication, which makes this coding-scheme an alternative to Reed-Solomon codes.......Many optical communicaton systems might benefit from forward-error-correction. We present a hard-decision decoding algorithm for the "Block Turbo Codes", suitable for optical communication, which makes this coding-scheme an alternative to Reed-Solomon codes....

  8. Mixed Burst Error Correcting Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Sethi, Amita

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we construct codes which are an improvement on the previously known block wise burst error correcting codes in terms of their error correcting capabilities. Along with different bursts in different sub-blocks, the given codes also correct overlapping bursts of a given length in two consecutive sub-blocks of a code word. Such codes are called mixed burst correcting (mbc) codes.

  9. Nuclear code abstracts (1975 edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Code Abstracts is compiled in the Nuclear Code Committee to exchange information of the nuclear code developments among members of the committee. Enlarging the collection, the present one includes nuclear code abstracts obtained in 1975 through liaison officers of the organizations in Japan participating in the Nuclear Energy Agency's Computer Program Library at Ispra, Italy. The classification of nuclear codes and the format of code abstracts are the same as those in the library. (auth.)

  10. Algebraic geometric codes with applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao

    2007-01-01

    The theory of linear error-correcting codes from algebraic geomet-ric curves (algebraic geometric (AG) codes or geometric Goppa codes) has been well-developed since the work of Goppa and Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink in 1981-1982. In this paper we introduce to readers some recent progress in algebraic geometric codes and their applications in quantum error-correcting codes, secure multi-party computation and the construction of good binary codes.

  11. SPECTRAL AMPLITUDE CODING OCDMA SYSTEMS USING ENHANCED DOUBLE WEIGHT CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.N. HASOON

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A new code structure for spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access systems based on double weight (DW code families is proposed. The DW has a fixed weight of two. Enhanced double-weight (EDW code is another variation of a DW code family that can has a variable weight greater than one. The EDW code possesses ideal cross-correlation properties and exists for every natural number n. A much better performance can be provided by using the EDW code compared to the existing code such as Hadamard and Modified Frequency-Hopping (MFH codes. It has been observed that theoretical analysis and simulation for EDW is much better performance compared to Hadamard and Modified Frequency-Hopping (MFH codes.

  12. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  13. The Aster code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  14. Physical Layer Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Shengli, Zhang; Lam, Patrick P K

    2007-01-01

    A main distinguishing feature of a wireless network compared with a wired network is its broadcast nature, in which the signal transmitted by a node may reach several other nodes, and a node may receive signals from several other nodes simultaneously. Rather than a blessing, this feature is treated more as an interference-inducing nuisance in most wireless networks today (e.g., IEEE 802.11). This paper shows that the concept of network coding can be applied at the physical layer to turn the broadcast property into a capacity-boosting advantage in wireless ad hoc networks. Specifically, we propose a physical-layer network coding (PNC) scheme to coordinate transmissions among nodes. In contrast to straightforward network coding which performs coding arithmetic on digital bit streams after they have been received, PNC makes use of the additive nature of simultaneously arriving electromagnetic (EM) waves for equivalent coding operation. And in doing so, PNC can potentially achieve 100% and 50% throughput increase...

  15. Error coding simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1993-01-01

    There are various elements such as radio frequency interference (RFI) which may induce errors in data being transmitted via a satellite communication link. When a transmission is affected by interference or other error-causing elements, the transmitted data becomes indecipherable. It becomes necessary to implement techniques to recover from these disturbances. The objective of this research is to develop software which simulates error control circuits and evaluate the performance of these modules in various bit error rate environments. The results of the evaluation provide the engineer with information which helps determine the optimal error control scheme. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommends the use of Reed-Solomon (RS) and convolutional encoders and Viterbi and RS decoders for error correction. The use of forward error correction techniques greatly reduces the received signal to noise needed for a certain desired bit error rate. The use of concatenated coding, e.g. inner convolutional code and outer RS code, provides even greater coding gain. The 16-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code is recommended by CCSDS for error detection.

  16. Coded source neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100 m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100um and 10um aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  17. Graph Codes with Reed-Solomon Component Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    We treat a specific case of codes based on bipartite expander graphs coming from finite geometries. The code symbols are associated with the branches and the symbols connected to a given node are restricted to be codewords in a Reed-Solomon code. We give results on the parameters of the codes and...

  18. Phase-coded pulse aperiodic transmitter coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Virtanen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Both ionospheric and weather radar communities have already adopted the method of transmitting radar pulses in an aperiodic manner when measuring moderately overspread targets. Among the users of the ionospheric radars, this method is called Aperiodic Transmitter Coding (ATC, whereas the weather radar users have adopted the term Simultaneous Multiple Pulse-Repetition Frequency (SMPRF. When probing the ionosphere at the carrier frequencies of the EISCAT Incoherent Scatter Radar facilities, the range extent of the detectable target is typically of the order of one thousand kilometers – about seven milliseconds – whereas the characteristic correlation time of the scattered signal varies from a few milliseconds in the D-region to only tens of microseconds in the F-region. If one is interested in estimating the scattering autocorrelation function (ACF at time lags shorter than the F-region correlation time, the D-region must be considered as a moderately overspread target, whereas the F-region is a severely overspread one. Given the technical restrictions of the radar hardware, a combination of ATC and phase-coded long pulses is advantageous for this kind of target. We evaluate such an experiment under infinitely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR conditions using lag profile inversion. In addition, a qualitative evaluation under high-SNR conditions is performed by analysing simulated data. The results show that an acceptable estimation accuracy and a very good lag resolution in the D-region can be achieved with a pulse length long enough for simultaneous E- and F-region measurements with a reasonable lag extent. The new experiment design is tested with the EISCAT Tromsø VHF (224 MHz radar. An example of a full D/E/F-region ACF from the test run is shown at the end of the paper.

  19. Coded Random Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paolini, Enrico; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Liva, Gianluigi;

    2015-01-01

    The rise of machine-to-machine communications has rekindled the interest in random access protocols as a support for a massive number of uncoordinatedly transmitting devices. The legacy ALOHA approach is developed under a collision model, where slots containing collided packets are considered as...... waste. However, if the common receiver (e.g., base station) is capable to store the collision slots and use them in a transmission recovery process based on successive interference cancellation, the design space for access protocols is radically expanded. We present the paradigm of coded random access......, in which the structure of the access protocol can be mapped to a structure of an erasure-correcting code defined on graph. This opens the possibility to use coding theory and tools for designing efficient random access protocols, offering markedly better performance than ALOHA. Several instances of...

  20. Code query by example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  1. MHD Generation Code

    CERN Document Server

    Frutos-Alfaro, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full Magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program used the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the MHD equations to obtain a code that can be used as a seed for a MHD code for numerical applications. As an example, we present part of output of our programs for Cartesian coordinates and how to do the discretization.

  2. Adjoint code generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Qiang; CAO JianWen; WANG Bin; ZHANG HaiBin

    2009-01-01

    The adjoint code generator (ADG) is developed to produce the adjoint codes, which are used to analytically calculate gradients and the Hessian-vector products with the costs independent of the number of the independent variables. Different from other automatic differentiation tools, the implementation of ADG has advantages of using the least program behavior decomposition method and several static dependence analysis techniques. In this paper we first address the concerned concepts and fundamentals, and then introduce the functionality and the features of ADG. In particular, we also discuss the design architecture of ADG and implementation details including the recomputation and storing strategy and several techniques for code optimization. Some experimental results in several applications are presented at the end.

  3. Decoding the productivity code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David

    , that is, the productivity code of the 21st century, is dissolved. Today, organizations are pressured for operational efficiency, often in terms of productivity, due to increased global competition, demographical changes, and use of natural resources. Taylor’s principles for rationalization founded...... that swing between rationalization and employee development. The productivity code is the lack of alternatives to this ineffective approach. This thesis decodes the productivity code based on the results from a 3-year action research study at a medium-sized manufacturing facility. During the project period....... The improvement system consists of five elements: The improvement process, participants, management, organization, and technology. The improvement system is not an organizational structure but rather a capability and readiness to organize the right improvement activities for a given challenge, i...

  4. The Fireball integrated code package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranich, D.; Powers, D.A.; Harper, F.T.

    1997-07-01

    Many deep-space satellites contain a plutonium heat source. An explosion, during launch, of a rocket carrying such a satellite offers the potential for the release of some of the plutonium. The fireball following such an explosion exposes any released plutonium to a high-temperature chemically-reactive environment. Vaporization, condensation, and agglomeration processes can alter the distribution of plutonium-bearing particles. The Fireball code package simulates the integrated response of the physical and chemical processes occurring in a fireball and the effect these processes have on the plutonium-bearing particle distribution. This integrated treatment of multiple phenomena represents a significant improvement in the state of the art for fireball simulations. Preliminary simulations of launch-second scenarios indicate: (1) most plutonium vaporization occurs within the first second of the fireball; (2) large non-aerosol-sized particles contribute very little to plutonium vapor production; (3) vaporization and both homogeneous and heterogeneous condensation occur simultaneously; (4) homogeneous condensation transports plutonium down to the smallest-particle sizes; (5) heterogeneous condensation precludes homogeneous condensation if sufficient condensation sites are available; and (6) agglomeration produces larger-sized particles but slows rapidly as the fireball grows.

  5. A modular code supervisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large industrial computer CEA codes in the field of scientific computing, mechanics, thermohydraulics, and neutronics, are decomposed in sets of separate modules. Each module performs a well-defined task and all information exchanged by the modules are contained in data structures, taken as input or given as output. The advantage of this structure is the great flexibility offered to experienced user to solve a large number of different problems, but to choose, order, monitor large sequences of modules and understand what each module requires as input and output is out of the interest of the common user. The aim is to conserve entirely this flexibility in dealing with knowledge relevant from scientific or technical fields and not from the code itself. The first part of this paper describes the three main steps of the software: specification phase, generating algorithm, translation in code command language. The second part describes how the authors obtain explanations from the modelization of operators and from a particular representation of the internal structure of the generated particular representation of the internal structure of the generated plan (triangular table) that lead to a generalization allowing synthesis of sequences of operators or the transformations of the total order of the generated plan in a partial one. The software is the first part of the modular codes supervisor. It was applied to CRONOS, neutronic reactor core code, which has the command language GIBIANE. It will be extended to the reactor calculations supervisor, SAGA, using the ensemble of the codes developed by CEA/DMT/SERMA

  6. Roles of HTLV-1 basic Zip Factor (HBZ in Viral Chronicity and Leukemic Transformation. Potential New Therapeutic Approaches to Prevent and Treat HTLV-1-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Mesnard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available More than thirty years have passed since human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 was described as the first retrovirus to be the causative agent of a human cancer, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL, but the precise mechanism behind HTLV-1 pathogenesis still remains elusive. For more than two decades, the transforming ability of HTLV-1 has been exclusively associated to the viral transactivator Tax. Thirteen year ago, we first reported that the minus strand of HTLV-1 encoded for a basic Zip factor factor (HBZ, and since then several teams have underscored the importance of this antisense viral protein for the maintenance of a chronic infection and the proliferation of infected cells. More recently, we as well as others have demonstrated that HBZ has the potential to transform cells both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we focus on the latest progress in our understanding of HBZ functions in chronicity and cellular transformation. We will discuss the involvement of this paradigm shift of HTLV-1 research on new therapeutic approaches to treat HTLV-1-related human diseases.

  7. Roles of HTLV-1 basic Zip Factor (HBZ) in Viral Chronicity and Leukemic Transformation. Potential New Therapeutic Approaches to Prevent and Treat HTLV-1-Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnard, Jean-Michel; Barbeau, Benoit; Césaire, Raymond; Péloponèse, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    More than thirty years have passed since human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was described as the first retrovirus to be the causative agent of a human cancer, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), but the precise mechanism behind HTLV-1 pathogenesis still remains elusive. For more than two decades, the transforming ability of HTLV-1 has been exclusively associated to the viral transactivator Tax. Thirteen year ago, we first reported that the minus strand of HTLV-1 encoded for a basic Zip factor factor (HBZ), and since then several teams have underscored the importance of this antisense viral protein for the maintenance of a chronic infection and the proliferation of infected cells. More recently, we as well as others have demonstrated that HBZ has the potential to transform cells both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we focus on the latest progress in our understanding of HBZ functions in chronicity and cellular transformation. We will discuss the involvement of this paradigm shift of HTLV-1 research on new therapeutic approaches to treat HTLV-1-related human diseases. PMID:26690203

  8. Arabidopsis GARP transcriptional activators interact with the Pro-rich activation domain shared by G-box-binding bZIP factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Hiroki; Iwabuchi, Masaki; Meshi, Tetsuo

    2002-01-01

    The Pro-rich regions, found in a subset of plant bZIP transcription factors, including G-box-binding factors (GBFs) of Arabidopsis thaliana, are thought to be deeply involved in transcriptional regulation. However, the molecular mechanisms of the Pro-rich region-mediated transcriptional regulation are still largely unknown. Here we report evidence showing that two closely related Arabidopsis proteins, designated GPRI1 and GPRI2, containing a GARP DNA-binding domain, are likely partners of one or more GBFs. The results of yeast two-hybrid assays and in vitro binding assays indicated that GPRI1 can interact with the Pro-rich regions of GBF1 and GBF3. GPRI2 interacted with the Pro-rich region of GBF1. GPRI1 and GPRI2 transactivated transcription in yeast. In GPRI1 the region responsible for this activation was mapped in the N-terminal third of the protein. Transient assays showed that in Arabidopsis cells not only the N-terminal but also the C-terminal regions of GPRI1 can function as a separable activation domain. GPRI1 and GPRI2 may function in some promoters in concert with a GBF through interaction with its Pro-rich region to enhance the transcriptional level of the corresponding genes. PMID:11828027

  9. Securing mobile code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called &apos

  10. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  11. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, however, that national views of good governance reflect different political cultures and institutional heritages. Fourteen national codes of conduct are analyzed. The findings suggest that public values converge and that they match model codes from the United Nations and the European Council as well as...

  12. CONCEPT computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONCEPT is a computer code that will provide conceptual capital investment cost estimates for nuclear and coal-fired power plants. The code can develop an estimate for construction at any point in time. Any unit size within the range of about 400 to 1300 MW electric may be selected. Any of 23 reference site locations across the United States and Canada may be selected. PWR, BWR, and coal-fired plants burning high-sulfur and low-sulfur coal can be estimated. Multiple-unit plants can be estimated. Costs due to escalation/inflation and interest during construction are calculated

  13. Aeroacoustic Prediction Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliebe, P; Mani, R.; Shin, H.; Mitchell, B.; Ashford, G.; Salamah, S.; Connell, S.; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes work performed on Contract NAS3-27720AoI 13 as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction Technology effort. Computer codes were developed to provide quantitative prediction, design, and analysis capability for several aircraft engine noise sources. The objective was to provide improved, physics-based tools for exploration of noise-reduction concepts and understanding of experimental results. Methods and codes focused on fan broadband and 'buzz saw' noise and on low-emissions combustor noise and compliment work done by other contractors under the NASA AST program to develop methods and codes for fan harmonic tone noise and jet noise. The methods and codes developed and reported herein employ a wide range of approaches, from the strictly empirical to the completely computational, with some being semiempirical analytical, and/or analytical/computational. Emphasis was on capturing the essential physics while still considering method or code utility as a practical design and analysis tool for everyday engineering use. Codes and prediction models were developed for: (1) an improved empirical correlation model for fan rotor exit flow mean and turbulence properties, for use in predicting broadband noise generated by rotor exit flow turbulence interaction with downstream stator vanes: (2) fan broadband noise models for rotor and stator/turbulence interaction sources including 3D effects, noncompact-source effects. directivity modeling, and extensions to the rotor supersonic tip-speed regime; (3) fan multiple-pure-tone in-duct sound pressure prediction methodology based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis; and (4) low-emissions combustor prediction methodology and computer code based on CFD and actuator disk theory. In addition. the relative importance of dipole and quadrupole source mechanisms was studied using direct CFD source computation for a simple cascadeigust interaction problem, and an empirical combustor

  14. Extended quantum color coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum color coding scheme proposed by Korff and Kempe [e-print quant-ph/0405086] is easily extended so that the color coding quantum system is allowed to be entangled with an extra auxiliary quantum system. It is shown that in the extended scheme we need only ∼2√(N) quantum colors to order N objects in large N limit, whereas ∼N/e quantum colors are required in the original nonextended version. The maximum success probability has asymptotics expressed by the Tracy-Widom distribution of the largest eigenvalue of a random Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) matrix

  15. CPM: Masking code pointers to prevent code injection attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Philippaerts, Pieter; Younan, Yves; Muylle, Stijn; Piessens, Frank; Lachmund, Sven; Walter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Code Pointer Masking (CPM) is a novel countermeasure against code injection attacks on native code. By enforcing the correct semantics of code pointers, CPM thwarts attacks that modify code pointers to divert the application’s control flow. It does not rely on secret values such as stack canaries and protects against attacks that are not addressed by state-of-the-art countermeasures of similar performance. This paper reports on two prototype implementations on very distinct processor architec...

  16. Chemical use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of research and activities related to chemical use on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. The chemicals used on the Refuge...

  17. Code of conduct for scientists (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergence of advanced technologies in the last three decades and extraordinary progress in our knowledge on the basic Physical, Chemical and Biological properties of living matter has offered tremendous benefits to human beings but simultaneously highlighted the need of higher awareness and responsibility by the scientists of 21 century. Scientist is not born with ethics, nor science is ethically neutral, but there are ethical dimensions to scientific work. There is need to evolve an appropriate Code of Conduct for scientist particularly working in every field of Science. However, while considering the contents, promulgation and adaptation of Codes of Conduct for Scientists, a balance is needed to be maintained between freedom of scientists and at the same time some binding on them in the form of Code of Conducts. The use of good and safe laboratory procedures, whether, codified by law or by common practice must also be considered as part of the moral duties of scientists. It is internationally agreed that a general Code of Conduct can't be formulated for all the scientists universally, but there should be a set of 'building blocks' aimed at establishing the Code of Conduct for Scientists either as individual researcher or responsible for direction, evaluation, monitoring of scientific activities at the institutional or organizational level. (author)

  18. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  19. New code match strategy for wideband code division multiple access code tree management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Orthogonal variable spreading factor channelization codes are widely used to provide variable data rates for supporting different bandwidth requirements in wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) systems. A new code match scheme for WCDMA code tree management was proposed. The code match scheme is similar to the existing crowed-first scheme. When choosing a code for a user, the code match scheme only compares the one up layer of the allocated codes, unlike the crowed-first scheme which perhaps compares all up layers. So the operation of code match scheme is simple, and the average time delay is decreased by 5.1%. The simulation results also show that the code match strategy can decrease the average code blocking probability by 8.4%.

  20. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  1. Higher-order CIS codes

    OpenAIRE

    Carlet, Claude; Freibert, Finley; Guilley, Sylvain; Kiermaier, Michael; Kim, Jon-Lark; Solé, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We introduce {\\bf complementary information set codes} of higher-order. A binary linear code of length $tk$ and dimension $k$ is called a complementary information set code of order $t$ ($t$-CIS code for short) if it has $t$ pairwise disjoint information sets. The duals of such codes permit to reduce the cost of masking cryptographic algorithms against side-channel attacks. As in the case of codes for error correction, given the length and the dimension of a $t$-CIS code, we look for the high...

  2. Veronese subspace codes

    OpenAIRE

    Cossidente, Antonio; Pavese, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Using the correspondence between quadrics of ${\\rm PG}(2,q)$ and points of ${\\rm PG}(5,q)$, a family of $(6,q^3(q^2-1)(q-1)/3+(q^2+1)(q^2+q+1),4;3)_q$ constant dimension subspace codes is constructed.

  3. New code of conduct

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    During his talk to the staff at the beginning of the year, the Director-General mentioned that a new code of conduct was being drawn up. What exactly is it and what is its purpose? Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources (HR) Department, talked to us about the whys and wherefores of the project.   Drawing by Georges Boixader from the cartoon strip “The World of Particles” by Brian Southworth. A code of conduct is a general framework laying down the behaviour expected of all members of an organisation's personnel. “CERN is one of the very few international organisations that don’t yet have one", explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin. “We have been thinking about introducing a code of conduct for a long time but lacked the necessary resources until now”. The call for a code of conduct has come from different sources within the Laboratory. “The Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel (read also the "Equal opportuni...

  4. Ready, steady… Code!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    This summer, CERN took part in the Google Summer of Code programme for the third year in succession. Open to students from all over the world, this programme leads to very successful collaborations for open source software projects.   Image: GSoC 2013. Google Summer of Code (GSoC) is a global programme that offers student developers grants to write code for open-source software projects. Since its creation in 2005, the programme has brought together some 6,000 students from over 100 countries worldwide. The students selected by Google are paired with a mentor from one of the participating projects, which can be led by institutes, organisations, companies, etc. This year, CERN PH Department’s SFT (Software Development for Experiments) Group took part in the GSoC programme for the third time, submitting 15 open-source projects. “Once published on the Google Summer for Code website (in April), the projects are open to applications,” says Jakob Blomer, one of the o...

  5. Performance of code 'FAIR' in IAEA CRP on FUMEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modern fuel performance analysis code FAIR has been developed for analysing high burnup fuel pins of water/heavy water cooled reactors. The code employs finite element method for modelling thermo mechanical behaviour of fuel pins and mechanistic models for modelling various physical and chemical phenomena affecting the behaviour of nuclear reactor fuel pins. High burnup affects such as pellet thermal conductivity degradation, enhanced fission gas release and radial flux redistribution are incorporated in the code FAIR. The code FAIR is capable of performing statistical analysis of fuel pins using Monte Carlo technique. The code is implemented on BARC parallel processing system ANUPAM. The code has recently participated in an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) coordinated research program (CRP) on fuel modelling at extended burnups (FUMEX). Nineteen agencies from different countries participated in this exercise. In this CRP, spread over a period of three years, a number of high burnup fuel pins irradiated at Halden reactor are analysed. The first phase of the CRP is a blind code comparison exercise, where the computed results are compared with experimental results. The second phase consists of modifications to the code based on the experimental results of first phase and statistical analysis of fuel pins. The performance of the code FAIR in this CRP has been very good. The present report highlights the main features of code FAIR and its performance in the IAEA CRP on FUMEX. 14 refs., 5 tabs., ills

  6. Rate-adaptive BCH codes for distributed source coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Larsen, Knud J.; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes for distributed source coding. A feedback channel is employed to adapt the rate of the code during the decoding process. The focus is on codes with short block lengths for independently coding a binary source X and decoding it given its...... correlated side information Y. The proposed codes have been analyzed in a high-correlation scenario, where the marginal probability of each symbol, Xi in X, given Y is highly skewed (unbalanced). Rate-adaptive BCH codes are presented and applied to distributed source coding. Adaptive and fixed checking...... strategies for improving the reliability of the decoded result are analyzed, and methods for estimating the performance are proposed. In the analysis, noiseless feedback and noiseless communication are assumed. Simulation results show that rate-adaptive BCH codes achieve better performance than low...

  7. Evaluation Codes from an Affine Veriety Code Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation codes (also called order domain codes) are traditionally introduced as generalized one-point geometric Goppa codes. In the present paper we will give a new point of view on evaluation codes by introducing them instead as particular nice examples of affine variety codes. Our study...... includes a reformulation of the usual methods to estimate the minimum distances of evaluation codes into the setting of affine variety codes. Finally we describe the connection to the theory of one-pointgeometric Goppa codes. Contents 4.1 Introduction...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 4.2 Affine variety codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 4.3 Some Gr¨obner basis theoretical tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 4.4 A bound on the minimum distance of C(I,L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 4.5 The Feng-Rao bound for...

  8. Lossy Joint Source-Channel Coding Using Raptor Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Poor

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The straightforward application of Shannon's separation principle may entail a significant suboptimality in practical systems with limited coding delay and complexity. This is particularly evident when the lossy source code is based on entropy-coded quantization. In fact, it is well known that entropy coding is not robust to residual channel errors. In this paper, a joint source-channel coding scheme is advocated that combines the advantages and simplicity of entropy-coded quantization with the robustness of linear codes. The idea is to combine entropy coding and channel coding into a single linear encoding stage. If the channel is symmetric, the scheme can asymptotically achieve the optimal rate-distortion limit. However, its advantages are more clearly evident under finite coding delay and complexity. The sequence of quantization indices is decomposed into bitplanes, and each bitplane is independently mapped onto a sequence of channel coded symbols. The coding rate of each bitplane is chosen according to the bitplane conditional entropy rate. The use of systematic raptor encoders is proposed, in order to obtain a continuum of coding rates with a single basic encoding algorithm. Simulations show that the proposed scheme can outperform the separated baseline scheme for finite coding length and comparable complexity and, as expected, it is much more robust to channel errors in the case of channel capacity mismatch.

  9. Development and Verification of Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code (BOTANIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VHTR, one of the Generation IV reactor concepts, has a relatively high operation temperature and is usually suggested as a heat source for many industrial processes, including hydrogen production process. Thus, it is vital to trace tritium behavior in the VHTR system and the potential permeation rate to the industrial process. In other words, tritium is a crucial issue in terms of safety in the fission reactor system. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the behavior of tritium and the development of the tool to enable this is vital.. In this study, a Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code (BOTANIC) an analytic tool which is capable of analyzing tritium behavior is developed using a chemical process code called gPROMS. BOTANIC was then further verified using the analytic solutions and benchmark codes such as Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC) and COMSOL. In this study, the Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code, BOTANIC, has been developed using a chemical process code called gPROMS. The code has several distinctive features including non-diluted assumption, flexible applications and adoption of distributed permeation model. Due to these features, BOTANIC has the capability to analyze a wide range of tritium level systems and has a higher accuracy as it has the capacity to solve distributed models. BOTANIC was successfully developed and verified using analytical solution and the benchmark code calculation result. The results showed very good agreement with the analytical solutions and the calculation results of TPAC and COMSOL. Future work will be focused on the total system verification

  10. Chemical machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yardimeden

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nontraditional machining processes are widely used to manufacture geometrically complex and precision parts for aerospace, electronics and automotive industries. There are different geometrically designed parts, such as deep internal cavities, miniaturized microelectronics and fine quality components may only be produced by nontraditional machining processes. This paper is aiming to give details of chemical machining process, industrial applications, applied chemical etchants and machined materials. Advantages and disadvantages of the chemical machining are mentioned.Design/methodology/approach: In this study, chemical machining process was described its importance as nontraditional machining process. The steps of process were discussed in detail. The tolerances of machined parts were examined.Findings: Paper describes the chemical machining process, industrial applications, applied chemical etchants and machined materials.Practical implications: The machining operation should be carried out carefully to produce a desired geometry. Environmental laws have important effects when chemical machining is used.Originality/value: The importance of nontraditional machining processes is very high.

  11. Chemical Leukoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Vestita, Michelangelo; Romita, Paolo; Filoni, Angela; Foti, Caterina; Angelini, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Chemical leukoderma, often clinically mimicking idiopathic vitiligo and other congenital and acquired hypopigmentation, is an acquired form of cutaneous pigment loss caused by exposure to a variety of chemicals that act through selective melanocytotoxicity. Most of these chemicals are phenols and aromatic or aliphatic catechols derivatives. These chemicals, however, are harmful for melanocytes in individuals with an individual susceptibility. Nowadays, chemical leukoderma is fairly common, caused by common domestic products. The presence of numerous acquired confetti- or pea-sized macules is clinically characteristic of chemical leukoderma, albeit not diagnostic. Other relevant diagnostic elements are a history of repeated exposure to a known or suspected depigmenting agent at the sites of onset and a macules distribution corresponding to sites of chemical exposure. Spontaneous repigmentation has been reported when the causative agent is avoided; the repigmentation process is perifollicular and gradual, taking place for a variable period of weeks to months. PMID:27172302

  12. Decoding Generalized Concatenated Codes Using Interleaved Reed-Solomon Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Senger, Christian; Bossert, Martin; Zyablov, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Generalized Concatenated codes are a code construction consisting of a number of outer codes whose code symbols are protected by an inner code. As outer codes, we assume the most frequently used Reed-Solomon codes; as inner code, we assume some linear block code which can be decoded up to half its minimum distance. Decoding up to half the minimum distance of Generalized Concatenated codes is classically achieved by the Blokh-Zyablov-Dumer algorithm, which iteratively decodes by first using the inner decoder to get an estimate of the outer code words and then using an outer error/erasure decoder with a varying number of erasures determined by a set of pre-calculated thresholds. In this paper, a modified version of the Blokh-Zyablov-Dumer algorithm is proposed, which exploits the fact that a number of outer Reed-Solomon codes with average minimum distance d can be grouped into one single Interleaved Reed-Solomon code which can be decoded beyond d/2. This allows to skip a number of decoding iterations on the one...

  13. The Clock Protein CCA1 and the bZIP Transcription Factor HY5 Physically Interact to Regulate Gene Expression in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christos Andronis; Simon Barak; Stephen M.Knowles; Shoji Sugano; Elaine M.Tobin

    2008-01-01

    The circadian clock regulates the expression of an array of Arabidopsis genes such as those encoding the LIGHT-HARVESTING CHLOROPHYLL A/B (Lhcb) proteins. We have previously studied the promoters of two of these Arabidopsis genes-Lhcb1*1 and Lhcb1*3-and identified a sequence that binds the clock protein CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1). This sequence, designated CCAl-binding site (CBS), is necessary for phytochrome and circadian responsiveness of these genes. In close proximity to this sequence, there exists a G-box core element that has been shown to bind the bZIP transcription factor HY5 in other light-regulated plant promoters. In the present study, we examined the importance of the interaction of transcription factors binding the CBS and the G-box core element in the control of normal circadian rhythmic expression of Lhcb genes. Our results show that HY5 is able to specifically bind the G-box element in the Lhcb promoters and that CCA1 can alter the binding activity of HY5. We further show that CCA1 and HY5 can physically interact and that they can act synergistically on transcription in a yeast reporter gene assay. An absence of HY5 leads to a shorter period of Lhcb1*1 circadian expression but does not affect the circadian expression of CATALASE3 (CAT3), whose promoter lacks a G-box element. Our results suggest that interaction of the HY5 and CCA1 proteins on Lhcb promoters is necessary for normal circadian expression of the Lhcb genes.

  14. CTI Correction Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Richard; Stoughton, Chris; Leauthaud, Alexie; Rhodes, Jason; Koekemoer, Anton; Ellis, Richard; Shaghoulian, Edgar

    2013-07-01

    Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI) due to radiation damage above the Earth's atmosphere creates spurious trailing in images from Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) imaging detectors. Radiation damage also creates unrelated warm pixels, which can be used to measure CTI. This code provides pixel-based correction for CTI and has proven effective in Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys raw images, successfully reducing the CTI trails by a factor of ~30 everywhere in the CCD and at all flux levels. The core is written in java for speed, and a front-end user interface is provided in IDL. The code operates on raw data by returning individual electrons to pixels from which they were unintentionally dragged during readout. Correction takes about 25 minutes per ACS exposure, but is trivially parallelisable to multiple processors.

  15. Sinusoidal transform coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcaulay, Robert J.; Quatieri, Thomas F.

    1988-01-01

    It has been shown that an analysis/synthesis system based on a sinusoidal representation of speech leads to synthetic speech that is essentially perceptually indistinguishable from the original. Strategies for coding the amplitudes, frequencies and phases of the sine waves have been developed that have led to a multirate coder operating at rates from 2400 to 9600 bps. The encoded speech is highly intelligible at all rates with a uniformly improving quality as the data rate is increased. A real-time fixed-point implementation has been developed using two ADSP2100 DSP chips. The methods used for coding and quantizing the sine-wave parameters for operation at the various frame rates are described.

  16. The Liege Oscillation Code

    CERN Document Server

    Scuflaire, R; Théado, S; Bourge, P -O; Miglio, A; Godart, M; Thoul, A; Noels, A

    2007-01-01

    The Liege Oscillation code can be used as a stand-alone program or as a library of subroutines that the user calls from a Fortran main program of his own to compute radial and non-radial adiabatic oscillations of stellar models. We describe the variables and the equations used by the program and the methods used to solve them. A brief account is given of the use and the output of the program.

  17. Code of Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Code of Practice introduces accepted safety procedures associated with the use of alpha, beta, gamma and X-radiation in secondary schools (pupils aged 12 to 18) in Ireland, and summarises good practice and procedures as they apply to radiation protection. Typical dose rates at various distances from sealed sources are quoted, and simplified equations are used to demonstrate dose and shielding calculations. The regulatory aspects of radiation protection are outlined, and references to statutory documents are given

  18. Computer code FIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a description of the computer code FIT, written in FORTRAN-77 for a PDP 11/34. FIT is an interactive program to decude position, width and intensity of lines of X-ray spectra (max. length of 4K channels). The lines (max. 30 lines per fit) may have Gauss- or Voigt-profile, as well as exponential tails. Spectrum and fit can be displayed on a Tektronix terminal. (orig.)

  19. Dynamic Frameproof Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, Maura

    2006-01-01

    There are many schemes in the literature for protecting digital data from piracy by the use of digital fingerprinting, such as frameproof codes, which prevent traitorous users from colluding to frame an innocent user, and traitor-tracing schemes, which enable the identification of users involved in piracy. The concept of traitor tracing has been applied to a digital broadcast setting in the form of dynamic traitor-tracing schemes and sequential traitor-tracing schemes, wh...

  20. Efficient Block Truncation Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Somasundaram,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Block Truncation Coding (BTC is one of the lossy image compression techniques. The computational complexity involved in this method is very simple. In the proposed method, the feature of inter-pixel correlation is exploited to further reduce the requirement of bits to store a block. The proposed method gives very good performance in terms of bit-rate and PSNR values when compared to the conventional BTC.

  1. Tokamak simulation code manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Moon Kyoo; Oh, Byung Hoon; Hong, Bong Keun; Lee, Kwang Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-01

    The method to use TSC (Tokamak Simulation Code) developed by Princeton plasma physics laboratory is illustrated. In KT-2 tokamak, time dependent simulation of axisymmetric toroidal plasma and vertical stability have to be taken into account in design phase using TSC. In this report physical modelling of TSC are described and examples of application in JAERI and SERI are illustrated, which will be useful when TSC is installed KAERI computer system. (Author) 15 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Tokamak simulation code manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method to use TSC (Tokamak Simulation Code) developed by Princeton plasma physics laboratory is illustrated. In KT-2 tokamak, time dependent simulation of axisymmetric toroidal plasma and vertical stability have to be taken into account in design phase using TSC. In this report physical modelling of TSC are described and examples of application in JAERI and SERI are illustrated, which will be useful when TSC is installed KAERI computer system. (Author) 15 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Orthopedics coding and funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, S; Duclos, C; Thoreux, P

    2014-02-01

    The French tarification à l'activité (T2A) prospective payment system is a financial system in which a health-care institution's resources are based on performed activity. Activity is described via the PMSI medical information system (programme de médicalisation du système d'information). The PMSI classifies hospital cases by clinical and economic categories known as diagnosis-related groups (DRG), each with an associated price tag. Coding a hospital case involves giving as realistic a description as possible so as to categorize it in the right DRG and thus ensure appropriate payment. For this, it is essential to understand what determines the pricing of inpatient stay: namely, the code for the surgical procedure, the patient's principal diagnosis (reason for admission), codes for comorbidities (everything that adds to management burden), and the management of the length of inpatient stay. The PMSI is used to analyze the institution's activity and dynamism: change on previous year, relation to target, and comparison with competing institutions based on indicators such as the mean length of stay performance indicator (MLS PI). The T2A system improves overall care efficiency. Quality of care, however, is not presently taken account of in the payment made to the institution, as there are no indicators for this; work needs to be done on this topic. PMID:24461230

  4. MELCOR computer code manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  5. OACoder: Postcode Coding Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adnan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Geodemographic classifications are small area classifications of social, economic and demographic characteristics. The Output Area Classification (OAC is a free geodemographic classification. It is an Office of National Statistics validated measure that summarises neighbourhood conditions at the Output Area Level across the United Kingdom. Linkage of these valuable statistics has been problematic for users more used to address records that are georeferenced using unit postcodes. OACoder resolves this problem by allowing users to link corresponding OAC codes to each of the postcode addresses. OACoder is an open source software, and it is developed and tested to work on different versions of windows operating systems.  It is stored in Figshare. The source code of the OACoder is stored in SourceForge. As open source software, OACoder has reuse potential across a range of applications. The functionality of OACoder can be extended to work with the new version of OAC (2011 OAC. It is also possible to reuse the source code and extend the functionality to work on different operating systems other than Windows. Different components of the software can be reused for the purpose of reading/writing CSV files and handling large data sets.

  6. MELCOR computer code manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR's phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package

  7. DIANE multiparticle transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DIANE is a three-dimensional multigroup Monte Carlo code that performs coupled neutron-photon-electron and light charged particle Monte Carlo transport on a fixed geometry and/or an imploding material (for example an Inertial-Confinement- Fusion plasma target). DIANE's multigroup data are provided by the nuclear data code ZADIG. ZADIG groups cross sections from international data libraries in ENDF7 format. In order to better account for resonances, a specific multigroup treatment, called 'mini-group' has been implemented. For photons, photo-atomic interactions are considered as well as photonuclear reactions. Coherent scattering may include anomalous scattering factors. Incoherent scattering include scattering function from EPDL97. We also account for fluorescence X-rays and Auger electrons. For neutrons, all the reaction channels relevant are processed by ZADIG. The ZADIG code integrates the Secondary Source Bremsstrahlung (SSB) model that simulates electron-photon cascade from electron slowing down. For light ions, DIANE solves the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation. The continuous effect of Coulomb interaction with the background plasma can be treated by three Fokker- Planck terms (slowing-down, energy straggling and angular deflection). The effect of electric and magnetic fields through the Lorentz force can also be taken into account

  8. Quality Improvement of MARS Code and Establishment of Code Coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvement of MARS code quality and coupling with regulatory auditing code have been accomplished for the establishment of self-reliable technology based regulatory auditing system. The unified auditing system code was realized also by implementing the CANDU specific models and correlations. As a part of the quality assurance activities, the various QA reports were published through the code assessments. The code manuals were updated and published a new manual which describe the new models and correlations. The code coupling methods were verified though the exercise of plant application. The education-training seminar and technology transfer were performed for the code users. The developed MARS-KS is utilized as reliable auditing tool for the resolving the safety issue and other regulatory calculations. The code can be utilized as a base technology for GEN IV reactor applications

  9. Structural coding versus free-energy predictive coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Helm, Peter A

    2016-06-01

    Focusing on visual perceptual organization, this article contrasts the free-energy (FE) version of predictive coding (a recent Bayesian approach) to structural coding (a long-standing representational approach). Both use free-energy minimization as metaphor for processing in the brain, but their formal elaborations of this metaphor are fundamentally different. FE predictive coding formalizes it by minimization of prediction errors, whereas structural coding formalizes it by minimization of the descriptive complexity of predictions. Here, both sides are evaluated. A conclusion regarding competence is that FE predictive coding uses a powerful modeling technique, but that structural coding has more explanatory power. A conclusion regarding performance is that FE predictive coding-though more detailed in its account of neurophysiological data-provides a less compelling cognitive architecture than that of structural coding, which, for instance, supplies formal support for the computationally powerful role it attributes to neuronal synchronization. PMID:26407895

  10. Analysis of the sodium concrete interactions with the NABE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental studies have been performed in France to investigate sodium-concrete interactions: thermal decomposition of concrete, specific chemical reactions, experimentation in liquid and vapour phase, sodium-concrete interaction without liner protection. Simultaneously computer codes have been developed in order to study the response of the containment building of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor to sodium pool fire worsened by a sodium-concrete interaction: the NABE code. This code takes into account: sodium combustion, thermal decomposition of concrete with associated chemical reactions: (liquid sodium-vapour water reaction, liquid sodium-carbon dioxide reaction, liquid sodium-solid compounds of concrete, hydrogen combustion), chemical reactions in vapour phase, decay heat, gaz aerosol inlets/outlets, aerosol behaviour (sedimentation, diffusion, leak), thermal exchanges. An example of situation, typical of assessment of beyond design basis situations in LMFBR is given

  11. Chemical networks*

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Wing-Fai

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the fundamental ideas of how chemical networks are build, their strengths and limitations. The chemical reactions that occur in disks combine the cold phase reactions used to model cold molecular clouds with the hot chemistry applied to planetary atmosphere models. With a general understanding of the different types of reactions that can occur, one can proceed in building a network of chemical reactions and use it to explain the abundance of species seen in disks. One o...

  12. Coding Opportunity Densification Strategies for Instantly Decodable Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Sorour, Sameh; Valaee, Shahrokh

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to identify the strategies that can maximize and monotonically increase the density of the coding opportunities in instantly decodable network coding (IDNC).Using the well-known graph representation of IDNC, first derive an expression for the exact evolution of the edge set size after the transmission of any arbitrary coded packet. From the derived expressions, we show that sending commonly wanted packets for all the receivers can maximize the number of coding opportunit...

  13. TASS code topical report. V.1 TASS code technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TASS 1.0 code has been developed at KAERI for the initial and reload non-LOCA safety analysis for the operating PWRs as well as the PWRs under construction in Korea. TASS code will replace various vendor's non-LOCA safety analysis codes currently used for the Westinghouse and ABB-CE type PWRs in Korea. This can be achieved through TASS code input modifications specific to each reactor type. The TASS code can be run interactively through the keyboard operation. A simimodular configuration used in developing the TASS code enables the user easily implement new models. TASS code has been programmed using FORTRAN77 which makes it easy to install and port for different computer environments. The TASS code can be utilized for the steady state simulation as well as the non-LOCA transient simulations such as power excursions, reactor coolant pump trips, load rejections, loss of feedwater, steam line breaks, steam generator tube ruptures, rod withdrawal and drop, and anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). The malfunctions of the control systems, components, operator actions and the transients caused by the malfunctions can be easily simulated using the TASS code. This technical report describes the TASS 1.0 code models including reactor thermal hydraulic, reactor core and control models. This TASS code models including reactor thermal hydraulic, reactor core and control models. This TASS code technical manual has been prepared as a part of the TASS code manual which includes TASS code user's manual and TASS code validation report, and will be submitted to the regulatory body as a TASS code topical report for a licensing non-LOCA safety analysis for the Westinghouse and ABB-CE type PWRs operating and under construction in Korea. (author). 42 refs., 29 tabs., 32 figs

  14. Decoding of concatenated codes with interleaved outer codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom; Thommesen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved (N, K) Reed-Solomon codes, which allows close to N-K errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes.......Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved (N, K) Reed-Solomon codes, which allows close to N-K errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes....

  15. Decoding of concatenated codes with interleaved outer codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Thommesen, Christian; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved Reed/Solomon codes, which allows close to errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes. (NK) N-K......Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved Reed/Solomon codes, which allows close to errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes. (NK) N-K...

  16. Containment Code Validation Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) formed the CCVM (Containment Code Validation Matrix) task group in 2002. The objective of this group was to define a basic set of available experiments for code validation, covering the range of containment (ex-vessel) phenomena expected in the course of light and heavy water reactor design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents/severe accidents. It was to consider phenomena relevant to pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR), pressurised water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) designs of Western origin as well as of Eastern European VVER types. This work would complement the two existing CSNI validation matrices for thermal hydraulic code validation (NEA/CSNI/R(1993)14) and In-vessel core degradation (NEA/CSNI/R(2001)21). The report initially provides a brief overview of the main features of a PWR, BWR, CANDU and VVER reactors. It also provides an overview of the ex-vessel corium retention (core catcher). It then provides a general overview of the accident progression for light water and heavy water reactors. The main focus is to capture most of the phenomena and safety systems employed in these reactor types and to highlight the differences. This CCVM contains a description of 127 phenomena, broken down into 6 categories: - Containment Thermal-hydraulics Phenomena; - Hydrogen Behaviour (Combustion, Mitigation and Generation) Phenomena; - Aerosol and Fission Product Behaviour Phenomena; - Iodine Chemistry Phenomena; - Core Melt Distribution and Behaviour in Containment Phenomena; - Systems Phenomena. A synopsis is provided for each phenomenon, including a description, references for further information, significance for DBA and SA/BDBA and a list of experiments that may be used for code validation. The report identified 213 experiments, broken down into the same six categories (as done for the phenomena). An experiment synopsis is provided for each test. Along with a test description

  17. SENVAR: a code for handling chemical uncertainties in solubility calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the planning for a repository for spent nuclear fuel it is important to know the solubility of some important solid phases in order to, for example, predict migration of radionuclides from the repository. The method presented in the present paper investigates the effect of uncertainties in thermodynamical data, i.e. stability and solubility constants, for the calculated solubility of a solid phase. The adopted approach is simple Monte Carlo sampling. The investigation is mainly made in three steps. First a preliminary sensitivity analysis where the important parameters are determined. This is done by holding each of the parameters at a fixed value for a given number of solubility calculations. During this time all other parameters are varied according to a pre-set random matrix. The variance for each stationary parameter is then calculated and the one with the smallest variance is deemed the most important one and so on. The parameters that are deemed important are then transferred into the uncertainty analysis. There, each parameter may be given a separate interval for the uncertainty and then a couple of thousand solubility calculations are made where the values of the parameters are varied according to the Monte Carlo method. The results from these calculations are used to estimate the effect of the uncertainties in a plot showing the density function of the solubility and some statistical estimators. The solubility calculations are also used to give data to a stepwise regression program which estimates the importance of each parameter entered into the uncertainty analysis. The regression error is also shown in order to make it easy to determine which values may be correct or not

  18. Combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, Carina; Itskov, Vladimir; Morrison, Katherine; Roth, Zachary; Walker, Judy L

    2013-07-01

    Shannon's seminal 1948 work gave rise to two distinct areas of research: information theory and mathematical coding theory. While information theory has had a strong influence on theoretical neuroscience, ideas from mathematical coding theory have received considerably less attention. Here we take a new look at combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective, examining the error correction capabilities of familiar receptive field codes (RF codes). We find, perhaps surprisingly, that the high levels of redundancy present in these codes do not support accurate error correction, although the error-correcting performance of receptive field codes catches up to that of random comparison codes when a small tolerance to error is introduced. However, receptive field codes are good at reflecting distances between represented stimuli, while the random comparison codes are not. We suggest that a compromise in error-correcting capability may be a necessary price to pay for a neural code whose structure serves not only error correction, but must also reflect relationships between stimuli. PMID:23724797

  19. TEA: A Code for Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, M Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. (1958) and Eriksson (1971). It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp (1999), the free thermochemical equilibrium code CEA (Chemical Equilibrium with Applications), and the example given by White et al. (1958). Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is ...

  20. TACO: a finite element heat transfer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TACO is a two-dimensional implicit finite element code for heat transfer analysis. It can perform both linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady state problems. Either plane or axisymmetric geometries can be analyzed. TACO has the capability to handle time or temperature dependent material properties and materials may be either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent loadings and boundary conditions are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additionally, TACO has some specialized features such as internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance), bulk nodes, enclosure radiation with view factor calculations, and chemical reactive kinetics. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A bandwidth and profile minimization option is also available in the code. Graphical representation of data generated by TACO is provided by a companion post-processor named POSTACO. The theory on which TACO is based is outlined, the capabilities of the code are explained, the input data required to perform an analysis with TACO are described. Some simple examples are provided to illustrate the use of the code

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of OsAREB8 from rice, a member of the AREB/ABF family of bZIP transcription factors, in complex with its cognate DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OsAREB8 from rice (O. sativa), a member of the AREB/ABF family of bZIP transcription factors, was expressed, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. A crystal of OsAREB8 in complex with its cognate DNA diffracted X-rays to 3.65 Å resolution. The AREB/ABF family of bZIP transcription factors play a key role in drought stress response and tolerance during the vegetative stage in plants. To reveal the DNA-recognition mechanism of the AREB/ABF family of proteins, the bZIP domain of OsAREB8, an AREB/ABF-family protein from Oryza sativa, was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized with its cognate DNA. Crystals of the OsAREB8–DNA complex were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 277 K with a reservoir solution consisting of 50 mM MES pH 6.4, 29% MPD, 2 mM spermidine, 20 mM magnesium acetate and 100 mM sodium chloride. A crystal diffracted X-rays to 3.65 Å resolution and belonged to space group C222, with unit-cell parameters a = 155.1, b = 206.7, c = 38.5 Å. The crystal contained one OsAREB8–DNA complex in the asymmetric unit

  2. "Zipped Synthesis" by Cross-Metathesis Provides a Cystathionine β-Synthase Inhibitor that Attenuates Cellular H2S Levels and Reduces Neuronal Infarction in a Rat Ischemic Stroke Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Christopher D; Chan, Su Jing; Beio, Matthew L; Shen, Weijun; Chung, Woo Jin; Szczesniak, Laura M; Chai, Chou; Koh, Shu Qing; Wong, Peter T-H; Berkowitz, David B

    2016-04-27

    The gaseous neuromodulator H2S is associated with neuronal cell death pursuant to cerebral ischemia. As cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is the primary mediator of H2S biogenesis in the brain, it has emerged as a potential target for the treatment of stroke. Herein, a "zipped" approach by alkene cross-metathesis into CBS inhibitor candidate synthesis is demonstrated. The inhibitors are modeled after the pseudo-C 2-symmetric CBS product (l,l)-cystathionine. The "zipped" concept means only half of the inhibitor needs be constructed; the two halves are then fused by olefin cross-metathesis. Inhibitor design is also mechanism-based, exploiting the favorable kinetics associated with hydrazine-imine interchange as opposed to the usual imine-imine interchange. It is demonstrated that the most potent "zipped" inhibitor 6S reduces H2S production in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing CBS, thereby reducing cell death. Most importantly, CBS inhibitor 6S dramatically reduces infarct volume (1 h post-stroke treatment; ∼70% reduction) in a rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model for ischemia. PMID:27163055

  3. High Energy Transport Code HETC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physics contained in the High Energy Transport Code (HETC), in particular the collision models, are discussed. An application using HETC as part of the CALOR code system is also given. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Improvements in the BCG code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some improvements introduced in the BCG code with the objective of making the code faster in execution are reported. The impact of these improvements in terms of CPU time saving is discussed for a sample problem. (author)

  5. The Tap code - a code similar to Morse code for communication by tapping

    OpenAIRE

    Rafler, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    A code is presented for fast, easy and efficient communication over channels that allow only two signal types: a single sound (e.g. a knock), or no sound (i.e. silence). This is a true binary code while Morse code is a ternary code and does not work in such situations. Thus the presented code is more universal than Morse and can be used in much more situations. Additionally it is very tolerant to variations in signal strength or duration. The paper contains various ways in which the code can ...

  6. The Source Term Code Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Source Term Code Package (STCP) is a set of computer codes which allows analyses of nuclear reactor accidents to produce predictions of fission product release to the environment as a function of reactor design and specifications for the assumed accident. The codes are basically those used in the analyses performed for the BMI-2104 report but they have been combined, improved and streamlined for easier use. The objective in preparing this code package was to make the calculations more direct, traceable and user-independent, with documentation for release to the public. It is important to note that the STCP is not intended to be a research tool but a code for general use in making source term predictions that has a sound and definable basis and produces reasonably accurate results in comparison with more detailed codes. The STCP has four major elements. The overall thermal-hydraulics is provided by the MARCH-3 code which combines the previously separate codes MARCH2, CORCON Mod 2 and CORSORM. Release of fission products and aerosols during core/concrete interactions is predicted with the VANESA code. Detailed thermal-hydraulics and fission product transport in the reactor coolant system are provided by the TRAPMELT3 code formed by combining the previously separate TRAPMELT and MERGE codes. Finally, fission product transport in the containment is predicted by the NAUA-4 code as modified to include fission product removal by pressure suppression pools (SPARC code) and within ice compartments (ICEDF code). The fission product and aerosol groups being tracked in the code package are noble gases, iodine, caesium, tellurium, barium, strontium, ruthenium, lanthanum and cerium groups. Additionally, in-vessel-produced aerosols and ex-vessel-produced aerosols are tracked. The code package produces time-dependent locational distributions, physical forms and transport rates for these groups throughout the course of the accident. (author)

  7. Cross-Domain Sparse Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Sparse coding has shown its power as an effective data representation method. However, up to now, all the sparse coding approaches are limited within the single domain learning problem. In this paper, we extend the sparse coding to cross domain learning problem, which tries to learn from a source domain to a target domain with significant different distribution. We impose the Maximum Mean Discrepancy (MMD) criterion to reduce the cross-domain distribution difference of sparse codes, and also ...

  8. Decoding Xing-Ling codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient decoding method for a recent construction of good linear codes as well as an extension to the construction. Furthermore, asymptotic properties and list decoding of the codes are discussed.......This paper describes an efficient decoding method for a recent construction of good linear codes as well as an extension to the construction. Furthermore, asymptotic properties and list decoding of the codes are discussed....

  9. Chemical machining

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yardimeden; T. Ozben; O. Cakir

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Nontraditional machining processes are widely used to manufacture geometrically complex and precision parts for aerospace, electronics and automotive industries. There are different geometrically designed parts, such as deep internal cavities, miniaturized microelectronics and fine quality components may only be produced by nontraditional machining processes. This paper is aiming to give details of chemical machining process, industrial applications, applied chemical etchants and mac...

  10. Multiple LDPC decoding for distributed source coding and video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Distributed source coding (DSC) is a coding paradigm for systems which fully or partly exploit the source statistics at the decoder to reduce the computational burden at the encoder. Distributed video coding (DVC) is one example. This paper considers the use of Low Density Parity Check Accumulate...... (LDPCA) codes in a DSC scheme with feed-back. To improve the LDPC coding performance in the context of DSC and DVC, while retaining short encoder blocks, this paper proposes multiple parallel LDPC decoding. The proposed scheme passes soft information between decoders to enhance performance. Experimental...

  11. Chemical Radioprotectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Upadhyay

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Protection of biological systems against radiation damage is of paramount importance during accidental and unavoidable exposure to radiation. Several physico-chemical and biological factors collectively contribute to the damage caused by radiation and are, therefore, targets for developing radioprotectors. Work on the development of chemicals capable of protecting biological systemsfrom radiation damage was initiated nearly six decades ago with cysteine being the first molecule to be reported. Chemicals capable of scavenging free radicals, inducing oxygen depletion,antioxidants and modulators of immune response have been some of the radioprotectors extensively investigated with limited success. Mechanism of action of some chemical radioprotectors and their combinations have been elucidated, while further understanding is required in many instances. The present review elaborates on structure-activity relationship of some of the chemical radioprotectors, their evaluation, and assessment, limitation, and future prospects.

  12. Ethical Codes in the Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeiser, Cynthia B.

    1992-01-01

    Whether the measurement profession should consider developing and adopting a code of professional conduct is explored after a brief review of existing references to standards of conduct and a review of other professional codes. Issues include the need for a code of ethics, its usefulness, and its enforcement. (SLD)

  13. Order functions and evaluation codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pellikaan, Ruud; van Lint, Jack

    Based on the notion of an order function we construct and determine the parameters of a class of error-correcting evaluation codes. This class includes the one-point algebraic geometry codes as wella s the generalized Reed-Muller codes and the parameters are detremined without using the heavy...... machinery of algebraic geometry....

  14. Fresnel zone plate coded imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author introduced the principle of the Fresnel-zone-plate coded imaging, and design a Fresnel zone plate coded image camera with high spatial resolution. A experimental simulation with two-aperture visible light source is made. The result shows that this coded image camera can reveal the source distribution truly

  15. Distributed Video Coding: Iterative Improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van

    Nowadays, emerging applications such as wireless visual sensor networks and wireless video surveillance are requiring lightweight video encoding with high coding efficiency and error-resilience. Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new coding paradigm which exploits the source statistics at the...

  16. Geochemical computer codes. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report a review of available codes is performed and some code intercomparisons are also discussed. The number of codes treating natural waters (groundwater, lake water, sea water) is large. Most geochemical computer codes treat equilibrium conditions, although some codes with kinetic capability are available. A geochemical equilibrium model consists of a computer code, solving a set of equations by some numerical method and a data base, consisting of thermodynamic data required for the calculations. There are some codes which treat coupled geochemical and transport modeling. Some of these codes solve the equilibrium and transport equations simultaneously while other solve the equations separately from each other. The coupled codes require a large computer capacity and have thus as yet limited use. Three code intercomparisons have been found in literature. It may be concluded that there are many codes available for geochemical calculations but most of them require a user that us quite familiar with the code. The user also has to know the geochemical system in order to judge the reliability of the results. A high quality data base is necessary to obtain a reliable result. The best results may be expected for the major species of natural waters. For more complicated problems, including trace elements, precipitation/dissolution, adsorption, etc., the results seem to be less reliable. (With 44 refs.) (author)

  17. Direct construction of code loops

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Gabor P.

    2004-01-01

    Code loops were introduced by R. L. Griess. R.L. Griess and T. Hsu gave methods to construct the corresponding code loop from any given doubly even binary code; both these methods used some kind of induction. In this paper, we present a global construction of the loop, where we apply the correspondance between the concepts of Moufang loops and groups with triality.

  18. From Skew-Cyclic Codes to Asymmetric Quantum Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ezerman, Martianus Frederic; Sole, Patrick; Yemen, Olfa

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an additive but not $\\F_{4}$-linear map $S$ from $\\F_{4}^{n}$ to $\\F_{4}^{2n}$ and exhibit some of its interesting structural properties. If $C$ is a linear $[n,k,d]_4$-code, then $S(C)$ is an additive $(2n,2^{2k},2d)_4$-code. If $C$ is an additive cyclic code then $S(C)$ is an additive quasi-cyclic code of index $2$. Moreover, if $C$ is a module $\\theta$-cyclic code, a recently introduced type of code which will be explained below, then $S(C)$ is equivalent to an additive cyclic code if $n$ is odd and to an additive quasi-cyclic code of index $2$ if $n$ is even. Given any $(n,M,d)_4$-code $C$, the code $S(C)$ is self-orthogonal under the trace Hermitian inner product. Since the mapping $S$ preserves nestedness, it can be used as a tool in constructing additive asymmetric quantum codes.

  19. Towards a biological coding theory discipline.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Elebeoba Eni

    2003-09-01

    How can information required for the proper functioning of a cell, an organism, or a species be transmitted in an error-introducing environment? Clearly, similar to engineering communication systems, biological systems must incorporate error control in their information transmissino processes. if genetic information in the DNA sequence is encoded in a manner similar to error control encoding, the received sequence, the messenger RNA (mRNA) can be analyzed using coding theory principles. This work explores potential parallels between engineering communication systems and the central dogma of genetics and presents a coding theory approach to modeling the process of protein translation initiation. The messenger RNA is viewed as a noisy encoded sequence and the ribosoe as an error control decoder. Decoding models based on chemical and biological characteristics of the ribosome and the ribosome binding site of the mRNA are developed and results of applying the models to the Escherichia coli K-12 are presented.

  20. Code Generation with Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Arnoldus, Jeroen; Serebrenik, A

    2012-01-01

    Templates are used to generate all kinds of text, including computer code. The last decade, the use of templates gained a lot of popularity due to the increase of dynamic web applications. Templates are a tool for programmers, and implementations of template engines are most times based on practical experience rather than based on a theoretical background. This book reveals the mathematical background of templates and shows interesting findings for improving the practical use of templates. First, a framework to determine the necessary computational power for the template metalanguage is presen

  1. Correct Code Containing Containers

    OpenAIRE

    Dross, Claire; Filliâtre, Jean-Christophe; Moy, Yannick

    2011-01-01

    For critical software development, containers such as lists, vectors, sets or maps are an attractive alternative to ad-hoc data structures based on pointers. As standards like DO-178C put formal verification and testing on an equal footing, it is important to give users the ability to apply both to the verification of code using containers. In this paper, we present a definition of containers whose aim is to facilitate their use in certified software, using modern proof technology and novel s...

  2. Physical layer network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Popovski, Petar; Yomo, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has been proposed to improve throughput of the two-way relay channel, where two nodes communicate with each other, being assisted by a relay node. Most of the works related to PLNC are focused on a simple three-node model and they do not take into account...... the impact of interference from other transmissions. Unlike these conventional studies, in this paper, we apply PLNC to a large-scale cellular network in the presence of intercell interference (ICI). In cellular networks, a terminal and a Base Station (BS) have different transmission power, which causes...

  3. TWEED Code Book

    OpenAIRE

    Engene, Jan Oskar

    2006-01-01

    The TWEED data set contains information on more than 11.000 events related to internal (or domestic) terrorism in 18 West European countries for the 1950 through 2004 period. The code book describes the structure of the data set, the countries covered, and the variables included and functions as a user’s guide to the data set. The data set is available at: http://www.uib.no/people/sspje/tweed.htm The data set Terrorism in Western Europe: Events Data, TWEED, contains information on events r...

  4. Cinder begin creative coding

    CERN Document Server

    Rijnieks, Krisjanis

    2013-01-01

    Presented in an easy to follow, tutorial-style format, this book will lead you step-by-step through the multi-faceted uses of Cinder.""Cinder: Begin Creative Coding"" is for people who already have experience in programming. It can serve as a transition from a previous background in Processing, Java in general, JavaScript, openFrameworks, C++ in general or ActionScript to the framework covered in this book, namely Cinder. If you like quick and easy to follow tutorials that will let yousee progress in less than an hour - this book is for you. If you are searching for a book that will explain al

  5. ON CLASSICAL BCH CODES AND QUANTUM BCH CODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yajie; Ma Zhi; Zhang Chunyuan

    2009-01-01

    It is a regular way of constructing quantum error-correcting codes via codes with self-orthogonal property, and whether a classical Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) code is self-orthogonal can be determined by its designed distance. In this paper, we give the sufficient and necessary condition for arbitrary classical BCH codes with self-orthogonal property through algorithms. We also give a better upper bound of the designed distance of a classical narrow-sense BCH code which contains its Euclidean dual. Besides these, we also give one algorithm to compute the dimension of these codes. The complexity of all algorithms is analyzed. Then the results can be applied to construct a series of quantum BCH codes via the famous CSS constructions.

  6. HTLV-1 bZIP Factor Impairs Anti-viral Immunity by Inducing Co-inhibitory Molecule, T Cell Immunoglobulin and ITIM Domain (TIGIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Yasuma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 infects CD4+ T cells and induces proliferation of infected cells in vivo, which leads to the onset of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL in some infected individuals. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ gene, which is encoded in the minus strand of HTLV-1, plays critical roles in pathogenesis. In this study, RNA-seq and ChIP-seq analyses using HBZ transduced T cells revealed that HBZ upregulates the expression and promoter acetylation levels of a co-inhibitory molecule, T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT, in addition to those of regulatory T cells related genes, Foxp3 and Ccr4. TIGIT was expressed on CD4+ T cells from HBZ-transgenic (HBZ-Tg mice, and on ATL cells and HTLV-1 infected CD4+ T cells of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP in vivo. Expression of Blimp1 and IL-10 was upregulated in TIGIT+CD4+ cells of HBZ-Tg mice compared with TIGIT-CD4+ T cells, suggesting the correlation between TIGIT expression and IL-10 production. When CD4+ T cells from HBZ-Tg mice were stimulated with TIGIT's ligand, CD155, their production of the inhibitory cytokine IL-10 was enhanced. Furthermore, dendritic cells from HBZ-Tg mice produced high levels of IL-10 after stimulation. These data suggest that HBZ alters immune system to suppressive state via TIGIT and IL-10. Importantly, TIGIT suppressed T-cell responses to another HTLV-1 virus protein, Tax, in vitro. Blocking of TIGIT and PD-1 slightly increased anti-Tax T-cell activity in some HAM/TSP patients. These results suggest that HBZ-induced TIGIT on HTLV-1 infected cells impairs T-cell responses to viral antigens. This study shows that HBZ-induced TIGIT plays a pivotal role in attenuating host immune responses and shaping a microenvironment favorable to HTLV-1.

  7. Hybrids of the bHLH and bZIP protein motifs display different DNA-binding activities in vivo vs. in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiu-Kwan Chow

    Full Text Available Minimalist hybrids comprising the DNA-binding domain of bHLH/PAS (basic-helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim protein Arnt fused to the leucine zipper (LZ dimerization domain from bZIP (basic region-leucine zipper protein C/EBP were designed to bind the E-box DNA site, CACGTG, targeted by bHLHZ (basic-helix-loop-helix-zipper proteins Myc and Max, as well as the Arnt homodimer. The bHLHZ-like structure of ArntbHLH-C/EBP comprises the Arnt bHLH domain fused to the C/EBP LZ: i.e. swap of the 330 aa PAS domain for the 29 aa LZ. In the yeast one-hybrid assay (Y1H, transcriptional activation from the E-box was strong by ArntbHLH-C/EBP, and undetectable for the truncated ArntbHLH (PAS removed, as detected via readout from the HIS3 and lacZ reporters. In contrast, fluorescence anisotropy titrations showed affinities for the E-box with ArntbHLH-C/EBP and ArntbHLH comparable to other transcription factors (K(d 148.9 nM and 40.2 nM, respectively, but only under select conditions that maintained folded protein. Although in vivo yeast results and in vitro spectroscopic studies for ArntbHLH-C/EBP targeting the E-box correlate well, the same does not hold for ArntbHLH. As circular dichroism confirms that ArntbHLH-C/EBP is a much more strongly alpha-helical structure than ArntbHLH, we conclude that the nonfunctional ArntbHLH in the Y1H must be due to misfolding, leading to the false negative that this protein is incapable of targeting the E-box. Many experiments, including protein design and selections from large libraries, depend on protein domains remaining well-behaved in the nonnative experimental environment, especially small motifs like the bHLH (60-70 aa. Interestingly, a short helical LZ can serve as a folding- and/or solubility-enhancing tag, an important device given the focus of current research on exploration of vast networks of biomolecular interactions.

  8. Xenomicrobiology: a roadmap for genetic code engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G; Budisa, Nediljko

    2016-09-01

    Biology is an analytical and informational science that is becoming increasingly dependent on chemical synthesis. One example is the high-throughput and low-cost synthesis of DNA, which is a foundation for the research field of synthetic biology (SB). The aim of SB is to provide biotechnological solutions to health, energy and environmental issues as well as unsustainable manufacturing processes in the frame of naturally existing chemical building blocks. Xenobiology (XB) goes a step further by implementing non-natural building blocks in living cells. In this context, genetic code engineering respectively enables the re-design of genes/genomes and proteins/proteomes with non-canonical nucleic (XNAs) and amino (ncAAs) acids. Besides studying information flow and evolutionary innovation in living systems, XB allows the development of new-to-nature therapeutic proteins/peptides, new biocatalysts for potential applications in synthetic organic chemistry and biocontainment strategies for enhanced biosafety. In this perspective, we provide a brief history and evolution of the genetic code in the context of XB. We then discuss the latest efforts and challenges ahead for engineering the genetic code with focus on substitutions and additions of ncAAs as well as standard amino acid reductions. Finally, we present a roadmap for the directed evolution of artificial microbes for emancipating rare sense codons that could be used to introduce novel building blocks. The development of such xenomicroorganisms endowed with a 'genetic firewall' will also allow to study and understand the relation between code evolution and horizontal gene transfer. PMID:27489097

  9. Security Embedding Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ly, Hung D; Blankenship, Yufei

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of simultaneously communicating two messages, a high-security message and a low-security message, to a legitimate receiver, referred to as the security embedding problem. An information-theoretic formulation of the problem is presented. A coding scheme that combines rate splitting, superposition coding, nested binning and channel prefixing is considered and is shown to achieve the secrecy capacity region of the channel in several scenarios. Specifying these results to both scalar and independent parallel Gaussian channels (under an average individual per-subchannel power constraint), it is shown that the high-security message can be embedded into the low-security message at full rate (as if the low-security message does not exist) without incurring any loss on the overall rate of communication (as if both messages are low-security messages). Extensions to the wiretap channel II setting of Ozarow and Wyner are also considered, where it is shown that "perfect" security embedding...

  10. Supervised Transfer Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2014-07-27

    A combination of the sparse coding and transfer learn- ing techniques was shown to be accurate and robust in classification tasks where training and testing objects have a shared feature space but are sampled from differ- ent underlying distributions, i.e., belong to different do- mains. The key assumption in such case is that in spite of the domain disparity, samples from different domains share some common hidden factors. Previous methods often assumed that all the objects in the target domain are unlabeled, and thus the training set solely comprised objects from the source domain. However, in real world applications, the target domain often has some labeled objects, or one can always manually label a small num- ber of them. In this paper, we explore such possibil- ity and show how a small number of labeled data in the target domain can significantly leverage classifica- tion accuracy of the state-of-the-art transfer sparse cod- ing methods. We further propose a unified framework named supervised transfer sparse coding (STSC) which simultaneously optimizes sparse representation, domain transfer and classification. Experimental results on three applications demonstrate that a little manual labeling and then learning the model in a supervised fashion can significantly improve classification accuracy.

  11. The Art of Readable Code

    CERN Document Server

    Boswell, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    As programmers, we've all seen source code that's so ugly and buggy it makes our brain ache. Over the past five years, authors Dustin Boswell and Trevor Foucher have analyzed hundreds of examples of "bad code" (much of it their own) to determine why they're bad and how they could be improved. Their conclusion? You need to write code that minimizes the time it would take someone else to understand it-even if that someone else is you. This book focuses on basic principles and practical techniques you can apply every time you write code. Using easy-to-digest code examples from different languag

  12. Three Paradigms for Mixing Coding and Games: Coding in a Game, Coding as a Game, and Coding for a Game

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Games for teaching coding have been an educational holy grail since at least the early 1980s. Yet for decades, with games more popular than ever and with the need to teach kids coding having been well-recognized, no blockbuster coding games have arisen (see Chapter 2). Over the years, the research community has made various games for teaching computer science: a survey made by shows that most do not teach coding, and of the ones that do teach coding, most are research prototypes (not produc...

  13. On constructing disjoint linear codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Weiguo; CAI Mian; XIAO Guozhen

    2007-01-01

    To produce a highly nonlinear resilient function,the disjoint linear codes were originally proposed by Johansson and Pasalic in IEEE Trans.Inform.Theory,2003,49(2):494-501.In this paper,an effective method for finding a set of such disjoint linear codes is presented.When n≥2k,we can find a set of[n,k] disjoint linear codes with joint linear codes exists with cardinality at least 2.We also describe a result on constructing a set of [n,k] disjoint linear codes with minimum distance at least some fixed positive integer.

  14. A Generic Safety assessment code for geologic disposal of Radioactive Waste: GSRW computer code user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer code system GSRW (Generic Safety assessment code for geologic disposal of Radioactive Waste) was developed as in interim version of safety assessment methodology for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Scenarios used here are based on normal evolution scenarios which assume that the performance of a disposal system is not affected by probabilistic events. The code consists of three parts. The first part evaluates a source term from a disposal facility which consists mainly of a vitrified waste, a metallic container and a buffer zone. Two kinds of source term models are provided: Model 1 which simulate the dissolution of silicate component of glass and the diffusive transport of radionuclides in the buffere zone, and Model 2 which assumes that the concentration of a radionuclide is limited by the solubility of its specific chemical form at the interface between the buffer and a vitrified wastes. The second part analyses the transport of radionuclides in the geosphere, which is based on analytical solutions or numerical solutions of a mass transport equation involving the advection, dispersion, linear sorption and decay chain. The third part assesses the transport of radionuclides in the biosphere and the resulting radiological consequences to the man, which is based on a dynamic compartment model for the biosphere and a dose factor method for dose calculations. This report describes mathematical models used, the structure of the code system, and user information and instructions for execution of the code. (author)

  15. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  16. The status of simulation codes for extraction process using mixer-settler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied and analyzed the mixer-settler simulation codes such as three kinds of SEPHIS series, PUBG, and EXTRA.M, which is the most recently developed code. All of these are sufficiently satisfactory codes in the fields of process/device modeling, but it is necessary to formulate the accurate distribution data and chemical reaction mechanism for the aspect of accuracy and reliability. In the aspect of application to be the group separation process, the mixer-settler model of these codes have no problems, but the accumulation and formulation of partitioning and reaction equilibrium data of chemical elements used in group separation process is very important. (author)

  17. The status of simulation codes for extraction process using mixer-settler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byeon, Kee Hoh; Lee, Eil Hee; Kwon, Seong Gil; Kim, Kwang Wook; Yang, Han Beom; Chung, Dong Yong; Lim, Jae Kwan; Shin, Hyun Kyoo; Kim, Soo Ho

    1999-10-01

    We have studied and analyzed the mixer-settler simulation codes such as three kinds of SEPHIS series, PUBG, and EXTRA.M, which is the most recently developed code. All of these are sufficiently satisfactory codes in the fields of process/device modeling, but it is necessary to formulate the accurate distribution data and chemical reaction mechanism for the aspect of accuracy and reliability. In the aspect of application to be the group separation process, the mixer-settler model of these codes have no problems, but the accumulation and formulation of partitioning and reaction equilibrium data of chemical elements used in group separation process is very important. (author)

  18. Code manual for CONTAIN 2.0: A computer code for nuclear reactor containment analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, K.K.; Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Gido, R.G.; Tadios, E.L.; Davis, F.J.; Martinez, G.M.; Washington, K.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tills, J. [J. Tills and Associates, Inc., Sandia Park, NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The CONTAIN 2.0 computer code is an integrated analysis tool used for predicting the physical conditions, chemical compositions, and distributions of radiological materials inside a containment building following the release of material from the primary system in a light-water reactor accident. It can also predict the source term to the environment. CONTAIN 2.0 is intended to replace the earlier CONTAIN 1.12, which was released in 1991. The purpose of this Code Manual is to provide full documentation of the features and models in CONTAIN 2.0. Besides complete descriptions of the models, this Code Manual provides a complete description of the input and output from the code. CONTAIN 2.0 is a highly flexible and modular code that can run problems that are either quite simple or highly complex. An important aspect of CONTAIN is that the interactions among thermal-hydraulic phenomena, aerosol behavior, and fission product behavior are taken into account. The code includes atmospheric models for steam/air thermodynamics, intercell flows, condensation/evaporation on structures and aerosols, aerosol behavior, and gas combustion. It also includes models for reactor cavity phenomena such as core-concrete interactions and coolant pool boiling. Heat conduction in structures, fission product decay and transport, radioactive decay heating, and the thermal-hydraulic and fission product decontamination effects of engineered safety features are also modeled. To the extent possible, the best available models for severe accident phenomena have been incorporated into CONTAIN, but it is intrinsic to the nature of accident analysis that significant uncertainty exists regarding numerous phenomena. In those cases, sensitivity studies can be performed with CONTAIN by means of user-specified input parameters. Thus, the code can be viewed as a tool designed to assist the knowledge reactor safety analyst in evaluating the consequences of specific modeling assumptions.

  19. Code manual for CONTAIN 2.0: A computer code for nuclear reactor containment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CONTAIN 2.0 computer code is an integrated analysis tool used for predicting the physical conditions, chemical compositions, and distributions of radiological materials inside a containment building following the release of material from the primary system in a light-water reactor accident. It can also predict the source term to the environment. CONTAIN 2.0 is intended to replace the earlier CONTAIN 1.12, which was released in 1991. The purpose of this Code Manual is to provide full documentation of the features and models in CONTAIN 2.0. Besides complete descriptions of the models, this Code Manual provides a complete description of the input and output from the code. CONTAIN 2.0 is a highly flexible and modular code that can run problems that are either quite simple or highly complex. An important aspect of CONTAIN is that the interactions among thermal-hydraulic phenomena, aerosol behavior, and fission product behavior are taken into account. The code includes atmospheric models for steam/air thermodynamics, intercell flows, condensation/evaporation on structures and aerosols, aerosol behavior, and gas combustion. It also includes models for reactor cavity phenomena such as core-concrete interactions and coolant pool boiling. Heat conduction in structures, fission product decay and transport, radioactive decay heating, and the thermal-hydraulic and fission product decontamination effects of engineered safety features are also modeled. To the extent possible, the best available models for severe accident phenomena have been incorporated into CONTAIN, but it is intrinsic to the nature of accident analysis that significant uncertainty exists regarding numerous phenomena. In those cases, sensitivity studies can be performed with CONTAIN by means of user-specified input parameters. Thus, the code can be viewed as a tool designed to assist the knowledge reactor safety analyst in evaluating the consequences of specific modeling assumptions

  20. Introduction of SCIENCE code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SCIENCE code package is a set of neutronics tools based on 2D assembly calculations and 3D core calculations. It is made up of APOLLO2F, SMART and SQUALE and used to perform the nuclear design and loading pattern analysis for the reactors on operation or under construction of China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group. The purpose of paper is to briefly present the physical and numerical models used in each computation codes of the SCIENCE code pack age, including the description of the general structure of the code package, the coupling relationship of APOLLO2-F transport lattice code and SMART core nodal code, and the SQUALE code used for processing the core maps. (authors)

  1. dc-free coset codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Robert H.; Herro, Mark A.

    1988-01-01

    A class of block coset codes with disparity and run-length constraints are studied. They are particularly well suited for high-speed optical fiber links and similar channels, where dc-free pulse formats, channel error control, and low-complexity encoder-decoder implementations are required. The codes are derived by partitioning linear block codes. The encoder and decoder structures are the same as those of linear block codes with only slight modifications. A special class of dc-free coset block codes are derived from BCH codes with specified bounds on minimum distance, disparity, and run length. The codes have low disparity levels (a small running digital sum) and good error-correcting capabilities.

  2. Finite-Length Analysis of BATS Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shenghao; Ng, Tsz-Ching; Yeung, Raymond W.

    2013-01-01

    BATS codes were proposed for communication through networks with packet loss. A BATS code consists of an outer code and an inner code. The outer code is a matrix generation of a fountain code, which works with the inner code that comprises random linear coding at the intermediate network nodes. In this paper, the performance of finite-length BATS codes is analyzed with respect to both belief propagation (BP) decoding and inactivation decoding. Our results enable us to evaluate efficiently the...

  3. On homogeneous nontransitive binary perfect code

    OpenAIRE

    Mogilnykh, I. Yu.; Solov'eva, F. I.

    2014-01-01

    Studying binary perfect codes we show the existence of homogeneous nontransitive codes. Thus, as far as perfect codes are concerned, the propelinear codes are strictly contained in transitive codes, wheresas homogeneous codes form a strict subclass of transitive codes. In the work we deduce a necessary and sufficient condition for transitivity of perfect binary codes of rank one more than that of Hamming code. The paper is in Russian.

  4. Making your code citable with the Astrophysics Source Code Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alice; DuPrie, Kimberly; Schmidt, Judy; Berriman, G. Bruce; Hanisch, Robert J.; Mink, Jessica D.; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Shamir, Lior; Shortridge, Keith; Taylor, Mark B.; Teuben, Peter J.; Wallin, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL, ascl.net) is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research. With nearly 1,200 codes, it is the largest indexed resource for astronomy codes in existence. Established in 1999, it offers software authors a path to citation of their research codes even without publication of a paper describing the software, and offers scientists a way to find codes used in refereed publications, thus improving the transparency of the research. It also provides a method to quantify the impact of source codes in a fashion similar to the science metrics of journal articles. Citations using ASCL IDs are accepted by major astronomy journals and if formatted properly are tracked by ADS and other indexing services. The number of citations to ASCL entries increased sharply from 110 citations in January 2014 to 456 citations in September 2015. The percentage of code entries in ASCL that were cited at least once rose from 7.5% in January 2014 to 17.4% in September 2015. The ASCL's mid-2014 infrastructure upgrade added an easy entry submission form, more flexible browsing, search capabilities, and an RSS feeder for updates. A Changes/Additions form added this past fall lets authors submit links for papers that use their codes for addition to the ASCL entry even if those papers don't formally cite the codes, thus increasing the transparency of that research and capturing the value of their software to the community.

  5. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pills, who subsequently become pregnant or have a history of brownish facial discoloration. Scarring Reactivation of cold sores What can I expect after having a chemical peel? All peels require some follow-up care: ...

  6. Unnecessary Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anita

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

  7. Chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book gives descriptions of chemical kinetics. It starts summary of chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism, and explains basic velocity law, experiment method for determination of reaction velocity, temperature dependence of reaction velocity, theory of reaction velocity, theory on reaction of unimolecular, process of atom and free radical, reaction in solution, catalysis, photochemical reaction, such as experiment and photochemical law and rapid reaction like flame, beam of molecule and shock tube.

  8. Les codes correcteurs

    OpenAIRE

    Rigo, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Qu'on le veuille ou non, nous vivons dans un monde où les informations et les moyens de communication sont omniprésents. Les exemples où se mêlent informatique et télécommunications sont nombreux. Que ce soit l'Internet, la musique achetée en ligne ou gravée sur CD, les baladeurs de type iPod et autres appareils portables, les supports mémoire de tout type, la photographie numérique, la présence d'ordinateurs de bord sophistiqués dans nos voitures, etc. Sans code correcteur, le CD (implémenta...

  9. GOC: General Orbit Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GOC (General Orbit Code) is a versatile program which will perform a variety of calculations relevant to isochronous cyclotron design studies. In addition to the usual calculations of interest (e.g., equilibrium and accelerated orbits, focusing frequencies, field isochronization, etc.), GOC has a number of options to calculate injections with a charge change. GOC provides both printed and plotted output, and will follow groups of particles to allow determination of finite-beam properties. An interactive PDP-10 program called GIP, which prepares input data for GOC, is available. GIP is a very easy and convenient way to prepare complicated input data for GOC. Enclosed with this report are several microfiche containing source listings of GOC and other related routines and the printed output from a multiple-option GOC run

  10. Physical Layer Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Yomo, Hironori; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause....../receive interference. The way to deal with this problem in distributed wireless networks is usage of MAC-layer mechanisms that make a spatial reservation of the shared wireless medium, similar to the well-known RTS/CTS in IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. In this paper, we investigate two-way relaying in presence...... be vanishing when the two-way relaying is considered in a broader context of a larger wireless network....

  11. IMP: A performance code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauro, Vincent A., Sr.

    IMP (Integrated Mission Program) is a simulation language and code used to model present and future Earth, Moon, or Mars missions. The profile is user controlled through selection from a large menu of events and maneuvers. A Fehlberg 7/13 Runge-Kutta integrator with error and step size control is used to numerically integrate the differential equations of motion (DEQ) of three spacecraft, a main, a target, and an observer. Through selection, the DEQ's include guided thrust, oblate gravity, atmosphere drag, solar pressure, and Moon gravity effects. Guide parameters for thrust events and performance parameters of velocity changes (Delta-V) and propellant usage (maximum of five systems) are developed as needed. Print, plot, summary, and debug files are output.

  12. Homomorphic encryption from codes

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, Andrej

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new homomorphic encryption scheme based on the hardness of decoding under independent random noise from certain affine families of codes. Unlike in previous lattice-based homomorphic encryption schemes, where the message is hidden in the noisy part of the ciphertext, our scheme carries the message in the affine part of the transformation and applies noise only to achieve security. Our scheme can tolerate noise of arbitrary magnitude, as long as the noise vector has sufficiently small hamming weight (and its entries are independent). Our design achieves "proto-homomorphic" properties in an elementary manner: message addition and multiplication are emulated by pointwise addition and multiplication of the ciphertext vectors. Moreover, the extremely simple nature of our decryption makes the scheme easily amenable to bootstrapping. However, some complications are caused by the inherent presence of noticeable encryption error. Our main technical contribution is the development of two new techniques for...

  13. Transionospheric Propagation Code (TIPC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Kelley, T.A.

    1990-10-01

    The Transionospheric Propagation Code is a computer program developed at Los Alamos National Lab to perform certain tasks related to the detection of vhf signals following propagation through the ionosphere. The code is written in Fortran 77, runs interactively and was designed to be as machine independent as possible. A menu format in which the user is prompted to supply appropriate parameters for a given task has been adopted for the input while the output is primarily in the form of graphics. The user has the option of selecting from five basic tasks, namely transionospheric propagation, signal filtering, signal processing, DTOA study, and DTOA uncertainty study. For the first task a specified signal is convolved against the impulse response function of the ionosphere to obtain the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of four analytic forms for the input pulse or of supplying a tabular form. The option of adding Gaussian-distributed white noise of spectral noise to the input signal is also provided. The deterministic ionosphere is characterized to first order in terms of a total electron content (TEC) along the propagation path. In addition, a scattering model parameterized in terms of a frequency coherence bandwidth is also available. In the second task, detection is simulated by convolving a given filter response against the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of a wideband filter or a narrowband Gaussian filter. It is also possible to input a filter response. The third task provides for quadrature detection, envelope detection, and three different techniques for time-tagging the arrival of the transionospheric signal at specified receivers. The latter algorithms can be used to determine a TEC and thus take out the effects of the ionosphere to first order. Task four allows the user to construct a table of delta-times-of-arrival (DTOAs) vs TECs for a specified pair of receivers.

  14. Diagonal Eigenvalue Unity (DEU) code for spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hassan Yousif; Nisar, K. S.

    2013-08-01

    Code with ideal in-phase cross correlation (CC) and practical code length to support high number of users are required in spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. SAC systems are getting more attractive in the field of OCDMA because of its ability to eliminate the influence of multiple access interference (MAI) and also suppress the effect of phase induced intensity noise (PIIN). In this paper, we have proposed new Diagonal Eigenvalue Unity (DEU) code families with ideal in-phase CC based on Jordan block matrix with simple algebraic ways. Four sets of DEU code families based on the code weight W and number of users N for the combination (even, even), (even, odd), (odd, odd) and (odd, even) are constructed. This combination gives DEU code more flexibility in selection of code weight and number of users. These features made this code a compelling candidate for future optical communication systems. Numerical results show that the proposed DEU system outperforms reported codes. In addition, simulation results taken from a commercial optical systems simulator, Virtual Photonic Instrument (VPI™) shown that, using point to multipoint transmission in passive optical network (PON), DEU has better performance and could support long span with high data rate.

  15. Selection of Code and Interleaver for Turbo Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1998-01-01

    The selection of component codes for turbo coding has often been based on the performance at high SNR's. However, we will argue that the selection mainly should be based on the performance at low SNR's, i.e. the convergence properties. Further, we will present a way to construct interleavers that...... significantly improve the performance of the turbo coding scheme at high SNR's, i.e. lowers the error floor...

  16. Code Pointer Masking: Hardening applications against code injection attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Philippaerts, Pieter; Younan, Yves; Muylle, Stijn; Piessens, Frank; Lachmund, Sven; Walter, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present an efficient countermeasure against code injection attacks. Our countermeasure does not rely on secret values such as stack canaries and protects against attacks that are not addressed by state-of-the-art countermeasures of similar performance. By enforcing the correct semantics of code pointers, we thwart attacks that modify code pointers to divert the application's control flow. We have implemented a prototype of our solution in a C-compiler for Linux. The evaluatio...

  17. Practices in Code Discoverability: Astrophysics Source Code Library

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Alice; Nemiroff, Robert J; Shamir, Lior

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), which takes an active approach to sharing astrophysical source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL now has over 340 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL (http://ascl.net) has on average added 19 new codes per month. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of the new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available ei...

  18. Bit-Interleaved Coded Multiple Beamforming with Perfect Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Boyu

    2010-01-01

    When the channel state information is known by the transmitter as well as the receiver, beamforming techniques that employ Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) are commonly used in Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems. Without channel coding, when a single symbol is transmitted, these systems achieve the full diversity order. Whereas, this property is lost when multiple symbols are simultaneously transmitted. Full diversity can be restored when channel coding is added, as long as the code rate Rc and the number of employed subchannels S satisfy the condition RcS =< 1. Moreover, by adding a proper constellation precoder, full diversity can be achieved for both uncoded and coded SVD systems, e.g., Fully Precoded Multiple Beamforming (FPMB) and Bit-Interleaved Coded Multiple Beamforming with Full Precoding (BICMB-FP). Perfect Space-Time Block Code (PSTBC) is a full-rate full-diversity space-time code, which achieves maximum coding gain for MIMO systems. Previously, Perfect Coded Multiple Beamforming (P...

  19. SOPHAEROS code development and its application to falcon tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the key issues in source-term evaluation in nuclear reactor severe accidents is determination of the transport behavior of fission products released from the degrading core. The SOPHAEROS computer code is being developed to predict fission product transport in a mechanistic way in light water reactor circuits. These applications of the SOPHAEROS code to the Falcon experiments, among others not presented here, indicate that the numerical scheme of the code is robust, and no convergence problems are encountered. The calculation is also very fast being three times longer on a Sun SPARC 5 workstation than real time and typically ∼ 10 times faster than an identical calculation with the VICTORIA code. The study demonstrates that the SOPHAEROS 1.3 code is a suitable tool for prediction of the vapor chemistry and fission product transport with a reasonable level of accuracy. Furthermore, the fexibility of the code material data bank allows improvement of understanding of fission product transport and deposition in the circuit. Performing sensitivity studies with different chemical species or with different properties (saturation pressure, chemical equilibrium constants) is very straightforward

  20. Nonlinear, nonbinary cyclic group codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    New cyclic group codes of length 2(exp m) - 1 over (m - j)-bit symbols are introduced. These codes can be systematically encoded and decoded algebraically. The code rates are very close to Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and are much better than Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes (a former alternative). The binary (m - j)-tuples are identified with a subgroup of the binary m-tuples which represents the field GF(2 exp m). Encoding is systematic and involves a two-stage procedure consisting of the usual linear feedback register (using the division or check polynomial) and a small table lookup. For low rates, a second shift-register encoding operation may be invoked. Decoding uses the RS error-correcting procedures for the m-tuple codes for m = 4, 5, and 6.

  1. QR code for medical information uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Ducut, Erick G

    2008-01-01

    We developed QR code online tools, simulated and tested QR code applications for medical information uses including scanning QR code labels, URLs and authentication. Our results show possible applications for QR code in medicine. PMID:18998785

  2. Galaxy Formation and Chemical Evolution in Hierarchical Hydrodynamical Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Cora, S. A.; Mosconi, M. B.; P. B. Tissera; Lambas, D. G.

    2000-01-01

    We report first results of an implementation of a chemical model in a cosmological code, based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) technique. We show that chemical SPH simulations are a promising tool to provide clues for the understanding of the chemical properties of galaxies in relation to their formation and evolution in a cosmological framework.

  3. Two-Level Fingerprinting Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Anthapadmanabhan, N. Prasanth; Barg, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of two-level fingerprinting and traceability codes. In this setting, the users are organized in a hierarchical manner by classifying them into various groups; for instance, by dividing the distribution area into several geographic regions, and collecting users from the same region into one group. Two-level fingerprinting and traceability codes have the following property: As in traditional (one-level) codes, when given an illegal copy produced by a coalition of users, ...

  4. ACE spectrum of LDPC codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukobratović Dejan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction of short-length LDPC codes with good, both waterfall and error-floor, behavior is still an attractive research problem. Recently proposed construction algorithms in this field are based on remarkably simple ideas, but yet, their effectiveness can still be questioned. In this paper we investigate a novel measure of goodness of a given LDPC code namely its ACE spectrum, based on a previously introduced ACE metrics associated with each cycle in LDPC code graph.

  5. More on Combinatorial Batch Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Ruj, Sushmita; Roy, Bimal

    2008-01-01

    Paterson, Stinson and Wei \\cite{PSW} introduced Combinatorial batch codes, which are combinatorial description of Batch code. Batch codes were first presented by Ishai, Kushilevita, Ostrovsky and Sahai \\cite{IKOS} in STOC'04. In this paper we answer some of the questions put forward by Paterson, Stinson and Wei and give some results for the general case $t>1$ which were not studied by the authors.

  6. Generalized PCM coding of Images

    OpenAIRE

    Prades Nebot, José; MORBEE, MARLEEN; DELP, EDWARD

    2012-01-01

    Pulse-code modulation (PCM) with embedded quantization allows the rate of the PCM bitstream to be reduced by simply removing a fixed number of least significant bits from each codeword. Although this source coding technique is extremely simple, it has poor coding efficiency. In this paper, we present a generalized PCM (GPCM) algorithm for images that simply removes bits from each codeword. In contrast to PCM, however, the number and the specific bits that a GPCM encoder removes in each cod...

  7. Rateless codes for AVC models

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwate, Anand D.; Gastpar, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The arbitrarily varying channel (AVC) is a channel model whose state is selected maliciously by an adversary. Fixed-blocklength coding assumes a worst-case bound on the adversary's capabilities, which leads to pessimistic results. This paper defines a variable-length perspective on this problem, for which achievable rates are shown that depend on the realized actions of the adversary. Specifically, rateless codes are constructed which require a limited amount of common randomness. These codes...

  8. Ethical codes in business practice

    OpenAIRE

    Kobrlová, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The diploma thesis discusses the issues of ethics and codes of ethics in business. The theoretical part defines basic concepts of ethics, presents its historical development and the methods and tools of business ethics. It also focuses on ethical codes and the area of law and ethics. The practical part consists of a quantitative survey, which provides views of selected business entities of business ethics and the use of codes of ethics in practice.

  9. Explosive Formulation Code Naming SOP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, H. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-19

    The purpose of this SOP is to provide a procedure for giving individual HME formulations code names. A code name for an individual HME formulation consists of an explosive family code, given by the classified guide, followed by a dash, -, and a number. If the formulation requires preparation such as packing or aging, these add additional groups of symbols to the X-ray specimen name.

  10. Low complexity hevc intra coding

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Coll, José Damián

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, much research has focused on the development and optimization of video codecs for media distribution to end-users via the Internet, broadcasts or mobile networks, but also for videoconferencing and for the recording on optical disks for media distribution. Most of the video coding standards for delivery are characterized by using a high efficiency hybrid schema, based on inter-prediction coding for temporal picture decorrelation, and intra-prediction coding for spat...

  11. Combinatorial aspects of code loops

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtěchovský, Petr

    2007-01-01

    The existence and uniqueness (up to equivalence) of code loops was first established by R. Griess. Nevertheless, the explicit construction of code loops remained open until T. Hsu introduced the notion of symplectic cubic spaces and their Frattini extensions, and pointed out how the construction of code loops followed from the (purely combinatorial) result of O. Chein and E. Goodaire. Within this paper, we focus on their combinatorial construction and prove a more general result using the lan...

  12. SALE: Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, D.J.; Bush, W.J.; Dolan, C.A.

    1976-09-01

    The Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (SALE) program implements an industry-wide quality control and evaluation system aimed at identifying and reducing analytical chemical measurement errors. Samples of well-characterized materials are distributed to laboratory participants at periodic intervals for determination of uranium or plutonium concentration and isotopic distributions. The results of these determinations are statistically-evaluated, and each participant is informed of the accuracy and precision of his results in a timely manner. The SALE computer code which produces the report is designed to facilitate rapid transmission of this information in order that meaningful quality control will be provided. Various statistical techniques comprise the output of the SALE computer code. Assuming an unbalanced nested design, an analysis of variance is performed in subroutine NEST resulting in a test of significance for time and analyst effects. A trend test is performed in subroutine TREND. Microfilm plots are obtained from subroutine CUMPLT. Within-laboratory standard deviations are calculated in the main program or subroutine VAREST, and between-laboratory standard deviations are calculated in SBLV. Other statistical tests are also performed. Up to 1,500 pieces of data for each nuclear material sampled by 75 (or fewer) laboratories may be analyzed with this code. The input deck necessary to run the program is shown, and input parameters are discussed in detail. Printed output and microfilm plot output are described. Output from a typical SALE run is included as a sample problem.

  13. Chemical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Wing-Fai

    2015-09-01

    This chapter discusses the fundamental ideas of how chemical networks are build, their strengths and limitations. The chemical reactions that occur in disks combine the cold phase reactions used to model cold molecular clouds with the hot chemistry applied to planetary atmosphere models. With a general understanding of the different types of reactions that can occur, one can proceed in building a network of chemical reactions and use it to explain the abundance of species seen in disks. One on-going research subject is finding new paths to synthesize species either in the gas-phase or on grain surfaces. Specific formation routes for water or carbon monoxide are discussed in more details. 13th Lecture of the Summer School "Protoplanetary Disks: Theory and Modelling Meet Observations"

  14. Should you learn to code?

    CERN Document Server

    Team, The Hyperink

    2013-01-01

    On May 15, 2012 Jeff Atwood (co-founder of Stack Overflow) published a blog post titled "Please Don't Learn to Code" in response to Mayor Mike Bloomberg's resolution to learn how to code in 2012. In that post he argues against "learning to code just for the sake of learning how to code," a sentiment that sparked an active online debate. This book is a compilation of several different perspectives on that debate. Should programming be taught to every student as part of their core curriculum, similar to mathematics, reading, and writing? Should every working professional take time to learn a

  15. Semi-supervised sparse coding

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-07-06

    Sparse coding approximates the data sample as a sparse linear combination of some basic codewords and uses the sparse codes as new presentations. In this paper, we investigate learning discriminative sparse codes by sparse coding in a semi-supervised manner, where only a few training samples are labeled. By using the manifold structure spanned by the data set of both labeled and unlabeled samples and the constraints provided by the labels of the labeled samples, we learn the variable class labels for all the samples. Furthermore, to improve the discriminative ability of the learned sparse codes, we assume that the class labels could be predicted from the sparse codes directly using a linear classifier. By solving the codebook, sparse codes, class labels and classifier parameters simultaneously in a unified objective function, we develop a semi-supervised sparse coding algorithm. Experiments on two real-world pattern recognition problems demonstrate the advantage of the proposed methods over supervised sparse coding methods on partially labeled data sets.

  16. User manual of UNF code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UNF code (2001 version) written in FORTRAN-90 is developed for calculating fast neutron reaction data of structure materials with incident energies from about 1 Kev up to 20 Mev. The code consists of the spherical optical model, the unified Hauser-Feshbach and exciton model. The man nal of the UNF code is available for users. The format of the input parameter files and the output files, as well as the functions of flag used in UNF code, are introduced in detail, and the examples of the format of input parameters files are given

  17. The FLUKA Code: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Empl, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M. V.; Lantz, M.; Liotta, M.; Mairani, A.; Mostacci, A.; Muraro, S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P. R.; Scannicchio, D.; Trovati, S.; Villari, R.; Wilson, T.

    2006-01-01

    FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code which can transport a variety of particles over a wide energy range in complex geometries. The code is a joint project of INFN and CERN: part of its development is also supported by the University of Houston and NASA. FLUKA is successfully applied in several fields, including but not only, particle physics, cosmic ray physics, dosimetry, radioprotection, hadron therapy, space radiation, accelerator design and neutronics. The code is the standard tool used at CERN for dosimetry, radioprotection and beam-machine interaction studies. Here we give a glimpse into the code physics models with a particular emphasis to the hadronic and nuclear sector.

  18. Programming Entity Framework Code First

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Take advantage of the Code First data modeling approach in ADO.NET Entity Framework, and learn how to build and configure a model based on existing classes in your business domain. With this concise book, you'll work hands-on with examples to learn how Code First can create an in-memory model and database by default, and how you can exert more control over the model through further configuration. Code First provides an alternative to the database first and model first approaches to the Entity Data Model. Learn the benefits of defining your model with code, whether you're working with an exis

  19. 40 CFR 370.42 - What is Tier II inventory information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO..., the city, county, State and zip code. (d) The North American Industry Classification System...

  20. A Hydrochemical Hybrid Code for Astrophysical Problems. I. Code Verification and Benchmarks for Photon-Dominated Region (PDR)

    CERN Document Server

    Motoyama, Kazutaka; Shang, Hsien; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Hasegawa, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    A two dimensional hydrochemical hybrid code, KM2, is constructed to deal with astrophysical problems that would require coupled hydrodynamical and chemical evolution. The code assumes axisymmetry in cylindrical coordinate system, and consists of two modules: a hydrodynamics module and a chemistry module. The hydrodynamics module solves hydrodynamics using a Godunov-type finite volume scheme and treats included chemical species as passively advected scalars. The chemistry module implicitly solves non-equilibrium chemistry and change of the energy due to thermal processes with transfer of external ultraviolet radiation. Self-shielding effects on photodissociation of CO and H$_2$ are included. In this introductory paper, the adopted numerical method is presented, along with code verifications using the hydrodynamics modules, and a benchmark on the chemistry module with reactions specific to a photon-dominated region (PDR). Finally, as an example of the expected capability, the hydrochemical evolution of a PDR is...

  1. A Hydrochemical Hybrid Code for Astrophysical Problems. I. Code Verification and Benchmarks for a Photon-dominated Region (PDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Kazutaka; Morata, Oscar; Shang, Hsien; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Hasegawa, Tatsuhiko

    2015-07-01

    A two-dimensional hydrochemical hybrid code, KM2, is constructed to deal with astrophysical problems that would require coupled hydrodynamical and chemical evolution. The code assumes axisymmetry in a cylindrical coordinate system and consists of two modules: a hydrodynamics module and a chemistry module. The hydrodynamics module solves hydrodynamics using a Godunov-type finite volume scheme and treats included chemical species as passively advected scalars. The chemistry module implicitly solves nonequilibrium chemistry and change of energy due to thermal processes with transfer of external ultraviolet radiation. Self-shielding effects on photodissociation of CO and H2 are included. In this introductory paper, the adopted numerical method is presented, along with code verifications using the hydrodynamics module and a benchmark on the chemistry module with reactions specific to a photon-dominated region (PDR). Finally, as an example of the expected capability, the hydrochemical evolution of a PDR is presented based on the PDR benchmark.

  2. A new hydrodynamics code for Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, S -C; Lin, L -M

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional hydrodynamics code for Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) simulations is presented. The code includes a fifth-order shock-capturing scheme WENO, detailed nuclear reaction network, flame-capturing scheme and sub-grid turbulence. For post-processing we have developed a tracer particle scheme to record the thermodynamical history of the fluid elements. We also present a one-dimensional radiative transfer code for computing observational signals. The code solves the Lagrangian hydrodynamics and moment-integrated radiative transfer equations. A local ionization scheme and composition dependent opacity are included. Various verification tests are presented, including standard benchmark tests in one and two dimensions. SNIa models using the pure turbulent deflagration model and the delayed-detonation transition model are studied. The results are consistent with those in the literature. We compute the detailed chemical evolution using the tracer particles' histories, and we construct corresponding bolometric...

  3. Construction of wiretap codes from ordinary channel codes

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, Masahito

    2010-01-01

    From an arbitrary given channel code over a discrete or Gaussian memoryless channel, we construct a wiretap code with the strong security. Our construction can achieve the wiretap capacity under mild assumptions. The key tool is the new privacy amplification theorem bounding the eavesdropped information in terms of the Gallager function.

  4. Bioinformatic cis-element analyses performed in Arabidopsis and rice disclose bZIP- and MYB-related binding sites as potential AuxRE-coupling elements in auxin-mediated transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berendzen Kenneth W

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In higher plants, a diverse array of developmental and growth-related processes is regulated by the plant hormone auxin. Recent publications have proposed that besides the well-characterized Auxin Response Factors (ARFs that bind Auxin Response Elements (AuxREs, also members of the bZIP- and MYB-transcription factor (TF families participate in transcriptional control of auxin-regulated genes via bZIP Response Elements (ZREs or Myb Response Elements (MREs, respectively. Results Applying a novel bioinformatic algorithm, we demonstrate on a genome-wide scale that singular motifs or composite modules of AuxREs, ZREs, MREs but also of MYC2 related elements are significantly enriched in promoters of auxin-inducible genes. Despite considerable, species-specific differences in the genome structure in terms of the GC content, this enrichment is generally conserved in dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana and monocot (Oryza sativa model plants. Moreover, an enrichment of defined composite modules has been observed in selected auxin-related gene families. Consistently, a bipartite module, which encompasses a bZIP-associated G-box Related Element (GRE and an AuxRE motif, has been found to be highly enriched. Making use of transient reporter studies in protoplasts, these findings were experimentally confirmed, demonstrating that GREs functionally interact with AuxREs in regulating auxin-mediated transcription. Conclusions Using genome-wide bioinformatic analyses, evolutionary conserved motifs have been defined which potentially function as AuxRE-dependent coupling elements to establish auxin-specific expression patterns. Based on these findings, experimental approaches can be designed to broaden our understanding of combinatorial, auxin-controlled gene regulation.

  5. Conjugate Codes and Applications to Cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, M

    2006-01-01

    A conjugate code pair is defined as a pair of linear codes such that one contains the dual of the other. The conjugate code pair represents the essential structure of the corresponding Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) quantum code. It is argued that conjugate code pairs are applicable to quantum cryptography in order to motivate studies on conjugate code pairs.

  6. Coding, cryptography and combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald; Xing, Chaoping

    2004-01-01

    It has long been recognized that there are fascinating connections between cod­ ing theory, cryptology, and combinatorics. Therefore it seemed desirable to us to organize a conference that brings together experts from these three areas for a fruitful exchange of ideas. We decided on a venue in the Huang Shan (Yellow Mountain) region, one of the most scenic areas of China, so as to provide the additional inducement of an attractive location. The conference was planned for June 2003 with the official title Workshop on Coding, Cryptography and Combi­ natorics (CCC 2003). Those who are familiar with events in East Asia in the first half of 2003 can guess what happened in the end, namely the conference had to be cancelled in the interest of the health of the participants. The SARS epidemic posed too serious a threat. At the time of the cancellation, the organization of the conference was at an advanced stage: all invited speakers had been selected and all abstracts of contributed talks had been screened by the p...

  7. Patched Conic Trajectory Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Brooke Anderson; Wright, Henry

    2012-01-01

    PatCon code was developed to help mission designers run trade studies on launch and arrival times for any given planet. Initially developed in Fortran, the required inputs included launch date, arrival date, and other orbital parameters of the launch planet and arrival planets at the given dates. These parameters include the position of the planets, the eccentricity, semi-major axes, argument of periapsis, ascending node, and inclination of the planets. With these inputs, a patched conic approximation is used to determine the trajectory. The patched conic approximation divides the planetary mission into three parts: (1) the departure phase, in which the two relevant bodies are Earth and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a departure hyperbola with Earth at the focus; (2) the cruise phase, in which the two bodies are the Sun and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a transfer ellipse with the Sun at the focus; and (3) the arrival phase, in which the two bodies are the target planet and the spacecraft, where the trajectory is an arrival hyperbola with the planet as the focus.

  8. Computer code abstract: NESTLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NESTLE is a few-group neutron diffusion equation solver utilizing the nodal expansion method (NEM) for eigenvalue, adjoint, and fixed-source steady-state and transient problems. The NESTLE code solve the eigenvalue (criticality), eigenvalue adjoint, external fixed-source steady-state, and external fixed-source or eigenvalue initiated transient problems. The eigenvalue problem allows criticality searches to be completed, and the external fixed-source steady-state problem can search to achieve a specified power level. Transient problems model delayed neutrons via precursor groups. Several core properties can be input as time dependent. Two- or four-energy groups can be utilized, with all energy groups being thermal groups (i.e., upscatter exits) is desired. Core geometries modeled include Cartesian and hexagonal. Three-, two-, and one-dimensional models can be utilized with various symmetries. The thermal conditions predicted by the thermal-hydraulic model of the core are used to correct cross sections for temperature and density effects. Cross sections for temperature and density effects. Cross sections are parameterized by color, control rod state (i.e., in or out), and burnup, allowing fuel depletion to be modeled. Either a macroscopic or microscopic model may be employed

  9. Galaxy formation with radiative and chemical feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Graziani, L; Schneider, R; Kawata, D; de Bennassuti, M; Maselli, A

    2015-01-01

    Here we introduce GAMESH, a novel pipeline which implements self-consistent radiative and chemical feedback in a computational model of galaxy formation. By combining the cosmological chemical-evolution model GAMETE with the radiative transfer code CRASH, GAMESH can post process realistic outputs of a N-body simulation describing the redshift evolution of the forming galaxy. After introducing the GAMESH implementation and its features, we apply the code to a low-resolution N-body simulation of the Milky Way formation and we investigate the combined effects of self-consistent radiative and chemical feedback. Many physical properties, which can be directly compared with observations in the Galaxy and its surrounding satellites, are predicted by the code along the merger-tree assembly. The resulting redshift evolution of the Local Group star formation rates, reionisation and metal enrichment along with the predicted Metallicity Distribution Function of halo stars are critically compared with observations. We dis...

  10. Calculation code revised MIXSET for Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revised MIXSET is a FORTRAN IV calculation code developed to simulate steady and transient behaviors of the Purex extraction process and calculate the optimum operating condition of the process. Revised MIXSET includes all the functions of MIXSET code as shown below. a) Maximum chemical system of eight components can be handled with or without mutual dependence of the distribution of components. b) The flowrate and concentration of feed can be renewed successively at any state, transient or steady, for searching optimum operating conditions. c) Optimum inputs of feed concentrations and flowrates can be calculated to satisfy both of specification and recovery rate of a product. d) Radioactive decay reactions can be handled on each component. Besides these functions, the following chemical reactions concerned in Purex process are newly-included in Revised MIXSET code and the quantitative changes of components such as H+, U(IV), U(VI), Pu(III), Pu(IV), NH2OH, N2H4 can be simulated. 1st Gr. (i) reduction of Pu(IV); U4+ + 2Pu4+ + 2H2O → UO22+ + 2Pu3+ + 4H+. (ii) oxidation of Pu(III); 2Pu3+ + 3H+ + NO3- → 2Pu4+ + HNO2 + H2O. (iii) oxidation of U(IV); U4+ + NO3- + H2O → UO22+ + H+ + HNO2 2U4+ + O2 + 2H2O → 2UO22+ + 4H+. (iv) decomposition of HNO2; HNO2 + N2H5+ → HN3 + 2H2O + H+. (author)

  11. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Ole F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call this centered allele coding. This study considered effects of different allele coding methods on inference. Both marker-based and equivalent models were considered, and restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were used in inference. Results Theoretical derivations showed that parameter estimates and estimated marker effects in marker-based models are the same irrespective of the allele coding, provided that the model has a fixed general mean. For the equivalent models, the same results hold, even though different allele coding methods lead to different genomic relationship matrices. Calculated genomic breeding values are independent of allele coding when the estimate of the general mean is included into the values. Reliabilities of estimated genomic breeding values calculated using elements of the inverse of the coefficient matrix depend on the allele coding because different allele coding methods imply different models. Finally, allele coding affects the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, with the centered coding being

  12. MARS Code in Linux Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two-phase system analysis code MARS has been incorporated into Linux system. The MARS code was originally developed based on the RELAP5/MOD3.2 and COBRA-TF. The 1-D module which evolved from RELAP5 alone could be applied for the whole NSSS system analysis. The 3-D module developed based on the COBRA-TF, however, could be applied for the analysis of the reactor core region where 3-D phenomena would be better treated. The MARS code also has several other code units that could be incorporated for more detailed analysis. The separate code units include containment analysis modules and 3-D kinetics module. These code modules could be optionally invoked to be coupled with the main MARS code. The containment code modules (CONTAIN and CONTEMPT), for example, could be utilized for the analysis of the plant containment phenomena in a coupled manner with the nuclear reactor system. The mass and energy interaction during the hypothetical coolant leakage accident could, thereby, be analyzed in a more realistic manner. In a similar way, 3-D kinetics could be incorporated for simulating the three dimensional reactor kinetic behavior, instead of using the built-in point kinetics model. The MARS code system, developed initially for the MS Windows environment, however, would not be adequate enough for the PC cluster system where multiple CPUs are available. When parallelism is to be eventually incorporated into the MARS code, MS Windows environment is not considered as an optimum platform. Linux environment, on the other hand, is generally being adopted as a preferred platform for the multiple codes executions as well as for the parallel application. In this study, MARS code has been modified for the adaptation of Linux platform. For the initial code modification, the Windows system specific features have been removed from the code. Since the coupling code module CONTAIN is originally in a form of dynamic load library (DLL) in the Windows system, a similar adaptation method

  13. An algebraic approach to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinero, Fernando

    theory as evaluation codes. Chapter three consists of the introduction to graph based codes, such as Tanner codes and graph codes. In Chapter four, we compute the dimension of some graph based codes with a result combining graph based codes and subfield subcodes. Moreover, some codes in chapter four are......This thesis consists of six chapters. The first chapter, contains a short introduction to coding theory in which we explain the coding theory concepts we use. In the second chapter, we present the required theory for evaluation codes and also give an example of some fundamental codes in coding...... optimal or best known for their parameters. In chapter five we study some graph codes with Reed–Solomon component codes. The underlying graph is well known and widely used for its good characteristics. This helps us to compute the dimension of the graph codes. We also introduce a combinatorial concept...

  14. Chemical pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, Andreas; Amstutz, Nahid; Delahaye, Sandra; Sadki, Asmaâ; Schenker, Sabine; Sieber, Regula; Zerara, Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    The physical and photophysical properties of three classic transition metal complexes, namely [Fe(bpy)3]2+, [Ru(bpy)3]2+, and [Co(bpy)3]2+, can be tuned by doping them into a variety of inert crystalline host lattices. The underlying guest-host interactions are discussed in terms of a chemical pressure.

  15. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... Chemical peels public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  16. Chemical Mahjong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2011-01-01

    An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric…

  17. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil biodeg

  18. Aspen Code Development Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,; Cherry, Robert S. [INL; Richard, Boardman D. [INL

    2013-10-03

    Wyoming has a wealth of primary energy resources in the forms of coal, natural gas, wind, uranium, and oil shale. Most of Wyoming?s coal and gas resources are exported from the state in unprocessed form rather than as refined higher value products. Wyoming?s leadership recognizes the opportunity to broaden the state?s economic base energy resources to make value-added products such as synthetic vehicle fuels and commodity chemicals. Producing these higher value products in an environmentally responsible manner can benefit from the use of clean energy technologies including Wyoming?s abundant wind energy and nuclear energy such as new generation small modular reactors including the high temperature gas-cooled reactors.

  19. Coding in pigeons: Multiple-coding versus single-code/default strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Carlos; Machado, Armando

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the coding strategies that pigeons may use in a temporal discrimination tasks, pigeons were trained on a matching-to-sample procedure with three sample durations (2s, 6s and 18s) and two comparisons (red and green hues). One comparison was correct following 2-s samples and the other was correct following both 6-s and 18-s samples. Tests were then run to contrast the predictions of two hypotheses concerning the pigeons' coding strategies, the multiple-coding and the single-code/default. According to the multiple-coding hypothesis, three response rules are acquired, one for each sample. According to the single-code/default hypothesis, only two response rules are acquired, one for the 2-s sample and a "default" rule for any other duration. In retention interval tests, pigeons preferred the "default" key, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. In no-sample tests, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 2-s sample, a result predicted by multiple-coding. Finally, in generalization tests, when the sample duration equaled 3.5s, the geometric mean of 2s and 6s, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 6-s and 18-s samples, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. The pattern of results suggests the need for models that take into account multiple sources of stimulus control. PMID:25894105

  20. Validation of MARTHE-REACT coupled surface and groundwater reactive transport code for modeling hydro systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Thiéry, Dominique; Jacquemet, Nicolas; Picot-Colbeaux, Géraldine; Kervévan, Christophe; André, Laurent; Azaroual, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the validation of the computer code MARTHE-REACT enabling the simulation of reactive transport in hydrosystems. MARTHE-REACT results from coupling the MARTHE code (flow and transport in porous media) with the chemical simulator TOUGHREACT. The resulting coupled model takes advantage of the functionalities already available in each of the two codes. In particular, it is now possible to simulate flow, reactive mass, and energy transfer in both saturated and unsaturated media...