WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical terrorism

  1. 77 FR 74685 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... (IFR), implementing this statutory mandate at 72 FR 17688. Section 550 of the Homeland Security... SECURITY Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability Information... financial information, Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), Sensitive Security...

  2. 78 FR 16698 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Information (CVI) for an additional 30 days for public comments. \\1\\ See 77 FR 74685. The 60-day Federal... statutory mandate at 72 FR 17688. Section 550 of the Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2007 requires a... SECURITY Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability...

  3. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  4. 78 FR 16692 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ..., Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) for an additional 30 days. \\1\\ See 77 FR 74677. The 60... mandate at 72 FR 17688. Section 550 of the Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2007 requires a risk... SECURITY Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) AGENCY: National Protection and...

  5. Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2012-03-01

    Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

  6. 77 FR 74677 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... an Interim Final Rule (IFR), implementing this statutory mandate at 72 FR 17688. Section 550 of the... SECURITY Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) AGENCY: National Protection and Programs...: Comments that include trade secrets, confidential commercial or financial information,...

  7. QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following quality assurance guidelines to provide laboratories engaged in forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism a framework to implement a quality assura...

  8. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... record contains Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information controlled by 6 CFR 27.400. Do not disclose to persons without a “need to know” in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(e). Unauthorized release may... shall be treated as classified information in accordance with 6 CFR 27.400(h) and (i). (4) Other...

  9. 75 FR 1552 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...-Terrorism Standards, 6 CFR Part 27 (CFATS), on April 9, 2007. See 72 FR 17688. The CFATS interim final rule... chemical facility. See generally 72 FR 17696, 17700-17701. DHS also has authority to determine that a... 6 CFR 27.105; 72 FR 17700-17701. The Department assigns each facility that is initially...

  10. 75 FR 2445 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ...-Terrorism Standards, 6 CFR part 27 (CFATS), on April 9, 2007. See 72 FR 17688. The CFATS interim final rule... withdrawing the version of this document published in the Federal Register, at 75 FR 1552, on January 12, 2010... chemical facility. See generally 72 FR 17696, 17700-17701. DHS also has authority to determine that...

  11. Guidelines to improve airport preparedness against chemical and biological terrorism.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Donna M.; Price, Phillip N. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Gordon, Susanna P.; Gadgil, Ashok (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA)

    2005-05-01

    Guidelines to Improve Airport Preparedness Against Chemical and Biological Terrorism is a 100-page document that makes concrete recommendations on improving security and assessing vulnerable areas and helps its readers understand the nature of chemical and biological attacks. The report has been turned over to Airports Council International (ACI) and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), two organizations that together represent the interests of thousands of airport personnel and facilities in the U.S. and around the world.

  12. Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NPT should prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, as a contribution to the worldpeace. This aim is also threatened today by the nuclear actions of states and subnational groups. Such actions have occured in the past and are expected in the future. States and specific terrorist groups are able to acquire specific nuclear material by theft and to assault nuclear plants and transport. The main constraint, the deficit of motivation, could be dropped in the future for many reasons. Therefore nuclear terrorism is a 'real threat to civilization' and its probability is increasing. (orig.)

  13. Knowledge and Awareness Concerning Chemical and Biological Terrorism: Continuing Education Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Molly A.; Larrimore, Karen L.

    2002-01-01

    Nurses, physicians, and nursing and medical students (n=291) were surveyed about their awareness of chemical and biological terrorism. Infection control personnel and nurse educators (n=24) were surveyed about terrorism preparation. Fewer than one-quarter of questions were answered correctly, and only about 23% reported confidence in the ability…

  14. The chemical and biological weapon terrorism by the Aum Shnirikyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aum Shinrikyo, an obscure cult religious group, attacked the Tokyo subways employing sarin gas in March 1995, which was viewed as a mark of a new era in terrorism. The Aum Shinrikyo remains the one empirical example of a religiously motivated cult with an affluent amount of financial and human resources and motivations to use unconventional weapons. The Aum Shinrikyo's leaders included the scientific elite of a young generation as well as former Yakuza members who had close ties with organized crime networks. Aum succeeded in establishing an extensive network to procure weapons, material, and drug, primarily in Russia but also other countries including the United States and even North Korea. Despite the fact that the law enforcement authority had already obtained various pieces of information that reasonably indicated that Aum was producing sarin by late 1994, the law enforcement authority became too cautious to advance its investigation to arrest Aum members until it was too late. Japan's experience with the Aum Shinrikyo's threats provides valuable insights for democratic governments seeking to thwart the deadly plans of religiously motivated non-state actors. It reveals the tremendous difficulties for a democratic society to confront the terrorists who were willing to pursue their deadly 'divine' objectives, especially when the society had no experience to encounter such a threat. This presentation will explain the chemical and biological weapon programs of the Aum Shinrikyo, especially focusing on the following elements: Intention and capability of the Aum Shinrikyo; Weapon systems and mode of attacks, including their target selections; The lessons learned from this case for the prevention and crisis/consequence management n the event of CBW terrorism. The views expressed here are those of the author and do not represent those of the Research Institute for Science and Technology for Society or its research sponsors.(author)

  15. 78 FR 29759 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Personnel Surety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ...; Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Personnel Surety Program'' at 78 FR 17680. In the March 22, 2013... March 22, 2013, at 78 FR 17680, entitled ``Information Collection Request; Chemical Facility Anti... Program Notice and Request for Comments published on March 22, 2013, at 78 FR 17680, is extended....

  16. Role of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) in Combating Chemical Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main reason for concluding the CWC was preventing use of CWs in hostilities by state actors. Chemical terrorism is a broader phenomenon involving not only misuse of CWs but also of non-weaponised toxic compounds and intended strikes on industrial and social infrastructures with release of toxic, liquefied and inflammable chemicals. Nevertheless, the CWC is an important instrument in combating the most dangerous forms of international chemical terrorism. The effort of OPCW and mainly of SPs national authorities ensure that chemicals produced for peaceful purposes are not misused, provide some guarantees that terrorists will not be able to acquire or make their own CWs. That is why universality of the CWC and respective national implementation measures including comprehensive legislation are of utmost importance. The enforcement by all countries of the CWCs requirement to make the development, production, stockpiling, transfers and use of CWs illegal for anyone means that terrorist could be put on trial for violating the CWC. The OPCWs expertise and knowledge of CWs, verification regime and the system of assistance and protection under the CWC as a reflection of international co-operation are being put to use to prevent and respond to chemical terrorist strikes and thus considerably diminish their potential consequences. It can be added that pursuant to the UN SC Resolution 1540, all nations are obliged to take actions ensuring that non-State actors cannot develop, produce, use or trade CWs in the terms of the CWC. Current status of implementing the CWC is analysed with special emphasis on prevention of and response to terrorist chemical attacks.(author)

  17. Escalation of terrorism? On the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials covers the following topics: the variety of terrorism: ethnic-nationalistic, politically motivated, social revolutionary, political extremism, religious fanaticism, governmental terrorism; CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) weapons and materials: their availability and effectiveness in case of use; potential actor groups; prevention and counter measures, emergency and mitigating measures.

  18. Bush will tour Illionois lab working to fight terrorism Argonne develops chemical detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "A chemical sensor that detects cyanide gas, a biochip that can determine the presence of anthrax, and a portable device that finds concealed nuclear materials are among the items scientists at Argonne National Laboratory are working on to combat terrorism" (1/2 page).

  19. Education in petrochemical industry as prevention from chemical terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical and technological accidents in petrochemical industry, with possible catastrophic consequences, caused by anthropogenic activity (technical or technological malfunction, terror, or war destruction ), usually accompanied by great human losses and material damage and high intensity of events in a relatively short period of time, which requires a quick action of emergency responders, process personnel and the high degree of self-organized endangered population for treatment in these kind of accidents. This implies a high qualification and skills for the treatment of accidents of all factors of rescue and protection such as: process personnel, emergency responders (fire-fighters, technical services), other workers as well as the endangered population. Managing the system of protection and rescue in communities with such risks requires maximum responsibility of local authorities and management of petrochemical plants. Petrokemija Kutina, with its many years of experience as a target for military and terrorist attacks, actively participated in the creation of laws and systems of protection and rescue in the Republic of Croatia, and also in creating standard operating procedures on local and regional level, and is also ready to share its own experiences with other similar factories using toxic substances in the production processes.(author)

  20. Escalation of terrorism? On the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials; Eskalation des Terrors? Ueber das Anschlagsrisiko mit chemischen, biologischen, radiologischen und nuklearen Waffen oder Stoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nass, Jens

    2010-07-01

    The report on the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials covers the following topics: the variety of terrorism: ethnic-nationalistic, politically motivated, social revolutionary, political extremism, religious fanaticism, governmental terrorism; CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) weapons and materials: their availability and effectiveness in case of use; potential actor groups; prevention and counter measures, emergency and mitigating measures.

  1. Terror weapons. Ridding the world of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons - Commission on mass destruction weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book approaches in 8 chapters the ambitious challenge of ridding the world of all mass destruction weapons: 1 - re-launching disarmament; 2 - terror weapons: nature of threats and answers (weakness of traditional answers, counter-proliferation); 3 - nuclear weapons: preventing proliferation and terrorism, reducing threat and nuclear weapons number, from regulation to banning); 4 - biological or toxin weapons; 5 - chemical weapons; 6 - vectors, anti-missile defenses and space weapons; 7 - exports control, international assistance and non-governmental actors; 8 - respect, verification, enforcement and role of the United Nations. The recommendations and works of the Commission are presented in appendix together with the declaration adopted on April 30, 2009. (J.S.)

  2. Development of standards for chemical and biological decontamination of buildings and structures affected by terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, T.C.; Volchek, K.; Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Hay, A.W.M. [Leeds Univ., Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Currently, there are no suitable standards for determining levels of safety when reoccupying a building that has been recommissioned following a biological or chemical attack. For that reason, this study focused on developing clean-up standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after acts of terrorism. Several parameters must be assessed when determining the course of action to decontaminate toxic agents and to rehabilitate facilities. First, the hazardous substance must be positively identified along with the degree of contamination and information on likely receptors. Potential exposure route is also a key consideration in the risk assessment process. A key objective of the study was to develop specific guidelines for ascertaining and defining clean. In particular, standards for chemical and biological agents that pose a real or potential risk for use as agents of terrorism will be developed. The selected agents for standards development were ammonia, fentanyl, malathion, mustard gas, potassium cyanide, ricin, sarin, hepatitis A virus, and bacillus anthracis. The standards will be developed by establishing the relationship between the amount of exposure and expected health effects; assessing real and potential risks by identifying individuals at risk and consideration of all exposure routes; and, characterizing the risk to determine the potential for toxicity or infectivity. For non-carcinogens, this was done through the analysis of other known guidelines. Cancer-slope factors will be considered for carcinogens. The standards will be assessed in the laboratory using animal models. The guidelines and standards are intended for first-responders and are scheduled for development by the end of 2006. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Environmental terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental terrorism is described as the deliberate use or threat of use of physical, chemical, nuclear, or bacteriological agents in the commission of a terrorist act; an act in which either the agent is delivered to a target population by use of an environmental medium (such as air, water, or soil) or the agent is used to render a natural resource unsuitable for a desired use. Among the recommendations for safeguarding against environmental terrorism are: changes in reporting requirements for chemical inventories and sensitive information such as security measures; development of effective emergency response plans; development of a public relations program to be implemented after an incident in which the goal of the terrorist is to discredit a particular company; and protection from liability for terrorist acts

  4. On-Site Detection as a Countermeasure to Chemical Warfare/Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Y

    2014-01-01

    On-site monitoring and detection are necessary in the crisis and consequence management of wars and terrorism involving chemical warfare agents (CWAs) such as sarin. The analytical performance required for on-site detection is mainly determined by the fatal vapor concentration and volatility of the CWAs involved. The analytical performance for presently available on-site technologies and commercially available on-site equipment for detecting CWAs interpreted and compared in this review include: classical manual methods, photometric methods, ion mobile spectrometry, vibrational spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, sensors, and other methods. Some of the data evaluated were obtained from our experiments using authentic CWAs. We concluded that (a) no technologies perfectly fulfill all of the on-site detection requirements and (b) adequate on-site detection requires (i) a combination of the monitoring-tape method and ion-mobility spectrometry for point detection and (ii) a combination of the monitoring-tape method, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry with counterflow introduction, and gas chromatography with a trap and special detectors for continuous monitoring. The basic properties of CWAs, the concept of on-site detection, and the sarin gas attacks in Japan as well as the forensic investigations thereof, are also explicated in this article. PMID:26226969

  5. 化学恐怖威胁源特征研究%Research on Characteristics of Chemical Terrorism Menaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉波; 李铁虎; 杨林松

    2011-01-01

    化学武器的使用形态最早可以追溯到公元前431年斯巴达人向雅典人投射的沥青和硫磺混合抛射物.两次世界大战期间,氯气、芥子气等攻击手段在战场上被大规模使用.1995年东京地铁沙林事件发生后,化学武器作为一种非常规的恐怖袭击形式引发广泛关注.化学恐怖威胁源是关乎化学恐怖袭击的元要素,把握其特征对于防范、处置化学恐怖事件及建设反化学恐怖技术能力具有重要意义.本文在概述化学恐怖威胁源谱系基础上,梳理出化学恐怖威胁源从低级到高级、从军用到“非战”、传统与非传统共存并用等多元发展特点及相关使用特征.%The employment of chemical weapons could be traced back to 431 BC when Spartan attacked on Athenian with the mixture of asphalt and sulfur. During the Two World Wars, chlorine gas and mustard gas were used massively on the battlefield. After the Tokyo sarin incident,chemical weapon,as an unconventional means of terror, was widely concerned. Chemical terrorism menaces being the primary elements for chemical terror attack, mastering their characteristics was of great significance for preventing and dealing with chemical terrorist incidents as well as building capability of counter-chemical terrorism. This paper summarized the pedigree in chemical terrorism menaces, and discussed their development characteristics such as from the low class towards the high class, from military purpose to "non-war" ,as well as coexistence of traditional and nontraditional means.

  6. Diagnosis of exposure to chemical warfare agents: An essential tool to counteract chemical terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der; Bikker, F.J.; Benschop, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Methods to analyze chemical warfare agents (CW-agents) and their decomposition products in environmental samples were developed over the last decades. In contrast herewith, procedures for analysis in biological samples have only recently been developed. Retrospective detection of exposure to CW-agen

  7. 76 FR 34720 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Personnel Surety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... terrorism. See 72 FR 17708 (Apr. 9, 2007). The TSDB is the Federal government's integrated and consolidated... for comments was previously published in the Federal Register on June 10, 2009, at 74 FR 27555. A 30-day public notice for comments was published in the Federal Register on April 13, 2010, at 75 FR...

  8. 75 FR 18850 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... persons who may have ties to terrorism. See 72 FR 17708. The TSDB is the Federal Government's integrated..., 2009, at 74 FR 27555. Comments were received and responses are in this notice. The purpose of this... August 22, 2007, at 72 FR 47073.) Information Collected DHS may collect the following information...

  9. NUCLEAR TERRORISM

    OpenAIRE

    RUTIC SRDJAN Z.

    2016-01-01

    The paper has analyzed different manifestations of terrorism with nuclear weapons and ionizing radiation as a special kind of terrorism. Possibilities that terrorist groups come into possession of nuclear weapons and apply them for terrorist purposes have been analysed. The forms and methods of terrorist activities with nuclear means have been given as well. It has been concluded that nuclear terrorism includes various forms of threats, including not only nuclear weapons but also the sources ...

  10. The Mega-Terrorism - The Challenge of the Third Millennium

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Andrișan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the "new face" of terrorism in the twenty-first centuryindicating the transition to mass destruction weapons (nuclear terrorism, chemical, biological), toethnic-religious terrorism, the occurrence of massive gray area phenomena of terrorism and how thisphenomenon became a strategic weapon. Mega-terrorism has been existing, at a conceptual level,ever since the 70’s, when the experts of this phenomenon tried to find a semantic cover for thesituations that ...

  11. Technical Program of The Fifth World Congress on Chemical, Biological and Radiological Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries worldwide were interested in the part that CBMTS industry played in the overall protection schemes required of all nations. It was idea to develop a baseline of information on antidotes and planned medical treatment for military and civilian medical casualties, in both peace and war. It was an almost complete lack of international communications across the full spectrum of chemical and biological medical treatment. Based on actual incidents that affected their chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries during their recent war, countries highlighted a danger that every country could face in the event of military actions, sabotage and especially terrorist actions, as well as major incidents or accidents involving these industries. Today TICS and TIMS and chemical and pharmaceutical industries and accidents and incidents whether by man or nature are part of our daily lexicon. The very tragic events 9/11 graphically demonstrated the importance of our CBMTS approach at bringing together the world's very best professionals in science and medicine to explore at the outer edges of science and technology, the most important issue facing the international community. Although the success in this approach has been continually documented for many years, CBMTS will continually rededicate our total efforts towards defining the issues, surfacing the problems across the NBC science and medical spectrum and applying the best efforts at developing solutions that would most benefit our world community

  12. Microcantilever technology for law enforcement and anti-terrorism applications: chemical, biological, and explosive material detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. D.; Rogers, B.; Whitten, R.

    2005-05-01

    The remarkable sensitivity, compactness, low cost, low power-consumption, scalability, and versatility of microcantilever sensors make this technology among the most promising solutions for detection of chemical and biological agents, as well as explosives. The University of Nevada, Reno, and Nevada Nanotech Systems, Inc (NNTS) are currently developing a microcantilever-based detection system that will measure trace concentrations of explosives, toxic chemicals, and biological agents in air. A baseline sensor unit design that includes the sensor array, electronics, power supply and air handling has been created and preliminary demonstrations of the microcantilever platform have been conducted. The envisioned device would measure about two cubic inches, run on a small watch battery and cost a few hundred dollars. The device could be operated by untrained law enforcement personnel. Microcantilever-based devices could be used to "sniff out" illegal and/or hazardous chemical and biological agents in high traffic public areas, or be packaged as a compact, low-power system used to monitor cargo in shipping containers. Among the best detectors for such applications at present is the dog, an animal which is expensive, requires significant training and can only be made to work for limited time periods. The public is already accustomed to explosives and metal detection systems in airports and other public venues, making the integration of the proposed device into such security protocols straightforward.

  13. Terrorism and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    underscores the symbiotic relationship between disarmament and counter-terrorism. In the very midst of an unprecedented bio-terrorist attack on the United States, the long-standing chairman of the expert group of the Biological Weapons Convention charged with developing a verification protocol for the Convention, Ambassador Toth (Hungary), relates his vision of how an international verification system could serve as an impediment to future attacks. The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons has been a full-fledged international organization since the Chemical Weapons Convention entered into force in 1997. Its inspection system is the most stringent verification regime to date in a disarmament convention. Mr Berdennikov explains how the Convention and the cooperative effort of the States parties in the verification system is the best coalition against chemical terrorism

  14. Sowing Terror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Xinjiang riot could set a dangerous precedent for future attacks by separatist groups, experts say Instigating panic-sowing riots has become another tool used by terrorist organizations to augment their traditional attacks, said Li Wei, Director of the Center for Counter-terrorism Studies at the China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations.

  15. Technical Program of The 4th World Congress on Chemical, Biological and Radiological Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries worldwide were interested in the part that CBMTS industry played in the overall protection schemes required of all nations. It was idea to develop a baseline of information on antidotes and planned medical treatment for military and civilian medical casualties, in both peace and war. Based on actual incidents that affected their chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries during their recent war, countries highlighted a danger that every country could face in the event of military actions, sabotage and especially terrorist actions, as well as major incidents or accidents involving these industries. It is great importance of CBMTS approach at bringing together the world's very best professionals in science and medicine to explore at the outer edges of science and technology, the most important issue facing the international community. Participants put big efforts towards defining the issues, surfacing the problems across the NBC science and medical spectrum and applying the best efforts at developing solutions that would most benefit our world community

  16. Mental Roots of Terror

    OpenAIRE

    Saruhan, Müfit Selim

    2004-01-01

    In this article, I deal with mental and terror relationship. Mental roots of terror are being examined. Religion has nothing to do with terrorism. Terrorist tries to misuse religion. Mental with prejudice and lack of knowledge occupies the personality of individual and his ability to judge. Purification of mind from any external and internal prejudices is the unique solution of terrorism. Only within extensive education we can overcome terrorism. Terrorism could not apply to a religion or a n...

  17. Raising awareness about terror medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Leonard A

    2011-01-01

    Terror medicine, which is related to emergency and disaster medicine, focuses on the constellation of medical issues uniquely related to terrorist attacks. It ranges from recognizing features of biologic and chemical agents such as Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) and sarin to the treatment of multi-injury victims of suicide bombings. Medical personnel will be involved in rescue, diagnosis, treatment and recovery from a terrorist attack. Dermatologists could play a central role in diagnosis and treatment in the event of a biologic or chemical attack. The more that individuals and institutions become familiar with the issues concerning terror medicine, the greater the protection they can provide themselves and others. PMID:21146738

  18. Ugly Face of Terror

    OpenAIRE

    Debidatta Aurobinda Mahapatra

    2009-01-01

    The first decade of the 21st century has witnessedhorrendous incidents of terror. While its beginning witnessedthe attack on the twin trade towers in New York, towards itsend another horrible attack occurred in the Indiancommercial centre Mumbai. The attack further reinforcedthat terrorism has no religion, terrorists are not humans,and the terror acts surpass human comprehension. Thebarbaric terror attack in Mumbai in November 2008 killedabout 200 people including women, children and patients...

  19. Terror and Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ünal ÇAĞLAR

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism must be studied carefully and in detail to be overcome. It is a complex phenomenon that has many different roots. Therefore, it cannot be explained by a single root cause. Terrorism also has significant economic consequences. In this study terrorism and its economic costs and consequences are briefly discussed.

  20. CBRN TERRORISM: A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ANALYSIS OF RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan VIČAR*, Radim VIČAR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Trade Centre attack of September 2001 and the subsequent anthrax letters brought the need for Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN counter-terrorism preparadness into focus. By and large, our understanding of the nature of CBRN terrorism derives entirely from military the paradigm of chemical and biological warfare. An examination of recent CBRN terrorism events such as the 1995 Sarin attack on the Tokyo subway system by a terrorist cult and the 2001 anthrax letter attacks in the United States of America show that the military paradigm of CBW defence cannot be applied to CBRN terrorism.

  1. Racionalidad del terror

    OpenAIRE

    Sauquillo, Julián

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary terrorism is not an ancestral, irrational, oriental, phenomenon. Nor is it a fanatical reaction of the religions that vindicate a backward society as against the developed societies of the first world. The terrorism of today is a thoroughly modern phenomenon: one of the worst monstrosities of modern society, supplied with rational planning of objectives. A captious interpretation of the Islamic religion endows terrorism with a universal projection among the multitudinous audience...

  2. Fundamentalism and terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Cassandra Christina Rausch

    2015-01-01

    Citizens worldwide are becoming all too familiar with the accelerated frequency of terrorist attacks in the 21st century, particularly with those involving a religious underpinning. Why, though, have religiously-affiliated acts of terrorism become such a common occurrence? By examining how religious fundamentalism has accelerated and intensified terrorism within the modern world, scholars can focus on determining the “why”. By historically defining terrorism and fundamentalism and then placin...

  3. What causes terrorism?

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Krieger; Daniel Meierrieks

    2008-01-01

    Popular beliefs link terrorism to economic, political and social under- development. In this contribution, we comprehensively review the related, most relevant cross-country analyses to ascertain the true determinants of terrorism. The related theoretical underpinnings are presented and com- mon analytical and methodological objections are discussed. In general, we nd that terrorism is closely linked to political instability, sharp divides within the populace, country size and further demogra...

  4. Homegrown terrorism; the known unknown

    OpenAIRE

    Hinkkainen, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    Homegrown terrorism has attracted significant attention following the 2004 Madrid and 2005 London bombings. Homegrown terrorism is usually thought to be a new phenomenon, with few observed events, and inherently distinct from transnational terrorism or the old domestic terrorism in Europe. However, little research has so far examined the alleged distinctiveness of homegrown terrorism empirically. I argue that homegrown terrorism shares many similarities with domestic and international terrori...

  5. Terror weapons. Ridding the world of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons - Commission on mass destruction weapons; Armes de terreur. Debarrasser le monde des armes nucleaires, biologiques et chimiques - Commission sur les armes de destruction massive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blix, H.; Journe, V.

    2010-07-01

    This book approaches in 8 chapters the ambitious challenge of ridding the world of all mass destruction weapons: 1 - re-launching disarmament; 2 - terror weapons: nature of threats and answers (weakness of traditional answers, counter-proliferation); 3 - nuclear weapons: preventing proliferation and terrorism, reducing threat and nuclear weapons number, from regulation to banning); 4 - biological or toxin weapons; 5 - chemical weapons; 6 - vectors, anti-missile defenses and space weapons; 7 - exports control, international assistance and non-governmental actors; 8 - respect, verification, enforcement and role of the United Nations. The recommendations and works of the Commission are presented in appendix together with the declaration adopted on April 30, 2009. (J.S.)

  6. Technical considerations in nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear terrorism is an evil application of nuclear energy, in the same way that chemical and biological terrorism could be considered as the evil side of chemistry and biology. This paper presents two effects of nuclear terrorism. First, dirty bombs or radioactive bombs or radiological dispersion devices (RDDs), and second, crude atom bombs or improvised nuclear devices (INDs). The paper analyses as well the probabilities of an attack, its biological effects and nuclear risk. Experiments carried out so far indicate that the lethal effects produced by RDDs are likely the same that the effects produced by the chemical explosive used in the bomb. These type of bombs are rather bounded to generate panic and have implicit a high cost of decontamination. It will be described the measures to be adopted. INDs will be also considered. Uranium INDs by gun-method are more feasible to be made. They can be disassembled and their components transported to the target place. Plutonium INDs by the implosion-method are complex and required high precision technology. Their disassembly is very difficult

  7. The Terrorism Virus: Contemporary Traits and Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciechowski, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    In order to present and understand the nature of modern terrorism it is important to realize its key properties as well the mechanisms that shape terrorism. Selected properties and mechanisms shaping modern terrorism which can be exemplified by the following: evolutionary nature of terrorism, asymmetry of terrorism, interferentiality of terrorism, multitude of components of terrorism, diffusion of terrorism, duality of terrorism, positive dimension of terrorism, terrorist as the system, diver...

  8. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  9. Nightmares and Night Terrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nightmares and night terrors when they are adults. Causes & Risk Factors When should I worry about nightmares ... shout or shake your child. Night terrors and sleepwalking require that you protect your child during sleep. ... Nightmares and Disorders of Dreaming by JF Pagel, MD (American Family ...

  10. Definitions of Cyber Terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The phrase cyber terror appeared for the first time in the mid-eighties. According to several sources, Barry C. Collin, a senior person research fellow of the Institute for Security and Intelligence in California, defined cyber terror at that time as “the convergence of cybernetics and terrorism”—an

  11. Terrorism as Media Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Proving that terrorism should be seen as a media event (as defined by Dayan and Katzafter 9/11 and treated accordingly. We have turned to the work of Dayan and Katz and GeorgeGerbner’s for a definition of media events and of violence in the mass media. This paper is ahermeneutical interpretation of the concept of terrorism and its relation to communication. We haveput forward a better understanding of the complex concept of terrorism and its definitions in the massmedia context. Terrorism nowadays should always be defined within its inherent relation with themedia. The article is the first to define terrorism as media evenit in Dayan and Katz’s terms.

  12. Ugly Face of Terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debidatta Aurobinda Mahapatra

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The first decade of the 21st century has witnessedhorrendous incidents of terror. While its beginning witnessedthe attack on the twin trade towers in New York, towards itsend another horrible attack occurred in the Indiancommercial centre Mumbai. The attack further reinforcedthat terrorism has no religion, terrorists are not humans,and the terror acts surpass human comprehension. Thebarbaric terror attack in Mumbai in November 2008 killedabout 200 people including women, children and patients.Many foreign nationals including citizens of the US, UK andIsrael too were killed and many others were injured. In asense, the incident not only fortified the global nature ofterrorism but also brought into stark picture the barbarityand the degradation of human mind at its peak.

  13. Night Terrors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a family member who also experienced them or sleepwalking (a similar type of sleep disturbance). Night terrors ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Sleepwalking Should I Be Worried About My Child's Nightmares? ...

  14. Religious terrorism in America

    OpenAIRE

    Brinsfield, Gregory S.; Ashby, Christopher B.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Religious terrorism, as most recently highlighted by the horrendous 9/11 attacks, is not a new phenomenon. It is not restricted to any one particular religion or belief system, nor is it reserved as a weapon against foreign lands. Domestic religious terrorism is just as prevalent throughout history and is brought about by certain converging factors at particularly susceptible times within the society, such as economic difficulties, ne...

  15. The Religions Terrorism Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Canikli, İlyas

    2004-01-01

    The basic sources of Islam don’t approve oppression and violence.When the Quran and the Traditions are taken into consideration, it can be evidently realized that Islam aims peace. However they accept that the people and comminities subjected to attacks have partly the legitimate right of self defence. It is an ideological approach that the Prophet and the Muslims to be related with terrorism. The principle that there is no religion and nationality for terrorism is generally disregarded where...

  16. Terrorism and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsch, Volker; Schumacher, Dieter

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of terrorism and warfare on international trade. We investigate bilateral trade flows between more than 200 countries over the period from 1960 to 1993. Applying an augmented gravity model that includes several measures of terrorism and largescale violence, we find compelling evidence that terrorist actions reduce the volume of trade; a doubling in the number of terrorist incidents is associated with a decrease in bilateral trade by about 4 percent.

  17. Terrorism and financial supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Anatoli van der Krans

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of how legislators on international, European and national level combat the financing of terrorism. The central question in this article is whether European regulations concerning the prevention of money laundering and the financing of terrorism, are effective, proportional and mutually harmonious. Now that many regulations in this field have been established by intra-national bodies, it is important to examine how these regulations are further elaborated in ...

  18. Disabling Radiological Dispersal Terror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M

    2002-11-08

    Terror resulting from the use of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) relies upon an individual's lack of knowledge and understanding regarding its significance. Disabling this terror will depend upon realistic reviews of the current conservative radiation protection regulatory standards. It will also depend upon individuals being able to make their own informed decisions merging perceived risks with reality. Preparation in these areas will reduce the effectiveness of the RDD and may even reduce the possibility of its use.

  19. Nuclear terrorism and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlike conventional terrorist violence, bona-fide nuclear terrorism is a self-publicizing phenomenon. It is a public event by the very scope of its impact. Apocalyptic and catastrophically destructive, a nuclear explosion is the ideal instrument of mass terror. Rational nuclear insurgents would not inform authorities that a nuclear device is about to be detonated. Advance warning of an impending nuclear explosion would reduce the maximum potential effectiveness of any response to such an event

  20. Terror and Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Raffnsøe, Sverre

    2006-01-01

    Currently, terrorism provokes a widespread feeling of insecurity and global reactions to the terrorist attacks. This is not simply because it poses a substantial threat to society and to the lives of individual citizens. The relatively rare incidents of terrorism cause emotional overreaction because they challenge and intensify the contract that supersaturates today’s society. In the welfare society one can observe the existence of a diffuse but widespread social contract, which has becom...

  1. The Mega-Terrorism - The Challenge of the Third Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andrișan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the "new face" of terrorism in the twenty-first centuryindicating the transition to mass destruction weapons (nuclear terrorism, chemical, biological, toethnic-religious terrorism, the occurrence of massive gray area phenomena of terrorism and how thisphenomenon became a strategic weapon. Mega-terrorism has been existing, at a conceptual level,ever since the 70’s, when the experts of this phenomenon tried to find a semantic cover for thesituations that certain organizations, groups or terrorist or extremist sections would get someWeapons of Mass Destruction Systems. Actually, the 11th of September tragedy proves that megaterrorismrepresents the premeditated destruction, the lack of negotiations, of a tactical goal that wasto be accomplished by means of a threat. The mega-terrorism actors do not intend to get themselvesknown to the public, do not require anything, do not see the threat as means or device to reach theirpurpose. The 21 st century mega-terrorism simple logic is materialized in the systemic destroying ofthe enemy, no longer representing a political power or a government, but an entire ‘disobeying’,‘corrupted’, ‘unfaithful’ population indifferent to the mega-terrorist actors’ desires. New dimensionagainst mega-terrorism determines not only a rethinking of how to combat it, but also the realizationof a conceptual legal framework and measures established to materialize the political decision.

  2. Terrorism risk concern in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Drakos, Konstantinos; Müller, Cathérine

    2011-01-01

    We explore whether differences of terrorism risk perception across all European countries reflect their underlying differences in terrorism risk, which we decompose into a long term and innovation component. We employ longitudinal country-level data on terrorism risk concern and our modeling approach is motivated by the Bayesian framework. We conclude that the observed risk perception variation is significantly explained by the long term terrorism countries face, while the cyclical part of te...

  3. Terrorism Prevention and Electoral Accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Dragu, Tiberiu; Polborn, Mattias

    2009-01-01

    How does electoral accountability affect the effectiveness of terrorism prevention in a democ- racy? We analyze the connection between electoral accountability and policy effectiveness in the context of terrorism prevention. We develop a formal model of an interaction between a government, a minority community, and a representative voter. All actors share the objective of terrorism prevention and have symmetric information. We show that electoral pressures to be successful in terrorism preven...

  4. Terrorism and financial supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli van der Krans

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of how legislators on international, European and national level combat the financing of terrorism. The central question in this article is whether European regulations concerning the prevention of money laundering and the financing of terrorism, are effective, proportional and mutually harmonious. Now that many regulations in this field have been established by intra-national bodies, it is important to examine how these regulations are further elaborated in the respective national systems. This article gives a broad overview of legislative initiatives of the UN, USA, FATF, EU and Council of Europe. The Netherlands for numerous reasons serves as a legal example. It is concluded that measures taken or proposed to avoid or at least reduce the financing of terrorism are quite effective to prevent abuse of the financial system. On the other hand, these measures increase the risk of underground or illegal financing, which is even more difficult to control.

  5. Terrorism, Hegel, Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinkwan Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available My essay begins by analyzing how Hegel and Honneth’s theory of recognition would seem to lend support to insurgent terrorists’ struggle for the right to self-determination. Insurgent terrorism often looks like a concretization of what Honneth calls the moral protest of the oppressed launched against the dominating powers. Insurgent terrorism also bears affinity to the politics of recognition in the sense that it challenges the legitimacy and authority of the forces owned by the state, and seeks to gain public recognition instead for the legitimacy of their own cause. Precisely because what matters uppermost to terrorists is the gaining of recognition for their cause as just, terrorists are eager to seize the mass media as a means of spreading their ideas. My essay will end, however, by pointing out major differences between insurgent terrorism on the one hand, and Hegel and Honneth on the other.

  6. Terrorism, Anti-Terrorism, and the Copycat Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    an increase in anti-terrorism makes it more likely that cells will plan small rather than large attacks. Furthermore, we see that an increase in anti-terrorism can make a terrorist attack more likely. Analyzing the problem of optimal anti-terrorism we see that the introduction of a copycat effect...... rationalizes an increase in the level of anti-terrorism after a large attack. Using this result we show how the copycat effect changes the dynamic pattern of terrorism attacks and what the long run consequences are...

  7. Terror and Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe, Sverre

    Currently, terrorism provokes a widespread feeling of insecurity and global reactions to the terrorist attacks. This is not simply because it poses a substantial threat to society and to the lives of individual citizens. The relatively rare incidents of terrorism cause emotional overreaction beca...... to care for all and everyone and improve our wellbeing at an individual and collective level. Through its concrete institutions and organizations, the welfare society provides its citizens with a whole range of offers that he or she is unable to refuse. The agreement on perpetual self...

  8. What's New About the New Terrorism and How Dangerous Is It? / Terrorism and Political Violence, 13(Autumn, 2001), pp. 1-14

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, David

    2001-01-01

    The ‘new terrorism’ is said to be more networked, ad hoc, lethal and dangerous than the old. This assessment of these claims concludes that terrorism currently differs little from its previous manifestations, except for the somewhat increased likelihood that a chemical, biological, nuclear or radiological weapon might be used by terrorists. This does not necessarily mean that terrorism is more dangerous than it was. The critical factor in assessing the threat posed by terrorism is whether it ...

  9. THE FIGHT AGAINST TERROR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Pumin

    2013-01-01

    Chinese authorities vow to crack down on terrorism in cooperation with international communities Local police in northwest China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region captured the last of the rioters responsible for a series of terrorist attacks in Lukqun Township in Shanshan County,Turpan Prefecture,on June26.Authorities announced the capture

  10. Who Prepares for Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Linda B.; Mileti, Dennis S.; Kano, Megumi; Wood, Michele M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Survey of Disaster Experiences and Preparedness (NSDEP) examined whether households in the United States have engaged in proactive preparedness and avoidance activities since September 11, 2001, and whether the activities reported were done because of terrorism, natural disasters, other reasons, or any combination of reasons. Reported…

  11. Gender, education and terrorism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malečková, Jitka; Stanišić, Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2014), s. 40-65. ISSN 1759-5673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/12/0510; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08090 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : international terrorism * women's education * public opinion Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  12. Terrorism and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of a terrorism attack with radioactive matters should be treated as these ones of a nuclear accident. In terms of prevention, the Director of I.A.E.A. admitted in 2005 that the events of the 11. september 2001 had demonstrated that it was urgent to reinforce the control of radioactive nuclear matters in the world. (N.C.)

  13. Encyclopedia of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Cindy C.; Slann, Martin

    As recent terrorist attacks on the United States, such as the Oklahoma City (Oklahoma) bombing, and the ongoing conflicts in the Middle East have shown, terrorism is an unfortunate reality that can have potentially devastating effects on governments, businesses, and individuals. This encyclopedia provides students, researchers, journalists, and…

  14. Terrorism in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes Zapata, Gabriel Darío

    2003-01-01

    Colombia is a poor country that has been plagued by ongoing violence for more than 120 years. During the 1940s, subversive terrorist groups emerged in rural areas of the country when criminal groups came under the influence of Communism, and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional (ELN) or National Liberation Army and Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionares de Colombia (FARC) or Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia). Paramilitary terrorist groups emerged in response to subversive groups and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) or United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia. Terrorism has placed an enormous burden on modern Colombia. From 1995 to 2002, 9,435 people were killed by terrorism-related events, of which 5,864 were killed by subversive terrorist activities and 3,571 were killed by paramilitary terrorist activities. In 2002, at least nineteen attacks produced 10 or more casualties, of which 18 were bombings. In 2002, terrorists killed at least 12 mayors, 71 legislators, and internally displaced 300,000 persons from their homes. Since terrorist groups in Colombia are typically supported by drug manufacturing and trafficking, it has been difficult at times to distinguish violence due to terrorism from violence due to illicit drug trafficking. Terrorism has also had a major adverse effect on the economy, with restricted travel, loss of economic resources, and lack of economic investment. In addition to political, military, and commercial targets, terrorists have specifically targeted healthcare infrastructure and personnel. At the national and local levels, much emergency planning and preparedness has taken place for terrorism-related events. The Centro Regulador de Urgencias (CRU) or Emergency Regulation Center in Bogota plays a major role in coordinating local prehospital and hospital emergency response in the capital city and the national level where

  15. Nuclear Terrorism and its Confrontation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole world first knew nuclear terrorism during the second world war through the use of excessive violence that to terror exercised by one country against another, as was carried out by USA when it exploded two nuclear bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki t the end of the war. there are numerous types of nuclear terrorism that can be performed by individuals or organized groups for achieving political or social objectives. the definition of the term terrorism is correlated with using means capable of creating a case of public dnger. that property exists in all types of direct or indirect nuclear terrorism . the present study is divided into two chapters. Chapter one deals with nuclear terrorism and consists of two sections , the first deals with the identification of the nature of nuclear terrorism an the second deals with organize nuclear terrorism on the international level. Chapter two deals with the confrontation of nuclear terrorism in two sections. the first deals with the role of the state in combating against nuclear terrorism nd the second deals with combating against nuclear terrorism on the international level. while internally it is confronted through promulgation of legislations that deal with the protection against nuclear terrorism as well as the national legal instruments for protection of nuclear materials and installation and combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials, confrontation of nuclear terrorism on the international level is carried out through the promulgation of international convention such as that on suppression of actions of nuclear terrorism which shall be opened for signature on sept.14 -2005 according to the recommendation the general assembly of the united nations in its 59 th session

  16. Why Counter-terrorism Breeds Yet More Terrorism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Jiru

    2006-01-01

    @@ The global campaign against terror has achieved considerable success over the past five years since the events of 9/11. The Taliban forces in Afghanistan have been destroyed and Al-Qeda has received a devastating blow. In Russia, Chechen secessionist terrorist forces have also suffered heavy losses. Nevertheless, the major terrorist attacks that took place in the UK, Spain, Russia, Iraq, India and Indonesia clearly demonstrate that terrorism has not yet disappeared.Terrorist attacks are on the increase, the targets are becoming more varied, and the methods more covert and more violent. Terrorist groups and organizations have become better organized in their activities and there is a trend towards the use of high-tech in the attacks.Some world public media refers to these phenomena as "counter-terrorism leading to yet more terrorism". Therefore, two fundamental questions may be posed to all countries throughout the world: What are the roots of terrorism? How can terrorism be eradicated?

  17. From Classical Terrorism to ‘Global’ Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Wieviorka, Michel

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the history and the development of terrorism as a research subject for social sciences. It gives an impression of how the subject’s theoretical remit has changed over the last decades — explicitly taking into account the characteristics of a modern and global world and their impact on current understandings of terrorism. Terrorism is a minor object for the social sciences; it was even long considered “illegitimate” and neglected by researchers. There are several explanat...

  18. Terrorism, Hegel, Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SINKWAN CHENG

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available My essay begins by analyzing how Hegel and Honneth’stheory of recognition would seem to lend support to insurgentterrorists’ struggle for the right to self-determination. Insurgentterrorism often looks like a concretization of what Honneth calls themoral protest of the oppressed launched against the dominatingpowers. Insurgent terrorism also bears affinity to the politics ofrecognition in the sense that it challenges the legitimacy and authorityof the forces owned by the state, and seeks to gain public recognitioninstead for the legitimacy of their own cause. Precisely because whatmatters uppermost to terrorists is the gaining of recognition for theircause as just, terrorists are eager to seize the mass media as a meansof spreading their ideas. My essay will end, however, by pointing outmajor differences between insurgent terrorism on the one hand, andHegel and Honneth on the other.

  19. Terror.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Elkjer

    En stor del af terrorens formål er at skabe frygt. Frygt for gentagelse af terror handlinger og dermed opnåelsen af en psykologisk effekt på mennesker eller grupper af mennesker med henblik på at ændre deres holdninger eller adfærd. Et af de primære midler til at opnå denne psykologiske effekt er......, udover terror handlingerne selv, propaganda som opfølgning på terrorhandlinger for at forøge effekten af disse. Eller propaganda som slet og ret har til formål at skabe frygt og usikkerhed. Traditionelt set har meget af spredningen af terrorpropaganda beroet på, at medierne omtalte terrorhandlingerne og...

  20. Urban planning after terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Paizs, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Terrorism is a targeted way to hurt a population but also to destroy and annihilate a part of the civilization by attacking the built environment, especially iconic and symbolic buildings with its values of collective memory and cultural heritage, which is at the latest created by the iconic act of destruction. The resilient city with its integrated plans and programs but also technical, personal or physical security aims to reduce the probability and the dimension of terrorist attacks. Howev...

  1. Terrorism and identity problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijaković Ivan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is phenomenon of modern society, which became expressive especially in second half of twentieth century. There is a real danger that it could increase in growing number of terrorist groups, their aims, arms and ways of work, and that it could effect also in twentieth first century. Terrorism endangers the most important product of modern times: democracy, freedom, and human rights. There are different causes and reasons for existing of terrorist organizations and their cruel terrorist actions. This text analyzes a question of identity as a possible reason for existing of different terrorist groups and organizations and for their actions. Search for identity and question how to defend it create different problems and difficulties for individuals and groups. That identity is one-sided, disported, based on a false faith and so called salvation, but, to defend it somebody is prepared to sacrifice everything, his own life if that is necessary (but frequently somebody else's. That way, terrorism can be understood as a way of defending that identity.

  2. Nuclear terrorism and legal protection of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For the last years the terrorism has significantly changed. If 20-30 years ago terrorists would kidnap famous politicians or hijack planes, but at this stage they switched to massive destruction of innocent people. Now the problem of struggle against nuclear terrorism becomes very actual problem. The nuclear terrorism is meant as an opportunity of accomplishment of act of terrorism with use of the nuclear weapon, or accomplishment of explosions on atomic power stations and other objects of an atomic energy. Threats to nuclear objects become more and more often and appreciable. In the world there were some similar cases of threat to nuclear objects from the part of terrorists, and also cases of use by terrorists of nuclear, chemical and bacteriological substances. These cases testify to real threat of use by terrorists of the weapon of mass destruction. It is natural, that accomplishment of acts of terrorism on these objects can lead to ecological catastrophe and can put an irreparable loss to an environment and process of social development. Up to the middle of sixtieth years of twentieth century protection of an environment was not put forward as an independent political problem, and its scientific substantiation has not been developed enough as a diversified, complex, global problem. Only dynamical development in seventieth - eightieth years of scientific bases of global problems has allowed to allocate the rules of law concerning to protection of an environment, into special group. International legal protection of ecology was precisely allocated now in system of the general international law as independent, specific sphere of regulation. The principle of inadmissibility of radioactive pollution of environment covers both military, and peace area of use of nuclear power. Formation and the statement of this special principle of International law of the Environment takes place in two ways - contractual and usual, with observance by the states of

  3. The threat of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There have always been enormous gaps between the potential of a weapon and the abilities and/or the will to employ it by terrorists. New means and methods of violence with unknown outcomes could be less appealing for sub-national groups. Conventional 'off the shelf' weaponry is thus likely to remain the major tools for traditional terrorists. However, the analysis show that while the risk of nuclear terrorism may be remote, it should not and cannot be excluded. Rigorous standards and means the protection, control and accounting of fissile materials are thus needed. 'Nuclear terrorism' can be defined as acts of violence and destruction where the means applied are nuclear devices, or threats of use of such means, to create a condition of fear, to get attention, or to blackmail to have wider effect on others than the directly targeted victim(s). Nuclear terrorism is a subset of radiological terrorism, were the means (or threats) applied are radioactive substances. While being distinctly dissimilar in terms of technical approaches and damage potentials, many of the features with regards to public threat perception are likely to be similar. No non-state actors have ever deployed or used a nuclear device, and the number of (publicly known) nuclear bomb treats has been limited. However, there is a disturbing interest among some terrorist organizations in acquiring nuclear weapon capabilities, probably for tactical purposes. The biological and chemical programs of the Japanese 'Aum Shinrikyo' cult that culminated in the Tokyo metro attack is highly publicized. Less well-known is the nuclear weapon program of the group. Nuclear material was acquired from the sect's properties in Australia and markets were explored to purchase nuclear technology via straw trading companies. Another highly profiled terrorist group with obvious nuclear intentions is the 'Al- Qa'ida', the group of bin Laden. The recent trail for the bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya

  4. Terrorism and Schools. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Safe Schools Initiative Division, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001, Americans have experienced a heightened sense of awareness and consciousness over the threat of terrorism against the United States. Terrorism experts agree that a terrorist attack on a school is a viable option for Al Qaeda and other terrorist organizations. In response to this threat, the National Association of School…

  5. Rationality economic and terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This paper is more about economics as social science than about terrorism. The main argument is as follows. Once upon a time a creature called homo economicus went to war but shot himself in the foot (Cramer, 2002). In other words, the extension of neoclassical economics to 'explain' the causes of civil wars has thus far not been a great success in either theoretical or empirical terms. Then, returning wounded and vengeful from the front, homo economicus weighed up the costs and benefits of c...

  6. Insurability of Terrorism Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until 2001 losses caused by terrorist attacks have been covered under fire policies worldwide with two exceptions: Spain and UK where major and multiple losses caused by ETA and IRA had led to specific insurance solutions. The September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Centre have changed the world in many aspects. This includes the insurance industry, which was compelled to exclude terrorism from coverage and to offer special solutions for extra premium. Nuclear power plants have been repeatedly called targets for terrorists as their destruction could cause a large catastrophe and more victims than the September 2001 attacks. How does the insurance industry respond? (author)

  7. Racionalidad del terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauquillo, Julián

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary terrorism is not an ancestral, irrational, oriental, phenomenon. Nor is it a fanatical reaction of the religions that vindicate a backward society as against the developed societies of the first world. The terrorism of today is a thoroughly modern phenomenon: one of the worst monstrosities of modern society, supplied with rational planning of objectives. A captious interpretation of the Islamic religion endows terrorism with a universal projection among the multitudinous audience of the discontented with the might of that diffuse power that we know as the developed Western world. Al Qaeda does not hesitate to present its war against the West as «a war without quarter» lasting until the infidel Christians are eliminated and the world is subjugated to Islam In the meantime, in a similar conflictive sense, the theoretical campaign of Samuel Huntington across the entire planet responds with a paradigmatic post-cold war, capable of inflaming the international conflict, in a sense no less belligerent with the Anti-Occident than that employed by the radical Imams. As has been pointed out by Amartya Sen, to give priority in this way to the religious identity, the response of the West to international terrorism in calling it «islamic terrorism» is very clumsy, as it magnifies the importance of the religious authorities in detriment to governmental ways and means in the solving of problems.

    El terrorismo contemporáneo no es un fenómeno ancestral, irracional y oriental. Tampoco es una reacción fanática de las religiones que reivindican una sociedad atrasada frente a las sociedades desarrolladas del primer mundo. El terrorismo actual es un fenómeno plenamente moderno: uno de los peores engendros de la sociedad moderna, dotado de una planificación racional de objetivos. Una interpretación capciosa de la religión islámica dota al terrorismo de una proyección universal entre la numerosa audiencia de descontentos con el poder

  8. 31 CFR 594.311 - Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terrorism. 594.311 Section 594.311... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.311 Terrorism. The term terrorism means an activity that: (a) Involves a violent act or an...

  9. MODERN TERRORISM: CONCEPT AND APPROACH ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    CHAIKA ALEXANDER VIKTOROVICH

    2015-01-01

    The problem of modern terrorism as an image of counterculture environment is considered. The analysis of concepts and approaches of foreign and native authors, specialists of terrorism problem research was conducted. Separate features of the modern terrorism are considered and emphasized. The author drew conceptual conclusions on the basis of dialectical approach to modern terrorism counterculture phenomenon research.

  10. Does Islam Agree with Terror

    OpenAIRE

    Altıntaş, Hayrani

    2004-01-01

    To use the terms ‘Islam’ and ‘terror’ together and to say that they are related to each other is contradictory logically and historically. Islam is not a religion that has endorsed terrorism both theoretically and in its historical course. Terror is an act that clashes with Islamic notion of God, law, and Islamic aesthetics. Islam is a religion that recognizes freedom of speech, opinion, and faith to all people, Muslims or non-muslims, that are not inclined to terrorism. In this respect, terr...

  11. Animal rights and environmental terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Cooke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many paradigmatic forms of animal rights and environmental activism have been classed as terrorism both in popular discourse and in law. This paper argues that the labelling of many violent forms of direct action carried out in the name of animal rights or environmentalism as ‘terrorism’ is incorrect. Furthermore, the claim is also made that even those acts which are correctly termed as terrorism are not necessarily wrongful acts. The result of this analysis is to call into question the terms of public debate and the legitimacy of anti-terrorism laws targeting and punishing radical activism.

  12. The definition of terrorism in international law

    OpenAIRE

    Vaštakas, Linas

    2013-01-01

    In light of the widely acknowledged absence of the definition of terrorism in international law and once again unsuccessful attempts to agree on it in April 2013 at the United Nations, this thesis aims to propose such a definition. Chapter One firstly attempts to answer why international law needs to define terrorism. It analyzes international criminalization of terrorism, sectoral anti-terrorism conventions and the obligations to fight terrorism imposed on states by the Security Council. ...

  13. Do Poor Economic Conditions Affect Terrorism?

    OpenAIRE

    Berrebi, Claude; Klor, Esteban F.

    2012-01-01

    While the existing empirical literature shows that poverty and economic conditions are not correlated with the quantity of terror, theory predicts that poverty and poor economic conditions may affect the quality of terror. Poor economic conditions may lead more able individuals to participate in terror attacks, allowing terror organizations to send betterqualified terrorists to more complex, high-impact terror missions. Using data on Palestinian suicideterrorists, we provide evidence of the c...

  14. Potential for nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of whether or not terrorists will ''go nuclear'' is discussed. It is possible, although there is no historical evidence that any criminal or terrorist group ever made any attempt to acquire nuclear material for use in an explosive or dispersal device. In terms of intentions, psychotics are potential nuclear terrorists, but in terms of capabilities, they are the farthest away from being able to acquire a nuclear weapon. The history of nuclear incidents in the U.S. and abroad is reviewed. As the nuclear industry expands, the number of low-level incidents (bomb threats, pilferage, etc.) will increase also, but not necessarily escalate to more serious incidents. Terrorists may ''go nuclear'' solely for the publicity value; nuclear hoaxes may be attenpted. Nuclear terrorism seems more attractive as a threat than as an action. But the nature of the threat may change in the future, and the danger of imitation of a successful nuclear terrorist act is pointed out

  15. Gangs, Terrorism, and Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Decker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available What can street gangs tell us about radicalization and extremist groups? At first glance, these two groups seem to push the boundaries of comparison. In this article, we examine the important similarities and differences across criminal, deviant, and extremist groups. Drawing from research on street gangs, this article explores issues such as levels of explanation,organizational structure, group process, and the increasingly important role of technology and the Internet in the context of radicalization. There are points of convergence across these groups, but it is important to understand the differences between these groups. This review finds little evidence to support the contention that American street gangs are becoming increasingly radicalized. This conclusion is based largely on organizational differences between gangs and terror groups.

  16. THE CRIMINALISTIC CHARACTERISTIC OF TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlezko D. A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Improving methods of investigation of terrorism is the leading task of modern criminalistics. Different aspects of criminal law and criminology connected with the fight against terrorism were under focus in juridical literature. At the same time criminalistic characteristic of terrorism as a system of generalized notion of significant features of crime under discussion and its interconnections are not analyzed properly. There is a need for further analysis of terrorism, suggestions for its prevention and control. The article deals with exploration of the subject of criminal encroachment, the method of commission and concealment of this crime, the mechanism of formation of traces, the circumstances of the offence, the personality characteristics of the offender and the victim, under circumstances of changing crime situation and significant increase in offences of a terrorist threat

  17. Female terrorism:a review

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    The sharp growth in the number of publications examining female involvement in terrorism has produced a valuable but un-integrated body of knowledge spread across many disciplines. In this paper, we bring together 54 publications on female terrorism and use qualitative and quantitative analyses to examine the range of theoretical and methodological approaches in these papers. Using a content analysis, we identify six primary research foci: Portrayal in media, Feminism, Interviews with terrori...

  18. Animal rights and environmental terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Steve Cooke

    2013-01-01

    Many paradigmatic forms of animal rights and environmental activism have been classed as terrorism both in popular discourse and in law. This paper argues that the labelling of many violent forms of direct action carried out in the name of animal rights or environmentalism as ‘terrorism’ is incorrect. Furthermore, the claim is also made that even those acts which are correctly termed as terrorism are not necessarily wrongful acts. The result of this analysis is to call into question the terms...

  19. Living with terror, not Living in Terror: The Impact of Chronic Terrorism on Israeli Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dov Waxman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the impact of chronic terrorism on a targeted society by examining the case of Israeli society during the second Intifada. The Israeli case demonstrates both the extensive effects of repeated terrorist attacks and their limitations. The article argues that while Israelis were seriously affected by Palestinian terrorist attacks during the second Intifada, this did not result in major, lasting changes in Israeli behaviour. Despite being profoundly affected by terrorism, Israeli society was not demoralized by it, and in this respect Palestinian terrorism failed to achieve its aim. This is because the Israeli public grew accustomed to chronic terrorism and possessed a high level of social resilience.   

  20. Advancing against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeting a day before the summit, Bush and Putin announced a new Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism; a plan for multiple, multilateral guaranteed suppliers of nuclear fuel to States that forgo building their own enrichment plants; and a Civil Nuclear Agreement that will lift restrictions on cooperation between the two countries in developing peaceful nuclear power. Each of these initiatives provides a framework for dozens of specific actions that can measurably reduce the risk of terrorists acquiring a nuclear weapon. The significance of the Global Initiative against Nuclear Terrorism lies not only in its substance but in Russia's visible joint ownership of the Initiative. After years in which Washington lectured Moscow about this threat, Putin's joint leadership in securing nuclear material worldwide should give added impetus to this undertaking inside Russia as well. Globally, this initiative calls for work plans in five arenas: prevention, detection, disruption, mitigation of consequences after an attack, and strengthening domestic laws and export controls against future A.Q. Khans. The guaranteed nuclear fuel supply tightens the noose around Iran as it seeks to exploit a loophole in the global Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. By guaranteeing States that six separate international suppliers will provide backup guarantees against interruption of supply for any reason other that breech of commitments under the NPT, this proposal eliminates Iran's excuse for Natanz-the enrichment plant it is rushing to finish today. This system for supply will be subject to the supervision by the IAEA, which will also have nuclear fuel reserves that allow it to be a supplier of last resort. The Civil Nuclear Agreement will allow joint research on next-generation, proliferation-proof reactors, including technologies where Russian science is the best in the world. It will permit sale to Russia of US technologies that can improve the safety and efficiency of Russian nuclear

  1. Biotypologies of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Pugliese

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP document, ‘Training Keys #581: Suicide (Homicide Bombers: Part 1,’ is designed to assist law enforcement authorities in the pre-emptive capture of prospective suicide bombers. In this essay, Pugliese focuses on the training key to examine the manner in which essentialised biotypologies are mobilised and reproduced within the context of the so-called ‘war on terror.’ The use of biotypologies by both the military and law enforcement agencies reproduces a disciplinary biopolitical regime premised on normative conceptualisations of race, gender and bodily behaviour. Pugliese discusses these regimes in the context of the US Department of Defense and its advocacy of ‘identity dominance’ through the development of new technologies such as gait signature biometrics. Situated in this context, he shows how biotypologies of targeted subjects are instrumental in fomenting cultural panics concerning the Arab and/or Muslim and/or figure ‘of Middle Eastern appearance’.

  2. Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, final report, 'Weapons of Terror: Freeing the World of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Arms', Stockholm, Sweden, 1 June 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are rightly called weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Designed to terrify as well as destroy, they have the potential to kill thousands and thousands of people in a single attack, and their effects may persist in the environment and in our bodies, in some cases indefinitely. Many efforts have been made to free the world from the threat of these weapons and some progress has been made. Paradoxically, despite the end of the Cold War, the past decade has seen more setbacks than successes. States have failed to comply with their disarmament and non-proliferation commitments, and terrorist groups have emerged that recognize no restraints. In September 2005, the United Nations World Summit was unable to agree on a single recommendation on disarmament and non-proliferation. It is time for all to wake up to the awesome reality that many of the old threats continue to hang over the world and that many new ones have emerged. It is time for all governments to revive their cooperation and to breathe new life into the disarmament work of the United Nations. Efforts to eradicate poverty and to protect the global environment must be matched by a dismantling of the world's most destructive capabilities. The gearshift now needs to be moved from reverse to drive. Biological and chemical weapons have been comprehensively outlawed through global conventions, but these need to be universally accepted and fully implemented. Nuclear weapons must also be outlawed. Before this aim is realized, there must be new initiatives to reduce the number of nuclear weapons and the threat posed by them. It is equally urgent to prevent proliferation and to take special measures to ensure that terrorists do not acquire any weapons of mass destruction. This report presents ideas and recommendations on what the world community - including national governments and civil society - can and should do

  3. Nuclear terrorism: Facts and fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study tries to assess the risk of nuclear terrorism in the light of recent developments in the area of nuclear weapons proliferation, and to develop suggestions of how to cope with existing challenges. First of all the term of ''nuclear terrorism'' is defined and differentiated from other forms of nuclear crimes. In a second step the attempt is made to compile the findings and assessments of the past on the problem of nuclear terrorism. Since, as a rule, a threat potential is composed of 'intentions' and 'capabilities', a third part is dedicated to terrorist intentions and studies the degree of probability of terrorists considering nuclear weapons an appropriate means for their aims. In connection with 'capabilities' it is scrutinized whether terrorist groups will be able at all to procure, design or initiate nuclear warheads. This leads to the question as to which consequences result from nuclear safety shortcomings - in particular in Russia - with a view to nuclear terrorism. Based on the preceding considerations, several proposals for coping with the danger of nuclear terrorism are made. (orig./HP)

  4. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  5. Defining and Distinguishing Secular and Religious Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, Heather S.

    2014-01-01

    Religious terrorism is typically characterised as acts of unrestrained, irrational and indiscriminant violence, thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motiv...

  6. Understanding Terrorism from an Economic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Haldar, Tanushree

    2013-01-01

    Terrorism has emerged as a major threat to the contemporary society. Nation States are reliant on their counter-terrorism laws for checking terrorism and deterring terrorists. To understand the effectiveness of these counter terrorism laws, it is important to first understand the behaviour of terrorists, so as to comprehend what actions can dissuade terrorist’s behaviour and decision to propagate violence. This paper will first look at behaviour of terrorist in decision making from an economi...

  7. Fighting Terrorism: Empirics on Policy Harmonization

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu, Simplice; Nwachukwu, Jacinta

    2015-01-01

    This paper models the feasibility of common policy initiatives against global terrorism, as well as timelines for their enforcement. The empirical evidence is based on 78 developing countries for the period 1984-2008. Employed terrorism dynamics are domestic, transnational, unclear and total terrorism. Absolute (or unconditional) and conditional catch-ups are modelled using Generalised Methods of Moments. We establish consistently that, the rate of catch-up is higher in domestic terrorism rel...

  8. Terrorism in the Worlds of Welfare Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Krieger; Daniel Meierrieks

    2009-01-01

    This contribution investigates the link between welfare policies and domestic terrorism for 15 Western European countries during 1984-2003. We argue that welfare policies improve national socio-economic conditions and thus increase the opportunity costs of terrorism. We investigate whether spending in certain policy fields translates into a reduction of terrorism, and whether certain worlds of welfare capitalism [Esping-Andersen (1990)] are more resistant to the threat of domestic terrorism. ...

  9. Terrorism and Extremism: Approaches to the Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tankenova Laura Kumarovna

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the scientific research of terrorism and extremism carried out by scientists from Kazakhstan, Russia and some other countries. A variety of approaches and methods used by experts are studied. The theoretical and practical importance of scientific papers dealing with terrorism and extremism is shown. The authors pay particular attention to the conceptual study of terrorism and extremism. It is noted that the concepts of terrorism and extremism are sometimes confused and ...

  10. Religiosity and reactions to terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Amy; LaFree, Gary

    2015-05-01

    Although many of the world's most serious outbreaks of conflict and violence center on religion, social science research has had relatively little to say about religion's unique role in shaping individuals' attitudes about these events. In this paper we investigate whether Americans' religious beliefs play a central role in shaping attitudes toward the continuing threat of terrorism and their willingness to assist officials in countering these perceived threats. Our analysis of an original data collection of almost 1600 Americans shows that more religious respondents are more likely to express concerns about terrorism. However, this relationship is mediated by their level of conservatism. We also find that more religious respondents are more likely to claim that they will assist government officials in countering terrorism. This relationship remained even after accounting for conservatism, and people's general willingness to help police solve crimes like breaking and entering. PMID:25769849

  11. Terrorism and nuclear damage coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with nuclear terrorism and the manner in which nuclear operators can insure themselves against it, based on the international nuclear liability conventions. It concludes that terrorism is currently not covered under the treaty exoneration provisions on 'war-like events' based on an analysis of the concept on 'terrorism' and travaux preparatoires. Consequently, operators remain liable for nuclear damage resulting from terrorist acts, for which mandatory insurance is applicable. Since nuclear insurance industry looks at excluding such insurance coverage from their policies in the near future, this article aims to suggest alternative means for insurance, in order to ensure adequate compensation for innocent victims. The September 11, 2001 attacks at the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, DC resulted in the largest loss in the history of insurance, inevitably leading to concerns about nuclear damage coverage, should future such assaults target a nuclear power plant or other nuclear installation. Since the attacks, some insurers have signalled their intentions to exclude coverage for terrorism from their nuclear liability and property insurance policies. Other insurers are maintaining coverage for terrorism, but are establishing aggregate limits or sublimits and are increasing premiums. Additional changes by insurers are likely to occur. Highlighted by the September 11th events, and most recently by those in Madrid on 11 March 2004, are questions about how to define acts of terrorism and the extent to which such are covered under the international nuclear liability conventions and various domestic nuclear liability laws. Of particular concern to insurers is the possibility of coordinated simultaneous attacks on multiple nuclear facilities. This paper provides a survey of the issues, and recommendations for future clarifications and coverage options.(author)

  12. Contemporary/global terrorism: Sociological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Janković Miodrag 1

    2004-01-01

    Notion of terrorism and its contemporary/global form is analyzed in the paper. Special attention is given to emphasizing most important characteristics of separatist-secessionist terrorism today. Potentials and perspectives of Islam terrorism is analyzed at the and of the paper.

  13. How to Reduce the Threat of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beres, Louis Rene

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that the answer to terrorism lies not in higher fences, laser weapons, or expanded commando forces, but in improved understanding of the linkages between U.S. foreign policy and anti-American terrorism. Reviews geopolitical developments, including international law, and concludes that U.S. safety from terrorism will depend upon our…

  14. The Origins of Terrorism: Cross-Country Estimates on Socio-economic Determinants of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Freytag, Andreas; Krüger, Jens J.; Meierrieks, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    As a prerequisite of an appropriate anti-terror strategy, it is indispensable to assess the underlying causes of terror. We examine social and economic conditions in the country of origin of terrorist attacks, claiming that low opportunity costs of terror, e.g., approximated by slow growth and poor institutions raise the likelihood of terror and the willingness in the population to support terror. Using a negative binomial regression model, we are able to show that unfortunate socio-economic ...

  15. The Origins of Terrorism - Cross-Country Estimates on Socio-Economic Determinants of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Freytag, Andreas; Krüger, Jens J.; Meierrieks, Daniel; Friedrich G. Schneider

    2009-01-01

    To expand our knowledge about an appropriate anti-terror strategy, it is indispensable to assess the underlying causes of terror. We examine social and economic conditions in the country of origin of terrorist attacks, claiming that low opportunity costs of terror, e.g. approximated as slow growth and poor institutions raise the propensity of terror and the willingness in the population to support terror. Using a mixed effects Poisson regression model, we are able to show that unfortunate soc...

  16. Terrorism and the World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Abadie, Alberto; Gardeazabal, Javier

    2005-01-01

    It has been argued that terrorism should not have a large effect on economic activity, because terrorist attacks destroy only a small fraction of the stock of capital of a country (see, e.g., Becker and Murphy, 2001). In contrast, empirical estimates of the consequences of terrorism typically suggest large effects on economic outcomes (see, e.g., Abadie and Gardeazabal, 2003). The main theme of this article is that mobility of productive capital in an open economy may account for much of the ...

  17. Miserere. Aesthetics of Terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Incampo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available I say: “Oh, what a beautiful surrealist picture!” With quite precise awareness: this páthos, these emotions of mine do not stem from our common sense. An aesthetic judgment is founded on an immediate subjective intuition: an emotion or a free feeling of a single subject towards an object. A universal sense, possibly. Some judgments of ours in ethics and in law are no different from our perceptions in front of art. It would be the same for a hypothetical sentence of the judge that concluded with these words: “I acquit Arsenio Lupin because of his magnificent handlebar moustache like that of Guy de Maupassant”. Everyone would think intuitively that it is an unfair sentence. Is there aesthetics of terror? The case that the article intends to examine is that of the famous kidnapping and murder of the Italian statesman Aldo Moro by the “Brigate Rosse” [Red Brigades] (1978. The method used here consists in studying the image of the kidnapping as iconic documentation of reality, and, above all, as an ethical-legal judgment about the terrorist crime. Moro was photographed during his kidnapping. There are at least two pictures. Both constitute an extraordinary source for a judgment on the basis of an image. In both of them, Aldo Moro is pictured in front of a Red Brigades banner during the captivity. In what sense do these pictures document an aesthetic judgment concerning the “case Moro”? The answer can be found in a remarkable iconic coincidence of these pictures with a masterpiece by Georges Rouault (Paris 1871-1958 devoted to the theme of the “Ecce Homo”. The Gospel in the “Ecce Homo” scene (John: 19, 4-5 narrates how Pontius Pilate wanted to arouse the compassion of the people with a scourging and the exposure of Jesus to the crowd. The plate under consideration is entitled “Qui ne se grime pas?” [Who does not have a painted face?] and is a key work in Rouault’s suite of prints Miserere, dated for 1923.

  18. On terrorism and legal response in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engjëll Likmeta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Legal Albanian doctrine encompasses different meanings in relation to terrorism. This paper aims to give a general overview on various definitions of terrorism, as one of the main threatening phenomenon of our society. The paper also treats the origin of the word ‘terrorism’, back to the French Revolution of 1789 as the label used by the establishment to describe the conduct of revolutionaries. In this paper will be treated the main factors that have affected over the creation and development of terrorism, the content, format and main characteristics of terrorism, the main forms of occurrence of terrorist acts and Albanian legal mechanisms in the fight against terrorism, including the International agreements of which Albania is part of. Special attention will be paid to the moment when terrorist activities started in Albania and which are the most common forms of terror in Albania. The study of terrorism is multi-disciplinary, spanning a number of fields including political science, psychology, criminology, sociologist, history and many others. There are not few criminal norms provided in the Albanian Criminal Code that condemn terrorism. The Albanian Criminal Code expresses in separated articles the punishment of everyone who finances terrorism, hides funds and other assets that finance terrorism, even collects funds for terrorism financing, recruits persons for committing acts of terrorism or for terrorist financing, trains for committing terrorism acts, or makes public calls with terrorist purposes. A key challenge of understanding terrorism is both acknowledging the moral outrage at terrorist acts, while at the same time trying to understand the rationale behind terrorism.

  19. Pakistan, military rule and terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Casaca, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    As long as the Pakistani military structures do not cut radically their instrumental view of Islamic extremism, and do not understand the imperative need to leave the political scene, allowing the strengthening of the civil society, minority rights, education for tolerance and the rule of law, terrorism will remain a major threat endangering the Pakistani people and its neighbours.

  20. Applying Intermediate Microeconomics to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Charles H.; Carter, John R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors show how microeconomic concepts and principles are applicable to the study of terrorism. The utility maximization model provides insights into both terrorist resource allocation choices and government counterterrorism efforts, and basic game theory helps characterize the strategic interdependencies among terrorists and governments.…

  1. SOVIET STATE TERRORISM IN AZERBAIJAN

    OpenAIRE

    Ismailov, Eldar

    2010-01-01

    The author analyzes the Soviet policy of state terror pursued in 1937 and its specifics and consequences in Azerbaijan. He points out that in a relatively short period the Soviet totalitarian system reached the absolute limit in terms of human rights violations and personal insecurity of its citizens.

  2. Terrorism From Within: An Economic Model of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    S. Brock Blomberg; Hess, Gregory D.; Akila Weerapana

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and explore the implications of an economic model that links the incidence of terrorism in a country to the economic circumstances facing that country. We briefly sketch out a theory, in the spirit of Tornell (1998), that describes terrorist activities as being initiated by groups that are unhappy with the current economic status quo, yet unable to bring about drastic political and institutional changes that can improve their situation. Such groups with limited acces...

  3. Terrorism from within: an economic model of terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Blomberg, S. Brock; Hess, Gregory D.; Weerapana, Akila; Claremont Institute for Economic Policy Studies

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and explore the implications of an economic model that links the incidence of terrorism in a country to the economic circumstances facing that country. We briefly sketch out a theory, in the spirit of Tornell (1998), that describes terrorist activities as being initiated by groups that are unhappy with the current economic status quo, yet unable to bring about drastic political and institutional changes that can improve their situation. Such groups with limited acces...

  4. Deterring and Dissuading Nuclear Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    John J. Klein

    2012-01-01

    While nuclear deterrence theory may be well-suited to dealing with nuclear-armed states, its suitability for deterring nuclear terrorism has frequently been questioned since 9/11. While terrorist organizations do not necessarily act uniformly or according to the same underlying beliefs, many of the most aggressive organizations are motivated by an ideology that embraces martyrdom and an apocalyptic vision.1 This ideology may be based on religion or a desire to overthrow a government. Conseque...

  5. Lactational Terror in Virtual Space

    OpenAIRE

    Marcinkiewicz, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of paper is to show problem of putting social pressure on mothers to breastfeeding. The internet forum about terror lactation was analyzed. In research used qualitative analyses of context. The results of study had shown the ratio of mothers to breastfeed, forms of pressure on mothers and social groups which put this pressure. It was shown stereotypes which exist in virtual space about women and breastfeeding. 1 119 134 7 Kultura-Społeczeństwo-Edukacja

  6. Sleepwalking, night terrors, and consciousness.

    OpenAIRE

    Crisp, A. H.; Matthews, B M; Oakey, M; Crutchfield, M

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine some personality and psychoneurotic characteristics of adults who have the sleepwalking-night terrors syndrome. DESIGN--Prospective assessment of two groups of consecutive patients with a firm diagnosis of either of two specific sleep disorders as established clinically and by polysomnography. SETTING--Outpatient sleep disorders clinic and sleep laboratory in a tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS--12 Patients referred consecutively to the clinic in whom a diagnosis of s...

  7. Obamas Fortsatte Krig mod Terror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Philip Christian

    2013-01-01

    Kronikken argumenterer for at den type overvågningsskandaler som er fulgt i kølvandet på Edward Snowdens afsløringer blot er et symptom på den nye fase af krigen mod terror som Obama administrationen har ønsket at føre USA ind i. Den nye fase vil være præget af mere efterretningsvirksomhed snarere...

  8. Solomon:Terror and Terroir

    OpenAIRE

    Mort, Graham

    2015-01-01

    ‘Solomon’ is a new work of short fiction, set in the United Kingdom and northern Uganda. It explores themes of memory, violence and recovery through the consciousness of a young Ugandan man. The accompanying essay ‘“Solomon”: Terror and Terroir’ reflects upon the genesis and writing of the story in the context of Terroir, a new book-length collection of fiction, with emphasis on depictions of violence and the relationship between the notion of terroir and human psychology.

  9. Terrorism, Economic Downturns and Elections

    OpenAIRE

    Gardeazabal, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Within EUSECON, one research subproject investigates the relationship between economic downturns, terrorism and electoral outcomes. The analysis is carried out using data from Spain. Recent Spanish democratic history has witnessed four complete economic cycles, with deep recessions and pronounced booms. During this period, there has been a nationalistic conflict with terrorist manifestation. This research uses Spanish provincial data from the ten congressional elections since the end of Franc...

  10. The Macroeconomic Consequences of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Blomberg, S. Brock; Hess, Gregory D.; Orphanides, Athanasios

    2004-01-01

    We perform an empirical investigation of the macroeconomic consequences of international terrorism and interactions with alternative forms of collective violence. Our analysis is based on a rich unbalanced panel data set with annual observations on 177 countries from 1968 to 2000, which brings together information from the Penn World Table dataset, the ITERATE dataset for terrorist events, and datasets of external and internal conflict. We explore these data with cross-sectional and panel gro...

  11. Night terrors. Clinical characteristics and personality patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kales, J D; Kales, A; Soldatos, C R; Caldwell, A B; Charney, D S; Martin, E D

    1980-12-01

    The development and clinical course of night terrors and the personality patterns of patients with this disorder were evaluated in 40 adults who had a current complaint of night terrors. Compared with a group of adult sleepwalkers, the patients with night terrors had a later age of onset for their disorder, a higher frequency of events, and an earlier time of night for the occurrence of episodes. Both groups had high levels of psychopathology, with higher values for the night terror group. This sleepwalkers showed active, outwardly directed behavioral patterns, whereas the night terror patients showed an inhibition of outward expressions of aggression and a predominance of anxiety, depression, tendencies obsessive-compulsive/, and phobicness. Although night terrors and sleepwalking in childhood seem to be related primarily to genetic and developmental factors, their persistence and especially their onset in adulthood are found to be related more to psychological factors. PMID:7447622

  12. Against acts of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Act on the International Convention of the United Nations of April 13, 2005 on Combating Acts of Nuclear Terrorism was promulgated in the German Federal Gazette and entered into force one day later. The Convention expresses the deep concern about the worldwide escalation of all kinds and manifestations of acts of terrorism. What was true in April 2005 (the year the UN convention was adopted) is even more true today. At the same time, however, the Convention recognizes the right of all nations to develop and use nuclear power for peaceful purposes, acknowledging their justified interest in the possible benefits of the peaceful uses of nuclear power. As the Convention was signed in German still during the term of office of the Red-Green government, this passage is a remarkable acceptance of the realities of the world and past peaceful uses of nuclear power in Germany. Whether or not the convention will become an effective instrument to be used against acts of nuclear terrorism and threats depends on its entering into force after deposition of 22 ratification documents, and on as many states as possible acceding to it. Irrespective of these aspects, action in the spirit of the Convention should be taken now, criminal law should be adapted, and international cooperation should be improved and strengthened. (orig.)

  13. "International terrorism" as conspiracy: debating terrorism in the league of nations

    OpenAIRE

    Ditrych, Ondrej

    2013-01-01

    "This paper aims at historicizing terrorism by focusing attention on how the current dominant discursive patterns, constituent elements of the 'global terrorism' dispositive, have come to existence. It brings to the fore the first robust international debate on terrorism which took place in the League of Nations following the Marseilles assassination (1934) and Shows its conspiratorial features, many of which are detectable in the discourse of terrorism among states after 9/11." (author's abs...

  14. The Economics of Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism: A Survey (Part II)

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich Schneider; Tilman Brück; Daniel Meierrieks

    2010-01-01

    This survey provides an in-depth analysis of existing research on the economic analysis of terrorism and counter-terrorist measures. First the existing evidence on the causes of terrorism is analyzed, then we consider the evidence of the consequences of terrorism and we demonstrate why it is important to regarding of the issue of counter-terrorism policy. Moreover the survey presents the existing knowledge on the interrelation between the economy and the issue of security and it incorporates ...

  15. The Economics of Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism: A Survey (Part I)

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich Schneider; Tilman Brück; Daniel Meierrieks

    2011-01-01

    This survey provides an in-depth analysis of existing research on the economic analysis of terrorism and counter-terrorist measures. First the existing evidence on the causes of terrorism is analyzed, then we consider the evidence of the consequences of terrorism and we demonstrate why it is important to regarding of the issue of counter-terrorism policy. Moreover the survey presents the existing knowledge on the interrelation between the economy and the issue of security and it incorporates ...

  16. The Economics of Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism: A Survey (Part I)

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich Schneider; Tilman Brück; Daniel Meierrieks

    2010-01-01

    This survey provides an in-depth analysis of existing research on the economic analysis of terrorism and counter-terrorist measures. First the existing evidence on the causes of terrorism is analyzed, then we consider the evidence of the consequences of terrorism and we demonstrate why it is important to regarding of the issue of counter-terrorism policy. Moreover the survey presents the existing knowledge on the interrelation between the economy and the issue of security and it incorporates ...

  17. The Economics of Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism: A Survey (Part II)

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Friedrich; Brück, Tilman; Meierrieks, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This survey provides an in-depth analysis of existing research on the economic analysis of terrorism and counter-terrorist measures. First the existing evidence on the causes of terrorism is analyzed, then we consider the evidence of the consequences of terrorism and we demonstrate why it is important to regarding of the issue of counter-terrorism policy. Moreover the survey presents the existing knowledge on the interrelation between the economy and the issue of security and it incorporates ...

  18. The economics of terrorism and counter-terrorism: A survey (Part I)

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Friedrich; Brück, Tilman; Meierrieks, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This survey provides an in-depth analysis of existing research on the economic analysis of terrorism and counter-terrorist measures. First the existing evidence on the causes of terrorism is analyzed, then we consider the evidence of the consequences of terrorism and we demonstrate why it is important to regarding of the issue of counter-terrorism policy. Moreover the survey presents the existing knowledge on the interrelation between the economy and the issue of security and it incorporates ...

  19. The economics of terrorism and counter-terrorism: A survey (Part II)

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Friedrich; Brück, Tilman; Meierrieks, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This survey provides an in-depth analysis of existing research on the economic analysis of terrorism and counter-terrorist measures. First the existing evidence on the causes of terrorism is analyzed, then we consider the evidence of the consequences of terrorism and we demonstrate why it is important to regarding of the issue of counter-terrorism policy. Moreover the survey presents the existing knowledge on the interrelation between the economy and the issue of security and it incorporates ...

  20. Terrorism Event Classification Using Fuzzy Inference Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dat Tran; Choochart Haruechaiyasak; Phayung Meesad; Uraiwan Inyaem

    2010-01-01

    Terrorism has led to many problems in Thai societies, not only property damage but also civilian casualties. Predicting terrorism activities in advance can help prepare and manage risk from sabotage by these activities. This paper proposes a framework focusing on event classification in terrorism domain using fuzzy inference systems (FISs). Each FIS is a decision-making model combining fuzzy logic and approximate reasoning. It is generated in five main parts: the input interface, the fuzzific...

  1. FIGHTING OF WESTERN INTELLIGENCE WITH ISLAMIC TERRORISM

    OpenAIRE

    Asadi NEJMAH

    2015-01-01

    The state of Israel even prior to its establishment, faces, in daily life, terrorist organizations that want to destroy it. Terrorism and terrorist acts as implied from the original meaning of the word – fear, anxiety, terror, are meant to plant fear amongst the attacked public and bring about its demoralization and confusion, and disruption of routine life. Occasionally it is performed also as an act of revenge in a blood circle of violence. A substantial part of terrorism weapons is the ext...

  2. Terrorism and Tourism : The Stock Market Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Hui Gee

    2005-01-01

    The tourism sector has inadvertently been seen as the logical companion of terrorism. With terrorism being associated with negative abnormal returns in the capital markets, the linkage of tourism with terrorism implicates greater negative association. This research examines the validity of the association of four terrorist attacks; the 9/11, Bali Bombing, Marriot hotel bombing, and the 7/7 London Bombings on four respectively selected groups of hotels and hotel managements stocks. The standar...

  3. The Economic Cost of Harboring Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Benmelech, E.; Berrebi, C.; Klor, E. F.

    2009-01-01

    The literature on conflict and terrorism has paid little attention to the economic costs of terrorism for the perpetrators. This paper aims to fill that gap by examining the economic costs of committing suicide terror attacks. Using data covering the universe of Palestinian suicide terrorists during the second Palestinian uprising, combined with data from the Palestinian Labor Force Survey, we identify and quantify the impact of a successful attack on unemployment and wages. We find robust ev...

  4. Terrorism and international business: A research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Michael R Czinkota; Gary Knight; Peter W Liesch; John Steen

    2010-01-01

    Terrorism threatens international business (IB) through its direct and indirect effects. As governments tighten security at public sites, businesses have become more attractive terrorist targets, with important implications for the operations and performance of multinational firms. While terrorism has been substantially studied in other fields, there has been little scholarly research to address terrorism and the distinctive challenges that it poses for IB. In this article we conceptualize te...

  5. EXPLORATION OF TERRORISM: A PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Madhukar K. Tajne

    2012-01-01

    This research paper highlights the meaning, nature, approaches, millstone and development functioning, methodology and diabolic effects of terrorism. Terrorism has become a common burning problem in all the nations terrorism has become an obstacle in the path of peace and security. The psychopathological orientation has dominated the psychological approach to the terrorist personality. In the 20th century the major milestone in the historical growth ...

  6. Contemporary terrorism as a global threat

    OpenAIRE

    Smolarek, Mirosław; Żuber, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Terrorism has been present in human history since ancient times, but it was not considered a serious threat for global security. The attacks on the World Trade Center have demonstrated that it is a threat of a global nature. It is an effective weapon used by the "weaker" against the stronger opponents. The subject of terrorism is very complex, difficult and elusive. There is a divergence among the scholars in understanding terrorism studies due to the lack of uniform criteria for the deter...

  7. The Transformation of Terrorism and New Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Cvrtila, Vlatko; Perešin, Anita

    2010-01-01

    In many states and their national security strategies, modern terrorism is marked as one of the main challenges. Aside from that, in many multilateral security documents terrorism is stated as one of the main challenges to global security. One can say that present-day terrorism in many aspects affects our security, as well as our general social and economic development. The understanding of this phenomenon, its development, its way of functioning, possible transformations an...

  8. A Law and Economics Perspective on Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Parisi; Jonathan Klick; Nuno Garoupa

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing law and economics literature on crime, noting where various models might apply to the terror context. Specifically, it focuses on two strands of the literature, deterrence and incapacitation. Challenging the conventional application of the basic rational agent model of crime in the context of terrorism, it considers anti-terror measures enacted by different countries, highlighting how the details of the laws correspond to the insights from economic models of cr...

  9. On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare…

  10. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions AGENCY: Departmental Offices. ACTION..., the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office is seeking comments regarding Litigation Management..., preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program, Public Comment Record,...

  11. The failure of international action against terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Progress on the so-called 'War on Terrorism' is slow. There is no agreed definition of terrorism and no consistent government policy in respect of it. Consideration of terrorism ignores the role of some governments in what could be regarded as terrorist activity, often with the connivance of others for reasons of political expediency. The special case of suicide terrorism is discussed in detail. It is concluded that the world is now exposed to a new form of warfare, and that even with new military thinking this could continue for perhaps decades to come. PMID:16594375

  12. Exploring Support for Terrorism Among Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Cherney

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine factors that influence support for terrorism, using the PEW 2010 Global Attitudes Survey. We assess aggregate results, drawing on items fielded to all Muslim respondents to identify broad factors that appear to indicate likely support for suicide terrorism. Results from a logistic regression model suggest that being female, having an educational degree, a commitment to certain Muslim beliefs and values, and being a member of the Shi’a minority might be probable indicators of support for terrorism. Some of the results were also counterintuitive. We consider the implications of our findings for understanding passive and active support for terrorism among Muslim communities.

  13. Terrorism and cabinet duration: An empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gassebner, Martin; Jong-A-Pin, Richard; Mierau, Jochen O.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the relationship between terrorism and cabinet duration. Our data set includes more than 2,400 cabinets in over 150 countries in the period 1968-2002. We find a small, but significant effect of terrorism on the probability of government failure. Furthermore, we find that the impact of terrorism depends on the type of attack and is larger in case of more severe attacks. Marginal effect calculations show that the impact of terror on cabinet duration is larger than the impact of econo...

  14. Rethinking the roots of terrorism: through the doors of perception

    OpenAIRE

    Franks, Jason

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the new terrorism debate and is intended to rethink the root causes of terrorism by examining alternative approaches, in part provided by conflict theory, to the predominant understanding of terrorism provided by what it identifies as orthodox terrorism theory. It presents a critical and discourse analysis approach to explaining and understanding the roots of terrorism and focuses initially on a description and explanation of the existence of orthodox terror...

  15. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  16. Democracy and Terrorism: What Roles for Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Beverly; Hickey, Suzanne; Khoury, Issam

    2008-01-01

    In the aftermath of September 11, 2001, the study of terrorism has become prominent as a function of the social sciences. The purpose of this article is to examine how terrorism studies relate to university engagement in an effort to reduce violence and terrorist acts across the globe. Illustrations will be explicated from the University of St…

  17. Mediating Trust in Terrorism Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    crisis. While the framework is presented in the context of television coverage of a terror-related crisis situation, it can equally be used in connection with all other forms of mediated trust. Key words: National crisis, risk communication, crisis management, television coverage, mediated trust.......Mass mediated risk communication can contribute to perceptions of threats and fear of “others” and/or to perceptions of trust in fellow citizens and society to overcome problems. This paper outlines a cross-disciplinary holistic framework for research in mediated trust building during an acute...

  18. International safeguards and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a critical review of the effectiveness of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards against potential acts of nuclear terrorism. The author argues that IAEA safeguards should be made applicable to deterring diversions of nuclear materials from civil to weapons purposes by subnational groups as well as by nations. Both technical and institutional factors are considered, and suggestions for organizational restructuring and further technical development are made. Awareness of the necessity for effective preventive measures is emphasized, and possible directions for further effort are suggested

  19. Radiological terrorism: public threat perception and implications for risk communication messaging for radiological emergency events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian public has had minimal exposure to domestic terrorism although the threat of terrorism is frequently reported in the media, and is in the public consciousness. There is limited information about how the public perceives the threat of terrorism and how individuals might respond to such events. Furthermore, public perceptions and likely response to the threats of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear terrorism (CBRN) are less well understood and little studied. Knowledge and perceptions are likely to drive behaviour, especially in unfamiliar and emergency situations involving high uncertainty, fear, and dread. Therefore, improving our understanding of how people view such risks to themselves, how they might understand and interpret information given to them, and how willing they might be to comply with emergency services personnel is fundamental for those involved in emergency management and response planning. This presentation will report on research into public threat perception, anticipated response, and interpretation of different risk communication messaging in the context of terrorism; specifically, explosive (E), chemical (C), biological (B) and radiological (R) forms of terrorism. Although the focus of the presentation will be on the data gathered in relation to radiological terrorism, data collected on explosive, chemical, and biological terrorism provide comparisons that highlight the ways in which the public views and may respond to radiological events differently. Data were collected from a random sample of the New South Wales general population, using telephone interviewing. Data were collected between December 2010 and February 2011 (n=2800). The survey interview followed a common structure, but was divided into four streams for the different forms of terrorism (E, C, B, and R), with 700 respondents allocated to each stream. The interview included presentation of three plausible messaging scenarios; a calming/reassuring message

  20. A social-cognitive perspective of terrorism risk perception and individual response in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer E C; Lemyre, Louise

    2009-09-01

    The volume of research on terrorism has increased since the events of September 11, 2001. However, efforts to develop a contextualized model incorporating cognitive, social-contextual, and affective factors as predictors of individual responses to this threat have been limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate a series of hypotheses drawn from such a model that was generated from a series of interviews with members of the Canadian public. Data of a national survey on perceived chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives (CBRNE) terrorism threat and preparedness were analyzed. Results demonstrated that worry and behavioral responses to terrorism, such as individual preparedness, information seeking, and avoidance behaviors, were each a function of cognitive and social-contextual factors. As an affective response, worry about terrorism independently contributed to the prediction of behavioral responses above and beyond cognitive and social-contextual factors, and partially mediated the relationships of some of these factors with behavioral responses. Perceived coping efficacy emerged as the cognitive factor associated with the most favorable response to terrorism. Hence, findings highlight the importance of fostering a sense of coping efficacy to the effectiveness of strategies aimed at improving individual preparedness for terrorism. PMID:19650811

  1. Deterring and Dissuading Nuclear Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Klein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While nuclear deterrence theory may be well-suited to dealing with nuclear-armed states, its suitability for deterring nuclear terrorism has frequently been questioned since 9/11. While terrorist organizations do not necessarily act uniformly or according to the same underlying beliefs, many of the most aggressive organizations are motivated by an ideology that embraces martyrdom and an apocalyptic vision.1 This ideology may be based on religion or a desire to overthrow a government. Consequently, terrorists motivated by ideology who intend to use a stolen or improvised nuclear device against the United States or its interests may not care about the resulting military repercussions following a nuclear attack. In such a scenario, some strategists think a terrorist organization's leadership may prove "undeterrable" by traditional military means. Nevertheless, deterrence is still a critical element in U.S. national strategy to prevent a nuclear attack. Furthermore, deterrence combined with dissuasion works to reduce the likelihood of nuclear terrorism being used against the United States, while also mitigating the consequences should such an act actually occur.

  2. 75 FR 58468 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Program Loss Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Program Loss Reporting AGENCY: Departmental Offices, Terrorism Risk...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office is seeking comments regarding... or by mail (if hard copy, preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance...

  3. 31 CFR 596.310 - Terrorism List Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terrorism List Government. 596.310... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.310 Terrorism List Government. The term Terrorism List...

  4. The enigma of lone wolf terrorism: an assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Spaaij

    2010-01-01

    Lone wolf terrorism remains an ambiguous and enigmatic phenomenon. The boundaries of lone wolf terrorism are fuzzy and arbitrary. This article aims to define and analyze the main features and patterns of lone wolf terrorism in fifteen countries. Lone wolf terrorism is shown to be more prevalent in t

  5. Terrorism and global security: The nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the seven years since this book was first published, the threat of nuclear terrorism has increased dramatically. The enormous destructive potential of nuclear technology inevitably raises the specter of the use of nuclear explosives or radioactivity by insurgent groups. The author explores the political bases of terrorism by considering the factors that might foster nuclear terrorism, the forms it could take, and the probable consequences of such acts. New to this edition is the author's examination of the essential distinctions between lawful insurgencies and terrorism, as well as his analysis of the impact of recent U.S. foreign policy. The author explores the United State's all-consuming rivalry with the Soviet Union, arguing that it has created an atmosphere ripe for anti-U.S. terrorism and that the only viable option for the super-powers is cooperation in an effort to control terrorist activities. He also discusses the ''Reagan doctrine,'' which he believes has increased the long-term threat of nuclear terrorism against the U.S. by its continuing support of authoritarian regimes and by its active opposition to Marxist regimes such as those in Nicaragua and Angola. The book concludes by presenting the first coherent strategy for countering nuclear terrorism-embracing both technological and behavioral measures. The proposal includes policies for deterrence and situation management on national and international scales and emphasizes the logic of a major reshaping of world order

  6. The Impact of Terrorism on Foreign Direct Investment in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper assessed the relationship between terrorism and foreign direct investment in Kenya. Secondary data on the Terrorism attacks and FDI from 2010 to 2012 was used for the study. Multiple regression model was used to test of the relationship between the study variables. By applying the model, the study found that terrorism negatively affects FDI in Kenya. It was concluded that Terrorism activities negatively affect the FDI in Kenya. Terrorism activities decrease the foreign investor con...

  7. INCREASED ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING BANKING REGULATIONS AND TERRORISM PROSECUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Albert L.

    2013-01-01

    CHDS State/Local After 9/11, anti-money laundering banking regulations were increased to counter terrorism finance. This study attempts to identify whether increasing banking regulations has countered terrorism finance by reviewing terrorism prosecutions. This study looked at federal terrorism prosecutions from January 2004 through April 2009. The study reviewed court documents and case backgrounds for indicators that anti-money laundering banking regulations were useful to the terrorism p...

  8. A history of terrorism in the age of freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Erlenbusch, Verena

    2012-01-01

    This thesis constitutes a critical intervention in contemporary research on terrorism. It seeks to address the problems resulting from a reductive understanding of terrorism and from a predominant concern with terrorism after 9/11. For this purpose, this thesis charts and critically engages certain watershed moments in the history of terrorism since its emergence in the French Revolution. The aim is to show that terrorism is not a historically constant and readily identifiable form of violenc...

  9. Economic Conditions and the Quality of Suicide Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Benmelech, Efraim; Berrebi, Claude; Klor, Esteban F.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the link between economic conditions and the quality of suicide terrorism. While the existing empirical literature shows that poverty and economic conditions are not correlated with the quantity of terror, theory predicts that poverty and poor economic conditions may affect the quality of terror. Poor economic conditions may lead more able, better-educated individuals to participate in terror attacks, allowing terror organizations to send better-qualified terrorists to more complex...

  10. Terrorism and the state : intra-state dynamics and the response to non-state terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    McConaghy, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been a wealth of academic literature which has examined counter-terrorism, both in the general sense and in case study focused approaches, there has seldom been an engagement in terrorism studies literature on the nature of the state itself and how this impacts upon the particular response to terrorism. Existing literature has a tendency to either examine one branch of the state or to treat (explicitly or implicitly) the state as a unitary actor. This thesis challenges t...

  11. International Terrorism, an Asymmetric Threat to Security. Case Study: State Sponsored Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Dana DUMITRU

    2008-01-01

    Terrorism has evolved with the international political scene and is permanently adapting quickly becoming the greatest threat to international security. Terrorist groups began by acting locally and using terrorism as a method of resolving internal disputes, later becoming a global phenomenon and an asymmetrical threat to security. The danger of terrorist threats has increased due to the economic interdependence caused by globalisation. Terrorism has become a new way of conducting war. The new...

  12. Terrorism, Forgiveness and Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Pemberton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly public nature of terrorism, in which the attack on the direct victims is intended to influence a (far larger group of so-called vicarious victims. This means that the public is likely to experience terrorist attacks as attacks on themselves. As a consequence the public can feel entitled to processes of forgiveness which in turn can conflict with the direct victims’ own experience. To illuminate this issue the paper proposes a novel distinction in third party forgiveness processes: between public forgiveness, i.e. forgiveness relating to the public wrongfulness inherent in crime, and vicarious forgiveness, i.e. the public’s experience of forgiveness itself. The complexities for restorative justice after terrorism can be then be viewed in terms of the tensions between the direct victims’ private and the publics’ vicarious forgiveness processes. Este artículo pretende facilitar la comprensión de las complejidades de la justicia restaurativa en casos de terrorismo desde una perspectiva victimológica. Lo hace primero mediante el análisis de lo que separa el terrorismo de otras formas de delincuencia. El autor sostiene que la distinción principal se refiere a la naturaleza pública específica del terrorismo, ya que mediante el ataque a las víctimas directas se pretende influir en el grupo (mucho más grande de las llamadas víctimas vicarias. Esto significa que es probable que el público sienta los ataques terroristas como ataques contra ellos mismos. De esta forma, el público puede sentirse con derecho sobre los procesos de perdón, lo que, a su vez, puede entrar en conflicto con la propia experiencia de las víctimas directas. Para iluminar

  13. A Literature Scanning on the Terror Typologies

    OpenAIRE

    Çapcıoğlu, İhsan

    2004-01-01

    The literature on religion and violence, or terror was already substantial before the September 11 attacks, and it has swelled at an increased pace since then. I have not seen abundant evidence, however, that the serious reflections on violence expressed in these books has made a noticeable impact on the shape of higher education, on news media reporting, or on the thinking of government officials around the world. This bibliography provides information sources about terrorism, terrorist grou...

  14. Does economic growth cause terrorism in Pakistan?

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Shahbaz; Muhammad, Nasir Malik; Muhammad, Shahbaz Shabbir

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between terrorism and economic growth for Pakistan by incorporating capital and trade openness. We used the data from 1971-2010 and have applied ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration to examine the long run relationship between the variables. The VECM Granger causality approach is used to detect the direction of causality between terrorism and economic growth. Our empirical results confirm the existence of long run relationship between economic...

  15. International terrorism as a trade impediment?

    OpenAIRE

    Gassebner, Martin; Egger, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Earlier work established the notion that international terrorism harms international trade. This evidence was based on annual data with responses in the same year as attacks and incidents and on empirical models which ignored general equilibrium effects. We provide evidence that, if at all, international terrorism displays effects on bilateral and multilateral trade only in the medium run (more than one-and-a-half years after an attack/incident). The findings in this paper suggest that the pu...

  16. Terrorism Shocks and Stock Market Reaction Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Kallandranis, Christos; Drakos, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    In this Policy Briefing, we discuss two important questions: (i) whether and how terrorism shocks are transmitted across international stock markets, (ii) what is the role of behavioral factors in explaining these stock market reactions. According to our findings terrorism shocks are indeed diffused cross-nationally in a non-uniform manner. Economic channels such as the degree of a country's integration with the world market, its liquidity and its ties to the zeroground country are found to p...

  17. TERRORISM AND ITS IMPACT ON INDIA'S SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism threatens the national security of the nation. India is the largest democracy in the world and has been attacked primarily by perpetrators who disagree with India's fundamental stances and policies. These perpetrators are not exclusive to Islamic extremism or Pakistan. The primary regions affected by terrorism within India are: Jammu & Kashmir, Eastern Indian seven sister states, Central India, Mumbai and Delhi, with many other cities affected at some point in the la...

  18. Does Income Inequality Lead to Terrorism?

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger, Tim; Meierrieks, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the effect of income inequality on terrorism for a sample of 114 countries between 1985 and 2012. We provide evidence, robust to various methodological changes (e.g., different dependent variables, instrumental-variable approaches), that higher levels of income inequality are associated with more terrorism. Consistent with relative deprivation theory, we argue that this effect is a direct consequence of frustration over the distribution of income within a society, resulting in terr...

  19. Suicide Terrorism and the Weakest Link

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel G. Arce; Kovenock, Dan; Roberson, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine a model of terrorism which focuses on the tradeoffs facing a terrorist organization that has the ability to utilize either or both suicide and conventional terrorism tactics. The terrorist organization's objective is to successfully attack at least one target. Success for the target government is defined as defending all targets from any and all attacks. In this context, we examine how terrorist entities strategically utilize suicide attacks when other modes of attack...

  20. Protection of Human Rights in Countering Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Nie

    2009-01-01

    Although the violent action occurred increasingly in the world, the definition of terrorism has not come into consensus yet. In countering terrorism, human right protection for the terrorist suspects should also be guaranteed, for the “fair” trial and the minimum procedural guarantees are the basic element of the rule of law. Moreover, the terrorist suspects should be protected by the minimum standard of the fair trial even if before the military commission. Because the minimum due process gu...

  1. A methodology for modeling regional terrorism risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Abkowitz, Mark D

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, terrorism risk has become a prominent consideration in protecting the well-being of individuals and organizations. More recently, there has been interest in not only quantifying terrorism risk, but also placing it in the context of an all-hazards environment in which consideration is given to accidents and natural hazards, as well as intentional acts. This article discusses the development of a regional terrorism risk assessment model designed for this purpose. The approach taken is to model terrorism risk as a dependent variable, expressed in expected annual monetary terms, as a function of attributes of population concentration and critical infrastructure. This allows for an assessment of regional terrorism risk in and of itself, as well as in relation to man-made accident and natural hazard risks, so that mitigation resources can be allocated in an effective manner. The adopted methodology incorporates elements of two terrorism risk modeling approaches (event-based models and risk indicators), producing results that can be utilized at various jurisdictional levels. The validity, strengths, and limitations of the model are discussed in the context of a case study application within the United States. PMID:21232062

  2. Preventing nuclear terrorism: responses to terrorist grievances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US is vulnerable to nuclear terrorism, despite the presence of physical security and other measures. Although these measures are important, they are insufficient to prevent or deter terrorism. What, then, is the answer? The author feels it lies in a hitherto neglected dimension of terrorism: its underlying political grievances. The principal grievance that potential terrorists have against the US concerns misguided elements of US foreign policy. These elements are moving the US on a seemingly inexorable collision course with terrorism and, more than likely, with nuclear terrorism. The US represents a serious threat to many people and groups who feel directly the effects of a foreign policy mired in strident anti-Sovietism: opponents of the US-NATO Euromissile deployments, populations seeking to secure their human rights from repressive regimes supported by the US, and governments seeking self-determination but embattled by insurgents backed by US arms, equipment, and advisers. In many cases, the US foreign policy stance in one country has aroused suspicion and anger within the region as a whole. The collision course need not be inevitable. The US can take a number of steps in the political arena that would greatly reduce the threat of nuclear terrorism

  3. Terrorism in Pakistan: a behavioral sciences perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Rana, Mowadat Hussain; Hassan, Tariq Mahmood; Minhas, Fareed Aslam

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral science perspectives of terrorism in Pakistan. It can be argued that Pakistan has gained worldwide attention for "terrorism" and its role in the "war against terrorism". The region is well placed geopolitically for economic successes but has been plagued by terrorism in various shapes and forms. A behavioral sciences perspective of terrorism is an attempt to explain it in this part of the world as a complex interplay of historical, geopolitical, anthropological and psychosocial factors and forces. Drawing from theories by Western scholars to explain the behavioral and cognitive underpinnings of a terrorist mind, the authors highlight the peculiarities of similar operatives at individual and group levels. Thorny issues related to the ethical and human right dimensions of the topic are visited from the unique perspective of a society challenged by schisms and divergence of opinions at individual, family, and community levels. The authors have attempted to minimize the political descriptions, although this cannot be avoided entirely, because of the nature of terrorism. PMID:24777397

  4. Potential for nuclear terrorism: a discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because there has never been an incident of nuclear terrorism, the author is reduced to informed speculation. The past cannot be used to extrapolate into the future. For terrorists as for nations, the domain of nuclear attack represents are unprecedented quantum leap, one that groups think carefully about. Terrorists will consider many factors, including the public climate, because they are not psychotics operating in a vacuum (though groups may include psychotic individuals). Rather, they are people involved in a reciprocal political and psychological relationship with the rest of the world. In reaching some assessment of the potential for nuclear terrorism, there is an immense number of variables to deal with, beginning with the many types of terrorists and terrorism, including nuclear. They can, however, look at individual terrorist groups - a their compositions, capabilities, motivations, and modus operandi - and reach some conclusions. The author first looks at the possible forms nuclear terrorism might take and at the severity of the consequences. A strict distinction must be made between nuclear terrorism where nuclear things are the means (for example, a nuclear device) and nuclear terrorism where nuclear things are the target (for example, nuclear power stations), or where they are both such as a nuclear weapon thrown at a nuclear power station. 2 tables

  5. Terrorism and counter-terrorism: a choice between two evils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Leman-Langlois

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les recherches de Jean-Paul Brodeur sur le terrorisme ont porté sur deux aspects de la question, également importants et indissociables. Le premier est celui du fonctionnement, des objectifs et des méthodes des groupes qu’on nomme « terroristes », tout en considérant les résultats réels obtenus. Le second est celui de la régulation, de l’organisation, du financement et des conséquences des stratégies, organismes et programmes mis sur pied ou modifiés afin de leur faire face. Plus d’une décennie après le 11 septembre 2001, il semble bien que les plus graves dangers auxquels font face les Canadiens, comme la plupart des Occidentaux, proviennent du second aspect.Jean-Paul Brodeur’s research on terrorism spanned two distinct, yet inseparable aspects of the matter. The first concerns the inner workings, the objectives, and the methods of groups identified as “terrorist,” which of course must be measured against the actual results produced. The second includes the regulation, the organization, the funding and the consequences of the strategies, organizations and programs created or modified in order to face the apprehended terrorist threat. A decade after 9/11, one must conclude that the latter has produced more, and altogether greater, dangers for Canadians and Westerners in general.

  6. Cultures of Violence and Acts of Terror: Applying a Legitimation-Habituation Model to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Christopher W.; Young, Joseph K.

    2012-01-01

    Although uniquely positioned to provide insight into the nature and dynamics of terrorism, overall the field of criminology has seen few empirically focused analyses of this form of political violence. This article seeks to add to the understanding of terror through an exploration of how general levels of violence within a given society influence…

  7. The normalisation of terror: the response of Israel's stock market to long periods of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi; Regens, James L; Gunter, James T; Jaffe, Dena H

    2011-01-01

    Man-made disasters such as acts of terrorism may affect a society's resiliency and sensitivity to prolonged physical and psychological stress. The Israeli Tel Aviv stock market TA-100 Index was used as an indicator of reactivity to suicide terror bombings. After accounting for factors such as world market changes and attack severity and intensity, the analysis reveals that although Israel's financial base remained sensitive to each act of terror across the entire period of the Second Intifada (2000-06), sustained psychological resilience was indicated with no apparent overall market shift. In other words, we saw a 'normalisation of terror' following an extended period of continued suicide bombings. The results suggest that investors responded to less transitory global market forces, indicating sustained resilience and long-term market confidence. Future studies directly measuring investor expectations and reactions to man-made disasters, such as terrorism, are warranted. PMID:20735455

  8. Civil liberties and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of preventing nuclear terrorism is so great that it is easy to believe that the usual concern with civil liberties must take a back seat. But it is precisely when emergencies are invoked that the authors must not forget the importance of freedoms. Emergency powers are easily abused, and, even in the absence of abuse, mistakes can be made. It is hard to understand why they care about civil liberties if every suspect is guilty, every wiretap is necessary, and every search is justified. But sometimes suspects are innocent, wiretaps are used for political ends, and searches disrupt lives to no end. Civil liberties do not exist in a vacuum. If society is destroyed, civil liberties are likely to be destroyed as well. Virtually every legal doctrine this study addresses involves a recognition that individual rights must be balanced against valid social needs. The civil liberties focus on here fall under the general headings of freedom of speech and association, privacy, due process rights for suspects, and freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. One essential point applied to all these areas: although a counterterrorist activity is legal, that does not mean the activity has no impact on civil liberties. It may be legal, for example, to have a massive federal police force that provides hundreds of guards for every shipment of plutonium. Even so, that procedure still raises civil liberties concerns, since many Americans would feel less free in a society of that type

  9. Global Risk of Nuclear Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Diez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of nuclear terrorism, a threat that President Obama called "the gravest danger we face," has signaled a paradigm shift in international security. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, sensitive nuclear technologies and materials have become increasingly available. Globalization and the inadequate enforcement of treaties and export controls have allowed the proliferation of nuclear weapons materials. Today, international terrorist organizations seek to employ weapons of mass destruction (WMD as a means to influence national policies around the world. AlQaida spokesman Suleiman Abu Gheith declared that in order to balance the injustices that have been inflicted on the Muslim population worldwide, al-Qaida's new objective is "to kill 4 million Americans–2 million of them children." As political scientist Graham Allison notes, this could be achieved with either 1,334 attacks similar in magnitude to those of 9/11, or one nuclear bomb.Building a nuclear program is an arduous task that requires tacit knowledge, the recruitment of nuclear scientists, engineers, and machinists, and the resources and time to obtain nuclear materials and components. While it is unlikely that terrorist organizations have the capacity to develop full-fledged programs in the near term, terrorist development and acquisition of nuclear weapons remains a long-term threat that requires international action.

  10. 77 FR 74678 - Chemical Security Assessment Tool (CSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Collection Request should be forwarded to DHS/NPPD/IP/ISCD Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Program... to the DHS/NPPD/IP/ISCD Chemical Facility Anti- Terrorism Standards Program Manager at the Department... Security Appropriations Act of 2007 requires a risk-based approach to security. The Chemical Facility...

  11. The universal legal framework against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the events of September 11, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1373 (2001) which has been called the 'Counter-Terrorism Code' of the world, because it creates legal obligations for all 192 Member States of the United Nations. UN Security Council Resolutions 1373 (2001), 1540 (2004) and 1735 (2006) as well as a defined set of 13 global treaties constitute the universal legal framework against terrorism which must be implemented in a manner consistent with international human rights obligations. Basically, these 13 treaties as well as Resolution 1373 are international criminal law instruments. Within this universal legal framework, the framework against nuclear terrorism is constituted by Resolution 1540, the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) which entered into force in 1987, and the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings which is in force since 2001. These three legal instruments will be supplemented by the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, an amendment to the CPPNM and two Protocols amending the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation and the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf, once these instruments, all of which were adopted in 2005, enter into force. The Terrorism Prevention Branch (TPB) of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) assists countries which are in need of legislative assistance for the drafting of appropriate counter-terrorism laws that duly take into account the obligations contained in Resolution 1373, the United Nations sanctions against Al-Qaida and the Taliban as well as in the 13 universal conventions for the prevention and the suppression of terrorism, including the CPPNM and the new International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. UNODC/TPB has also

  12. Preventing nuclear terrorism: Towards an integrative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, the threat of nuclear terrorism is at the centre of the United States' and the international security agenda. It was not always so. Only after the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks and subsequent attacks around the world has the international community mobilized to confront the spectre of terrorists armed with weapons of mass destruction (WMD). We can all take pride in the important work and steps taken to address nuclear terrorism in the four years since 11 September 2001. Progress is under way to improve the security of nuclear and radioactive material, to update antiterror norms and controls over nuclear technologies, and to heighten awareness of the dangers arising from nuclear terrorism, thanks in part to conferences like this. As impressive as these gains may be, far more remains to be done to keep nuclear and radiological weapons out of the hands of terrorists and the States that sponsor them. A useful step forward would be to move towards an integrated strategy that joins more conventional antinuclear-terror activities (i.e. securing nuclear and radioactive assets against theft and sabotage) with efforts to strengthen the core of the non-proliferation regime (i.e. safeguards, physical protection, export controls and strengthened treaty regimes) to prevent terrorist acquisition or brokering of WMD technologies. Prevention of nuclear terrorism and traditional non-proliferation programmes form two halves of the same walnut; we cannot treat them as separate enterprises

  13. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF TERRORISM (WITH A REFERENCE TO THE OSCE)

    OpenAIRE

    Linotte, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This note addresses terrorism with a focus on selected economic and policy issues, including the actual role of the OSCE in the fight against terrorism. Considering the vast amount of literature on terrorism published after “9/11,” a selection of topics and reference material had to be made, partly relying on personal preferences and perception of the phenomenon. However, we believe that the selected issues are relevant for addressing terrorism from the standpoint of economic policy at least....

  14. On the Determinants of Terrorism Risk Concern in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Drakos, Konstantinos; Müller, Cathérine

    2010-01-01

    We investigate whether differences in terrorism risk are mirrored on terrorism risk concern across European countries for the period 2003-2007. We find that the average propensity for terrorism risk concern is indeed affected by actual risk levels. Furthermore, country and individual heterogeneity contribute substantially to the variation of observed risk concern. According to our findings, males, singles and individuals with white collar jobs are less likely to mention terrorism as one of th...

  15. The Economic Consequences of Terror: A Brief Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Tilman Brück; Bengt-Arne Wickström

    2004-01-01

    This brief survey reviews the economic consequences of terrorism. It is argued that the indirect effects of terrorism are likely to outweigh the direct effects. The former include changes in risk, transaction costs, demand, public finances and growth. We also address the nature of anti-terrorist policy and of policies reducing the negative impact of terrorism. The former can change the incentives for terrorists to break with social conventions or maximize the costs of conducting terrorism. Th...

  16. The Impact of Terrorism Across Industries: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Berrebi, Claude; Klor, Esteban F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses scoring matching techniques and event study analysis to elucidate the impact of terrorism across different economic sectors. Using the Israeli-Palestinian conflict as a case study, we differentiate between Israeli companies that belong to the defence, security or anti-terrorism related industries and other companies. The findings show that whereas terrorism has a significant negative impact on non defence-related companies, the overall effect of terrorism on defence and securi...

  17. Causal Linkages Between Domestic Terrorism and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Gries; Tim Krieger; Daniel Meierrieks

    2009-01-01

    We use the Hsiao-Granger method to test for growth-terrorism causality for seven Western European countries. In bivariate settings, the impact of economic performance on domestic terrorism is very strong. In trivariate settings, the impact of performance on terrorism diminishes. Here, we find that economic performance leads terrorist violence in robust ways only for three out of seven countries. Terrorism is almost never found to causally influence growth in bivariate and trivariate specifica...

  18. Terrorism - what is it and can it be morally justified?

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This thesis addresses the issue of terrorism from a philosophical point of view. I focus on two questions: How should terrorism be defined? - and can it ever be morally justified? Following Grotius’ methodology on war, I interpret these questions separately, meaning that I consider that the question of what terrorism is should be treated a descriptive one, while the question of whether it can be morally justified remains a normative one. Accordingly, I begin by examining what terrorism is. Th...

  19. An attempt to evaluate the risks associated with radiological terror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of the risk of a terrorist attack has been made frequently by multiplying the probability of occurrence of a terrorist attempt by the probability of its success and a quantity which represents the consequences of a successful attack. In the case of a radiological attack the consequences will vary in case the action will be active or passive. Thirteen radionuclides were examined for their potential uses in credible threats or terrorist attacks based on their availability from laboratories and hospitals. Taking into account the dose conversion coefficients published by the International Atomic Energy Agency, those radionuclides with higher dose effectiveness for ingestion are the following: 210Po; 226Ra and 241Am. Other radionuclides which can be used in threats and terror attacks, like 137Cs for example have also been examined. The risks associated with the selected radionuclides have been tentatively ranked as high, medium, or low. The probability used to evaluate risks depends on the motivation of the terrorist and the capacity, which implies availability or the actual possibility of obtaining a particular radionuclide. On the other hand, whenever a list of radionuclides to be used in a malevolent action is available to a terrorist, the choice of the most adequate will depend also on the action to be undertaken. This work ranks risks associated with radiological terror based on physical, chemical, radio-toxicological and other relevant data on radionuclides, which were either already used in terror attacks, or were pointed out as adequate to be used in such malevolent actions. (author)

  20. On immorality of terrorism and war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičovački Predrag

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The author first analyzes differences and similarities between war and terrorism and then argues that both are deeply immoral. Their differences are far less significant that their similarities, the main one of which consists in the denial of the view that every human life is equally worthy. This denial opens a way for an inhuman and violent treatment of those (enemies, others who are not as valuable as we are, which characterizes both terrorism and war. Besides having such unacceptable moral implications with regards to the treatment of other human beings, a further common and troubling implication of terrorism and war consists in the fact that dehumanization of others leads also to a dehumanization of ourselves. .

  1. Optimal Physical Protection against Nuclear Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Doyoung; Kim, ChangLak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    There is no attempt with nuclear weapons to attack any places for terror or military victory since the atomic bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. People have obviously experienced horrible destructive power of nuclear weapons and continuously remembered a terrible tragedy, lots of organizations and experts express their concerns about the nuclear terrorism and try to interchange opinions for prevention of deadly weapons. The purpose of this paper is to provide the information of nuclear terrorism and what the potential risk of Republic of Korea is and how to do the efficient physical protection. Terror is from the old French terreur, which is derived from Latin verb terror meaning 'great fear'. This is a policy to suppress political opponents through using violence and repression. Many scholars have been proposed, there is no consensus definition of the term 'terrorism.' In 1988, a proposed academic consensus definition: 'Terrorism is an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, whereby - in contrast to assassination - the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators. These attacks showed that particular terrorists groups sought to cause heavy casualties and extreme terrorists were spontaneously prepared to make sacrifices for completion of that ultimate goal. Creation of nuclear weapons was like opening Pandora's box. Barack Obama has called nuclear terrorism 'the greatest danger we face'. Nuclear terror is one of the lethal risks. Using nuclear weapons or materials from terrorist groups is a fatal catastrophe to a targeting state though there is no accident similar like that. South

  2. Terrorism and Other Threats to Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2014-07-01

    In the Seminars on Planetary Emergencies, we have for more than a decade had a strong focus on terrorism, and, indeed, on megaterrorism. We realized early that there was much that could be achieved to mitigate the consequences of terrorists' acts, and so our original PMP, ably chaired by Kamal, was split into PMP-MTA (Mitigation of Terrorists Acts) and PMP-Motivation of Terrorism. Clearly, terrorism doesn't just happen, but is performed by people, either relatively spontaneously or in an organized fashion. I will not presume to report on the considerations and accomplishments of our colleagues, chaired by John Alderdice, who have studied terrorist motivations and worked hard to eliminate such motivations...

  3. Optimal Physical Protection against Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no attempt with nuclear weapons to attack any places for terror or military victory since the atomic bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. People have obviously experienced horrible destructive power of nuclear weapons and continuously remembered a terrible tragedy, lots of organizations and experts express their concerns about the nuclear terrorism and try to interchange opinions for prevention of deadly weapons. The purpose of this paper is to provide the information of nuclear terrorism and what the potential risk of Republic of Korea is and how to do the efficient physical protection. Terror is from the old French terreur, which is derived from Latin verb terror meaning 'great fear'. This is a policy to suppress political opponents through using violence and repression. Many scholars have been proposed, there is no consensus definition of the term 'terrorism.' In 1988, a proposed academic consensus definition: 'Terrorism is an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, whereby - in contrast to assassination - the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators. These attacks showed that particular terrorists groups sought to cause heavy casualties and extreme terrorists were spontaneously prepared to make sacrifices for completion of that ultimate goal. Creation of nuclear weapons was like opening Pandora's box. Barack Obama has called nuclear terrorism 'the greatest danger we face'. Nuclear terror is one of the lethal risks. Using nuclear weapons or materials from terrorist groups is a fatal catastrophe to a targeting state though there is no accident similar like that. South

  4. TOURISM AND TERRORISM: A WORLDWIDE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena ALBU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We live in a society marked by major changes in the tourism field. Tourist destinations make all possible efforts to best promote their tourist offer and attract as different tourist categories as there might be. However, these tourist destinations are sometimes associated with terrorist attacks that can turn a famous tourist area into a highly avoided one. Terrorism may be permanently detrimental to a tourist destination on both social and economic levels. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the impact that terrorist attacks have on tourism around the globe. The research method used for the achievement of this article is documentary research. Through the proportions and forms that it has taken, terrorism has become one of the more and more active and threatening calamities that affect the international community. For some organizations, terrorism has become a means of solving their political, cultural and religious problems, taking tourism as a niche through which they can carry out their targets.

  5. Terrorism Event Classification Using Fuzzy Inference Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Inyaem, Uraiwan; Meesad, Phayung; Tran, Dat

    2010-01-01

    Terrorism has led to many problems in Thai societies, not only property damage but also civilian casualties. Predicting terrorism activities in advance can help prepare and manage risk from sabotage by these activities. This paper proposes a framework focusing on event classification in terrorism domain using fuzzy inference systems (FISs). Each FIS is a decision-making model combining fuzzy logic and approximate reasoning. It is generated in five main parts: the input interface, the fuzzification interface, knowledge base unit, decision making unit and output defuzzification interface. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is a FIS model adapted by combining the fuzzy logic and neural network. The ANFIS utilizes automatic identification of fuzzy logic rules and adjustment of membership function (MF). Moreover, neural network can directly learn from data set to construct fuzzy logic rules and MF implemented in various applications. FIS settings are evaluated based on two comparisons. The first evaluat...

  6. Nuclear Law: A Key Against Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of the legal instruments in the war against nuclear terrorism. Control of radioactive sources. Elements of Nuclear Law: Definition: it is the body of special legislation that regulates the pacific uses of nuclear energy and the conduct of the persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials and ionizing radiation . Objective: to provide a legal framework in order to protect individuals , property and the environment against the harmful effects of the use of nuclear energy and ionising radiation. Principles of nuclear energy legislation: safety principle, exclusively operator responsibility, authorization, independence of the regulatory body, inspections and enforcement, nuclear damage compensation, international cooperation. National regulatory infrastructure. Establishment of special law in Emergency Preparedness for nuclear or radiological disaster. IAEA Conventions. Transportation of nuclear material. IAEA regulations on radioactive material. Compensation for nuclear damage. Nuclear safety, security and terrorism. International and domestic instruments. Anti terrorism acts. International agreements on Safety Cooperation. (Author)

  7. 15 CFR 742.9 - Anti-terrorism: Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Syria. 742.9 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.9 Anti-terrorism: Syria. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT Column 1 of the... required for export and reexport to Syria for anti-terrorism purposes. (2) The Secretary of State...

  8. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  9. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers...

  10. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  11. Turkish Elementary School Students' Perceptions of Local and Global Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricak, Tolga; Bekci, Banu; Siyahhan, Sinem; Martinez, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Historically, terrorism has occurred in various regions of the world and has been considered a local problem until the September, 11 terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001. After 9/11, terrorism has become a global concern. The definition of terrorism has changed from a violent act of a group of local people against their…

  12. A Study of Terrorism Emergency Preparedness Policies in School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoh, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The threat of terrorism is a concern in public facilities including schools. This study focused on school districts in a southwestern state. Terrorism emergency preparedness policies are well-documented as measures to protect students and staff in school districts from terrorism threats and vulnerabilities. However, those threats and…

  13. International Terrorism and Mental Health: Recent Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Ai, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    International terrorism has become a major global concern. Several studies conducted in North America and Europe in the aftermath of terrorist attacks reveal that international terrorism represents a significant short-term and long-term threat to mental health. In the present article, the authors clarify the concept and categories of terrorism and…

  14. 75 FR 45563 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Final Netting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... 31 CFR Part 50 RIN 1505-AC24 Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Final Netting AGENCY: Departmental... (``Treasury'') is issuing this proposed rule as part of its implementation of Title I of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (``TRIA'' or ``the Act''), as amended by the Terrorism Risk Insurance Extension Act...

  15. Hypnotic treatment of Sleep Terror Disorder: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koe, G G

    1989-07-01

    This case report describes the hypnotic treatment of Sleep Terror Disorder in a 16-year-old male who was resistant to other forms of treatment. In this patient, night terrors seemed to be precipitated by nocturnal noises wakening him from deep sleep. Posthypnotic suggestions reducing awareness of nocturnal sensory stimulation successfully eliminated his night terrors. PMID:2773819

  16. The Holy Land, Messiah and Terror

    OpenAIRE

    ADAM, Baki

    2004-01-01

    It can be easily seen, when glanced at history of Religion, that Judaism is the foremost religion owing the elemets of violence. This is because of some reasons. While one of them is the fact that Judaism emerged and developed within a milieu of violence, the other is that its war rules hold extreme violence which can be defined as terror. The war rules of Judaism, especially those concerning the Promised Holy Land have some points encouraging terror. Today the Jewishes making terrorist activ...

  17. The International Legal Framework against Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UNODC’s Assistance: UNODC/TPB offers assistance on the ratification and full implementation of the international legal instruments against nuclear terrorism through: – awareness-raising and capacity-building on the provisions of the instruments; – drafting and/or review of national legislation; – training of criminal justice and law enforcement officials on the effective implementation of the instruments (on investigation, prosecution and adjudication of relevant cases); and – enhancing international cooperation in criminal matters related to nuclear terrorism. UNODC/TPB works closely with relevant international and regional organizations and entities

  18. NATO AND TERRORISM Catastrophic Terrorism and First Responders: Threats and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausler, Friedrich; Edwards, Frances

    September 11, 2001 in the U.S., March 11, 2004 in Madrid -- just two examples of a series of major terror attacks against NATO member states on both sides of the Atlantic. We now know that international terrorism is capable of transboundary planning and military style execution of attacks, resulting in several thousand dead and wounded. In the future even larger terror attacks can no longer be ruled out, including the deployment of weapons of mass destruction. This new form of catastrophic terrorism poses a major challenge to the first responder community in their search and rescue operations, since these new threats represent an unprecedented risk for their health, possibly even questioning their own survival.

  19. Protection and emergency measures in the nuclear terrorism attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lot of people worry about that the terrorists will make nuclear terror to jeopardize people's wealthy and property to reach their terrorist goals for disturbing social system and beating economy by attacking nuclear facilities or dispersing radioactive materials after 9.11 incident. Many countries are taking active safety and security measures, reviewing and making emergency measures for anti-nuclear terror, and improving international cooperation to reduce the possibility of nuclear terrors. The possible way and aftereffect of nuclear terror made by dispersing radioactive material, avoiding nuclear material and radioactive material from stealing and buying non-legality, and providing emergency measures to deal with these nuclear terrors are introduced

  20. Forecasting Terrorism: The Need for a More Systematic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin Bakker

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes a unique branch of terrorism literature—terrorism futures—by academics, think tanks, and governmental agencies published between 2000 and 2012. To this end, it examines over sixty publications that attempt to discern possible futures of terrorism. In general, the track record of forecasting terrorism has not been good. This is particularly true for major changes in the modus operandi of terrorism, the attacks on 9/11 being a case in point. The analyses of the future of t...

  1. The Dilution of Terrorism - Internship report at the International Center for Terrorism Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bærentzen, Marc Theis

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this report will be how theory and methodology is a necessary mean for an academic understanding of terrorism, using different theories and examples to substantiate my argument. Terrorism has become a diluted concept that is used in a variety of ways to define violence against civilians. But is this enough to claim that we are dealing with a terrorist threat? In academic work these kind of reflections are important to the drawn conclusion. The problematic issue of an absent metho...

  2. Detecting Terrorism Incidence Type from News Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the experiments to detect terrorism incidence type from news summary data. We have applied classification techniques on news summary data to analyze the incidence and detect the type of incidence. A number of experiments are conducted using various classification algorithms and...

  3. The Nature Terrorism Reports on Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Okolie-Osemene

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As new tools of communication, an in-depth study of social networking in the era of global terrorism is attempted in this article. This emerging tradition of information sharing is driven by social media technology which has greatly revolutionalised communication in all sectors. The article explored the information sharing relevance of new technologies in the age of terrorism and counterterrorism. It focused on how social networks are increasingly utilised by different groups. In terms of methodology, the study extracted and utilised positive, negative and neutral posts, updates, tweets and reports on social networks through different individual and organisational media accounts and blogs, and analysed the data qualitatively. Findings show that despite being used by extremist groups in promoting their political agenda, social networks are also useful in promoting positive perceptions that society has about Muslims in the era of terrorism, emphasising that Muslims are not terrorists. Through the instrumentality of social media, users are able to map the trends of terrorism and responses from stakeholders in government and security sector in curbing the menace. Given their capacity to reach a wider audience, breaking cultural and religious barriers, social networks serve as early warning signs and make it possible for people to share new ideas on possible ways of curbing the proliferation of terrorist organisations.

  4. Terrorism and radiation protection; Terrorisme et radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenot, J.C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France)

    2006-05-15

    The consequences of a terrorism attack with radioactive matters should be treated as these ones of a nuclear accident. In terms of prevention, the Director of I.A.E.A. admitted in 2005 that the events of the 11. september 2001 had demonstrated that it was urgent to reinforce the control of radioactive nuclear matters in the world. (N.C.)

  5. Nazi terror system and its practical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar M. Mamadaliev

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article tells about reasons and consequences of Adolf Hitler’s terror. Special attention is attached to mechanism of Nazi dictatorship and its ideological bases, set in Hitler’s work ‘My Struggle’, the 25 Point Program.

  6. EU’s Role in Fighting Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Maftei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available International terrorism, a phenomenon with constant development, is today acertainty and has dramatically marked the beginning of this century and millennium. Thisproblem has reached a global dimension and it represents a concern to the entire internationalcommunity. Over the time, numerous international and regional regulations have been framed, inorder to prevent and combat terrorism. The European Union condemns terrorist acts andrecognizes the central role of the United Nations, in fighting against terrorism and promotingsecurity, as well as the contribution of the new NATO in what concerns the defense and securitypromotion. Europe has to act more firmly in order to consolidate the defense against terrorismand the European Union’s borders. At the same time, the European Union considers that only aconcerted and firm action from all the states and the major actors on the international scenewould lead to the identification of the solutions which can contribute to the efficient fight againstterrorism and, by these means, provide for the international peace and security. The proportion ofthe danger terrorism represents has turned the fight against this phenomenon in an internationalcommunity’s desideratum.

  7. Teaching about Terrorism: Lessons Learned at SWOTT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses some of the challenges and lessons for teaching undergraduate-level courses related to terrorism. The author outlines some of the primary issues that instructors can expect to face, and provides strategies for dealing with several of these challenges. The goal is to relay useful information to those teaching, or planning to…

  8. THREAT OF TERRORISM IN SOUTH ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Surander Singh

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism is an ambiguous concept and interoperated by the scholars as per the prevailing conditions. South Asia is one of the region which is facing this problem. Though it is an old concept but it took momentum after the 9/11 attack in US.

  9. IAEA Nuclear Security Programme Combating Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA Plans of activities include, General Conference in September 2001 which reviewed activities relevant to preventing nuclear terrorism and proposed master plan. The Board of Governors approved new Nuclear Security Plan for the next four years. Three activity areas are; - needs assessment, analysis and coordination, prevention and detection and response.

  10. International Terrorism and Global Response: An Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris. O Opukri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available International Terrorism as it appears is the scourge of all nations in the globe. There is no particular nation that is shielded from its effects either in terms of a germane threat or outright infliction of destruction. The responses from the said menace have led to what is currently termed as “the war on terror”, an approach that creates collateral damages of its own. This paper in the first instance, has examined the concept “war on terror” and its legal justifications and ramifications. While the military can engage in fighting wars, it is not quite correct to christen some conflicts as war on terror because we cannot conquer terror through war. War on terror can only lead to destruction of property and human suffering and cannot usher peace and stability. Finally, the authors are of the view that arbitrations, negotiations, diplomatic sanctions and economic embargo, could serve as a better option for peace and security than military expeditions. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  11. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the variables, with…

  12. Confronting the risks of terrorism: making the right decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report offers a methodology for assessing, quantitatively, the risks of terrorism. The purpose of the methodology is to support effective decision making to combat terrorism. The emphasis is on terrorist attacks that could have catastrophic consequences. The perspective taken is that in order to make the right decisions about combating terrorism, their needs to be a systematic means of assessing the likelihood of such attacks. A process of implementation of the decisions resulting from risk assessment is essential. That process includes (1) an understanding of the nature of the threat, (2) an information system linked directly to 'intelligence' on terrorism, and (3) organizational structures that can take timely, coordinated, and effective actions. There must also be sound evidence that the methodology can be successfully applied. A description of the nature of terrorism, a terrorism risk assessment methodology, information requirements to fight terrorism, and recommendations for successful implementation is what this report is about

  13. Terrorism Research Centres: 100 Institutes, Programs and Organisations in the Field of Terrorism, Counter-Terrorism, Radicalisation and Asymmetric Warfare Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Freedman

    2010-01-01

    Who is doing research – academic and otherwise – on terrorism? The field of terrorism research is broad and ever-expanding. Governments sponsor intelligence-driven analytical research agencies. Commercial intelligence firms like Jane’s, sell their research to corporate and governmental clients. There are think tanks likeRAND, which work closely with government agencies. An increasing number of universities house terrorism research centres, the oldest one being the Centre for...

  14. Applying science and technology to combat WMD terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuest, Craig R.; Werne, Roger W.; Colston, Billy W.; Hartmann-Siantar, Christine L.

    2006-05-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing and fielding advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE) weapons. The science, technology, and integrated systems we provide are informed by and developed with key partners and end users. LLNL's long-standing role as one of the two principle U.S. nuclear weapons design laboratories has led to significant resident expertise for health effects of exposure to radiation, radiation detection technologies, characterization of radioisotopes, and assessment and response capabilities for terrorist nuclear weapons use. This paper provides brief overviews of a number of technologies developed at LLNL that are being used to address national security needs to confront the growing threats of CBRNE terrorism.

  15. Applying Science and Technology to Combat WMD Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, C R; Werne, R W; Colston, B W; Hartmann-Siantar, C L

    2006-05-04

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing and fielding advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE) weapons. The science, technology, and integrated systems we provide are informed by and developed with key partners and end users. LLNL's long-standing role as one of the two principle U.S. nuclear weapons design laboratories has led to significant resident expertise for health effects of exposure to radiation, radiation detection technologies, characterization of radioisotopes, and assessment and response capabilities for terrorist nuclear weapons use. This paper provides brief overviews of a number of technologies developed at LLNL that are being used to address national security needs to confront the growing threats of CBRNE terrorism.

  16. European nuclear safeguards and terrorism: a personal perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis is divided into two parts that, in the authors view, deal with two fundamentally different types of terrorism: national and state sponsored. The information is drawn from his experience and recollections of data and events. In terms of potential access to nuclear and chemical materials, the most dangerous possibility is the state-sponsored terrorist group, and it poses a difficult situation. The sponsor state may or may not be a member of the NPT and may or may not have accepted IAEA safeguards. Even if it had accepted them, given the technical and political limitations on the agency's activities, it is almost impossible for the IAEA to guarantee that illegal transfers do not occur

  17. Applying Science and Technology to Combat WMD Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing and fielding advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE) weapons. The science, technology, and integrated systems we provide are informed by and developed with key partners and end users. LLNL's long-standing role as one of the two principle U.S. nuclear weapons design laboratories has led to significant resident expertise for health effects of exposure to radiation, radiation detection technologies, characterization of radioisotopes, and assessment and response capabilities for terrorist nuclear weapons use. This paper provides brief overviews of a number of technologies developed at LLNL that are being used to address national security needs to confront the growing threats of CBRNE terrorism

  18. Psychological consequences caused by nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The psychological consequences caused by eventual nuclear terrorist act are believed to be some of the most: serious. in this article are presented the issues concerning psychological effects as psychological suffering, alteration of risk estimation, changes of individual and social behavior, etc. The most common psychological consequences as a result of the most popular large-scale nuclear accidents in Chernobyl, TMI (USA), Goiania (Brazil) are described. Some of the main factors, such as sex, age, health status, social status and etc, are analyzed. These factors determine the expression of psychological reactions provoked by nuclear accidents or eventual act of nuclear terrorism. In addition, the main precautions to cope with psychological consequences caused by nuclear terrorism are listed

  19. Security Debates and Alliance against Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    ERDAĞ, Ramazan

    2010-01-01

    This article searches the answer that how security could be defined, what the new security studies are and what can be done against global terrorism and how can be assured peace and stability condition In this context, with new security disputes and perspectives it can be said that security is not an alone issue, it's a collective study and mostly claimed as dilemma. It also can be said that in the new era more international collaboration and alliance are need to supply internationa...

  20. Terrorism, ethnicity and Islamic extremism in Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sousa Galito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a threat in the Sahel region, where peoples and rulers seem to be losing control of the situation. Yet, the true origins of the instability are questionable. Ethnical conflicts and the religious differences, especially those related with the spreading of Islamic extremism among the local population, are two of the main reasons. This research paper analyzes different theories so as to attain some answers to these issues.

  1. Strategic alternative responses to risks of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Wm A; Haimes, Yacov Y; Longstaff, Thomas A

    2003-06-01

    The terrorist acts of September 11, 2001 were a wake-up call for changing our traditional response to risks of terrorism. Given that government and worldwide think-tank organizations maintain that risks of terrorism will continue for the indefinite future, the following questions deserve strategic answers. How long can we respond to terrorism with tactical measures only, sustain current curtailments of some of our freedoms, travel, and quality of life, and absorb losses in human life and properties? Should not underlying strategic motivation lead to the tactical measures? Why do so many groups and individuals in some developing countries hate us? Is it because they fear that the ideas we export through television, movies, literature, and music have a corrupting influence on their cultures? Is it because of past operations that we conducted in such countries as Iran, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Granada? Can the genesis of the risks of terrorism to the homeland be traced to the unfavorable socioeconomic conditions in less-privileged and developing countries, where civil and religious freedoms are close to nonexistent, and sanitary conditions, health and education, and critical infrastructures of essential utilities are almost at the same level that existed in the United States almost a century ago? If we could make progress at improving the quality of life of the billions of people in the developing countries and become more sensitive to their needs, cultures, and heritage, would their hatred subside? What other measures can we take to reduce their hatred, without compromising our basic cultural and democratic principles or their cultural and social heritage? PMID:12836837

  2. Terror? Tilkald pædagogikken!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Har vi at gøre med terror, radikalisering og voldelig ekstremisme, så tilkalder vi politiet. Men politiets metoder er ikke nok. Pædagogikken må i brug. Hvilken pædagogik? Diskontinuitetens pædagogik! Det er navnet på den type af pædagogik, der kan skabe modstandskraft mod radikalisering. Men har vi...

  3. Tackling Nuclear Terrorism in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Feroz Hassan; Burke, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Since India and Pakistan conducted their nuclear tests in 1998, every danger associated with nuclear weapons – proliferation, instability, and terrorism – has been linked to the region. And despite nuclear deterrence and the modernization of nuclear forces, South Asia is a far cry from achieving stability. Indeed, the security situation in South Asia has deteriorated and violent extremism has surged to unprecedentedly high levels. In the past decades, both states have ope...

  4. INTERPOL's surveillance network in curbing transnational terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Gardeazabal, Javier; Sandler, Todd

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role that INTERPOL surveillance – the Mobile INTERPOL Network Database (MIND) and the Fixed INTERPOL Network Database (FIND) – played in the War on Terror since its inception in 2005. MIND/FIND surveillance allows countries to screen people and documents systematically at border crossings against INTERPOL databases on terrorists, fugitives, and stolen and lost travel documents. Such documents have been used in the past by terrorists to transit borders. By applyi...

  5. The Global Terrorism Database: Accomplishments and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Gary LaFree

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides an update on the Global Terrorism Database (GTD), an open source event database that now includes information on over 82,000 domestic and international terrorist attacks since 1970. [1] GTD was launched by computerizing data originally collected by the Pinkerton Global Intelligence Service (PGIS).[2] Following computerization, the research team has continued working to update and validate the data. This paper describes original data collection efforts and the strategies emp...

  6. Terrorism and integration of Muslim immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Elsayed, A.E.A.; Grip, A. de

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect that a series of fundamentalist-Islamic terrorist attacks in Europe had on the attitudes of Muslim immigrants in the Netherlands towards integration. Shortly after the attacks, Muslim immigrants' perceived integration, as measured by various indicators, decreased significantly relative to that of non-Muslims immigrants whereas there is no evidence for the existence of a negative trend in the integration of Muslims prior to the terrorist attacks. We further show that terror...

  7. Law, Liberty, And The Pursuit Of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Roger

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly believed that a state facing a terrorist threat responds with severe legislation that compromises civil liberties in favour of national security. Roger Douglas compares responses to terrorism by five liberal democracies— the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand— over the past 15 years. He examines each nation’s development and implementation of counterterrorism law, specifically in the areas of information gathering, the definition of terrorist ...

  8. Does higher education decrease support for terrorism?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malečková, Jitka; Stanišić, Dragana

    Berlin/Boston : Walter de Gruyter GmbH, 2013 - (Böhmelt, T.; Sekeris, P.), s. 343-358 ISSN 1079-2457. - (Volume 19, Issue 3). [The 13th Jan Tinbergen European Peace Science Conference. Milan (IT), 24.06.2013-26.06.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/12/0510 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : international terrorism * public opinion * education Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  9. Legislating for Terrorism: The Philippines’ Human Security Act 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline E. Eadie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In February 2007 the Philippine Senate passed the Human Security Act (HSA otherwise known as Republic Act No. 9372: An Act to Secure the State and Protect our People From Terrorism. Philippine Senate Minority Leader Aquilino Q. Pimentel Jr. was heavily involved in the final drafting of the HSA. He gave it its final name shortly before the Senate Chamber passed it into law. Previously the Act had been known by various titles including ‘An Act to Deter and Punish Acts of Terrorism and for Other Purposes’ (Senate Bill No. 2137 and ‘An Act to Define and Punish the Crime of Terrorism, the Crime of Conspiracy to Commit Terrorism, and the Crime of Proposal to Commit Terrorism, and for Other Purposes (Senate Bill No. 2187. Thus the Human Security Act exists as an instrument of counter terrorism as opposed to human security policy.

  10. Terrorism as Genocide: Killing with “Intent”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlie Perry

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is plausible that terrorism can manifest itself as a form of genocide. Using Raphael Lemkin’s definition of genocide and the UN Genocide Convention’s definition of genocide, non-state and state terrorism are assessed as a form of genocide. Commonalities found in the definitions of both genocide and terrorism supports the argument. The psychology of terrorism and Lemkin’s psychology of genocide describe similar motivations of perpetrators. The September 11th attacks and the U.S. invasion of Iraq are used as case studies to illustrate that terrorism can result in genocide or genocidal acts. Framing acts of terrorism as genocide allows for prosecution in international courts and brings a new perspective to the concept of killing with intent.

  11. Responding to nuclear terrorism. Chapter 3. Combating radiological terrorism - A multi-faceted challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the twentieth century, radioactive sources have become extensively used in everyday life. These sources, in the hand of terror organizations, can become a threat to the security of civilized nations, causing severe disruption to normal life. On of the main challenges of the civilized world is to keep ahead of the terrorist organizations and take appropriate preventive measures in order to prevent and reduce to minimum the impact of their actions. In order to succeed, a joint and comprehensive effort has to be undertaken to address the scientific, technological, organizational, sociological, psychological and educational aspects of the radiological terrorism threat. In this paper, some of the main activities required for preventing radiological terror events, and the way in which a modular response plan can be prepared are discussed

  12. Terrorism from Above and Below in the Age of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Asafa Jalata

    2011-01-01

    This paper explains how the intensification of globalization as the modern world system has increased the occurrence of terrorism from above (i.e. state actors) and from below (i.e. non-state actors). We cannot adequately grasp the essence and characteristics of modern terrorism without understanding the larger cultural, social, economic, and political contexts in which it takes place. Since terrorism has been conceptualized, defined, and theorized by those who have contradictory interests an...

  13. Tourism and Terror: a Case Study: Israel 1948-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Erik H. Cohen

    2014-01-01

    Israel is a popular tourist destination which has by afflicted by varying levels of terrorism against civilians over the course of its history. A longitudinal analysis of data pertaining to tourism and terrorism is undertaken to examine how terrorism affects patterns of tourism. It is found that on the macro-level, tourism to Israel continues to grow although it experiences periodic declines corresponding with times of high terrorist activity. National and religious subpopulations of tourists...

  14. International trade, security, and transnational terrorism : theory and empirics

    OpenAIRE

    Mirza, Daniel; Verdier, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a general analytical framework to illustrate the complex two-way interactions between trade and transnational terrorism. We then survey the recent economic literature in light of this framework by pointing to the importance in empirical studies a) to control appropriately for these interactions, b) to distinguish between 'source' countries and 'target' countries of terrorism and c) to take into account the intertemporal persistence of terrorism between specific pairs o...

  15. On the origin of domestic and international terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Liebert, Helge; Schulze, Günther G.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of the origin of domestic and international terrorism in a large panel data set of 159 countries spanning from 1970 to 2007. We show that terror increases with GDP per capita, a higher POLITY score measuring a more open and competitive political system and experiences of domestic conflict, anarchy and regime transitions. Our evidence thus contradicts the notion that terrorism is rooted in economic deprivation or that strongly autocratic regimes breed more terrorist...

  16. International Trade, Security, and Transnational Terrorism : Theory and Empirics

    OpenAIRE

    Mirza, Daniel; Verdier, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    The authors offer a general analytical framework illustrating the complex two-way interactions between trade and transnational terrorism. Then they survey the recent economic literature in light of this framework by pointing to the importance in empirical studies of (1) controlling appropriately for theses interactions, (2) distinguishing between "source" countries and "target" countries of terrorism, and (3) taking into account the intertemporal persistence of terrorism between specific pair...

  17. Symbolic Violence as Subtle Virulence: The Philosophy of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Beever, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Jean Baudrillard’s semiotic analysis of violence leads us to understand the form of violence as three-fold: aggressive, historical, and semiotically virulent. Violence of the third form is the violence endemic to terrorism. If violence has been typically understood as of the first two types, terrorism should be understood as the virulence of simulacra. The conflation of these types of violence explains the failure of militaristic responses to terrorism. This paper will explore Baudrillard’s ...

  18. Estimation of Radiological Terrorism Risk by Administrative Districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the 9/11 attack in USA, the threat of terrorism across the world has dramatically increased. Accordingly, estimating terrorism risk has become an essential part of catastrophe risk strategies throughout the world. There are many forms of terrorism. Recently, the prospect of the radiological terrorist attack using the radioactive material is considered as one of the most serious threats. The aim of this paper is to assess the radiological terrorism risk by administrative districts based on the parameters that imply threat, vulnerability, and consequences of terrorist attacks

  19. Estimation of Radiological Terrorism Risk by Administrative Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ho Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Since the 9/11 attack in USA, the threat of terrorism across the world has dramatically increased. Accordingly, estimating terrorism risk has become an essential part of catastrophe risk strategies throughout the world. There are many forms of terrorism. Recently, the prospect of the radiological terrorist attack using the radioactive material is considered as one of the most serious threats. The aim of this paper is to assess the radiological terrorism risk by administrative districts based on the parameters that imply threat, vulnerability, and consequences of terrorist attacks.

  20. From Internationalization of Terrorism to the Internationalization of Anti-terrorism : The Role of the Summer Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Selliaas, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    The academic literature on international relations and international sports studies has long ignored the linkages between sports and international relations. The present contribution seeks to remedy this shortcoming in the literature on international relations and international sports studies, focusing on the relationship between terrorism, anti-terrorism and the Summer Olympic Games, and examining the role of terrorism and anticipated terrorist actions in the organization of t...

  1. Economics and Terrorism: What We Know, What We Should Know and the Data We Need

    OpenAIRE

    Llussá, Fernanda; Tavares, José

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we organize the literature on the economics of terrorism around seven different topics, offering a comprehensive view of the literature with a view to identifying questions that remain unanswered. The chosen topic areas are: The Measurement of Terrorist Activity, The Nature of Terrorists, The Utility Cost of Terrorism, The Impact of Terrorism on Aggregate Output, Terrorism and Specific Sectors of Activity, Terrorism and Economic Policy, and Counter-Terrorism. In a sense, we proc...

  2. 75 FR 42448 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response; Notice of Charter Amendment This gives notice... Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response, Department...

  3. The Role of Foreign Influences in Early Terrorism: Examples and Implications for Understanding Modern Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Lutz; Brenda J. Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Globalisation has been linked with outbreaks of political violence and terrorism in the modern world. An analysis of Judean revolts against Rome and the Seleucid Greeks, individual suicide attacks in South and Southeast Asia in the 17th century to the early 20th century, and the Boxer Rebellion in China suggest that the intrusion of foreign influences had similar effects in the past.

  4. FIGHTING OF WESTERN INTELLIGENCE WITH ISLAMIC TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadi NEJMAH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The state of Israel even prior to its establishment, faces, in daily life, terrorist organizations that want to destroy it. Terrorism and terrorist acts as implied from the original meaning of the word – fear, anxiety, terror, are meant to plant fear amongst the attacked public and bring about its demoralization and confusion, and disruption of routine life. Occasionally it is performed also as an act of revenge in a blood circle of violence. A substantial part of terrorism weapons is the extensive publicity its activity gains in public, through electronic and printed media. In terrorism, a blow to the “soft stomach” of the state (civilians is performed, with the purpose of causing the state to give in to the demands of terrorism operators. In the basis of terrorism is also an objection to the basis of legitimacy of the ruling government, in that it is not capable of guarantying the safety of its citizens and maintain public order. This article presents the attitudes and ways of operation of terrorist organizations and how Western intelligence attempts to thwart, foil and prevent these organizations from casing for destruction and victims in human lives and state.COMBATEREA TERORISMULUI ISLAMIC PRIN WESTERN INTELLIGENCE Chiar de la înfiinţare, statul Israel s-a confruntat, în viaţa de zi cu zi, cu organizaţiile teroriste, care urmăresc să-l distrugă. Actele de terorism, aşa cum reiese din sensul originar al cuvântului – frică, anxietate, teroare, sunt menite să implanteze frica în rândul populaţiei, s-o demoralizeze şi să perturbeze viaţa cotidiană. Uneori teroarea se dovedeşte a fi un act de răzbunare. Prin acte de terorism se dă o lovitură la „stomacul moale” al statului, adică civililor. Actele de terorism sunt comise, de asemenea, pentru a „demonstra” lipsa de legitimitate a statului, incapacitatea lui de a asigura securitatea cetăţenilor săi. În articol sunt specificate modalităţile de func

  5. Nuclear terrorism: How real is the threat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the end of the Cold War the threat of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction to non-state actors has increased and since non-territorial actors cannot be deterred as easily as states, new responses have to be found. The author offers a definition of nuclear terrorism which includes also attacks on, and sabotage of, nuclear reactors and the dispersal of radioactive waste, in addition to the possession or use of weapon-grade nuclear materials. It is held that the main bottleneck for would-be nuclear terrorists is not so much bomb design than access to nuclear material for which the territories of the former Soviet Union are a likely source, due to gaps in safety and security. The article discusses the smuggling of nuclear material from the former USSR's territories and lists seven possible methods of acquisition of nuclear materials by terrorists. The intentions of various types of groups to use weapons of mass destruction and their possible goals are analyzed and the question whether or not Osama Bin Laden has acquired nuclear materials is raised. A discussion of possible motivations for nuclear terrorism by non-state actors and a listing of facilitating and inhibiting factors with regard to terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction lead to the conclusion that nuclear terrorism by non-state actors is still a low probability event but that no risks can be taken and that a broad action plan to counter the threat is needed whereby the IAEA should stand in the forefront. (author)

  6. Teaching Guide on International Terrorism: Definitions, Causes, and Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Inst. of Peace, Washington, DC.

    Dealing with terrorism has become the centerpiece of United States foreign policy today. Yet terrorism--its definition, causes, and methods of dealing with it--has rarely been dealt with in high school courses. The United States Institute of Peace has developed this 3-lesson plan (for 45-minute class periods) teaching guide, aimed at grades 11 and…

  7. Exposure to Terrorism and Violent Behavior among Adolescents in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Chen, Merav Solomon; Itzhaky, Haya

    2007-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that exposure to terrorism may lead to violent behavior, but there is little empirical research on the relationship between these two variables. In the present paper, we examined the extent to which exposure to terrorism contributes to violent behavior among adolescents. In addition, we considered the role of environmental…

  8. Forecasting Terrorism: The Need for a More Systematic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Bakker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes a unique branch of terrorism literature—terrorism futures—by academics, think tanks, and governmental agencies published between 2000 and 2012. To this end, it examines over sixty publications that attempt to discern possible futures of terrorism. In general, the track record of forecasting terrorism has not been good. This is particularly true for major changes in the modus operandi of terrorism, the attacks on 9/11 being a case in point. The analyses of the future of terrorism shows an absence of methodologies, and the lack of theoretical foundations, which lead to limited insights about the causes of changes in terrorism. Most forecasts seem to say more about the present state of terrorism than about the future. The article concludes with a call for a more systematic approach grounded in theory and methodology in order to improve the quality of foresight studies, and to enable researchers to better understand how to assess, model, forecast, and respond to the future terrorist threat.

  9. Conceptualising Terrorism: International Offence or Domestic Governance Tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksenova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that terrorism does not belong within the realm of international criminal law. On the surface, it is the lack of internationally agreed definition of terrorism and its domestic law origins that set it apart from the notions of crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide. ...

  10. Threat Perceptions in Europe: Domestic Terrorism and International Crime.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT This paper focuses on two areas of security concern for the European Union: terrorism and international crime. I present a model of game-theoretic interaction between a European state and a domestic dissident group, who, on occasion, may resort to acts of terrorism. Here, identi

  11. Diplomatic assurances - a permissible tool in the struggle against terrorism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouyal, Lone Wandahl

    2011-01-01

    With the noble intentions of combating terrorism, numerous initiatives in the form of counter-terrorism measures have appeared on the global scene. States wanting to expel persons considered to be a threat to national security have aimed to establish so-called diplomatic assurances as a guarantee...

  12. Terrorism: Online Resources for Helping Students Understand and Cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tim; Ramirez, Fred

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on the issue of terrorism. Aims to assist teachers in educating their students and helping them cope with terrorism since the September 11, 2001 attack on the United States. Offers sites on other terrorist attacks on the U.S. (CMK)

  13. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to precautionary measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2003-07-01

    Facing the nuclear terrorism risk, this document analyzes the nature of the threat of nuclear terrorism, the risk of attack on nuclear installations, the limited protection of nuclear installations against aircraft crashes, the case of nuclear reprocessing plants, the case of nuclear transport and proposes measures which should be taken without endangering the foundations of democracy. (A.L.B.)

  14. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to precautionary measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facing the nuclear terrorism risk, this document analyzes the nature of the threat of nuclear terrorism, the risk of attack on nuclear installations, the limited protection of nuclear installations against aircraft crashes, the case of nuclear reprocessing plants, the case of nuclear transport and proposes measures which should be taken without endangering the foundations of democracy. (A.L.B.)

  15. Stephen Graham Ed., Cities, War, and Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.V. Savitch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities, War, and Terrorism, edited by Stephen Graham is a compendium of essays on the intersection of urbanity and violent conflict.  In an era where urban areas have become prime targets for political and religious violence this volume is both relevant and timely. It is also heavily ideological and unforgivably one sided. The volume is premised on the existence of a conspiracy by “neo imperial” nations (led by the United States to destroy and subjugate under-developed nations.  The “evidenc...

  16. Universal patterns underlying ongoing wars and terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, N F; Restrepo, J A; Becerra, O; Bohorquez, J C; Suárez, N; Restrepo, E M; Zarama, R; Johnson, Neil F.; Spagat, Mike; Restrepo, Jorge A.; Becerra, Oscar; Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Suarez, Nicolas; Restrepo, Elvira Maria; Zarama, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    We report a remarkable universality in the patterns of violence arising in three high-profile ongoing wars, and in global terrorism. Our results suggest that these quite different conflict arenas currently feature a common type of enemy, i.e. the various insurgent forces are beginning to operate in a similar way regardless of their underlying ideologies, motivations and the terrain in which they operate. We provide a microscopic theory to explain our main observations. This theory treats the insurgent force as a generic, self-organizing system which is dynamically evolving through the continual coalescence and fragmentation of its constituent groups.

  17. Mass trauma: disasters, terrorism, and war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Allan K; Dougherty, Joseph G

    2014-04-01

    Disasters, war, and terrorism expose millions of children globally to mass trauma with increasing frequency and severity. The clinical impact of such exposure is influenced by a child's social ecology, which is understood in a risk and resilience framework. Research findings informed by developmental systems theory and the related core principles of contemporary developmental psychopathology are reviewed. Their application to the recent recommendations for interventions based on evolving public health models of community resilience are discussed along with practical clinical tools for individual response. PMID:24656579

  18. Terror, tortur og den tikkende bombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The so-called "war on terror" has renewed the interest in torture in practice as well as in theory. The philosophical debate about possible justifications for torture has to a large extent revolved about the ticking bomb scenario: would it be justified to torture a terrorist in order to prevent a...... catastrophe? I criticize arguments based on ticking bomb scenarios in two steps. First, I show that exceptional resort to torture will not be possible in the situations where it is most needed. Second, I state several pragmatic as well as principled objections against a state sanctioned or tolerated practice...

  19. Terrorism: the threat of a radiological device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper will discuss terrorism from the perspective of a terrorist organization building and detonating a 'dirty bomb' with a radiological component. The paper will discuss how such devices are made and how security of radiological material world wide will minimize the risk of such devices being used. It will discuss the threat assessments against nuclear waste processing and storage sites, threats to nuclear plants and other sites and the adequacy of current security. It will also discuss the phenomenon of suicide attacks by the bomb carriers and the role of the media in informing and educating the general public of the consequences should such a device be detonated. (author)

  20. Terrorism, Armed Conflict and Foreign Aid

    OpenAIRE

    Lis Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Armed conflict, and to a lesser extent terrorism, have detrimental effect on economic and social development through destruction of human and physical capital and ensuing disruption to economic activity. There is also likely to be an indirect effect of political instability through its impact on foreign aid. The net effect is not obvious; violence may discourage aid donors and hence lead to a fall in received aid on the one hand, but it may well lead to an increase in foreign aid as donors of...

  1. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  2. Variance, Violence, and Democracy: A Basic Microeconomic Model of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Sautter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of the debate surrounding contemporary studies of terrorism focuses upon transnational terrorism. However, historical and contemporary evidence suggests that domestic terrorism is a more prevalent and pressing concern. A formal microeconomic model of terrorism is utilized here to understand acts of political violence in a domestic context within the domain of democratic governance.This article builds a very basic microeconomic model of terrorist decision making to hypothesize how a democratic government might influence the sorts of strategies that terrorists use. Mathematical models have been used to explain terrorist behavior in the past. However, the bulk of inquires in this area have only focused on the relationship between terrorists and the government, or amongst terrorists themselves. Central to the interpretation of the terrorist conflict presented here is the idea that voters (or citizens are also one of the important determinants of how a government will respond to acts of terrorism.

  3. IAEA to hold special session on nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experts from around the world are meeting at the IAEA this week for an international symposium on nuclear safeguards, verification, and security. A special session on 2 November focuses on the issue of combating nuclear terrorism. The Special Session, which will bring together experts on nuclear terrorism from around the world, will deal with the following issues: The Psychology of terrorism; Intelligence, police and border protection; Guarding nuclear reactors and material from terrorists and thieves; The threat of nuclear terrorism: Nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices; The threat of nuclear terrorism: Intentional dispersal of radioactive material - Sabotage of fixed installations or transport systems; The Legal Framework: Treaties and Conventions, Laws; Regulations and Codes of Practice; IAEA Nuclear Security and Safety Programmes

  4. Discussing Terrorism: A Pupil-Inspired Guide to UK Counter-Terrorism Policy Implementation in Religious Education Classrooms in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartermaine, Angela

    2016-01-01

    My research into pupils' perceptions of terrorism and current UK counter-terrorism policy highlights the need for more detailed and accurate discussions about the implementation of the educational aims, in particular those laid out by the Prevent Strategy. Religious education (RE) in England is affected by these aims, specifically the challenging…

  5. TERRORISM AND FEAR OF TERRORISM İN THE US: AN ANALYSIS OF PRE AND AFTERMATH OF SEPTEMBER 11 ATTACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih IRMAK

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available United States of America (The U.S. has become one of the countries which experienced both domestic and global terror attacks. Both types of terrorism have different effects on the American society. Without any hesitation, global terror attacks took place in the U.S. soil created a tremendous impact to be recorded as a marking event in the world’s history. Global terror attacks led to varying levels of fear and panic among the society, while domestic terror did not occupy the public agenda that much. Global terror attacks were perceieved as a threat to national security and sovereignity, and kept alive through governmental policies, although lose its effect in public eye in the course of time. In that respect, this study lays out how fear of terror was instrumentalized by the U.S Government and had an impact on decision-making processes, despite the fact that the perception of fear of terrorism is low in American public opinion.

  6. Combating Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism - A Comprehensive Training Guide : Workbook 6. Combating the Financing of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    "Combating Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism: a Comprehensive Training Guide" is one of the products of the capacity enhancement program on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Funding of Terrorism (AML/CFT), which has been co-funded by the Governments of Sweden, Japan, Denmark, and Canada. The program offers countries the tools, skills, and knowledge to build and strength...

  7. Calculating the new global nuclear terrorism threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experts from around the world are meeting at the IAEA on 29 October to 2 November at an international symposium on nuclear safeguards, verification, and security. A special session on 2 November focuses on the issue of combating nuclear terrorism. Although terrorists have never used a nuclear weapon, reports that some terrorist groups, particularly al-Qaeda, have attempted to acquire nuclear material is a cause of great concern. According to the IAEA, since 1993, there have been 175 cases of trafficking in nuclear material and 201 cases of trafficking in other radioactive sources (medical, industrial). However, only 18 of these cases have actually involved small amounts of highly enriched uranium or plutonium, the material needed to produce a nuclear bomb. IAEA experts judge the quantities involved to be insufficient to construct a nuclear explosive device. The IAEA experts have evaluated the risks for nuclear terrorism in these three categories: Nuclear facilities; Nuclear Material; Radioactive Sources. The IAEA is proposing a number of new initiatives, including strengthening border monitoring, helping States search for and dispose of orphan sources and strengthening the capabilities of the IAEA Emergency Response Centre to react to radiological emergencies following a terrorist attack. In the short term, the IAEA estimates that at least $30-$50 million annually will be needed to strengthen and expand its programs to meet this terrorist threat

  8. UK nuclear terrorism insurance arrangements: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of terrorism in the UK is not new, but since the New York World Trade Centre attacks in 2001, the potential scale of any terrorist attack has required a considerable reassessment. With UK foreign policy closely aligned to that of the USA, the UK security services now consider it is simply a matter of when and no longer if the UK is attacked. For insurers of any type this fact would cause concern; for insurers involved in high profile and potentially catastrophic loss targets such as nuclear power plants, any attack could have a severe impact on solvency and shareholder's funds. This paper's objective is to describe the terrorism insurance arrangements put in place in the U.K. both before and after the September 2001 attacks. These arrangements have been designed both to safeguard insurers' solvency and to ensure that the nuclear industry and general public can continue to be reassured by the availability of insurance should an attack ever occur.(author)

  9. Technology and the hydra of terrorism?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LePoire, D. J.; Glenn, J. C.; Environmental Assessment; American Council for the United Nations Univ.

    2007-02-01

    In the application of new technologies that address the terrorism problem, an objective is to ensure that the technology does not cause more problems than it solves. Potential new technologies, including convergences of genomics, robotics, information technology, and nanotechnology, might rapidly develop. As with any technological advance, each of these offers a mixture of benefits and risks. At first, a direct approach is reviewed by looking at how these technologies might deter the motive, means, and opportunity for terrorist activities. While there are many potential deterrence applications, other issues are identified that might cause unintended problems in the system. Some of these problems include the possible contribution to terrorist motives by increasing stresses toward divisiveness in society, terrorist means through the development of dual-use technologies, or terrorist opportunities by further developing technological vulnerabilities. Next, a more systemic approach is taken by reviewing a wider range of issues, such as resource availability, management of science and technology, and general societal trends. The balance between technological change and social response is important in realizing benefits while mitigating unintended consequences such as harmful uses through terrorist actions. To explore issues concerning this balance, possible technological development scenarios are reviewed, including the possibility of accelerating or slowing technological development. Some recent recommendations are considered within this context. The need for a balance between technological and social response in this asymmetric situation suggests that the benefits of a rapid technological response against terrorism might not be as large as those observed during World War II.

  10. Intelligence and the prevention of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper first defines intelligence and nuclear terrorism and analyzes the nature of the problem from both a specifically US and a more generally Western viewpoint. As used here, intelligence refers broadly to the collection and reporting of information, the production of assessments, and the presentation of judgments by intelligence specialists who work for public and national security authorities. Intelligence encompasses the entire range of investigative and reporting activities at all levels of government - from local police units to allied military commands - that could contribute to the discovery and disarming of nuclear terrorists. Nuclear terrorism, in contrast, refers only to credible threats or acts of extreme violence by forces outside the direct control of any state through false threats or actual use of a nuclear bomb. This definition excludes other highly menacing or damaging activities involving nuclear materials, facilities, weapons, or phobias such as poisoning the air or water supplies with radioactive substances; stealing nuclear materials, sabotaging nuclear powerplants, occupying a facility or seizing a vehicle with nuclear weapons, or inflaming public fears in the event of a nuclear accident. These events can be extremely frightening, as in the case of public reactions throughout Europe to the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in the Ukraine. However, their potential destructiveness and exploitability by terrorists do not match the threat of nuclear explosion

  11. The Problems of Terrorism in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Faisol Keling

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The September 11th attack had opened the eyes of countries inthe international system regarding the threats from terrorists which is seen as capable of threatening the security of country. Many countries started talking about the development of international terrorists which are able to threaten a particular country at anytime. The success of international terrorists attacked against the most power country like United Stated has influenced the emergence of various terrorist activities all over the world including in the Southeast Asia. This region has got theworld’s attention when terrorism movements were developing like the‘Jemaah Islamiah Front’ (Indonesia, Abu Sayyaf Group and MoroIslamic Liberation Front (Philippines, Pattani Liberation Front(Thailand and Malaysian Militant Group (Malaysia which potentiallythreatened the security of the Southeast Asia region. These terroristgroups have changed from making limited or small attacks in the country to making serious threats and becoming bigger movements. Manypredictions have been made as to clarify how these terrorist attacks have changed into active threats. This situation has been connected to the role played by international terrorist who secretly entered the countries in the Southeast Asia to help the local terrorist. Therefore, this paper will explain the influence of international terrorist in the terrorism activities in this region. Besides that, it will also explain the background of these terrorist movements in the region and how these terrorist are able to enter a particular country and help the local terrorist movement to be moreactive in the region.

  12. Journals Supporting Terrorism Research: Identification and Investigation into Their Impact on the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Daryl R.; Irving, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    A citation analysis of two preeminent terrorism journals ("Terrorism and Political Violence" and "Studies in Conflict and Terrorism") was used to identify 37 additional social science journals of significant importance to terrorism research. Citation data extracted from the "Web of Science" database was used to…

  13. 31 CFR 50.72 - Establishment of Federal Terrorism Policy Surcharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of Federal Terrorism... TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Recoupment and Surcharge Procedures § 50.72 Establishment of Federal Terrorism Policy Surcharge. (a) Treasury will establish the Federal Terrorism Policy Surcharge based on...

  14. 50 Un- and Under-researched Topics in the Field of (Counter-) Terrorism Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alex P. Schmid

    2011-01-01

    The Terrorism Research Initiative seeks to stimulate individual and collaborative research on terrorism and other forms of political violence that threatening human security. While some topics are ‘fashionable” and obtain an extraordinary amount of attention (e.g. CBRN threats, radicalization, suicide terrorism, jihadist terrorism) other (sub-) topics are un- or under-researched. 

  15. 50 Un- and Under-researched Topics in the Field of (Counter- Terrorism Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Schmid

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Terrorism Research Initiative seeks to stimulate individual and collaborative research on terrorism and other forms of political violence that threatening human security. While some topics are ‘fashionable” and obtain an extraordinary amount of attention (e.g. CBRN threats, radicalization, suicide terrorism, jihadist terrorism other (sub- topics are un- or under-researched. 

  16. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  17. Terrorism and anti-terror legislation - the terrorised legislator? A comparison of counter-terrorism legislation and its implications on human rights in the legal systems of the United Kingdom, Spain, Germany, and France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oehmichen, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The thesis deals with the history of terrorism and counter-terrorism legislation, focussing on the legislation in the UK, Spain, Germany and France, in the last 30 years, and analysing its compatibility with national and European human rights standards.

  18. The Relationship Between Terrorism and Liberal Democratic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Cinar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between terrorism and liberal democracy because there is a link between terrorism and liberal democracy. In other words terrorism, whether national or international, is operating in liberal democratic societies and has been one of the major problems of liberal democratic governments since the 1960s. Further, one particular aspect of this relationship will be highlighted in this paper, that is, the legitimacy of both liberal democracy and terrorism. The core discussion revolves around the question; does a liberal government have legitimate authority to put some limitations on ‘human rights’ and ‘basic western values’ for the sake of preventing and combating terrorism? If the answer is yes, to what extent does the government do so? So far, we have noticed that many Western liberal governments have changed their counter terrorism laws. In these laws, some argue that there is violation of human rights which is more important than the prevention policies. It is clear that there is no need to limit the western liberal values since these are not a weakness of liberal democracy. The weakness is not using security forces and technological development properly in prevention and combating of terrorism.

  19. The Relationship Between Terrorism and Liberal Democratic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Cinar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between terrorism and liberal democracy because there is a link between terrorism and liberal democracy. In other words terrorism, whether national or international, is operating in liberal democratic societies and has been one of the major problems of liberal democratic governments since the 1960s. Further, one particular aspect of this relationship will be highlighted in this paper, that is, the legitimacy of both liberal democracy and terrorism. The core discussion revolves around the question; does a liberal government have legitimate authority to put some limitations on 'human rights' and 'basic western values' for the sake of preventing and combating terrorism? If the answer is yes, to what extent does the government do so? So far, we have noticed that many Western liberal governments have changed their counter terrorism laws. In these laws, some argue that there is violation of human rights which is more important than the prevention policies. It is clear that there is no need to limit the western liberal values since these are not a weakness of liberal democracy. The weakness is not using security forces and technological development properly in prevention and combating of terrorism.

  20. Defeating Suicide Terrorism in Judea and Samaria, 2002-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Siboni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attacks are a subject that has been studied and researched extensively, with the primary emphasis on the phenomenon of suicide as a terrorist weapon. Yet although it has been nearly a decade since the outbreak of the violent Palestinian uprising, the combat features used by the IDF and the security services against terrorism in general and suicide terrorism in particular, the most lethal form of terrorism, have not been studied in depth. The purpose of this essay is to attempt to understand the major components of activity that resulted in the near eradication of the phenomenon. The focus of this paper is the war on terrorism in Judea and Samaria without dealing with terrorism from the Gaza Strip, which has developed and assumed different forms over the years and is beyond the scope of this essay. This paper seeks to provide an historical picture of the processes employed by Israel in an attempt to foil suicide terrorism. The first part of the essay examines the political directives issued by the Israeli government to the IDF from 2000, when the fighting erupted, until the government decision that led to Operation Defensive Shield. The second part examines the implementation of the directives and the development of the military and security response to suicide terrorism. This part of the essay also analyzes the process of formulating the military strategy for fighting terrorism in Judea and Samaria. The last part of the essay analyzes the ethical components of fighting a war on suicide terrorism that had the potential of being highly detrimental to the values of the IDF.

  1. The burden of terrorism in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul Aziz, Azhar

    2003-01-01

    In the peace-loving, moderate and progressive country of Muslim-dominated Malaysia, violence generally is alien to the culture. Terrorism initially took shape during the post-independence, communist era by jungle recalcitrant actions. In recent years, this has been superceded by a more internationally related trend of violence. Only very few incidents were based locally, while the majority were linked to international groups or organizations abroad, including the Kumpulan Mujahidin Malaysia (KMM), Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), and the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG). Kidnapping with ransom seemed to have been the most commone modus operandi, while killing and robbery accounted for very few of these incidents. The number of victims in each event so far has been small, and smaller for those physically harmed or killed. This pattern of terrorist attacks suggests that the current level of provision of emergency medical services is sufficient to handle such incidents. Recent advances in local emergency medicine also have witnessed the establishment of various teaching and training modules, a pivotal role played by university hospitals and supported by the Ministry of Health. However, the spate of ongoing events of mass destruction such as the conflict in Israel/Palestine, wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, the World Trade Center and Pentagon tragedies of 11 September 2001, and the Bali bombing in Indonesia, remain as great concerns to Malaysians. Both the government and the people of Malaysia abhor such unjustified uses of terror, and take every measure to curtail them. The National Security Council policies of Arahan No. 18 and Arahan No. 20 detail specific roles and responsibilities of various agencies in managing terrorism and disasters respectively, while the use of the stern Internal Security Act that allows indefinite detention without trial, evidently has been an efficient intelligence and security apparatus. With more recent developments of terrorist events regionally and globally

  2. Countering transnational terrorism in Southeast Asia with respect to terrorism in Indonesia and the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Chaerudin, Asep

    2003-01-01

    Southeast Asia is experiencing tremendous changes both politically and economically. Religious and ethnic issues have increased significantly. The move away from traditional to modern systems creates a degree of instability, eroding the existing system's socioeconomic and politico-psychological tenets, giving rise to counter-elites and opposition groups, and paving the way for a resurgence of racial terrorism and ethnic animosities. Although unfamiliar with insurgencies, Southeast Asia, long ...

  3. The Role of Foreign Influences in Early Terrorism: Examples and Implications for Understanding Modern Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Lutz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has been linked with outbreaks of political violence and terrorism in the modern world. An analysis of Judean revolts against Rome and the Seleucid Greeks, individual suicide attacks in South and Southeast Asia in the 17th century to the early 20th century, and the Boxer Rebellion in China suggest that the intrusion of foreign influences had similar effects in the past.

  4. TerrorScale: A Scale to Measure the Contact of International Tourists with Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Seabra, Cláudia; Abrantes, José Luís; Kastenholz, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Terrorism is unfortunately part of our lives and will not simply disappear. Accepting its presence, the management and prevention of its negative consequences is a key issue. This is imperative not only for countries where terrorist attacks occur, but also for countries that may be affected indirectly. It is necessary to further consider this issue and create more effective instruments for crisis management, ideally based on cooperative solutions among industry, government agencies and tou...

  5. Security Guards and Counter-terrorism: Tourism and Gaps in Terrorism Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Luke Howie

    2014-01-01

    Organisation operating in the tourism industry are high priority targets for terrorists. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks tourism destinations, hotels and modes of public transportation have regularly been targeted by terrorists seeking to convey their violent message. As such, leaders and managers in the tourism industry carefully plan their security and counter-terrorism responses, often involving the hiring of security guards. It is here that I believe a significant gap in counter-terr...

  6. The Technology of Terror: Accounting for the Strategic Use of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher K. Butler; Gates, Scott

    2010-01-01

    To comprehend why a group would intentionally target civilians, we need to understand why other groups do not. In this chapter, we argue that disgruntled groups face three main choices when addressing their dissatisfaction: suffering a disadvantageous peace, engaging in unconventional warfare, or engaging in conventional warfare. We further disaggregate the choice of unconventional warfare into terrorism and guerrilla warfare. By focusing on asymmetrical aspects of the problem and the strateg...

  7. When the 'Other' Becomes 'Us': Mediated Representations,'Terrorism' and the 'War on Terror'

    OpenAIRE

    Rut M. Sanz Sabino

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to elaborate on the use of one of the rhetorical techniques employed in the political and mediated representation of 'Islamist terrorists' by the British print media in the aftermath of the London bombings of July 7th, 2005. This technique consists of the emphasis on making 'terrorism' and its perpetrators look 'foreign', by creating an opposition between the Nation and the 'Other' (Said, 1997). This opposition is questionable from, at least, two perspectives. On the ...

  8. Security Guards and Counter-terrorism: Tourism and Gaps in Terrorism Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Howie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Organisation operating in the tourism industry are high priority targets for terrorists. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks tourism destinations, hotels and modes of public transportation have regularly been targeted by terrorists seeking to convey their violent message. As such, leaders and managers in the tourism industry carefully plan their security and counter-terrorism responses, often involving the hiring of security guards. It is here that I believe a significant gap in counter-terrorism preparedness exists. I argue that protecting tourism destinations is only possible if consideration is given the effectiveness of security guards and understanding that their well-being will impact upon their ability to deliver security. I want to draw attention to the often ignored social role of security guards. On 9/11, 42 security guards died whilst helping save the lives of thousands. They performed their jobs admirably, despite being low-paid, under-appreciated workers. In this paper I explore the social role of security guards in the context of tourism security. By drawing on representations of security guards in popular culture and reports on the state of the security guard industry. I argue that the lack of attention on the quality and well-being of guards is a significant black-spot in tourism security and terrorism preparedness.

  9. Implications of the War On Terror for Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoor Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The US-led War on Terror in Afghanistan conducted for the aim of eliminating Al- Qaeda and Osama-bin-Laden has brought about enormous economic, social and political changes in the region. Pakistan’s role as a front-line state in the War on Terror has had profound implications for its domestic politics and foreign policy. Pakistan not only took a U-turn on its Afghanistan policy, but also had to crack down on internal extremism and terrorism. Several military operations were carried out agains...

  10. The Analysis of Sensory Stimuli of Terror in A Rose for Emily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚慧敏

    2015-01-01

    William Faulkner drew impressive pictures of terror in A Rose for Emily by visual descriptions, auditory descriptions, tactile descriptions, and olfactory descriptions. Through the biological analysis, people can figure out what kinds of stimuli in this work can produce terror, how the sensory organs respond to the terror stimuli and why readers fear them. It is proved that Faulkner’s description of terror is based on the system of men’s receiving information and the production mechanism of terror.

  11. Highlighting the Major Trade-Offs Concerning Anti-Terrorism Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Olaf J. de Groot; Müller, Cathérine

    2011-01-01

    Human-induced security, or terrorism, is a threat to wellbeing in Europe and beyond. In this Policy Briefing, we investigate the risks involved in terrorism, both with respect to the likelihood and with respect to the consequences of acts of terrorism. Furthermore, we provide a basic analysis of existing anti-terrorism policies, the costs involved in them and their effectiveness. We show that terrorism is a very broad term, but that one can make a number of broad policy recommendations, inclu...

  12. Economics, Politics and Young Males. Root Causes of Terrorism on the Aggregate Level in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Roaldsnes, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The research question posed in this thesis is: what are the root causes of terrorism on the aggregate level in Europe. There is little convergence on the root causes of terrorism in the field of terrorism research, and many findings are challenged on data and conceptual grounds. The analysis is done with two dependent variables each representing an operationalization of terrorism, a count of the number of killed in terrorism events for each country-year observation and a count of the numbe...

  13. Violence prevention and beyond – Theses on the spirit of terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz Egloff

    2015-01-01

    In a globalized world, terrorism will be the issue of forthcoming decades. Yet, the obvious idea of fighting terrorism by stepping on public security measures might lead astray. In the first instance, an integrative approach of psychological, sociological and anthropological concepts is necessary in order to meet the dimensions of the global terrorism phenomenon. Especially the spirit of terrorism, as it were, the dynamics in terrorism, is rendered hard to come to terms with. Therefore, this ...

  14. News Framing in a Time of Terror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørndrup, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses how Danish media framed the Copenhagen attacks in February 2015. The attacks did not take the Danish media by surprise. They were instantly picked up as breaking, developing news – something journalists know how to deal with. More so they had recently been engaged in the...... coverage of similar events, when reporting from the attacks in Paris in January 2015. The paper will present a framing analysis of the coverage of the attacks in the newscast on DR1 from the first shot at Krudttønden into the following week. Furthermore, the analysis will discuss how the labelling of the...... shooting as a “terror attack” transformed the news coverage into a ‘News Media’ media event (Nossek 2008), abandoning the journalistic norm of critical approach. Instead media became the scene of national mourning – at least for a couple of days until political debate and political journalism resumed...

  15. Children's Cognitive Functioning in Disasters and Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A; Jacobs, Anne K; Varma, Vandana

    2016-05-01

    A growing literature has begun to address the cognitions that influence children's disaster reactions as well as the effects of disasters on children's cognitions. These cognitions must be viewed in the context of developmental and cultural considerations as well as disaster-related factors such as exposure and secondary stressors. This review examines the extant literature on children's cognitions related to disasters and terrorism including threat appraisal, beliefs, attention and concentration, memory, academic achievement, and executive functioning. The review highlights areas where research is lacking such as the effect of disasters on children's attention, concentration, content of disaster memories, and executive functioning. It also notes findings that may advance post-disaster screening and intervention. PMID:26997166

  16. The Global Terrorism Database: Accomplishments and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary LaFree

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an update on the Global Terrorism Database (GTD, an open source event database that now includes information on over 82,000 domestic and international terrorist attacks since 1970. [1] GTD was launched by computerizing data originally collected by the Pinkerton Global Intelligence Service (PGIS.[2] Following computerization, the research team has continued working to update and validate the data. This paper describes original data collection efforts and the strategies employed to improve the quality and comprehensiveness of the data, addressing also the strengths and weaknesses of Open Source data in general and the GTD in particular. The paper also provides descriptive statistics on the contents of the most recently available version of the GTD and offer observations about the future of event databases. 

  17. DISENGAGING FROM TERRORISM: A NORTHERN IRISH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Ferguson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the disengagement and deradicalization experiences of Northern Irish loyalist paramilitaries from the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF and Red Hand Commando (RHC. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was employed to develop an understanding of how the former combatants interpreted and made sense of their disengagement from violence extremism in Northern Ireland after the Belfast Agreement. The analysis of the interviews focusses around push and pull factors which either promote or hinder their ability to move away from violent extremism. The results find a resonance with recent research exploring disengagement and deradicalization processes with terror groupings across the globe and the ideological spectrum. The findings are discussed in relation to a number of topics, including the role of prison, barriers to disengagement, continued commitment and radicalization after desistence from violent extremism, the role of life changes in promoting disengagement and how organizational pressures contain and influence individual disengagement.

  18. WMD Nonproliferation: Biosecurity in the Age of Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international community has cooperated in arenas where diplomacy, treaties and conventions, and international bodies such as the IAEA and UN Security Council can have successful roles controlling WMD proliferation. This especially is the case for nuclear and chemical weapons. In our view, the potential use of biological agents and toxins presents a distinctive challenge not necessarily amenable to standard solutions and legal controls. Commercial biotechnology, basic biological research, and public and animal health are intertwined and of global significance. Advancements in these civilian activities have legitimate value, but also can serve the needs of state-sponsored defensive and offensive biological weapons programs. More important, technical and scientific advances and development of public bioinformatics databases also simplifies an otherwise complex world for trans-national terrorists. In our paper we will draw upon our personal international experiences, including in the former Soviet Union and Iraq, to explain our concept of 'shared risk' within the scientific community. Personal engagement, meaningful collaboration, adherence to uniform ethics and standards, and common scientific goals on an international scale are the best hedge against bio-terrorism. The global scientific community already is based upon shared principles that cross both cultural and political boundaries and thus are pre-adapted to play a major role in preventing the use of biology as a terrorist weapon.(author)

  19. The Double-Edged Effects of Social Media Terror Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickel, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    This paper connects the effects of social media on terror/anti-terror communication with dynamics and consequences of surveillance. Citizens become via social media more independent from mass media and more interconnected. This is also valid when citizens engage in terror/anti-terror communication....... However, via social media citizens also become targets of the ‘collect-it-all’ surveillance, which was revealed to the global public in 2013. I argue that due to such surveillance some citizens might start to censor themselves and that surveillance inflicts with a number of human rights. I further argue...... that social media contribute to extending surveillance: by being a temptation for intelligence services, by not resisting state authorities and via constructing threat perceptions among populations which in effect deliver security politicians ‘windows of opportunity’ in order to implement ever more...

  20. Understanding Terrorism: Contested Concept, Conflicting Perspectives and Shattering Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Moten

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Terrorism is an old phenomenon but its modern manifestation was first noted in the 19th century with the anarchist group who assassinated Czar Alexander II in 1881. Since then it has continued unabated but its intensity and frequency increased in the 21st century. This study examines the trends in international terrorism and, in particular, analyses its causes and consequences. Based upon extensive literature and documentary research, this study found at least three perspectives that explain terrorism either as a reaction to socio-economic deprivation or as the product of religious fundamentalism or as a legitimate struggle to wipe out injustices perpetrated by the powerful against the powerless. Muslims condemn terrorism and suggest that the Western powers cease their policies of victimising the vulnerable populations, of sponsoring terrorists, of siding with Israel, and of denying others their right to liberty and sovereignty.

  1. Management of the Extreme Events: Countering International Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Cristian Barna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After the terrorism attacks of September 11, 2001, there is recognition by both the public and private sectors that one needs to rethink our strategy for dealing with these low probability but extreme consequence events. September 11, 2001 attacks against the United States raised numerous questions related to counter-terrorism, foreign policy, as well as national security in the United States and abroad. They also raised the fundamental question of who should pay for losses due to terrorism.The question of who should pay for terrorism risk prevention and sustainable coverage within a country is likely to be seen first as a matter of collective responsibility that each country has to consider – a societal choice

  2. Research on Visual Analysis Methods of Terrorism Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenyue; Liu, Haiyan; Yu, Anzhu; Li, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Under the situation that terrorism events occur more and more frequency throughout the world, improving the response capability of social security incidents has become an important aspect to test governments govern ability. Visual analysis has become an important method of event analysing for its advantage of intuitive and effective. To analyse events' spatio-temporal distribution characteristics, correlations among event items and the development trend, terrorism event's spatio-temporal characteristics are discussed. Suitable event data table structure based on "5W" theory is designed. Then, six types of visual analysis are purposed, and how to use thematic map and statistical charts to realize visual analysis on terrorism events is studied. Finally, experiments have been carried out by using the data provided by Global Terrorism Database, and the results of experiments proves the availability of the methods.

  3. Terror Medicine As Part of the Medical School Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard A Cole

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Terror medicine, a field related to emergency and disaster medicine, focuses on medical issues ranging from preparedness to psychological manifestations specifically associated with terrorist attacks. Calls to teach aspects of the subject in American medical schools surged after the 2001 jetliner and anthrax attacks. Although the threat of terrorism persists, terror medicine is still addressed erratically if at all in most medical schools. This paper suggests a template for incorporating the subject throughout a 4-year medical curriculum. The instructional framework culminates in a short course for fourth year students, such as one recently introduced at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ. The proposed 4-year Rutgers curriculum serves as a model that could assist other medical schools contemplating the inclusion of terror medicine in pre-clerkship and clerkship training.

  4. Conflict and complexity countering terrorism, insurgency, ethnic and regional violence

    CERN Document Server

    Bar-Yam, Yaneer; Minai, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Complexity science affords a number of novel tools for examining terrorism, particularly network analysis and NK-Boolean fitness landscapes as well as other tools drawn from non-linear dynamical systems modeling. This book follows the methodologies of complex adaptive systems research in their application to addressing the problems of terrorism, specifically terrorist networks, their structure and various methods of mapping and interdicting them as well as exploring the complex landscape of network-centric and irregular warfare. A variety of new models and approaches are presented here, including Dynamic Network Analysis, DIME/PMESII models, percolation models and emergent models of insurgency. In addition, the analysis is informed by practical experience, with analytical and policy guidance from authors who have served within the U.S. Department of Defense, the British Ministry of Defence as well as those who have served in a civilian capacity as advisors on terrorism and counter-terrorism.

  5. The unthinkable scourge of nuclear terrorism is impending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reffering to an article in the Viennese newspaper Kurier, of 11 Nov 1987 a warning is issued against plutonium road transports and nuclear power plants inviting terrorists to terror acts and blackmail. (qui)

  6. Perception and Attitudes toward Terrorism in a Muslim Majority Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamarulnizam Abdullah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research article is to examine and to ascertain whether general public in a Muslim majority country do support organized violence and terrorism. The discussion focuses on Malaysia as a case study. The study adopted a quantitative approach with questionnaires being used as the instrument for data collection. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. The results show that the Malaysian public do not support terrorism. The findings also found that ethnicity and religiosity have important bearings toward political violence and terrorism. Malay-Muslims, for instance, tend to exhibit some inclinations toward aggressive attitude compared to that of non-Malay Muslims. Furthermore, the study also found that gender, race, religion and occupation do play a part in determining perception on acts of terror.

  7. Use of the decision support system RECASS NT (Radio Ecological Analysis Support System) for anti terrorism actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decision support system RECASS NT (Radio Ecological Analysis Support System) was developed and is still enhancing in Federal Service Roshydromet for providing on-line estimates and prognoses of radiation and chemical situation in the event of an emergency, including acts of terrorism, as well as to estimate transboundary pollutants transport. RECASS NT has been installed at all ten NPPs of the Russian Federation, in Crisis Centers of Roshydromet, concern Rosenergoatom and Minatom, at plants for destroying chemical weapons. The paper describes the structure of RECASS NT system and discuss its possible application in case of an emergency on examples of using the system during radiation emergency response exercises at NPPs. RECASS NT can be used for developing recommendations regarding time when anti terrorism operations are better to be started with a view to minimize damage

  8. 75 FR 43233 - Designation of ANWAR AL-AULAQI Pursuant to Executive Order 13224 and the Global Terrorism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR Part 594 AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control... With Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism,'' and the Global Terrorism Sanctions... grave acts of terrorism and threats of terrorism committed by foreign terrorists, including...

  9. Perception and Attitudes toward Terrorism in a Muslim Majority Country

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarulnizam Abdullah; Rizal Sukma; Ma’ruf Jamhari; Mazilan Musa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research article is to examine and to ascertain whether general public in a Muslim majority country do support organized violence and terrorism. The discussion focuses on Malaysia as a case study. The study adopted a quantitative approach with questionnaires being used as the instrument for data collection. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results show that the Malaysian public do not support terrorism. The findings also foun...

  10. Cooperation Between Indonesia and ASEAN to Counter Terrorism in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This paper will discuss cooperation between Indonesia and ASEAN to combat terrorism, although we cannot desperate Indonesia as ASEAN member, hence this section describes ASEAN and Indonesia as a whole. The Indonesian government's strategy as one of ASEAN member of implementing securitizing policy by increasing the cooperation between them in internal security particularly to fight against terrorism was potentially motivated by several contextual factors. Current paper builds u...

  11. THE CHRONICLE OF TERRORISM AND ISLAMIC MILITANCY IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Zakiyah

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the chronicle of terrorism in Indonesia and the relationship between terrorism and Islamic militancy in this nation. This research focused on bombing cases from 2001 to 2012 Data was gathered through documentary research including primary and secondary resources. This research shows that after the fall of the Suharto regime in 1998, there were bomb attacks on various targets and militant extremists were able to return to Indonesia after long period of exile abroad. They st...

  12. THE PERCEIVED RISK OF TRAVELLING, WITH EMPHASIS ON TERRORISM

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanou, Areti

    2009-01-01

    Risk is an important factor when considering international tourism (Lepp and Gibson, 2003; Sonmez and Graefe, 1998b; 1998a; Sonmez, 1998), especially nowadays as a result of the increased magnitude and frequency of terrorism attacks when travelling. Such events have negatively affected individuals’ perceived risk in international travel, making terrorism risk a key element of the international travel scene. Perceived risk can influence a positive image, intention to travel to a particular des...

  13. The Securitization Theory and Counter Terrorism in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    SENIWATI, SENIWATI

    2014-01-01

    The counter terrorism in Indonesia applies the theory of securitization. The theory of securitization is the new ways of counterterrorism and security studies. This article explores the emergence of securitization the end of the post-Cold War, securitization in security, securitization in international studies and securitization in fighting terrorism in Indonesia. Security studies emerged the end of the Cold War with focus on military and political deterrence from the Western and the Soviet U...

  14. Truslen om terror? Tilkald pædagogikken!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Har vi at gøre med terror, radikalisering og voldelig ekstremisme, så tilkalder vi politiet. Men politiet er ikke nok og faktisk udtryk for en for sen indsats. Pædagogikken må i brug.......Har vi at gøre med terror, radikalisering og voldelig ekstremisme, så tilkalder vi politiet. Men politiet er ikke nok og faktisk udtryk for en for sen indsats. Pædagogikken må i brug....

  15. The IAEA Nuclear Security Programme Combating Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discusses the four threats of nuclear terrorism,which are theft of a nuclear weapon, theft of material to make an improvised nuclear explosive device,theft of other radioactive material for an Radiological dispersal device and sabotage of a facility or transport. The IAEA Nuclear Security programme combating Nuclear Terrorism therefore adopts a comprehensive approach. The programme addresses the need to cover nuclear and other radioactive materials, nuclear facilities and transports, non-nuclear, medical and industrial applications of sources

  16. Terrorism and United States counterterrorism in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Terlizzi, Anthony P.

    2002-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States exposed the vulnerability of democracy to such actions. An adequate response requires U.S. counterterrorist policy to interact with broader U.S. foreign policy, a difficult and complex balancing act that often handicaps or limits potential gains in the "war against terrorism." In Southeast Asia separatists and extremist groups use terrorism as it is much more likely to lead to the undermining of fragile governments. Any one co...

  17. The Effects of Terrorism on the Travel and Tourism Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, David Mc. A

    2014-01-01

    The impact of terrorism on the travel and tourism industry can be enormous. It can lead to unemployment, homelessness, deflation, and many other social and economic ills. The contribution of tourism for many countries is so great that any downturn in the industry is a cause of major concern for many governments. The repercussions are left in many other industries associated with tourism like airlines, hotels, restaurants and shops that cater to the tourists and allied services. Terrorism is a...

  18. The Effectiveness of Israel's counter-terrorism strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jerry D.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis analyzes Israeli counter-terrorism strategy and its effectiveness. Because of ongoing suicide attacks from Palestinian and other terrorist organizations, Israel will continue to have an aggressive counter-terrorism strategy. It will study how the impact of past wars, campaigns, and deadly terrorist attacks influenced the thinking of past and current leaders. By gauging the actions, and sometimes nonactions, of the international community, the Israeli government declined to become ...

  19. Conceptualising Terrorism Trend Patterns in Pakistan an Empirical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad  Feyyaz

    2013-01-01

    Terrorism continues to be viewed conventionally in Pakistan. However, the phenomenon has assumed a structured formation driven by rational choice perspectives. This article attempts to identify distinct trends and patterns of terrorism within prevailing environments of Pakistan. In doing so, it also examines the validity of seasonality dimensions of routine activity theory (use of summer months and earlier days of week) for terrorist acts. Eight trends are identified tentatively. Using empiri...

  20. Insurance, Self-Protection, and the Economics of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Darius Lakdawalla; George Zanjani

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the rationale for government intervention in the market for terrorism insurance, focusing on the externalities associated with self-protection. Self-protection by one target encourages terrorists to substitute towards less fortified targets. Investments in self- protection thus have negative external effects in the presence of rational terrorists. Government subsidies for terror insurance can discourage self-protection and limit the inefficiencies associated with these...

  1. Civilian Solution in Struggle Versus Organized Crime & Terror: Social Supports

    OpenAIRE

    GÖKBUNAR, Doç. Dr. Ali Rıza

    2014-01-01

    There exists no single country without crime-related organizations residing in. Those underground organizations involved in sale and production of narcotics primarily not only act as a counter force vis a vis governments but get integrated into governmental structures as parts of government hierarchy One of the most important challenges of contemporary global system and nation states without regard to their financial situation is terrorism. Terrorism defined an act of violent acts that are in...

  2. How terrorism ends : understanding the outcomes of violent political contestation

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah V. Marsden

    2013-01-01

    Existing scholarship suggests terrorism is an ineffective method of political contestation; groups rarely achieve their political objectives and are often disrupted by the security services. These findings invite us to look again at the dominant rational choice paradigm, which suggests that terrorism is selected as the best strategy to achieve predetermined goals. Unpicking the assumptions underpinning this model using historical case studies, comparative analysis and typology development, th...

  3. The Economic Costs of Separatist Terrorism in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Firat Bilgel; Burhan Can Karahasan

    2013-01-01

    Turkey has been suffering from separatist terrorism and the political conflict it implies since the mid-1980s, both of which are believed to have a negative impact on economic welfare. This article investigates the economic costs of PKK (Kurdistan Workers’ Party) terrorism, particularly in the Eastern and Southeastern provinces of Turkey by invoking the synthetic control method. We create a synthetic control group that mimics the socioeconomic characteristics of the provinces exposed to terro...

  4. FDI, Aid, Terrorism: Conditional Threshold Evidence from Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu, Simplice; Efobi, Uchenna; Ibukun BEECROFT

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how foreign aid dampens the effects of terrorism on FDI using interactive quantile regressions. The empirical evidence is based on 78 developing countries for the period 1984-2008. Bilateral and multilateral aid variables are used, while terrorism dynamics entail: domestic, unclear, transnational and total number of terrorist attacks. The following findings are established. First, while the effects of multilateral aid are consistently significant with positive threshold evidenc...

  5. Supply and Demand for Terrorism Insurance: Lessons from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Thomann, Christian; von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias

    2006-01-01

    In our article we consider insurance as a means of allocating terrorism risk. Terrorism poses a significant challenge for insurers worldwide. In terms of possible losses it fits into the same category as earthquakes and hurricanes. Yet as a result of the uncertainty surrounding these risks private markets face significant difficulties in providing insurance for it. In the insurance industry costly risk bearing can explain the supply of capacity risks. Corporate risk management theory provides...

  6. Looking for whiteness in the war on terror

    OpenAIRE

    Ware, Vron

    2006-01-01

    This essay addresses the links between routine, organised white supremacy and the 'war on terror.� Beginning with an image of American soldiers torturing Iraqi prisoners in Abu Ghraib, viewed in the context of the new museum of apartheid in South Africa, it demonstrates the entangled elements of white supremacy, colonialism, the spectre of global terrorism, and the New Imperialism of George W. Bush and Tony Blair. The essay stresses the importance of comparative work and cross-cultural, tra...

  7. Household Economic Decisions under the Shadow of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Christelis, Dimitris; Georgarakos, Dimitris

    2009-01-01

    We investigate, using the 2002 US Health and Retirement Study, the factors influencing individuals' insecurity and expectations about terrorism, and study the effects these last have on households' portfolio choices and spending patterns. We find that females, the religiously devout, those equipped with a better memory, the less educated, and those living close to where the events of September 2001 took place worry a lot about their safety. In addition, fear of terrorism discourages household...

  8. Armed conflict, terrorism, and the allocation of foreign aid

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Lis

    2013-01-01

    Armed conflict and terrorism damage economic development through disruption of economic activity, trade, and the destruction of human and physical resources. They also can affect foreign aid allocation, but the likely net effect of this is not obvious. On the one hand, donors may be discouraged and reduce aid. On the other hand, donors may provide more aid, for instance as a reimbursement for counter-terrorism efforts that benefit the donor country. This article aims to identify the net effec...

  9. Patterns of Force: System Strength, Terrorism and Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Freytag, Andreas; Meierrieks, Daniel; Münch, Angela; Schneider, Friedrich

    2010-01-01

    We jointly analyze the genesis of terrorism and civil war, providing a simple conceptual framework to explain why violent opposition groups choose distinct forms of violence (i.e., terrorism and open rebellion). We argue that the distinct modes of violent opposition are chosen by violent opposition groups in response to the strengths and weaknesses of the system they challenge. An empirical test of this hypothesis for 103 countries for the period of 1992 to 2004 indeed shows that the socio-ec...

  10. PERCEPTION OF TERRORISM OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN GREATER MUMBAI

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Swami; Karuna Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Children are the future of any nation. If we hope to solve the world's major problems -- achieving world peace, curbing terrorism, healthy lives, economic development, and global sustainability -- we must provide richer learning opportunities for the world's children. Terrorism is a political virus. Education has a vital role to play under such circumstances to make our young generation aware about this menace and provide means to liberate our country of the same. This study was undertaken to...

  11. International terrorism, political instability and the escalation effect

    OpenAIRE

    Nauro F. Campos; Gassebner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    What are the main causes of international terrorism? The lessons from the surge of academic research that followed 9/11 remain elusive. The careful investigation of the relative roles of economic and political conditions did little to change the fact that existing econometric estimates diverge in size, sign and significance. In this paper we present a new rationale (the escalation effect) stressing domestic political instability as the main reason for international terrorism. Econometric evid...

  12. National Center for Combating Terrorism Strategic Plan, September 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2003-09-01

    National Center for Combating Terrorism Strategic Plan is to document the mission, vision, and goals for success; define the build plan; and describe initiatives that support the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of Justice, intelligence community, National Governors Association, and other organizations or departments with combating terrorism training, testing, and technology responsibilities.

  13. Definition of Terrorism – Social and Political Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Social structure and order, governance of society and politics are dependent on good communication, and good communication requires agreement on definitions of terminology. Terrorism can dramatically influence the world, as shown by the far-reaching and prolonged effects of the attacks in New York on 11th September 2001. The definition of terrorism will affect communication and response to this issue and so have consequences for society and politics. However a suitable universal definition...

  14. Catching Seriously Bad Dudes: US Counter-terrorism strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernardyová, Alžběta

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 7-8 (2008), s. 34-38. ISSN 1214-1720 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA407/07/1395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : terrorism * counter- terrorism * US * 9/11 Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences http://www.socioweb.cz/upl/editorial/download/156_socioweb_7_08.pdf

  15. Anti-terrorism politics and the risk of provoking

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, F.K.

    2008-01-01

    A population''s level of terrorism depends on two factors: people''s preferences (would they like creating damage?) and the constraints under which people act (what damage could they create, and at what punishment?). Cause-related policies, e.g. improving social stability or education, aim at appeasing preferences, thereby reducing terrorism. Symptom-related policies, e.g. embargoes or wars, change the constraints (`deterrence''), but may have side effects on preferences (`provocation''); ter...

  16. Implications of the War On Terror for Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Ahmad

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The US-led War on Terror in Afghanistan conducted for the aim of eliminating Al- Qaeda and Osama-bin-Laden has brought about enormous economic, social and political changes in the region. Pakistan’s role as a front-line state in the War on Terror has had profound implications for its domestic politics and foreign policy. Pakistan not only took a U-turn on its Afghanistan policy, but also had to crack down on internal extremism and terrorism. Several military operations were carried out against the so- called terrorist factions in tribal areas and some other parts of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP, renamed as Khyber Pukhtunkhwa (KPK under the 18th Amendment to the Constitution of 1973 of Pakistan. With a majority Pashtun population, KPK has been a target of the War on Terror due to its social structure, cultural restraints and the religion of its inhabitants on the boundary with Afghanistan. The socio-cultural similarities and geographical proximity with Afghanistan have made it a sanctuary for Al-Qaeda members. The War on Terror in KPK has had negative political, economic and social repercussions for the region and thus has created hatred among the Pashtuns. This paper is an attempt to analyze the factors which made the Pashtuns of this area prone to militancy. It will analyze the political, economic and social implications of the War on Terror for KPK in general and its Pashtun population in particular.

  17. On reducing terrorism power: a hint from physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galam, Serge; Mauger, Alain

    2003-05-01

    The September 11 attack on the US has revealed an unprecedented terrorism worldwide range of destruction. Recently, it has been related to the percolation of worldwide spread passive supporters. This scheme puts the suppression of the percolation effect as the major strategic issue in the fight against terrorism. Accordingly the world density of passive supporters should be reduced below the percolation threshold. In terms of solid policy, it means to neutralize millions of random passive supporters, which is contrary to ethics and out of any sound practical scheme. Given this impossibility we suggest instead a new strategic scheme to act directly on the value of the terrorism percolation threshold itself without harming the passive supporters. Accordingly we identify the space hosting the percolation phenomenon to be a multi-dimensional virtual social space which extends the ground earth surface to include the various independent terrorist-fighting goals. The associated percolating cluster is then found to create long-range ground connections to terrorism activity. We are thus able to modify the percolation threshold pc in the virtual space to reach psocial space dimension, leaving the density p unchanged. At once that would break down the associated world terrorism network to a family of unconnected finite-size clusters. The current world terrorism threat would thus shrink immediately and spontaneously to a local geographic problem. There, military action would become limited and efficient.

  18. Containment Revived: An Alternative Way to Cope With Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Andreas M. Bock, Ph.D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "Coercion or negative sanctions are found to have little effect [on terrorism] and, in important instances, are even counterproductive." In other words: fighting terrorism by war is no use, it does not even have a deterrent effect. On the contrary, the employment of massive military power makes it easier for terrorists to justify their attacks, to find broad support, and to recruit new followers. This notwithstanding, I will offer an alternative way to cope with terrorism, using George F. Kennan's concept of containment. This is the link to our effort to effectively fight the terrorist threat: it is a battle too for the loyalties and convictions of people. Usama bin Ladin is not the problem; given the growing threat perception of an Islamic motivated international terrorism, he is just a complication. The problem is a growing willingness to engage in terrorist attacks—even by apparently well integrated and secularly educated immigrants' children of the second generation. The convictions of people constitute the strength of a social movement. And besides its horrific violent aspects, terrorism is a social movement intended to achieve social or political change. Without broad support, terrorism loses its potential.

  19. ROMANIA’S ANTI - TERRORISM CAPABILITIES: TRANSFORMATION, COOPERATION, EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Cristiana MATEI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fighting terrorism effectively is not a new security responsibility for the security forces in Romania. Terrorism has been a menace to Romania’s national security before 1989, and for years during the Communist regime, Securitate’s anti-terrorist elite force’s acumen had averted terrorist attacks. Yet, Cold War terrorism is different from Twenty-First Century terrorism. What changed after the fall of the Iron Curtain, and chiefly after the atrocious terrorist attacks in the United States (US on September 11, 2001 (9/11, was the lethality and virulence of terrorists’ intents and goals. Attacks in the US, Spain, Great Britain, and others urged Romania (as much as other countries transform its overall security system to be able to fi ght terrorism and terrorist networks, as well as other asymmetric security threats and challenges, effectively and collaboratively. This paper reviews Romania’s security system post-Cold War transformation, in pursuit of effectively averting, countering and combating terrorism.

  20. ADDRESSING THE SPECTRE OF CYBER TERRORISM: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia Cassim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the definition of cyber terrorism and terrorist use of the Internet. The article evaluates cyber terrorist threats facing countries such as the United States of America, the United Kingdom, India and South Africa. The article also examines measures introduced by the respective governments in these countries to counteract cyber terrorist threats. Finally, the article will propose a way forward to counteract such possible threats in the future.The face of terrorism is changing. The convergence of the physical and virtual worlds has resulted in the creation of a “new threat” called cyber terrorism. Cyber terrorism is one of the recognised cyber crimes. The absence of suitable legal frameworks to address cyber terrorism at national and regional levels, the lack of adequate safeguards, the lack of cyber security strategies and the pre-occupation of countries with internal factors have all contributed to the creation of an environment that can be easily infiltrated by cyber terrorists. The horrific events of 9/11 provided the impetus for many countries to introduce anti-terrorist legislation. The United States of America, United Kingdom, India and South Africa have introduced legislation to address the threat of cyber terrorism.

  1. Threat of nuclear terrorism: Issues of international law, border protection, security and export control cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1970-1991 the IAEA dealt mainly with loyal signatories to NPT, after 1991 met challenges of non-loyal states aiming at clandestine nuclear programs (Iraq and North Korea), while after 2001 must also meet new challenge of non-loyal non-state actors aiming at obtaining nuclear materials and weapons. The task of protecting 450 tons of separated weapon grade plutonium, 1700 tons of separated HEU outside military use, as well as 2,7 tons of HEU in civilian and training reactors spread in 43 countries requires more active cooperation between the IAEA and state and inter-state structures responsible for fight against international crime, intelligence, control of borders and domestic law and order. UN SC resolutions 1269, 1368, 1373 provide some important legal basis for fight against nuclear terrorism, but special Convention on Fight Against Nuclear Terrorism need to be adopted through UN procedures. Protocol on Fight against International terrorism is required to supplement the Palermo (2000) Convention on Fight Against Transnational Organized Crime (signed as for now by 128 states). Treaty on Cooperation in Fight against Terrorism signed by the CIS states in 1999, as well as creation of the CIS Anti-Terrorist Center in 2000 could contribute to the legal means of such fight. Russia also employs Bishkek security group (within Shanghai Cooperation Organization) and 'Borjomi Four' group (security services cooperation between Russia, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan) for anti-terrorist coordination. Obligations under START-1, START-II and other treaties on nuclear disarmament require from Russia to dismantle in foreseeable future about 250 nuclear reactors from submarines, about 700 SLBMs, about 150 ICBMs of SS-18 type and 400 more of other types. All that would increase stocks of fissile material beyond direct military use and would require additional protection measures. In time this task coincides for Russia with necessity to reprocess 40,000 tons of chemical weapons (task

  2. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model

  3. Biological and Chemical Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  4. Mobile Radiation Detection System against Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the September 11th, 2001, terrorist attacks in the USA, the discovery of Al-Qaeda's experimentation to build dirty bomb and the death of a former officer of the Russian Federal Security Service from Po-210- induced acute radiation exposure, the threats relating to nuclear and radioactive materials have become a matter of increased international concern. Detection of illicit transport and trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials is necessary for prevention of nuclear terrorism, since failure in detection might lead to catastrophic results. A mobile radiation detection system plays an important role in preventing the potential dangers posed by illicit transport and trafficking of such dangerous materials because it can monitor the suspicious vehicle at place beyond terrorist's expectation which makes intentionally a detour about the portal monitor deployed at seaports, airports, and key traffic checkpoints. The mobile radiation detection system using one NaI, two plastic scintillation, and two He-3 detectors has been developed. This paper describes the developed mobile radiation detection system and experimental results for its performance assessment

  5. Hedging against terrorism: Are US businesses prepared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Jerome H

    2015-01-01

    Private US companies face risks in connection with financial matters, but are not necessarily prepared to cope with risks that can seriously disrupt or even halt their operations, notably terrorist attacks and natural disasters. Enhancing the resilience of businesses when dealing with terrorism is especially challenging, as these groups or individuals can adapt tactics to exploit the vulnerabilities of companies they wish to target. Business managers need to formulate flexible preparedness plans that reduce risks from large-scale natural disasters as well as terrorist attacks. In doing so, they can take advantage of post-9/11 US government guidance for these endeavours as well as programmes that eliminate risks to private insurance entities so they can issue policies that cover terrorist strikes of high consequences. Just as business executives use hedging strategies in the world of finance, they also need operational hedging strategies as a means of exploiting as well as lowering the risks surrounding future uncertainties. Resources devoted to planning and hedging are investments that can increase the odds of businesses surviving and thriving, even if they experience high-impact terrorist attacks, threats or large-scale natural disasters, making suppliers, customers and stakeholders happy. The purpose of this paper is to give executives the incentive to take steps to do just that. PMID:26420397

  6. Clash of Images: 9/11 & Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Zeiny

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The world we live is fraught with visual images. These images are central to how we communicate and represent in our lives. They are of significance in the imagination and construction of cultural identities. Visual communication is more ubiquitous than ever before because images have the ability to quickly influence viewers both cognitively and emotionally. Many of the images that we see daily are ideological images such as the anti-Muslim or anti-American pictures triggered by 9/11. This paper examines the 9/11 images and the consequent images of ‘war on terror.’ Utilizing and extending Gillian Whitlock’s theory of ‘soft weapons’ to images, we argue that images which have long been recruited as propaganda can act as weapon in soliciting support and sympathy by generating hatred. We shed light on the fact that the clash of images is indicative of current image culture where images are powerful tools of persuasion when they array against and engage with one another.

  7. Regarding Terror: On Art and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Nowak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘Regarding Terror: The RAF Exhibition’, held in Berlin in 2005, presented art works and documents dealing with the Red Army Faction (or Baader-Meinhof Group, a left-wing terrorist association active in Germany from the late 1960s until well after the controversial deaths of key members of the group in 1977. For some, the initial plans for the exhibition threatened to turn the RAF into heroes at the expense of any acknowledgement of the RAF’s victims. As a result, the government withdrew its funding, the exhibition was reconceptualised, and it was decided to present the material in as unbiased way as possible. The controversy and discussion surrounding ‘Regarding Terror’ exposes some critical issues regarding art’s relationship with politics. It is argued in this article that while individual art works and curatorial decisions influence our responses to political issues, shortcomings exist in the way the relationship between art and its subject matter is implicitly understood. These issues are explored by investigating the extent to which the fears about the exhibition and the debate surrounding it are indicative of a need to rethink the relationship between art and politics in the light of considerations of the implications of art’s autonomy and of art’s relationship with reality. Such a rethinking would bring into focus the nature of art’s responsibility to politics

  8. Characterising the UK Terrorist Threat: The Problem with Non-Violent Ideology as a Focus for Counter-Terrorism and Terrorism as the product of ‘Vulnerability’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Richards

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates two particular aspects as to how the terrorist threat in the UK has been characterised, arguing that they both challenge conventional academic wisdom as to how terrorism should be conceptualised. While such conventional wisdom should always be open to challenge, and policymaking perspectives are different to those of academics, these two particular aspects as to how the terrorist threat has been perceived in the UK merit scrutiny, especially as counter-terrorism strategies have been premised on them. They are: i the contemporary and explicit concern with ‘extremist’ but 'non-violent' ideas that are said to be ‘conducive’ to terrorism as a focus for a counter-terrorism response and ii the notion that terrorism has increasingly been seen as the product of ‘vulnerability’. The first, and the main focus of this article, appears to challenge the widely held view within terrorism studies that, when defining terrorism, reference to the cause or the perpetrator is unhelpful because terrorism should first and foremost (and more objectively be seen as a particular 'method' of violence that has been used by a wide variety of actors, regardless of the ideology or the belief systems of its perpetrators. The second aspect – the impetus towards viewing terrorism as the product of vulnerability or individual fallibility - arguably implies a diminished capacity for rational behaviour, which challenges a further commonly held view within terrorism studies: that terrorism entails the use of calculated and rational acts of violence.

  9. Fighting terrorism in the Netherlands; a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Janse

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch government and legislature are in the process of introducing an unprecedented set of anti-terrorist measures. It is claimed that these measures are necessary and justified, as terrorism today threatens the security of Dutch society as never before. But does it? In the present state of excitement, it is all too easy to forget that Dutch society has had to face terrorism before. Indeed, if the number of people killed or targeted is a measure of the gravity of a terrorist threat, terrorism in the 1970s was more serious than current terrorism has been up until now. Yet in the 1970s, the Dutch government did not introduce a comprehensive set of anti-terrorist measures, unlike, for example, the British and German governments. In this paper, the Moluccan actions, the most serious terrorist actions Dutch society has experienced so far, and the reaction by the government to these actions, are discussed. This leads to the conclusion that current terrorism is less different from old-style terrorism than the government claims it to be, although there may be one important difference: the risk that current terrorists use deeply destructive weapons. This is not to say that the government’s policies were better in the 1970s than they are now. However, a sense of what the record tells us may help us in disciplining current fears and in taking a more critical stance towards the view that the present anti-terrorist measures are necessary and justified because we never saw anything like current terrorism before.

  10. Perceived coping & concern predict terrorism preparedness in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Garry

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the aftermath of major terrorist incidents research shows population shifts towards protective behaviours, including specific preparedness and avoidance responses. Less is known about individual preparedness in populations with high assumed threat but limited direct exposure, such as Australia. In this study we aimed to determine whether individuals with high perceived coping and higher concern would show greater preparedness to respond to terrorism threats. Methods Adults in New South Wales (NSW completed terrorism perception and response questions as part of computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI in 2010 (N=2038. Responses were weighted against the NSW population. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between personal coping/concern factors and terrorism-related preparedness and avoidance behaviours, and to control for potential confounders such as socio-demographic and threat perception factors. Results Increased vigilance for suspicious behaviours was the most commonly reported behavioural response to perceived terrorism threat. Multivariate analyses showed that the factor combination of high perceived coping and higher concern was the most consistent predictor of terrorism preparedness behaviours and evacuation intentions, including increased vigilance (Adjusted Odd Ratios (AOR=2.07, p=0.001 learning evacuation plans (AOR=1.61, p=0.05, establishing emergency contact plans (AOR=2.73, p Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that terrorism preparedness behaviours are strongly associated with perceived high coping but that this relationship is also mediated by personal concerns relating to this threat. Cognitive variables such as coping self-efficacy are increasingly targeted as part of natural hazard preparedness and are a viable intervention target for terrorism preparedness initiatives. Raising individual coping perceptions may promote greater general and

  11. The Politics of Terrorism: Power, Legitimacy, and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Couto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and juxtaposes discourses about terrorism, violence, and political leadership. It presents generalizations about terrorism—a form of political violence by, for, and against the state—and politics and violence based on the theories of Max Weber and Hannah Arendt. The stark contrasts drawn from these theories include power as non-violent strength (Arendt versus power as violence-dependent (Weber and the struggle for legitimacy between different agents (states and individuals as well as terrorism by, for, and against the state. This reframing of power leads to judging a lack of power where there is violence, and the presence of power where one observes non-violence. An examination of political and criminal violence leads to questions about deliberate and purposeful violence, indirect and structural violence that has political consequences, and their relationship to terrorism. It expands the application of terrorism to include indirect structural violence by indicating its relationship to direct violence, not only in traditionally-viewed terrorist action but in the ignored terror of, for example, inner cities. Terrorism has many forms by many actors. To synthesize the results of these lines of reasoning leads to a conclusion with considerable implications for politics and for political leadership. The politics of terrorism suggest a central counter-terrorist approach: de-politicizing the violence of terrorists whenever possible and using the authority and power of the state to institutionalize it as criminal violence. This, in turn, also means politicizing other forms of violence, such as capital punishment, and their indirect and structural forms, such as the inner city.

  12. CHANGES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS STATE AND THE EFFECT OF ACPUNCTURE INTERVENTION IN ARMED ANTI-TERRORISM POLICEMEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许建阳; 王发强; 刘庆安; 陈燕; 毛新远; 蒲朝煜; 雷志勇; 杨希忠; 单保慈

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To observe psychological changes of the armed policemen under stress state and the effect of acupuncture intervention for exploring possible measures in raising the armed policemen's capability in dealing with the suddenly-occurred accidents. Methods: In the first part of the study for observing psychological changes, a total of 90 volunteer armed policemen participating in anti-terrorism maneuver were randomly and evenly divided into anti-chemical weapon group, flight reconnaissance group and hostage-rescuing group. 30 logistic personals were selected to form control group. Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) questionnaire was used to assess the psychological state of these anti-terrorism policemen. In the second part of the study for observing the effect of acupuncture, 60 policemen with anxiety and depression who were determined by Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) were randomly and evenly divided into non-acupuncture and acupuncture groups, and other 30 policemen with normal psychological state were selected to form control group. Two weeks before anti-terrorism maneuver, participants of acupuncture group were asked to receive continuous acupuncture treatment of bilateral Neiguan (内关PC 6) and Zusanli (足三里ST 36), once daily, 15 min every time. Results:Comparison among the first 4 groups displayed that the total scores, scores of body feeling reactions, interpersonal relation, depression, anxiety, terror, and psychological problems of flight reconnaissance and hostage-rescuing groups were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05~0.01), suggesting that the psychological stress pressure was strongest in flight reconnaissance policemen and secondary in hostage-rescuing policemen, followed by anti-chemical weapon policemen. Following administration of acupuncture intervention, scores of both SDS and SAS in acupuncture group were considerably lower than those of non-acupuncture group (P<0

  13. The boomerang affect of the war on terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Goerzig

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo escruta las reacciones legislativas a los atentados en la ciudad de Oklahoma y los de Londres en 2005 para intentar descifrar como la legislación antiterrorista ha sustancialmente bloqueado estos ataques. Se intenta mostrar como la resistencia de los gobiernos y los ejecutivos aprueba índices críticos en las leyes antiterroristas. A la luz de una reciente encuesta sobre legislación antiterrorista mundial, los casos donde la legislación antiterrorista ha sido bloqueada ha llegado a ser verdaderamente crítica. A este fin, este artículo se pregunta por qué la legislación antiterrorista se bloquea cuando esto sucede. Para responder a esta cuestión, se han testado tres variables: la composición de los gobiernos, la opinión pública-basada en los niveles de terror en sus medios, y el nivel de acuerdos ejecutivos. Para testar estas variables, se han evaluado dos casos: la evolución de la legislación antiterrorista antes de los ataques de la ciudad de Oklahoma en 1995 y antes de los atentados de Londres de 2005. En la evaluación de los casos, los debates legislativos y ejecutivos han ocurrido antes de los ataques terroristas examinados y luego se han comparado los dos casos con el Reino Unido en 1974 y los Estados Unidos en 2001 cuando la legislación antiterrorista inicia su camino. Este artículo concluye que el nivel de acuerdos ejecutivos y la composición de los gobiernos tiene el mayor poder de explicación en determinadas decisiones antiterroristas que llevarán a secundar la legislación antiterrorista o no.Palabras clave: ataques terroristas a Londres, legislación antiterrorista, Estados Unidos, Reino Unido___________________________ABSTRACT:The goal of the war on terror is to prevent a new 9/11. In order to achieve this, the preemptive strike has been introduced to tackle the terrorism risk. However, this precisely leads to the increasing unpredictability of terrorism and hence the likelihood of a new 9

  14. International terrorism, a new challenge to modern Western society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The attacks of 9/11 against the WTC and the Pentagon have made western society aware of the threat potential, which international terrorism presents to the open and democratic societies of the West. The new international terrorism is substantially different from the traditional form terrorism, which our societies has experienced in the past. The arms of traditional terrorism were bombs and guns and the victims were mostly clearly defined targets and its political and ideological motives were known. The terrorists assumed responsibility and there was an interest and scope for political negotiation. Terrorist groups had a vertical structure with a hierarchy. The new international terrorism is organized in a horizontal way and its structure is amorphous. Terrorist groups act in an autonomous way and linked by a rather loose network. International terrorism makes full use of modern communication systems and seek to equip themselves with the best armament available including WMDs, provided they can get hold of them. Their target are no longer individuals, but the modern western society. They aim at a maximum number of victims in order to get maximum media attention and to destabilize the targeted society. The motives of terrorist groups are religious or ideological. A terrorist attack represents for those terrorists a religious, nearly sacral act, including self sacrifice. Today, the main challenge for the open, democratic and modern society represents the network of Islamic Fundamentalists. Islamic terrorism has been active mainly in Islamic countries with the aim to overthrow westernized forms of government, mainly in Egypt and Algeria. In the early 1990's, the network of Islamic terror groups has been built up and the al-Qaida was formed. AI-Qaida is a network of Islamic terror groups and a platform for co-operation and support of Islamic cells. It provides training, arms, finances, etc.. AI-Qaida supported the Taliban regime, which provided it with a

  15. Tourism and Terror: a Case Study: Israel 1948-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik H. Cohen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Israel is a popular tourist destination which has by afflicted by varying levels of terrorism against civilians over the course of its history. A longitudinal analysis of data pertaining to tourism and terrorism is undertaken to examine how terrorism affects patterns of tourism. It is found that on the macro-level, tourism to Israel continues to grow although it experiences periodic declines corresponding with times of high terrorist activity. National and religious subpopulations of tourists react differently terrorism at the destination. Overall, Jews are proportionally more likely than non-Jews to continue to visit Israel during times of conflict, but this varies among Diaspora communities. Moreover, among US Jewish tourist, the strongly religious populations represented a greater percentage of visitors during years of high terrorism. This preliminary analysis explores how internal structural features of the Jewish community (such as Jewish educational settings and family ties to Israelis, external factors of the home country (such as anti-Semitism or the economic situation and national and cultural value orientation affect tourism patterns. The impact of these factors on tourism deserves continued research.

  16. 75 FR 18214 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response (BSC, COTPER) \\1\\ \\1\\ The Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response has been renamed and is now the Office of...

  17. How the world can combat nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much attention is currently being given to the control of uranium enrichment technology, and rightly so. If all enrichment operations were brought under multinational control, it would become far more difficult for any country to divert enriched uranium for use in weapons. But it makes equal sense to protect - or, better still, to eliminate - the bomb-grade HEU that already exists. Civil society has become involved, raising awareness of the problem and supporting change. A good example is that of the Nuclear Threat Initiative. Just last year it completed a project with the government of Kazakhstan that successfully 'downblended' nearly 3,000 kilograms of fresh HEU fuel to LEU and placed it in secure storage. But more successes like these are needed. Countries involved should join forces to minimize and eventually eliminate the civilian use of HEU. Joint research should be conducted to address the remaining technical hurdles involved in converting from HEU to LEU operations. The commercial interests of the companies concerned should be protected. Financing should be made available where needed to assist countries with conversion operations. And the HEU fuel should be sent back to the countries of origin for downblending and reuse. All countries should agree to stop producing fissile material for use in nuclear weapons. The elements are already in place for such an agreement, in the form of a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty. It is high time to negotiate and conclude such a treaty. Third, to build trust, countries with civilian and military HEU stockpiles should be encouraged to release clear inventories of those stockpiles, and to publish a schedule under which the remaining HEU will be verifiably downblended. By investing in these straightforward measures, we could reduce substantially the risk of nuclear terrorism. The work could be done jointly, as an international community; this is one initiative in which all countries - nuclear weapon states and non

  18. The life satisfaction approach to valuing public goods: The case of terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Bruno S.; Luechinger, Simon; Stutzer, Alois

    2009-01-01

    Terrorism has large social costs that are difficult to quantify for the well-known problems of eliciting people’s preferences for public goods. We use the LSA to assess these costs in utility and monetary terms. Based on combined cross-section time-series data, we estimate the costs of terrorism for France and the British Isles. We find large negative effects of terrorism on life satisfaction that translate into considerable compensating surpluses for a hypothetical reduction in terrorism, in...

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF TERRORISM ACTIVITIES ON THE TOURISM: CASE STUDY OF JAIPUR

    OpenAIRE

    SUNIL KUMAR NIMESH

    2012-01-01

    In this study the researcher tried to expose the connection between tourism and terrorism and overviewed the negative impact of terrorism on the arrival of both foreign and domestic tourists, which is the main objective of this study. The case study and the data presented in the paper approved the connection between terrorism in all its forms and tourism. The study indicated that tourism activities break down for a while due to terrorism but could not end. Tourism flourishes with the ...

  20. DETERMINANTS OF TERRORISM: A PANEL DATA ANALYSIS OF SELECTED SOUTH ASIAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD NASIR; AMANAT ALI; FAIZ UR REHMAN

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of terrorism has riveted world's unwavering attention since 9/11. The underlying study investigates the determinants of terrorism in the South Asian region. Applying negative binomial regression, the study finds that both political structure and economic conditions are responsible for terrorism. On the economic front, relative deprivation represented by income disparity is the major cause of terrorism. On the other hand, deprivation of the people of their political rights and c...

  1. Terrorism litigation as deterrence under international law - from protecting human rights to countering hybrid threats

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Sascha

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the current state of anti-terrorism litigation under US federal law for the adjudication of international torts such as terrorism and other serious human rights violations. Corporate terrorism litigation focuses on the role and impact of both corporate and individual financial aiders and abettors of international terrorism and explores the desirability and feasibility of subjecting these non-state actors to transnational human rights litigation. The t...

  2. The Czech National Action Plan on Combating Terrorism: Political and Legal Point of Outcome in Responding to CBRNE-Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the events of September 2001 starting new era in the global terrorism, pursuant to the UN Security Council Resolutions 1368, 1373, and 1377 (2001), new security threats were identified and needs to fight against international terrorism were stressed. In the Czech Republic, a complex approach and broad institutional co-operation including inputs of scientific research (including authors involvement) to analyse endangered critical infrastructures and respective countermeasures had led to strengthening national measures in implementing respective international agreements dealing with WMD non-proliferation under deepening the co-operation within EU and NATO. The concrete complex programme of harmonised effort of all state organs in combating international terrorism resulted in the Czech National Action Plan on Combating Terrorism (2002). This (yearly updated) binding political document (issued by the Czech Government) identifies threats to all sectors of society and contains agreed harmonised active measures to be undertaken by involved organisations and institutions in all aspects of prevention, repression, protection, rescue and recovery for cases of terrorist attacks. The contents and respective measures are presented and discussed in detail with special emphasis on the aspects of CBRNE terrorism and role of Integrated Rescue System.(author)

  3. Emergent information technologies and enabling policies for counter-terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Popp, R

    2006-01-01

    Explores both counter-terrorism and enabling policy dimensions of emerging information technologies in national security After the September 11th attacks, "connecting the dots" has become the watchword for using information and intelligence to protect the United States from future terrorist attacks. Advanced and emerging information technologies offer key assets in confronting a secretive, asymmetric, and networked enemy. Yet, in a free and open society, policies must ensure that these powerful technologies are used responsibly, and that privacy and civil liberties remain protected. Emergent Information Technologies and Enabling Policies for Counter-Terrorism provides a unique, integrated treatment of cutting-edge counter-terrorism technologies and their corresponding policy options. Featuring contributions from nationally recognized authorities and experts, this book brings together a diverse knowledge base for those charged with protecting our nation from terrorist attacks while preserving our civil liberti...

  4. Forensic Speaker Recognition Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Hemant

    2012-01-01

    Forensic Speaker Recognition: Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism is an anthology of the research findings of 35 speaker recognition experts from around the world. The volume provides a multidimensional view of the complex science involved in determining whether a suspect’s voice truly matches forensic speech samples, collected by law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, that are associated with the commission of a terrorist act or other crimes. While addressing such topics as the challenges of forensic case work, handling speech signal degradation, analyzing features of speaker recognition to optimize voice verification system performance, and designing voice applications that meet the practical needs of law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, this material all sounds a common theme: how the rigors of forensic utility are demanding new levels of excellence in all aspects of speaker recognition. The contributors are among the most eminent scientists in speech engineering and signal process...

  5. The Effects of Terrorism on the Travel and Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mc. A Baker

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of terrorism on the travel and tourism industry can be enormous. It can lead to unemployment, homelessness, deflation, and many other social and economic ills. The contribution of tourism for many countries is so great that any downturn in the industry is a cause of major concern for many governments. The repercussions are left in many other industries associated with tourism like airlines, hotels, restaurants and shops that cater to the tourists and allied services. Terrorism is an enigmatic and compelling phenomenon, and its relationship with tourism is complex and multifaceted. This paper aims to clarify this relationship and examines the relationship between selected factors and tourists’ decision-making process for destination choice. Tourists’ risk perception associated with terrorism served as a basis for the analysis.

  6. Risk-based decision making for terrorism applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Robin L; Liebe, Robert M; Bestafka, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    This article describes the anti-terrorism risk-based decision aid (ARDA), a risk-based decision-making approach for prioritizing anti-terrorism measures. The ARDA model was developed as part of a larger effort to assess investments for protecting U.S. Navy assets at risk and determine whether the most effective anti-terrorism alternatives are being used to reduce the risk to the facilities and war-fighting assets. With ARDA and some support from subject matter experts, we examine thousands of scenarios composed of 15 attack modes against 160 facility types on two installations and hundreds of portfolios of 22 mitigation alternatives. ARDA uses multiattribute utility theory to solve some of the commonly identified challenges in security risk analysis. This article describes the process and documents lessons learned from applying the ARDA model for this application. PMID:19187486

  7. Defining Terrorism at the Special Tribunal for Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Puchooa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available On 16 February 2011, the Appeals Chamber of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL issued an interlocutory decision regarding the legal definition of terrorism.This decision was in response to a Pre-Trial Chamber (PTC list of questions requesting,' inter alia', an elaboration of the elements of this crime.In exploring this matter, the Appeals Chamber defined the subjective ('mens rea' and objective elements ('actus reus' of terrorism by referring to domestic Lebanese law and international law. It thereby set out the applicable law for the court. The consequence of this decision however is not limited to the law of STL but may be seen as having far-reaching consequences for the conception of terrorism under both international law and International Criminal Law (ICL. Given the significance of the Appeals Chamber judgment, this paper will scrutinise three areas of concern regarding its propriety:

  8. The role of ethnocultural variables in response to terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Katrina L; Chestnut, Dennis

    2003-08-01

    The threat of terrorism is having a profound impact on Americans. This study examined ethnocultural variables of ethnic background, gender, age, and educational background to better understand first reactions to, explanations for, and responses to what happened on September 11, 2001. Data were obtained from a sample of university students, church and civic group members, and people of the general community. Results suggest that ethnic background, gender, and age influence reactions to terrorism. Ethnic background and gender influenced causal explanations about the attacks. Strong gender differences were noted in how participants were affected by the attacks; strongest similarities were observed in reports of first reactions to news of the events, with most people experiencing shock and disbelief. Conclusions stress the importance of future mental health interventions and research giving strong consideration to ethnocultural variables when dealing with victims of terrorism. PMID:12971092

  9. Risks of Terrorism, Homicide and Illness: a Methodological Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Chasdi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A recurring question posed to researchers is whether or not terrorism poses similar degrees of risk as other man-made or natural disasters. There are some specialists, such as John Mueller, who argue that somewhat ironically, the threat of terrorism is vastly exaggerated.[1] This begs the question : compared to what? The underlying aim of this Research Note is to point out some basic methodological and contextual issues to consider, rather than making an attempt to provide hard answers regarding relative individual and collective risks. However, an effort is made to place some empirical findings into appropriate political and social contexts. The framework for discussion includes: basic conceptual problems regarding the notion of “risk”; a comparison of certain basic terrorism incident rates with rates for homicides and illness; and identification of possible future directions to gauge risk assessment within the context of a more holistic systems perspective. 

  10. 75 FR 20893 - National Day of Service and Remembrance for Victims and Survivors of Terrorism, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-9416 Filed 4-20-10; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... and Survivors of Terrorism, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation There... Remembrance for Victims and Survivors of Terrorism, we pause to remember victims of terrorism at home...

  11. 6 CFR 25.4 - Designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of qualified anti-terrorism... REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.4 Designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies. (a) General. The Under Secretary may Designate as a Qualified...

  12. 31 CFR 596.404 - Financial transactions transferred through a bank of a Terrorism List Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... through a bank of a Terrorism List Government. 596.404 Section 596.404 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 596.404 Financial transactions transferred through a bank of a Terrorism List Government. For the purposes of this part only, a...

  13. 78 FR 30934 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... requirement concerning the Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT). This request for comment is...: Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT). OMB Number: 1651-0077. Form Number: None....

  14. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart A - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program (ITVERP); Chart of Expense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Terrorism Victim Expense... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Pt. 94, Subpt. A, App. Appendix to Subpart A—International Terrorism Victim...

  15. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for Insurers Compensated Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for Insurers Compensated Under the Program... extension approval by the Office of Management and Budget. The Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office... triacomments@do.treas.gov or by mail (if hard copy, preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism...

  16. 6 CFR 25.6 - Procedures for designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-terrorism technologies. 25.6 Section 25.6 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.6 Procedures for designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies. (a) Application Procedure. Any person, firm or...

  17. 31 CFR 596.504 - Certain financial transactions with Terrorism List Governments authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not otherwise subject to 31 CFR chapter V, except for a transfer from a Terrorism List Government: (1... Terrorism List Governments authorized. 596.504 Section 596.504 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing...

  18. 75 FR 6678 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs and Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... requirement concerning the Customs and Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT). This request for comment...: Title: Customs and Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT). OMB Number: 1651-0077. Form...

  19. Impact of Terrorism on Managerial Efficiency of Heads of Secondary Schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Usman Ghani; Iqba, Javed

    2015-01-01

    Terrorism has adversely affected the educational environment in Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa Province. This study was conducted to know the impact of Terrorism on managerial efficiency of heads of secondary schools in Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa that included Malakand, Mangawara, Dir, Hangu , Bannu and D I Khan which are the highly affected areas of terrorism.…

  20. "the Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism"

    OpenAIRE

    Atran, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Suicide attack is the most virulent and horrifying form of terrorism in the world today. The mere rumor of an impending suicide attack can throw thousands of people into panic. This occurred during a Shi‘a procession in Iraq in late August 2005, causing hundreds of deaths. Although suicide attacks account for a minority of all terrorist acts, they are responsible for a majority of all terrorism-related casualties, and the rate of attacks is rising rapidly across the globe. During 2000–2004, t...

  1. Konservatismen og den højreradikale terror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Den norske højreekstremist Anders Behring Breiviks terror mod det norske samfund har herhjemme ledt til en voldsom debat om blandt andet forbindelsen mellem tonen i debatten og terrorangrebet og forholdet mellem den siden 2001 meget omtalte kulturkonservatisme og Anders Breiviks terrorhandling....... Essayet Konservatismen og den højreradikale terror forsøger dels at skabe klarhed over fronterne i debatten, dels at rette en kritik mod såvel tendensen til at afskrive handlingen som uforståelig som af tendensen til at slå den bredere højrefløjs kritik af multikulturalismen i hartkorn med Breiviks...

  2. The threat of nuclear terrorism: Assessment and preventive action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the light of the events of 11 September, the General Conference requested the IAEA Director General to review thoroughly the activities and programmes of the Agency with a view to strengthening the Agency's work relevant to preventing acts of terrorism involving nuclear materials and other radioactive materials. That review is ongoing and the results will be presented in March to the Board of Governors, including proposals for revisions and updates on relevant programmes. It is underlined that preventing nuclear terrorism requires cooperation between States and with international organizations. The problem must be addressed in a comprehensive manner. The international community should therefore strive for strong, comprehensive, internationally accepted security systems

  3. Coping with the threat of terrorism: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguen, Shira; Papa, Anthony; Litz, Brett T

    2008-01-01

    Terrorism creates a ripple of fear and uncertainty. Although most individuals are resilient and recover over time, a minority remains functionally and psychologically impaired. In this paper, we examine research on coping strategies employed in the aftermath of terrorist events, theories and empirical findings related to appraisal processes that influence individuals' primary attributions of risk, and normative processes that shape secondary appraisals, which predict specific coping behaviors. We also describe individual diatheses and factors promoting resilience that may influence coping and functioning in the face of terrorism. Finally, we offer suggestions for future research. PMID:18027122

  4. Patterns of Force: System Strength, Terrorism and Civil War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freytag, Andreas; Meierrieks, Daniel; Münch, Angela;

    2010-01-01

    in response to the strengths and weaknesses of the system they challenge. An empirical test of this hypothesis for 104 countries for 1992 to 2004 indeed shows that the socio-economic strength of a system positively correlates with the likelihood of terrorism, but negatively with the incidence of...... civil war. Institutional quality and political participation of opponents reduce the risk of civil war, but do not affect the likelihood of terrorism. We also show that system stability reduces the likelihood of all forms of violent opposition....

  5. Views on Nuclear and Radiological Terrorism Threat Assessment and Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper offers some views from an international perspective on the nuclear and radiological terrorism threat assessment and response. It introduces the political, institutional and regulatory issues associated with this threat. This paper analyses the reactions and mechanisms implemented by the international community aimed at fighting nuclear terrorism and the role of the IAEA. It also describes national needs in order to ensure national security against attacks with nuclear or radioactive material. The paper takes into account the security community's viewpoint on the subject of standards and on the need to recognize that a nuclear regulatory body does not represent the entire community of stakeholders in the security field. (author)

  6. Canada's Anti-Terrorism Act: creating a paradigm of insecurity?

    OpenAIRE

    Sample, Michelle S.

    2008-01-01

    On December 18, 2001, the Canadian government passed the Anti-Terrorism Act, a piece of omni-bus legislation aimed at preventing terrorist attacks. Since then criticisms of the Act have mounted, with many questioning the legitimacy of some of the Act’s more controversial provisions in a country which bills itself as a world leader in respect for human rights and individual freedoms. In passing the Anti-Terrorism Act the Canadian government put the very essence of Canadian values at risk. In s...

  7. Target Identification against Radiological Terrorism Sabotage on a Spent Fuel Pool System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, we pay attention to a matter of safety and security relative to complex risky facilities and infrastructures (e.g., nuclear facilities, gas pipelines and tanks) as a hot issue to be tackled by a variety of stake holders such as politicians, scientists, utilities, NGOs and so forth. In particular, since the 9/11 terrorism attacks, a radiological sabotage becomes one of interesting research topics in the engineering field. According to 10 CFR 73.2, a radiological sabotage could endanger the public health and safety by exposure to radiation. Terrorism sabotage can be classified by three types as follows: 1) industrial sabotage, 2) toxicological sabotage, and 3) radiological sabotage. By them we mean any deliberate activities directed against a facility that could endanger the industry by capacity loss, the public by exposure to chemical toxic, and by exposure to radioactive sources, respectively. With regard to a nuclear power plant (NPP), the radiological sabotage requires terrorists to damage to the reactor core in a containment or/and irradiated fuel bundles in the spent fuel pool (SFP) in a fuel handling building at the site. An arrangement of these vital systems is given. SFPs have been the major concerns among scientists since they are more vulnerable to sabotage attacks than the reactor core. The reasons for more vulnerability are that 1) a SFP is housed in far less robust structures than the containment, and 2) a SFP contains much more radiation than a reactor core

  8. PERCEPTIONS OF THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM (WAT): A Malaysian Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharah Hassan, Steven Eric Krauss, Abu Daud Silong,

    2008-01-01

    Though terrorism has existed for more than 2,000 years, the 9/11 attacks on the U.S. broughtinternational repercussions unlike any previously experienced. In response to the attacks, the U.S.immediately attempted to build a broad-based anti-terrorism coalition in what is known as the “Waragainst Terrorism” (WAT) or “War on Terrorism.” Malaysia has its own experiences with terrorism,such as during the ‘communist emergency’ of the 1950s. In light of Malaysia’s unique history inovercoming terror...

  9. [Molecular and immunological detection of bacteria applied to bio-terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N; La Scola, B

    2010-09-01

    Following the episode of letters containing anthrax in the USA in 2001, the fight against bio-terrorism became a priority for many countries (including France). The detection of bacteria in bio-terrorism settings is a major component of this fight. Indeed, the early detection of these bio-terrorism agents leads to an appropriate treatment and to a reduced transmission of the disease. Bacteria are important bio-terrorism agents, and the techniques used for their detection are constantly evolving. In this review, after describing the main bacteria that can be used for bio-terrorism, we also describe the techniques available for their detection: DNA or antigen detection. PMID:20400254

  10. Bankrupting terrorism: the role of US anti-terrorism litigation in the prevention of terrorism and other hybrid threats: a legal assessment and outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    Global terrorist networks are dependent on receiving financial support from a variety of sources, including individuals, charities and corporations. Also known as terrorist financing, the potential of terrorism finance to resemble a global threat has been recognised and also its closeness to other international crimes such as money laundering and organized crime. As a result, possible responses have to constitute co-ordinated, multi-lateral and multi faceted actions under the umbrella of a wi...

  11. Changes in public opinion and the occurrence of international terrorism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malečková, Jitka; Stanišić, Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2014), s. 631-653. ISSN 1554-8597 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/12/0510 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : public opinion * international terrorism * Middle East and North Africa Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  12. Working with Children Who Have Experienced War, Terrorism, and Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Paula Sunanon; Harris, Yvette R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an overview of the consequences of war, terrorism, and disaster on children's physical, social, emotional, and cognitive development. Next, they discuss the "resiliency promoting" strategies that adults who work with children may employ prior to and after a catastrophic event. The article concludes with…

  13. 76 FR 19909 - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... accordance with Exec. Order No. 12866, section 1(b), 58 FR 51, 735 (Sept. 30, 1993), Principles of Regulation... among the various levels of government. Therefore, in accordance with Exec. Order No. 13132, 64 FR 43... of Justice Programs 28 CFR Part 94 RIN 1121-AA78 International Terrorism Victim Expense...

  14. Simulating Terrorism: Credible Commitment, Costly Signaling, and Strategic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David A.; Young, Joseph K.

    2009-01-01

    We present two simulations designed to convey the strategic nature of terrorism and counterterrorism. The first is a simulated hostage crisis, designed primarily to illustrate the concepts of credible commitment and costly signaling. The second explores high-level decision making of both a terrorist group and the state, and is designed to…

  15. The Impact of 'Narco-terrorism' on HRM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jacobo; Madero, Sergio; Muñiz, Carlos

    emphasis on soft-skills training and development, and a flexible work schedule seems to facilitate the building of trust in narco-terrorism contexts. It seems that the role of firms as social institutions integrate strategies, which seems to aim at avoid and manipulate the institutional constraints. Our...

  16. Helping Students with Disabilities Deal with Acts of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friehe, Mary J. (Morris); Swain, Kristine D.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the special needs of students with cognitive or language-processing disabilities in dealing with tragedy, including acts of terrorism. Specific suggestions for helping students cope are given for the following areas: feeling safe, handling emotion, and developing understanding. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  17. Conceptualising Terrorism Trend Patterns in Pakistan an Empirical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad  Feyyaz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism continues to be viewed conventionally in Pakistan. However, the phenomenon has assumed a structured formation driven by rational choice perspectives. This article attempts to identify distinct trends and patterns of terrorism within prevailing environments of Pakistan. In doing so, it also examines the validity of seasonality dimensions of routine activity theory (use of summer months and earlier days of week for terrorist acts. Eight trends are identified tentatively. Using empirical data and analytical discourse, the findings confirm the assumed trends in terms of their typology, structure, operational system and rallying themes. In addition, the article finds support for the hypothesis of terrorism being a strategic approach rather than an ordinary form of violence. It is further found that changed patterns of violence warrant a revisiting of earlier assumptions regarding the applicability of routine activity theory within the Pakistani context. By implication, the study also suggests a variation of terrorism under different regime types, i.e. military or democratic. 

  18. CyberWar, CyberTerror, CyberCrime

    CERN Document Server

    Mehan, Julie E

    2008-01-01

    CyberWar, CyberTerror, CyberCrime provides a stark and timely analysis of the increasingly hostile online landscape that today’s corporate systems inhabit, and gives a practical introduction to the defensive strategies that can be employed in response.

  19. Teaching Abjection: A Response to the War on Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses pedagogy and strategy within the current climate set by the "War on Terror". Deploying Lacanian psychoanalysis in a critique of standardized knowledge, the author develops a theory of "abject pedagogy" that seeks to subvert the current "regimes of truth" while providing educators with a viable pedagogy during…

  20. Fighting terrorism in the Netherlands; a historical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    The Dutch government and legislature are in the process of introducing an unprecedented set of anti-terrorist measures. It is claimed that these measures are necessary and justified, as terrorism today threatens the security of Dutch society as never before. But does it? In the present state of exci

  1. The fight against terrorism. The lists and the gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tappeiner, I.U.

    2005-01-01

    Although not a new issue, the fight against terrorism did not rise to the top of the agenda of the European Union (EU) and its Member States until after September 11. Interesting in this context is the phenomenon of blacklisting. Persons, organizations and ‘entities’ were put on several internationa

  2. The New Dimensions of International Terrorism and International Law

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Josef

    Bratislava : Bratislavská vysoká škola práva, 2007, s. 97-108. ISBN 978-80-969320-2-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : terrorism * international law Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  3. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to caution measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work are analysed the different cases of terrorism attacks, the potential sources of risks, such reprocessing plants, nuclear power plants, every facility where is stored radioactive material. The vulnerability of these facilities is also evoked. Some solutions are recommended but more specially, further thought needs to be given to that kind of problems. (N.C.)

  4. The right to fashion in the age of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Minh-Ha T

    2011-01-01

    As part of a feminist commitment to collaboration, this article appears as a companion essay to Mimi Thi Nguyen's "The Biopower of Beauty: Humanitarian Imperialisms and Global Feminisms" and offers a point of departure for thinking about fashion and beauty as processes that produce subjects recruited to, and aligned with, the national interests of the United States in the war on terror. The Muslim woman in the veil and her imagined opposite in the fashionably modern - and implicitly Western - woman become convenient metaphors for articulating geopolitical contests of power as a human rights concern, as a rescue mission, as a beautifying mandate. This article examines newer iterations of this opposition, in the wake of September 11, 2001, in order to demonstrate the critical resonance of a biopolitics on fashion and beauty. In "The Right to Fashion in the Age of Terrorism," the author examines the relationship between the U.S. war on terror, targeting persons whose sartorial choices are described as terrorist-looking and oppressive, and the right-to-fashion discourse, which promotes fashion's mass-market diffusion as a civil liberty. Looking at these multiple invocations of the democratization of fashion, this article argues that the right-to-fashion discourse colludes with the war on terror by fabricating a neoliberal consumer-citizen who is also a couture-citizen and whose right to fashion reasserts U.S.exceptionalism, which is secured by private property, social mobility, and individualism. PMID:21114081

  5. Risks from Worldwide Terrorism: Mortality and Morbidity Patterns and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K T; Jones, E D

    2005-01-25

    Worldwide data on terrorist incidents between 1968 and 2004 gathered by the RAND corporation and the Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) were assessed for patterns and trends in morbidity/mortality. The data involve a total of 19,828 events, 7,401 ''adverse'' events (each causing {ge}1 victim), 91,346 cases of casualty (either injury or death) and 25,408 deaths. Analyses revealed a number of interesting patterns and apparently significant trends. Most terror-related adverse events, casualties and deaths involved bombs and guns. Weapon-specific patterns and terror-related risk levels in Israel (ISR) have differed markedly from those of all other regions combined (AOR). ISR had a fatal fraction of casualties about half that of AOR, but has experienced relatively constant lifetime terror-related casualty risks on the order of 0.5%--a level 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more than those experienced in AOR, which have increased {approx}100-fold over the same period. Individual event fatality has increased steadily, the median increasing from 14 to 50%. Lorenz curves obtained indicate substantial dispersion among victim/event rates: about half of all victims were caused by the top 2% (10%) of harm-ranked events in OAR (ISR). Extreme values of victim/event rates were found to be well modeled by classic or generalized Pareto distributions, indicating that these rates have been as predictable as similarly extreme phenomena such as rainfall, sea levels, earthquakes, etc. This observation suggests that these extreme-value patterns may be used to improve strategies to prevent and manage risks associated with terror-related consequences.

  6. The National Response Plan and the Problems in the Evaluation and Assessment of the Unconventional Modes of Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    terrorism would include such acts as: assassination, kidnapping, hostage taking, non-nuclear explosive devices, etc. The two NRP categories of catastrophic events and oil and hazardous materials contain sections considered to be in the area of conventional terrorism. Of potentially greater immediate concern are the four major modes of unconventional terrorism that are recognized: cyber-, biological (including agro-), chemical, and nuclear. The problem is to arrive at a mutually agreed upon order of importance of both conventional and unconventional terrorism categories. Consequent ranking of these modes enables the prioritization of those areas in which our limited national human and financial resources are to be expended and allocated (funding of research and development, commitment and selection of personnel, costs distribution, operational time-frame, information distribution level, etc.). Ranking of the terror modes will at best be difficult because of a lack of understanding of the potential impacts of each mode as well as the inherent vested bureaucratic and non-bureaucratic interests and biases. All cases of radiation-related incidents may be considered to be manmade with a potentially significant majority of those incidents assigned to a terrorism origin. Man-made accidental occurrences would be handled with a similar NRP response as would be expected in the case of a terrorist event. Radiation-related devices include the RDDs (Radioactive Dispersal Devices) and nuclear fission and fusion weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Pragmatically, the most likely scenario to develop would involve RDD utilization. This conclusion would seem to be reasonable in view of the current apparent capabilities and sophistication required to construct, transport, and deliver a nuclear WMD. (authors)

  7. When the 'Other' Becomes 'Us': Mediated Representations,'Terrorism' and the 'War on Terror'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rut M. Sanz Sabino

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to elaborate on the use of one of the rhetorical techniques employed in the political and mediated representation of 'Islamist terrorists' by the British print media in the aftermath of the London bombings of July 7th, 2005. This technique consists of the emphasis on making 'terrorism' and its perpetrators look 'foreign', by creating an opposition between the Nation and the 'Other' (Said, 1997. This opposition is questionable from, at least, two perspectives. On the one hand, this polarisation depends on the position of who produces the discourse. The British reaction to the bombings was a patriotic one which sought to protect the British Nation against the 'foreign enemy' (Bulley, 2008. On the other hand, though, taking into account that the bombers of July 7th were actually British, it is possible to question the actual meaning of 'us' and 'them', as well as the term 'foreign', since the 'Other' is, in this context, also a part of 'us'. The consequence is an ambiguous division between 'known' and 'unknown', 'good' and 'evil', which does not only occur in rhetorical terms, but which is also visible in ongoing conflicts, and ha an impact on the 'clash of civilisations' concept.

  8. Radiological terrorism. Problems of prevention and minimization of consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a review of the key factors defining the extent of potential hazard caused by ionizing radiation sources for the purpose of radiological terrorism and the key areas of activities in the field of counteractions and minimization of possible consequences of such acts. The importance of carrying out system analysis of the practical experience of response to radiation accidents and elimination of their consequences is emphasized. The need to develop scientific approaches, methods and software to realistically analyze possible scenarios and predict the scale of consequences of the acts of terrorism involving radioactive materials is pointed out. The importance of improvement of radioactive materials accounting, control and monitoring systems, especially in non-nuclear areas, as well as improvement of the legal and regulatory framework governing all aspects of radiation source application in the national economy is of particular importance. (author)

  9. Problems and Progress in Defining Terrorism in International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridarson Galingging

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an effort to adopt an internationally-accepted legal definition for ‘terrorism’ since such definition will enhance international cooperation in fighting terrorism, which at the moment is fragmented and ineffective. However, various obstacles e.g. political heterogeneity or ideological discrepancy arise when seeking a uniformed definition of terrorism, hence this study. Dunia internasional berupaya untuk menetapkan definisi legal ‘terorisme’ yang diterima secara umum karena definisi ini dapat meningkatkan kerjasama internasional dalam melawan terorisme yang saat ini masih terkotak-kotak dan tidak efektif. Tulisan ini membahas pelbagai kesulitan yang muncul dalam upaya mencari definisi tersebut, seperti masalah keragaman politik dan kesenjangan ideologi antarnegara.

  10. Radiological terrorism: problems of prevention and minimization of consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a review of the key factors defining the extent of potential hazard caused by ionizing radiation sources for the purpose of radiological terrorism and the key areas of activities in the field of counteractions and minimization of possible consequences of such acts. The importance of carrying out system analysis of the practical experience of response to radiation accidents and elimination of their consequences is emphasized. The need to develop scientific approaches, methods and software to realistically analyze possible scenarios and predict the scale of consequences of the acts of terrorism involving radioactive materials is pointed out. The importance of improvement of radioactive materials accounting, control and monitoring systems, especially in non-nuclear areas, as well as improvement of the legal and regulatory framework governing all aspects of radiation source application in the national economy is of particular importance. (author)

  11. Overview of DOE-NE Proliferation and Terrorism Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadasivan, Pratap [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-24

    Research objectives are: (1) Develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors; (2) Develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy; (3) Develop Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycles; and (4) Understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The goal is to enable the use of risk information to inform NE R&D program planning. The PTRA program supports DOE-NE's goal of using risk information to inform R&D program planning. The FY12 PTRA program is focused on terrorism risk. The program includes a mix of innovative methods that support the general practice of risk assessments, and selected applications.

  12. Terrorism, Tourism and Worker Unions: The disciplinary boundaries of fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano E. Korstanje

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available When the world seems poised on the brink of a never ending cycle of terrorism, the present paper polemically explores some of its historical roots. The first anarcho-terrorists in 19th century, fought to improve the working conditions of people. Some of them used violent tools, hosting civilians as targets. Others, convinced by the futility of their efforts to change the order, opted for organizing workers in factories. It is widely accepted that tourism came from the social, political, technological developments in the nineteenth century. We compare terrorist attacks with workers’ strikes, because they come from the same developments. We explore the thesis that tourism is terrorism by other means.

  13. Terror And Territory: The Spatial Extent Of Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José Mendonça

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The text consists of one review of the book Terror and territory: the spatial extent of sovereignty (2009 English geographer Stuart Elden. The work provides an approach of territory as the spatial extent of political sovereignty, which conceives importance to the notion of terror as a fundamental quality of the territory as a form punitive of control executed within the recognized boundaries, through use the monopoly of legitimate violence that state power has. However, the territorial sovereignty that evokes modern state, Elden argues, has become contingent after the terrorist attacks of September 11 (2001, when the USA unleashed a policy of “war on terror”, unilaterally applying the law of international intervention.

  14. Youth Exposed to Terrorism: the Moderating Role of Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shur, Lia; Gilady, Ayelet

    2016-05-01

    The present review examines the moderating role of ideology on the effects of war, armed conflict, and terrorism on youth. Ideology is an important factor given the central role played by religio-political ideology and nationalism in present-day conflicts. Ideologies or worldviews represent cognitive frameworks that imbue the traumatic situation with meaning and order. Analysis of the pool of studies identified three categories of ideologically based moderating factors, each representing an aspect of social construction of traumatic events, namely, religion, political ideology, and self-concept. The two closely related categories of religion and politico-religious beliefs showed both positive and negative effects on psychological and psychiatric outcomes among youth. The third category of different aspects of self-concept yielded consistently positive moderating effects. The mechanisms by which each category of ideology moderates effects of exposure to war, armed conflict, and terrorism are discussed, and research and clinical implications are presented. PMID:26971500

  15. The Role of Physicists in Anti-Terrorism: Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainberg, Anthony

    2002-04-01

    Physicists, along with many other categories of scientists, participate in efforts against terrorism in a multitude of ways, including developing explosive detectors, sensors, security procedures, technical analyses, and decision tools. Transportation, especially civil aviation, is a field of focus within the anti- and counterterrorism arenas. The most spectacular terrorist acts have generally aimed at this sector and this trend is likely to continue. Physicists play their roles in all sectors: government, private industry, and even academia. Defense against terrorism has become a national priority in the United States, and one may expect the roles of scientific experts to become more important. The tactics of terrorists will change and develop, so it will become necessary to develop ever more sophisticated measures to fight them. Technology is part of the answer, but human factors, vulnerability analyses, threat assessment, and security procedures are equally important.

  16. Mass media as an Effective Tool for Prevention of Socio-psychological Factors in the Development of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri P. Zinchenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently mass media play crucial role in social counterterrorism activity. The article is devoted to analysis of possibilities of mass media in prevention of the development of terrorism. Socio-psychological factors of development of terrorism, including concept of “contributing events” as well as hypothesis “frustration-aggression” are studied. The psychological component of terrorism in three major attitudes is considered in the article: psychology of terrorism, psychology of counteraction to terrorism, and using mass media for prevention the development of terrorism. Specific features and the external factors promoting involving into terrorism are analysed. Role of mass media in covering the information about terrorism events is analysed from point of view related to prevention of development of terrorism. Some key recommendations on counterterrorism activity using mass media means are formulated.

  17. Conducting Field Research on Terrorism: a Brief Primer

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Dolnik

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the practical aspects of field research on terrorism. Firstly, it  outlines some issues involved in the process of attaining a human research ethics/institutional review board clearance in order to be able to even begin the field research. It suggests some ways in which researchers can positively influence this review process in their favor. Secondly, the article focuses on the real and perceived dangers of field research, identifying practical steps and preparato...

  18. Immigration, integration and terrorism: is there a clash of cultures?

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Justina AV

    2011-01-01

    We test whether immigrants are more prone to support terror than natives because of lower opportunity costs, using the international World Values Survey data. We show that, in general, economically, politically and socially non-integrated persons are more likely to accept using violence for achieving political goals, consistent with the economic model of crime. We also find evidence for the destructive effects of a ‘clash of cultures’: Immigrants in OECD countries who originate from more cult...

  19. Sleepiness in sleepwalking and sleep terrors: a higher sleep pressure?

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo-Solano, Marisol; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Groos, Elisabeth; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    International audience ObjectiveTo identify the determinants of excessive daytime sleepiness in adults with sleepwalking or sleep terrors (SW/ST).MethodsWe collected the charts of all consecutive adult patients admitted from 2012 to 2014 for SW/ST. They had completed the Paris Arousal Disorders Severity Scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and had undergone one (n = 34) or two consecutive (n = 124) nocturnal videopolysomnographies. The demographic, clinical, and sleep determinants of ex...

  20. Is there a dissociative process in sleepwalking and night terrors?

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, D.; Crisp, A; Sedgwick, P; Borrow, S

    2001-01-01

    The enduring and contentious hypothesis that sleepwalking and night terrors are symptomatic of a protective dissociative mechanism is examined. This is mobilised when intolerable impulses, feelings and memories escape, within sleep, the diminished control of mental defence mechanisms. They then erupt but in a limited motoric or affective form with restricted awareness and subsequent amnesia for the event. It has also been suggested that such processes are more likely when the patient has a hi...

  1. Swot analysis of using aerostats for surveillance in counter terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ćetin, Hüseyin

    2013-06-01

    In today's conjuncture, the terrorist activities are the most compelling issue for the defence forces in maintaining homeland security. Especially, the terrorist elements that penetrate the homeland may give harm. This harm can be minimized by preventing the terrorist penetrations from homeland borders. In counter terrorism, having Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) capability and using this capability by twenty four hours is deterrence for the terrorist groups. Aerostats emerge as the ideal platform which can provide this capability. Aerostats are unmanned and aerodynamically shaped balloons that are stayed in the air, fixed to the ground by steel cable(s). The aerostat is made of a large fabric envelope that is filled with nonflammable helium gas, which provides the lifting force. The cables also serve to supply the electrical power to the aerostat systems, and for data relay between the aerostat and the ground station. Aerostats are different from the other manned and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) because of aerostats' capabilities such as cost effectiveness, long endurance and high resolution image transmission. Especially having uninterrupted image transmission and surveillance capabilities is important to be advantageous in counter terrorism. In this article, a short definition of terrorism has been given and then the importance of ensuring the homeland border security has been emphasized in counter terrorism. In addition, the questions of "what are the technical capabilities, the usage areas and the purposes of aerostats?" will be introduced as a result of literature review. Finally the strengths and weaknesses of aerostats, opportunities and threats for the near future will be introduced by using "SWOT" analysis method.

  2. Terrorism, racism, speciesism, and sustainable use of the planet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The 11 September 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and the US Pentagon in Washington, DC have seized our attention and undermined our sense of security. These terrorist actions showed a contempt for other persons and their beliefs and practices. They are extreme demonstrations of a feeling of superiority which ignores the inherent worth of life by killing or wounding some and depriving others of resources that improve their quality of life. In this respect, terrorism is similar to racism and speciesism in that all are expressions of feelings of superiority over other life forms and that all are incompatible with sustainable use of the planet. It is proposed that both terrorism and racism have their genesis in speciesism. Sustainability requires a mutualistic relationship between humans and the millions of other species that collectively constitute the planet's ecological life support system. It further requires enhancement and protection of natural capital, as well as the enhancement and protection of the technological and economic life support systems that depend upon natural capital. Both terrorism and racism endanger the fair and equitable allocation of resources and the quality of human life of present and future generations. This is probably both the cause and effect of resource allocations. However, to achieve sustainable use of the planet, humans must acknowledge the inherent worth of other life forms. There is no guarantee that abolishing terrorism, racism, and speciesism will enable human society to acheive sustainable use of the planet; however, it is difficult to envision achieving sustainability if they persist.

  3. Terrorism and international tourism: the case of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M.; Franke, Bastian; Maennig, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    We analyse how German tourists react to unanticipated shocks that alter their risk perception of selected tourism destinations. Using a difference-in-difference strategy which flexibly accounts for macroeconomic conditions and also addresses potential problems of serial correlation, we isolate significant effects of the 9/11 (2001) terrorist attacks, as well as for the attacks in Egypt (1997), Tunisia (2002), Morocco (2003) and Indonesia (2003). These terror attacks impacted especially on Isl...

  4. A social movement theory typology of militant organisations : contextualising terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, Sarah Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Date of acceptance 8/8/14 Typologies are ubiquitous in terrorism studies, illustrating their continued appeal as a tool to further our understanding of this form of political violence. Despite this, to date, the promise of an empirically derived typology has largely been neglected. In addressing this gap, this article sets out a typology developed from Social Movement Theory. Using a novel statistical technique to derive a three-dimensional framework for categorising militant groups, the t...

  5. Intimate Terrorism by Women Towards Men: Does it Exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Hines, Denise A.; Douglas, Emily M.

    2010-01-01

    Research showing that women commit high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) against men has been controversial because IPV is typically framed as caused by the patriarchal construction of society and men’s domination over women. Johnson’s (1995) typology of common couple violence (CCV) and intimate terrorism (IT) attempted to resolve this controversy, but he maintained that IT was caused by patriarchy and committed almost exclusively by men. This study investigates Johnson’s theory as it...

  6. Introductory article: on the discourse of terrorism, security and development

    OpenAIRE

    Beall, Jo; Goodfellow, Thomas; Putzel, James

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the policy arena by examining the increasing interlinking of international development policy with security concerns, particularly at a discursive level in the global North and especially since the declaration of the United States led 'War on Terror'. The authors propose that it is not only the US that has altered its approach to development in light of the new security agenda, but so too have some multilateral development organisations, along with bilateral donors that ...

  7. Terror Management in Response to Contemporary Political Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Kinon, Marc Donald

    2012-01-01

    The present dissertation empirically examines the impact of death thoughts on intergroup relations; the findings are explained using Terror Management Theory (TMT). TMT proposes that when mortality is made salient (Mortality Salience Hypothesis, MSH) people are more likely to exhibit greater positive evaluations of their in-group; greater adherence to the values of their in-group. People have a tendency to do this because culture tends to confer self-esteem (i.e., immortality), which allege...

  8. The Hidden Cost of Ubiquity: Globalisation and Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Krug, Barbara; Reinmoeller, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    textabstractTerrorism is not a natural hazard outside the range of corporate decision-making. Simple micro-economic analysis shows how globalisation changed the supply of terrorist attacks and the costs for tolerating terrorist hazard. Approaches developed in organizational strategy help to single out three strategic decisions directly affecting the vulnerability of firms in a globalised world: exposure, geographical spread, and organisational form. The analysis suggests that the gains from u...

  9. Bio-terrorism: still interesting or concerning nowadays?

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu E. Sbârcea; Lucian Lerescu; Mariana Jinga

    2014-01-01

    Bio-terrorism involves using biological agents/toxins with the intent to intimidate or coerce a government or civilian population to further political or social objectives, usually leading to deaths or illnesses of humans but also of plants/animals. Their use would probably initially be considered as a natural or unintentional event, especially in case of live biological agents. Moreover, a natural occurring disease outbreak could have the same destructive outcome as an efficie...

  10. Use of CLYC spectrometer in counter-terrorism applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, H.; Smith, M. B.; Koslowsky, M. R.; Andrews, H. R.

    2015-05-01

    A new scintillator crystal, now known as CLYC (Cs2LiYCl6:Ce), has been under development for over 15 years (1). It was primarily of interest for radiation detection applications because of its good energy resolution for gamma rays (terrorism scenarios where neutrons may be involved. The relative importance of the fast neutron response of CLYC, compared to the thermal and gamma-ray response, will be discussed for these scenarios.

  11. TERRORISM IN AFGHANISTAN AND INSTABILITY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Farajirad, Abdolreza; Khansari, Javad; Radmehr, Zahra; Darkhor, Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    Throughout human history, there have been many threats to the security of nations. These threats have brought about large-scale losses of life, the destruction of property, widespread illness and injury, the displacement of large numbers of people, and devastating economic loss. Recent technological advances and ongoing international political unrest are components of the increased risk to security. Terrorism, as one of these threats to human security, literally means “the use of force or vio...

  12. Requirements and Facilitators for Suicide Terrorism: an Explanatory Framework for Prediction and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Lankford

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to explaining, predicting, and preventing suicide terrorism, there is a lot more important work to be done.  This paper draws on the most recent evidence about where suicide terrorism occurs and why to propose a basic explanatory framework.  Taking a bottom-up approach, it first identifies the minimum requirements for a suicide terrorism attack, and then outlines additional facilitators for the deadliest attacks and most prolonged suicide terrorism campaigns.  Next, it applies these variables to clarify popular misunderstandings about foreign occupation as the primary cause of suicide terrorism.  Finally, it shows how security officials can use this framework to develop a series of short term and long term countermeasures and begin to reduce the prevalence of suicide terrorism worldwide.

  13. Conducting Field Research on Terrorism: a Brief Primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Dolnik

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the practical aspects of field research on terrorism. Firstly, it  outlines some issues involved in the process of attaining a human research ethics/institutional review board clearance in order to be able to even begin the field research. It suggests some ways in which researchers can positively influence this review process in their favor. Secondly, the article focuses on the real and perceived dangers of field research, identifying practical steps and preparatory activities that can help researchers manage and reduce the risks involved. The article also covers the formalities and dilemmas involved in gaining access to the field. It then provides some insights into the topic of operating in conflict zones, followed by a section covering the ways of gaining access to sources, effective communication skills and influence techniques and addresses key issues involved in interviewing sources in the field. The final section focuses on identifying biases and interfering factors which researchers need to take into account when interpreting the data acquired through interviews. This article is a modest attempt to fill a gap in the literature on terrorism research by outlining some of the key issues involved in the process of doing field research. It incorporates insights from diverse disciplines as well as the author’s personal experiences of conducting field research on terrorism in places like Afghanistan, Pakistan, Chechnya, Ingushetia, Colombia, Mindanao, Uganda, Indonesia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, and India.

  14. THE CHRONICLE OF TERRORISM AND ISLAMIC MILITANCY IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zakiyah zakiyah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the chronicle of terrorism in Indonesia and the relationship between terrorism and Islamic militancy in this nation. This research focused on bombing cases from 2001 to 2012 Data was gathered through documentary research including primary and secondary resources. This research shows that after the fall of the Suharto regime in 1998, there were bomb attacks on various targets and militant extremists were able to return to Indonesia after long period of exile abroad. They started again their activities including disseminating their radical ideology, building networks and recruiting new members in Indonesia, as well as preparing for militant actions. The perpetrators of these terror attacks were mostly associated with the Islamic radical groups like Jemaah Islamiah and Majlis Mujahidin Indonesia. These two militant groups had a close relationship with Darul Islam, an organization founded during the colonial era that aimed to establish an Islamic state and to apply Syariah as a state law. In addition, both groups became a political window for al-Qaeda in Indonesia. 

  15. Prospects for nuclear terrorism: psychological motivations and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In considering the implications of psychological understandings to the specific case of nuclear terrorism, it is emphasized that distorted decision making does not equate to totally irrational decision making. In certain circumstances, however, the distorted individual and group decision-making psychology could influence the group toward a high-risk option such as nuclear terrorism. For terrorists operating within their own national boundaries, a terrorist act producing mass casualties would generally be counterproductive. For groups acting across national boundaries, however, this constraint does not apply to nearly the same degree. Although the opprobrium of the West will be a constraint for some, it will not be equally so for all terrorist groups. The degree of disincentive will relate in particular to the major audience of influence. Also, there are the terrorist losers who are being shunted aside and losing the recognition they seek. Such a group could justify a terrorist spectacular in order to regain influence on the basis of a what have we got to lose rationale. In thinking about the possibility of nuclear terrorism, it is important to distinguish between the actual detonation of a device and the use of a device for extortion and influence. The constraints against the latter are significantly reduced in contrast to acts producing mass casualties. The constraints are even more reduced in the case of the plausible nuclear hoax, an option that can be expected to become more frequent

  16. On evildoers: A Foucaultian analysis of the discursive structuring of contemporary terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Naseem, Azra

    2012-01-01

    Terrorism is routinely portrayed in the twenty first century as an evil perpetrated by Arab/Muslim barbarians—Evildoers—waging a holy war against the Western civilisation. This study challenges not just this present understanding of terrorism, but the very existence of a ding an sich of terrorism. Using a combination of Foucault’s archaeological and genealogical methods it provides an alternative history of the phenomenon in the form of a history of its discursive structuring: the regimes of ...

  17. The dilemma of combating terrorism in democratizing states: a case study of the Republic of Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Tumushabe, Alex Bwoma

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis analyzes the dilemmas that both democratic and democratizing states face while dealing with terrorism-related problems. This problem has been equally pressing to a country like Uganda because it has been experiencing the problem of terrorism while undergoing the process of democratization. Much of the discussion boils down to whether and at what point forceful measures against terrorism protect or imperil the democracy. The...

  18. Combating terrorism in the Brazilian Tri-Border area a necessary law enforcement strategic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Adriano M.

    2007-01-01

    The whole world is in some way affected by terrorism. It has many faces, different causes, and comes about by distinct ways around the globe. As a consequence, in the Brazilian Tri-border Area (TBA) terrorism has its own characteristics. In the TBA, terrorist groups are focused on supporting activities for their organizations. The problems related to terrorism in the TBA are connected with the struggle between Arabs and Israelis in the Middle East. Terrorist groups, such as Hezbollah and...

  19. Ties That Do Not Bind (Directly): The Education-Terrorism Nexus Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Brockhoff; Tim Krieger; Daniel Meierrieks

    2010-01-01

    This contribution offers a comprehensive empirical analysis of the effects of education on terrorism for 118 countries for the period 1984 to 2007. We find that education and terrorism are not directly linked, so that education neither fosters nor retards terrorism on its own. Rather, our results suggest that education may fuel terrorist activity in the presence of poor political and socio-economic conditions, whereas bet- ter education in combination with favorable conditions decreases terro...

  20. Does tax enforcement counteract the negative effects of terrorism? A case study of the Basque country

    OpenAIRE

    Salvadori, Luca

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of terrorism on tax enforcement policies by focusing on the case of the Basque Country. The presence of externalities in tax administration attributable to the costs of terrorism is investigated by undertaking a theoretical analysis. The findings of this are tested using Spanish data extracted from repeated surveys and other sources. By employing ordered response models, evidence is found of the negative impact of terrorism on tax enforcement as it is perceived ...

  1. The nature, sources and the socio-economic effects of terrorism in Balochistan

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, Nadeem Uz; Ghutai, Gul; Khan, Kaneez Raza

    2012-01-01

    Terrorism has badly affected Pakistan and Balochistan is one of its worst – hit provinces. There is no research that accounts for the nature, sources and effects of terrorism on Balochistan; this study, thus, tried to explore the same. A sample size of 250 respondents was chosen to cast their opinion about the problem using a questionnaire through a stratified sample of Quetta city. The results indicated that the nature of terrorism in Balochistan is, at first, Political and is caused by the ...

  2. The Rise of Capitalism and the Roots of Anti-American Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger, Tim; Meierrieks, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This contribution examines the role of capitalism in anti-American terrorism. Using data for 149 countries between 1970 and 2007, this contribution, contrary to expectations from capitalist peace theory, does not find that Anti-American terrorism increases with external economic liberalization or decreases with higher levels of economic openness. However, consistent with economic norms theory, higher levels of market-capitalism are associated with less anti-American terrorism, whereas the pro...

  3. World Politics and Support for Terrorism within Muslim Populations: Evidence from Muslim Countries and Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kirill Zhirkov; Maykel Verkuyten; Jeroen Weesie

    2013-01-01

    World Politics and Support for Terrorism within Muslim Populations: Evidence from Muslim Countries and Western Europe countries, we examine the levels of support for suicide bombings and other forms of violence. We found that support for terrorism among Muslims is present but the percentage of radicals is quite low. In both samples, support for terrorism is stronger among those who see democracy as a solely Western political system. This pattern of association is similar across the Western Eu...

  4. The rise and decline of Sikh anti-state terrorism in India: an economic based explanation

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Charanjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    A majority of the predominant theoretical explanations of terrorism focus primarily on the historical, ideological, and political reasons for individuals’ or groups’ participation in terrorist violence. There is an overall critical absence in these theories about the role of broader structural causes of terrorism such as economic conditions. The limited number of theories/models examining the link between economic conditions and terrorism are relatively underdeveloped. Many economic theories ...

  5. The Cultural Politics of WMD Terrorism in Post-Cold War America

    OpenAIRE

    Williford, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Terrorism’s definition is hotly debated and notoriously problematic. The resulting instability of counterterrorism and counterterrorist identity, however, is less often explored. This paper analyzes the prehistory of the War on Terror to explore how the meaning and associations attributed to terrorism by counterterrorists in the 1990s reflect the latter’s priorities, agenda, and anxieties. Prevalent ahistorical post-Cold War representations of terrorism involving weapons of mass destruction (...

  6. The Global War on Terror: Race, Gender, and Empire After 9/11

    OpenAIRE

    Alimahomed, Sabrina

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the ways in which race, gender, and capital structure the "War on Terror" by systematically unpacking the connections, and contradictions, in both the global and domestic arenas of US politics and representation of Muslims. The War on Terror is the most privatized war in the history of the US, which provides an important site of analysis to explore the burgeoning industry created and sustained by fear of terrorism. The scapegoating of Muslims as suspected terrorists a...

  7. Preventing nuclear terrorism: the report and papers of the International Task Force on Prevention of Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Task Force on Prevention of Nuclear Terrorism, formed in 1985 under the Nuclear Control Institute, commissioned 26 studies and produced an extensive report on the problem and prevention of nuclear terrorism, Part I of this book is the full report, and part II contains the individual studies under two section: (A) Defining the Threat (8 studies); and (B) Strategies for Dealing with the Threat (18 studies). Detailed recommendations are made, in many of the studies, for better protection of nuclear weapons, materials, and facilities; greater cooperation among national intelligence agencies; tighter controls on nuclear transfers; more effective arms control initiatives; and emergency management programs. A separate abstract was prepared for the report and each of the 26 studies

  8. Global initiatives to prevent nuclear terrorism; Globalt initiativ for aa hindre nukleaer terrorisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The fight against nuclear and radiological terrorism - someone to blow up a nuclear weapon or spread radioactive material as a 'dirty bomb' that act of terrorism - is one of the most serious threats to international security. The Global Initiative to prevent nuclear terrorism is a Norwegian-sponsored initiative that is aimed directly at combating terrorism by non-state actors. NRPA follow up Norwegian measures, including in Kazakhstan, and verifies that they are implemented and functioning as intended. (AG)

  9. The European fight against terrorism financing: Professional fields and new governing practices

    OpenAIRE

    Goede, de, M.; Wintle, M.J.; Wesseling, M.

    2013-01-01

    Combating the financing of terrorism has been a core component of the global War on Terror that began after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. This book shows how the fight against terrorism financing has taken shape and become important in Europe. An examination of two case studies - the EU’s Third AML/CFT (Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism) Directive and the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program - sheds light on the emerging structures of European security governing, char...

  10. Crossing the Rubicon: making a case for refining the classification of Jihadist Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Wayne Hand

    2012-01-01

    This paper posits that our current understanding of Jihadist Terrorism as a monolithic sub-type of Political Terrorism is flawed and that as a result our governments counter this threat with inappropriately-adapted methods. The author argues: (A) There is a sub-type of Jihadist Terrorism that is more consistent with Walter’s ‘Military Terrorism’ or Feldman and Hinojosa’s ‘Guerrilla Warfare’ than within the typology of Political Terrorism; (B) The author-proposed sub-type of ‘War Terrorism’ s...

  11. Et stærkt værn mod terror

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Amalie Adsersen Rytter; Sørensen, Benjamin Wallin; Nørby, Emilie Victoria Lauring; Rosenmejer, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    In the project we intend to examine specific laws that have been developed in response to different terror attacks around the world. The terror attacks 9/11 led the danish government to develop the first anti-terror legislation, and on London in 2005 which led us to the second anti-terror legislation. Lastly the attack in Copenhagen which also led to an extension in the intelligence service capabilities, mainly through financial support. The goal for the analysis is to either confirm or deny ...

  12. Health implications of radiological terrorism: Perspectives from Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagby Moti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available September 11 th events taught us, members of the medical community, that we need to prepared for the worst. Nuclear terror is no longer science fiction. Radiological weapons of mass terror come in three flavors: The first one is nuclear. Since 1992, there have been six known cases of highly enriched uranium or plutonium being intercepted by authorities as it passed in or out of the former Soviet Union. Constructing a nuclear fission weapon requires high-level expertise, substantial facilities, and lots of money. All three of which would be difficult, although not impossible, for a terrorist group to pull off without state support. However, terrorists could carry out potential mass destruction without sophisticated weaponry by targeting nuclear facilities using conventional bombs or hijacked aircrafts. Terror attacks could also carry out mass panic and radioactive contamination of people and environment by dispersal of radioactive materials with or without the use of conventional explosive devices. Most medical and para-medical personnel are not familiar with CBRN terror and radiation casualties. To lessen the impact of those potential attacks and provide care for the greatest number of potential survivors, the community as a whole - and the medical community in particular - must acquire the knowledge of the various signs and symptoms of exposure to irradiation and radioactive contamination as well as have a planned response once such an attack has occurred. Based on knowledge of radiation hazards, medical emergency planers should analyze the risks of each scenario, offer feasible solutions and translate them into internationally accepted plans that would be simple to carry out once such an attack took place. The planned response should be questioned and tested by drills. Those drills should check the triage, evacuation routes, decontamination posts, evacuation centers and receiving hospitals. It is crucial that the drill will consist of

  13. Intelligence and Security Standards on Industrial Facilities Protection in Case of Terrorism and Military Attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial facilities, which use toxic chemicals in their production processes, are tempting targets for military and terrorist strategists. They know that these facilities when attacked could produce effects not realizable with conventional weapons. The resulting legal, policy and political consequences would be minimal as compared to that of disseminating toxic chemicals or chemical agents as weapons on enemy territory. At this time there is no clear definition of the legality or illegality of these types of actions used against specific industrial targets for the purpose of mass destruction or disruption. Without clearly defined international regulations covering these actions, we must depend solely on national defense systems. Not only are these regulation not defined, there are no implementation tools, which would be available if the various treaties (CWC/BWC) etc., were able to incorporate needed legislative action. Consequently we must depend on and put into practice defense security standards for industrial facilities for protection against both possible terrorist and military attacks. Emergency responses to incidents involving violent criminals and terrorists are extremely dangerous. Incidents involving weapons of mass destruction, firearms, and hazardous materials have resulted in the injury and death of many firefighters, police officers and medical personnel. We wish to intend display place and role of intelligence and counter intelligence system to prevention potential target and military attack. Security needs to be incorporated into the public safety culture and it must become the routine for how we operate. The recognition and identification process is an important skill that needs continual refinement. The use of transportation or facility paperwork assists in recognizing what potential hazards. A key factor in the successful command and management of a hazmat incident or terrorism event is the ability of public safety agencies to function as a

  14. The terrorist threat nuclear, radiological, biological, chemical - a medical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since September 11, 2001, the fear of a large scale nuclear, biological and/or chemical terrorism is taken again into consideration at the highest level of national policies of risk prevention. The advent of international terrorism implies a cooperation between the military defense and the civil defense. The nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical (NRBC) experts of the health service of army and of civil defense will have to work together in case of major terror attack. This book presents this cooperation between civil and military experts in the NRBC domain: risk analysis, national defense plans, crisis management, syndromes and treatments. The different aspects linked with the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are analyzed by the best experts from French medical and research institutes. All topics of each NRBC domain are approached: historical, basic, diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive. (J.S.)

  15. War on Terror: Do Military Measures Matter? Empirical Analysis of Post 9/11 Period in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Nasir; Muhammad, Shahbaz

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the first attempt to investigate the causal relationship between military spending, terrorist attacks and intensity of terrorism in Pakistan, by applying ARDL approach to cointegration and Innovation Accounting approach for causality analysis. The results indicate that war on terror is the major determinant of military spending followed by terrorism intensity and the number of terrorist attacks respectively. The study further finds that terrorism intensity and terrorist attacks ...

  16. EFFECTS OF TERRORISM IN TOURISM INDUSTRY : A Case Study of 9/11 Terrorist Attacks in World Trade Center

    OpenAIRE

    Ranabhat , Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth of tourism industry has been a good sign of business. International tourism is co-operation between countries. The development of global economy is depending upon the global tourism industry. Social network is directly and indirectly affected by terrorism activities. There are push and pull factor in tourism. Terrorism is a pull factor that is considered a negative factor. Terrorism is the biggest factor, which pushes tourism industry down. Terrorism brings fear to tourists, whic...

  17. Mass media as an Effective Tool for Prevention of Socio-psychological Factors in the Development of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri P. Zinchenko

    2009-01-01

    Recently mass media play crucial role in social counterterrorism activity. The article is devoted to analysis of possibilities of mass media in prevention of the development of terrorism. Socio-psychological factors of development of terrorism, including concept of “contributing events” as well as hypothesis “frustration-aggression” are studied. The psychological component of terrorism in three major attitudes is considered in the article: psychology of terrorism, psychology of counteraction ...

  18. Terrorism cover in France for property damage including nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The obligation to include terrorism cover in all Property Damage policies issued on the French Market is ruled by an Act of 1986 and introduced under Section R 126-2 of the French Code of Insurance. This section stipulates that Property Damage policies must provide cover for damage resulting from acts of terrorism, with the same deductible and the same limit than that of the other damage covered in the policy. Soon after the dramatic events of September 11, 2001 in the United States and although reinsurers worldwide restricted their offer of capacities, French insurers recognized that they had to maintain this global cover for the benefit of their insurers. After difficult discussions between insurers, reinsurers, brokers, risk managers and representatives of the State, the creation of a new Pool, backed with a State guarantee, was decided in less than three months. Effective January 1, 2002 and called Gestion d'Assurance et de Reassurance des Risques Attentats et Actes de Terrorisme (GAREAT), the Pool offers a multiple layers stop-loss cover for Property Damage only, i.e. excluding TPL policies. Considering that nuclear risks should be treated in the same way as other industrial risks, it was decided that they would be covered by GAREAT as well. In the meantime, by a Decree of December 28, 2001 modifying Section R 126-2, a special provision, aiming at reducing the limit and thus the price of this cover, was introduced in the Code. The purpose of this paper is to expose the present situation applying through GAREAT and, after two years of operation to discuss future developments, including other sources of capacity for the coverage of acts of terrorism in nuclear risks insurance.(author)

  19. Islam and Terrorism: Beyond the Wisdom of the Secularist Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Tahir El-Mesawi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-MY X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract: Since the end of the Cold War, the West has mounted a campaign against Islam as the essential source of terrorism and the Muslims as necessarily terrorists. However, the problems of violence and terror are not isolated issues but have epistemological and unspoken real causes. Violence is related to despotism, especially the despotism of hegemony. The US-led war on terrorism is not a simple struggle between good and evil. The hidden reasons behind it makes it difficult for the Muslims and others in the Third World to appreciate the efforts.

  20. Cyber Terrorism demands a Global Risks and Threats Strategic Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world is in the third wave of development, which is digital managed and networked. Information, which creates the knowledge is transferring thorough the Internet by exponential function. The rapid advancement of the computer technology has a great influence over the development of the critical information infrastructure, thus changing the safety environment and the national values and interests. This advancement produces threats and risks from computer perspective which are sublimated in different forms of international terrorism and particularly in cyber terrorism. The main aim of this paper is based on a thorough analysis of what is scientifically known and practiced when nowadays critical information infrastructure is in the focus of the cyber terrorism. The rapid IT development demands changes in the strategic management focus. As a result of a time-consuming theoretical and empirical research this paper suggests a methodology for strategic managing of: threats, risks and vulnerabilities. The proposed methodology is seen as a mean to increase the human security conscious in every sense of the word, and to promote the need for rules, procedures and standards establishment from the aspect of the strategic management in the new information epoch concerning. In addition, through a scientific discourse, a short attempt is made to relate Macedonian reality with the phenomenon mentioned above. The most fundamental set phrase is that the efficiency and promptly made decisions during strategic planning are a projection of the systematic organization of functions and models for managing the risks and threats of the critical information infrastructure. Hence, this paper could be seen as a perspective when taking in consideration the regional strategic management, and the cyber space vital functioning. (author)

  1. In front of a new challenge: nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sources utilising either radioactive materials or radiation generators have been widely used throughout the world in medicine, research, industry and education for decades. There are both, legal and governmental responsibilities in respect of the safe use of ionising radiation sources, radiation protection, the safe management of radioactive waste and the safe transport of radioactive material. The attacks of 11 September 2001 brought a new dimension to the actions against terrorism. There are not enough legal instruments to control this phenomenon. Potential threat: acquisition of a nuclear weapon, acquisition of nuclear material to construct a nuclear weapon or to cause a radiological hazard, violent acts against nuclear facilities to cause a radiological hazard, acquisition of other radioactive materials to construct a dirty bomb to cause a radiological hazard. 'The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material', IAEA, 1980 obliges Parties to apply established levels of physical protection to nuclear material used for peaceful purposes in international transport. It also requires Parties to criminalize under their respective laws various acts such as theft, illegal acquisition, possession and use, and to establish jurisdiction over those offences to enable the prosecution or extradition of alleged offenders. This is the only international legal instrument in the area of physical protection. Conclusion: At present the threat is not only of a nuclear accident but of a nuclear terrorism attack which could affect any country in the world and the lack of effective legal instruments to respond to that situation. It shows the need for the international community to work together in order to reinforce coordinated and integrated nuclear security and safeguards measures. States shall create appropriated regulatory infrastructures to ensure that the radioactive sources are appropriately regulated and adequately secured at all times. Stronger and

  2. Introductory statement to the special session on combating nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In opening remarks, the Director General gave an overview of the reasons nuclear terrorism has become an issue demanding urgent attention, and discussed aspects of the international effort that must take place to protect against it. Past efforts have focused largely on diversion of nuclear material by States for non-peaceful purposes, without the same degree of focus on malicious activities by sub-national groups. This has created a gap between the risk of nuclear terrorism and existing response capabilities. In reviewing the potential for misuse of nuclear technology -- whether involving nuclear weapons, nuclear materials, radioactive sources or nuclear facilities -- the Director General urged participants to consider effective response measures in terms of: (1) national vs. international roles; (2) urgent (short-term) priorities vs. medium-and long-term strategies; and (3) both safety and security aspects. The most immediate task appeared to be getting the facts -- to achieve a more complete picture of nuclear security worldwide, and to enable a rapid response to the most urgent needs. Agency advisory missions on physical protection should be expanded in scope and number. Countries should be assisted, where needed, in evaluating threat scenarios and developing adequate response measures. As a medium term strategy, international standards should be established and implemented in this area. These preventive measures - with adequate resources to ensure their effective implementation - will minimize the risk of nuclear terrorism, and will help to ensure that nuclear power, nuclear medicine and other nuclear applications continue to be available for the benefit of society. (author)

  3. 28 CFR 501.3 - Prevention of acts of violence and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrative Remedy Program, 28 CFR part 542. (f) Other appropriate officials of the Department of Justice... terrorism. 501.3 Section 501.3 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION SCOPE OF RULES § 501.3 Prevention of acts of violence and terrorism. (a)...

  4. 78 FR 44961 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Register (78 FR 30934) on May 23, 2013, allowing for a 60-day comment period. This notice allows for an... Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Paperwork Reduction Act: Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT). This is a proposed...

  5. Close Cousins or Distant Relatives? The Relationship between Terrorism and Hate Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloughery, Kathleen; King, Ryan D.; Asal, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has frequently drawn parallels between the study of hate crimes and the study of terrorism. Yet, key differences between the two behaviors may be underappreciated in extant work. Terrorism is often an "upward crime," involving a perpetrator of lower social standing than the targeted group. By contrast, hate crimes are…

  6. "I'm Not Really Afraid of Osama Bin Laden!" Fear of Terrorism in Dutch Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Mayer, Birgit; van Eijk, Sandra; van Dongen, Marit

    2008-01-01

    We examined to what extent children in The Netherlands are affected by the threat of terrorism. For this purpose, a sample of school children living in Rotterdam or adjacent satellites (N = 216) completed a fear survey that included a number of terrorism-related items, and were confronted with ambiguous vignettes to measure threat-related…

  7. Prevention Rather than Cure? Primary or Secondary Intervention for Dealing with Media Exposure to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the efficacy of primary versus secondary intervention in moderating state anxiety and state anger from media-based exposure to terrorism. Two hundred participants, allocated to a terrorism or nonterrorism media exposure and to antecedent or subsequent therapeutic or control intervention, were assessed for state anxiety and…

  8. Children's Mental Health in the Context of Terrorist Attacks, Ongoing Threats, and Possibilities of Future Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Jonathan S; Bry, Laura J; Poznanski, Bridget; Golik, Alejandra M

    2016-09-01

    Over the past two decades, the field has witnessed tremendous advances in our understanding of terrorism and its impacts on affected youth. It is now well established that a significant proportion of exposed youth show elevated PTSD symptoms in the months following a terrorist attack. In more recent years, research has expanded beyond confirming our understanding of the association between direct terrorism exposure and child PTSD symptoms by elucidating (a) links between terrorism exposure and non-PTSD clinical outcomes (e.g., externalizing problems, substance use), (b) individual differences associated with divergent patterns of risk and resilience, (c) the clinical correlates of media-based contact with terrorism, (d) clinical outcomes associated with exposure to recurrent terrorist attacks, and (e) exposure to extended contexts of uncertainty and the possibilities of future terrorism. Researchers studying the effects of terrorism and political violence on youth have increasingly examined a much broader range of regions in the world, affording needed opportunities to consider the generalizability of prior findings to youth living in different political contexts, in less developed regions of the world, and/or in regions with different rates of recurrent terrorism. In order to understand and, in turn, best meet the clinical needs of the majority of terrorism-affected youth across the globe, more targeted research on exposed youth is needed in developing regions of the world and regions enduring more recurrent terrorist attacks. PMID:27423458

  9. Report on the trainings for terrorism. Document on present state of affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of attacks on America by terrorism on September 11, 2001 gave us a terrible shock. Two types of training against the act of terrorism had been held in Tokai Works of the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) to grasp the present situation of JNC Tokai Works and improve the countermeasure against the terrorism. The first training was for the incendiarism and the second one was for the injury. Consequently the revealed points to be improved were the followings. (1) Keeping a sense of crisis. The countermeasure against terrorism should be instructed and trained to realize the sense of crisis, that is, uncertainty of the time and the kind of terrorism. (2) Organization of the structure against the terrorism. The structure for the contingency should to organized to strengthen the guard structure by forming the pursuit team, the guard team and so on constituted by JNC's staff members. (3) Preparation of equipments against the terrorism. The coloring ball, club, two-pronged weapon, shield, knifeproof vest and so on should be provided the guards of to strengthen the countermeasure before the police's arrival. (4) Preparation and announcement of manuals. The manuals against terrorism for the ordinary stuff members should be prepared and used in the training to make the ordinary stuff's countermeasure more effective. (author)

  10. Are Economic Development and Education Improvement Associated with Participation in Transnational Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakidze, L; Jin, Y H

    2015-08-01

    Using transnational terrorism data from 1980 to 2000, this study empirically examines the relationships between frequency of participation in transnational terrorism acts and economic development and education improvement. We find an inverse U-shaped association between the frequency of various nationals acting as perpetrators in transnational terrorism acts and per capita income in their respective home countries. As per capita incomes increase from relatively low levels, frequencies of participation in transnational terrorism increase. However, at sufficiently higher levels of per capita income, further increase in per capita income is negatively associated with the rate of participation in transnational terrorism. Education improvement from elementary to secondary is positively correlated with frequency of participation in transnational terrorism events, whereas further improvement from secondary to tertiary level is negatively correlated with participation in transnational terrorism. We also find that citizens of countries with greater openness to international trade, lower degree of income inequality, greater economic freedom, larger proportion of population with tertiary education, and less religious prevalence participate in transnational terrorism events less frequently. PMID:25868529

  11. Terrorism and Political Violence in Africa: Contemporary Trends in a Shifting Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J.F. Forest

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1994, Martha Crenshaw’s edited volume Terrorism in Africa made clear how terrorism – generally defined as a tactic that uses violence or the threat of violence as a coercive strategy to cause fear and political intimidation – was a feature within resistance movements, military coups, political assassinations, and various intra- and inter-state wars that have affected most African states at some point during the continent’s transition to independence and subsequent post-colonial period.  Crenshaw further noted that terrorism was not “an isolated phenomenon” for African states or the region more broadly [1]. This description remains salient today: terrorism has been a global phenomenon for many decades, and Africa has not been unscathed by it. Terrorism is just one of several types of political violence that states and their citizens, in Africa and elsewhere, have had to grapple with. In fact, from a macro perspective, terrorism may not be universally seen as the most important security challenge faced by African states and their citizens. Famine, drought, endemic poverty, diseases and other natural and man-made disasters that undermine human security have also been at the forefront of recent policy discussions on Africa among Western governments and international aid organizations. It is thus necessary to place terrorism within the broader terrain of Africa’s security challenges, before examining the historical trends and specific examples discussed in this Special Issue of Perspectives on Terrorism.

  12. Scopic Regime Change: The War of Terror, Visual Culture, and Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darts, David; Tavin, Kevin; Sweeny, Robert W.; Derby, John

    2008-01-01

    This study examines visual dimensions and pedagogical repercussions of the war of terror. Iconographies of threat and prophylaxis are explored through a discussion of the actuarial gaze and the terr(or)itorialization of the visual field. Specific visual culture fallout from the war of terror is examined, including artistic responses and…

  13. "i'm not really afraid of Osama Bin Laden!" fear of terrorism in dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); B.N. Mayer (Birgit); S. van Eijk (Sandra); M. Dongen (Marit)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe examined to what extent children in The Netherlands are affected by the threat of terrorism. For this purpose, a sample of school children living in Rotterdam or adjacent satellites (N = 216) completed a fear survey that included a number of terrorism-related items, and were confronte

  14. Cyber Terrorism: A Study of the Extent of Coverage in Computer Security Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Janet J.; MacDonald, Laurie E.

    2004-01-01

    On September 11th, 2001 the United States experienced the largest terrorist attack in its history. This event caused many government agencies to review their security practices and procedures. It also has raised awareness of other avenues that terrorists might pursue to achieve their goals, including cyber terrorism. Cyber terrorism can be…

  15. [Risk perception and psychological reactions in public crisis situations using the example of terror attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, A; Hulse, L; Schmidt, S

    2009-12-01

    The reactions to the 9/11 terror attacks were immense in the western population. In the current review, the impact of terror attacks is presented with surveys, clinical interviews, and scientific polls, which were identified in a comprehensive literature search. Results show that the fear of further terror attacks is comparatively overestimated in the population and is associated with numerous psychological consequences and reactions. The overestimation of the probability of further terror attacks is related among other reasons to its unique features and its strong representation in the media. Several independent studies proved that the number of stress symptoms and psychiatric diagnoses is associated with a high risk perception in relation to terror attacks. This was not only the case for victims of terror attacks, but also for people indirectly exposed to the terror attacks. In addition, there is evidence that the number of the stress symptoms correlate with the duration of TV consumption of new findings about terror attempts. Methodologically, there is a critical lack of more in-depth analyses to explain the development of risk perceptions and its influence on mental and physical health. Because of the international importance and cross-cultural differences, an international standardization of research is desirable. PMID:19862488

  16. Doing Battle with a Noun: Notes on the Grammar of "Terror"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Studies from a range of disciplinary perspectives have highlighted how the public rhetoric of the Bush administration has shaped the representation of the conflict which has followed 9/11. However, the literature in this area raises but does not itself address the question of how the administration's use of "terror", "terrorism" and "terrorist(s)"…

  17. Radiological terrorism: Countermeasures and measures for mitigation of consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive sources can be used in devices aimed at radiological terrorism. The paper briefly discusses the types and quantities of sources that may be suitable for such a purpose. A summary of equipment containing significant radioactive sources manufactured in the former Soviet Union is presented. The paper also describes the structure, functions and future directions of activities of organizations in the Russian Federation responsible for nuclear safety and security, including the control and accounting of radioactive materials and the system to prevent, respond to and mitigate the consequences of nuclear emergency situations. (author)

  18. Countermeasure for terrorism-new field of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workers on radiation protection have been confronted with a new task-countering terrorism. The description and level of various threats threats, the potential consequences and occurrence probability of different nuclear and radiation attack events, and the responses to these threats (crisis and consequence) are introduced at two levels. At the level of crisis management, some approaches to mitigation, the works done by International Atomic Energy Agency and the tendency in United States are also presented. At the level of consequence management, the essential practices submitted by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements of America are listed. Finally the domest ic progress in this area is introduced too. (authors)

  19. Social Appropriateness in EU Counter-Terrorism Law and Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira

    versus justice equation, on the issues of privacy and data protection, and on the broader respect for fundamental rights more generally. In this process, the legitimacy and the social appropriateness of some of these measures have been questioned, both at the societal level and before or by European...... institutionalist theory with insights from the New Haven school, namely its societal and process-oriented conceptions of law, it crosses legal and political science traditions to explore the ways in which EU counter-terrorism law and policy acquire and maintain social appropriateness....

  20. Motivation Factors in Dark Tourism : case: House of Terror

    OpenAIRE

    Niemelä, Titta

    2010-01-01

    Dark tourism is a multi-layered mixture of history and heritage, tourism and tragedies. Humanity has been interested in the end of life since the time of pilgrimages. In contemporary society the individual has been isolated from the end of life and even discussing it is considered taboo. Why do people travel to dark attractions associated with death and suffering if even talking about them is so hard? The House of Terror museum in Budapest, Hungary, is a good example of a dark tourism att...