WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical spills

  1. Potential Impacts of Spilled Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Chemicals on Water Resources: Types, volumes, and physical-chemical properties of chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluid chemicals spilled on-site may impact drinking water resources. While chemicals generally make up <2% of the total injected fluid composition by mass, spills may have undiluted concentrations. HF fluids typically consist of a mixture of base flui...

  2. French technologies for oil spill response by chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that for minimizing adverse ecological impacts, treatment chemicals are an important tool, but the success depends on understanding their action and respecting their limitations. Three types of chemical compounds can be used: dispersants, anti emulsifying and biodegrading agents. Emulsion inhibition prevents mousse formation and promote further natural dispersion into the water column. Offshore dispersal of oil prevents the pollution from standing as a slick and thereby reduces damage to marine life, coastal habitats and facilities. The simultaneous processes of dispersion and emulsification compete to determine the ultimate fate of oil; therefore an application of a combination of chemicals, to the freshly spilled oil, could be practical

  3. Probabilistic Approach to Risk Analysis of Chemical Spills at Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magda Bogalecka; Krzysztof Kolowrocki

    2006-01-01

    Risk analysis of chemical spills at sea and their consequences for sea environment are discussed. Mutual interactions between the process of the sea accident initiating events, the process of the sea environment threats, and the process of the sea environment degradation are investigated. To describe these three particular processes, the separate semi-Markov models are built. Furthermore, these models are jointed into one general model of these processes interactions.Moreover, some comments on the method for statistical identification of the considered models are proposed.

  4. Numerical modeling of chemical spills and assessment of their environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical spills in surface water bodies often occur in modern societies, which cause significant impacts on water quality, eco-environment and drinking water safety. In this paper, chemical spill contamination in water resources was studied using a depth-integrated computational model, CCHE2D, for p...

  5. Two-dimensional numerical and eco-toxicological modeling of chemical spills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suiliang HUANG; Yafei JIA; Sam S. Y. WANG

    2009-01-01

    The effects of chemical spills on aquatic nontarget organisms were evaluated in this study. Based on a review of three types of current eco-toxicological models of chemicals, i.e., ACQUATOX model of the US-EPA, Hudson River Model of PCBs, and critical body residual (CBR) model and dynamic energy budget (DEBtox)model, this paper presents an uncoupled numerical ecotoxicological model. The transport and transformation of spilled chemicals were simulated by a chemical transport model (including flow and sediment transport), and the mortalities of an organism caused by the chemicals were simulated by the extended threshold damage model,separately. Due to extreme scarcity of data, this model was applied to two hypothetical cases of chemical spills happening upstream of a lake. Theoretical analysis and simulated results indicated that this model is capable of reasonably predicting the acute effects of chemical spills on aquatic ecosystems or organism killings.

  6. Sacrificial amphiphiles: Eco-friendly chemical herders as oil spill mitigation chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deeksha; Sarker, Bivas; Thadikaran, Keith; John, Vijay; Maldarelli, Charles; John, George

    2015-06-01

    Crude oil spills are a major threat to marine biota and the environment. When light crude oil spills on water, it forms a thin layer that is difficult to clean by any methods of oil spill response. Under these circumstances, a special type of amphiphile termed as "chemical herder" is sprayed onto the water surrounding the spilled oil. The amphiphile forms a monomolecular layer on the water surface, reducing the air-sea surface tension and causing the oil slick to retract into a thick mass that can be burnt in situ. The current best-known chemical herders are chemically stable and nonbiodegradable, and hence remain in the marine ecosystem for years. We architect an eco-friendly, sacrificial, and effective green herder derived from the plant-based small-molecule phytol, which is abundant in the marine environment, as an alternative to the current chemical herders. Phytol consists of a regularly branched chain of isoprene units that form the hydrophobe of the amphiphile; the chain is esterified to cationic groups to form the polar group. The ester linkage is proximal to an allyl bond in phytol, which facilitates the hydrolysis of the amphiphile after adsorption to the sea surface into the phytol hydrophobic tail, which along with the unhydrolyzed herder, remains on the surface to maintain herding action, and the cationic group, which dissolves into the water column. Eventual degradation of the phytol tail and dilution of the cation make these sacrificial amphiphiles eco-friendly. The herding behavior of phytol-based amphiphiles is evaluated as a function of time, temperature, and water salinity to examine their versatility under different conditions, ranging from ice-cold water to hot water. The green chemical herder retracted oil slicks by up to ~500, 700, and 2500% at 5°, 20°, and 35°C, respectively, during the first 10 min of the experiment, which is on a par with the current best chemical herders in practice. PMID:26601197

  7. NOAA's Office of Response and Restoration: Historical Oil and Chemical Spill Incidents Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Incidents database contains reports and images from oil and chemical spills that occurred between 1968 and 2002. The database includes reports on...

  8. Environmental Impact on Chemical/Oil Spill in the Persian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Haeger, Steven D.; Ward, Mathew; Peter C. Chu; Williams, Charles L.; Clem, Travis

    2008-01-01

    Seventh International Symposium on Environmental Problems in Coastal Regions An attack on, or chemical spill near, Iraq’s oil terminals could have disastrous effects on economy. The impact from chemical spill is highly dependent upon environmental conditions that can either adversely affect continued operations or hinder the safety of personnel. Operational planners’ ability to create legitimate scenarios to train and combat these situations is the key to continued safe ...

  9. Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Fingerprinting the Macondo Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobodin, Vladislav V; Maksimova, Ekaterina V; Rodgers, Ryan P

    2016-07-01

    We report the first application of a new mass spectrometry technique (gas chromatography combined to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry, GC/APCI-MS/MS) for fingerprinting a crude oil and environmental samples from the largest accidental marine oil spill in history (the Macondo oil spill, the Gulf of Mexico, 2010). The fingerprinting of the oil spill is based on a trace analysis of petroleum biomarkers (steranes, diasteranes, and pentacyclic triterpanes) naturally occurring in crude oil. GC/APCI enables soft ionization of petroleum compounds that form abundant molecular ions without (or little) fragmentation. The ability to operate the instrument simultaneously in several tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) modes (e.g., full scan, product ion scan, reaction monitoring) significantly improves structural information content and sensitivity of analysis. For fingerprinting the oil spill, we constructed diagrams and conducted correlation studies that measure the similarity between environmental samples and enable us to differentiate the Macondo oil spill from other sources.

  10. Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Beach Sands Impacted by Oil Spill Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Black

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to changes in the drilling industry, oil spills are impacting large expanses of coastlines, thereby increasing the potential for people to come in contact with oil spill chemicals. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the health risk to children who potentially contact beach sands impacted by oil spill chemicals from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. To identify chemicals of concern, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s monitoring data collected during and immediately after the spill were evaluated. This dataset was supplemented with measurements from beach sands and tar balls collected five years after the spill. Of interest is that metals in the sediments were observed at similar levels between the two sampling periods; some differences were observed for metals levels in tar balls. Although PAHs were not observed five years later, there is evidence of weathered-oil oxidative by-products. Comparing chemical concentration data to baseline soil risk levels, three metals (As, Ba, and V and four PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were found to exceed guideline levels prompting a risk assessment. For acute or sub-chronic exposures, hazard quotients, computed by estimating average expected contact behavior, showed no adverse potential health effects. For cancer, computations using 95% upper confidence limits for contaminant concentrations showed extremely low increased risk in the 10−6 range for oral and dermal exposure from arsenic in sediments and from dermal exposure from benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene in weathered oil. Overall, results suggest that health risks are extremely low, given the limitations of available data. Limitations of this study are associated with the lack of toxicological data for dispersants and oil-spill degradation products. We also recommend studies to collect quantitative information about children’s beach play habits, which are

  11. Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Beach Sands Impacted by Oil Spill Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer C; Welday, Jennifer N; Buckley, Brian; Ferguson, Alesia; Gurian, Patrick L; Mena, Kristina D; Yang, Ill; McCandlish, Elizabeth; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2016-01-01

    Due to changes in the drilling industry, oil spills are impacting large expanses of coastlines, thereby increasing the potential for people to come in contact with oil spill chemicals. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the health risk to children who potentially contact beach sands impacted by oil spill chemicals from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. To identify chemicals of concern, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) monitoring data collected during and immediately after the spill were evaluated. This dataset was supplemented with measurements from beach sands and tar balls collected five years after the spill. Of interest is that metals in the sediments were observed at similar levels between the two sampling periods; some differences were observed for metals levels in tar balls. Although PAHs were not observed five years later, there is evidence of weathered-oil oxidative by-products. Comparing chemical concentration data to baseline soil risk levels, three metals (As, Ba, and V) and four PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene) were found to exceed guideline levels prompting a risk assessment. For acute or sub-chronic exposures, hazard quotients, computed by estimating average expected contact behavior, showed no adverse potential health effects. For cancer, computations using 95% upper confidence limits for contaminant concentrations showed extremely low increased risk in the 10(-6) range for oral and dermal exposure from arsenic in sediments and from dermal exposure from benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene in weathered oil. Overall, results suggest that health risks are extremely low, given the limitations of available data. Limitations of this study are associated with the lack of toxicological data for dispersants and oil-spill degradation products. We also recommend studies to collect quantitative information about children's beach play habits, which are necessary to more

  12. Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Beach Sands Impacted by Oil Spill Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer C.; Welday, Jennifer N.; Buckley, Brian; Ferguson, Alesia; Gurian, Patrick L.; Mena, Kristina D.; Yang, Ill; McCandlish, Elizabeth; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to changes in the drilling industry, oil spills are impacting large expanses of coastlines, thereby increasing the potential for people to come in contact with oil spill chemicals. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the health risk to children who potentially contact beach sands impacted by oil spill chemicals from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. To identify chemicals of concern, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) monitoring data collected during and immediately after the spill were evaluated. This dataset was supplemented with measurements from beach sands and tar balls collected five years after the spill. Of interest is that metals in the sediments were observed at similar levels between the two sampling periods; some differences were observed for metals levels in tar balls. Although PAHs were not observed five years later, there is evidence of weathered-oil oxidative by-products. Comparing chemical concentration data to baseline soil risk levels, three metals (As, Ba, and V) and four PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene) were found to exceed guideline levels prompting a risk assessment. For acute or sub-chronic exposures, hazard quotients, computed by estimating average expected contact behavior, showed no adverse potential health effects. For cancer, computations using 95% upper confidence limits for contaminant concentrations showed extremely low increased risk in the 10−6 range for oral and dermal exposure from arsenic in sediments and from dermal exposure from benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene in weathered oil. Overall, results suggest that health risks are extremely low, given the limitations of available data. Limitations of this study are associated with the lack of toxicological data for dispersants and oil-spill degradation products. We also recommend studies to collect quantitative information about children’s beach play habits, which are necessary to more

  13. Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Beach Sands Impacted by Oil Spill Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer C; Welday, Jennifer N; Buckley, Brian; Ferguson, Alesia; Gurian, Patrick L; Mena, Kristina D; Yang, Ill; McCandlish, Elizabeth; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2016-08-27

    Due to changes in the drilling industry, oil spills are impacting large expanses of coastlines, thereby increasing the potential for people to come in contact with oil spill chemicals. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the health risk to children who potentially contact beach sands impacted by oil spill chemicals from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. To identify chemicals of concern, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) monitoring data collected during and immediately after the spill were evaluated. This dataset was supplemented with measurements from beach sands and tar balls collected five years after the spill. Of interest is that metals in the sediments were observed at similar levels between the two sampling periods; some differences were observed for metals levels in tar balls. Although PAHs were not observed five years later, there is evidence of weathered-oil oxidative by-products. Comparing chemical concentration data to baseline soil risk levels, three metals (As, Ba, and V) and four PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene) were found to exceed guideline levels prompting a risk assessment. For acute or sub-chronic exposures, hazard quotients, computed by estimating average expected contact behavior, showed no adverse potential health effects. For cancer, computations using 95% upper confidence limits for contaminant concentrations showed extremely low increased risk in the 10(-6) range for oral and dermal exposure from arsenic in sediments and from dermal exposure from benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene in weathered oil. Overall, results suggest that health risks are extremely low, given the limitations of available data. Limitations of this study are associated with the lack of toxicological data for dispersants and oil-spill degradation products. We also recommend studies to collect quantitative information about children's beach play habits, which are necessary to more

  14. Ural River benthic communities response on the chemical spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ural River is the second river of the North Caspian basin, on the north-west border of the Kazakhstan and Russian. The middle flow of the Ural River is limited by the dam of Iriklin water reservoirs (about 80 km up from Orsk town, Orenburg district) to the mouth of Barbastay River (about 45 km down from Ural'sk town). On 13--17 November 1991, after an industrial incident in Orsk oil refinery enterprise effluent polluted the Ural River. An assessment of the Middle flow Ural River benthic communities by oil and phenols spill response is described. The paper is based on a study of the short-term response of benthic biocenosises compared with natural transformation of the community structure before pollution

  15. Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Fingerprinting the Macondo Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobodin, Vladislav V; Maksimova, Ekaterina V; Rodgers, Ryan P

    2016-07-01

    We report the first application of a new mass spectrometry technique (gas chromatography combined to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry, GC/APCI-MS/MS) for fingerprinting a crude oil and environmental samples from the largest accidental marine oil spill in history (the Macondo oil spill, the Gulf of Mexico, 2010). The fingerprinting of the oil spill is based on a trace analysis of petroleum biomarkers (steranes, diasteranes, and pentacyclic triterpanes) naturally occurring in crude oil. GC/APCI enables soft ionization of petroleum compounds that form abundant molecular ions without (or little) fragmentation. The ability to operate the instrument simultaneously in several tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) modes (e.g., full scan, product ion scan, reaction monitoring) significantly improves structural information content and sensitivity of analysis. For fingerprinting the oil spill, we constructed diagrams and conducted correlation studies that measure the similarity between environmental samples and enable us to differentiate the Macondo oil spill from other sources. PMID:27281271

  16. The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects database (CAFE), a tool that supports assessments of chemical spills in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Farr, James K; Jenne, Polly; Chu, Valerie; Hielscher, Al

    2016-06-01

    The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects (CAFE) database is a centralized repository that allows for rapid and unrestricted access to data. Information in CAFE is integrated into a user-friendly tool with modules containing fate and effects data for 32 377 and 4498 chemicals, respectively. Toxicity data are summarized in the form of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) with associated 1st and 5th percentile hazard concentrations (HCs). An assessment of data availability relative to reported chemical incidents showed that CAFE had fate and toxicity data for 32 and 20 chemicals, respectively, of 55 chemicals reported in the US National Response Center database (2000-2014), and fate and toxicity data for 86 and 103, respectively, of 205 chemicals reported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2003-2014). Modeled environmental concentrations of 2 hypothetical spills (acrylonitrile, 625 barrels; and denatured ethanol, 857 barrels) were used to demonstrate CAFE's practical application. Most species in the 24-h SSD could be potentially impacted by acrylonitrile and denatured ethanol during the first 35 min and 15 h post spill, respectively, with concentrations falling below their HC5s (17 mg/L and 2676 mg/L) at 45 min and 60 h post spill, respectively. Comparisons of CAFE-based versus published HC5 values for 100 chemicals showed that nearly half of values were within a 2-fold difference, with a relatively small number of comparisons exceeding a 10-fold difference. The development of CAFE facilitates access to relevant environmental information, with potential uses likely expanding beyond those related to assessment of spills in aquatic environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1576-1586. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26497000

  17. Chemical spill characteristics in the San Diego Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Kyriakidis, Kleanthis; Peter C. Chu

    2011-01-01

    Marine Technology Society Journal, 45 (2), 52-58 Dispersion of ocean pollutants in estuarine environments and bays (such as San 46 Diego Bay) depends on the location of the source of the pollutants relative to the 47 mouth and the tidal excursion, which is the net horizontal distance over which a 48 pollutant particle moves during one tidal cycle offlood and ebb. Pollutant dispersion 49 was investigated using a coupled hydrodynamic and chemical discharge model in 50 this stud...

  18. Environmental impact on the Northern Persian Gulf: a mine drift and chemical spill study centered on Iraq's oil terminals using Navy's ocean-atmospheric physical and chemical models

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. An attack on, or chemical spill near, Iraq's oil terminals could have disastrous effects on Iraq's economy. The impacts from a drifting mine or chemical spill are highly dependent on environmental conditions that can either adversely effect continued operations or hinder the safety of personnel. Operation Planners' ability to create legitimate scenarios to train and combat these situations is key to continued safe operations of the ...

  19. Rational Application of Chemicals in Response to Oil Spills May Reduce environmental Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamis, J.E.; Jongbloed, R.H.; Karman, C.C.; Koops, W.; Murk, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Oil spills, for example those due to tanker collisions and groundings or platform accidents, can have huge adverse impacts on marine systems. The impact of an oil spill at sea depends on a number of factors, such as spill volume, type of oil spilled, weather conditions, and proximity to environmenta

  20. Analysis of marine ecological compensation for environmental risk caused by chemical spill based on game theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiwei; Yang Zhifeng; Huang Xinyu

    2009-01-01

    The problem of marine environmental risk is ultimately the result of game theory between the marine environmental managers and the enterprise of potential environmental risk.This paper analyzes the internal economic relationship that whether the "protection" policy is applied between the protection action of marine environmental managers and the chemical enterprise, The result shows that the key factor whether the enterprise adopt the "protection" policy or not is the amount of penalty and the government's cost of execution, and the compulsive ecological compensation is obligatory from the angle of stimulating the enterprise of canontcal action and adopting the "protection" policy.To build the ecological compensation mechanism based on the environmental risk will effectively improve the level of management in sea area and decrease the probability of chemical spill.

  1. Subtleties of human exposure and response to chemical mixtures from spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetxumphou, Katherine; Dietrich, Andrea M; Shanaiah, Narasimhamurthy; Smiley, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Daniel L

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide, chemical spills degrade drinking water quality and threaten human health through ingestion and inhalation. Spills are often mixtures of chemicals; thus, understanding the interaction of chemical and biological properties of the major and minor components is critical to assessing human exposure. The crude (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol (MCHM) spill provides an opportunity to assess such subtleties. This research determined the relative amounts, volatilization, and biological odor properties of minor components cis- and trans-methyl-4-methylcyclohexanecarboxylate (MMCHC) isomers and major components cis- and trans-4-MCHM, then compared properties and human exposure differences among them. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and chromatography revealed that the minor MMCHC isomers were about 1% of the major MCHM isomers. At typical showering temperature of 40 °C, Henry's law constants were 1.50 × 10(-2) and 2.23 × 10(-2) for cis- and trans-MMCHC, respectively, which is 20-50 fold higher than for 4-MCHM isomers. The odor thresholds were 1.83 and 0.02 ppb-v air for cis- and trans-MMCHC, which were both described as predominantly sweet. These data are compared to the higher 120 ppb-v air and 0.06 ppb-v odor thresholds for cis- and trans-4-MCHM, for which the trans-isomer had a dominant licorice descriptor. Application of a shower model demonstrated that while MMCHC isomers are only about 1% of the MCHM isomers, during showering, the MMCHC isomers are 13.8% by volume (16.3% by mass) because of their higher volatility. Trans-4-MCHM contributed about 82% of the odor because of higher volatility and lower odor threshold, trans-MMCHC, which represents 0.3% of the mass, contributed 18% of the odor. This study, with its unique human sensory component to assess exposure, reaffirmed that hazard assessment must not be based solely on relative concentration, but also consider the chemical fate, transport, and biological properties to determine the actual levels of

  2. Chemical and toxicological characterisation of water accommodated fractions relevant for oil spill situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laboratory methodology and preliminary findings from an ongoing characterisation study of Water Accommodated Fraction solutions (WAF) (water systems with dissolved oil components, which is essentially free of dispersed oil droplets) derived from standardised low energy mixing of oils in seawater is presented. The study emphasises a tight connection between chemical characterisation and toxicological testing of WAF, and aims at obtaining improved and realistic data on potential environmental effects in the water column after an oil spill situation. Various oil types and the aspect of weathering (evaporative loss and photolysis) of oil is incorporated in the study. Preliminary results have identified large variation in the composition and toxicity of WAFs depending on the type of crude, oil loading rate (oil:water ratio) and weathering degree of the oils. Data from the study will be used for improving algorithms in present fate and effect models, which again will be used as quantitative tools in future damage assessment studies and in Net Environmental Benefit Analysis of response alternatives in various spill scenarios. (author)

  3. Development of short, acute exposure hazard estimates: a tool for assessing the effects of chemical spills in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Farr, James K

    2013-08-01

    Management decisions aimed at protecting aquatic resources following accidental chemical spills into rivers and coastal estuaries require estimates of toxic thresholds derived from realistic spill conditions: acute pulse exposures of short duration (h), information which often is unavailable. Most existing toxicity data (median lethal concentration or median effective concentration) come from tests performed under constant exposure concentrations and exposure durations in the 24-h to 96-h range, conditions not typical of most chemical spills. Short-exposure hazard concentration estimates were derived for selected chemicals using empirical toxicity data. Chemical-specific 5th percentile hazard concentrations (HC5) of species sensitivity distributions (SSD) from individual exposure durations (6-96 h) were derived via bootstrap resampling and were plotted against their original exposure durations to estimate HC5s and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) at shorter exposures (1, 2, and 4 h). This approach allowed the development of short-exposure HC5s for 12 chemicals. Model verification showed agreement between observed and estimated short-exposure HC5s (r(2) adjusted = 0.95, p overprotective, these were derived from environmentally realistic exposure durations, providing risk-assessors with a tool to manage field decisions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:1918-1927. © 2013 SETAC. PMID:23625642

  4. Chemical modification of hygroscopic magnesium carbonate into superhydrophobic and oleophilic sorbent suitable for removal of oil spill in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Manoj; Ananthakrishnan, Rajakumar; Pathak, Khanindra

    2014-11-01

    The wettability of hygroscopic magnesium carbonate has been modified to develop a superhydrophobic and oleophilic sorbent for oil spill clean-ups via a simple chemical process using palmitic acid. The prepared material was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Wettability test infers that the sorbent has a static water contact angle of 154 ± 1°, thereby indicating its superhydrophobic character. The sorbent was capable of scavenging oil for about three times its weight, as determined from oil sorption studies, carried out using the sorbent on model oil-water mixture. Interestingly, the chemically modified sorbent has high selectivity, buoyancy, and rate of uptake of oil. Further, the reusability studies confirm the repeatable usage of the sorbent and its efficacy in oil spill remediation.

  5. Preparedness activities regarding the protection of public health in case of a major oil or chemical spill on the St-Lawrence River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project was initiated to protect the health of people living in the St-Lawrence basin from contaminants associated with an oil or chemical spill. Between 1980 and 1990, more than 240 chemical spills and 300 oil spills were recorded in the region which has prompted concerns regarding the possible contamination of drinking water sources. 45% of Quebec's population relies on the St-Lawrence River as a source of drinking water. Thus far, the project has identified the major chemical and oil products transported on the St-Lawrence River, and the main health risks associated with these products. Computerized dispersion models which can determine the migration of the contaminants in water, are available. Simulation exercises have been carried out to train personnel in the event of an actual spill. 1 ref

  6. Chemical modification of hygroscopic magnesium carbonate into superhydrophobic and oleophilic sorbent suitable for removal of oil spill in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A superhydrophobic and oleophilic sorbent powder was developed by surface modification of commercially available hygroscopic magnesium carbonate with palmitic acid. • The sorbent powder is capable of scavenging oil for about three times its weight. • Reusability test of the sorbent powder infers the retention of hydrophobic as well as oleophilic character even after three times of re-use. • The powder was found to possess sufficient buoyancy, high rate of uptake and selectivity towards oil which is necessary for oil spill clean-ups. - Abstract: The wettability of hygroscopic magnesium carbonate has been modified to develop a superhydrophobic and oleophilic sorbent for oil spill clean-ups via a simple chemical process using palmitic acid. The prepared material was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Wettability test infers that the sorbent has a static water contact angle of 154 ± 1°, thereby indicating its superhydrophobic character. The sorbent was capable of scavenging oil for about three times its weight, as determined from oil sorption studies, carried out using the sorbent on model oil-water mixture. Interestingly, the chemically modified sorbent has high selectivity, buoyancy, and rate of uptake of oil. Further, the reusability studies confirm the repeatable usage of the sorbent and its efficacy in oil spill remediation

  7. Chemical modification of hygroscopic magnesium carbonate into superhydrophobic and oleophilic sorbent suitable for removal of oil spill in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patowary, Manoj [Advanced Technology Development Center, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Ananthakrishnan, Rajakumar, E-mail: raja.iitchem@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Pathak, Khanindra [Department of Mining Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A superhydrophobic and oleophilic sorbent powder was developed by surface modification of commercially available hygroscopic magnesium carbonate with palmitic acid. • The sorbent powder is capable of scavenging oil for about three times its weight. • Reusability test of the sorbent powder infers the retention of hydrophobic as well as oleophilic character even after three times of re-use. • The powder was found to possess sufficient buoyancy, high rate of uptake and selectivity towards oil which is necessary for oil spill clean-ups. - Abstract: The wettability of hygroscopic magnesium carbonate has been modified to develop a superhydrophobic and oleophilic sorbent for oil spill clean-ups via a simple chemical process using palmitic acid. The prepared material was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Wettability test infers that the sorbent has a static water contact angle of 154 ± 1°, thereby indicating its superhydrophobic character. The sorbent was capable of scavenging oil for about three times its weight, as determined from oil sorption studies, carried out using the sorbent on model oil-water mixture. Interestingly, the chemically modified sorbent has high selectivity, buoyancy, and rate of uptake of oil. Further, the reusability studies confirm the repeatable usage of the sorbent and its efficacy in oil spill remediation.

  8. Oil Spill!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  9. Chemical and toxicological evaluation of water quality following the exxon Valdez oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, J.M. [Battelle Ocean Sciences, Duxbury, MA (United States); Stubblefield, W.A. [ENSR Consulting and Engineering, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    As part of a comprehensive water-quality assessment program performed in Prince William Sound and the western Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989, water samples were collected from 417 locations, most of them in areas through which the oil drifted, to assess the distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water column. Over 5,000 water samples were analyzed for individual and total petroleum alkanes and for aromatic hydrocarbons by very sensitive gas chromatographic techniques. A total of 2,461 of these samples were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Concurrent with some of these samples, an additional 123 water samples were collected in April 1989 (a week to a month after the spill) at 32 offshore locations and in June 1989 at 7 nearshore sites in Prince William Sound to determine the toxicity of the water to representative species of marine organisms. The toxicity of Prince William Sound water was assessed with standard Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and American Society for Testing and materials (ASTM) marine toxicity tests with representative species of three taxonomic groups: (1) Skeletonema costatum (a marine diatom), (2) Mysidopsis bahia (a crustacean), and (3) larval/juvenile Cyprinodon variegatus (a fish, the sheepshead minnow). 58 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  11. Effects of chemical dispersants on oil spill drift paths in the German Bight—probabilistic assessment based on numerical ensemble simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwichtenberg, Fabian; Callies, Ulrich; Groll, Nikolaus; Maßmann, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    Oil dispersed in the water column remains sheltered from wind forcing, so that an altered drift path is a key consequence of using chemical dispersants. In this study, ensemble simulations were conducted based on 7 years of simulated atmospheric and marine conditions, evaluating 2,190 hypothetical spills from each of 636 cells of a regular grid covering the inner German Bight (SE North Sea). Each simulation compares two idealized setups assuming either undispersed or fully dispersed oil. Differences are summarized in a spatial map of probabilities that chemical dispersant applications would help prevent oil pollution from entering intertidal coastal areas of the Wadden Sea. High probabilities of success overlap strongly with coastal regions between 10 m and 20 m water depth, where the use of chemical dispersants for oil spill response is a particularly contentious topic. The present study prepares the ground for a more detailed net environmental benefit analysis (NEBA) accounting also for toxic effects.

  12. Chemical Structure, Property and Potential Applications of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacillus subtilis in Petroleum Recovery and Spill Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Feng Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipopeptides produced by microorganisms are one of the five major classes of biosurfactants known and they have received much attention from scientific and industrial communities due to their powerful interfacial and biological activities as well as environmentally friendly characteristics. Microbially produced lipopeptides are a series of chemical structural analogues of different families and, among them, 26 families covering about 90 lipopeptide compounds have been reported in the last two decades. This paper reviews the chemical structural characteristics and molecular behaviors of surfactin, one of the representative lipopeptides of the 26 families. In particular, two novel surfactin molecules isolated from cell-free cultures of Bacillus subtilis HSO121 are presented. Surfactins exhibit strong self-assembly ability to form sphere-like micelles and larger aggregates at very low concentrations. The amphipathic and surface properties of surfactins are related to the existence of the minor polar and major hydrophobic domains in the three 3-D conformations. In addition, the application potential of surfactin in bioremediation of oil spills and oil contaminants, and microbial enhanced oil recovery are discussed.

  13. Chemical structure, property and potential applications of biosurfactants produced by Bacillus subtilis in petroleum recovery and spill mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Feng; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Lipopeptides produced by microorganisms are one of the five major classes of biosurfactants known and they have received much attention from scientific and industrial communities due to their powerful interfacial and biological activities as well as environmentally friendly characteristics. Microbially produced lipopeptides are a series of chemical structural analogues of different families and, among them, 26 families covering about 90 lipopeptide compounds have been reported in the last two decades. This paper reviews the chemical structural characteristics and molecular behaviors of surfactin, one of the representative lipopeptides of the 26 families. In particular, two novel surfactin molecules isolated from cell-free cultures of Bacillus subtilis HSO121 are presented. Surfactins exhibit strong self-assembly ability to form sphere-like micelles and larger aggregates at very low concentrations. The amphipathic and surface properties of surfactins are related to the existence of the minor polar and major hydrophobic domains in the three 3-D conformations. In addition, the application potential of surfactin in bioremediation of oil spills and oil contaminants, and microbial enhanced oil recovery are discussed. PMID:25741767

  14. Chemometrics as a tool to analyse complex chemical mixtures: environmental forensics and fate of oil spills

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Jan H.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical characterisation of contaminant mixtures is important for environmental forensics and risk assessment. The great challenge in future research lies in developing suitable, rapid, reliable and objective methods for analysis of the composition of complex chemical mixtures. This thesis describes the development of such methods for assessing the identity (chemical fingerprinting) and fate (e.g. biodegradation) of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures. The methods comply with the g...

  15. 溢油污染发生后的物理和化学修复技术%The Physical and Chemical Remediation Technology after the Oil Spill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋生奎; 李钦华; 徐新; 曹泽煜; 王杰辉

    2014-01-01

    目前溢油污染已经严重影响到人类的健康和生存质量,威胁到人类的可持续发展。溢油污染事件发生后,应当组织专业人员对泄漏油品采取有效控制、可靠回收,并采用适宜的物理和化学环境修复技术应急处理溢油污染,对于控制污染面积、保证溢油环境污染修复效果具有重要的意义。%Nowadays, the oil spill pollution seriously affected the human health and quality of life , threatening the human sustainable development.After the oil spill pollution incident occurs , the professional staff should be organized to take effective control of leak oil and make reliable recovery and also use the proper physical and chemical environmental remediation technology for emergency treatment of oil spill pollution , which would be of great importance for controlling pollution area and ensuring the effect of oil spill pollution remediation.

  16. Ecological Impacts during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill was the largest spill and response effort in United States history. Nearly 800 million L of oil was spilled in the Gulf of Mexico, and nearly 7 million L of chemical dispersants were applied in at the ocean surface and subsea1. The DWH spill ...

  17. Acute toxicity of eight oil spill response chemicals to temperate, boreal, and Arctic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Bonaunet, Kristin; Overjordet, Ida Beathe

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the acute toxicity of selected shoreline washing agents (SWA) and dispersants, and (2) assess interspecies differences in sensitivity to the products. Eight shoreline washing agents (Hela saneringsvæske, Bios, Bioversal, Absorrep K212, and Corexit 9580) and chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500, Dasic NS, and Gamlen OD4000) were tested on five marine species, algae Skeletonema costatum, planktonic copepod species Acartia tonsa (temperate species), Calanus finmarchicus (boreal species) and Calanus glacialis (Arctic species), and benthic amphipod Corophium volutator. For most products, A. tonsa was the most sensitive species, whereas C. volutator was the least sensitive; however, these species were exposed through different media (water/sediment). In general, all copepod species displayed a relatively similar sensitivity to all products. However, A. tonsa was somewhat more sensitive than other copepods to most of the tested products. Thus, A. tonsa appears to be a candidate species for boreal and Arctic copepods for acute toxicity testing, and data generated on this species may be used as to provide conservative estimates. The benthic species (C. volutator) had a different sensitivity pattern relative to pelagic species, displaying higher sensitivity to solvent-based SWA than to water-based SWA. Comparing product toxicity, the dispersants were in general most toxic while the solvent-based SWA were least toxic to pelagic species. PMID:24754387

  18. Submersible optical sensors exposed to chemically dispersed crude oil: wave tank simulations for improved oil spill monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conmy, Robyn N; Coble, Paula G; Farr, James; Wood, A Michelle; Lee, Kenneth; Pegau, W Scott; Walsh, Ian D; Koch, Corey R; Abercrombie, Mary I; Miles, M Scott; Lewis, Marlon R; Ryan, Scott A; Robinson, Brian J; King, Thomas L; Kelble, Christopher R; Lacoste, Jordanna

    2014-01-01

    In situ fluorometers were deployed during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Gulf of Mexico oil spill to track the subsea oil plume. Uncertainties regarding instrument specifications and capabilities necessitated performance testing of sensors exposed to simulated, dispersed oil plumes. Dynamic ranges of the Chelsea Technologies Group AQUAtracka, Turner Designs Cyclops, Satlantic SUNA and WET Labs, Inc. ECO, exposed to fresh and artificially weathered crude oil, were determined. Sensors were standardized against known oil volumes and total petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene-toluene-ethylbenzene-xylene measurements-both collected during spills, providing oil estimates during wave tank dilution experiments. All sensors estimated oil concentrations down to 300 ppb oil, refuting previous reports. Sensor performance results assist interpretation of DWH oil spill data and formulating future protocols.

  19. Submersible optical sensors exposed to chemically dispersed crude oil: wave tank simulations for improved oil spill monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conmy, Robyn N; Coble, Paula G; Farr, James; Wood, A Michelle; Lee, Kenneth; Pegau, W Scott; Walsh, Ian D; Koch, Corey R; Abercrombie, Mary I; Miles, M Scott; Lewis, Marlon R; Ryan, Scott A; Robinson, Brian J; King, Thomas L; Kelble, Christopher R; Lacoste, Jordanna

    2014-01-01

    In situ fluorometers were deployed during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Gulf of Mexico oil spill to track the subsea oil plume. Uncertainties regarding instrument specifications and capabilities necessitated performance testing of sensors exposed to simulated, dispersed oil plumes. Dynamic ranges of the Chelsea Technologies Group AQUAtracka, Turner Designs Cyclops, Satlantic SUNA and WET Labs, Inc. ECO, exposed to fresh and artificially weathered crude oil, were determined. Sensors were standardized against known oil volumes and total petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene-toluene-ethylbenzene-xylene measurements-both collected during spills, providing oil estimates during wave tank dilution experiments. All sensors estimated oil concentrations down to 300 ppb oil, refuting previous reports. Sensor performance results assist interpretation of DWH oil spill data and formulating future protocols. PMID:24377909

  20. Oil Spills and Spills of Hazardous Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    The stated purpose of this publication is to describe some of the more significant spill incidents and the mechanisms, both managerial and technological, to deal with them. This publication is targeted for school, general public, and other such audiences. Sections include effects of spills, prevention of spills, responding to spills, spill…

  1. 预防泄漏:工程化降低无控制化学品泄漏的危险性%Spill Prevention:Engineering Decreased Risk of Uncontained Chemical Spills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincent W. CARUSO; Edward C. BROWN; John P. KAY; Michael A. MANCINI; James A. WESTRA; Philip E. KEYES

    2011-01-01

    In pharmaceutical research laboratories, automated purification systems are a core component of instrumental services provided in support of drug discovery. These systems consume a large volume of solvent to perform the necessary separations relative to the amount of compound introduced. To supply solvent to these systems, anything from 4-L bottles to 56-L reservoirs or kegs, often containing hazardous liquids, are typically employed. The potential exists for fire and chemical exposure to scientists and support staff due to accidental spills, leaks, or overflow of solvent waste containers. Use of a universal, chemically inert, and intrinsically safe liquid sensor installed within the secondary containment vessel for liquid waste will help to provide a safer work environment.%在药物研究实验室中,自动化纯化系统是仪器的核心部分,它有助于药物的发现。该系统消耗大量的溶剂,以实现对采用的一定量的混合物进行必要的分离。为了给这些系统提供溶剂,通常采用4L溶剂瓶到56L贮液器或小桶,里面往往包含有害液体。因此存在着不少潜在危险,例如火灾,由于意外溢出、泄漏或从溶剂废液瓶中溢出而使接触化学品的科学家和后勤人员受伤。使用通用的、化学惰性的、本质安全的液体传感器安装在二次防漏容器中为废液收集提供了一个相对安全的工作环境。

  2. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conversion of oil to environmentally benign chemicals such as water and carbon dioxide by 'hydrocarbon-eating' bacteria is described. The emphasis is on a new process to selectively increase the population of 'oil eating' bacteria, a development that became the foundation for the second-generation bioremediation accelerator, Inipol EAP-22. Second-generation bioremediation products focus on providing nitrogen and phosphorus, chemicals that are not present in crude oil in readily available form, but are essential for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids and the energy metabolism of the bacteria. Providing these chemicals in the proper amounts encourages the preferential growth of oil-degrading microbes already present in the local biomass, thus overcoming the major limiting factor for biodegradation. These second-generation bioremediation products also have strong oleophilic properties engineered into them, to assure that the nutrients essential for the bacteria are in contact with the oil. The first major test for second-generation bioremediation accelerators came with the clean-up of the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez, a disaster that contaminated more than 120 kilometres of Alaskan beaches along the shores of Prince William Sound. The Inipol EAP-22 successfully held the nutrients in contact with the oil for the duration of the treatment period, despite constant exposure to the washing action of the surf and occasional heavy rainstorms. Today, the accelerator is routinely used in cleaning up all types of ordinary spills including diesel fuel spills along railway right-of-ways, truck yards and refinery sludge. Conditions under which the application of the accelerator is likely to be most successful are described

  3. Oil spills and their cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil spills are an unfortunately common occurrence in the world's seas and can have extensive damaging environmental consequences. This article examines various methods of cleaning up oil spills, evaluates their effectiveness in various situations, and identifies areas where, current methods being inadequate, further research is needed. Containment, mechanical removal, shoreline cleanup, chemical treating agents, in situ burning, natural recovery and enhanced bioremediation are all assessed. The cleanup method must be selected to match environmental conditions. Results are good in quiet, sheltered waters, but need extensive development in open waters and high seas. (UK)

  4. A Tale of Two Recent Spills—Comparison of 2014 Galveston Bay and 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Yin; Hayworth, Joel S.; T Prabhakar Clement

    2015-01-01

    Managing oil spill residues washing onto sandy beaches is a common worldwide environmental problem. In this study, we have analyzed the first-arrival oil spill residues collected from two Gulf of Mexico (GOM) beach systems following two recent oil spills: the 2014 Galveston Bay (GB) oil spill, and the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. This is the first study to provide field observations and chemical characterization data for the 2014 GB oil spill. Here we compare the physical and chemi...

  5. A tale of two recent spills--comparison of 2014 Galveston Bay and 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yin

    Full Text Available Managing oil spill residues washing onto sandy beaches is a common worldwide environmental problem. In this study, we have analyzed the first-arrival oil spill residues collected from two Gulf of Mexico (GOM beach systems following two recent oil spills: the 2014 Galveston Bay (GB oil spill, and the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill. This is the first study to provide field observations and chemical characterization data for the 2014 GB oil spill. Here we compare the physical and chemical characteristics of GB oil spill samples with DWH oil spill samples and present their similarities and differences. Our field observations indicate that both oil spills had similar shoreline deposition patterns; however, their physical and chemical characteristics differed considerably. We highlight these differences, discuss their implications, and interpret GB data in light of lessons learned from previously published DWH oil spill studies. These analyses are further used to assess the long-term fate of GB oil spill residues and their potential environmental impacts.

  6. Oil spill dispersants. Risk assessment for Swedish waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, C.; Lager, H.; Fejes, J.

    2001-12-01

    IVL has compiled a list of the international usage of oil spill dispersants and presents the technical limitations with the use of such agents as well as the biological effects of these chemical products. IVL, has also conducted an analysis of the pros and cons to using dispersants against oil spills in waters and has applied this with a risk assessment of chemical methods to combat oil spills in the Kattegat and Skagerrak and the Baltic Sea.

  7. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ bioremediation of crude oil spills relies on either the indigenous microbes at the polluted site, whose degradative abilities are accelerated by adding such agents as fertilizers or dispersants, or on introducing pollutant-degrading microbes into the site (possibly accompanied by stimulatory chemicals). The bioremediation method to be used at a specific site must be selected to be suitable for that site and its environmental conditions. The basic components of bioremediation are outlined and the background information needed to understand the chemical and biological limitations of the technique are presented. Specifically, the microbial community, the crude oil substrate composition, and biological limiting factors are discussed. Generalized examples of bioremediation applications are illustrated. 10 refs

  8. Chemical Structure, Property and Potential Applications of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacillus subtilis in Petroleum Recovery and Spill Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Feng Liu; Serge Maurice Mbadinga; Shi-Zhong Yang; Ji-Dong Gu; Bo-Zhong Mu

    2015-01-01

    Lipopeptides produced by microorganisms are one of the five major classes of biosurfactants known and they have received much attention from scientific and industrial communities due to their powerful interfacial and biological activities as well as environmentally friendly characteristics. Microbially produced lipopeptides are a series of chemical structural analogues of different families and, among them, 26 families covering about 90 lipopeptide compounds have been reported in the last tw...

  9. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy's liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility is a research and demonstration facility available on a user-fee basis to private and public sector test and training sponsors concerned with safety aspects of hazardous chemicals. Though initially designed to accommodate large liquefied natural gas releases, the Spill Test Facility (STF) can also accommodate hazardous materials training and safety-related testing of most chemicals in commercial use. The STF is located at DOE's Nevada Test Site near Mercury, Nevada, USA. Utilization of the Spill Test Facility provides a unique opportunity for industry and other users to conduct hazardous materials testing and training. The Spill Test Facility is the only facility of its kind for either large- or small-scale testing of hazardous and toxic fluids including wind tunnel testing under controlled conditions. It is ideally suited for test sponsors to develop verified data on prevention, mitigation, clean-up, and environmental effects of toxic and hazardous gaseous liquids. The facility site also supports structured training for hazardous spills, mitigation, and clean-up. Since 1986, the Spill Test Facility has been utilized for releases to evaluate the patterns of dispersion, mitigation techniques, and combustion characteristics of select materials. Use of the facility can also aid users in developing emergency planning under US P.L 99-499, the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) and other regulations. The Spill Test Facility Program is managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy (FE) with the support and assistance of other divisions of US DOE and the US Government. DOE/FE serves as facilitator and business manager for the Spill Test Facility and site. This brief document is designed to acquaint a potential user of the Spill Test Facility with an outline of the procedures and policies associated with the use of the facility

  10. Aerial photography interpreted for contingency planning, spill prevention, compliance monitoring and spill surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory in Las Vegas is producing photo interpretation keys which are aerial photographic examples of hazardous substance spills and potential spill conditions within typical chemical processing and storage facilities. Color aerial photography, acquired over a variety of chemical processing facilities along the Lower Delaware River estuary and the Baltimore Harbor area, provides the primary source of data for the keys

  11. Marine (Brander-Smith report) and non-marine spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current activities related to Canada's Green Plan are reviewed in the area of research on, and response to, marine and non-marine spills. The Emergency Response section of Environment Canada's Conservation and Protection Service has had a 130% increase in funding and 50% increase in personnel resources. Two thirds of these resources are assigned to regional operations where spill incidents occur and the rest to research. The section's first priority is to improve its spill prevention program. A national standard for emergency planning for industry has been prepared and thousands of copies have been sold. A Canada-USA joint inland pollution contingency plan will be established and training programs on response to oil and hazardous chemical spills has been implemented. Resources applied to spill response have also increased 150%; a computerized communications network has been provided for spill response personnel, with the aim to develop a single national spill reporting system. In terms of policy initiatives, amendments are being made to the Canada Shipping Act that will require on-board pollution emergency plans for ships operating in Canadian waters. A liability and compensation regime for chemical spills is being considered, as well as reimposition of a levy on petroleum products that resulted in creation of a ship-source oil pollution fund. Radar-based traffic control systems for heavily congested marine areas, electronic charting, and increased inspection of ships are among the spill prevention initiatives in progress. Research is being conducted on mapping environmentally sensitive shorelines and in oil spill cleanup methods

  12. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  13. Oil spill statistics and oil spill monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viebahn, C. von [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Geography

    2001-09-01

    The main parts of the report describe the analysis and it's results of German and international oil spill data (North Sea and Baltic Sea). In order to improve the current oil spill monitoring of the Baltic Sea regarding oil spill data, the report proposes the establishment of a combined monitoring system; its suitability is shown on selected examples. This contains today's pollution control aircraft plus in-service aircraft and satellites. (orig.) [German] Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Analyse von Daten ueber marine Oelschadensfaelle in deutschen und internationalen Gewaessern (Nord- und Ostsee). Um die heutige Ueberwachung der Ostsee im Hinblick auf Oelschadensfaelle zu verbessern, wird die Einrichtung eines kombinierten Ueberwachungssystems vorgeschlagen und dessen Eignung an ausgewaehlten Beispielen dargestellt. Dieses umfasst sowohl die heute eingesetzten Ueberwachungsflugzeuge sowie zusaetzlich Linienflugzeuge und Satelliten. (orig.)

  14. Effects of oil spill related chemical pollution on helminth parasites in Mexican flounder Cyclopsetta chittendeni from the Campeche Sound, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno-Chalé, Oscar Arturo; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel

    2015-09-01

    During an environmental impact study of an accidental oil spill in the Campeche Sound in October 2007, we examined the helminth parasites of the benthic flatfish Cyclopsetta chittendeni as well as the concentrations of hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the sediment. The aim of this study was to determine the potential effects of these contaminants on the helminth communities of the flatfish. A total of 427 hosts were examined, and 16,895 helminths, representing 17 species, were obtained from two surveys (March and July, 2008). Statistically significant negative associations were observed between the hydrocarbons and helminth parasite abundances using multivariate methods. The results suggest that in October 2007, the oil spill had a strong negative effect on these helminth communities. However, after five months, the impacted stations were re-populated by both the flatfish and helminths. The most likely explanation for this rapid recovery is the rescue effect from non-impacted habitats to impacted stations. PMID:26004356

  15. Effects of oil spill related chemical pollution on helminth parasites in Mexican flounder Cyclopsetta chittendeni from the Campeche Sound, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno-Chalé, Oscar Arturo; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel

    2015-09-01

    During an environmental impact study of an accidental oil spill in the Campeche Sound in October 2007, we examined the helminth parasites of the benthic flatfish Cyclopsetta chittendeni as well as the concentrations of hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the sediment. The aim of this study was to determine the potential effects of these contaminants on the helminth communities of the flatfish. A total of 427 hosts were examined, and 16,895 helminths, representing 17 species, were obtained from two surveys (March and July, 2008). Statistically significant negative associations were observed between the hydrocarbons and helminth parasite abundances using multivariate methods. The results suggest that in October 2007, the oil spill had a strong negative effect on these helminth communities. However, after five months, the impacted stations were re-populated by both the flatfish and helminths. The most likely explanation for this rapid recovery is the rescue effect from non-impacted habitats to impacted stations.

  16. Modeling comprehensive chemical composition of weathered oil following a marine spill to predict ozone and potential secondary aerosol formation and constrain transport pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Greg T.; Worton, David R.; Aeppli, Christoph; Reddy, Christopher M.; Zhang, Haofei; Variano, Evan; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2015-11-01

    Releases of hydrocarbons from oil spills have large environmental impacts in both the ocean and atmosphere. Oil evaporation is not simply a mechanism of mass loss from the ocean, as it also causes production of atmospheric pollutants. Monitoring atmospheric emissions from oil spills must include a broad range of volatile organic compounds (VOC), including intermediate-volatile and semivolatile compounds (IVOC, SVOC), which cause secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and ozone production. The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster in the northern Gulf of Mexico during Spring/Summer of 2010 presented a unique opportunity to observe SOA production due to an oil spill. To better understand these observations, we conducted measurements and modeled oil evaporation utilizing unprecedented comprehensive composition measurements, achieved by gas chromatography with vacuum ultraviolet time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-VUV-HR-ToFMS). All hydrocarbons with 10-30 carbons were classified by degree of branching, number of cyclic rings, aromaticity, and molecular weight; these hydrocarbons comprise ˜70% of total oil mass. Such detailed and comprehensive characterization of DWH oil allowed bottom-up estimates of oil evaporation kinetics. We developed an evaporative model, using solely our composition measurements and thermodynamic data, that is in excellent agreement with published mass evaporation rates and our wind-tunnel measurements. Using this model, we determine surface slick samples are composed of oil with a distribution of evaporative ages and identify and characterize probable subsurface transport of oil.

  17. Pleural spill malign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pleural spills are developed because of an alteration in the mechanisms that usually move between 5 and 10 liters of liquid through the space pleural every 24 hours and this is reabsorbed, only leaving 5 to 20 ml present. The causes more common of spill pleural they are: congestive heart failure, bacterial pneumonia, malign neoplasia and pulmonary clot. The causes more common of pleural spill malign in general are: cancer of the lung, cancer of the breast and lymphomas. In the man, cancer of the lung, lymphomas and gastrointestinal cancer. In the woman, cancer of the breast, gynecological cancer and lung cancer. The paper, includes their characteristics, treatments and medicines

  18. Spill response cost recovery : establishing a regulation under the Waste Management Act for recovering the cost of spill response by the government of British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia's Waste Management Act has been amended to allow for spill cost recovery to ensure clean, healthy and safe land, water and air for all living things. Cost recovery for spill response provides an incentive to users of oil and hazardous materials to adopt effective spill prevention measures and it allows industry to understand the full social, environmental and economic cost of hazardous spills. The BC Ministry of the Environment responds to about 4,000 spill notifications per year pertaining to oil and chemical spills and other pollution-causing incidents. About one third of these notifications need field action by the Ministry. Under the Act, if the spiller's performance is inadequate, the Ministry takes over the management of the spill. The amendment to the Act permits the application of cost recovery, by issuing a certificate and invoice to the polluter showing the amount owed to the Provincial Government. 1 fig

  19. Effects of an oil spill in a harbor assessed using biomarkers of exposure in eelpout

    OpenAIRE

    Sturve, Joachim; Balk, Lennart; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Förlin, Lars; Carney Almroth, Bethanie

    2014-01-01

    Oil spills occur commonly, and chemical compounds originating from oil spills are widespread in the aquatic environment. In order to monitor effects of a bunker oil spill on the aquatic environment, biomarker responses were measured in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) sampled along a gradient in Göteborg harbor where the oil spill occurred and at a reference site, 2 weeks after the oil spill. Eelpout were also exposed to the bunker oil in a laboratory study to validate field data. The results show...

  20. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources.

  1. Oil composition and properties for oil spill modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.D.; Hollebone, B.P.; Yang, C.; Fieldhouse, B.; Fingas, M.; Landriault, M.; Gamble, L.; Peng, X. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Centre; Weaver, J. [National Exposure Research Laboratory, Athens, GA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The methods and procedures for measuring the physical properties and chemical compositions of 9 commonly used crude oils that have the potential to be spilled at sea were presented. The 9 oils have API gravities ranging from 11 to 42 degrees and have large differences in their physical and chemical properties. The oils are fractioned into groups of compounds with similar structures and properties. The hydrocarbon groups include TPHCWG fractions with different carbon ranges, total petroleum hydrocarbon, total saturates, total aromatics, asphaltenes and polars. The target hydrocarbons characterized include n-alkanes, volatile BTEX and other alkyl benzenes, oil-characteristic alkylated PAH homologous series and other EPA priority PAH and biomarker compounds. This paper also presented a set of physical and chemical property data for the Cook Inlet Crude Oil. The physical and chemical properties reported were those that are most likely to determine the environmental fate and impact of spilled oil. Results of this project have been integrated into existing Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Environment Canada oil properties databases to advance oil spill modelling. The data will be particularly useful for an oil spill model that is being developed by the National Exposure Research Laboratory in Athens, Georgia to determine the fate and transport of oil components under a range of oil spill scenarios. The data reflects the changes to an oil over the course of a spill. 20 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. Screening of pollution control and clean-up materials for river chemical spills using the multiple case-based reasoning method with a difference-driven revision strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rentao; Jiang, Jiping; Guo, Liang; Shi, Bin; Liu, Jie; Du, Zhaolin; Wang, Peng

    2016-06-01

    In-depth filtering of emergency disposal technology (EDT) and materials has been required in the process of environmental pollution emergency disposal. However, an urgent problem that must be solved is how to quickly and accurately select the most appropriate materials for treating a pollution event from the existing spill control and clean-up materials (SCCM). To meet this need, the following objectives were addressed in this study. First, the material base and a case base for environment pollution emergency disposal were established to build a foundation and provide material for SCCM screening. Second, the multiple case-based reasoning model method with a difference-driven revision strategy (DDRS-MCBR) was applied to improve the original dual case-based reasoning model method system, and screening and decision-making was performed for SCCM using this model. Third, an actual environmental pollution accident from 2012 was used as a case study to verify the material base, case base, and screening model. The results demonstrated that the DDRS-MCBR method was fast, efficient, and practical. The DDRS-MCBR method changes the passive situation in which the choice of SCCM screening depends only on the subjective experience of the decision maker and offers a new approach to screening SCCM.

  3. OIL SPILL CLEANUP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the consideration of bioremediation for oil spills, it is important to understand the ecological and human health implications of bioremediation efforts. uring biodegradation, the toxicity of the polluting material may actually increase upon the conversion of non-toxic con...

  4. Advancing Partnerships Towards an Integrated Approach to Oil Spill Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D. S.; Stough, T.; Gallegos, S. C.; Leifer, I.; Murray, J. J.; Streett, D.

    2015-12-01

    Oil spills can cause enormous ecological and economic devastation, necessitating application of the best science and technology available, and remote sensing is playing a growing critical role in the detection and monitoring of oil spills, as well as facilitating validation of remote sensing oil spill products. The FOSTERRS (Federal Oil Science Team for Emergency Response Remote Sensing) interagency working group seeks to ensure that during an oil spill, remote sensing assets (satellite/aircraft/instruments) and analysis techniques are quickly, effectively, appropriately, and seamlessly available to oil spills responders. Yet significant challenges remain for addressing oils spanning a vast range of chemical properties that may be spilled from the Tropics to the Arctic, with algorithms and scientific understanding needing advances to keep up with technology. Thus, FOSTERRS promotes enabling scientific discovery to ensure robust utilization of available technology as well as identifying technologies moving up the TRL (Technology Readiness Level). A recent FOSTERRS facilitated support activity involved deployment of the AVIRIS NG (Airborne Visual Infrared Imaging Spectrometer- Next Generation) during the Santa Barbara Oil Spill to validate the potential of airborne hyperspectral imaging to real-time map beach tar coverage including surface validation data. Many developing airborne technologies have potential to transition to space-based platforms providing global readiness.

  5. Spreading, retention and clean-up of oil spills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Jr, M P

    1976-05-01

    This study reviews and assesses the technology of oil spill spreading, retention and cleanup and proposes research needs in these areas. Sources of oil spills are analyzed and the difficulty of gathering meaningful statistics is discussed. Barrier technology is reviewed and problem areas analyzed. Natural and forced biodegradation and natural and chemical dispersion of oil spills are considered. Research recommendations are categorized under the following two headings (1) Preventive techniques and (2) Containment, Cleanup and Dispersion.

  6. GEOCHEMICAL RECOGNITION OF SPILLED SEDIMENTS USED IN NUMERICAL MODEL VALIDATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jens R.VALEUR; Steen LOMHOLT; Christian KNUDSEN

    2004-01-01

    A fixed link (tunnel and bridge,in total 16 km) was constructed between Sweden and Denmark during 1995-2000.As part of the work,approximately 16 million tonnes of seabed materials (limestone and clay till) were dredged,and about 0.6 million tonnes of these were spilled in the water.Modelling of the spreading and sedimentation of the spilled sediments took place as part of the environmental monitoring of the construction activities.In order to verify the results of the numerical modelling of sediment spreading and sedimentation,a new method with the purpose of distinguishing between the spilled sediments and the naturally occurring sediments was developed.Because the spilled sediments tend to accumulate at the seabed in areas with natural sediments of the same size,it is difficult to separate these based purely on the physical properties.The new method is based on the geo-chemical differences between the natural sediment in the area and the spill.The basic properties used are the higher content of calcium carbonate material in the spill as compared to the natural sediments and the higher Ca/Sr ratio in the spill compared to shell fragments dominating the natural calcium carbonate deposition in the area.The reason for these differences is that carbonate derived from recent shell debris can be discriminated from Danien limestone,which is the material in which the majority of the dredging took place,on the basis of the Ca/Sr ratio being 488 in Danien Limestone and 237 in shell debris.The geochemical recognition of the origin of the sediments proved useful in separating the spilled from the naturally occurring sediments.Without this separation,validation of the modelling of accumulation of spilled sediments would not have been possible.The method has general validity and can be used in many situations where the origin ora given sediment is sought.

  7. Environmental implications of oil spills from shipping accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowska, Justyna; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Since ancient times, ships have sunk during storms, either as a result of collisions with other vessels or running onto rocks. However, the ever-increasing importance of crude oil in the twentieth century and the corresponding growth in the world's tanker fleet have drawn attention to the negative implications of sea transport. Disasters involving tankers like the Torrey Canyon or the Amoco Cadiz have shown how dramatic the consequences of such an accident may be. The effects of oil spills at sea depend on numerous factors, such as the physicochemical parameters of the oil, the characteristics of the environment affected, and the physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring there, such as evaporation, dissolution, dispersion, emulsification, photo-oxidation, biodegradation, and sedimentation. The combination of these processes reduces the concentrations of hydrocarbons in sediments and water and alters the chemical composition of spilled oils. In every case, oil spills pose a danger to fauna and flora and cause damage to sea and shores ecosystems. Many of the petroleum-related chemicals that are spilled are toxic, otherwise carcinogenic or can be bioaccumulated in the tissues of marine organisms. Such chemicals may then be biomagnified up the marine food chain from phytoplankton to fish, then to seals and other carnivorous sea mammals. Moreover, oil products can be accumulated and immobilized in bottom deposits for long periods of time. Oil spills are particularly dangerous when they occur in small inland seas that have intense sea traffic, e.g., the Baltic Sea. PMID:20652670

  8. Dam spills and fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short paper reports the main topics discussed during the two days of the annual colloquium of the Hydro-ecology Committee of EdF. The first day was devoted to the presentation of the joint works carried out by EdF, the Paul-Sabatier University (Toulouse), the Provence St-Charles University (Marseille), the ENSAT (Toulouse) and the CEMAGREF (Lyon and Aix-en-Provence) about the environmental impact of dam spills on the aquatic flora and fauna downstream. A synthesis and recommendations were presented for the selection and characterization of future sites. The second day was devoted to the hydro-ecology study of the dam reservoir of Petit-Saut (French Guyana): water reoxygenation, quality evolution, organic matter, plankton, invertebrates and fishes. The 134 French dams concerned by water spills have been classified according to the frequency of spills, the variations of flow rates created, and their impacts on fishing, walking, irrigation, industry, drinking water, navigation, bathing. Particular studies on different sites have demonstrated the complexity of the phenomena involved concerning the impact on the ecosystems and the water quality. (J.S.)

  9. Bacterial consortia for crude oil spill remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil spills generate enormous public concern and highlight the need for cost effective ad environmentally acceptable mitigation technologies. Physico-chemical methods are not completely effective after a spill. Hence, there is a need for improved and alternative technologies. Bioremediation is the most environmentally sound technology for clean up. This report intends to determine the potential of a bacterial consortium for degradation of Gulf and Bombay High crude oil. A four membered consortium was designed that could degrade 70% of the crude oil. A member of consortium produced a biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, that emulsified crude oil efficiently for effective degradation by the other members of consortium. The wide range of hydrocarbonoclastic capabilities of the selected members of bacterial consortium leads to the degradation of both aromatic and aliphatic fractions of crude oil in 72 hours. (Author)

  10. Final report of the accident phenomenology and consequence (APAC) methodology evaluation. Spills Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brereton, S.; Shinn, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hesse, D [Battelle Columbus Labs., OH (United States); Kaninich, D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Lazaro, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mubayi, V. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The Spills Working Group was one of six working groups established under the Accident Phenomenology and Consequence (APAC) methodology evaluation program. The objectives of APAC were to assess methodologies available in the accident phenomenology and consequence analysis area and to evaluate their adequacy for use in preparing DOE facility safety basis documentation, such as Basis for Interim Operation (BIO), Justification for Continued Operation (JCO), Hazard Analysis Documents, and Safety Analysis Reports (SARs). Additional objectives of APAC were to identify development needs and to define standard practices to be followed in the analyses supporting facility safety basis documentation. The Spills Working Group focused on methodologies for estimating four types of spill source terms: liquid chemical spills and evaporation, pressurized liquid/gas releases, solid spills and resuspension/sublimation, and resuspension of particulate matter from liquid spills.

  11. Chemical comparison and acute toxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of source and field collected Macondo oils from the Deepwater Horizon spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Altin, Dag; Nordtug, Trond; Daling, Per S; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2015-02-15

    Two Source oils and five field collected oil residues from the Deepwater Horizon incident were chemically characterized. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the Source oils and two of the field-weathered oils were prepared to evaluate the impact of natural weathering on the chemical composition and the acute toxicity of the WAFs. Toxicity test species representing different tropic levels were used (the primary producer Skeletonema costatum (algae) and the herbivorous copepod Acartia tonsa). The results suggest that the potential for acute toxicity is higher in WAFs from non-weathered oils than WAFs from the field weathered oils. The Source oils contained a large fraction of soluble and bioavailable components (such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes) and naphthalene), whereas in the surface collected oils these components were depleted by dissolution into the water column as the oil rose to the surface and by evaporative loss after reaching the sea surface. PMID:25534626

  12. Marine oil spill response organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The obligations under the law relative to the prevention of marine oil spills and the type of emergency plans needed to mitigate any adverse effects caused by a marine oil spill were discussed. The organizational structure, spill response resources and operational management capabilities of Canada's newly created Response Organizations (ROs) were described. The overall range of oil spill response services that the RO provides to the domestic oil handling, oil transportation and the international shipping industries were reviewed. Amendments to the Canada Shipping Act which require that certain ships and oil handling facilities take oil spill preparedness and response measures, including having an arrangement with an RO certified by the Canadian Coast Guard, were outlined. Canadians now benefit from five ROs established to provide coast-to-coast oil spill response coverage. These include the Western Canada Marine Response Corporation, the Canadian Marine Response Management Corporation, the Great Lakes Response Corporation, the Eastern Canada Response Corporation and the Atlantic Emergency Response Team Ltd. ROs have the expertise necessary to organize and manage marine oil spill response services. They can provide equipment, personnel and operational management for the containment, recovery and cleanup of oil spilled on water

  13. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For some years now UK and European oil spill response agencies, together with oil companies having an exploration or production interest in the European area, have been developing interest in the possible use of bioremediation techniques in combatting oil spills. The interest has accelerated in the aftermath of Exxon Valdez but there is significant scepticism over the actual value of the technique. The promise of increased rates of oil degradation, using bacteria or nutrients, does not yet appear to have been properly validated and there is concern over possible knock-on environmental effects. In consequence the response agencies are reluctant to bring the technique into their current combat armory. Some of the questions raised are: What efficacious techniques are available and how were they proven? On what type of oils can they be used? What is the scope for their use (at sea, type of coastline, temperature limitations, etc.)? What are the short and long term effects? Does bioremediation really work and offer a potential tool for oil spill clean-up? How do cleaning rates compare with natural recovery? There are many others. The view of the European Commission is that there should be a coordinated effort to answer these questions, but that effort should be properly targeted. I concur strongly with this view. The tasks are too large and varied for piecemeal attention. The European Commission wishes to initiate appropriate coordinated work, directed at the needs of European nations but which will subsequently inform the international response community through the International Maritime Organization and its Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response Cooperation initiative

  14. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum Remediation Product (PRP) is a new way of cleaning up oil spills. It consists of thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers, containing live microorganisms and nutrients to sustain them. As oil flows through the microcapsule's shell, it is consumed and digested by the microorganisms. Pressure buildup causes the PRP to explode and the enzymes, carbon dioxide and water are released into the BioBoom used in conjunction with PRP, preventing contaminated water from spreading. The system incorporates technology originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Marshall Space Flight Center.

  15. Oil spill clean up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the consideration of bioremediation for oil spills, it is important to understand the ecological and human health implications of bioremediation efforts. During biodegradation, the toxicity of the polluting material may actually increase upon the conversion of non-toxic constituents to toxic species. Also, toxic compounds refractory to biological degradation may compromise the effectiveness of the treatment technique. In the study, the Salmonella mutagenicity assay showed that both the Prudhoe Bay crude oil and its weathered counterpart collected from oil-impacted water were weakly mutagenic. Results also showed that the mutagenic components were depleted at a faster rate than the overall content of organic material

  16. Evolution of Environment Canada's Spill Response System : two decades of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldthorp, M.; Lambert, P.; Fingas, M.F. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This paper reviewed and summarized the 20 years of development of Environment Canada's chemical spill response program which was initially created to identify the most commonly spilled hazardous chemicals so that responders could quantify them. It was noted that the analytical instruments which were commonly used in the early days of the program are still used today. The paper described the following instruments along with their detection capability: the portable XRF, 4-gas multi-gas meter, 5-gas multi-gas meter, the portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, the portable gas chromatograph, the spectrophotometer, the PID/flame ionization detector, the PID, particulate monitors, detector tube system, chemical identification system, immunoassay kits and chemical tape meters. It was noted that there has been significant increase in response capability since the initiation of the program. Improvements in instrumentation have made it possible for responders to obtain real-time analytical assessments to help with on-site decision making. Environment Canada's spill response program has maintained a leadership role in the assessment, development and implementation of response technologies. The projects under the directorship of the program have been the subject of more than 50 papers dealing with spill instrumentation, spill trends, method development, spill countermeasures, and database development. The Emergency Science and Technology Division of Environment Canada operates 4 vehicles for emergency response for chemical spills, including 1 mobile, 2 general response trucks, and 1 towable laboratory. 20 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Remediation Technologies for Marine Oil Spills: A Critical Review and Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dave

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Anthropogenic activities pollute the oceans with oil through land run off, vessels accidents, periodic tanker discharges and bilge discharges. Oil spills are environmental disasters that impact human, plants and wild life including birds, fish and mammals. Approach: In this study, the International Guidelines for Preventing Oils Spills and Response to Disasters were reviewed and the characteristics of oil spills were discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of various oil spill response methods were evaluated. A comparative analysis were performed on the currently available remediation technologies using 10 evaluation criteria that included cost, efficiency, time, impact on wild life, reliability, level of difficulty, oil recovery, weather, effect on physical/chemical characteristics of oil and the need for further treatment. The advantages and disadvantages of each response method were used to determine the score assigned to that method. Results: There are many government regualtions for individual countries that serve as prevention mesures for oil spills in the offshore environment. They have to do with the design of equipment and machinery used in the offshore environment and performing the necessary safety inspections. The primary objectives of response to oil spill are: to prevent the spill from moving onto shore, reduce the impact on marine life and speed the degradation of any unrecovered oil. There are several physical, chemical, thermal and biological remediation technologies for oil spills including booms, skimmers, sorbents, dispersants, in-situ burning and bioremediation. Each technique has its advantages and disadvantages and the choice of a particular technique will depend on: type of oil, physical, biological and economical characteristics of the spill, location, weather and sea conditions, amount spilled and rate of spillage, depth of water column, time of the year and effectiveness of technique. Coclusion

  18. Effects of an oil spill in a harbor assessed using biomarkers of exposure in eelpout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturve, Joachim; Balk, Lennart; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Förlin, Lars; Carney Almroth, Bethanie

    2014-12-01

    Oil spills occur commonly, and chemical compounds originating from oil spills are widespread in the aquatic environment. In order to monitor effects of a bunker oil spill on the aquatic environment, biomarker responses were measured in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) sampled along a gradient in Göteborg harbor where the oil spill occurred and at a reference site, 2 weeks after the oil spill. Eelpout were also exposed to the bunker oil in a laboratory study to validate field data. The results show that eelpout from the Göteborg harbor are influenced by contaminants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), also during "normal" conditions. The bunker oil spill strongly enhanced the biomarker responses. Results show elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in all exposed sites, but, closest to the oil spill, the EROD activity was partly inhibited, possibly by PAHs. Elevated DNA adduct levels were also observed after the bunker oil spill. Chemical analyses of bile revealed high concentrations of PAH metabolites in the eelpout exposed to the oil, and the same PAH metabolite profile was evident both in eelpout sampled in the harbor and in the eelpout exposed to the bunker oil in the laboratory study.

  19. Assessment of treated vs untreated oil spills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.P.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of studies conducted to determine the practicability and feasibility of using dispersants to mitigate the impact of an oil spill on the environment are described. The method of approach is holistic in that it combines the physical, chemical, microbial and macro-fauna response to a spill treated with dispersants and compares this with spills that are left untreated. The program integrates mathematical, laboratory, meso-scale (three 20 foot high by three feet in diameter tanks, in-situ experiments and analyses to determine if the use of dispersants is an effective oil spill control agent. In summary, it appears viable to use dispersants as determined on a case by case basis. The case for using dispersants has to be based on whether or not their use will mitigate the environmental impact of the spill. In the case of an open ocean spill that is being driven into a rich inter-tidal community, the use of dispersants could greatly reduce the environmental impact. Even in the highly productive George's Bank area at the height of the cod spawning season, the impact of the use of dispersants is well within the limits of natural variability when the threshold toxicity level is assumed to be as low as 100 ppB, a level which is often found in the open ocean. Thus, it appears that dispersants can and should be used when it is evident that their use will mitigate the impacts of the spill. Their use in areas where there is poor circulation and therefore little possibility of rapid dilution is more questionable and should be a subject of future studies.

  20. China Holds Exercises of Oil Spills Emergency Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese emergency services carried out their largest ever exercise in early June to tackle an oil spill in the Bohai Sea to test their ability to protect the ocean environment. The drill involved a scenario in which a 10,000-ton oil tanker exploded and spilt 500 tons of oil.Soon after the oil tanker Tianpeng "exploded", a fireboat arrived to fight the fire and a helicopter hovered above to spread chemicals to control oil spill, followed by more vessels and another helicopter.

  1. Environmental effects of acute oil spills. Marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological effects as result of acute oil spill pollution may be considered as a product of: the existing biophysical conditions; occurrence and appearance of organisms in time and space; the fate of the oil in time and space; the vulnerability of the various organisms for oil and oil derivatives in a three-dimensional perspective. In general, it seems as every individual oil spill has its own nature and dynamics, inter alia because the physical, chemical and biological conditions never are the same. This means that the properties of the recipients often are more important than the amount of oil that is spilled. This may be exemplified by two oil spills in recent time. Exxon Valdez (1989), where 35000 ton oil were released in a partly closed sea area, caused considerable effects. From Braer (1993) the double amount of oil was spilled, but in an open sea area and at a time where the presence of dense concentrations of environmental components was limited, and the physical conditions favorable with respect to evaporation and dilution. Preliminary results show that the environmental effects were very limited. 311 refs., 32 figs., 10 tabs

  2. Alaska, Gulf spills share similarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accidental Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska and the deliberate dumping of crude oil into the Persian Gulf as a tactic of war contain both glaring differences and surprising similarities. Public reaction and public response was much greater to the Exxon Valdez spill in pristine Prince William Sound than to the war-related tragedy in the Persian Gulf. More than 12,000 workers helped in the Alaskan cleanup; only 350 have been involved in Kuwait. But in both instances, environmental damages appear to be less than anticipated. Natures highly effective self-cleansing action is primarily responsible for minimizing the damages. One positive action growing out of the two incidents is increased international cooperation and participation in oil-spill clean-up efforts. In 1990, in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill, 94 nations signed an international accord on cooperation in future spills. The spills can be historic environmental landmarks leading to creation of more sophisticated response systems worldwide

  3. Regional contingency planning using the OSCAR oil spill contingency and response model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for Oil Spill Contingency and Response (OSCAR) has been used to evaluate the first line oil spill response strategies for different fields in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. The system provides a 3-D model of the physical and chemical behaviour and fate of spilled oil. It also provides an oil spill response simulation of currently available mechanical recovery and dispersant application systems. The response can be dimensioned based on physical or biological characteristics of the region. Comparative costs and environmental benefits of the options can also be calculated. Regional analyses, in which environmental impacts are balanced against regionally based response costs, represent a rational and responsible approach to oil spill response planning. The OSCAR model makes this exercise relatively easy to put in place. 16 refs., 12 figs

  4. Chemical and histological comparisons between Brevoortia sp. (menhaden) collected in fall 2010 from Barataria Bay, LA and Delaware Bay, NJ following the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivegna, Carolyn S; Cooper, Keith R; Olson, Gregory; Pena, Edwin A; Millemann, Daniel R; Portier, Ralph J

    2015-12-01

    Body burdens of PAHs were compared to histological effects in menhaden (Family: Clupeidae, Genus: Brevoortia) collected in fall 2010 from Barataria Bay, LA (BBLA) and Delaware Bay, NJ (DBNJ). Barataria Bay was heavily oiled during the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, while Delaware Bay although urbanized had no reported recent oil spills. GCMS analyses of pre-spill 2009, BBLA and DBNJ fish found predominantly C2/C3 phenanthrene (1.28-6.52 ng/mg). However, BBLA also contained five higher molecular weight PAHs (0.06-0.34 ng/mg DW). Fluorescent aromatic compound spectroscopy (FACS) of gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissue showed statistically higher levels of hydroxypyrene-like PAHs in DBNJ than BBLA fish. Histopathologic lesions were more prevalent in BBLA than DBNJ fish. The lesion prevalence (gill, trunk kidney, epidermis, stomach) in the BBLA menhaden were significantly higher and more severe than observed in the DBNJ menhaden. Reversible lesions included gill lamellar hyperplasia, adhesions, edema, and epidermal hyperplasia. The increased pigmented macrophage centers were indicative of activated macrophages responding to connective tissue damage or other antigens. The liver hepatic necrosis and renal tissue mineralization may well have undergone repair, but damage to the kidney nephrons and hepatic/biliary regions of the liver would be slower to resolve and apparently remained after elimination of PAHs. Therefore, a direct cause and effect between DWH oil spill and increased lesion prevalence in BBLA menhaden could not be established. PMID:26385175

  5. Chemical and histological comparisons between Brevoortia sp. (menhaden) collected in fall 2010 from Barataria Bay, LA and Delaware Bay, NJ following the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivegna, Carolyn S; Cooper, Keith R; Olson, Gregory; Pena, Edwin A; Millemann, Daniel R; Portier, Ralph J

    2015-12-01

    Body burdens of PAHs were compared to histological effects in menhaden (Family: Clupeidae, Genus: Brevoortia) collected in fall 2010 from Barataria Bay, LA (BBLA) and Delaware Bay, NJ (DBNJ). Barataria Bay was heavily oiled during the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, while Delaware Bay although urbanized had no reported recent oil spills. GCMS analyses of pre-spill 2009, BBLA and DBNJ fish found predominantly C2/C3 phenanthrene (1.28-6.52 ng/mg). However, BBLA also contained five higher molecular weight PAHs (0.06-0.34 ng/mg DW). Fluorescent aromatic compound spectroscopy (FACS) of gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissue showed statistically higher levels of hydroxypyrene-like PAHs in DBNJ than BBLA fish. Histopathologic lesions were more prevalent in BBLA than DBNJ fish. The lesion prevalence (gill, trunk kidney, epidermis, stomach) in the BBLA menhaden were significantly higher and more severe than observed in the DBNJ menhaden. Reversible lesions included gill lamellar hyperplasia, adhesions, edema, and epidermal hyperplasia. The increased pigmented macrophage centers were indicative of activated macrophages responding to connective tissue damage or other antigens. The liver hepatic necrosis and renal tissue mineralization may well have undergone repair, but damage to the kidney nephrons and hepatic/biliary regions of the liver would be slower to resolve and apparently remained after elimination of PAHs. Therefore, a direct cause and effect between DWH oil spill and increased lesion prevalence in BBLA menhaden could not be established.

  6. Advanced management of oil spills. A three-year program for development of operational tools for oil spill contingency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-year research program, known as AMOS, to develop advanced operational tools for quantifying environmental consequences and effectiveness of various oil spill response methods is described. The AMOS program will document the fate, weathering, behaviour and potential biological effects on marine organisms of different oil types in the marine environment. A related program, OSCAR 2000, is also in the works. It is designed to facilitate oil spill contingency plans for offshore exploration drilling and production, and for onshore pipeline terminals and refineries. AMOS will supply the biological and chemical documentation that are necessary for the development of OSCAR 2000, which in turn is a tool for Net Environmental Benefit Analysis (NEBA), a technique used to quantify environmental benefits of alternate oil spill combat methods. 5 refs., 1 fig

  7. Identification of Oil Spills by GC/MS Fingerprinting in Relation to the Danish Maritime Oil Spill Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A. B.; Christensen, J. H.; Avnskjold, J.;

    2000-01-01

    From the Second International Conference on Oil and Hydrocarbon Spills. Modelling, Analysis and Control : OIL SPILL 2000.......From the Second International Conference on Oil and Hydrocarbon Spills. Modelling, Analysis and Control : OIL SPILL 2000....

  8. Photoenhanced toxicity of oil in spill response and impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, M.G. [P.E.A.K. Research, Longmont, CO (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Photoenhanced toxicity is described as the increase in chemical toxicity to aquatic organisms that have also been exposed to light sources containing ultraviolet radiation (UV). When tested under natural sunlight or laboratory sources of UV, fresh and weathered crude oils and spill products exhibit phototoxicity. These same products do not exhibit phototoxicity under standard testing with fluorescent lighting. Spill water from the North Cape fuel oil spill and Alaska North Slope crude oil dispersed with the chemical agent Corexit 9527 exhibited phototoxicity when tested under UV light sources. The greatest potential hazard of photoenhanced toxicity is expected to be felt by embryo and larval stages of aquatic organisms inhabiting the photic zone of the water column and intertidal areas because they are relatively translucent to UV. The author suggested that assessment of oil spill impacts should take into consideration photoenhanced toxicity since it may have an impact on the estimates of spatial and temporal extent of injury to aquatic organisms. In addition, the degree of photoenhanced toxicity may be influenced by the choice of remedial action and oil removal operations. 22 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  9. Photoenhanced toxicity of oil in spill response and impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoenhanced toxicity is described as the increase in chemical toxicity to aquatic organisms that have also been exposed to light sources containing ultraviolet radiation (UV). When tested under natural sunlight or laboratory sources of UV, fresh and weathered crude oils and spill products exhibit phototoxicity. These same products do not exhibit phototoxicity under standard testing with fluorescent lighting. Spill water from the North Cape fuel oil spill and Alaska North Slope crude oil dispersed with the chemical agent Corexit 9527 exhibited phototoxicity when tested under UV light sources. The greatest potential hazard of photoenhanced toxicity is expected to be felt by embryo and larval stages of aquatic organisms inhabiting the photic zone of the water column and intertidal areas because they are relatively translucent to UV. The author suggested that assessment of oil spill impacts should take into consideration photoenhanced toxicity since it may have an impact on the estimates of spatial and temporal extent of injury to aquatic organisms. In addition, the degree of photoenhanced toxicity may be influenced by the choice of remedial action and oil removal operations. 22 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  10. Oil Spills - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Oil Spills URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Oil Spills - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  11. Oil Spill Incident Tracking [ds394

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Office of Spill Prevention and Response (OSPR) Incident Tracking Database is a statewide oil spill tracking information system. The data are collected by OSPR...

  12. Application of biosurfactant in oil spill management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surfactants are surface active agents which reduce surface tension and interfacial tension between two immiscible phases and help in emulsification. Toxicity, nonbiodegradability, and limited structural types of chemical surfactants have initiated the need for effective substitutes. Biosurfactants, which are synthesized by specific microbial cultures, have surface active properties comparable to chemical surfactants. They are compounds that can help in oil spill cleanup operations without presenting the problem posed by chemical surfactants. Two bacterial cultures were isolated from oil-contaminated soil and were used for biosurfactant production. The biosurfactants produced by Bacillus licheniformis, BS1, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, BS2, in mineral media containing glucose as the carbon source belong to the class of lipoprotein and glycolipid, respectively. They were found to reduce the surface and interfacial tension of water and water-hexadecane system from 72 dynes/cm and 40 dynes/cm to 28 to 30 dynes/cm and 1 to 3 dynes/cm, respectively. These results were comparable with chemical surfactants with respect to surface tension reduction (Slic Gone 34 dynes/ cm and Castrol 30 dynes/cm). The low interfacial tension allows the formation of stable emulsion. The two cultures were grown on different substrates, namely, glucose, mannitol, glycerol, hexadecane, oily sludge, and crude oil. Emulsion formation of hexadecane in water was tested with the cell-free broth containing biosurfactant from the respective substrate broths. Emulsions of 56% stability to 100% stability were obtained from these biosurfactant-containing broths. Both biosurfactants were able to emulsify crude oil. A surfactant's ability to form a stable emulsion is the first step in oil spill cleanup. The emulsified oil can then be acted upon very easily by the microorganism under study

  13. Successful oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A freighter in the process of loading rock for the Quebec Iron and Titanium Mining Company near Havre-St. Pierre on the extreme north shore of the St. Lawrence River, was suddenly tossed against the dock by rough waters on the night of March 23, 1999, and spilled 49 tonnes of bunker fuel oil into the river. This article describes how the crew of the ship, trained by Environmental Accident Protection Inc., based in Petrolia, Ontario, averted disaster by responding to the accident quickly and effectively. Their first action was to notify the appropriate environmental and regulatory authorities and to put in place containment booms which corralled about 17 tonnes of oil. The oil contained by the booms were removed by trained personnel under the guidance of Eastern Canada Response Corporation of Corunna, Ontario, and Response Systems Inc. of Neshanic, New Jersey, in approximately three hours with only minimum disruption to the environment. Further cleanup of the area, often hindered by bad weather, freezing rain, ice, and 100 km/hr winds, was done by the cooperative efforts of governments, industry and the local fishermen's association. The work included scrubbing the shore with wire brushes and scrapers and handbathing some 1000 migratory birds. The cleanup job was completed in about three weeks and the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve and other nearby habitats for migrating birds were saved the devastation that would have occurred, except for the quick and knowledgeable intervention of a trained crew and an outstanding example of public-private sector and community cooperation. 2 photos

  14. Managing an oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the oil spill response business everything starts with a plan. When planning is set at only middle and top management levels before being chiseled into corporate marble, the result is all too often a plan for failure. For any chance at success, the plan must make sense to, and solve the problems of, the people at the ''business'' end of the business. In the case of Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), that means highly trained responders are put at sea or along coastlines to remove oil from the water, or to deflect oil away from environmentally sensitive areas. They are fortunate in MSRC, and especially in the Gulf Coast Region, to have on their staff, some of the most knowledgeable and experienced oil spill responders in the world. The company relies on them to help build their plans, and to poke holes wherever their plans are inconsistent with getting the job done right

  15. Spill pleural: Clinical and cytological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spill pleural is a frequent entity in congestive heart failure. The congestive heart failure, is probable that the cause more common of pleural spill, an analysis of the spill causes is made, the pathology is revised from the clinical point of view, highlighting the most excellent characteristics in each entity and an cytological analysis is made

  16. Assessment of synfuel spill cleanup options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, S.E.; Wakamiya, W.; English, C.J.; Strand, J.A.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1982-04-01

    Existing petroleum-spill cleanup technologies are reviewed and their limitations, should they be used to mitigate the effects of synfuels spills, are discussed. The six subsections of this report address the following program goals: synfuels production estimates to the year 2000; possible sources of synfuel spills and volumes of spilled fuel to the year 2000; hazards of synfuels spills; assessment of existing spill cleanup technologies for oil spills; assessment of cleanup technologies for synfuel spills; and disposal of residue from synfuel spill cleanup operations. The first goal of the program was to obtain the most current estimates on synfuel production. These estimates were then used to determine the amount of synfuels and synfuel products likely to be spilled, by location and by method of transportation. A review of existing toxicological studies and existing spill mitigation technologies was then completed to determine the potential impacts of synthetic fuel spills on the environment. Data are presented in the four appendixes on the following subjects: synfuel production estimates; acute toxicity of synfuel; acute toxicity of alcohols.

  17. Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris L van der Ham

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF. Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1 exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2 fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events.

  18. Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Joris L; de Mutsert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events.

  19. Marine oil spill contingency planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to the practice researching and formulating "The Oil Spill Contingency Plan of South Chinese Sea", this paper analyses and discusses the structure, functions and main contents of marine oil spill contingency planning, programs the organizing and commanding system and emergency response system, and advances the planning and researching method to coordinate comprehensively and to design practically the detailed emergency response steps until to formulate the ease operating programs for the plan implementation (PPI) and the PPI to apply high-techniques supporting emergency administrations and response.

  20. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil biodeg

  1. Oil spill contingency planning in the Ivory coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The administrative center in charge of handling oil spill pollution situations on the Ivory Coast, West Africa, is named Centre Ivoirien Antipollution (CIAPOL). Its organizational structure has been reshuffled recently. CIAPOL now has three divisions: a laboratory division, a division for cleaning up oil and chemical pollution at sea, and an administrative division. The risk for oil pollution is known: within the past ten years five spills have been reported. All of these have been connected to operations relating to the refinery in Abidjan. More than 2,000 ships call at the port of Abidjan every year. Minor oil slicks are found almost permanently in the harbor and the lagoons around the harbor. Lumps of tar are rather common on the beaches all along the country's coast. This paper focuses on the background investigation in sensitive areas and risk analysis that led to a revision of the oil spill contingency plan, Plan Pollumar, and the recent purchase of oil spill cleanup equipment. The creation of a regional oil pollution response center at CIAPOL for all of the countries in West Africa, is proposed

  2. Application of a step-by-step fingerprinting identification method on a spilled oil accident in the Bohai Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peiyan; Gao, Zhenhui; Cao, Lixin; Wang, Xinping; Zhou, Qing; Zhao, Yuhui; Li, Guangmei

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, oil spill accidents occur frequently in the marine area of China. Finding out the spilled oil source is a key step in the relevant investigation. In this paper, a step-by-step fingerprinting identification method was used in a spilled oil accident in the Bohai Sea in 2002. Advanced chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were used to characterize the chemical composition and determine the possible sources of two spilled oil samples. The original gas chromatography -flame ionization detection (GC-FID) chromatogram of saturated hydrocarbons was compared. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) chromatograms of aromatic hydrocarbons terpane and sterane, n-alkane and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed. The correlation analysis on diagnostic ratios was performed with Student's t-test. It is found that the oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as sz1) from the polluted sand beach was identical with the suspected oil (designated as ky1) from a nearby crude oil refinery factory. They both showed the fingerprinting character of mixed oil. The oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as ms1) collected from the port was significantly different from oil ky1 and oil sz1 and was with a lubricating oil fingerprint character. The identification result not only gave support for the spilled oil investigation, but also served as an example for studying spilled oil accidents.

  3. Application of a Step-by-Step Fingerprinting Identification Method on a Spilled Oil Accident in the Bohai Sea Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Peiyan; GAO Zhenhui; CAO Lixin; WANG Xinping; ZHOU Qing; ZHAO Yuhui; LI Guangmei

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, oil spill accidents occur frequently in the marine area of China. Finding out the spilled oil source is a key step in the relevant investigation. In this paper, a step-by-step fingerprinting identification method was used in a spilled oil accident in the Bohai Sea in 2002. Advanced chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were used to characterize the chemical composition and determine the possible sources of two spilled oil samples. The original gas chromatography -flame ionization detection (GC-FID) chromatogram of saturated hydrocarbons was compared. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS)chromatograms of aromatic hydrocarbons terpane and sterane, n-alkane and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed. The correlation analysis on diagnostic ratios was performed with Student's t-test. It is found that the oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as szl) from the polluted sand beach was identical with the suspected oil (designated as kyl) from a nearby crude oil refinery factory. They both showed the fingerprinting character of mixed oil. The oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as msl) collected from the port was significantly different from oil kyl and oil szl and was with a lubricating oil fingerprint character. The identification result not only gave support for the spilled oil investigation, but also served as an example for studying spilled oil accidents.

  4. Identification of oil spill's sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identifying the source of a marine oil spill is complicated because of the rapid modifications (weathering) undergone by oil as soon as it reaches the sea. Deciding if differences occurring between an oil sample collected after the spill and the original oil can be attributed to weathering involves not only adoption of sophisticated analytical methods but also correct sampling techniques and strict adherence to a chain-of-custody procedure. The method described in this paper, largely based on those adopted by some northern European countries, establishes the identity or non-identity of two samples by exploiting differences rather than similarities between them. It increases the efficiency of the method because it is sufficient to establish that there exists only one difference for deciding that two samples are different

  5. Ohmsett trains oil spill responders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The services that the Ohmsett Facility in New Jersey has to offer were discussed. The facility is operated by the United States Minerals Management Services and is used by the public and private sector for the evaluation of oil spill response equipment such as containment booms, skimmer systems, oil/water separators, remote sensing equipment and temporary storage devices on a cost reimbursable basis. The facility is also used for oil behavior and characteristics research as well as for the performance and evaluation of fire resistance of containment booms. The facility consists of a 203 meter concrete tank filled with about 10 million litres of brackish water where ocean conditions can be simulated with a wave generating system and a wave dampening artificial beach. Various types of training are conducted at Ohmsett including training conducted through the United States Coast Guard, the United States Navy, and Texas University Corpus Christi National Spill Control School. 2 tabs., 16 figs

  6. Oil spill contingency planning for OCS operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that oil-spill preparedness and response have been an important part of the Mineral Management Service (MMS) regulatory program since the Santa Barbara spill in 1069. The focus of the spill response program is on contingency planning, response training, and deployment exercises and drills. Oil-spill contingency planning requirements pertain to trajectory analyses, response times, response equipment and strategies, dispersant use, equipment maintenance and inspection, designation of response teams notifications and communications, monitoring spill movement, and disposal of recovered materials. The training requirements are intended to assure that the designated response personnel are properly trained to perform their assigned functions, as outlined in the contingency plan. The MMS considers surprise response drills to be a particularly important way of evaluating response preparedness. Efforts are being made to tailor spill response requirement sot specific facilities and locations and to incorporate research data into the contingency planning process

  7. New techniques on oil spill modelling applied in the Eastern Mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, George; Kokinou, Eleni; Alves, Tiago; Lardner, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Small or large oil spills resulting from accidents on oil and gas platforms or due to the maritime traffic comprise a major environmental threat for all marine and coastal systems, and they are responsible for huge economic losses concerning the human infrastructures and the tourism. This work aims at presenting the integration of oil-spill model, bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, geomorphological and geological data to assess the impact of oil spills in maritime regions such as bays, as well as in the open sea, carried out in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea within the frame of NEREIDs, MEDESS-4MS and RAOP-Med EU projects. The MEDSLIK oil spill predictions are successfully combined with bathymetric analyses, the shoreline susceptibility and hazard mapping to predict the oil slick trajectories and the extend of the coastal areas affected. Based on MEDSLIK results, oil spill spreading and dispersion scenarios are produced both for non-mitigated and mitigated oil spills. MEDSLIK model considers three response combating methods of floating oil spills: a) mechanical recovery using skimmers or similar mechanisms; b) destruction by fire, c) use of dispersants or other bio-chemical means and deployment of booms. Shoreline susceptibility map can be compiled for the study areas based on the Environmental Susceptibility Index. The ESI classification considers a range of values between 1 and 9, with level 1 (ESI 1) representing areas of low susceptibility, impermeable to oil spilt during accidents, such as linear shorelines with rocky cliffs. In contrast, ESI 9 shores are highly vulnerable, and often coincide with natural reserves and special protected areas. Additionally, hazard maps of the maritime and coastal areas, possibly exposed to the danger on an oil spill, evaluate and categorize the hazard in levels from low to very high. This is important because a) Prior to an oil spill accident, hazard and shoreline susceptibility maps are made available to design

  8. MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, Robin; Zodiatis, George

    2016-04-01

    MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments Robin Lardner and George Zodiatis Oceanography Center, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus MEDSLIK is a well established 3D oil spill model that predicts the transport, fate and weathering of oil spills and is used by several response agencies and institutions around the Mediterranean, the Black seas and worldwide. MEDSLIK has been used operationally for real oil spill accidents and for preparedness in contingency planning within the framework of pilot projects with REMPEC-Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea and EMSA-European Maritime Safety Agency. MEDSLIK has been implemented in many EU funded projects regarding oil spill predictions using the operational ocean forecasts, as for example the ECOOP, NEREIDs, RAOP-Med, EMODNET MedSea Check Point. Within the frame of MEDESS4MS project, MEDSLIK is at the heart of the MEDESS4MS multi model oil spill prediction system. The MEDSLIK oil spill model contains among other, the following features: a built-in database with 240 different oil types characteristics, assimilation of oil slick observations from in-situ or aerial, to correct the predictions, virtual deployment of oil booms and/or oil skimmers/dispersants, continuous or instantaneous oil spills from moving or drifting ships whose slicks merge can be modelled together, multiple oil spill predictions from different locations, backward simulations for tracking the source of oil spill pollution, integration with AIS data upon the availability of AIS data, sub-surface oil spills at any given water depth, coupling with SAR satellite data. The MEDSLIK can be used for operational intervention for any user-selected region in the world if the appropriate coastline, bathymetry and meteo-ocean forecast files are provided. MEDSLIK oil spill model has been extensively validated in the Mediterranean Sea, both in real oil spill incidents (i.e. during the Lebanese oil pollution crisis in

  9. Stochastic models of oil spill processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper models the occurrence of an environmental accident as a stochastic event. In particular, the situation of an oil spill is explored. Characteristics of the ship operator, and the different types of the ship's operating environment determine a stochastic process governing the time patterns and size of spills. It is shown that both the time distribution of different types of oil spill and the distribution of spill size are affected by pollution control instruments such as fines, by enforcement effort, and by the alert level of the operating personnel. (Author)

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 2A. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS DATA FOR A SUITE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS - THE EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE, VOLATILIZATION, AND ENERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical dispersants are used in oil spill response operations to enhance the dispersion of oil slicks at sea as small oil droplets in the water column. To assess the impacts of dispersant usage on oil spills, US EPA is developing a simulation model called the EPA Research Object...

  11. United States Gulf of Mexico Coastal Marsh Vegetation Responses and Sensitivities to Oil Spill: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Reza Pezeshki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review summarizes the literature on the effects of oil spill on the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coastal vegetation including freshwater-, brackish-, and salt-marshes. When in contact with plant tissues, oil may have adverse impacts via physical and chemical effects. Oil may also become detrimental to plants by covering soil surfaces, leading to root oxygen stress and/or penetrate into the soil where it becomes in contact with the roots. The affected vegetation may survive the impact by producing new leaves, however, an episode of oil spill may impose severe stress. Oil spills may lead to partial or complete plant death but in many situations plants recover by regenerating new shoots. Plant sensitivity to oil varies among species; plants from salt marshes appear to be more sensitive than freshwater species. In addition, sensitivity appears to be dependent on the oil characteristics and the quantity of oil being spilled, repeated oiling events, season of spill, greenhouse vs. field conditions, and plant age are among the many factors that interact simultaneously. Many aspects of coastal plant responses to oiling remain in need of additional research, including the possibility that differences in oil sensitivity may interact with changes in the environment, and contribution to additional wetland losses through coastal erosion. Environmental stressors such as drought and salinity may also interact with oil, leading to the observed changes in plant species community composition following an oil spill.

  12. Autonomous Graphene Vessel for Suctioning and Storing Liquid Body of Spilled Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewoo; Lee, Jeong Seok; Lee, Geonhui; Seo, Dong Kyun; Baek, Youngbin; Yoon, Jeyong; Oh, Seung M; Kang, Tae June; Lee, Hong H; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2016-01-01

    Despite remarkable strides in science and technology, the strategy for spilled oil collection has remained almost the same since the 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill. The graphene vessel devised here can bring about an important yet basic change in the strategy for spilled oil collection. When it is placed on the oil-covered seawater, the graphene vessel selectively separates the oil, then collects and stores the collected oil in the vessel all by itself without any external power inputs. Capillarity and gravity work together to fill this proto-type graphene vessel with the spilled oil at a rate that is higher than 20,000 liters per square meter per hour (LMH) with oil purity better than 99.9%, and allow the vessel to withstand a water head of 0.5 m. The vessel also has a superb chemical stability and recyclability. An expanded oil contact area, considerably greater than the thickness of the oil layer, forms at the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) foam interface upon contact with the spilled oil. This expanded contact area does not change much even when the oil layer thins out. As a result, the high oil collection rate is maintained throughout the recovery of spilled oil. PMID:26923622

  13. Fingerprint and weathering characteristics of stranded oils after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Won, Jong Ho; Han, Gi Myung; Hong, Sang Hee; Kim, Moonkoo; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Shim, Won Joon

    2011-12-15

    After the Hebei Spirit oil spill in December 2007, mixtures of three types of Middle East crude oil were stranded along 375 km of coastline in Western Korea. Stranded oils were monitored for their identity and weathering status in 19 stations in three provinces. The results obtained using a weathering model indicated that evaporation would be a dominant weathering process immediately after the spill and the sequential changes of chemical composition in the field verified this prediction positively. In the early stages of weathering, the half-life of spilled oil was calculated to be 2.6 months. Tiered fingerprinting approaches identified background contamination and confirmed the identity of the stranded oils with the spill source. Double ratios using alkylated phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes in samples after the spill clearly reveal the impact of weathering on oil. However, to derive defensible fingerprinting for source identification and allocation, recalcitrant biomarkers are extremely useful. Weathering status of the stranded oils was evaluated using composition profiles of saturated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and various weathering indices. Most samples collected 8 months after the spill were categorized in either the advanced or extreme weathering states. Gradual increase in toxic components in the residual oil through weathering emphasizes the need for adaptive ecotoxicological approaches.

  14. Autonomous Graphene Vessel for Suctioning and Storing Liquid Body of Spilled Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewoo; Lee, Jeong Seok; Lee, Geonhui; Seo, Dong Kyun; Baek, Youngbin; Yoon, Jeyong; Oh, Seung M.; Kang, Tae June; Lee, Hong H.; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2016-02-01

    Despite remarkable strides in science and technology, the strategy for spilled oil collection has remained almost the same since the 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill. The graphene vessel devised here can bring about an important yet basic change in the strategy for spilled oil collection. When it is placed on the oil-covered seawater, the graphene vessel selectively separates the oil, then collects and stores the collected oil in the vessel all by itself without any external power inputs. Capillarity and gravity work together to fill this proto-type graphene vessel with the spilled oil at a rate that is higher than 20,000 liters per square meter per hour (LMH) with oil purity better than 99.9%, and allow the vessel to withstand a water head of 0.5 m. The vessel also has a superb chemical stability and recyclability. An expanded oil contact area, considerably greater than the thickness of the oil layer, forms at the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) foam interface upon contact with the spilled oil. This expanded contact area does not change much even when the oil layer thins out. As a result, the high oil collection rate is maintained throughout the recovery of spilled oil.

  15. Spill-Detector-and-Shutoff Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M. R.; Fulton, D. S.

    1985-01-01

    Overflow in liquid chromatography systems rapidly detected and stopped. Spill-detector-and-shutoff device incorporated into liquid-chromatography system. When liquid from output nozzle spills on liquid sensor, device automatically shuts off pump and releases solenoid to pinch off flow in tube. Device uses common type of alarm circuit reset manually before normal operation resumes.

  16. Star Enterprise spill response management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal and state regulations require a quick and effective response to an environmental incident. Cost data collected by third party consultants for oil spills that have occurred within the last few years indicate that the cost for cleanup, fines, natural resource damage assessments and third party claims can range from $2,000 to greater than $10,000 per bbl. of product spilled. A large portion of this cost is attributable to natural resource damage and third party claims. A quick, effective, and efficient response to an environmental incident can help minimize the high costs associated with spill cleanup, natural resource damages and third party claims. Development of computer resources for spill response teams to use during spill response, as well as training exercises, will facilitate achieving the desired response capability

  17. Bioremediation efficacy in Marrow Marsh following the Apex oil spill, Galveston Bay, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples taken from Marrow Marsh in Galveston Bay, Texas were taken to assess the efficacy of the August 5, 1990 bioremediation treatment in the marsh following the Apex barges oil spill on July 28, 1990. The bioremediation treatment combined a lyophilized bacterial mixture and a nutrient mix containing phosphorus and nitrogen. Samples from the marsh had been collected over a 96 h period from both treated and untreated oiled sites. Oil fingerprinting, fatty acid analysis, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons analysis, and total petroleum hydrocarbons analysis were performed to evaluate changes in the chemical characteristics of spilled oil. Results of analyses, although not statistically reliable, failed to support the occurrence of any definite chemical alteration in the spilled oil that could be attributed to the bioremediation treatment. The relatively short sampling period and the number of samples taken, however, may have been insufficient to document the efficacy of the overall bioremediation effect. 13 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Bioremediation of Oil Spills in Cold Environments: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Si-Zhong; JIN Hui-Jun; WEI Zhi; HE Rui-Xia; JI Yan-Jun; LI Xiu-Mei; YU Shao-Peng

    2009-01-01

    Oil spills have become a serious problem in cold environments with the ever-increasing resource exploitation,transportation,storage,and accidental leakage of oil.Several techniques,including physical,chemical,and biological methods,are used to recover spilled oil from the environment.Bioremediation is a promising option for remediation since it is effective and economic in removing oil with less undue environmental damages.However,it is a relatively slow process in cold regions and the degree of success depends on a number of factors,including the properties and fate of oil spilled in cold environments,and the major microbial and environmental limitations of bioremediation.The microbial factors include bioavailability of hydrocarbons,mass transfer through the cell membrane,and metabolic limitations.As for the environmental limitations in the cold regions,the emphasis is on soil temperatures,freeze-thaw processes,oxygen and nutrients availability,toxicity,and electron acceptors.There have been several cases of success in the polar regions,particularly in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions.However,the challenges and constraints for bioremediation in cold environments remain large.

  19. Treatment of oil spill water by ozonation and sand filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, P K Andy; Xiao, Ting

    2013-04-01

    Increasing volumes of crude oil being produced and transported throughout the world in recent decades have resulted in increased risks of spill and high-profile spill incidents of significant environmental and ecological impacts over extended periods of time. While immediate in situ and ex situ responses have been implemented, none are available for onsite treatment of contaminated water for immediate release of the treated water. We demonstrate here a potential treatment scheme involving ozonation and sand filtration intended for immediate treatment and discharge of the impacted water. Waters of tap, Utah Lake, and Great Salt Lake sources were spiked with crude oil of the Great Natural Butte of Utah at 2.5% and 0.025% oil (v/v) and tested for treatment. The results showed near complete removal (100%) of both Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and oil and grease (O&G) from initially 20000 and 11000 mg L(-1), respectively, via flotation pretreatment, ozonation in pressure cycles, and sand filtration. At lower oil level of 0.025%, complete removal of COD and O&G from waters were achieved without floatation. The treated waters showed reduction of turbidity to oil removal when two well practiced methods, namely ozonation and sand filtration that either alone seems ineffective, are combined sequentially. It indicates a potential on-site treatment response for oil spill incidents where the collection and transport of a large amount of contaminated water may be avoided.

  20. Oil spill response: Countdown to readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, a task force representing America's oil industry set about studying the existing resources across the nation for responding to catastrophic oil spills. In June 1989 the task force reported that the capability did not exist in either government or industry to respond to a spill the magnitude of the one in Alaska. As a result of task force recommendations, 20 companies began the process that led to the creation of both the Marine Preservation Association (MPA) and the Marine Spill Response Corp. (MS-RC). The latter is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with 5 regional response centers around the US. Under the direction of the US Coast Guard, each of MSRC's five regions will provide a best-effort response to cleaning up spill of persistent (crude) oils that are beyond the capabilities of local spill response organizations. MSRC will work closely with both cooperatives and independent, commercial responders to maximize spill response effectiveness. The MPA and its member companies have committed more than $400 million for the acquisition of capital equipment for MSRC, an unprecedented record in American business history. MSRC is also involved in research programs concerning remote sensing, in-situ burning, dispersants, handling of recovered material, and shoreline countermeasures

  1. Developing a regional risk based spill management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, D. [Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Freeman, J.; Lowen, H.A.; Ag, A. [Matrix Solutions Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Husky Oil Ltd. required a simple and effective method to cleanup brine spills from it operations in east-central Alberta. A risk based brine spill management program was developed in which soil and groundwater from 16 typical spill sites were characterized. The risk of future offsite impacts from spills was evaluated using a 2 tier method. Groundwater quality objectives were established for potential receptors. The migration of chlorine was then determined through groundwater modeling. The study showed that only spills larger than 30 cubic meters in volume posed a risk to receptors surrounding the spill site. The spills were divided into 3 management groups: (1) spills flowing directly into surface or groundwater where unique handling situations would be required, (2) large spills on coarse soils where further assessment and remediation action would be required after initial cleanup, and (3) other spills that pose little risk to receptors and where treatment would involve amendments and monitoring for land restoration capability.

  2. The development of an aquatic spill model for the White Oak Creek watershed, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.O.

    1996-05-01

    This study develops an aquatic spill model applicable to the White Oak Creek watershed draining the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hazardous, toxic, and radioactive chemicals are handled and stored on the laboratory reservation. An accidental spill into the White Oak Creek watershed could contaminate downstream water supplies if insufficient dilution did not occur. White Oak Creek empties into the Clinch River, which flows into the Tennessee River. Both rivers serve as municipal water supplies. The aquatic spill model provides estimates of the dilution at sequential downstream locations along White Oak creek and the Clinch River after an accidental spill of a liquid containing a radioactively decaying constituent. The location of the spill on the laboratory is arbitrary, while hydrologic conditions range from drought to extreme flood are simulated. The aquatic spill model provides quantitative estimates with which to assess water quality downstream from the site of the accidental spill, allowing an informed decision to be made whether to perform mitigating measures so that the integrity of affected water supplies is not jeopardized.

  3. Impact of oil spill from ship on air quality around coastal regions of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Zang-Ho; Song, Sang-Keun

    2010-05-01

    concentration of an oil component i in air at infinite altitude which can be assumed to be zero; and Kivap is a mass transfer coefficient (m s-1). The mass transfer coefficient was parameterized with wind speed, environmental temperature, and oil type. These emission data were then used in the 3-D chemical transport model. During the model period, the mean VOC emission rates were estimated to be ranged from 3.4-10.8 mol s-1 (medians of 0.04-3.3 mol s-1). Photochemical production of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter (PM) during the spill event, which were influenced by primary oil spill from the ship, will be calculated. For the case/sensitivity study, the photochemical production of ozone and PM during the season of summer will be predicted assuming the same magnitude of oil spill. In order to identify the chemical production mechanism of secondary pollutant such as ozone, process analysis will be used. A complete discussion of the importance of the results will be begun once we have completed model simulation and analysis. Further results may be obtained if the model simulation is finished before the conference.

  4. Microbial community response to a simulated hydrocarbon spill in mangrove sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvea; Franco, Natalia Oliveira; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the hypothesis that the microbial communities in mangrove sediments with different chemical and historical characteristics respond differently to the disturbance of a hydrocarbon spill. Two different mangrove sediments were sampled, one close to an oil refinery that had su

  5. How oil properties and layer thickness determine the entrainment of spilled surface oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra-Helfrich, Marieke; Koops, Wierd; Murk, Albertinka J.

    2016-01-01

    Viscosity plays an important role in dispersion of spilled surface oil, so does adding chemical dispersants. For seven different oil grades, entrainment rate and initial droplet size distribution were investigated using a plunging jet apparatus with coupled camera equipment and subsequent image a

  6. Assessing ecological sensitivities of marine assets to oil spill by means of expert knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Carey (Janet); S. Knapp (Sabine); P. Irving (Paul)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Existing methodologies to assess risk due to vessel traffic often do not account for damages to marine assets in case of oil or chemical spills from ships. While some socio-economic damages can be quantified in monetary terms, expert knowledge is often the only way to

  7. Impact of oil spills on coral reefs can be reduced by bioremediation using probiotic microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dos Santos, Henrique Fragoso; Santos Duarte, Gustavo Adolpho; da Costa Rachid, Caio TavoraCoelho; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira; Calderon, Emiliano Nicolas; de Barros Marangoni, Laura Fernandes; Bianchini, Adalto; Nudi, Adriana Haddad; do Carmo, Flavia Lima; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Barreira e Castro, Clovis; Peixoto, Raquel Silva

    2015-01-01

    Several anthropogenic factors, including contamination by oil spills, constitute a threat to coral reef health. Current methodologies to remediate polluted marine environments are based on the use of chemical dispersants; however, these can be toxic to the coral holobiont. In this study, a probiotic

  8. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  9. Bioremediation of offshore oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research program was directed towards the enhancement of insitu biorestoration of open sea oil spills. Bacteria possessing petroleum degrading enzymes are capable of splitting even thick, viscous oils and tars into lighter fractions. This process will occur at the oil/bacterial interface and depends upon viscosity of the oil, bacterial species, availability of ancillary nutrients, residence times and extent of mixing/oxygenation. Through the enzymatic metabolism of bacteria, a wide range of petroleum oils can be converted almost completely into CO2, water, cell mass and harmless biological waste products, usually within 60 to 90 days under favorable conditions. Specifically, this research work focused on the selection and examination of a floating medium which enhances the biodegradation process through improvement of conditions necessary for the process to occur. An additional effort was made to update previous citations of the order of magnitude of oil biodegradation rates and to compare laboratory measurements of biodegradation rates with field or mesocosm measurements

  10. Advances in Remote Sensing for Oil Spill Disaster Management: State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology for Oil Spill Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Gao; Jason Levy; Maya Nand Jha

    2008-01-01

    Reducing the risk of oil spill disasters is essential for protecting the environment and reducing economic losses. Oil spill surveillance constitutes an important component of oil spill disaster management. Advances in remote sensing technologies can help to identify parties potentially responsible for pollution and to identify minor spills before they cause widespread damage. Due to the large number of sensors currently available for oil spill surveillance, there is a need for a comprehensiv...

  11. Numerical Simulation of Oil Spill in Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Sik Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The spreading of oil in an open ocean may cause serious damage to a marine environmental system. Thus, an accurate prediction of oil spill is very important to minimize coastal damage due to unexpected oil spill accident. The movement of oil may be represented with a numerical model that solves an advection-diffusion-reaction equation with a proper numerical scheme. In this study, the spilled oil dispersion model has been established in consideration of tide and tidal currents simultaneously. The velocity components in the advection-diffusion-reaction equation are obtained from the shallow-water equations. The accuracy of the model is verified by applying it to a simple but significant problem. The results produced by the model agree with corresponding analytical solutions and field-observed data. The model is then applied to predict the spreading of an oil spill in a real coastal environment.

  12. [Oil and Hazardous Substance Spill Response Emergencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A major oil or hazardous substance spill may constitute an emergency situation requiring prompt actions by the Service to protect threatened natural resources. This...

  13. Managing large oil Spills in the Mediterranean

    CERN Document Server

    Madrid, J A Jiménez; Poy, J Ballabrera; García-Ladona, E

    2015-01-01

    For the first time a statistical analysis of oil spill beaching is applied to the whole Mediterranean Sea. A series of probability maps of beaching in case of an oil spill incident are proposed as a complementary tool to vulnerability analysis and risk assessment in the whole basin. As a first approach a set of spill source points are selected along the main paths of tankers and a few points of special interest related with hot spot areas or oil platforms. Probability of beaching on coastal segments are obtained for 3 types of oil characterised by medium to highly persistence in water. The approach is based on Lagrangian simulations using particles as a proxy of oil spills evolving according the environmental conditions provided by a hincast model of the Mediterranean circulation.

  14. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-09-02 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0069112)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-09-02 in response to the...

  15. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship PISCES in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-05 to 2010-08-14 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0069111)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship PISCES in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-05 to 2010-08-14 in response to the...

  16. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship HENRY B. BIGELOW in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-10 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0069091)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship HENRY B. BIGELOW in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-10 in response...

  17. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-17 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0069113)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-17 in response to the...

  18. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-25 to 2010-10-03 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0069114)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, imagery, laboratory analysis, sediment analysis and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of...

  19. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship HENRY B. BIGELOW in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0068954)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship HENRY B. BIGELOW in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-22 in response...

  20. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-15 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069126)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-15 in response to the...

  1. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-26 to 2010-05-30 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069092)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-26 to 2010-05-30 in response to the...

  2. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-24 to 2010-09-10 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0070532)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, meteorological, navigational and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  3. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-21 to 2010-07-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084584)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-21 to 2010-07-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil...

  4. Chemical and laboratory analyses oceanographic data collected aboard the Wes Bordelon in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0074863)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and laboratory analyses oceanographic data were collected aboard the Wes Bordelon in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-22 in response to the...

  5. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-10-01 to 2010-10-03 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0074906)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, imagery, laboratory analysis and sediment analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  6. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-01 to 2010-06-05 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069093)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-01 to 2010-06-05...

  7. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-22 to 2010-10-24 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069615)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, imagery, laboratory analysis and sediment analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico...

  8. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-07 to 2010-07-11 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069099)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-07 to 2010-07-11...

  9. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the PELICAN in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-10 to 2010-07-21 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069087)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the PELICAN in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-10 to 2010-07-21 in response to the Deepwater...

  10. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-08 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069120)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-08 in response to the...

  11. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-09 to 2010-06-16 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084578)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-09 to 2010-06-16 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil...

  12. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-07 to 2010-06-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084576)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-07 to 2010-06-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil...

  13. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-24 to 2010-06-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-24 to 2010-06-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil...

  14. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084585)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil...

  15. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-01 to 2010-07-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084581)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-01 to 2010-07-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil...

  16. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-11 to 2010-07-13 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084582)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-11 to 2010-07-13 in response to the...

  17. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-14 to 2010-07-19 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084583)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-14 to 2010-07-19 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil...

  18. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-18 to 2010-06-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084579)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-18 to 2010-06-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil...

  19. Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the BUNNY BORDELON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069118)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the BUNNY BORDELON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-23...

  20. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-25 to 2010-06-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069097)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-25 to 2010-06-29...

  1. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-23 to 2010-09-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069080)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-23 to 2010-09-28 in...

  2. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-07 to 2010-06-11 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-07 to 2010-06-11...

  3. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-23 to 2010-07-17 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069128)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-23 to 2010-07-17...

  4. Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069119)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-23 in...

  5. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-11 to 2010-09-13 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069110)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-11 to 2010-09-13...

  6. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-02 to 2010-08-08 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0070333)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, laboratory analysis and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-02...

  7. Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-12 to 2010-06-20 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-12 to 2010-06-20 in...

  8. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-27 to 2010-09-01 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084588)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-27 to 2010-09-01 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil...

  9. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-12 to 2010-08-16 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069104)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-12 to 2010-08-16...

  10. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-30 to 2010-09-03 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069107)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-30 to 2010-09-03...

  11. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084587)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil...

  12. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-07 to 2010-10-16 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069109)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-07 to 2010-10-16...

  13. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-06 to 2010-08-10 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069103)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-06 to 2010-08-10...

  14. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-15 to 2010-09-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069079)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-15 to 2010-09-22 in...

  15. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-25 to 2010-08-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069106)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-25 to 2010-08-29...

  16. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-19 to 2010-06-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069096)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-19 to 2010-06-23...

  17. Chemical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-03 to 2010-07-07 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0074854)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-03 to 2010-07-07 in response to the...

  18. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-26 to 2010-07-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-26 to 2010-07-29...

  19. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-05 to 2010-06-07 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084569)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-05 to 2010-06-07 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil...

  20. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-19 to 2010-09-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0074904)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, imagery, laboratory analysis and sediment analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  1. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-25 to 2010-09-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0074905)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, imagery, laboratory analysis and sediment analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  2. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-13 to 2010-06-17 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069095)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-13 to 2010-06-17...

  3. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-29 to 2010-07-05 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069098)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-29 to 2010-07-05...

  4. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-10-07 to 2010-10-17 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069356)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, imagery, laboratory analysis and sediment analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  5. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-03 to 2010-09-07 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069108)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-03 to 2010-09-07...

  6. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-19 to 2010-07-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069100)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-19 to 2010-07-23...

  7. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-10-07 to 2010-10-20 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069127)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, imagery, laboratory analysis and sediment analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  8. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-31 to 2010-08-03 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069102)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-31 to 2010-08-03...

  9. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069105)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-22...

  10. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084586)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil...

  11. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the CAPE HATTERAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-21 to 2010-09-02 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069058)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the CAPE HATTERAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-21 to 2010-09-02 in response to the...

  12. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-03 to 2010-07-18 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0069082)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, tows and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-03 to...

  13. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-15 to 2010-06-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0069083)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-15 to 2010-06-28 in response...

  14. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the CAPE HATTERAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-15 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069059)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the CAPE HATTERAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-15 in response to the...

  15. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-30 to 2010-08-03 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069062)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-30 to 2010-08-03 in...

  16. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069065)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-23 in...

  17. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-15 to 2010-07-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069060)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-15 to 2010-07-23 in...

  18. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-30 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-30 in...

  19. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-07 to 2010-08-27 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069066)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-07 to 2010-08-27 in...

  20. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-17 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-17 in...

  1. Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-15 to 2010-06-25 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0070330)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-15 to 2010-06-25 in...

  2. Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-08 to 2010-07-16 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0070331)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-08 to 2010-07-16 in...

  3. Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-01 to 2010-07-06 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0069068)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-01 to 2010-07-06 in...

  4. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-31 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0070332)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-31 in response to...

  5. Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-27 to 2010-06-04 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0069067)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-27 to 2010-06-04 in...

  6. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-03 to 2010-08-11 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069063)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-03 to 2010-08-11 in...

  7. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

  8. Fingerprint and weathering characteristics of crude oils after Dalian oil spill, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Discuss the weathering characteristics of spilled oil in the natural coastal zone environments of Dalian Bay. • Determine the effects of natural weathering processes on the isotopic composition of individual n-alkanes. • A variety of diagnostic ratios were developed and evaluated for spill source identification and differentiation. -- Abstract: In an attempt to analyze the chemical characterization of oil residues and examine the suitability of chemical fingerprinting methods in oil spill investigations, multiple parameters sensitive to both sources and degree of weathering were used to characterize oil residues from “7–16” Dalian oil spill, China. Oil residues collected 90 days to 120 days after the spill showed a weathering pattern where significant amounts of light to middle molecular weight normal alkanes were depleted with pristane and phytane as dominant peaks. Diagnostic ratios developed from n-alkane and selected isoprenoids (e.g. Pr/Ph, n-C17/Pr, n-C18/Ph, carbon preference index, LMW/HMW-alkanes ratio), all display obvious changes over weathering time, indicating that these ratios are not valid for oil source identification. Furthermore, the biomarker ratios of hopanes and steranes with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.88–4.08% were useful for source identification even for severely weathered oil residues. In addition, RSD of δ13C values of individual n-alkanes in oil residue varied from 0.07% to 0.20%, which suggest that stable carbon isotope profile of n-alkanes can also be a useful tool for tracing the source of an oil spill

  9. Minimizing risks from spilled oil to ecosystem services using influence diagrams: the Deepwater Horizon spill response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriger, John F; Barron, Mace G

    2011-09-15

    Decision science tools can be used in evaluating response options and making inferences on risks to ecosystem services (ES) from ecological disasters. Influence diagrams (IDs) are probabilistic networks that explicitly represent the decisions related to a problem and their influence on desired or undesired outcomes. To examine how IDs might be useful in probabilistic risk management for spill response efforts, an ID was constructed to display the potential interactions between exposure events and the trade-offs between costs and ES impacts from spilled oil and response decisions in the DWH spill event. Quantitative knowledge was not formally incorporated but an ID platform for doing this was examined. Probabilities were assigned for conditional relationships in the ID and scenarios examining the impact of different response actions on components of spilled oil were investigated in hypothetical scenarios. Given the structure of the ID, potential knowledge gaps included understanding of the movement of oil, the ecological risk of different spill-related stressors to key receptors (e.g., endangered species, fisheries), and the need for stakeholder valuation of the ES benefits that could be impacted by a spill. Framing the Deepwater Horizon problem domain in an ID conceptualized important variables and relationships that could be optimally accounted for in preparing and managing responses in future spills. These features of the developed IDs may assist in better investigating the uncertainty, costs, and the trade-offs if large-scale, deep ocean spills were to occur again. PMID:21875054

  10. Oil spill model development and application for emergency response system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The paper introduces systematically the developing principle ofCWCM 1.0 oil spill model based on Lagrange system and oil spill fate processes in environment, reviews two oil spill incidents of "East Ambassador" in Jiaozhou Bay and "Min Fuel 2" in the mouth of Pearl River, and designs the predict system simulating oil spill applied in contingency plans. It is indicated that CWCM 1.0 has met preliminarily the demands for functions of precision simulating and oil spill predicting, and can plan an important role to support oil spill response.

  11. Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria and Paraffin from Polluted Seashores 9 Years after the Nakhodka Oil Spill in the Sea of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Pollution of petroleum hydrocarbons, in particular oil spills, has attracted much attention in the past and recent decades. Oil spills influence natural microbial community, and physical and chemical properties of the affected sites. The biodegradation of hydrocarbons by microorganisms is one of the primary ways by which oil spill is eliminated from contaminated sites. One such spill was that of the Russian tanker the Nakhodka that spilled heavy oil into the Sea of Japan on January 2, 1997. The impact of the Nakhodka oil spill resulted in a viscous sticky fluid fouling the shores and affected natural ecosystems. This paper describes the weathering of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (genus Pseudomonas) and crystallized organic compounds from the Nakhodka oil spill-polluted seashores after nine years. The Nakhodka oil has hardened and formed crust of crystalline paraffin wax as shown by XRD analysis (0.422, 0.377, and 0.250 nm d-spacing) in association with graphite and calcite after 9years of bioremediation. Anaerobic reverse side of the oil crust contained numerous coccus typed bacteria associated with halite. The finding of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and paraffin wax in the oil crust may have a significant effect on the weathering processes of the Nakhodka oil spill during the 9-year bioremediation.

  12. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the F. G. Walton Smith in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-01 to 2010-06-06 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069115)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the F. G. Walton Smith in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-01 to 2010-06-06 in response to...

  13. Occupational-health aspects of marine oil-spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper with 108 references examines the effect on oil spill cleanup workers of exposure to the crude oil via inhalation and dermal contact, and discusses exposure and the nature of crude oil, routes and magnitudes of exposure, and special cases such as the formation of aerosols, and the effect of in-situ burning of the oil on the chemical hazards associated with cleanup. The acute and chronic health effects of inhalation exposure, and the effect of exposure to oil mists and aerosols are considered. The acute and chronic health effects of dermal exposure are addressed, and some epidemiologic studies on petroleum refinery and petrochemical workers are listed with details of the methodology used and the study findings given. The chemical and physical properties of two crude oils are tabulated. (UK)

  14. Oil spill trajectory uncertainty and response decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil spill trajectory modeling is an important component of the oil spill response effort. Despite many shortcomings, not the least of which is the appearance of reliability and accuracy greater than what is justified by the underlying input and algorithms, oil spill modelling continues to be the best tool for forecasting the trajectory and fate of spilled oil. This paper discusses the limitations of trajectory model input, its effect on the model output, and ways of incorporating model uncertainty into response decisions. The best approach at present is to present the various scenarios in one simple graphic in such a way that the uncertainty or confidence in the forecast overlies the best guess estimate on the base map. The National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) wants to make sure that the trajectory analysis product is available to the wider spill response community in an electronic format for use in e-mail, Internet and geographical information systems (GIS). To facilitate this, NOAA has proposed a simplified public domain format to share the graphic elements digitally. Research into this and other new strategies for automatically including uncertainty into the trajectory model continues, and new developments will be incorporated into future modifications of NOAA's trajectory models. 15 refs., 4 figs

  15. Oil pipeline valve automation for spill reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohitpour, Mo; Trefanenko, Bill [Enbridge Technology Inc, Calgary (Canada); Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno; Kossatz, Helmut [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Liquid pipeline codes generally stipulate placement of block valves along liquid transmission pipelines such as on each side of major river crossings where environmental hazards could cause or are foreseen to potentially cause serious consequences. Codes, however, do not stipulate any requirement for block valve spacing for low vapour pressure petroleum transportation, nor for remote pipeline valve operations to reduce spills. A review of pipeline codes for valve requirement and spill limitation in high consequence areas is thus presented along with a criteria for an acceptable spill volume that could be caused by pipeline leak/full rupture. A technique for deciding economically and technically effective pipeline block valve automation for remote operation to reduce oil spilled and control of hazards is also provided. In this review, industry practice is highlighted and application of the criteria for maximum permissible oil spill and the technique for deciding valve automation thus developed, as applied to ORSUB pipeline is presented. ORSUB is one of the three initially selected pipelines that have been studied. These pipelines represent about 14% of the total length of petroleum transmission lines operated by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO) in Brazil. Based on the implementation of valve motorization on these three pipeline, motorization of block valves for remote operation on the remaining pipelines is intended, depending on the success of these implementations, on historical records of failure and appropriate ranking. (author)

  16. Forensic fingerprinting and source identification of the 2008 Lake Temiskaming (Quebec) oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the advances that have occurred in recent years in chemical fingerprinting of petroleum and hydrocarbons for environmental forensic processes have followed advances in petroleum geochemistry. This paper presented a practical case study which demonstrated the utility of detailed and integrated multi-criterion analytical approaches for fingerprinting, correlating and identifying suspected spills. In particular, the source of a waterborne oil spill of unknown origin on Lake Temiskaming, Quebec was identified by combining forensic fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques to characterize the chemical compositions of the spill. The product type was first identified by recognizing distribution patterns of bulk hydrocarbon groups such as oil n-alkanes and unresolved complex mixtures. Biomarker and extended suite of parent and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were then quantified and their distribution profiles were compared. The conclusions were verified by determining several diagnostic ratios of source-specific marker compounds, in particular diagnostic ratios of target biomarker compounds. The input of background pyrogenic PAHs to the suspected spill source samples were identified. It was concluded that some water and soil samples were contaminated by a heavy diesel type fuel. The differences in fingerprints were attributed to weathering effects and input of pyrogenic PAHs. 37 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs

  17. BP Spill in the Gulf of Mexico Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In response to the BP oil spill, EPA monitored sediment near the spill. While emergency response data collection has ended, results continue to be available on this...

  18. BP Spill in the Gulf of Mexico Water Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In response to the BP oil spill, EPA monitored water near the spill. While emergency response data collection has ended, results continue to be available on this...

  19. Sediment Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  20. Air Monitoring Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  1. Waste Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  2. Offshore oil spill response practices and emerging challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Cai, Qinhong; Lin, Weiyun; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu

    2016-09-15

    Offshore oil spills are of tremendous concern due to their potential impact on economic and ecological systems. A number of major oil spills triggered worldwide consciousness of oil spill preparedness and response. Challenges remain in diverse aspects such as oil spill monitoring, analysis, assessment, contingency planning, response, cleanup, and decision support. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current situations and impacts of offshore oil spills, as well as the policies and technologies in offshore oil spill response and countermeasures. Correspondingly, new strategies and a decision support framework are recommended for improving the capacities and effectiveness of oil spill response and countermeasures. In addition, the emerging challenges in cold and harsh environments are reviewed with recommendations due to increasing risk of oil spills in the northern regions from the expansion of the Arctic Passage. PMID:27393213

  3. Bioremediation of crude oil spills in marine and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation can be a safe and effective tool for dealing with crude oil spills, as demonstrated during the cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. Crude oil has also been spilled on land, and bioremediation is a promising option for land spills too. Nevertheless, there are still areas where understanding of the phenomenon is rather incomplete. Research groups around the world are addressing these problems, and this symposium provides an excellent overview of some of this work

  4. Spill response : an exercise in teamwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An offshore oil spill response exercise was conducted at Hibernia to demonstrate to the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board the emergency response capabilities that are in place in the event of large offshore spills. The Canadian Coast Guard, Eastern Canada Response Corporation Ltd., Hibernia, Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Jeanne d'Arc Basin Operators Group and the Terra Nova Project team participated in the exercise. The exercise was a success in that it demonstrated that the emergency response teams have the capability of containing and recovering large and small offshore oil spills. The two systems that were tested during the exercise were the large wide-swath boom system and a smaller side-sweep system. Two supply vessels worked in tandem. 11 figs

  5. European Atlantic: the hottest oil spill hotspot worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Rodriguez Vieites; S. Nieto-Roman; A. Palanca; X. Ferrer; M. Vences

    2004-01-01

    Oil spills caused by maritime transport of petroleum products are still an important source of ocean pollution, especially in main production areas and along major transport routes. We here provide a historical and geographic analysis of the major oil spills (>700 tonnes) since 1960. Spills were rec

  6. Oil Spill! Student Guide and Teacher Guide. OEAGLS Investigation 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Ihle, Stephanie

    Presented in this unit are three activities concerning the causes and effects of oil spills and methods used to clean up these spills in the oceans and Great Lakes. Students construct and interpret a graph showing oil pollution sources. The students create and try to clean up a small-scale oil spill in a pan, and they compare the water quality of…

  7. 300 Area Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, G.W.

    1990-11-01

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is designed to describe measures that must be taken to prevent, control, and handle spills of bulk storage chemicals or oils at Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) facilities located in the Hanford Site 300 Area. The SPCC Plan is designed to satisfy the requirement from US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, ``General Environmental Protection Program,`` which is intended to minimize risk to the environment or public health, and to anticipate and address potential environmental problems before they pose a threat to the quality of the environment or the public welfare. The SPCC Plan identifies practices employed by Westinghouse Hanford to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance [as defined in Title 40, Code of Federal regulations, Part 302 (40 CFR 302)] from being released to the environment. This SPCC Plan fulfills the requirement cited in WHC-CM-7-5, Part T, which establishes Westinghouse Hanford policy for required SPCC Plans, and references 40 CFR 112, ``Environmental Protection Agency Regulations on Oil Pollution Prevention,`` as a basis for contents of the SPCC Plan. Upon completion of the SPCC Plan, a copy will be kept on file at all 300 Area facilities described in the SPCC Plan. Additional copies will also be placed with the 300 Area Industrial Safety and Fire Protection management, and with other environmental oversight, and emergency preparedness, and response personnel as necessary. 1 fig.

  8. Do oil dispersants make spilled oil more toxic to fish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout in the Gulf of Mexico was the world's largest oil spill in terms of duration and volume spilled. Clean-up operations, which involved the continuous and wide-spread use of oil dispersant at the surface and at the seabed discharge point at 1500 metres depth, gave rise to public concern about dispersant toxicity. Reports from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) claimed little difference in acute toxicity to marine fish and invertebrate species among commonly available dispersants and between dispersed and non-dispersed Louisiana Sweet Crude. Technically, the toxicity of waterborne hydrocarbons does not vary with chemical dispersion. However, the EPA omitted any consideration of loading, and misled the public about the risks of dispersant use in oil clean-up. This study examined the chronic toxicity of dispersed oil to fish embryos. The study revealed that toxicity expressed as oil loading increases by a factor of 10 to 1000 times with dispersion, largely because 10 to 1000 times more oil enters the water column. Since the action of dispersant is on the exposure component of the risk equation, not on the potency of the toxic components of oil, then the risk of oil toxicity to fish increases an equivalent amount.

  9. Oil spill cleanup method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, F.M.

    1980-06-24

    A method for removing oil from the surface of water where an oil spill has occurred, particularly in obstructed or shallow areas, which comprises partially surrounding a hovercraft with a floating oil-collecting barrier, there being no barrier at the front of the hovercraft, moving the oil-barrier-surrounded-hovercraft into oil contaminated water, and collecting oil gathered within the barrier behind the hovercraft through a suction line which carries the oil to a storage tank aboard the hovercraft. The invention also embodies the hovercraft adapted to effect an oil spill cleanup.

  10. Tourism and its hypersensitivity to oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirer-Costa, Joan Carles

    2015-02-15

    The sinking of the Don Pedro merchant ship in 2007 near the island of Ibiza is a good example of the extreme sensitivity of the tourism sector to oil spills. Despite the limited scale of the spill (only some 20 tonnes), its minimal ecological impact, and the rapid deployment of personnel and equipment to contain it, the accident nonetheless caused significant economic damage to the island's tourism sector. This particular case demonstrates the importance of the beach as a factor of production in the holiday tourism sector, and the capacity of even small amounts of oil to render it unusable and cause heavy losses to holiday firms.

  11. New umbrella group handles marine spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 1995, the Canadian Marine Response Management Corporation (CMRMC) came into being with the mandate to provide expertise and equipment coordination for oil spills in Canada's ocean waters, the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes. Three regional operations are operating under the umbrella of the the CMRMC, i.e., the Eastern Canada Response Corporation, the Great Lakes Response Corporation and the Western Canada Response Corporation. Ships in Canadian waters will be required to have an oil pollution emergency plan (OPEP) similar to the emergency response plans of prairie oil spill responders

  12. Managing a modern fleet of oil spill recovery vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lessons of the catastrophic Prince Williams Sound oil spill in 1989 and the progress that has been made since then, were recounted. The adoption of the Incident Command System, a project management system for oil spill response, has been one of the major steps taken to improve preparedness for combatting oil spills and to maximize the on-water oil recovery. Various recent oil spills in the U.S. have been studied in order to assess equipment, training and management capabilities. Experience indicates marked improvement in managing on-water recovery and other spill cleaning activities

  13. In Situ burning of Arctic marine oil spills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne

    Oil spills in ice filled and Arctic waters pose other challenges for oil spill response compared to open and temperate waters. In situ burning has been proven to be an effective oil spill response method for oil spills in ice filled waters. This thesis presents results from laboratory and field...... experiments where the ignitability of oil spill as a function of oil type and weathering conditions (time/ice) was tested. The results show that the composition of the oil and the ice cover is important for the in situ burning time-window. The results were used to develop an algorithm that was implemented...

  14. Research on polarization of oil spill and detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yang; ZOU Yarong; LIANG Chao; ZOU Bin

    2016-01-01

    The SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) has the capabilities for all-weather day and night use. In the case of determining the effects of oil spill dumping, the oil spills areas are shown as dark spots in the SAR images. Therefore, using SAR data to detect oil spills is becoming progressively popular in operational monitoring, which is useful for oceanic environmental protection and hazard reduction. Research has been conducted on the polarization decomposition and scattering characteristics of oil spills from a scattering matrix using all-polarization of the SAR data, calculation of the polarization parameters, and utilization of the CPD (Co-polarized Phase Difference) of the oil and the sea, in order to extract the oil spill information. This method proves to be effective by combining polarization parameters with the characteristics of oil spill. The results show that when using Bragg, the oil spill backscattering machine with Enopy and a mean scatterα parameter. The oil spill can be successfully identified. However, the parameter mechanism of the oil spill remains unclear. The use of CPD can easily extract oil spill information from the ocean, and the polarization research provides a base for oil spill remote sensing detection.

  15. How Not to Handle An Oil Spill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NICOLAS LORIS

    2010-01-01

    @@ In his June remarks from the Oval Office,U.S. President Barack Obama called the Gulf of Mexico oil spill "the worst environmental disaster America has ever faced." But his administration sure didn't act like it. Instead the federal government responded to the crisis in the gulf with ineptitude and inattention.

  16. Oil spill in Bombay high marine impacts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    A rupture in a feeder 'riser' pipeline from Bombay High- North Platform (BHN) resulted in spilling of large quantities of crude oil into the sea on 17th May 1993 about 80 NM from the shoreline north of Bombay. This report which includes findings...

  17. Marine Oil Spill Expert Systems (MOSES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The marine oil response community is international by nature. With two-thirds of the world's oil supply crossing oceans, a spill could occur anywhere at any time. Advances in information technology make it possible to retrieve information instantaneously. The information is critical in formulating a response operation. Computers are an indispensable tool on location. They can operate off-site, with information being sent from the spill site to the place where the computer is located. Expert systems are an excellent means to capture and store knowledge on the computer for rapid retrieval when needed. They are very useful in cases where timing is critical and decision-making is complex. Expert systems can be a cost-effective response tool, but it was suggested that in order to take greater advantage of this tool, more effort should be devoted to improving the decision-making of expert systems to marine oil spill response operations. The authors pointed out that expert systems will never replace human judgement, but with the current generation of response experts nearing retirement, it is important to preserve the bank of knowledge acquired by these experts. The lessons learned by these experts can be transferred to the computer for easy access, retrieval and application during a spill event. 6 refs

  18. Planning for the Human Dimensions of Oil Spills and Spill Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webler, Thomas; Lord, Fabienne

    2010-04-01

    Oil spill contingency planners need an improved approach to understanding and planning for the human dimensions of oil spills. Drawing on existing literature in social impact assessment, natural hazards, human ecology, adaptive management, global change and sustainability, we develop an integrative approach to understanding and portraying the human dimensions impacts of stressors associated with oil spill events. Our approach is based on three fundamental conclusions that are drawn from this literature review. First, it is productive to acknowledge that, while stressors can produce human impacts directly, they mainly affect intermediary processes and changes to these processes produce human impacts. Second, causal chain modeling taken from hazard management literature provides a means to document how oil spill stressors change processes and produce human impacts. Third, concepts from the global change literature on vulnerability enrich causal models in ways that make more obvious how management interventions lessen hazards and mitigate associated harm. Using examples from recent spill events, we illustrate how these conclusions can be used to diagrammatically portray the human dimensions of oil spills.

  19. Development of an oil spill forecast system for offshore China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonggang; Wei, Zexun; An, Wei

    2016-07-01

    An oil spill forecast system for offshore China was developed based on Visual C++. The oil spill forecast system includes an ocean environmental forecast model and an oil spill model. The ocean environmental forecast model was designed to include timesaving methods, and comprised a parametrical wind wave forecast model and a sea surface current forecast model. The oil spill model was based on the "particle method" and fulfills the prediction of oil particle behavior by considering the drifting, evaporation and emulsification processes. A specific database was embedded into the oil spill forecast system, which contained fundamental information, such as the properties of oil, reserve of emergency equipment and distribution of marine petroleum platform. The oil spill forecast system was successfully applied as part of an oil spill emergency exercise, and provides an operational service in the Research and Development Center for Offshore Oil Safety and Environmental Technology.

  20. The Tenyo Maru oil spill: A multi-spectral scanning and sea-truth experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sinking of the Tenyo Maru fish processing ship off the Washington state coast caused an initial oil spill of ca 100,000 gal. After response operations had contained and removed most of the spill, continued leakage from the sunken wreck provided an offshore source of freshly spilled oil at a known location. Remote sensing overflights, coordinated with the collection of sea-surface slick samples, were conducted in an effort to test whether a multi-spectral scanner could accurately image a marine oil spill. Oil content in the sea truth samples ranged from undetectable to 180 mg, depending on slick thickness. This variability was readily apparent in both the infrared and ultraviolet bands of the scanner data and was detectable on a scale of meters. Chemical analysis identified two unique oils in the slick, one containing enhanced concentrations of toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. However, distinct signatures for these oils were not successfully extracted from scanner data. An integration of the data from multiple flight paths provided an overview of the distribution of thick and thin slick components in the vicinity of the wreck and illustrated the effect of an oceanographic front on controlling the dispersion of the slick. 5 figs

  1. Biomarkers reveal sea turtles remained in oiled areas following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B.; Bolten, Alan B.; Tucker, Anton D.; Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Reich, Kimberly J.; Addison, David S.; Mansfield, Katherine L.; Phillips, Katrina F.; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bjorndal, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of large-scale disasters, such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, are problematic because while measurements of post-disturbance conditions are common, measurements of pre-disturbance baselines are only rarely available. Without adequate observations of pre-disaster organismal and environmental conditions, it is impossible to assess the impact of such catastrophes on animal populations and ecological communities. Here, we use long-term biological tissue records to provide pre-disaster data for a vulnerable marine organism. Keratin samples from the carapace of loggerhead sea turtles record the foraging history for up to 18 years, allowing us to evaluate the effect of the oil spill on sea turtle foraging patterns. Samples were collected from 76 satellite-tracked adult loggerheads in 2011 and 2012, approximately one to two years after the spill. Of the 10 individuals that foraged in areas exposed to surface oil, none demonstrated significant changes in foraging patterns post spill. The observed long-term fidelity to foraging sites indicates that loggerheads in the northern Gulf of Mexico likely remained in established foraging sites, regardless of the introduction of oil and chemical dispersants. More research is needed to address potential long-term health consequences to turtles in this region. Mobile marine organisms present challenges for researchers to monitor effects of environmental disasters, both spatially and temporally. We demonstrate that biological tissues can reveal long-term histories of animal behavior and provide critical pre-disaster baselines following an anthropogenic disturbance or natural disaster.

  2. Characterization of solidifiers used for oil spill remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaravadivelu, Devi; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D; Rosales, Pablo I

    2016-02-01

    The physical characteristics and chemical composition of oil spill solidifiers were studied, and correlation of these properties with product effectiveness enabled determination of characteristics that are desirable in a good solidifier. The analyses revealed that the commercial products were primarily comprised of organic polymers and a few trace elements. A natural sorbent, which was composed entirely of plant based matter, was also evaluated, and it had the highest oil removal capacity, but it did not produce a solid mat-like final product. Generally, solidifiers with a carbonate group, pore size greater than 5 μm, and bulk densities lower than 0.3 g cm(-3) were found to have better efficiency and produced a cohesive rubbery final product that facilitated removal compared to sorbents. The importance of bulk density and pore size in the performance of the solidifier suggest that the primary mechanism of action was likely physical sorption.

  3. Characterization of solidifiers used for oil spill remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaravadivelu, Devi; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D; Rosales, Pablo I

    2016-02-01

    The physical characteristics and chemical composition of oil spill solidifiers were studied, and correlation of these properties with product effectiveness enabled determination of characteristics that are desirable in a good solidifier. The analyses revealed that the commercial products were primarily comprised of organic polymers and a few trace elements. A natural sorbent, which was composed entirely of plant based matter, was also evaluated, and it had the highest oil removal capacity, but it did not produce a solid mat-like final product. Generally, solidifiers with a carbonate group, pore size greater than 5 μm, and bulk densities lower than 0.3 g cm(-3) were found to have better efficiency and produced a cohesive rubbery final product that facilitated removal compared to sorbents. The importance of bulk density and pore size in the performance of the solidifier suggest that the primary mechanism of action was likely physical sorption. PMID:26498096

  4. Technology cottons on to oil spill clean-ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of Oil Gator(TM) a plant fibre absorbent, chemically modified to encourage biodegradation of hydrocarbons by indigenous bacteria are discussed. The petrophyllic bacteria are safe to humans and animals and are environmentally benign. They utilize hydrocarbons as a food source when activated by air or moisture. Oil Gator(TM) works by encapsulating the oil; ammonium sulphate, an effective delayed-reaction nitrogen source, renders the absorbed oil less flammable. The cotton-based raw material is readily available, which is another advantage over peat or clay which require mining and stripping. Oil Gator(TM) can also be incinerated, and is designed to allow safe handing and begin neutralization of most acid spills quickly and efficiently. Disposal of the saturated Acid Gator has to be carried out in compliance with the appropriate government regulations for the particular acids absorbed

  5. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hayworth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  6. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hayworth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  7. Quantifying environmental implications of alternative oil spill contingency and response plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper suggests some simple and robust physical, chemical, and toxicological measures of mitigation success. More in-depth measures and analyses for unusually sensitive environmental issues can then support these first-order measures. Example applications are carried out with the SINTEF Oil Spill Contingency and Response (OSCARI) model system. The methodology supplies an objective basis for net environmental analysis of planned response strategies. (author)

  8. i4OilSpill, an operational marine oil spill forecasting model for Bohai Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fangjie; Yao, Fuxin; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Guansuo; Chen, Ge

    2016-10-01

    Oil spill models can effectively simulate the trajectories and fate of oil slicks, which is an essential element in contingency planning and effective response strategies prepared for oil spill accidents. However, when applied to offshore areas such as the Bohai Sea, the trajectories and fate of oil slicks would be affected by time-varying factors in a regional scale, which are assumed to be constant in most of the present models. In fact, these factors in offshore regions show much more variation over time than in the deep sea, due to offshore bathymetric and climatic characteristics. In this paper, the challenge of parameterizing these offshore factors is tackled. The remote sensing data of the region are used to analyze the modification of wind-induced drift factors, and a well-suited solution is established in parameter correction mechanism for oil spill models. The novelty of the algorithm is the self-adaptive modification mechanism of the drift factors derived from the remote sensing data for the targeted sea region, in respect to empirical constants in the present models. Considering this situation, a new regional oil spill model (i4OilSpill) for the Bohai Sea is developed, which can simulate oil transformation and fate processes by Eulerian-Lagrangian methodology. The forecasting accuracy of the proposed model is proven by the validation results in the comparison between model simulation and subsequent satellite observations on the Penglai 19-3 oil spill accident. The performance of the model parameter correction mechanism is evaluated by comparing with the real spilled oil position extracted from ASAR images.

  9. Influence of electron acceptor in the remediation of underground waters contaminated with gasoline spills; Influencia do receptor de eletrons na bioremediacao de aguas subterraneas contaminadas por derramamento de gasolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corseuil, Henry Xavier [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental

    1994-12-31

    Gasolines spills have been causing major contamination problems in underground waters. Among the chemical compounds in gasoline, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes are those which cause greater environmental damages due to their characteristics such was water solubility. One of the most studies techniques for remediation of such spills is in-situ bio-remediation. This work discusses the above mentioned issue giving special emphasis to electron acceptors chemical species which are necessary in the process 7 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Cost-effectiveness criteria for marine oil spill preventive measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil tanker accidents resulting in large quantities of oil spills and severe pollution have occurred in the past, leading to major public attention and an international focus on finding solutions for minimising the risks related to such events. This paper proposes a novel approach for evaluating measures for prevention and control of marine oil spills, based on considerations of oil spill risk and cost effectiveness. A cost model that incorporates all costs of a shipping accident has been established and oil tanker spill accidents have been further elaborated as a special case of such accidents. Utilising this model, novel implementation criteria, in terms of the Cost of Averting a Tonne of oil Spilt (CATS), for risk control options aiming at mitigating the environmental risk of accidental oil spills, are proposed. The paper presents a review of previous studies on the costs associated with oil spills from shipping, which is a function of many factors such as location of spill, spill amount, type of oil, etc. However, ships are designed for global trade, transporting different oil qualities. Therefore, globally applicable criteria must average over most of these factors, and the spill amount is the remaining factor that will be used to measure cost effectiveness against. A weighted, global average cleanup cost of USD 16,000/tonne of oil spilt has been calculated, considering the distribution of oil tanker traffic densities. Finally, the criteria are compared with some existing regulations for oil spill prevention, response and compensation (OPA 90)

  11. Australia's tyranny of distance in oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the quantity of oil spilled, smaller spills generally receive less attention than headline grabbing incidents such as the 'Amoco Cadiz', 'Exxon Valdez', 'Braer' and 'Sea Empress'. The latter incidents involve the loss of significant quantities of oil, the establishment of relatively complex spill response management structures and the involvement of significant numbers of personnel and equipment. As such, large spills from tankers have the potential to create problem areas, for example in establishing and maintaining effective communications, logistics and resource management systems. In general terms spill response personnel are well aware that large spills come complete with significant operational and administrative problems, however what may not be so well recognised is that smaller spills also have the potential to present response personnel with their own unique problems. One of the major problems to be overcome when responding to spills in Australia is the 'tyranny of distance'. In quite a few responses, Australian oil spill response managers have had to move personnel and equipment thousands of kilometres to provide an effective outcome. This paper outlines a range of problems that have been encountered by Australian personnel over the years. These include health and safety, communications, logistics and equipment issues. For the purpose of this paper a 'smaller' spill has been defined as one involving a discharge of less than 1000 tonnes of oil. (Author)

  12. Effects of Salinity on Oil Spill Dispersant Toxicity in Estuarine Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical dispersants can be a useful tool to mitigate oil spills, but the potential risks to sensitive estuarine species should be carefully considered. To improve the decision making process, more information is needed regarding the effects of oil spill dispersants on the health of coastal ecosystems under variable environmental conditions such as salinity. The two oil dispersants used in this study were Corexit ® 9500 and Finasol ® OSR 52. Corexit ® 9500 was the primary dispersant used during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill event, while Finasol® OSR 52 is another dispersant approved for oil spill response in the U.S., yet considerably less is known regarding its toxicity to estuarine species. The grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was used as a model estuarine species. It is a euryhaline species that tolerates salinities from brackish to full strength seawater. Adult and larval life stages were tested with each dispersant at three salinities, 5ppt, 20ppt, and 30ppt. Median acute lethal toxicity thresholds were calculated. Lipid peroxidation assays were conducted on surviving shrimp to investigate sublethal effects. The toxicity of both dispersants was significantly influenced by salinity, with greatest toxicity observed at the lowest salinity tested. Larval shrimp were significantly more sensitive than adult shrimp to both dispersants, and both life stages were significantly more sensitive to Finasol than to Corexit. Furthermore, significant sublethal effects were seen at higher concentrations of both dispersants compared to the control. These data will enable environmental managers to make informed decisions regarding dispersant use in future oil spills.

  13. Soil pollution by oxidation of tailings from toxic spill of a pyrite mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, M.; Martin, F.; Ortiz, I.; Garcia, I.; Fernandez, J.; Fernandez, E.; Dorronsoro, C.; Aguilar, J. [Dpto. de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2001-11-12

    On the 25th April 1998, toxic water and tailings from a pyrite mine of Aznalcollar (southern Spain) spilled into the Agrio and Guadiamar River Basin affecting some 40 km{sup 2}. In five sectors throughout the basin, we monitored the physical and chemical properties of the tailings as well as the degree of pollution in the soils on four different sampling dates: 5 May, 20 May, 4 June and 22 July 1998. The characteristics of the tailings deposited on the soils are shown to be related to distance from the spill. The oxidation rate of the tailings and the solubilization of the pollutant elements were more pronounced in the middle and lower sectors of the basin, where the particle size was finer, the sulfur content higher and the bulk density less. The increases in water-soluble sulfates, Zn, Cd and Cu were very rapid (the highest values being reached 25 days after the spill) and intense (reaching 45% of the total Cu, 65% of the total Zn and Cd). Meanwhile, the increases in water-soluble As, Bi, Sb, Pb and Tl were far lower (ranging between 0.002% of the total Tl and 2.5% of the total As) and less rapid in the case of As, Bi and Pb (the highest values for these elements being reached 40 days after the spill). These soluble elements infiltrated the soils with the rainwater, swiftly augmenting the soil pollution. Twenty-five days after the spill, when the rainfall ranged between 45 and 63 mm, the first 10-cm of the soils in the middle and lower sectors of the basin exceeded the maximum concentration permitted for agricultural soils in Zn, Cu and Tl. At 40 days after the spill, when the rainfall ranged between 60 and 89 mm, all the soils reached or exceeded the maximum permitted concentrations for As and Tl. Nevertheless, the pollutants tended to concentrate in the first 10 cm of the soils without seriously contaminating either the subsoil or the groundwaters. Consequently, a rapid removal of the tailings and the ploughing of the first 25-30 cm of the soils would be urgent

  14. Soil pollution by oxidation of tailings from toxic spill of a pyrite mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the 25th April 1998, toxic water and tailings from a pyrite mine of Aznalcollar (southern Spain) spilled into the Agrio and Guadiamar River Basin affecting some 40 km2. In five sectors throughout the basin, we monitored the physical and chemical properties of the tailings as well as the degree of pollution in the soils on four different sampling dates: 5 May, 20 May, 4 June and 22 July 1998. The characteristics of the tailings deposited on the soils are shown to be related to distance from the spill. The oxidation rate of the tailings and the solubilization of the pollutant elements were more pronounced in the middle and lower sectors of the basin, where the particle size was finer, the sulfur content higher and the bulk density less. The increases in water-soluble sulfates, Zn, Cd and Cu were very rapid (the highest values being reached 25 days after the spill) and intense (reaching 45% of the total Cu, 65% of the total Zn and Cd). Meanwhile, the increases in water-soluble As, Bi, Sb, Pb and Tl were far lower (ranging between 0.002% of the total Tl and 2.5% of the total As) and less rapid in the case of As, Bi and Pb (the highest values for these elements being reached 40 days after the spill). These soluble elements infiltrated the soils with the rainwater, swiftly augmenting the soil pollution. Twenty-five days after the spill, when the rainfall ranged between 45 and 63 mm, the first 10-cm of the soils in the middle and lower sectors of the basin exceeded the maximum concentration permitted for agricultural soils in Zn, Cu and Tl. At 40 days after the spill, when the rainfall ranged between 60 and 89 mm, all the soils reached or exceeded the maximum permitted concentrations for As and Tl. Nevertheless, the pollutants tended to concentrate in the first 10 cm of the soils without seriously contaminating either the subsoil or the groundwaters. Consequently, a rapid removal of the tailings and the ploughing of the first 25-30 cm of the soils would be urgent

  15. Comparing sediment quality in Spanish littoral areas affected by acute (Prestige, 2002) and chronic (Bay of Algeciras) oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of sediments collected from two areas of the Spanish coast affected by different sources of contaminants has been compared in this study. The areas studied are the coast of Galicia affected by the oil spill from the tanker Prestige (November 2002) and the Gulf of Cadiz which suffers continuous inputs of contaminants from industries located in the area and from oil spills. Contamination by several chemicals (metals, PCBs and PAHs) that bind to sediments was analyzed, and two toxicity tests (Microtox[reg]) and amphipod 10-day bioassay) were conducted. PAHs were identified as the compounds responsible for the toxic effects. Results show differences between an acute impact related to the sinking of the tanker Prestige and the chronic impact associated with continuous oil spills associated with the maritime and industrial activities in the Bay of Algeciras, this being the most polluted part of the two coastal areas studied in this work. - Littoral sediments affected by low or moderated but continuous oil spills are more polluted than those affected by accidental oil spills such as the Prestige

  16. Perceived resilience: Examining impacts of the deepwater horizon oil spill one-year post-spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenesey, Jessica W; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Scant research has focused on resilient responding to disasters such as oil spills a year or more after the event. One year after the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill, this study assessed perceived resilience, relations between resiliency and psychological symptoms, and the degree to which self-reported resiliency was associated with reduced psychological symptoms after accounting for differences in economic impact sustained by Gulf Coast residents. Participants were 812 adults (64% women, mean age 50) of 2 Alabama coastal communities. Participants were administered a telephone survey 1-year post-spill assessing self-perceptions of impact factors (e.g., economic and social), resilience, coping, and depressive and PTSD symptoms. Most participants perceived themselves as resilient (n = 739). As expected, lower perceived resilience was associated with greater ongoing depressive and PTSD symptoms. Spill-related economic impact predicted greater depressive and PTSD symptoms; however, perceived resilience predicted significant variance in psychological symptoms after taking into account spill-related economic impact. Improving individuals' sense of resiliency may help mitigate psychosocial and mental health effects over time.

  17. Integration of Web-GIS and oil spill simulation applications for environmental management of near-shore spill accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a near-shore oil spill, the use of a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) can greatly improve emergency response management and oil recovery operations by providing real-time information support. This paper presented a Web-GIS that is used in combination with an oil spill simulation model. The structure and content of the system was defined after the Nakhodka vessel spilled oil in the Sea of Japan in January 1997, leaving serious environmental damage to the coastal area of the Ishikawa prefecture. The Web-GIS provides a wide range of environmental and oil spill related information, presented in a geographical form. The system also consolidates spill and environmental damage related information from different sources and provides links to the specialized environmental and socio-economical information of other GIS databases. The oil spill modeling subsystem is part of an application for protection planning and oil recovery operations. With this system, oil-drift simulation begins at the onset of any oil spill and then remote sensing data are used to estimate the position and state of the spilled oil. The spill information is then assimilated into the spill model and the observed simulated results are uploaded to the Web page for public information. The applicability of the Web-GIS is extended by support for information gathering from the public and the responsible agencies. The relative simplicity of the system interface is an added advantage. 9 refs., 4 figs

  18. IT - OSRA: applying ensemble simulations to estimate the oil spill hazard associated to operational and accidental oil spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp Neves, Antonio Augusto; Pinardi, Nadia; martins, Flavio

    2016-04-01

    Every year, 270,000 tonnes of oil are estimated to be spilled in the ocean by vessel operations (e.g. tank washing, leakage of lubricants) and the so called operational spills are typically associated with small volumes and high occurrence rate. Vessel-related accidental spills (e.g. collisions, explosions) seldom occur and usually involve high volumes of oil, accounting for about 100,000 tonnes/year. The occurrence of accidental spills and their impacts have been well documented in the available literature. On the other hand, occurrence rates of operational spills and the effects they have on the marine and coastal environments remain very uncertain due to insufficient sampling effort and methodological limitations. Trying to foresee when and where an oil spill will occur in a certain area, its characteristics and impacts is, at present, impossible. Oil spill risk assessments (OSRAs) have been employed in several parts of the globe in order to deal with such uncertainties and protect the marine environment. In the present work, we computed the oil spill risk applying ensemble oil spill simulations following an ISO-31000 compliant OSRA methodology (Sepp Neves et al. , 2015). The ensemble experiment was carried out for the Algarve coast (southern Portugal) generating a unique data set of 51,200 numerical oil spill simulations covering the main sources of uncertainties (i.e. where and when the spill will happen and oil spill model configuration). From the generated data set, the risk due to accidental and operational spills was mapped for the Algarve municipalities based on the frequency and magnitude (i.e. concentrations) of beaching events and the main sources of risk were identified. The socioeconomic and environmental dimensions of the risk were treated separately. Seasonal changes in the risk index proposed due to the variability of meteo-oceanographic variables (i.e. currents and waves) were also quantified.

  19. Bioremediation as an oil spill response tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the long run, biodegradation is the principal removal mechanism for spilled oil that cannot be collected or burnt. Stimulating biodegradation is thus an important option for maximising the removal of oil from the environment, and minimising the environmental impact of a spill. While oil is still floating on the sea, dispersants maximise the surface area available for microbial attack, and stimulate biodegradation. If oil reaches a shoreline where physical removal is difficult, beach cleaners can aid washing technologies, and minimise the residual oil remaining for biodegradation to remove. Since oils lack nitrogen and phosphorus, the careful application of fertiliser stimulates the biodegradation of residual beach oil in environments where nitrogen and phosphorus are limiting. Taken together, these approaches epitomise modern environmental technologies; working with natural processes to minimise undesirable environmental impacts. (Author)

  20. Petroleum biodegradation and oil spill bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in the marine environment following oil spills. These microorganisms naturally biodegrade numerous contaminating petroleum hydrocarbons, thereby cleansing the oceans of oil pullutants. Bioremediation, which is accomplished by adding exogenous microbial populations or stimulating indigenous ones, attempts to raise the rates of degradation found naturally to significantly higher rates. Seeding with oil degraders has not been demonstrated to be effective, but addition of nitrogenous fertilizers has been shown to increase rates of petroleum biodegradation. In the case of the Exxon Valdez spill, the largest and most thoroughly studied application of bioremediation, the application of fertilizer (slow release or oleophilic) increased rates of biodegradation 3-5 times. Because of the patchiness of oil, an internally conserved compound, hopane, was critical for demonstrating the efficacy of bioremediation. Multiple regression models showed that the effectiveness of bioremediation depended upon the amount of nitrogen delivered, the concentration of oil, and time. (author)

  1. The significance of oil spill dispersants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is growing acceptance worldwide that use of dispersants to counter the effects of an oil spill offers many advantages and can often result in a net environmental benefit when considered in relation to other response options. A major reason for this growing support and increased reliance on dispersants is the advent of improved dispersant products that are low in toxicity to marine life and more effective at dispersing heavy and weathered oils - oils previously believed to be undispersible. This capability has been demonstrated through extensive laboratory testing, field trials, and dispersant application on actual spills. This paper summarises recent advances in dispersant R and D and reviews the implications of technology advances. (Author)

  2. Designing an oil spill information management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douligeris, C.; Collins, J.; Iakovou, E.; Sun, P.; Riggs, K.R. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the architectural design of OSIMS, an Oil Spill Information Management System, which is an integrated information management tool that consists of an object-relational database management system, an adaptive decision support system, an advanced visualization system (AVS) and a geographic information system (GIS). OSIMS will handle large and diverse databases of environmental, ecological, geographical, engineering, and regulatory information and will be used for risk analysis and contingency planning.

  3. Cyber Physical Intelligence for Oil Spills (CPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lary, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The National Academy of Sciences estimate 1.7 to 8.8 million tons of oil are released into global waters every year. The effects of these spills include dead wildlife, oil covered marshlands and contaminated water. Deepwater horizon cost approximately $50 billion and severely challenged response capabilities. In such large spills optimizing a coordinated response is a particular challenge. This challenge can be met in a revolutionary new way by using an objectively optimized Cyber Physical Decision Making System (CPS) for rapid response products and a framework for objectively optimized decision-making in an uncertain environment. The CPS utilizes machine learning for the processing of the massive real-time streams of Big Data from comprehensive hyperspectral remote sensing acquired by a team of low-cost robotic aerial vehicles, providing a real-time aerial view and stream of hyperspectral imagery from the near UV to the thermal infrared, and a characterization of oil thickness, oil type and oil weathering. The objective decision making paradigm is modeled on the human brain and provides the optimal course trajectory for response vessels to achieve the most expeditious cleanup of oil spills using the available resources. In addition, oil spill cleanups often involve surface oil burns that can lead to air quality issues. The aerial vehicles comprehensively characterize air quality in real-time, streaming location, temperature, pressure, humidity, the abundance of 6 criterion pollutants (O3, CO, NO, NO2, SO2, and H2S) and the full size distribution of airborne particulates. This CPS can be readily applied to other systems in agriculture, water conversation, monitoring of stream quality, air quality, diagnosing risk of wild fires, etc..

  4. Huge Oil Spill off North China Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xiaojie

    2011-01-01

    ConocoPhillips China, a subsidiary of the US oil giant, operates an oilfield in Bohai Bay in partnership with Chinese offshore oil producer China National Offshore Oil Company (CNOOC), where a massive oil slick was detected on June 4 this year. The spill from the oilfield, which the United States' ConocoPhillips operates with China's state-run oil giant CNOOC, has polluted a total area of almost 4,250 square kilometers. The figures,

  5. Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation.

    OpenAIRE

    Swannell, R P; Lee, K; McDonagh, M

    1996-01-01

    Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environ...

  6. Combustion: an oil spill mitigation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    The technical feasibility of using combustion as an oil spill mitigation tool was studied. Part I of the two-part report is a practical guide oriented toward the needs of potential users, while Part II is the research or resource document from which the practical guidance was drawn. The study included theoretical evaluations of combustion of petroleum pool fires under the effects of weathering and an oil classification system related to combustion potential. The theoretical analysis of combustion is balanced by practical experience of oil burning and case history information. Decision elements are provided which can be used as a guide for technical evaluations of a particular oil spill situation. The rationale for assessing technical feasibility is given in the context of other alternatives available for response to an oil spill. A series of research and technology development concepts are included for future research. The ethics of using oil burning are discussed as issues, concerns, and tradeoffs. A detailed annotated bibliography is appended along with a capsule review of a decade of oil burning studies and other support information.

  7. Fish and wildlife contingency plan for oil and hazardous materials spills in South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Spill responders should become familiar with the contacts and other information contained in this Contingency Plan before a spill occurs. Spill cleanup methods vary...

  8. ARAC dispersion modeling of the July 26, 1993 oleum tank car spill in Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskett, R.L.; Vogt, P.J.; Schalk, W.W. III; Pobanz, B.M. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1994-02-03

    This report presents the results from the real-time response on the day of the spill followed by a re-assessment of the spill. Worst-case source terms and readily available meteorological data (met data) were used for the real-time response. ARAC employs a three-dimensional, diagnostic, finite-difference dispersion modeling system for estimating the consequences from accidental atmospheric releases. MATHEW (Mass-Adjusted Three- Dimensional Wind field), a Eulerian wind field code, and ADPIC (Atmospheric Diffusion by Particle-In-Cell), a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian dispersion model, from the core of the system. For a particular incident a model grid is selected to encompass the area of concern and is generated using underlying terrain from on-line data. Meteorological data from multiple surface and upper air stations are automatically acquired in real time primarily from local airports and formatted to initialize the wind field model. Dispersion parameters are determined from meteorological data and the source term from available information. The system is designed to simulate releases from single or multiple radioactive releases, such as ventings, spills, fires, or explosions. Solid and liquid aerosols and neutrally-buoyant gases are modeled. Particle size distributions are input for each aerosol source and modeled using gravitational settling and wet and dry deposition, if applicable. The system can be readily applied to neutrally-bouyant, nonradioactive chemical releases which do not undergo significant physical or chemical conversion processes.

  9. Residual hydrocarbon toxicity in sediments impacted by the 1970 Arrow spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G.D.; Tremblay, G.H. [Fisheries and Oceans. Inst. Maurice Lamontagne, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, J.H.; Mossman, D.C. [Fisheries and Oceans. Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K.G.; Jackman, P.M. [Environment Canada. Environmental Science Centre, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R.C.; Garrett, R.M.; Haith, C.E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-09-01

    An assessment of the biological effects associated with a marine oil spill that occurred more than twenty years ago was presented. In 1970, 2,045 m{sup 3} of Bunker C crude oil impacted 300 km of Nova Scotia`s coastline when the tanker Arrow ran aground. Only 10 per cent of the contaminated shoreline was subjected to cleanup. The other 90 per cent was left to degrade naturally. In 1993 and 1997, samples of sediment and interstitial water were collected in areas where residual oil from the spill was still evident. Chemical analysis has shown that the oil has undergone substantial biodegradation. As a result of natural attenuation process for more than a 20 year period, the toxicity of the residual oil has been reduced. Substantial evidence of habitat recovery was also found. 43 res., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  10. How oil properties and layer thickness determine the entrainment of spilled surface oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinstra-Helfrich, Marieke; Koops, Wierd; Murk, Albertinka J

    2016-09-15

    Viscosity plays an important role in dispersion of spilled surface oil, so does adding chemical dispersants. For seven different oil grades, entrainment rate and initial droplet size distribution were investigated using a plunging jet apparatus with coupled camera equipment and subsequent image analysis. We found that amount of oil entrained is proportional to layer thickness and largely independent of oil properties: A dispersant dose of 1:200 did not result in a significantly different entrainment rate compared to no dispersants. Oil viscosity had a minor to no influence on entrainment rate, until a certain threshold above which entrainment was impeded. The mean droplet size scales with the modified Weber number as described by Johansen. The obtained results can help improve dispersion algorithms in oil spill fate and transport models, to aid making an informed decision about application of dispersants.

  11. How oil properties and layer thickness determine the entrainment of spilled surface oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinstra-Helfrich, Marieke; Koops, Wierd; Murk, Albertinka J

    2016-09-15

    Viscosity plays an important role in dispersion of spilled surface oil, so does adding chemical dispersants. For seven different oil grades, entrainment rate and initial droplet size distribution were investigated using a plunging jet apparatus with coupled camera equipment and subsequent image analysis. We found that amount of oil entrained is proportional to layer thickness and largely independent of oil properties: A dispersant dose of 1:200 did not result in a significantly different entrainment rate compared to no dispersants. Oil viscosity had a minor to no influence on entrainment rate, until a certain threshold above which entrainment was impeded. The mean droplet size scales with the modified Weber number as described by Johansen. The obtained results can help improve dispersion algorithms in oil spill fate and transport models, to aid making an informed decision about application of dispersants. PMID:27345705

  12. Measuring efficacy of bioremediation of oil spills: Monitoring, observations, and lessons from the apex oil spill experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation treatment and monitoring were observed at an oiled marsh in upper Galveston Bay, Texas, August 5 to 8, 1990, during response to the oil spill created by the collision of three Apex barges and the tanker Shinoussa. Samples of oil from treated and untreated sites were collected and independently analyzed for evidence of biodegradation. Required monitoring protocols for water and sediment quality and acquisition of samples for chemical analysis were expertly adhered to. Visual observations indicated that the treated oil experienced color changes. However, after several days there were no significant visual differences in oil appearance in treated and untreated plots. Chemical analyses from samples collected by observers (independent of the required monitoring program) indicated that there were also no apparent chemical differences in petroleum hydrocarbon patterns between treated and untreated plots. Water from one or both of two treated sites was toxic to mysid shrimp; it is possible that micronutrients (trace elements) in the nutrient mix may have contributed to that toxicity. Increased monitoring is needed to demonstrate the efficacy and effects of bioremediation

  13. Overview of environmental investigations and remediations of leaks and spills in oil and gas fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historic and current leaks and spills in oil and gas fields can involve a variety of hazardous compounds, can be located virtually anywhere on site, and may significantly degrade soils and groundwater quality. Environmental evaluation of historic and current leaks and spills in oil and gas fields occurs in the investigative stage, characterized by a site assessment and field evaluation. The site assessment includes a site survey, aerial photo interpretation, review of regulatory agency records, operators' records, previous work by consultants, and interviews with knowledgeable persons. The field evaluation, designed to examine the lateral and vertical extent of the spill or leak, could include a soil gas survey, cone penetrometer, trenching, and drilling. Using these techniques, collected soil or groundwater samples can be analyzed in a laboratory to differentiate the various hazardous compounds on-site. Once an environmental investigation has been performed to define the vertical and lateral extent of a spill and the potential pathways that the hazardous compound will move to expose a given population, then remediation options can be designed. Remedial programs for hazardous compounds commonly found in oil and gas fields include the following in-situ technologies: volatilization, biodegradation, leaching and chemical reaction, vitrification, passive remediation, and isolation/containment. Non-in-situ technologies include land farming, incineration, asphalt incorporation, solidification/stabilization, groundwater extraction and treatment, chemical extraction, and excavation and offsite disposal. Factors affecting remedial measures are cost of technology, time available to finish remediation, technical feasibility, regulatory acceptance, and accessibility and availability of space in the remediation area

  14. Ammonia Station Ammonia Spill Contingency Plan Analysis%氨站氨泄漏事故应急方案分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥永

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia as an important chemical raw materials in modern chemical production plays an increasingly important role, but also more and more ammonia spill. By analyzing the ammonia leak hazards emergency plan proposed ammonia spill.%液氨作为一种重要的化工原料,在现代化工生产中扮演着越来越重要的角色,但液氨泄漏事故也越来越多。通过分析液氨泄漏的危害,提出了液氨泄漏事故的应急处置方案。

  15. Chemical and microbiological characterization of mangrove sediments after a large oil-spill in Guanabara Bay - RJ - Brazil Caracterização química e microbiológica de sedimentos de manguezal após um grande derramamento de óleo na Baia de Guanabara, RJ, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Maciel-Souza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen months after a 1,3 million L oil spill into Guanabara Bay, analyses of mangrove sediments showed that the three sites closest to the spill remain highly polluted (>10 µg-g-1 polyaromatic hydrocarbons. A fourth site was less polluted, from which most hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were isolated.Dezessete meses após um derramamento de 1,3 milhões de litros de óleo na Baía de Guanabara, análises de sedimento do manguezal mostraram que os três pontos de amostragem mais próximos do local do acidente permanecem altamente poluídos (>10 µg-g-1 hidrocarbonetos poliaromáticos. Do quarto ponto de amostragem, o menos poluído, foi isolada a maioria das bactérias degradadoras de hidrocarbonetos.

  16. OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION: EXPERIENCES, LESSONS AND RESULTS FROM THE EXXON VALDEZ OIL SPILL IN ALASKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of bioremediation as a supplemental cleanup technology in the Exxon Valdez oil spill, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, has proven to be a good example of the problems and successes associated with the practical application of this technology. ield studies conducted by sci...

  17. DESIGN OF A REMOTELY CONTROLLED HOVERCRAFT VEHICLE FOR SPILL RECONNAISSANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This program was undertaken to prepare a conceptual design for a practical prototype of a remotely-controlled reconnaissance vehicle for use in hazardous material spill environment. Data from past hazardous material spills were analyzed to determine the type of vehicle best suite...

  18. Ecological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) was the largest environmental disaster and response effort in United States history, with nearly 800 million liters of crude oil spilled. Vast areas of the Gulf of Mexico were contaminated with oil, including deep ocean communities and over 1...

  19. Ecological Impacts During the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill was the largest environmental disaster and response effort in U.S. history, with nearly 800 million liters of crude oil spilled. Vast areas of the Gulf of Mexico were contaminated with oil, including deep-ocean communities and over 1,600 kilo...

  20. Statistics of extremes in oil spill risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhen-Gang; Johnson, Walter R; Wikel, Geoffrey L

    2014-09-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. After DWH, key questions were asked: What is the likelihood that a similar catastrophic oil spill (with a volume over 1 million barrels) will happen again? Is DWH an extreme event or will it happen frequently in the future? The extreme value theory (EVT) has been widely used in studying rare events, including damage from hurricanes, stock market crashes, insurance claims, flooding, and earthquakes. In this paper, the EVT is applied to analyze oil spills in the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS). Incorporating the 49 years (1964-2012) of OCS oil spill data, the EVT is capable of describing the oil spills reasonably well. The return period of a catastrophic oil spill in OCS areas is estimated to be 165 years, with a 95% confidence interval between 41 years and more than 500 years. Sensitivity tests indicate that the EVT results are relatively stable. The results of this study are very useful for oil spill risk assessment, contingency planning, and environmental impact statements on oil exploration, development, and production. PMID:25109900

  1. Details of the battle to control Campeche Bay spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    Details of the battle to control Campeche Bay spill from Petroleos Mexicanos' well at Ixtoc 1 are given, including the poor performance of ''Operation Sombrero'' and air and surface monitoring of spill transport, particularly by the US Coast Guard.

  2. Cold weather oil spill response training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 2000, a three-day oil spill response training program was conducted on Alaska's North Slope. The unique hands-on program was specifically developed for Chevron Corporation's world-wide response team. It featured a combination of classroom and outdoor sessions that helped participants to learn and apply emergency measures in a series of field exercises performed in very cold weather conditions. Temperatures remained below minus 20 degrees C and sometimes reached minus 40 degrees C throughout the training. The classroom instructions introduced participants to the Emergency Prevention Preparedness and Response (EPPR) Working Group's Field Guide for Spill Response in Arctic Waters. This guide provides response strategies specific to the Arctic, including open water, ice and snow conditions. The sessions also reviewed the Alaska Clean Seas Tactics Manual which addresses spill containment and recovery, storage, tracking, burning and disposal. The issues that were emphasized throughout the training program were cold weather safety and survival. During the training sessions, participants were required to set up weather ports and drive snowmobiles and all terrain vehicles. Their mission was to detect oil with infra-red and hand-held devices. They were required to contain the oil by piling snow into snow banks, and by augering, trenching and slotting ice. Oil was removed by trimming operations on solid ice, snow melting, snow blowing, skimming and pumping. In-situ burning was also performed. Other sessions were also conducted develop skills in site characterization and treating oiled shorelines. The successfully conducted field sessions spanned all phases of a cleanup operation in cold weather. 5 refs., 7 figs

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2003-04-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities performed to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996, and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SA4FER) Plan for CAU 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 2001). CAU 398 consists of the following thirteen Corrective Action Sites (CASs) all located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1): CAS 25-25-02, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-03, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-04, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-05, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-06, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-07, Hydraulic Oil Spill(s), CAS 25-25-08, Hydraulic Oil Spill(s), CAS 25-25-16, Diesel Spill (from CAS 25-01-02), CAS 25-25-17, Subsurface Hydraulic Oil Spill, CAS 25-44-0 1, Fuel Spill, CAS 25-44-04, Acid Spill (from CAS 25-01-01), CAS 25-44-02, Spill, and CAS 25-44-03, Spill. Copies of the analytical results for the site verification samples are included in Appendix B. Copies of the CAU Use Restriction Information forms are included in Appendix C.

  4. Bacteria Provide Cleanup of Oil Spills, Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International Inc., of Round Rock, Texas, developed a phototrophic cell for water purification in space. Inside the cell: millions of photosynthetic bacteria. Micro-Bac proceeded to commercialize the bacterial formulation it developed for the SBIR project. The formulation is now used for the remediation of wastewater systems and waste from livestock farms and food manufacturers. Strains of the SBIR-derived bacteria also feature in microbial solutions that treat environmentally damaging oil spills, such as that resulting from the catastrophic 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico.

  5. Estimating Potential Effects of Hypothetical Oil Spills on Polar Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.; McDonald, T.L.; Johnson, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    Much is known about the transport and fate of oil spilled into the sea and its toxicity to exposed wildlife. Previously, however, there has been no way to quantify the probability that wildlife dispersed over the seascape would be exposed to spilled oil. Polar bears, the apical predator of the arctic, are widely dispersed near the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean, an area also undergoing considerable hydrocarbon exploration and development. We used 15,308 satellite locations from 194 radiocollared polar bears to estimate the probability that polar bears could be exposed to hypothetical oil spills. We used a true 2 dimensional Gausian kernel density estimator, to estimate the number of bears likely to occur in each 1.00 km2 cell of a grid superimposed over near shore areas surrounding 2 oil production facilities: the existing Northstar oil production facility, and the proposed offshore site for the Liberty production facility. We estimated the standard errors of bear numbers per cell with bootstrapping. Simulated oil spill footprints for September and October, the times during which we hypothesized effects of an oil-spill would be worst, were estimated using real wind and current data collected between 1980 and 1996. We used ARC/Info software to calculate overlap (numbers of bears oiled) between simulated oil-spill footprints and polar bear grid-cell values. Numbers of bears potentially oiled by a hypothetical 5912 barrel spill (the largest spill thought probable from a pipeline breach) ranged from 0 to 27 polar bears for September open water conditions, and from 0 to 74 polar bears in October mixed ice conditions. Median numbers oiled by the 5912 barrel hypothetical spill from the Liberty simulation in September and October were 1 and 3 bears, equivalent values for the Northstar simulation were 3 and 11 bears. In October, 75% of trajectories from the 5912 barrel simulated spill at Liberty oiled 9 or fewer bears while 75% of the trajectories affected 20 or

  6. Synthetic aperture radar sensors : viable for marine oil spill response?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The movement of marine oil spills has been observed and tracked for several years using space borne Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR). The advantages of SAR for monitoring oil spills include wide field-of-view, foul weather independence, and day/night capabilities. However, SAR displays several shortcomings such as low spatial resolution, long revisit times, no positive means of oil detection, confusion with numerous false targets, and a limited wind speed window in which to observe the oil spill. The authors reviewed the history behind the use of SAR sensors in their capacity as marine oil spill response tools. They presented case studies to better illustrate the benefits of using SAR imagery, in light of the new generation of SAR sensors currently emerging. It is expected that the new SAR sensors coming on stream will enable oil response teams to use the information gathered in a tactical oil spill response. 20 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  7. Feature Extraction and Classification of Oil Spills in SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika V

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR imaging system is used to monitor the marine system. Oil spill pollution plays a significant role in damaging marine ecosystem. One main advantages of SAR is that it can generate imagery under all weather conditions. In a SAR image dark spots can be generated by number of phenomena. The dark spots may be of algae, low wind areas, coastal areas and oil spills. The detected dark spots are then classified based on the features. The features of dark spot are extracted to discriminate oil spill from look-alikes. The textural and statistical features are extracted and analyzed for oil spill identification. This paper discusses about the different feature extraction and classification method for oil spill detection and their preliminary results.

  8. OSIS: A PC-based oil spill information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren Spring Laboratory and BMT Ceemaid Ltd. are cooperating to produce an Oil Spill Information System (OSIS) that will have worldwide application. OSIS is based on EUROSPILL, a spill simulation model originally developed under programs sponsored by the European Commission and the Marine Pollution Control Unit of the United Kingdom government's Department of Transport. OSIS is implemented in the Microsoft Windows 3.x graphical environment on a personal computer. A variety of options enables the user to input information on continuous or instantaneous spills of different types of oil under variable environmental conditions, to simulate the fate of oil and the trajectory of a spill. Model results are presented in the forms of maps, charts, graphs, and tables, displayed in multiple windows on a color monitor. Color hard copy can be produced, and OSIS can be linked to other Windows software packages, providing the opportunity to create a suite of spill incident management tools

  9. Effects of COREXIT EC9500A on bacterial communities influenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, P. A.; Hamdan, L. J.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are important to controlling the fate of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in the marine environment and will be an important component to the natural attenuation of the Deepwater Horizon spill. The chemical dispersant COREXIT®EC9500A was widely deployed during the Deepwater Horizon response. Although toxicity tests confirm that COREXIT®EC9500A does not pose a significant threat to invertebrate and adult fish populations, there is limited information on its effect on microbial communities. Microbial community composition was determined in freshly deposited oil on a beach in Louisiana, resulting from the spill. Secondary heterotrophic production and viability in cultures obtained from oil samples was determined in the presence and absence of COREXIT®EC9500A . Vibrio isolates were abundant in length heterogeneity-PCR fingerprints of oil samples along with hydrocarbon-degrading isolates affiliated with Acinetobacter and Marinobacter. Significant reductions in Acinetobacter and Marinobacter production and viability in the presence of the dispersant compared to controls were observed. Marinobacter is most sensitive to the dispersant as evidenced by a near 100% reduction in viability and production as a result of exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of the dispersant. Significantly, at the same dispersant concentration, non-hydrocarbon-degrading Vibrio isolates proliferate. These data suggest that hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are inhibited by this dispersants and that it’s use could potentially diminish the capacity of environmental microbial communities to bioremediate the spill.

  10. Application of knowledge based systems technology to the management of accidental spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AIDA personal computer based expert system has been developed to assist electric utility personnel in the case of a hydrocarbon chemical spill in a transformer yard. The types of accidents which could result in such a spill are described, and the role of expert systems in managing such an accident is explained. The stages of conceptual analysis and computer implementation of the AIDA expert system are then reviewed. To date, the AIDA system includes more than 600 rules and procedures which refer to over 450 variables or different facts. The architecture of the system is composed of four distinct rule bases, each associated with one of four stages of problem resolution (determination of the possible flow paths of pollutant if no action is taken, visual reconnaissance, selection and prioritization of locations where intervention should occur, and determination of the means of intervention appropriate for each location). Uniform procedures for reading of data and output of results allow each rule base to operate independently and only to recover the information that each requires. The AIDA man-machine interface is designed to allow the user to visualize the propagation of the pollutant in the environment, the management of the spill, and the necessary or useful information for understanding the reasoning behind the recommendations proposed by the expert system. 7 refs., 3 figs

  11. Release of surfactant cargo from interfacially-active halloysite clay nanotubes for oil spill remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoseni, Olasehinde; Nyankson, Emmanuel; Zhang, Yueheng; Adams, Samantha J; He, Jibao; McPherson, Gary L; Bose, Arijit; Gupta, Ram B; John, Vijay T

    2014-11-18

    Naturally occurring halloysite clay nanotubes are effective in stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions and can serve as interfacially-active vehicles for delivering oil spill treating agents. Halloysite nanotubes adsorb at the oil-water interface and stabilize oil-in-water emulsions that are stable for months. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) imaging of the oil-in-water emulsions shows that these nanotubes assemble in a side-on orientation at the oil-water interface and form networks on the interface through end-to-end linkages. For application in the treatment of marine oil spills, halloysite nanotubes were successfully loaded with surfactants and utilized as an interfacially-active vehicle for the delivery of surfactant cargo. The adsorption of surfactant molecules at the interface serves to lower the interfacial tension while the adsorption of particles provides a steric barrier to drop coalescence. Pendant drop tensiometry was used to characterize the dynamic reduction in interfacial tension resulting from the release of dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (DOSS) from halloysite nanotubes. At appropriate surfactant compositions and loadings in halloysite nanotubes, the crude oil-saline water interfacial tension is effectively lowered to levels appropriate for the dispersion of oil. This work indicates a novel concept of integrating particle stabilization of emulsions together with the release of chemical surfactants from the particles for the development of an alternative, cheaper, and environmentally-benign technology for oil spill remediation.

  12. Effects of Droplet Size on Intrusion of Sub-Surface Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Eric; Chan, Godine; Wang, Dayang

    2014-11-01

    We explore effects of droplet size on droplet intrusion and transport in sub-surface oil spills. Negatively buoyant glass beads released continuously to a stratified ambient simulate oil droplets in a rising multiphase plume, and distributions of settled beads are used to infer signatures of surfacing oil. Initial tests used quiescent conditions, while ongoing tests simulate currents by towing the source and a bottom sled. Without current, deposited beads have a Gaussian distribution, with variance increasing with decreasing particle size. Distributions agree with a model assuming first order particle loss from an intrusion layer of constant thickness, and empirically determined flow rate. With current, deposited beads display a parabolic distribution similar to that expected from a source in uniform flow; we are currently comparing observed distributions with similar analytical models. Because chemical dispersants have been used to reduce oil droplet size, our study provides one measure of their effectiveness. Results are applied to conditions from the `Deep Spill' field experiment, and the recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and are being used to provide ``inner boundary conditions'' for subsequent far field modeling of these events. This research was made possible by grants from Chevron Energy Technology Co., through the Chevron-MITEI University Partnership Program, and BP/The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative, GISR.

  13. Prestige oil spill. III. Fate of a heavy oil in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Sergi; Jover, Eric; Bayona, Josep M; Albaigés, Joan

    2007-05-01

    More than 200 oil samples were collected along the Northern Spanish coast, from December 2002 to December 2003, as part of the extensive monitoring program carried out by the Spanish Marine Safety Agency after the Prestige heavy oil spill (November 13, 2002). The GC FPD/ FID and comprehensive GC x GC/TOFMS sample profiles revealed the main characteristics of the oil residues. Chemical fingerprinting of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions by GC/ MS was performed to determine the source of the oil as well as to follow its weathering at sea. The (n-C13 + n-C14)/(n-C25 + n-C26), n-C18/phytane, and methylnaphthalene [(N + N1)/N2] ratios were found to be useful for assessing the evaporation, biodegradation, and dissolution processes, respectively. Other indicators of more advanced degradation processes, including photo-oxidation, were unaltered, showing the low incidence of natural weathering processes on the spilled heavy oil 1 year after the accident. The survey also demonstrated the occurrence of continued discharges of ballast waters at sea and the need for a more stringent surveillance of the area, beyond accidental oil spills.

  14. An assessment of travel time for spills management - using HEC-RAS water quality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to mitigate the detrimental effects that contaminants such as petrochemical and chemical spills may have on the environment it is critical to understand their transport. This paper presented an assessment of travel time for spills management using HEC-RAS water quality analysis on the Credit River Watershed. It is a 1000 km2 area of urban and rural landscapes drained by 90 km of the main Credit River. The study focused on the mixing characteristics of 5 stream reaches in the Credit River watershed. Dye tracing was done under three different flow conditions to obtain a longitudinal dispersion coefficient, which is a necessary parameter for predicting and modelling time concentration curves downstream of a spill. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient was input into the US Army Corp of Engineers, Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC RAS) to predict time concentration curves. The HEC RAS model produced average travel time close to those measured in the field after final calibration was completed.

  15. The development of laboratory methods for assessing the efficacy and toxicity of oil spill bioremediation agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environment Canada has recently developed interim guidelines and methods for a screening-level laboratory evaluation of the efficacy and toxicity of oil spill bioremediation agents (OSBAs) or products. Ten different OSBAs have been tested to aid in protocol validation and assessment. The efficacy of each OSBA is assessed by comparing its ability to bring about changes in the chemical composition of a standard test oil with that obtained using a standard solution of nutrients and/or a standard mixture of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. The efficacy tests involve the use of the shaker flask incubation technique using either a marine or a fresh water medium. The aquatic toxicity of each OSBA is assessed by measuring its capacity to cause adverse toxic effects on selected species of aquatic organisms. To date, the toxicity assessments have utilized rainbow trout and daphnid acute lethality tests and Microtox. OSBAs which satisfy the requirements and meet the criteria set in the guidelines are considered to have potential application for their intended use. The results from the testing and other data submitted will be made available to various operational and spill response personnel to assist them in assessing the conditions and acceptability for use of that product in response to an oil spill in the environment. 5 refs., 5 figs

  16. The Congressional response to oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March 24, 1989, ushered in a new era for oil spill reform legislation. Once the Exxon Valdez ran aground Bligh Reef and gusher over 11 million gallons of crude oil into pristine waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska, Congressional debate on comprehensive federal legislation would never be the same. Stalemate and frustration marked much of the B.V. (Before Valdez) period. Oil spill bills typically died quiet deaths at the end of each Congress. A flurry of legislation and debate has marked the new A.V. (After Valdez) era, however. Spurred by public outrage, members championed far-reaching proposals. For the first time in almost twenty years, both houses passed similar comprehensive reform bills. Some bills even reached the President's desk to become public law. This paper describes previous Congressional responses as well as the 101st Congress's ongoing efforts and highlights specific provisions, issues and recurring themes in proposed comprehensive legislation (S.686 and H.R. 1465). The paper concludes with general observations on the legislation's prospects and impacts

  17. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Junaid, E-mail: junaidupm@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Karachi (Pakistan); Ning, Chao; Barford, John [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  18. Bioremediation: A countermeasure for marine oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three main types of bioremediation techniques are currently being developed or used for treatment of oil spills: adding nutrients to oiled shorelines; adding microbes to oiled shorelines; and addition of nutrients and/or microbes to open water oil slicks. Since all these technologies attempt to accelerate biodegradation, the processes of biodegradation of oil are summarized. Some of the potential uses of this technology are discussed, including specific instances where bioremediation has been applied at oil spills. Guidelines for evaluating and monitoring bioremediation applications are presented. Of the three types of bioremediation discussed, nutrient addition seems to hold the most immediate promise, especially for use in areas that would be adversely affected by physical or other removal methods. Environments where nutrient addition may play an important role in shoreline treatment include sheltered shorelines that are heavily oiled, shorelines with subsurface oil, and sensitive environments, especially wetlands. Nutrient additions are less likely to be effective in environments that are already nutrient-rich and for short-term, immediate response actions. 41 refs., 1 tab

  19. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy

  20. Detection of oil spill and natural film in the marine environment by spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this thesis is to improve the understanding of spaceborne SAR imaging of surface slicks, and subsequently to develop a method for classification of such slicks, including oil spill and natural chemical-biological film. Building up an extensive database of SAR imagery containing dark slicks, oil spills and its look-alikes have been studied and classified according to SAR image expression, backscatter, geographical occurrence and weather limitations. Natural film was identified as the look-alike most frequently difficult to distinguish from oil spills in the SAR imagery. During two experiments, major effort went into natural film sampling, documenting its composition, behaviour and SAR imaging characteristics. The results show that in general the concentration of fatty acids in natural films were an order of magnitude greater than outside the films. Coastal films had smaller fatty acid molecules, indicating marine sources, compared to the terrestrial sources of fjord films. The fjord films also gave a slightly higher damping in the SAR imagery than the coastal films. This was probably caused by differences in organic composition and concentration. A method was developed for using wind history in slick age estimation. Some trends in slick properties were discovered for oil films and natural films, but no one-to-one relationships were found. The supervised slick discrimination algorithm was developed and tested on 124 slicks in SAR imagery. Two look-alikes were classified as oil. They were both caused by other pollution spilled from oil platforms when wind history could not aid in age estimation. The expected problem with natural films being classified as oil was not reflected in the results, probably because the test data set does not include doubtful cases. 241 refs., 98 figs., 17 tabs

  1. Oil spills and other issues in the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita : an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D.W. [Lousiana Applied and Educational Research and Development Program, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The aftermath of Hurricane Katrina revealed weaknesses in the command, control, communications, and information dissemination functions within a variety of emergency response systems. This paper gave an outline of clean-up procedures involving hazardous materials. To date, clean-up crews have disposed of 8.0 million tonnes of an estimated 22.0 million tonnes of debris. The clean-up involved more than 1.3 million containerized hazardous materials; more than 230,000 damaged white goods; and nearly 43,000 damaged electronic goods. More than 3,400 samples of water, soil and air have been collected. Nearly 75 chemistry laboratories in schools have been inspected, and an additional 1500 emergency assessments of potential chemical releases were investigated. The floodwaters carried nearly 4.1 million litres of oil from a Chalmette refinery. Between September and the end of 2005, the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office logged in 81 spill events in southwest Louisiana involving 22,000 bbls of crude. Six major, 3 medium and 131 minor events have occurred in southeast Louisiana. More than 3000 offshore platforms were shut down or damaged during the 2005 hurricane season. At least 115 platforms were destroyed and 52 were damaged. Onshore spills of concern included incidents at Murphy Oil Refinery; Bass Enterprise Production Company; Chevron at Port Fourchon; Venice Energy Services Company; Shell Pipeline; and Sundown Energy. It was concluded work done by the spill community will result in the development of more effective response plans. 23 refs.

  2. Evaluation of methods for assessing toxicity of oil spill treating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, T.C.; Hollebone, B.P. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Harrison, S. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The first counter-measure considered during an oil spill is the mechanical removal of the spilled oil, but this rarely collects more than 20 per cent of the spilled oil. When mechanical means are insufficient, it is advisable to use spill treating agents (STAs). The potential impact of STAs on the environment is estimated by assessing their in-vitro toxicity to sensitive or sentinel organisms. The typical endpoint in animal exposure models is acute lethality LC{sub 50}, which is the concentration that will be fatal to 50 per cent of the test population. The range of STAs include dispersants; shoreline washing agents; de-emulsifiers or emulsion inhibitors; herding agents; recovery agents; solidifiers or gelling agents; biodegradation agents; and, sinking agents. However, a thorough understanding of the overall toxicity of the agent to the environment must be determined along with the net environmental benefit. The agents must undergo rigorous toxicity evaluations to meet the requirements of the New Substances Notification or Significant New Activity Notification sections of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act of 1999. Environment Canada's guidelines for the use and acceptability of dispersants also address toxicity issues. In particular, emphasis has been on evaluating toxicity by the 96-hour rainbow trout lethality test. This paper presented challenges to the current test protocols and recommended that Environment Canada's guidelines for the use of oil STAs should be modified to include a broader definition of toxicity. The toxicity of a dispersant should be less than the toxicity of the water soluble fraction of an oil slick. However, sublethal effects of dispersant exposure, such as endocrine disruption, organ toxicity, mutagenicity and geotoxicity must be better understood. It was argued that testing on one fish species in an enclosed system does not adequately address a diverse marine environment. It was recommended that testing procedures

  3. Automatic oil spill detection on quad polarimetric UAVSAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Dhakal, Shanti

    2016-05-01

    Oil spill on the water bodies has adverse effects on coastal and marine ecology. Oil spill contingency planning is of utmost importance in order to plan for mitigation and remediation of the oceanic oil spill. Remote sensing technologies are used for monitoring the oil spills on the ocean and coastal region. Airborne and satellite sensors such as optical, infrared, ultraviolet, radar and microwave sensors are available for remote surveillance of the ocean. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is used most extensively for oil-spill monitoring because of its capability to operate during day/night and cloud-cover condition. This study detects the possible oil spill regions on fully polarimetric Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle - Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) images. The UAVSAR image is decomposed using Cloude-Pottier polarimetric decomposition technique to obtain entropy and alpha parameters. In addition, other polarimetric features such as co-polar correlation and degree of polarization are obtained for the UAVSAR images. These features are used to with fuzzy logic based classification to detect oil spill on the SAR images. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Brine Spills Associated with Unconventional Oil Development in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Nancy E; Harkness, Jennifer S; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-05-17

    The rapid rise of unconventional oil production during the past decade in the Bakken region of North Dakota raises concerns related to water contamination associated with the accidental release of oil and gas wastewater to the environment. Here, we characterize the major and trace element chemistry and isotopic ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr, δ(18)O, δ(2)H) of surface waters (n = 29) in areas impacted by oil and gas wastewater spills in the Bakken region of North Dakota. We establish geochemical and isotopic tracers that can identify Bakken brine spills in the environment. In addition to elevated concentrations of dissolved salts (Na, Cl, Br), spill waters also consisted of elevated concentrations of other contaminants (Se, V, Pb, NH4) compared to background waters, and soil and sediment in spill sites had elevated total radium activities ((228)Ra + (226)Ra) relative to background, indicating accumulation of Ra in impacted soil and sediment. We observed that inorganic contamination associated with brine spills in North Dakota is remarkably persistent, with elevated levels of contaminants observed in spills sites up to 4 years following the spill events. PMID:27119384

  5. Locating spilled oil with airborne laser fluorosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carl E.; Fingas, Mervin F.; Nelson, Robert D.; Mullin, Joseph V.

    1999-02-01

    Locating oil in marine and terrestrial environments is a daunting task. There are commercially available off the shelf (COTS) sensors with a wide field-of-view (FOV) which can be used to map the overall extent of the spill. These generic sensors, however, lack the specificity required to positively identify oil and related products. The problem is exacerbated along beach and shoreline environments where a variety of organic and inorganic substrates are present. One sensor that can detect and classify oil in these environments is the laser fluorosensor. Laser fluorosensors have been under development by several agencies around the world for the past two decades. Environment Canada has been involved with laser fluorosensor development since the early 1990s. The prototype system was known as the Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (LEAF). The LEAF has recently been modified to provide real-time oil spill detection and classification. Fluorescence spectra are collected and analyzed at the rate of 100 Hz. Geo-referenced maps showing the locations of oil contamination are produced in real-time onboard the aircraft. While the LEAF has proven to be an excellent prototype sensor and a good operational tool, it has some deficiencies when it comes to oil spill response operations. A consortium including Environment Canada and the Minerals Management Service has recently funded the development of a new fluorosensor, called the Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF). The SLEAF was designed to detect and map oil in shoreline environments where other non-specific sensors experience difficulty. Oil tends to pile up in narrow bands along the high tide line on beaches. A nadir-looking, small footprint sensor such as the LEAF would have difficulty locating oil in this situation. The SLEAF employs a pair of conical scanning mirrors to direct the laser beam in a circular pattern below the aircraft. With a sampling rate of 400 Hz and real-time spectral analysis

  6. Econometric Modeling and Policy Analysis of Oil Spill Processes with Application to Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Gottinger, Hans W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores approaches to model specification suitable for empirical investigation of a stochastic oil spill model. We focus on the effects of economic incentive measures on the frequency of oil spills, spill size, and volume of oil spilled. We look-into the relationships between parameters that describe the spill generation process and the enforcement effort-in view of data for the Japanese Pacific and Japan Sea Coasts.

  7. The oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeGrange A.R.

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound Alaska, on March 24, 1989, treatment centres for sea otters were set up at Valdez, Seward and Homer. Otter survival rates were lower at Valdez than at Seward, probably because the animals collected were closer to the spill in time and space, and oil toxicity was at a maximum. Otters collected in Prince William Sound were predominantly female and pregnant or lactating. Weathered oil persists in otter habitats throughout the spill zone - long term studies are underway to assess the effects of this.

  8. Predicting impacts of oil spills - Can ecological science cope?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anders

    It is analysed, how the potential impact of large oil spills on seabird populations are dealt with in the strategic environmental impact assessments (EIA) of oil exploration in the Barents Sea (1988) and the Beaufort Sea (1996). Current knowledge on the effect of large oil spills on bird...... populations is reviewed as background information for the analysis. The analysis of the two EIA cases focus on what ecological science can deliver to the EIA process and how the EIAs can manage with what they get. The use of oil spill scenarios and impact indices in the EIA-reports is discussed....

  9. A Method for Qualitative Mapping of Thick Oil Spills Using Imaging Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Leifer, Ira; Livo, K. Erik; Lundeen, Sarah; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd; Sarture, Charles; McCubbin, Ian; Roberts, Dar; Steele, Denis; Ryan, Thomas; Dominguez, Roseanne; Pearson, Neil; ,

    2010-01-01

    A method is described to create qualitative images of thick oil in oil spills on water using near-infrared imaging spectroscopy data. The method uses simple 'three-point-band depths' computed for each pixel in an imaging spectrometer image cube using the organic absorption features due to chemical bonds in aliphatic hydrocarbons at 1.2, 1.7, and 2.3 microns. The method is not quantitative because sub-pixel mixing and layering effects are not considered, which are necessary to make a quantitative volume estimate of oil.

  10. United States Gulf of Mexico Coastal Marsh Vegetation Responses and Sensitivities to Oil Spill: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    S. Reza Pezeshki; Ronald D. DeLaune

    2015-01-01

    The present review summarizes the literature on the effects of oil spill on the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coastal vegetation including freshwater-, brackish-, and salt-marshes. When in contact with plant tissues, oil may have adverse impacts via physical and chemical effects. Oil may also become detrimental to plants by covering soil surfaces, leading to root oxygen stress and/or penetrate into the soil where it becomes in contact with the roots. The affected vegetation may survive the impact by pr...

  11. Review of oil spill remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl

    2014-06-15

    Remote-sensing for oil spills is reviewed. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, however it gives only the same results as visual monitoring. Oil has no particular spectral features that would allow for identification among the many possible background interferences. Cameras are only useful to provide documentation. In daytime oil absorbs light and remits this as thermal energy at temperatures 3-8K above ambient, this is detectable by infrared (IR) cameras. Laser fluorosensors are useful instruments because of their unique capability to identify oil on backgrounds that include water, soil, weeds, ice and snow. They are the only sensor that can positively discriminate oil on most backgrounds. Radar detects oil on water by the fact that oil will dampen water-surface capillary waves under low to moderate wave/wind conditions. Radar offers the only potential for large area searches, day/night and foul weather remote sensing.

  12. Nanoporous polystyrene fibers for oil spill cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinyou; Shang, Yanwei; Ding, Bin; Yang, Jianmao; Yu, Jianyong; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2012-02-01

    The development of oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, low cost, scalable fabrication, and high selectivity is of great significance for water environmental protection, especially for oil spillage on seawater. In this work, we report nanoporous polystyrene (PS) fibers prepared via a one-step electrospinning process used as oil sorbents for oil spill cleanup. The oleophilic-hydrophobic PS oil sorbent with highly porous structures shows a motor oil sorption capacity of 113.87 g/g, approximately 3-4 times that of natural sorbents and nonwoven polypropylene fibrous mats. Additionally, the sorbents also exhibit a relatively high sorption capacity for edible oils, such as bean oil (111.80 g/g) and sunflower seed oil (96.89 g/g). The oil sorption mechanism of the PS sorbent and the sorption kinetics were investigated. Our nanoporous material has great potential for use in wastewater treatment, oil accident remediation and environmental protection.

  13. Managing public support during oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Too often oil spill contingency plans ignore and responders overlook the problem of managing auxiliary support, that is volunteers. These may consists of Native Bands, environmental organizations, community groups and the public in general. The consequences of not managing or poorly managing public support for the response effort is an increasingly frustrated public which begins to coordinate their own response efforts, proceeding without training or supervision. such a response can pose a threat to individuals as well as to the clean-up effort in general. Preparation and effective communication, particularly with the news media are key elements in successfully managing public support. In this paper the issues to be addressed are: coordination (mobilization, assignments), safety and insurance, equipment and clothing, fatigue and stress, food and shelter, training, public information including information about potential hazards, and public expectations of response efficiency

  14. The media politics of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the ways in which news values shape the reporting of oil spills and the constraints under which media practitioners work. A series of oil spills since the late 1960s [including the Torrey Canyon (1967), the Exxon Valdez (1989), and the Sea Empress (1996)] have attracted considerable attention from the news media. The focus is upon the dynamics through which news sources, with their own particular vested interests, compete to secure representation of the issues. Media discourse on risk and the environment is, to a significant extent, a discourse dependent upon the voices of official ''experts''. Environmental organizations, industry, scientists and government offer their own particular competing accounts of the ''reality'' of the situation. Issues concerning differential access to the news media are crucial when considering who comes to define the event. Accordingly, the article examines the strategies adopted by the various news sources involved in influencing the symbolic representation of public issues. Media practitioners are faced with great problems in interpreting and explaining these competing claims. Relatively few journalists and broadcasters have a scientific training and perhaps one of the greatest problems is that by simplifying complex scientific information one inevitably distorts it. Frequently researchers make the assumption that it is possible to demonstrate a direct causal link between news media coverage and public attitudes. However, the paper calls for great caution in interpreting ''public opinion'' concerning environmental issues and concludes by arguing that news media representations may more usefully be viewed as the outcome of a battle among a selective range of news sources, each seeking to provide their own definition of the public representation of the issues. (author)

  15. Final report: Fuel spill cleanup at the Del Air Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the cleanup of a fuel spill on the Delair Unit of Great River NWR in 1994. Soil test results are provided, the cleanup process is summarized,...

  16. Ottawa river nuclear spill contingency model development. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual describes the calibration and application of a series of spill model programs. The programs simulate the receiving water concentrations in rivers, resulting from discharges/spill which can vary in time as well as being intermittent. The programs incorporate computer graphic outputs of the spill distribution at given times after the beginning of the spill, and at given downstream distances as a function of time. The manual outlines the procedure to calibrate the models based on site specific data. Detailed technical discussions on various components of the models are also included. The programs have been set up in an interactive (inquiry-response) mode. The series of programs are written on Fortran 77 and run on all IBM PC and compatible computers

  17. Oil spill response engineering and planning. Technical completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanker and barge traffic associated with the five petroleum product terminals along the NH side of the Piscataqua River represents a constant oil spill threat to the contiguous Great Bay System, NH, an estuarine reserve. Several serious accidents have in fact taken place in the 1970's and two small spills in 1990. A major factor is that the Piscataqua channel is subject to high velocity tidal currents. Should a spill occur, problems arise in knowing where the slick will move and how to control it using booms. In the project, these problems were addressed by developing procedures for using diversion booms in high speed current environments and in revising and implementing a previously developed Oil Spill Trajectory Model

  18. Beam spill structure feedback test in HIRFL-CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIRFL-CSR is the post-acceleration system of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou and is composed of a double cooling storage ring and a radioactive beam line. The slow extraction beam from HIRFL-CSR is used in nuclear physics experiments and heavy ion therapy. 50 Hz ripple and harmonics are observed in beam spill. To improve the spill structure, the first set of control system consisting of fast Q-magnet and feedback device based FPGA is developed and installed in 2010. Spill structure feedback testing has also started. It is shown that the feedback structure has improved the spill structure, the 50 Hz ripple and its harmonics have been reduced

  19. Titania: a material-based approach to oil spill remediation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Narayan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The anatase phase of titania is being considered for use in oil spill remediation due to its high photocatalytic efficiency and its activity under a wide range of environmental conditions.

  20. Potential Environmental Impacts of Oil Spills in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This report analyses information status and research needs in relation to potential environmental impacts of oil spills (offshore and onshore) in Greenland. The report assesses potential effects and potential mitigation and monitoring measures. Information gaps are identified and a number...

  1. Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Detected in Sewage Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160031.html Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Detected in Sewage Spill 'People need to be ... News) -- Sewer line breaks can release antibiotic-resistant bacteria that pose a public health threat, a new ...

  2. Waste minimization concepts applied to oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessons learned from past US oil spill response histories show that prudent waste management principles have not been a primary consideration in making decisions for tactical response to major open-water oil spills. Contingency planners (government and industry) consistently choose a mechanical response strategy usually resulting in significant shoreline impact and waste generation (secondary pollution from response actions). Generally, the Environmental Protection Agency's waste minimization hierarchy is not used when managing a major open-water oil spill, subsequent cleanup of oiled shorelines, response to oiled wildlife, and final disposal of oily waste. Contingency plans do not adequately weigh the ecological ramifications from response-generated waste and response-generated pollution when deciding how to protect the environment. This paper shows how the EPA's waste minimization hierarchy should be used during all phases of an oil spill response: strategic planning, tactical planning, and response execution

  3. BASIN PEAT SORBTION CAPACITY IMPROVEMENT FOR OIL SPILL RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUKHAREVA N.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the investigation of basin peat sorption capacity in Tomsk field. Experimental results showed the thermal treatment efficiency of sorbent production for oil spill response.

  4. Birds associated with the Atigun River crude oil spill (TAPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes observations of birds and bird habitats in relations to the Atigun River crude oil spill. (TAPS 10 June 1979). The purpose of this report is...

  5. Deepwater Horizon MC252 - Oil Spill: Oil Trajectories Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Trajectory maps are produced using GNOME (General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment), which is an oil spill trajectory model developed by OR and...

  6. Shoreline type and subsurface oil persistence in the Exon Valdez spill zone of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, D.S. [Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Boehm, P.D. [Exponent Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Neff, J.M. [Neff and Associates, Duxbury, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The grounding of the Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska in the spring of 1989 resulted in the release of 258,000 barrels of Alaska North Slope crude oil into the marine environment. Nearly 800 km of shoreline were oiled to some degree. There was an unprecedented oil spill cleanup effort following the spill. The shoreline surveys of the spill zone were synthesized in this paper in an effort to demonstrate the relationship between shoreline type and persistence of subsurface oil (SSO) residues. Shoreline surveys of surface and SSO indicate rapid initial oil loss with a decline from about 800 linear km of PWS shoreline in 1989 to about 10 km of oiled shoreline in 1992. The period of rapid loss was attributed to natural physical process, biodegradation and cleanup activities that removed accessible spill remnants from shorelines. This was followed by a slower natural average loss rate for less accessible surface and SSO deposits of about 22 per cent per year for the period 1992-2001. This paper emphasized that shoreline type plays a key role in determining SSO persistence. The geology of PWS is complex. Many of the shorelines where SSO persists have armouring layers composed of hard, dense clasts, such as the quartzite boulders and cobblestones that can protect SSO deposits. Eighteen years after the spill, persistent SSO deposits in PWS shorelines remain protected from tidal water-washing and biodegradation by a surface boulder/cobble armour and low sediment porosity. The SSO deposits are in a physical/chemical form and location where they do not pose a health risk to intertidal biological communities and animals. The surveys continue to substantiate that remaining SSO deposits in PWS continue to degrade and go away slowly. 37 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  7. Unmanned vehicles for maritime spill response case study: Exercise Cathach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooly, Gerard; Omerdic, Edin; Coleman, Joseph; Miller, Liam; Kaknjo, Admir; Hayes, James; Braga, Jóse; Ferreira, Filipe; Conlon, Hugh; Barry, Hugh; Marcos-Olaya, Jesús; Tuohy, Thomas; Sousa, João; Toal, Dan

    2016-09-15

    This paper deals with two aspects, namely a historical analysis of the use of unmanned vehicles (UAVs ROVs, AUVs) in maritime spill incidents and a detailed description of a multi-agency oil and HNS incident response exercise involving the integration and analysis of unmanned vehicles environmental sensing equipment. The exercise was a first in terms of the level of robotic systems deployed to assist in survey, surveillance and inspection roles for oil spills and harmful and noxious substances.

  8. Laser-based sensors for oil spill remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carl E.; Fingas, Mervin F.; Mullin, Joseph V.

    1997-07-01

    Remote sensing is becoming an increasingly important tool for the effective direction of oil spill countermeasures. Cleanup personnel have recognized that remote sensing can increase spill cleanup efficiency. It has long been recognized that there is no one sensor which is capable of detecting oil and related petroleum products in all environments and spill scenarios. There are sensors which possess a wide field-of- view and can therefore be used to map the overall extent of the spill. These sensors, however lack the capability to positively identify oil and related products, especially along complicated beach and shoreline environments where several substrates are present. The laser-based sensors under development by the Emergencies Science Division of Environment Canada are designed to fill specific roles in oil spill response. The scanning laser environmental airborne fluorosensor (SLEAF) is being developed to detect and map oil and related petroleum products in complex marine and shoreline environments where other non-specific sensors experience difficulty. The role of the SLEAF would be to confirm or reject suspected oil contamination sites that have been targeted by the non-specific sensors. This confirmation will release response crews from the time-consuming task of physically inspecting each site, and direct crews to sites that require remediation. The laser ultrasonic remote sensing of oil thickness (LURSOT) sensor will provide an absolute measurement of oil thickness from an airborne platform. There are presently no sensors available, either airborne or in the laboratory which can provide an absolute measurement of oil thickness. This information is necessary for the effective direction of spill countermeasures such as dispersant application and in-situ burning. This paper describes the development of laser-based airborne oil spill remote sensing instrumentation at Environment Canada and identifies the anticipated benefits of the use of this technology

  9. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, James R.; Prince, Roger C.; Harner, E. James; Atlas, Ronald M.

    1994-03-01

    The effectiveness of bioremediation for oil spills has been difficult to establish on dynamic, heterogeneous marine shorelines. A new interpretative technique used following the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska shows that fertilizer applications significantly increased rates of oil biodegradation. Biodegradation rates depended mainly on the concentration of nitrogen within the shoreline, the oil loading, and the extent to which natural biodegradation had already taken place. The results suggest ways to improve the effectiveness of bioremediation measures in the future.

  10. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of bioremediation for oil spills has been difficult to establish on dynamic, heterogeneous marine shorelines. A new interpretative technique used following the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska shows that fertilizer applications significantly increased rates of oil biodegradation. Biodegradation rates depended mainly on the concentration of nitrogen within the shoreline, the oil loading, and the extent to which natural biodegradation had already taken place. The results suggest ways to improve the effectiveness of bioremediation measures in the future. (Author)

  11. Mega borg oil spill: Fate and effect studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mega Borg, a Norwegian tanker, released an estimated 5.1 million gallons (gal) of Palanca Angola crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during a lightering accident and subsequent fire. The collection of reports was designed to provide a comprehensive overview of the spill chronology, the fate of the oil released, and subsequent studies that were conducted to assess the impacts of the oil spill on the environment and its biota

  12. Sensor for detection of liquid spills on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brent C.; Gayle, Tom M.

    1989-07-04

    A surface liquid detector is disclosed for detecting liquids spilled on surfaces such as floors. A temperature-sensitive thermistor probe is used in a bridge circuit to detect the change in resistance in the thermistor due to the change in thermal conductivity that occurs when a liquid contacts the probe. The device is characterized by the ability to detect either conductive or nonconductive liquids, such as water or oil spills.

  13. Potential for photoenhanced toxicity of spilled oil in Prince William Sound and Gulf of Alaska Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoenhanced toxicity is the increase in the toxicity of a chemical in the presence of ultraviolet light (UV) compared to a standard laboratory test conducted with fluorescent lighting (minimal UV). Oil products, weathered oil, and specific polycyclic aromatic compounds present in oil are 2 to greater than 1000 times more toxic in the presence of UV. The photoenhanced toxicity of oil to fish and aquatic invertebrates appears to occur through a process of photosensitization, rather than photomodification of the aqueous phase oil. In photosensitization, the bioaccumulated chemical transfers light energy to other molecules causing toxicity through tissue damage rather than a narcosis mechanism. The available evidence indicates that phototoxic components of oil are specific 3-5 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocycles. Determinants of photoenhanced toxicity include the extent of oil bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms and the spectra and intensity of UV exposure. No studies have specifically investigated the photoenhanced toxicity of spilled oil in Alaska waters. Although there are substantial uncertainties, the results of this evaluation indicate there is potential for photoenhanced toxicity of spilled oil in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. The potential hazard of photoenhanced toxicity may be greatest for embryo and larval stages of aquatic organisms that are relatively translucent to UV and inhabit the photic zone of the water column and intertidal areas. Photoenhanced toxicity should be considered in oil spill response because the spatial and temporal extent of injury to aquatic organisms may be underestimated if based on standard laboratory bioassays and existing toxicity databases. Additionally, the choice of counter measures and oil removal operations may influence the degree of photoenhanced toxicity. (author)

  14. Technology needs for the later phases of an oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, R. [Innovative Ventures Ltd., Cochrane, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The phases of an oil spill response can be classified as initial response, project phase, end phase and the monitoring phase. The initial on-water phase of the response or shoreline cleanup includes the development of contingency planning, stockpiling of equipment and research into response equipment for removing oil on water. Lack of planning for a response can lead to an initial response that has less than satisfactory results. An initial assessment of the oil spill response begins at the moment the spill occurs and continues for days, depending on the quality of the initial response. This phase includes the use of booms, skimmers, dispersants and in-situ burning. It was emphasized that oil spill research should focus on gathering scientific information needed to make decisions during the project phase and beyond. Typically, this will involve the study of long-term impacts and should be undertaken in a research environment in order to apply new data to any spill scenario. This paper highlighted knowledge needs to support decisions in the cleanup phase. The Exxon Valdez incident provided information on the long-term impacts of a variety of cleanup techniques. This paper also addressed damage assessment and restoration issues along with the decision to terminate a response. Once a response has been terminated, long-term monitoring of the ecosystem begins in order to identify the spill impact. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Community-based oil spill response in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banta, J. [Prince William Sound Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Anchorage, AK (United States); Munger, M. [Cook Inlet Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Kenai, AK (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council and the Cook Inlet Regional Citizen's Advisory Council are independent, non profit organizations formed in 1989 following the Exxon Valdez oil spill to promote the concept of community-based oil spill response (COSR) in their respective regions. COSR involves local citizens in responding to oil spilled in waters they rely upon for income, recreation and subsistence. The 2 advisory councils recently held a Community Oil Spill Response Forum to review the status of existing COSR teams and to share information about past and future COSR-related efforts. The meeting served as an information exchange process about regulatory programs, COSR variations in communities and harbors, training, and personnel issues. Key groups attending the forum were harbor masters, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, United States Coast Guard, existing COSR teams, oil response organizations, local community governments, and volunteers from the advisory councils. This paper was based on the notes taken from the forum. It was agreed that the current system is inadequate in its response to small spills that are frequently associated with non-tank vessels. It was suggested that improved capacity for community-based response could address the situation. It was also suggested that work groups should meet on an annual or biannual basis to continue to educate responders and communities about oil spill response. 7 refs.

  16. Aoutomatic Oil Spill Detection Using TerraSAR-X Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulipiye, Kaiyoumu; Balik Sanli, Fusun

    2016-07-01

    Oil release into the ocean may affect marine ecosystems and cause environmental pollution. Thus, oil spill detection and identification becomes critical important. Characterized by synoptic view over large regions, remote sensing has been proved to be a reliable tool for oil spill detection. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery shows returned signal that clearly distinguish oil from oil-free surface under optimal wind conditions, which makes it the most frequent used remote sensing technique in oil spill detection. Algorithms of automatic oil spill detection has already been developed for different SAR sensors, including RADARSAT and ENVISAT. In this study, we want to apply automatic oil spill detection algorithms on TerraSAR-X data which is previously developed for ASAR data. The applied methodology includes two steps as segmentation and classification. First segmentation algorithms compiled by C# have been applied under a Bayesian framework adopting a multi-level logistic. After segmentation different classification methods such as feature selection, filter, and embedded selection have been applied. As a result the used classifiers for oil spill detection will be compared, and the complete processing chain will be evaluated.

  17. Satellite observations of oil spills in Bohai Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several oil spills occurred at two oil platforms in Bohai Sea, China on June 4 and 17, 2011. The oil spills were subsequently imaged by different types of satellite sensors including SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), Chinese HJ-1-B CCD and NOAA MODIS. In order to detect the oil spills more accurately, images of the former three sensors were used in this study. Oil spills were detected using the semi-supervised Texture-Classifying Neural Network Algorithm (TCNNA) in SAR images and gradient edge detection algorithm in HJ-1-B and MODIS images. The results show that, on June 11, the area of oil slicks is 31 km2 and they are observed in the vicinity and to the north of the oilfield in SAR image. The coverage of the oil spill expands dramatically to 244 km2 due to the newly released oil after June 11 in SAR image of June 14. The results on June 19 show that under a cloud-free condition, CCD and MODIS images capture the oil spills clearly while TCNNA cannot separate them from the background surface, which implies that the optical images play an important role in oil detection besides SAR images

  18. The value of offshore field experiments in oil spill technology development for Norwegian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Brandvik, Per Johan; Daling, Per S; Singsaas, Ivar; Sørstrøm, Stein Erik

    2016-10-15

    The blowout on the Ekofisk field in the North Sea in 1977 initiated R&D efforts in Norway focusing on improving oil spill contingency in general and more specifically on weathering processes and modeling drift and spreading of oil spills. Since 1978, approximately 40 experimental oil spills have been performed under controlled conditions in open and ice covered waters in Norway. The importance of these experimental oil spills for understanding oil spill behavior, development of oil spill and response models, and response technologies are discussed here. The large progress within oil spill R&D in Norway since the Ekofisk blowout has been possible through a combination of laboratory testing, basin studies, and experimental oil spills. However, it is the authors' recommendation that experimental oil spills still play an important role as a final validation for the extensive R&D presently going on in Norway, e.g. deep-water releases of oil and gas.

  19. The value of offshore field experiments in oil spill technology development for Norwegian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Brandvik, Per Johan; Daling, Per S; Singsaas, Ivar; Sørstrøm, Stein Erik

    2016-10-15

    The blowout on the Ekofisk field in the North Sea in 1977 initiated R&D efforts in Norway focusing on improving oil spill contingency in general and more specifically on weathering processes and modeling drift and spreading of oil spills. Since 1978, approximately 40 experimental oil spills have been performed under controlled conditions in open and ice covered waters in Norway. The importance of these experimental oil spills for understanding oil spill behavior, development of oil spill and response models, and response technologies are discussed here. The large progress within oil spill R&D in Norway since the Ekofisk blowout has been possible through a combination of laboratory testing, basin studies, and experimental oil spills. However, it is the authors' recommendation that experimental oil spills still play an important role as a final validation for the extensive R&D presently going on in Norway, e.g. deep-water releases of oil and gas. PMID:27531144

  20. Using Numerical Models in the Development of Software Tools for Risk Management of Accidents with Oil and Inert Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R.; Leitão, P. C.; Braunschweig, F.; Lourenço, F.; Galvão, P.; Neves, R.

    2012-04-01

    ships and geographical areas, and facilitates strategic and dynamic tug positioning. As referred, the risk levels are generated in realtime, and the historic results are kept in a database, allowing later risk analysis or compilations for specific seasons or regions, in order to obtain typical risk maps, etc. The integration with metocean modeling results (instead of using typical static scenarios), as well as continuous background oil spill modelling, provide a more realistic approach to the estimation of risk levels - the metocean conditions and oil spill behaviour are always different and specific, and it's virtually impossible to previously define those conditions even if several thousands of static scenarios were previously considered. This system was initially implemented in Portugal (ARCOPOL project) for oil spills. The implementation at different regions in the Atlantic and the adaptation to chemical spills will be executed in the scope of ARCOPOL+ project. The numerical model used for computing the fate and behaviour of spilled substances in all the tools developed (MOHID lagrangian & oil spill model from MOHID Water modelling System) was also subject of several adaptations and updates, in order to increase its adaptability to the developed tools - horizontal velocity due to Stokes Drift, vertical movement of oil substances, modelling of floating containers, backtracking modelling and a multi-solution approach (generating computational grid on-the-fly, and using the available information from the multiple metocean forecasting solutions available) are some of the main features recently implemented. The main purpose of these software tools are mainly to reduce the gap between the decision-makers and scientific modellers - although the correct analysis of model results usually requires a specialist, an operational model user should not loose most of the time converting and interpolating metocean results, preparing input data files, running models and post

  1. IT-OSRA: applying ensemble simulations to estimate the oil spill risk associated to operational and accidental oil spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp Neves, Antonio Augusto; Pinardi, Nadia; Martins, Flavio

    2016-08-01

    Oil Spill Risk Assessments (OSRAs) are widely employed to support decision making regarding oil spill risks. This article adapts the ISO-compliant OSRA framework developed by Sepp Neves et al. (J Environ Manag 159:158-168, 2015) to estimate risks in a complex scenario where uncertainties related to the meteo-oceanographic conditions, where and how a spill could happen exist and the risk computation methodology is not yet well established (ensemble oil spill modeling). The improved method was applied to the Algarve coast, Portugal. Over 50,000 simulations were performed in 2 ensemble experiments to estimate the risks due to operational and accidental spill scenarios associated with maritime traffic. The level of risk was found to be important for both types of scenarios, with significant seasonal variations due to the the currents and waves variability. Higher frequency variability in the meteo-oceanographic variables were also found to contribute to the level of risk. The ensemble results show that the distribution of oil concentrations found on the coast is not Gaussian, opening up new fields of research on how to deal with oil spill risks and related uncertainties.

  2. IT-OSRA: applying ensemble simulations to estimate the oil spill risk associated to operational and accidental oil spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp Neves, Antonio Augusto; Pinardi, Nadia; Martins, Flavio

    2016-06-01

    Oil Spill Risk Assessments (OSRAs) are widely employed to support decision making regarding oil spill risks. This article adapts the ISO-compliant OSRA framework developed by Sepp Neves et al. (J Environ Manag 159:158-168, 2015) to estimate risks in a complex scenario where uncertainties related to the meteo-oceanographic conditions, where and how a spill could happen exist and the risk computation methodology is not yet well established (ensemble oil spill modeling). The improved method was applied to the Algarve coast, Portugal. Over 50,000 simulations were performed in 2 ensemble experiments to estimate the risks due to operational and accidental spill scenarios associated with maritime traffic. The level of risk was found to be important for both types of scenarios, with significant seasonal variations due to the the currents and waves variability. Higher frequency variability in the meteo-oceanographic variables were also found to contribute to the level of risk. The ensemble results show that the distribution of oil concentrations found on the coast is not Gaussian, opening up new fields of research on how to deal with oil spill risks and related uncertainties.

  3. Specific sensors for special roles in oil spill remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carl E.; Fingas, Mervin F.

    1997-01-01

    Remote sensing is becoming an increasingly important tool for the effective direction of oil spill countermeasures. Cleanup personnel have recognized that remote sensing can increase spill cleanup efficiency. The general public expects that the government and/or the spiller know the location and the extent of the contamination. The Emergencies Science Division (ESD) of Environment Canada, is responsible for remote sensing during oil spill emergencies along Canada's three coastlines, extensive inland waterways, as well as over the entire land mass. In addition to providing operational remote sensing, ESD conducts research into the development of airborne oil spill remote sensors, including the Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF) and the Laser Ultrasonic Remote SEnsing of Oil Thickness (LURSOT) sensor. It has long been recognized that there is not one sensor or 'magic bullet' which is capable of detecting oil and related petroleum products in all environments and spill scenarios. There are sensors which possess a wide filed-of-view and can therefore be used to map the overall extent of the spill. These sensors, however lack the specificity required to positively identify oil and related products. This is even more of a problem along complicated beach and shoreline environments where several substrates are present. The specific laser- based sensors under development by Environment Canada are designed to respond to special roles in oil spill response. In particular, the SLEAF is being developed to unambiguously detect and map oil and related petroleum products in complicated marine and shoreline environments where other non-specific sensors experience difficulty. The role of the SLEAF would be to confirm or reject suspected oil contamination sites that have been targeted by the non- specific sensors. This confirmation will release response crews from the time consuming task of physically inspecting each site, and direct crews to sites that

  4. Oil in nearshore subtidal sediments of Saudi Arabia from the Gulf War spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed sedimentological and dynamic-process studies of the shallow, subtidal habitats of Dawhats ad Dafi and al Mussallamiyah and the bays at Tanaqib on the Saudi Arabian coast were carried out one year after the Gulf War oil spill. These studies were part of Leg II of the NOAA ship Mt. Mitchell cruise. Satellite imagery and space shuttle photography were used extensively to develop detailed study plans. Work accomplished during the study included deployment of three current meters, a tide gauge, and suspended sediment traps (at seven locations). Bathymetric surveys were conducted along 14 transects, and 197 bottom observation dives were carried out. More than 170 bottom sediment samples were collected for chemical and/or textural analysis. Sediment hydrocarbon screening by HPLC fluorescence was conducted on board to verify and refine the sampling plan. The results to date show no evidence of large-scale sinking of oil as a result of the spill. Subtidal oil, as sparse tar balls, was visually observed by divers at three locations, all of which were associated with the erosion of oiled sand from outer beaches. On-board chemical results showed that subtidal sediments have been contaminated at levels ranging from 20 to 2,000 mg petroleum hydrocarbons/kg, with the highest contamination up in the sheltered, muddy basins. However, the oil initially stranded in the intertidal zone does not appear to be accumulating in the nearshore subtidal region in significant quantities one year later

  5. Remediation of sediments contaminated by oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent environmental legislation and increased awareness of the environmental pollution by oil spills have stimulated a demand for invention, development and implementation of effective remediation technologies. There are positive achievements in cleaning up of terrestrial ecosystems but remediation of aquatic ecosystems is still acute problem. Oil contaminated bottom sediments are the chronic contamination source for the aquatic ecosystems. General practice of most oil companies in Russia for treatment of oil spills in rivers and lakes is limited to harvesting of floating oil and treatment of spoiled shore. The pilot project on remediation of Shuchye Lake (Usinsk District, Komi Republic, Arctic European part of Russia) supported by oil production company Lukoil-Comi Ltd. is carried out by NTT Priborservice Ltd. NTT Priborservice Ltd. is R and D enterprise specialized in the contaminated soils, sediments and water remediation, and production of equipments (devices) for this. The project aimed to develop and implement cost-effective technology for cleaning up sediments contaminated by oil hydrocarbons. The technology is based on combination of physico-mechanical and biological approaches. Treatment of bottoms sediments was carried out with usage of the original devices for flotation ('Flotator') and aeration. Usage of 'Flotator' allows to extract petroleum hydrocarbons from sediments excepting mineral particles. Treatment of bottom sediments is combined with aeration of deep layers of water and supplying fertilizers to stimulate microflora, zooplankton and phytoplankton. The project consists of several steps. Survey carried out before the first step of project indicated the average depth of water was ∼4 m (max 7 m), the initial concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in bottom sediments was ∼55 g/kg dw (max 125 g/kg dw). Total amount of bottom surface treated during the first step of the project (July-August 2004) was 4 ha. Monitoring allows to assess the

  6. Mathematical modelling of oil spill fate and transport in the marine environment incorporating biodegradation kinetics of oil droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina

    2016-04-01

    Oil biodegradation by native bacteria is one of the most important natural processes that can attenuate the environmental impacts of marine oil spills. However, very few numerical models of oil spill fate and transport include biodegradation kinetics of spilled oil. Furthermore, in models where biodegradation is included amongst the oil transformation processes simulated, it is mostly represented as a first order decay process neglecting the effect of several important parameters that can limit biodegradation rate, such as oil composition and oil droplets-water interface. To this end, the open source numerical model MEDSKIL-II, which simulates oil spill fate and transport in the marine environment, has been modified to include biodegradation kinetics of oil droplets dispersed in the water column. MEDSLIK-II predicts the transport and weathering of oil spills following a Lagrangian approach for the solution of the advection-diffusion equation. Transport is governed by the 3D sea currents and wave field provided by ocean circulation models. In addition to advective and diffusive displacements, the model simulates several physical and chemical processes that transform the oil (evaporation, emulsification, dispersion in the water column, adhesion to coast). The fate algorithms employed in MEDSLIK-II consider the oil as a uniform substance whose properties change as the slick weathers, an approach that can lead to reduced accuracy, especially in the estimation of oil evaporation and biodegradation. Therefore MEDSLIK-II has been modified by adopting the "pseudo-component" approach for simulating weathering processes. Spilled oil is modelled as a relatively small number of discrete, non-interacting components (pseudo-components). Chemicals in the oil mixture are grouped by physical-chemical properties and the resulting pseudo-component behaves as if it were a single substance with characteristics typical of the chemical group. The fate (evaporation, dispersion

  7. British Columbia inland oil spill response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an outline of the organization, procedures and duties of the provincial government in response to inland oil spills stemming from pipeline or tank-farm rupture, train derailment and vehicle accidents in British Columbia. Provincial response strategies were reviewed, along with their relationships to various policies and standards. Public, infrastructure and environmental protection were identified as key factors. Incident notification procedures were detailed, including outlines of roles, event criteria and call for incident management teams. Agreements and cost recovery issues were examined. The characteristics of site response were reviewed, including details of communications, tactical planning, and unified command among local and federal governments. The role of First Nations and responsible parties was also addressed. Details of shore cleanup, wildlife rescue, decontamination, and waste handling strategies were presented. The organization, missions and duties for an incident management team were outlined, along with a summary of operational guidelines and information on team positions and the establishment of joint information centres. The involvement of cooperating agencies was examined. An incident command system was also presented, including details of planning, operations, logistics, and organization. A checklist of individual duties was provided, with details of responsibilities, safety issues and general instructions for all team members. tabs., figs

  8. Bioremediation effectiveness following the Exxon Valdez spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical analyses of changes in the composition of oil residues remaining on beaches following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound have demonstrated that bioremediation was effective in accelerating oil removal. Extensive data were obtained in a joint bioremediation monitoring program conducted during the summer of 1990 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the State of Alaska, and Exxon. Composition changes in the oil relative to hopane, a trace oil component very resistant to biodegradation, provided the basis for accurately determining rates and extent of biodegradation. Results show that on fertilized beaches the rate of oil biodegradation was from three to more than five times faster than on adjacent, unfertilized control beaches. Further, most hydrocarbon components of the oil were biodegraded simultaneously, although at different rates. On one beach studied, about 60 percent of the total hydrocarbons detectable by gas chromatograph and 45 percent of the total PAH were biodegraded in three months. Bioremediation effectiveness was determined to depend primarily on the amount of nitrogen fertilizer delivered to the sediment per unit of oil present, time, and the extent of oil degradation prior to fertilizer application. The results suggest ways to improve future bioremediation application strategies and monitoring

  9. FUEL CONSERVATION BY THE APPLICATION OF SPILL PREVENTION AND FAILSAFE ENGINEERING (A GUIDELINE MANUAL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodier, J. L.; Siclari, R. J.; Garrity, P. A.

    1980-10-30

    From a series of nationwide plant surveys dedicated to spill prevention, containment and countermeasure evaluation, coupled with spill response action activities, a need was determined for a spill prevention guideline manual. From Federally accumulated statistics for oil and hazardous substance spills, the authors culled information on spills of hydrocarbon products. In 1978, a total of 1456 oil spills were reported compared to 1451 in 1979. The 1978 spills were more severe, however, since 7;289,163 gallons of oil were accident~y discharged. In 1979, the gallons spilled was reduced to 3,663,473. These figures are derived from reported spills; it is highly possible that an equal amount was spilled and not reported. Spills effectively contained within a plant property that do not enter a n~vigational waterway need not be reported. Needless to say, there is a tremendous annual loss of oil products due to accidental spillage during transportation, cargo transfer, bulk storage and processing. As an aid to plant engineers and managers, Fe~eral workers, fire marshalls and fire and casualty insurance inspectors, the documen~ is offered as a spill prevention guide. The'manual defines state-of-the-art spill prevention practices and automation techniques that can reduce spills caused by human error. Whenever practical, the cost of implementation is provided to aid equipment acquisition and installation budgeting. To emphasize the need for spill prevention activities, historic spills are briefly described after which remedial action is defined in an appropriate section of the manual. The section on plant security goes into considerable depth since to date no Federal agency or traqe association has provided industry with guidelines on this important phase of plant operation. The intent of the document is to provide finger-tip reference material that can be used by interested parties in a nationwide effort to reduce loss of oil from preventable spills.

  10. Contained controlled burning of spilled oil during the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the evening of the second day following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, an estimated 57,000-114,000 liters of North Slope crude oil were eliminated using in-situ combustion. The oil was collected with 3M's Fire Boom towed in a U-shaped configuration behind two fishing boats. Working with 152 m long tow lines, a 137 m boom was moved at ca 0.26-5.2 m/s through slightly emulsified oil patches in the downwind region of the spill. A gelled fuel ignitor was used to ignite the captured oil, and the size and intensity of the blaze was controlled by adjusting the speed of the vessels. Total burn time was ca 1.25 h, however the intense part of the burn lasted for ca 45 minutes. Using several methods to estimate the total volume of oil collected, the volume resulted in ca 1136 liters of stiff, taffy-like burn residue that could be picked up easily on completion of the burn. The controlled burn thus resulted in an estimated 98% or better elimination of crude oil. It had been planned to use a helitorch to ignite the captured oil, however darkness required the use of the gelled ignitor. Had the helitorch been used, numerous ignition points could have been spread througout the contained oil, providing a much more efficient heating and ultimate ignition of the oil. 5 figs

  11. Metabolic responses of fish following exposure to two different oil spill remediation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A; Nugegoda, D; Gagnon, M M

    2001-03-01

    To assess the impacts of two oil spill remediation techniques on fish metabolism, change in aerobic and anaerobic enzyme activities in juvenile Australian Bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, was examined. Changes in cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were investigated following exposure to the crude oil water accommodated fraction (WAF) and chemically dispersed crude oil WAF. There was a significant stimulation in CCO activity in the gills and livers of fish exposed to the WAF of Bass Strait crude oil and chemically dispersed crude oil, compared to the control treatment. In addition, LDH activity was significantly stimulated in the liver of fish exposed to dispersed crude oil WAF, compared to the crude oil WAF. Fish exposed to the dispersed crude oil WAF treatment had significantly higher oxygen consumption, as measured by oxygen depletion in a sealed chamber, than fish exposed to the crude oil WAF and control treatments.

  12. Oil Spill Public Information Center: Its role in the flow of information on the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 24, 1989, the supertanker Exxon Valdez struck a sub- merged rock pinnacle at Bligh Reef, puncturing eight of its storage tanks. Within hours, 11 million gallons of crude oil were dumped into the waters of Prince William Sound. The cleanup, damage assessment, and restoration activities undertaken for this environmentally complex area presented multifaceted challenges to public and private organizations and various professional disciplines. One of these challenges was obtaining and disseminating prespill, spill, and postspill information for both the private and public sector. The Oil Spill Public Information Center (OSPIC) was created for this purpose by the US Department of Justice on behalf of the federal trustees. Its management has since been assumed by the restoration team, an arm of the state-federal Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. On October 8, 1991, a settlement agreement was approved in United States District Court, which required Exxon to pay $1 billion in criminal restitution and civil damages to the United States and the state of Alaska. The settlement terms specify that the Trustee Council shall establish procedures providing for meaningful public participation in the injury assessment and restoration process. Consistent with that mandate, the OSPIC is responsible for providing a repository for all material related to the Exxon Valdez oil spill, The OSPIC is a specialized library open to the public. Its function is to collect, organize, and make accessible materials generated by state and federal agencies and the private sector as a result of the cleanup, damage assessment, and restoration activities of the spill. The OSPIC staff is also identifying and collecting baseline studies in the Prince William Sound and Gulf of Alaska areas, as well as materials on cold water marine spills. The OSPIC serves a variety of patrons, including industry, the oil spill response community, state and federal agencies, scientists, etc

  13. Numerical modeling of oil spills in continental and estuarine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of the European Water Framework Directive on water quality for human consumption and industrial activities creates a need for water quality assessment and monitoring systems. The MIGR'HYCAR research project (http://www.migrhycar.com) was initiated to provide decisional tools for risks connected to oil spills in continental waters (rivers, lakes and estuaries), which represent more than 50% of accidental spills in France. Within the framework of this project, a new numerical oil spill model has been developed, as part of the TELEMAC hydro-informatics system (http://www.opentelemac.org), by combining Lagrangian and Eulerian methods. The Lagrangian model describes the transport of an oil spill near the free surface. The oil spill model enables to simulate the main processes driving oil plumes: advection, diffusion, oil beaching, oil re-floating, evaporation, dissolution, spreading and volatilization. Though generally considered as a minor process, dissolution is important from the point of view of toxicity. To model dissolved oil in water, an Eulerian advection-diffusion model is used. The fraction of dissolved oil is represented by a passive tracer. This approach is able to follow dissolved hydrocarbons in the water column. Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterise the numerous kinetics of the processes listed above. In addition, meso-scale dynamic experiments in artificial channels and test cases derived from the literature are used to validate the numerical model. (author)

  14. Efficient tools for marine operational forecast and oil spill tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta-Almeida, Martinho; Ruiz-Villarreal, Manuel; Pereira, Janini; Otero, Pablo; Cirano, Mauro; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Hetland, Robert D

    2013-06-15

    Ocean forecasting and oil spill modelling and tracking are complex activities requiring specialised institutions. In this work we present a lighter solution based on the Operational Ocean Forecast Python Engine (OOFε) and the oil spill model General NOAA Operational Modelling Environment (GNOME). These two are robust relocatable and simple to implement and maintain. Implementations of the operational engine in three different regions with distinct oceanic systems, using the ocean model Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS), are described, namely the Galician region, the southeastern Brazilian waters and the Texas-Louisiana shelf. GNOME was able to simulate the fate of the Prestige oil spill (Galicia) and compared well with observations of the Krimsk accident (Texas). Scenarios of hypothetical spills in Campos Basin (Brazil) are illustrated, evidencing the sensitiveness to the dynamical system. OOFε and GNOME are proved to be valuable, efficient and low cost tools and can be seen as an intermediate stage towards more complex operational implementations of ocean forecasting and oil spill modelling strategies. PMID:23643409

  15. Studies on Marine Oil Spills and Their Ecological Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Hong; YIN Yanjie

    2009-01-01

    The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (Ⅰ) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil Industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (Ⅱ) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

  16. Studies on marine oil spills and their ecological damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hong; Yin, Yanjie

    2009-09-01

    The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (I) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (II) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

  17. Mass mortality of macrobenthos in a biodiverse rocky beach- Impact of a minor oil spill

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijapure, T.; Sukumaran, S.; Mulik, J.; Rao, N.M.

    surveys in estimating the damage caused to the environment by any kind of spill. In general, impacts of oil spill include large scale faunal mortalities especially that of large-sized sensitive species which then get replaced by tiny bodied...

  18. Risk assessment and national measure plan for oil and HNS spill accidents near Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonjin; Jung, Jung-Yeul

    2013-08-15

    Many oil and HNS spill accidents occur in the waters surrounding the Korean Peninsula because Korea is one of the biggest trading partners in the world. In this study, we analyzed the oil and HNS spill accidents that occurred between 1994 and 2005 and created risk matrices to assess these accidents. The worst scenarios of future oil and HNS spill accidents were established, and the maximum spill amounts were estimated using historic accident data and a correlation from IPIECA. The maximum spill amounts are estimated to be between 77,000 and 10,000 tons of oil and HNS, respectively. One third of the spill materials should be removed using recovery equipment within three days of the spill event, according to the national measure plan. The capability of recovery equipment to remove spill materials can be estimated, and the equipment should then be prepared to mitigate the harmful effects of future oil and HNS accidents on humans and marine ecosystems.

  19. Weathered Oil and Tar Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  20. Oil Spill Contingency Plan for Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan is intended to serve as a step by step guide to emergency oil spill response in the event that such a spill threatens refuge lands and wildlife. Because...

  1. Study on the accident oil spill pollution in Wanshan Archipelago sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses diffusion model and transfer model of instantaneous oil spilling with static point source for forecasting and studying the accident oil spilling pollution in Wanshan Archipelago sea area. The paper also presents prevention and cure measures

  2. The Labor Market Impacts of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Oil Drilling Moratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Aldy, Joseph Edgar

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the Gulf Coast experienced the largest oil spill, the greatest mobilization of spill response resources, and the first Gulf-wide deepwater drilling moratorium in U.S. history. Taking advantage of the unexpected nature of the spill and drilling moratorium, I estimate the net effects of these events on Gulf Coast employment and wages. Despite predictions of major job losses in Louisiana -- resulting from the spill and the drilling moratorium -- I find that Louisiana coastal parishes, a...

  3. Comprehensive analytical approaches to determine the sources, fate and effects of marine oil spills

    OpenAIRE

    Radović, Jagoš

    2014-01-01

    Tesi realitzada a l'Institut de Diagnosi Ambiental i Estudis de l'Aigua (IDAEA - CSIC) In the past two decades we witnessed a decrease in both the number of oil spill incidents, and of the quantity of oil released in these incidents, which led to a diminished interest for basic oil spill science. With the introduction of more stringent oil spill legislation, much of the spill response, assessment and restoration activities were passed to governmental agencies and other stakeholders. Th...

  4. Oil Biodegradation and Bioremediation: A Tale of the Two Worst Spills in U.S. History

    OpenAIRE

    Atlas, Ronald M.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2011-01-01

    The devastating environmental impacts of the Exxon Valdez spill in 1989 and its media notoriety made it a frequent comparison to the BP Deepwater Horizon spill in the popular press in 2010, even though the nature of the two spills and the environments impacted were vastly different. Fortunately, unlike higher organisms that are adversely impacted by oil spills, microorganisms are able to consume petroleum hydrocarbons. These oil degrading indigenous microorganisms played a significant role in...

  5. Source apportionment in oil spill remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Jorge; Mudge, Stephen M; Loyola-Sepulveda, Rodrigo; Muñoz, Gonzalo; Bravo-Linares, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    A pipe rupture during unloading led to a spillage of 350-700 tonnes of Caño Limon, a light sweet crude oil, into San Vicente Bay in 2007. Initial clean-up methods removed the majority of the oil from the sandy beaches although some oil remained on the rocky shores. It was necessary for the responsible party to clean the spilled oil even though at this location there were already crude oil hydrocarbons from previous industrial activity. A biosolvent based on vegetable oil derivatives was used to solubilise the remaining oil and a statistical approach to source apportionment was used to determine the efficacy of the cleaning. Sediment and contaminated rock samples were taken prior to cleaning and again at the same locations two days after application of the biosolvent. The oil was extracted using a modified USEPA Method 3550B. The alkanes were quantified together with oil biomarkers on a GC-MS. The contribution that Caño Limon made to the total oil hydrocarbons was calculated from a Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis using Caño Limon crude oil as the source. By the time the biosolvent was applied, there had already been some attenuation of the oil with all alkanes

  6. Source apportionment in oil spill remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Jorge; Mudge, Stephen M; Loyola-Sepulveda, Rodrigo; Muñoz, Gonzalo; Bravo-Linares, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    A pipe rupture during unloading led to a spillage of 350-700 tonnes of Caño Limon, a light sweet crude oil, into San Vicente Bay in 2007. Initial clean-up methods removed the majority of the oil from the sandy beaches although some oil remained on the rocky shores. It was necessary for the responsible party to clean the spilled oil even though at this location there were already crude oil hydrocarbons from previous industrial activity. A biosolvent based on vegetable oil derivatives was used to solubilise the remaining oil and a statistical approach to source apportionment was used to determine the efficacy of the cleaning. Sediment and contaminated rock samples were taken prior to cleaning and again at the same locations two days after application of the biosolvent. The oil was extracted using a modified USEPA Method 3550B. The alkanes were quantified together with oil biomarkers on a GC-MS. The contribution that Caño Limon made to the total oil hydrocarbons was calculated from a Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis using Caño Limon crude oil as the source. By the time the biosolvent was applied, there had already been some attenuation of the oil with all alkanes oil in this case and the contribution that Caño Limon made to the total oil ranged from 0% to 74%. The total hydrocarbon concentrations were lower after cleaning indicating an efficacy of 90% although the reduction in Caño Limon oil was smaller. This was sufficient to make further remediation unnecessary.

  7. Chevron oil spill contingency response plan template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevron U.S.A. Products Company is responsible for numerous facilities located in inland areas, on rivers, and in harbors throughout the continental United States and Hawaii. The federal Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) requires oil spill contingency response plans (CRP) for these facilities. In addition, many states have promulgated regulations that supplement the requirements of OPA 90. Chevron needed a consistent, user-friendly method to enable facility managers to prepare CRPs to meet specific site conditions in response to federal and state regulations while complying with overall Chevron U.S.A. corporate policy. The Chevron template was prepared to provide a framework with specific directions to allow facility managers to prepare facility-specific CRPs using in-house staff or outside consultants as necessary. The template will allow Chevron facilities to conform with the OPA 90 interim guidance specified by the US Coast Guard in its Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circular (NVIC 7-92) for marine transportation-related facilities. OPA 90 has also resulted in separate guidance for vessels and non-marine transportation-related facilities. Included with the template are checklists for each section to facilitate the completion of facility-specific CRPs. Whether the CRPs are completed by Chevron personnel or outside technical consultants, use of the template requires a variety of site-specific information from facility operations personnel. For efficient development of facility-specific plans, this material should be located, evaluated, and made available to the plan preparers as early in the plan completion effort as possible. A table summarizes the facility-specific information that is generally required in the preparation of a functional CRP using the template. Most of the required information is generally available in facility files or directly from interviews with operational personnel

  8. On the Complexity of Spill Everywhere under SSA Form

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchez, Florent; Rastello, Fabrice

    2007-01-01

    Compilation for embedded processors can be either aggressive (time consuming cross-compilation) or just in time (embedded and usually dynamic). The heuristics used in dynamic compilation are highly constrained by limited resources, time and memory in particular. Recent results on the SSA form open promising directions for the design of new register allocation heuristics for embedded systems and especially for embedded compilation. In particular, heuristics based on tree scan with two separated phases -- one for spilling, then one for coloring/coalescing -- seem good candidates for designing memory-friendly, fast, and competitive register allocators. Still, also because of the side effect on power consumption, the minimization of loads and stores overhead (spilling problem) is an important issue. This paper provides an exhaustive study of the complexity of the ``spill everywhere'' problem in the context of the SSA form. Unfortunately, conversely to our initial hopes, many of the questions we raised lead to NP-...

  9. Oil spill response, prevention and impact: lesson from Tasman spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly half of the world oil is transported is transported by sea. Due to high shipping density coastal water is at high risk. Oil spills in the coastal areas endanger public health, devastate natural resources, and disrupt local economy. The Pakistani coast was hit by the worst ever ecological disaster on 27th July 03, when The Greek vessel 'Tasman Spirit', carrying 67,000 tonnes of crude oil grounded at Karachi port. High concentration of oil vapours along the affected shoreline caused discomfort. The contamination and losses could further be limited by taking appropriate actions. There is a need bring in significant improvements in oil spill prevention and response planning. This paper described the risks associated with oils spill and contingency planning to meet this situation. (author)

  10. Oil and hydrocarbon spills, modelling, analysis and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of oil from production centres to worldwide markets is usually carried out by tankers and pipelines. With the occurrence of many oil spills in recent years has come a growing awareness of the need for prevention measures and makes oil spill research one of the most difficult challenges in the present day. At the first International Conference on oil and hydrocarbon spills, modelling analysis and control, held in July 1998, 32 papers were presented to researchers, engineers and managers from all over the world. A wide range of subjects, including applied modelling techniques, contingency and response plans, resource rehabilitation methods, laboratory and field experiments, and case studies were presented. The papers are abstracted here. (UK)

  11. A hazards analysis program for spill prevention and contingency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirements to implement a comprehensive spill management program are discussed, using a program developed for one of the largest copper mining operations in South America, as an example. The spill management program was initiated by conducting a hazards analysis of bulk liquid and oil storage systems which yielded estimates of probability that a particular hazard would be realized. Results from the hazards analysis were used to identify areas for improved spill mitigation and prevention measures and to focus on key targets for contingency response plans. The approach developed for this operation, details of which are described in this paper, can be applied to a wide variety of operations, be they small fixed facilities or large regional distribution systems. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  12. Combinative hypergraph learning on oil spill training dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Binghui; Cheng, Ming; Wang, Cheng; Li, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Detecting oil spill from open sea based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image is a very important work. One of key issues is to distinguish oil spill from "look-alike". There are many existing methods to tackle this issue including supervised and semi-supervised learning. Recent years have witnessed a surge of interest in hypergraph-based transductive classification. This paper proposes combinative hypergraph learning (CHL) to distinguish oil spill from "look-alike". CHL captures the similarity between two samples in the same category by adding sparse hypergraph learning to conventional hypergraph learning. Experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of CHL in comparison to the state-of-the-art methods and showed that our proposed method is promising.

  13. Abnormal development of Dentalium due to the Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.SJ.; Biggelaar, J.A.M. van den

    1980-01-01

    A comparison was made between the development of Dentalium eggs, spawned by animals, collected before and after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill. Development of eggs from animals collected before the oil spill was significantly better than development of eggs from animals collected after the oil spill. It

  14. 75 FR 79961 - Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    .... Several other comments provided opinions about the causes and effects of the oil spill. The Coast Guard...; 2050-AG63 Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill of National Significance (SONS) Response AGENCIES: Coast Guard, DHS, and...

  15. Immediate ecotoxicological effects of short-lived oil spills on marine biota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, C.P.D.; Peperzak, L.; Beggah, S.; Wick, L.Y.; Wuerz, B.; Weber, J.; Arey, J.S.; Van der Burg, B.; Jonas, A.; Huisman, J.; van der Meer, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Marine environments are frequently exposed to oil spills as a result of transportation, oildrilling or fuel usage. Whereas large oil spills and their effects have been widely documented,more common and recurrent small spills typically escape attention. To fill this important gapin the assessment of

  16. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46... Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.46 Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? (a) You must immediately notify the National Response Center (1-800-424-8802) if you observe: (1) An oil spill from...

  17. Interactions between oil-spill pollutants and natural stressors can compound ecotoxicological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Coastal estuaries are among the most biologically productive habitats on earth, yet are at risk from human activities including marine oil spills. The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill contaminated hundreds of kilometers of coastal habitat, particularly in Louisiana's delta. Coastal estuaries are naturally dynamic habitats where periodic and stochastic fluctuations, for example in temperature, salinity, nutrients, and hypoxia, are common. Such environmental variability regularly imposes suboptimal conditions for which resident species must continually compensate by drawing on diverse physiological abilities. However, exposures to oil, in addition to their direct toxic effects, may interfere with functions that normally enable physiological compensation for suboptimal conditions. This review summarizes the panoply of naturally-encountered stressors that may interact with oil, including salinity, hypoxia, pathogens, and competition, and the mechanisms that may underlie these interactions. Combined effects of these stressors can amplify the costs of oil-exposures to organisms in the real world, and contribute to impacts on fitness, populations, and communities, that may not have been predicted from direct toxicity of hydrocarbons alone. These interactions pose challenges for accurate and realistic assessment of risks and of actual damage. To meet these challenges, environmental scientists and managers must capitalize on the latest understanding of the complexities of chemical effects of natural stressors on organisms, and adopt integrative and holistic measures of effect from the molecular to whole-animal levels, in order to anticipate, characterize, diagnose, and solve, ecotoxicological problems.

  18. Long-term persistence of oil from the Exxon Valdez spill in two-layer beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Boufadel, Michel C.

    2010-02-01

    Oil spilled from the tanker Exxon Valdez in 1989 (refs 1, 2) persists in the subsurface of gravel beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The contamination includes considerable amounts of chemicals that are harmful to the local fauna. However, remediation of the beaches was stopped in 1992, because it was assumed that the disappearance rate of oil was large enough to ensure a complete removal of oil within a few years. Here we present field data and numerical simulations of a two-layered beach with a small freshwater recharge in the contaminated area, where a high-permeability upper layer is underlain by a low-permeability lower layer. We find that the upper layer temporarily stored the oil, while it slowly and continuously filled the lower layer wherever the water table dropped below the interface of the two layers, as a result of low freshwater recharge from the land. Once the oil entered the lower layer, it became entrapped by capillary forces and persisted there in nearly anoxic conditions that are a result of the tidal hydraulics in the two-layered beaches. We suggest that similar dynamics could operate on tidal gravel beaches around the world, which are particularly common in mid- and high-latitude regions, with implications for locating spilled oil and for its biological remediation.

  19. The impact of an oil spill on organs of bream Abramis brama in the Po River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giari, L; Dezfuli, B S; Lanzoni, M; Castaldelli, G

    2012-03-01

    An oil spill into the River Lambro occurred on 23 February 2010 and reached the Po River the following day. Breams captured here on 1 March 2010, along with a sample from a control site, were examined by light and electron microscopy. The main affected organs were skin and gill with slight or no damage to liver, kidney, and intestine. The gills exhibited lamellar aneurisms, fusion of secondary lamellae, edema with epithelial lifting, mucous cell hypertrophy, and mucus hypersecretion. Significantly higher mucous cell density was observed in the skin of exposed fish. Histochemical staining revealed that acid glycoconjugates were prevalent in epidermal mucous cells in the exposed Abramis brama, whereas neutral and mixed glycoconjugates were dominant in the control fish. Rodlet cells were significantly more abundant in the kidney of exposed fish and showed ultrastructural differences compared to controls. These histopathologic effects were indicators of chemical stress due to exposure to oil. The present study is one of the first which explores the acute effects of this incident and makes part of a few reports focused on freshwater oil spill. PMID:22030380

  20. The impact of an oil spill on organs of bream Abramis brama in the Po River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giari, L; Dezfuli, B S; Lanzoni, M; Castaldelli, G

    2012-03-01

    An oil spill into the River Lambro occurred on 23 February 2010 and reached the Po River the following day. Breams captured here on 1 March 2010, along with a sample from a control site, were examined by light and electron microscopy. The main affected organs were skin and gill with slight or no damage to liver, kidney, and intestine. The gills exhibited lamellar aneurisms, fusion of secondary lamellae, edema with epithelial lifting, mucous cell hypertrophy, and mucus hypersecretion. Significantly higher mucous cell density was observed in the skin of exposed fish. Histochemical staining revealed that acid glycoconjugates were prevalent in epidermal mucous cells in the exposed Abramis brama, whereas neutral and mixed glycoconjugates were dominant in the control fish. Rodlet cells were significantly more abundant in the kidney of exposed fish and showed ultrastructural differences compared to controls. These histopathologic effects were indicators of chemical stress due to exposure to oil. The present study is one of the first which explores the acute effects of this incident and makes part of a few reports focused on freshwater oil spill.

  1. Oil exposure and effects in subtidal fish following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of oil exposure and resulting biological effects in subtidal fish following marine oil spills is a rather challenging task, due to difficulty in sampling and a lack of methodologies that allow direct determination of petroleum exposure. Because fish can rapidly metabolize petroleum hydrocarbons, standard chemical analyses are of little use for assessing exposure of fish to oil. However, methods are now available for measuring the metabolites of petroleum hydrocarbons in fish, as described elsewhere by Krahn and her colleagues. There have also been advances in determining early biochemical effects-such as induction of the cytochrome P450 system-and more severe biological effects-such as histopathological alterations and reproductive disfunction-in fish species following exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons and related compounds. Accordingly, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, the authors have been using these approaches and methodologies to measure oil exposure in subtidal fish species, together with associated biological effects. These studies have been conducted at sites inside Prince William Sound and along the Kenai and Alaska Peninsulas. Our results show a continuing exposure of several fish species, including benthic species, which indicates petroleum contamination of subtidal areas. The authors have also assessed reproductive function and histopathological alterations in several of these species; and while major effects have not been documented, some suggestion of histopathological alterations of gill exists in one species of benthic fish. Still to be determined are the potential impacts on fishery resources of long-term exposure to petroleum, albeit at moderate to low levels

  2. Oil spill problems and sustainable response strategies through new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivshina, Irena B; Kuyukina, Maria S; Krivoruchko, Anastasiya V; Elkin, Andrey A; Makarov, Sergey O; Cunningham, Colin J; Peshkur, Tatyana A; Atlas, Ronald M; Philp, James C

    2015-07-01

    Crude oil and petroleum products are widespread water and soil pollutants resulting from marine and terrestrial spillages. International statistics of oil spill sizes for all incidents indicate that the majority of oil spills are small (less than 7 tonnes). The major accidents that happen in the oil industry contribute only a small fraction of the total oil which enters the environment. However, the nature of accidental releases is that they highly pollute small areas and have the potential to devastate the biota locally. There are several routes by which oil can get back to humans from accidental spills, e.g. through accumulation in fish and shellfish, through consumption of contaminated groundwater. Although advances have been made in the prevention of accidents, this does not apply in all countries, and by the random nature of oil spill events, total prevention is not feasible. Therefore, considerable world-wide effort has gone into strategies for minimising accidental spills and the design of new remedial technologies. This paper summarizes new knowledge as well as research and technology gaps essential for developing appropriate decision-making tools in actual spill scenarios. Since oil exploration is being driven into deeper waters and more remote, fragile environments, the risk of future accidents becomes much higher. The innovative safety and accident prevention approaches summarized in this paper are currently important for a range of stakeholders, including the oil industry, the scientific community and the public. Ultimately an integrated approach to prevention and remediation that accelerates an early warning protocol in the event of a spill would get the most appropriate technology selected and implemented as early as possible - the first few hours after a spill are crucial to the outcome of the remedial effort. A particular focus is made on bioremediation as environmentally harmless, cost-effective and relatively inexpensive technology. Greater

  3. Oil spill problems and sustainable response strategies through new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivshina, Irena B; Kuyukina, Maria S; Krivoruchko, Anastasiya V; Elkin, Andrey A; Makarov, Sergey O; Cunningham, Colin J; Peshkur, Tatyana A; Atlas, Ronald M; Philp, James C

    2015-07-01

    Crude oil and petroleum products are widespread water and soil pollutants resulting from marine and terrestrial spillages. International statistics of oil spill sizes for all incidents indicate that the majority of oil spills are small (less than 7 tonnes). The major accidents that happen in the oil industry contribute only a small fraction of the total oil which enters the environment. However, the nature of accidental releases is that they highly pollute small areas and have the potential to devastate the biota locally. There are several routes by which oil can get back to humans from accidental spills, e.g. through accumulation in fish and shellfish, through consumption of contaminated groundwater. Although advances have been made in the prevention of accidents, this does not apply in all countries, and by the random nature of oil spill events, total prevention is not feasible. Therefore, considerable world-wide effort has gone into strategies for minimising accidental spills and the design of new remedial technologies. This paper summarizes new knowledge as well as research and technology gaps essential for developing appropriate decision-making tools in actual spill scenarios. Since oil exploration is being driven into deeper waters and more remote, fragile environments, the risk of future accidents becomes much higher. The innovative safety and accident prevention approaches summarized in this paper are currently important for a range of stakeholders, including the oil industry, the scientific community and the public. Ultimately an integrated approach to prevention and remediation that accelerates an early warning protocol in the event of a spill would get the most appropriate technology selected and implemented as early as possible - the first few hours after a spill are crucial to the outcome of the remedial effort. A particular focus is made on bioremediation as environmentally harmless, cost-effective and relatively inexpensive technology. Greater

  4. Shoreline ecology program for Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 3: Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the biological results of a comprehensive shoreline ecology program designed to assess ecological recovery in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill on march 24, 1989. The program is an application of the ''Sediment Quality Triad'' approach, combining chemical, toxicological, and biological measurements. The study was designed so that results could be extrapolated to the entire spill zone in Prince William Sound. The spill affected four major shoreline habitat types in Prince William Sound: pebble/gravel, boulder/cobble, sheltered bedrock, and exposed bedrock. The study design had two components: (1) one-time stratified random sampling at 64 sites representing four habitats and four oiling levels (including unoiled reference sites) and (2) periodic sampling at 12 nonrandomly chosen sites that included some of the most heavily oiled locations in the sound. Biological communities on rock surfaces and in intertidal and shallow subtidal sediments were analyzed for differences resulting from to oiling in each of 16 habitat/tide zone combinations. Statistical methods included univariate analyses of individual species abundances and community parameter variables (total abundance, species richness, and Shannon diversity), and multivariate correspondence analysis of community structure. 58 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs

  5. Formulation of a Commercial Biosurfactant for Application as a Dispersant of Petroleum and By-Products Spilled in Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Bruno G.; Brito, Juliana G. M.; Brasileiro, Pedro P. F.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    Oil spills in oceans cause irreparable damage to marine life and harm the coastal populations of affected areas. It is therefore fundamental to develop treatment strategies for such spills. Currently, chemical dispersants have been used during oil spills, although these agents have been increasingly restricted due to their toxic potential. Thus, the aim of the present study was to formulate a biodegradable commercial biosurfactant for application as a dispersant. Biosurfactants are scientifically known biomolecules produced by microorganisms capable of allowing water-oil interaction. Thus, a biosurfactant was produced by the yeast Candida bombicola URM 3718 cultivated in industrial waste and formulated with the addition of a potassium sorbate preservative for fractionated sterilization (tyndallization) and the combination of fluent vaporization with the preservative. After formulation, samples were stored for 120 days, followed by surface tension, emulsification and oil dispersant tests in sea water. The results were promising for the biosurfactant formulated with the preservative, which demonstrated stability and an absence of toxicity in experiments with a marine indicator. The commercial biosurfactant was tested at different pH values, temperatures and in the presence of salt, demonstrating potential industrial application at a cost compatible with the environmental field. The formulation process developed in this research was patented in the Brazilian National Intellectual Property Institute (patent number BR1020140179631). PMID:27803697

  6. Predicting ignitability for in situ burning of oil spills as a function of oil type and weathering degree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandvik, P.J.; Reed, M.; Bodsberg, N.R. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim (Norway); Fritt-Rasmussen, J. [Denmark Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). Arctic Technology Centre

    2009-07-01

    In-situ burning (ISB) has the highest potential to remove oil that has been spilled in ice-infested waters. However, there is a need to better predict the ignitability of oil spills as a function of oil type, weathering degree and different ice conditions. A new laboratory burning cell was developed to measure ignitability as a function of weathering for several different types of crude oils. The objective of this study was to use the data generated with the new laboratory burning cell to establish algorithms which describe the ignitability of the bulk phase of an oil spill as a function of oil properties, weathering and environmental conditions. The physical and chemical properties that were considered in weathered oil were the viscosity, water content in emulsion, density of water free oil, wax content, asphaltene content, evaporative loss, flash point of water free oil and emulsion stability. The algorithms were implemented in SINTEF's Oil Weathering Model to predict the window of opportunity for ISB. A comparison of predicted values with measured values from both laboratory and field tests showed that of the 223 samples used in this study, only 9.8 per cent were wrongly assigned as ignitable or not ignitable by the new algorithm. It was concluded that ignitability of the bulk phase of the oil is only one of several factors that must be evaluated before attempting ISB. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  7. Predicting ignitability for in situ burning of oil spills as a function of oil type and weathering degree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ burning (ISB) has the highest potential to remove oil that has been spilled in ice-infested waters. However, there is a need to better predict the ignitability of oil spills as a function of oil type, weathering degree and different ice conditions. A new laboratory burning cell was developed to measure ignitability as a function of weathering for several different types of crude oils. The objective of this study was to use the data generated with the new laboratory burning cell to establish algorithms which describe the ignitability of the bulk phase of an oil spill as a function of oil properties, weathering and environmental conditions. The physical and chemical properties that were considered in weathered oil were the viscosity, water content in emulsion, density of water free oil, wax content, asphaltene content, evaporative loss, flash point of water free oil and emulsion stability. The algorithms were implemented in SINTEF's Oil Weathering Model to predict the window of opportunity for ISB. A comparison of predicted values with measured values from both laboratory and field tests showed that of the 223 samples used in this study, only 9.8 per cent were wrongly assigned as ignitable or not ignitable by the new algorithm. It was concluded that ignitability of the bulk phase of the oil is only one of several factors that must be evaluated before attempting ISB. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  8. A conceptual framework for understanding the mental health impacts of oil spills: lessons from the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a conceptual framework for understanding and responding to the currently unfolding social and psychological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Drawing from the concept of corrosive communities and its relationship to theories of conservation of resources, cognitive activation, and risk and resilience, the conceptual model identifies three levels or tiers of impacts: biopsychosocial impacts that are direct consequences of the contamination of the physical environment; interpersonal impacts that are direct consequences of the biopsychosocial impacts; and intrapersonal or psychological impacts that are consequences of both the biopsychosocial and the interpersonal impacts. The model is then evaluated in light of research conducted in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez oil spill as well as studies of other manmade disasters, and offers a set of testable hypotheses that predict likely impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The conceptual framework may be used to identify strategies to develop community resilience and target specific services to prevent and mitigate these adverse effects.

  9. Composition and depth distribution of hydrocarbons in Barataria Bay marsh sediments after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer Kırman, Zeynep; Sericano, José L; Wade, Terry L; Bianchi, Thomas S; Marcantonio, Franco; Kolker, Alexander S

    2016-07-01

    In 2010, an estimate 4.1 million barrels of oil were accidentally released into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill. One and a half years after this incident, a set of subtidal and intertidal marsh sediment cores were collected from five stations in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA, and analyzed to determine the spatial and vertical distributions and source of hydrocarbon residues based on their chemical composition. An archived core, collected before the DWH oil spill from the same area, was also analyzed to assess the pre-spill hydrocarbon distribution in the area. Analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and stable carbon isotope showed that the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in Barataria Bay was patchy and limited in areal extent. Significant TPH and ΣPAH concentrations (77,399 μg/g and 219,065 ng/g, respectively) were detected in the surface sediments of one core (i.e., core A) to a depth of 9 cm. Based on a sedimentation rate of 0.39 cm yr(-1), determined using (137)Cs, the presence of anthropogenic hydrocarbons in these sediment core deposited ca. 50 to 60 years ago. The historical background hydrocarbon concentrations increased significantly at the sediment surface and can be attributed to recent inputs. Although the oil present in the bay's sediments has undergone moderate weathering, biomarker analyses performed on core A samples likely indicated the presence of hydrocarbons from the DWH oil spill. The effects of oiling events on Barataria Bay and other marsh ecosystems in this region remain uncertain, as oil undergoes weathering changes over time. PMID:27064616

  10. Assessment of Metal Pollution of Soil and Diagnostic Species Associated with Oil Spills in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O Fatoba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An ecological impact assessment of crude-oil spills was carried out on the environment of an oil-rich community in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Samples of the topsoil (0−15 cm, subsoil (15−25 cm and the dominant species Gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus were collected using the transect method from the point of spills. The samples were also collected from an unimpacted location (control. The samples were wet-digested and the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, while the physico-chemical properties of the topsoil were determined by standard methods. The data were subjected to Student t test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation analysis, and the models for pollution assessment were employed to assess the pollution status of the soil and plant species. The results showed that concentrations of Pb, Cu and Zn in the topsoil exceeded international standards at close proximity to point of spills (0−200 m, while Cd concentrations exceeded the international standard at all the locations. Only Cd exceeded the international standard in the subsoil. Contamination (Pi and integrated pollution (Pc indices of the topsoil showed reducing trends from the point of pollution, and locations at 0 m and 100 m exhibited high Pc, while those at 200 m showed moderate Pc by all metals. The levels of Pb and Cd in the diagnostic species exceeded the World Health Organization limits and the pollution load index (PLI portrayed severe contamination. In conclusion, the impact of crude-oil spills in the area was significant; soil remediation is important to avert ecological and human health disasters. Moreover, these findings will be useful for designing strategic measures for environmental control in the area. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.3.12474

  11. Composition and depth distribution of hydrocarbons in Barataria Bay marsh sediments after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer Kırman, Zeynep; Sericano, José L; Wade, Terry L; Bianchi, Thomas S; Marcantonio, Franco; Kolker, Alexander S

    2016-07-01

    In 2010, an estimate 4.1 million barrels of oil were accidentally released into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill. One and a half years after this incident, a set of subtidal and intertidal marsh sediment cores were collected from five stations in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA, and analyzed to determine the spatial and vertical distributions and source of hydrocarbon residues based on their chemical composition. An archived core, collected before the DWH oil spill from the same area, was also analyzed to assess the pre-spill hydrocarbon distribution in the area. Analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and stable carbon isotope showed that the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in Barataria Bay was patchy and limited in areal extent. Significant TPH and ΣPAH concentrations (77,399 μg/g and 219,065 ng/g, respectively) were detected in the surface sediments of one core (i.e., core A) to a depth of 9 cm. Based on a sedimentation rate of 0.39 cm yr(-1), determined using (137)Cs, the presence of anthropogenic hydrocarbons in these sediment core deposited ca. 50 to 60 years ago. The historical background hydrocarbon concentrations increased significantly at the sediment surface and can be attributed to recent inputs. Although the oil present in the bay's sediments has undergone moderate weathering, biomarker analyses performed on core A samples likely indicated the presence of hydrocarbons from the DWH oil spill. The effects of oiling events on Barataria Bay and other marsh ecosystems in this region remain uncertain, as oil undergoes weathering changes over time.

  12. Floating Oil-Spill Containment Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous oil containment booms have an open top that allows natural gas to escape, and have significant oil leakage due to wave action. Also, a subsea pyramid oil trap exists, but cannot move relative to moving oil plumes from deepsea oil leaks. The solution is to have large, moveable oil traps. One version floats on the sea surface and has a flexible tarp cover and a lower weighted skirt to completely entrap the floating oil and natural gas. The device must have at least three sides with boats pulling at each apex, and sonar or other system to track the slowly moving oil plume, so that the boats can properly locate the booms. The oil trap device must also have a means for removal of the oil and the natural gas. A second design version has a flexible pyramid cover that is attached by lines to ballast on the ocean floor. This is similar to fixed, metal pyramid oil capture devices in the Santa Barbara Channel off the coast of California. The ballast lines for the improved design, however, would have winches that can move the pyramid to always be located above the oil and gas plume. A third design is a combination of the first two. It uses a submerged pyramid to trap oil, but has no anchor and uses boats to locate the trap. It has ballast weights located along the bottom of the tarp and/or at the corners of the trap. The improved floating oil-spill containment device has a large floating boom and weighted skirt surrounding the oil and gas entrapment area. The device is triangular (or more than three sides) and has a flexible tarp cover with a raised gas vent area. Boats pull on the apex of the triangles to maintain tension and to allow the device to move to optimum locations to trap oil and gas. The gas is retrieved from a higher buoyant part of the tarp, and oil is retrieved from the floating oil layer contained in the device. These devices can be operated in relatively severe weather, since waves will break over the devices without causing oil leaking. Also, natural

  13. Evaluating the Risks of Surface Spills Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing Activities to Groundwater Resources: a Modeling Study in the South Platte Alluvial Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, C.; McLaughlin, M.; Blotevogel, J.; Benson, D. A.; Borch, T.; McCray, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has revolutionized the U.S.'s energy portfolio by making shale reservoirs productive and commercially viable. However, the public is concerned that the chemical constituents in hydraulic fracturing fluid, produced water, or natural gas itself could potentially impact groundwater or adjacent streams. Here, we conduct fate and transport simulations of surface spills, the most likely contamination pathway to occur during oil and gas production operations, to evaluate whether or not these spills pose risks to groundwater quality. We focus on the South Platte Alluvial Aquifer, which is located in the greater Denver metro area and overlaps a zone of high-density oil and gas development. The purpose of this work is to assess the mobility and persistence of chemical contaminants (e.g. biocides, friction reducers, surfactants, hydrocarbons, etc.) —based on sorption to soil, degradation potential, co-contaminant interactions, and spill conditions—and to understand the site characteristics and hydrologic conditions that would make a particular location prone to groundwater quality degradation in the event of an accidental release. We propose a coupled analytical-numerical approach that could be duplicated by environmental consultants. Results suggest that risk of groundwater pollution, based on predicted concentration at the groundwater table, is low in most areas of the South Platte system for the contaminants investigated under common spill conditions. However, substantial risk may exist in certain areas where the groundwater table is shallow. In addition, transport of certain contaminants is influenced by interactions with other constituents in produced or stimulation fluids. By helping to identify locations in the Front Range of Colorado that are at low or high risk for groundwater contamination due to a surface spill, it is our hope that this work will aid in improving prevention, mitigation, and remediation practices so that decision-makers can

  14. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship NANCY FOSTER in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-06-30 to 2010-07-18 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0069077)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, biological, laboratory analysis, meteorological, navigational, tows and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship...

  15. MULTIPURPOSE GELLING AGENT AND ITS APPLICATION TO SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, a blend of materials was formulated that would spontaneously gel a wide variety of hazardous liquids. This blend, known as the Multipurpose Gelling Agent (MGA), has been optimized to obtain a balanced formulation that will effectively gel and immobilize most spilled h...

  16. Pre-spill shoreline mapping in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term shoreline mapping program has been initiated in Prince William Sound, Alaska, to generate pre-spill data to assist in the planning activities for oil spill response in the area. Low-altitude aerial videotape surveys and video images form the basis for the mapping effort. The coast was initially divided into alongshore segments. The physical shore-zone is relatively homogeneous within each segment. A pre-spill Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) database, using the ShoreData software, was created based on this initial detailed mapping. The SCAT field teams are therefore equipped with a detailed analysis of the shore-zone character. The same information was also used to develop a separate database for use by planning and response operations groups. The data is entered into the Graphical Resource Database (GRD), and a Geographic Information System (GIS). A simplified characterization of the primary features of each segment is then made available through interpretation of the data. In the event of an oil spill, the SCAT data in the ShoreData files can be combined with field data on shoreline oiling conditions using a second software package called ShoreAccessR which provides summaries of the main parameters required by the planning group. It can also be used as a data storage and management tool. As part of this program, more than 1700 kilometres of shoreline in Prince William Sound have already been mapped. 24 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  17. Misconceptions and resistance in accepting novel oil spill remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spills, oil in particular, seem to be occurring more often. This is despite all the legislative and regulatory efforts taken to stem the tide in response to public outcry for prevention and better remedial solutions. Since spills continue to happen and continue to be grossly mishandled technically and publicly and it continues to be extremely costly to get very little done, it is an obvious conclusion that the old ways, materials, and technologies don't work. Newer technologies do exist that are oleophilic and hydrophobic and can isolate hydrocarbon contaminants from the impacted ecosystem and inhibit overall spread. They can minimize the volumetric expansion of the released contaminant/waste by inhibiting emulsification and mousse formation thereby reducing treatment or remediation volume and further restricting expanded involvement. They can enhance natural biodegradation of hydrocarbon spills. The authors of this paper have been involved in the development and introduction to the 'spill response community' of two pollution control products that achieve these results. Known commercially as Sansorb and SeaSweep, both materials employ capillary action technologies to internally absorb hydrocarbon liquids, such as crude oil, thereby isolating the contaminant and preventing its continued spread and involvement with a vulnerable environment. Both products absorb oil and repel water, while providing substrate and nutrients to facilitate contaminant degradation by natural bacteria. This paper analyzes these products along with industry's reluctance to change

  18. Bombay high oil spill and its environmental impact

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Verlecar, X.N.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Shirodkar, P.V.

    On 17 May 1993, a major oil-slick about 10 miles long and 2 miles wide, was formed about 165 km north off Bombay after the Bombay-High-Uran pipeline ruptured and estimated 3000-6000 tonnes of oil was spilled into the sea. Steps were immediately...

  19. Phytoplankton dynamic responses to oil spill in Mumbai Harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JiyalalRam, M.J.; Ram, A.; Rokade, M.A.; Karangutkar, S.H.; Yengal, B.; Dalvi, S.; Acharya, D.; Sharma, S.; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    The oil spill caused by collision of MSC-Chitra with MV-Khalijia on August 7, 2010 in Mumbai Harbour and surrounding area contaminated the shore and resulted in augmented level of PHc (6692.4-16902.2 mew g/l), though it was seen in low concentration...

  20. The contribution of air cushioned vehicles in oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On July 22, 1991, the Tuo Hai, a 46,500 ton Chinese grain carrier, collided with the Tenyo Maru, a 4,800 ton Japanese fish processing ship, off the coast of Washington State. The Tenyo Maru sank, creating an oil spill that cost upwards of $4 million (US) to clean up. The incident initiated a joint response from the US and Canadian governments. As part of this response, the Canadian Coast Guard mobilized an SRN-6 hovercraft. This air cushioned vehicle (ACV) provided logistical support to responders on both sides of the international boundary. The response operation along the Pacific Coast was extensive. Dense fog and the remote location of the impacted area provided formidable challenges to the cleanup effort. It was the mission scenario of the Canadian SRN-6 hovercraft to provide logistical support-as an experiment in ACV utility-to the organizations responding to this incident. Based on this experience, it can be argued that the hovercraft offers great potential value in responding to marine oil spills. Appropriate application of ACV technology can enhance oil spill response work, spill waste management, and incident surveillance. This paper discusses the contribution of the SRN-6 hovercraft to the Tenyo Maru response, briefly examines the use of another, very different hovercraft, during a response in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and reviews a new hovercraft design and discusses its potential contributions

  1. Task Force on oil spill preparedness: Offshore implementation progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industry members of the Canadian Petroleum Association (CPA) and the Independent Petroleum Association of Canada (IPAC) undertook a review of oil spill preparedness and response capabilities in 1989. The resulting report summarized the current state of readiness, focusing on oil spills resulting from exploration and production activities in Canada. The report recommended expenditures in research and development, equipment acquisition, and training to prevent and control offshore and onshore oil spills more effectively. The release of an implementation plan for the Task Force on Oil Spill Preparedness (TFOSP) in 1990 provided the impetus for a 5-year plan to improve this state of preparedness. The plan outlined the mechanisms for implementing the 45 recommendations developed by TFOSP. It also recommended how to incorporate them into the daily business activities of the CPA member companies. It identified the appropriate groups within industry to carry out the implementation of each recommendation. It also indicated the government interfaces, the implementation schedule, and cost estimates for putting each recommendation into place. It also recommended a vigorous monitoring program to follow and report on the status of implementation. Based on the TFOSP implementation plan recommendations, work plans were developed, specific work projects identified, and a budget approved for 1991 programs. The first year of implementation of recommendations is now complete and work plans have been developed for continuation in 1992. 2 refs

  2. AMOP (Arctic Marine Oil Spill Program) studies reviewed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-05

    A discussion of the Arctic Marine Oil Spill Program organized in 1976 by the Canadian Federal Government includes: an Arctic Atlas compiled by Fenco Consultants Ltd. to give background information necessary for developing marine oil spill countermeasures for the Arctic north of 60/sup 0/ including the west Greenland coast and the Labrador shelf (geology, meteorology and oceanography, ice conditions, biology, and social factors); program in emergency transport of spill-combatting equipment; and the factors which influence the choice of conveyance, i.e., accessibility of the site, urgency for response, and quantity of material required; laboratory studies involving the release of oil under artificial sea ice in simulated ice formation and decay purposes to determine the interaction of crude oil and first-year sea ice; inability of companies and government to control a major spill in the Labrador Sea because of poor and inadequate transport facilities, communications, and navigational aids, severe environmental conditions, and logistics problems; and studies on the effects of oil-well blowouts in deep water, including formation of oil and gas hydrates, design of oil skimmers, the use of hovercraft, and specifications for an airborne multisensor system for oil detection in ice-infested waters.

  3. Effects of the Oil Spill on Alaskan Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldaker, Lawrence Lee

    Oil-industry-produced revenues, help finance Alaskan state and local governmental services including education. Capital losses incurred by the Exxon Corporation and by commerical fisheries as a consequence of the Exxon Valdez oil spill caused an economic recession, the result being diminished financing for a number of governmental programs and…

  4. Oil spills prediction in the Bonifacio strait area, western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, A.; Ribotti, A.; Olita, A.; Fazioli, L.; Sorgente, B.; Sinerchia, M.; Satta, A.; Perilli, A.; Borghini, M.; Schroeder, K.; Sorgente, R.

    2012-02-01

    An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions to oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable to predict the sea state and the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, providing the forecasts on oil spills through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. Scenarios and risk maps have been created to identify the most risky areas to oil pollution in relation to vessels traffic. The backward investigation technique has been exploited to trace the most probable area from which pollution was generated. The system has been operationally verified in January 2011 when an oil spill occurred in the area. Finally output data are daily released providing forecasting services to end-users through the web.

  5. Oil spills prediction in the Bonifacio strait area, western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cucco

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions to oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable to predict the sea state and the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, providing the forecasts on oil spills through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. Scenarios and risk maps have been created to identify the most risky areas to oil pollution in relation to vessels traffic. The backward investigation technique has been exploited to trace the most probable area from which pollution was generated. The system has been operationally verified in January 2011 when an oil spill occurred in the area. Finally output data are daily released providing forecasting services to end-users through the web.

  6. NASA DEVELOP Students Rev Up Response to Gulf Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason B.; Childs, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    After the April 20th explosion aboard the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico, the world witnessed one of the worst oil spill catastrophes in global history. In an effort to mitigate the disaster, the U.S. government moved quickly to establish a unified command for responding to the spill. Some of the command's most immediate needs were to track the movement of the surface oil slick, establish a baseline measurement of pre-oil coastal ecosystem conditions, and assess potential air quality and water hazards related to the spill. To help address these needs and assist the Federal response to the disaster, NASA deployed several of its airborne and satellite research sensors to collect an unprecedented amount of remotely-sensed data over the Gulf of Mexico region. Although some of these data were shared with the public via the media, much of the NASA data on the disaster was not well known to the Gulf Coast community. The need existed to inform the general public about these datasets and help improve understanding about how NASA's science research was contributing to oil spill response and recovery. With its extensive experience conducting community-oriented remote sensing projects and close ties to organizations around Gulf of Mexico, the NASA DEVELOP National Program stood in a unique position to meet this need.

  7. MICROBIAL POPULATION CHANGES DURING BIOREMEDIATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL OIL SPILL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were applied in a randomized block field experiment simulating a coastal oil-spill. Four treatments (no oil control, oil alone, oil + nutrients, and oil + nutrients + an indigenous inoculum) were applied. In-situ microbial community str...

  8. MUTAGENICITY OF ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS DURING EPA BIOREMEDIATION EFFORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    On 24 March 1989 approximately 11 million gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil spilled into the waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska ultimately contaminating nearly 1000 miles of shoreline. pproximately 300 miles of contaminated beach were considered amenable to cleanup by bioremed...

  9. BIOREMEDIATION AS A TECHNOLOGY: EXPERIENCES WITH THE EXXON VALDEZ SPILL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results from our oil spill bioremediation project have demonstrated convincingly that fertilizers can be applied to oiled beaches to overcome nutrient limitations, thereby enhancing biodegradation of the oil. n Prince William Sound, the natural biodegradation rate of oil on t...

  10. OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION ON COASTAL SHORELINES: A CRITIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this chapter is not to provide an extensive review of the literature on oil spill bioremediation. For that, the reader is referred to Swannell et al. (1996), who have conducted the most exhaustive review I have yet to come across. Other reviews are also av...

  11. Effects of the Gulf Oil Spill in Escambia County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Kelcey Ray

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the British Petroleum Gulf Oil Spill on resource change, psychological stress, and resilience for business owners, residents, and workers in Escambia County, Florida. This study was based on Hobfoll's (1988, 1989) Conservation of Resources theory. All business owners, residents, and…

  12. The MSRC [Marine Spill Response Corporation] research and development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC) is a nonprofit corporation chartered in August 1990 to respond to large oil spills in coastal and tidal waters, and certain inland waters, of the USA. Implementation of an active research and development (R and D) program is one of the MSRC's chartered missions. Design and sponsorship of projects is in keeping with the concept of best effort inherent in MSRC operations, based on the premise that enhanced knowledge and technological development will improve future response capabilities. A detailed exercise was conducted to set priorities for further R ampersand D, involving extensive consultation with the oil spill R ampersand D community. The MSRC R ampersand D program is now fully activated, with projects under way in the areas of remote sensing, in-situ burning, dispersants, oil/water separation, spilled oil properties, countermeasures effectiveness, and bioremediation. The program stresses cooperation with other R ampersand D sponsors, and has started an active information dissemination process. 6 refs., 1 tab

  13. Non-spill discharge characteristics of bucket elevators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademacher, F.J.C.

    1979-01-01

    One of the well-known disadvantages of a simple type bucket elevator is still the backflow or spill. The accordingly lower capacity and increased power consumption are not always the worst consequences, provided that the boot does not become too full. With the considerable heights of modern bucket e

  14. Pollution risk assessment of oil spill accidents in Garorim Bay of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonjin; Jung, Jung-Yeul

    2015-11-15

    This study presents a model to assess the oil spill risk in Garorim Bay in Korea, where large-scale oil spill accidents frequently occur. The oil spill risk assessment is carried out by using two factors: 1) The impact probability of the oil spill, and 2) the first impact time of the oil that has been spilt. The risk assessment is conducted for environmentally sensitive areas, such as the coastline and aquaculture farms in the Garorim Bay area. Finally, Garorim Bay is divided into six subareas, and the risks of each subarea are compared with one another to identify the subarea that is most vulnerable to an oil spill accident. These results represent an objective and comprehensive oil spill risk level for a specific region. The prediction of the oil spill spread is based on real-time sea conditions and can be improved by integrating our results, especially when sea conditions are rapidly changing.

  15. Immediate ecotoxicological effects of short-lived oil spills on marine biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussaard, Corina P D; Peperzak, Louis; Beggah, Siham; Wick, Lukas Y; Wuerz, Birgit; Weber, Jan; Samuel Arey, J; van der Burg, Bart; Jonas, Arjen; Huisman, Johannes; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2016-01-01

    Marine environments are frequently exposed to oil spills as a result of transportation, oil drilling or fuel usage. Whereas large oil spills and their effects have been widely documented, more common and recurrent small spills typically escape attention. To fill this important gap in the assessment of oil-spill effects, we performed two independent supervised full sea releases of 5 m(3) of crude oil, complemented by on-board mesocosm studies and sampling of accidentally encountered slicks. Using rapid on-board biological assays, we detect high bioavailability and toxicity of dissolved and dispersed oil within 24 h after the spills, occurring fairly deep (8 m) below the slicks. Selective decline of marine plankton is observed, equally relevant for early stages of larger spills. Our results demonstrate that, contrary to common thinking, even small spills have immediate adverse biological effects and their recurrent nature is likely to affect marine ecosystem functioning. PMID:27041738

  16. Stochastic oil-spill analysis for cook Inlet/Shelikof Strait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an environmental impact assessment, an oil-spill risk analysis was run for the Cook Inlet/Shelikof Strait area. A stochastic assessment was made of the risk from spills occurring and contacting coastal resources from potential offshore oil production and transportation activities. The results of the analysis are useful in contingency plans for identifying areas of the coast most at risk on a seasonal basis. Multiple trajectory simulations were made from over 700 oil-spill launch sites spread throughout the study area. The spill trajectories were driven by a density-forced ocean circulation model, atmospheric model winds, and modeled tidal currents. Spill contacts were recorded for 30 environmental resources located along the coastline and in surrounding waters. The results are expressed in graphic form using risk contour plots. Each plot shows the estimated risk to a given resource from the simulated spill sites. Results are characterized by time of spill contact and season. 14 refs., 8 figs

  17. The detection and prediction for oil spill on the sea based on the infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Liu, Lei; Huang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Detection for oil pollution is an important part of the marine environment protection in maritime security. In order to realize all-weather, rapid and accurate oil spill area detection, infrared images of oil spill on the sea is processed on account of infrared thermal imaging's visual capacity in darkness and frog. The detection for oil spill is realized and the location as well as the area of oil spill is calculated. The prediction integrated model of oil spill spreading is established and the prediction simulation for oil spill area is realized by changing the oil varieties, environmental factors and time, etc. The results show that this simulation is accurate, fast, intuitive and simple. It has certain significance for realizing the early warning of oil spill area detection automatically, intelligently and quickly.

  18. Contamination by PAHs, PCBs, PCPs and heavy metals in the Mecoacan lake Estuarine water and sediments after oil spilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armenta-Arteaga, G. [Univ. Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, D.A., Ciencias Biologicas, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Elizalde-Gonzalez, M.P. [Centro de Quimica, Univ. Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla, Pue (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Intention, Goal, Scope, Background. Environmental pollution caused by oil spills is a major ecological problem. Oil contamination in the environment is primarily evaluated by measuring the chemical concentrations of hydrocarbons. The results of chemical analyses are important for estimating water and sediment quality in the risk assessment to the flora and fauna of oil-contaminated sites. In the world there are lake ecosystems under permanent chemical stress due to urbanization and the oil industry. Studies, however, have been generally limited to petroleum compounds and have not considered other pollutants of the site like PCBs, polychlorinated pesticides and heavy metals. Objective. Water and sediment from stations in the Mecoacan Lake in the Mexican State of Tabasco were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs), aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated pesticides (PCPs) and heavy metals. The objective of this study was to examine the contaminant levels of the samples collected in February 1993 and 1996 after oil spills at the Mecoacan petroleum region. The goals of this study were to reveal the effect of the spills on the distribution of the hydrocarbons and assess the toxicological significance of the levels found. In addition, our aim was to examine the distribution of the PAHs in sediments from Mecoacan originated from both pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. Methods. Samples were collected from 19 stations and prepared according to the CARIPOL (Caribbean Pollution) methodology of the United Nations Environmental Programme (1992) of the Great Caribbean Region for hydrocarbons in marine and coastal water, and sediments. The gas-chromatographic and atomic absorption analysis of the samples was performed after sampling. (orig.)

  19. Research and development in oil spill response: The Australian view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant oil spill events in Australia are, fortunately, infrequent events. In recent years, the 33,000 dwt tonne phosphate carrier Sanko Harvest grounded and broke up losing all of its 740 tonnes of fuel oil bunkers off the small south west port of Esperance. Since that incident only one further casualty has occurred, that of the tanker KIRKI which lost some 18,000 tonnes of its crude oil cargo when the fore part of the vessel broke away and sank in heavy seas and subsequently during the tow to quieter waters off the north west coast of Australia. Whilst public interest in oil spills, when they occur, is understandably high, the national government budget for response to ship sourced marine oil spills is in proportion to assessment of the risk and approximates $Aus 2 million annually. The Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA), is the Federal authority under whose responsibility revenue for the Federal/State arrangement, known as the National Plan to Combat Pollution of the Sea by Oil, is managed. This revenue is obtained directly from the shipping industry in the form of a small tax known as the oil pollution levy. Funds from this source are allocated to the States nationally for purchase of spill response equipment and approved dispersants, production of coastal resource atlases, training programs, maintenance and administration of the National Plan. It will be readily understood that a relatively small budget precludes all but the smallest of R ampersand D programs. Most spills occur in waters over which an Australian state has jurisdiction and are generally managed by state administrations using equipment and decision support resources provided by AMSA

  20. Impact of oil spills on coral reefs can be reduced by bioremediation using probiotic microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso ados Santos, Henrique; Duarte, Gustavo Adolpho Santos; Rachid, Caio TavoraCoelho da Costa; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira; Calderon, Emiliano Nicolas; Marangoni, Laura Fernandes de Barros; Bianchini, Adalto; Nudi, Adriana Haddad; do Carmo, Flávia Lima; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Castro, Clovis Barreira e; Peixoto, Raquel Silva

    2015-01-01

    Several anthropogenic factors, including contamination by oil spills, constitute a threat to coral reef health. Current methodologies to remediate polluted marine environments are based on the use of chemical dispersants; however, these can be toxic to the coral holobiont. In this study, a probiotic bacterial consortium was produced from the coral Mussismilia harttii and was trained to degrade water-soluble oil fractions (WSFs). Additionally, we assessed the effect of WSFs on the health of M. harttii in tanks and evaluated the bacterial consortium as a bioremediation agent. The consortium was responsible for the highly efficient degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, and it minimised the effects of WSFs on coral health, as indicated by raised photosynthetic efficiencies. Moreover, the impact of WSFs on the coral microbiome was diminished by the introduced bacterial consortium. Following introduction, the bacterial consortium thus had a dual function, i.e promoting oil WSF degradation and improving coral health with its probiotic features. PMID:26658023

  1. Bird dispersal and deterrent techniques for oil spills in the Beaufort Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of techniques that are most likely to be effective for dispersing and deterring birds in the event of an oil spill in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. The evaluation considered the species of birds present, behaviour and mobility of the birds, logistics considerations, and the proven or likely effectiveness of the techniques. The deterrants were evaluated for effectiveness in different habitats including sedge lowlands in the Mackenzie Delta during autumn, seabird colonies, bays and lagoons in summer, sea ice and leads during spring, and offshore during open-water periods. The techniques evaluated included full size and radio-controlled aircraft, boats, shooting and pyrotechnics, gas cannons and exploders, other sound-based deterrents, vision-based deterrents, hawks and falcons, physical barriers, lure areas, trapping, chemical aversion agents, and high energy electromagnetic waves. The most universally applicable method of bird dispersal is hazing by aircraft. Universal methods of bird deterrance are gas cannons, shotguns, shellcrackers, rockets and mortars

  2. Use of passive samplers for improving oil toxicity and spill effects assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letinski, Daniel; Parkerton, Thomas; Redman, Aaron; Manning, Ryan; Bragin, Gail; Febbo, Eric; Palandro, David; Nedwed, Tim

    2014-09-15

    Methods that quantify dissolved hydrocarbons are needed to link oil exposures to toxicity. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers can serve this purpose. If fibers are equilibrated with oiled water, dissolved hydrocarbons partition to and are concentrated on the fiber. The absorbed concentration (Cpolymer) can be quantified by thermal desorption using GC/FID. Further, given that the site of toxic action is hypothesized as biota lipid and partitioning of hydrocarbons to lipid and fibers is well correlated, Cpolymer is hypothesized to be a surrogate for toxicity prediction. To test this method, toxicity data for physically and chemically dispersed oils were generated for shrimp, Americamysis bahia, and compared to test exposures characterized by Cpolymer. Results indicated that Cpolymer reliably predicted toxicity across oils and dispersions. To illustrate field application, SPME results are reported for oil spills at the Ohmsett facility. SPME fibers provide a practical tool to improve characterization of oil exposures and predict effects in future lab and field studies.

  3. EFFECTIVENESS AND REGULATORY ISSUES IN OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION: EXPERIENCES WITH THE EXXON VALDEZ OIL SPILL IN ALASKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of bioremediation as a supplemental cleanup technology in the Exxon Valdez oil spill, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, has proven to be a good example of the problems and successes associated with the practical application of this technology. ield studies conducted by sci...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOCOLS FOR TESTING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SURFACE WASHING AGENTS AND OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION AGENTS AND SPILLS OF OPPORTUNITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project concerns the need by the program office to develop reproducible protocols for testing the effectiveness of surface washing agents and bioremediation products, and to devise a protocol for testing a remediation strategy in the event of a spill of opportunity. The bior...

  5. Long-term autonomous resistivity monitoring of oil-contaminated sediments from the Deepwater Horizon spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenan, J. W.; Slater, L. D.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ross, C.; Nolan, J. T.; Atekwana, E. A.; Werkema, D. D.; Fathepure, B.

    2012-12-01

    We conducted a long-term electrical resistivity survey at Grand Terre 1 (GT1) Island off the coast of Louisiana, a site contaminated with crude oil associated with the April 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Electrical resistivity has proven sensitivity to biogeochemical processes associated with the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. However, most of these studies have been in freshwater environments and for aged spills. The BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill therefore provided an unprecedented opportunity to capture the early time biogeophysical signals resulting from the physical, chemical and microbial transformation of crude oil in highly saline environments. We used a multi-channel resistivity system powered by solar panels to obtain continuous measurements twice a day on both a surface array and two shallow borehole arrays. This system operated for approximately 1.5 years and provided a unique long-term dataset of resistivity changes. Temperature and specific conductance values for the shallow groundwater were continuously logged. . Resistivity changes likely associated with biodegradation processes were then isolated from these environmental factors by modeling. In addition, groundwater was sampled for geochemical analyses from wells installed at the study site and soil samples were collected for microbial analyses at several locations, including both contaminated and uncontaminated locations. Microcosms were set up to determine the biodegradation potential of indigenous populations, and microbial diversity analysis was used to determine microbial community composition. Surface and borehole resistivity arrays revealed an initial resistive anomaly co-located with the known contamination. Pixel time series analysis of an inverted time sequence of resistivity sections highlighted differing responses between contaminated and uncontaminated locations. The contaminated locations exhibit persistent resistivity decreases over time, whereas areas

  6. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the Wes Bordelon in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069086)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the Wes Bordelon in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-22 in response to the...

  7. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the F. G. Walton Smith in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-26 to 2010-06-02 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069084)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the F. G. Walton Smith in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-26 to...

  8. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-09-16 to 2010-09-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0070533)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, meteorological, navigational and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico and...

  9. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-04 to 2010-07-08 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069051)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-04 to 2010-07-08...

  10. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-14 to 2010-05-18 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0074372)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-14 to 2010-05-18...

  11. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the Wes Bordelon in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-05 to 2010-09-13 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069085)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the Wes Bordelon in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-05 to 2010-09-13 in response to the...

  12. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-23 to 2010-05-25 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069045)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-23 to 2010-05-25...

  13. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-10 to 2010-07-14 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069052)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-10 to 2010-07-14...

  14. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-01 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069054)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-01...

  15. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-15 to 2010-08-19 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069057)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-15 to 2010-08-19...

  16. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-09 to 2010-08-12 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069056)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-09 to 2010-08-12...

  17. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-16 to 2010-07-20 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069053)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-16 to 2010-07-20...

  18. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-18 to 2010-05-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069044)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, laboratory analysis, tows and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-18...

  19. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-03 to 2010-08-07 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069055)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-03 to 2010-08-07...

  20. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-07 to 2010-09-11 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0074853)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-07 to 2010-09-11...

  1. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-21 to 2010-08-25 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069090)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-21 to 2010-08-25...

  2. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the SEWARD JOHNSON in the North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-04 to 2010-08-08 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0068597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the SEWARD JOHNSON in the North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-04 to...

  3. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the HOS Davis in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069069)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the HOS Davis in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-22 in response to the...

  4. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-30 to 2010-06-02 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069046)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-30 to 2010-06-02...

  5. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-22 to 2010-06-26 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069050)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-22 to 2010-06-26...

  6. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-10 to 2010-06-14 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069048)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-10 to 2010-06-14...

  7. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-16 to 2010-06-20 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-16 to 2010-06-20...

  8. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-04 to 2010-06-08 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069047)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-04 to 2010-06-08...

  9. Analysis of past marine oil spill rates and trends for future contingency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the increase in oil production and transportation, the rate of oil spillage has generally decreased over the past 30 years according to U.S. and international marine oil spill data. However, due to greater expectations for effective spill response, complex contingency planning is needed for increasingly rare, high-impact events. This study analyzed past oil spill trends for vessels from 1985-2000 and compared it with potential future spill rates considering the use of double hulls on tankers and bunkers. The paper then presented a methodology for determining theoretical and most-likely worst-case oil spill scenarios for contingency planning for ports. The analyses of spill scenarios included vessels such as tankers, barges, freighters, fishing vessels, and passenger vessels. Probability distribution functions were analyzed to determine various percentile spills and worst-case discharges. Spill data was also analyzed to determine the percentage of cargo or bunker fuel spilled for each incident involving an accidental cause. Theoretical future oil spill volumes were determined based on the use of cargo and fuel-loss percentages and probabilities for different sized and types of vessels from US data on vessels in waters off the Washington coast and Sans Francisco Bay area. It was noted that double hulls on bunkers decrease the probability of spillage upon impact, but they are likely to release just as much oil as single hulled tanks once they are breached. 6 refs., 10 tabs., 34 figs

  10. Development and Application of Oil-Spill Risk Assessment Model for Offshore Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yan; WANG Jia; WEI Wenpu; YANG Yong; AN Wei

    2014-01-01

    To the potential oil-spill risk caused by offshore pipeline more attention has been paid after the Dalian oil spill incident from oil-pipeline explosion. Since then an issue about how to prevent and control the sudden oil-spill from the offshore pipeline has been raised. In this paper, we proposed an optimized model to analyze the main causes (probability) of spill and the consequence with the fuzzy comprehensive assessment model. Considering the complicated assessment process for oil-spill, the assessment factor system involving the spill probability and consequence was established based on the operative manual and statistic leakage/damage data of offshore pipeline in order to estimate the integrated spill risk score automatically. The evaluated factors of spill probability could be grouped into five aspects:corrosion, fatigue, national damage, third party, and operational fault;the consequence evaluated factors of spill included hazard of oil and impact-controlling capability. With some modifications based on experts’ opinions, each of the evaluated factors in our work was developed with a relative weight and evaluation criterion. A test example for an offshore pipe-line in the Bohai waters was described to show how the model can be used for an actual case in more detail. By using the oil-spill risk assessment model, it is easy to determine the risk level associated with the ongoing activity and management level and hence to take the risk mitigation action immediately.

  11. Environmental Assessment for the LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, S.E.; Novo, M.G.; Shinn, J.H.

    1986-04-01

    The LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, is being constructed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). In this Environmental Assessment, environmental consequences of spilling hazardous materials in the Frenchman Flat basin are evaluated and mitigations and recommendations are stated in order to protect natural resources and reduce land-use impacts. Guidelines and restrictions concerning spill-test procedures will be determined by the LGF Test Facility Operations Manager and DOE based on toxicity documentation for the test material, provided by the user, and mitigations imposed by the Environmental Assessment. In addition to Spill Test Facility operational procedures, certain assumptions have been made in preparation of this document: no materials will be considered for testing that have cumulative, long-term persistence in the environment; spill tests will consist of releases of 15 min or less; and sufficient time will be allowed between tests for recovery of natural resources. Geographic limits to downwind concentrations of spill materials were primarily determined from meteorological data, human occupational exposure standards to hazardous materials and previous spill tests. These limits were established using maximum spill scenarios and environmental impacts are discussed as worst case scenarios; however, spill-test series will begin with smaller spills, gradually increasing in size after the impacts of the initial tests have been evaluated.

  12. Abundance quantification by independent component analysis of hyperspectral imagery for oil spill coverage calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhongzhi; Wan, Jianhua; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Hande

    2016-08-01

    The estimation of oil spill coverage is an important part of monitoring of oil spills at sea. The spatial resolution of images collected by airborne hyper-spectral remote sensing limits both the detection of oil spills and the accuracy of estimates of their size. We consider at-sea oil spills with zonal distribution in this paper and improve the traditional independent component analysis algorithm. For each independent component we added two constraint conditions: non-negativity and constant sum. We use priority weighting by higher-order statistics, and then the spectral angle match method to overcome the order nondeterminacy. By these steps, endmembers can be extracted and abundance quantified simultaneously. To examine the coverage of a real oil spill and correct our estimate, a simulation experiment and a real experiment were designed using the algorithm described above. The result indicated that, for the simulation data, the abundance estimation error is 2.52% and minimum root mean square error of the reconstructed image is 0.030 6. We estimated the oil spill rate and area based on eight hyper-spectral remote sensing images collected by an airborne survey of Shandong Changdao in 2011. The total oil spill area was 0.224 km2, and the oil spill rate was 22.89%. The method we demonstrate in this paper can be used for the automatic monitoring of oil spill coverage rates. It also allows the accurate estimation of the oil spill area.

  13. Environmental Assessment for the LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, is being constructed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). In this Environmental Assessment, environmental consequences of spilling hazardous materials in the Frenchman Flat basin are evaluated and mitigations and recommendations are stated in order to protect natural resources and reduce land-use impacts. Guidelines and restrictions concerning spill-test procedures will be determined by the LGF Test Facility Operations Manager and DOE based on toxicity documentation for the test material, provided by the user, and mitigations imposed by the Environmental Assessment. In addition to Spill Test Facility operational procedures, certain assumptions have been made in preparation of this document: no materials will be considered for testing that have cumulative, long-term persistence in the environment; spill tests will consist of releases of 15 min or less; and sufficient time will be allowed between tests for recovery of natural resources. Geographic limits to downwind concentrations of spill materials were primarily determined from meteorological data, human occupational exposure standards to hazardous materials and previous spill tests. These limits were established using maximum spill scenarios and environmental impacts are discussed as worst case scenarios; however, spill-test series will begin with smaller spills, gradually increasing in size after the impacts of the initial tests have been evaluated

  14. The influence of the preparation of lignin bio-resins used in oil spilled agglomeration; A influencia do uso da lignina na preparacao de bioresinas utilizadas na aglomeracao de oleo derramado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Joao Felipe T.; Silva, Thaissa P.; Ferreira, Leticia P.; Delazare, Thais; Souza Junior, Fernando G. [Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - IMA/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: fernando_gomes@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    Locate petroleum, an energy source which spent millions of years to be formed, requires a lot of knowledge and technology, beyond large investments. However, along extraction, storage or transport of oil, there is a real risk of spills take place, causing extensive damage to the environment. Experience acquired due to accidental oil spills shows the large extension of damage imposed to the environment, impacting marine life, fishing and even tourism. Thus this study proposes the use of renewable sources, aiming to create an {sup g}reen absorbent material{sup .} This material is obtained through a polycondensation among lignin, furfural and cardanol, catalyzed by a strong acid. Synthesized bio-resin presents a good chemical similarity with oil, due to the tuning of its aromatic / aliphatic compounds, producing a strong physical interaction between the resin and oil, making the agglomeration process easy and contributing for the cleanup of oil spilled on water. (author)

  15. An evaluation of oil spill responses for offshore oil production projects in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: Implications for seabird conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Gail S; Racine, Vincent

    2016-06-15

    Seabirds are vulnerable to oil pollution, particularly in cold-water regions. We investigated the response of small spills (oil production operations Environment Canada requested monitoring and mitigation of small spills potentially impacting seabird populations; suggestions supported by two independent reviews. An industry spill response plan states that operators would collect systematic observations on spills and deploy countermeasures where possible. Operators' spill reports were obtained under an Access to Information request. There were 220 daytime spills with sheens (out of 381 spills; 1997-2010). Of these, six reported time to oil dispersion and eleven the presence or absence of seabirds. Industry self-reporting has not permitted an evaluation of the impact of chronic oil spills on seabirds. We recommend that independent observers be placed on platforms to systematically collect data on spills and seabirds.

  16. An evaluation of oil spill responses for offshore oil production projects in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: Implications for seabird conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Gail S; Racine, Vincent

    2016-06-15

    Seabirds are vulnerable to oil pollution, particularly in cold-water regions. We investigated the response of small spills (environmental assessments for oil production operations Environment Canada requested monitoring and mitigation of small spills potentially impacting seabird populations; suggestions supported by two independent reviews. An industry spill response plan states that operators would collect systematic observations on spills and deploy countermeasures where possible. Operators' spill reports were obtained under an Access to Information request. There were 220 daytime spills with sheens (out of 381 spills; 1997-2010). Of these, six reported time to oil dispersion and eleven the presence or absence of seabirds. Industry self-reporting has not permitted an evaluation of the impact of chronic oil spills on seabirds. We recommend that independent observers be placed on platforms to systematically collect data on spills and seabirds. PMID:27131965

  17. A pro-active spill response training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training is necessary, required by agencies, and cost-effective in dealing with response to oil spills. Clean Seas has, for the past 22 years, developed and provided over 10,000 training days to member company personnel as well as contractors and regulatory agencies. The practice of having an annual drill, reviewing the contingency plan, having a cookout, and going back to real work is over. Member companies in the Santa Barbara Channel work in a tightly regulated environment that hasn't noticed the change that other areas felt after the Exxon Valdez. On-the-job training has no place when a spill occurs. A proactive training program has proven to be cost-effective whenever contingency plans have had to be used

  18. Academic effects of the Prestige oil spill disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pereira, Miguel; Tinajero, Carolina; Rodriguez, María Soledad; Peralbo, Manuel; Sabucedo, Jose Manuel

    2012-11-01

    The effect of a large scale oil spill disaster on the academic achievement and classroom behavior of children and adolescents who lived on the Galician coast (Spain) is studied from an ecological perspective. 430 participants divided into three age groups of 5, 10, and 15 years of age, were studied. The participants came from three areas differently affected by the disaster. Dependent variables were academic achievement and classroom behavior of the participants after the Prestige disaster. Degree of exposure and other protective or risk factors were investigated as well. Repeated measures ANOVA to assess the main effects of the oil spill and hierarchical regression analyses to assess the contribution of the protective/vulnerability factors were performed. The results indicate that the effects of the disaster were relatively scarce. Some protective factors accounted for a certain degree of variance of different schoolroom behaviors. These results point to the intervention of protective factors in the adaptation to the disaster. PMID:23156914

  19. What turns an oil spill into a disaster?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whenever an oil tanker spews its cargo into the sea, the spill is instantly labelled an ''ecological disaster'' and with the slightest statistical prompting, ''the worst ever disaster''. Within hours of the Braer hitting the rocks of Garth's Ness, on the coast of Shetland in the United Kingdom, the accident had already been labelled a tragedy. Two weeks later, after ferocious storms seemed to have spirited away the worst of the pollution, the verdict changed. Shetland had had a lucky escape. But with the majority of the 84 000 tonnes of oil still unaccounted for, it will be some time before the true extent of the damage is known. Only then will we know if the Braer has really caused a disaster. The factors which will determine whether the spill becomes a disaster are examined in this article. (Author)

  20. Oil spill disasters detection and monitoring by optical satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livia Grimaldi, Caterina Sara; Coviello, Irina; Lacava, Teodosio; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2010-05-01

    Marine oil spill disasters may be related to natural hazards, when storms and hurricanes cause the sinking of tankers carrying crude or refined oil, as well as to human action, as illegal discharges, assessment errors (failures or collisions) or acts of warfare. Their consequence has a devastating effects on the marine and coastal environment. In order to reduce the environmental impact of such kind of hazard, giving to local authorities necessary information of pollution entity and evolution, timely detection and continuously updated information are fundamental. Satellite remote sensing can give a significant contribution in such a direction. Nowadays, SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) technology has been recognized as the most efficient for oil spill detection and description, thanks to the high spatial resolution and all-time/weather capability of the present operational sensors. Anyway, the actual SARs revisiting time does not allow a rapid detection and near real-time monitoring of these phenomena at global scale. The COSMO-Skymed Italian dual-mission (expected in the 2010) will overcome this limitation improving the temporal resolution until 12 hours by a SAR constellation of four satellites, but several open questions regarding costs and global delivery policy of such data, might prevent their use in an operational context. Passive optical sensors, on board meteorological satellites, thanks to their high temporal resolution (from a few hours to 15 minutes, depending on the characteristics of the platform/sensor), may represent, at this moment, a suitable SAR alternative/complement for oil spill detection and monitoring. Up to now, some techniques have been proposed for mapping known oil spill discharges monitoring using optical satellite data, on the other hand, reliable satellite methods for an automatic and timely detection of oil spill are still currently missing. Existing methods, in fact, can localize the presence of an oil spill only after an alert and

  1. Removal of Petroleum Spill in Water by Chitin and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cláudio de Freitas Barros

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the capacity of adsorption of crude oil spilled in seawater by chitin flakes, chitin powder, chitosan flakes, chitosan powder, and chitosan solution. The results showed that, although chitosan flakes had a better adsorption capacity by oil (0.379 ± 0.030 grams oil per gram of adsorbent, the biopolymer was sinking after adsorbing oil. Chitosan solution did not present such inconvenience, despite its lower adsorption capacity (0.013 ± 0.001 grams oil per gram of adsorbent. It was able to form a polymeric film on the oil slick, which allowed to restrain and to remove the oil from the samples of sea water. The study also suggests that chitosan solution 0.5% has greater efficiency against oil spills in alkaline medium than acidic medium.

  2. NASA Earth Observations Track the Gulf Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason B.; Childs, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program created the Gulf of Mexico Initiative (GOMI) in 2007 "to enhance the region s ability to recover from the devastating hurricanes of 2005 and to address its coastal management issues going into the future." The GOMI utilizes NASA Earth science assets to address regional priorities defined by the Gulf of Mexico Alliance, a partnership formed by the states of Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, along with 13 federal agencies and 4 regional organizations to promote regional collaboration and enhance the ecological and economic health of the Gulf of Mexico. NASA's GOMI is managed by the Applied Science and Technology Project Office at Stennis Space Center and has awarded over $18 million in Gulf of Mexico research since 2008. After the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, GOMI personnel assisted members of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance with obtaining NASA remote sensing data for use in their oil spill response efforts.

  3. San Jacinto River oil spill: wetland bioremediation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasoline, diesel and unrefined Arabian light crude oil were accidentally released into the San Jacinto River after a series of pipelines ruptured. Natural removal processes (volatilization, dissolution, weathering), fire, and the spill clean-up effort, removed approximately 95% of the petroleum. The area where residual oil was found was an estuarine wetland on the lower San Jacinto River. Samples were collected from 21 study areas and an evaluation of the varying levels of bioremediation was conducted. Phase one has been completed and involved the evaluation of the natural recovery of oil from the spill. Phase two was still in progress and involved the addition of inorganic nutrients and the alternate electron acceptor to enhance the biodegradation of the petroleum. Results showed that biodegradation was responsible for much of the reduction of certain components in petroleum within the first 150 days. 12 refs., 8 figs

  4. Fingerprinting and source identification of an oil spill in China Bohai Sea by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with multi-statistical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peiyan; Bao, Mutai; Li, Guangmei; Wang, Xinping; Zhao, Yuhui; Zhou, Qing; Cao, Lixin

    2009-01-30

    This paper describes a case study in which advanced chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were used to characterize the chemical composition and determine the source of an unknown spilled oil reported on the beach of China Bohai Sea in 2005. The spilled oil was suspected to be released from nearby platforms. In response to this specific site investigation need, a tiered analytical approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was applied. A variety of diagnostic ratios of "source-specific marker" compounds, in particular isomers of biomarkers, were determined and compared. Several statistical data correlation analysis methods were applied, including clustering analysis and Student's t-test method. The comparison of the two methods was conducted. The comprehensive analysis results reveal the following: (1) The oil fingerprinting of three spilled oil samples (S1, S2 and S3) positively match each other; (2) The three spilled oil samples have suffered different weathering, dominated by evaporation with decrease of the low-molecular-mass n-alkanes at different degrees; (3) The oil fingerprinting profiles of the three spilled oil samples are positive match with that of the suspected source oil samples C41, C42, C43, C44 and C45; (4) There are significant differences in the oil fingerprinting profiles between the three spilled oil samples and the suspected source oil samples A1, B1, B2, B3, B4, C1, C2, C3, C5 and C6.

  5. Satellite observations and modeling of oil spill trajectories in the Bohai Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qing; Li, Xiaofeng; Wei, Yongliang;

    2013-01-01

    On June 4 and 17, 2011, separate oil spill accidents occurred at two oil platforms in the Bohai Sea, China. The oil spills were subsequently observed on different types of satellite images including SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), Chinese HJ-1-B CCD and NASA MODIS. To illustrate the fate of the oil...... spills, we performed two numerical simulations to simulate the trajectories of the oil spills with the GNOME (General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment) model. For the first time, we drive the GNOME with currents obtained from an operational ocean model (NCOM, Navy Coastal Ocean Model) and surface...... winds from operational scatterometer measurements (ASCAT, the Advanced Scatterometer). Both data sets are freely and openly available. The initial oil spill location inputs to the model are based on the detected oil spill locations from the SAR images acquired on June 11 and 14. Three oil slicks...

  6. ARKTOS amphibious oil spill response craft for mixed ice/water conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil spill which occurred recently in the Gulf of Mexico highlighted the lack of efficient oil spill clean-up equipment for an offshore environment. With the increase in industrial operations in the Arctic Seas it is of high importance to develop an efficient oil spill response as the absence of reliable oil spill contingency plans will not be tolerated in such environmentally sensitive areas. The aim of this paper is to present the use of the ARKTOS amphibious craft for cleaning up an oil spill in the Arctic. This craft is usually used for logistical services and evacuation purposes; its use for clean-up purposes has been under study since 2000. This study showed that the ARKTOS craft could be an efficient means for oil spill clean-up in the Arctic because of its proven ice capable amphibious platforms and its hydraulic power; however oil collection trials should be performed to validate it.

  7. Effects of an oil spill on benthic community production and respiration on subtropical intertidal sandflats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Hua; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2013-08-15

    This study determined effects of an oil spill on subtropical benthic community production and respiration by monitoring CO2 fluxes in benthic chambers on intertidal sandflats during emersion before and after an accidental spill. The oil spill decreased sediment chlorophyll a concentrations, altered benthic macrofaunal community, and affected ecological functioning by suppressing or even stopping microalgal production, increasing bacterial respiration, and causing a shift from an autotrophic system to a heterotrophic system. Effects of the oil spill on the macrofauna were more severe than on benthic microalgae, and affected sedentary infauna more than motile epifauna. Despite the oil spill's impact on the benthic community and carbon metabolism, the affected area appeared to return to normal in about 23 days. Our results suggest that the prompt response of benthic metabolism to exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons can serve as a useful indicator of the impact of an oil spill.

  8. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones.

  9. ARKTOS amphibious oil spill response craft for mixed ice/water conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, Bruce H.J.W. [ARKTOS International S.A., Tavannes (Switzerland)], email: bruce.seligman@arktoscraft.com; Hall, T.A. [Hall Marine Design Ltd., Vancouver B.C. (Canada)], email: thallhmd@telus.net

    2010-07-01

    The oil spill which occurred recently in the Gulf of Mexico highlighted the lack of efficient oil spill clean-up equipment for an offshore environment. With the increase in industrial operations in the Arctic Seas it is of high importance to develop an efficient oil spill response as the absence of reliable oil spill contingency plans will not be tolerated in such environmentally sensitive areas. The aim of this paper is to present the use of the ARKTOS amphibious craft for cleaning up an oil spill in the Arctic. This craft is usually used for logistical services and evacuation purposes; its use for clean-up purposes has been under study since 2000. This study showed that the ARKTOS craft could be an efficient means for oil spill clean-up in the Arctic because of its proven ice capable amphibious platforms and its hydraulic power; however oil collection trials should be performed to validate it.

  10. Entropy algorithm for automatic detection of oil spill from radarsat-2 SAR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a precious foundation of oil spill detection, surveying and monitoring that improves oil spill detection by various approaches. The main objective of this work is to design automatic detection procedures for oil spill in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite data. In doing so the Entropy algorithm tool was designed to investigate the occurrence of oil spill in Gulf of Mexico using RADARSAT-2 SAR satellite data. The study shows that entropy algorithm provides accurate pattern of oil slick in SAR data. This shown by 90% for oil spill, 3% look-alike and 7% for sea roughness using the receiver -operational characteristics (ROC) curve. It can therefore be concluded Entropy algorithm can be used as automatic tool for oil spill detection in RADARSAT-2 SAR data

  11. Controlling mercury spills in laboratories with a thermometer exchange program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLouth, Lawrence D.

    2002-03-25

    This paper presents a case for replacing mercury thermometers with their organic-liquid-filled counterparts. A review of liquid-in glass-thermometers is given. In addition, a brief summary of mercury's health effects and exposure limits is presented. Spill cleanup methods and some lessons learned from our experience are offered as well. Finally, an overview of the mercury thermometer exchange program developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is presented.

  12. Effects of the Mass Transfer Process in Oil Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Betancourt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the models used to study the behavior of the mass loss processes associated with petroleum spills on water and to compare those models with experimental data. The processes of mass transfer studied in this work are evaporating, dissolution, vertical dispersion, emulsification and the changes of properties associated with these. The comparison of the estimations with the field data allowed determining the utility and the degree of adjustment of the expressions.

  13. Detection and classification of oil spills in MODIS satellite imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Alawadi, Fahad A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Using satellite imagery to achieve an early and accurate identification of oil spills will contribute towards the reduction of their impact on the marine ecosystem. Satellite imagery provided by the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors are widely used for this task over the multi-temporal and multi-band visible near infra-red (VNIR) sensors. This is due to the SAR imaging capabilities through clouds, dust storms, soot and at night times, which limit the capability of VNIR sensors. However, ...

  14. Microbial Population Changes during Bioremediation of an Experimental Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    Macnaughton, Sarah J.; Stephen, John R.; Venosa, Albert D.; Davis, Gregory A.; Chang, Yun-juan; White, David C.

    1999-01-01

    Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were applied in a randomized block field experiment simulating a coastal oil spill. Four treatments (no oil control, oil alone, oil plus nutrients, and oil plus nutrients plus an indigenous inoculum) were applied. In situ microbial community structures were monitored by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and 16S rDNA PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to (i) identify the bacterial community members responsible for the decontaminat...

  15. Study of processes involved in oil spill gathering in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate flow of an oil/water mixture along a tray has been found possible only at very low rates. Higher flowrates cause surges where some oil globules begin running away from the bulk of blocked oil, skipping under the boom used in experiments. It has been found that booms used for gathering oil spills on the water surface will be efficient of water flows below 0.16 m/sec. 2 figs

  16. Evaluation of autochthonous bioaugmentation and biostimulation during microcosm-simulated oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Kalogerakis, N

    2013-07-15

    Oil spills are treated as a widespread problem that poses a great threat to any ecosystem. Following first response actions, bioremediation has emerged as the best strategy for combating oil spills and can be enhanced by the following two complementary approaches: bioaugmentation and biostimulation. Bioaugmentation is one of the most controversial issues of bioremediation. Studies that compare the relative performance of bioaugmentation and biostimulation suggest that nutrient addition alone has a greater effect on oil biodegradation than the addition of microbial products because the survival and degradation ability of microbes introduced to a contaminated site are highly dependent on environmental conditions. Microbial populations grown in rich media under laboratory conditions become stressed when exposed to field conditions in which nutrient concentrations are substantially lower. There is increasing evidence that the best approach to overcoming these barriers is the use of microorganisms from the polluted area, an approach proposed as autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA) and defined as a bioaugmentation technology that exclusively uses microorganisms indigenous to the sites (soil, sand, and water) slated for decontamination. In this work, we examined the effectiveness of strategies combining autochthonous bioaugmentation with biostimulation for successful remediation of polluted marine environments. Seawater was collected from a pristine area (Agios Onoufrios Beach, Chania) and was placed in a bioreactor with 1% v/v crude oil to facilitate the adaptation of the indigenous microorganism population. The pre-adapted consortium and the indigenous population were tested in combination with inorganic or lipophilic nutrients in the presence (or absence) of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids) during 90-day long experiments. Chemical analysis (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) of petroleum hydrocarbons confirmed the results of previous work demonstrating that the

  17. Source identification of hydrocarbons following spill events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholz, D.A. [ALS Centre of Excellence (Canada)], email: eib.birkholz@alsglobal.com

    2011-07-01

    This study deals with revealing the sources of hydrocarbon contamination as a part of the forensic effort in reclamation and remediation. The goal is to show the importance of such information for assessing oil contamination levels and cleanup costs. This study deals with three particular cases where hydrocarbon levels were exceeded in soil samples. As part of the investigation process, a report on the source, age, and nature of the contamination was generated. The chemical investigation consisted of many steps, including mixing and equilibrating the samples with other chemicals, and scanning for oil biomarkers. After the analysis was finished, it was concluded that the fuels in the soil samples were from 14.7 to 15.6 years old, with a 2 year margin of error; however, a different methodology yielded a higher range, 20 to 24 years. Regarding the type of fuel, due to traces of alkylated benzenes and sesquiterpanes that were found, it was believed that the source of the oil was western Canada.

  18. Source identification of hydrocarbons following spill events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with revealing the sources of hydrocarbon contamination as a part of the forensic effort in reclamation and remediation. The goal is to show the importance of such information for assessing oil contamination levels and cleanup costs. This study deals with three particular cases where hydrocarbon levels were exceeded in soil samples. As part of the investigation process, a report on the source, age, and nature of the contamination was generated. The chemical investigation consisted of many steps, including mixing and equilibrating the samples with other chemicals, and scanning for oil biomarkers. After the analysis was finished, it was concluded that the fuels in the soil samples were from 14.7 to 15.6 years old, with a 2 year margin of error; however, a different methodology yielded a higher range, 20 to 24 years. Regarding the type of fuel, due to traces of alkylated benzenes and sesquiterpanes that were found, it was believed that the source of the oil was western Canada.

  19. Biological exposure models for oil spill impact analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The oil spill impact analysis (OSIA) software system has been developed to supply a tool for comprehensive, quantitative environmental impact assessments resulting from oil spills. In the system, a biological component evaluates potential effects on exposed organisms based on results from a physico-chemieal fates component, including the extent and characteristics of the surface slick, and dissolved and total concentrations of hydrocarbons in the water column. The component includes a particle-based exposure model for migratory adult fish populations, a particle-based exposure model for spawning planktonic organisms (eggs and larvae), and an exposure model for wildlife species (sea birds or marine mammals). The exposure model for migratory adult fish populations simulates the migration behaviors of fish populations migrating to or staying in their feeding areas, over-wintering areas or spawning areas, and determines the acute effects (mortality) and chronic accumulation (body burdens) from the dissolved contaminant. The exposure model for spawning planktonic organisms simulates the release of eggs and larvae, also as particles, from specific spawning areas during the spawning period, and determines their potential exposure to contaminants in the water or sediment. The exposure model for wild species calculates the exposure to surrace oil of wildlife (bird and marine mammal ) categories inhabiting the contaminated area. Compared with the earlier models in which all kinds of organisms are assumed evenly and randomly distributed, the updated biological exposure models can more realistically estimate potential effects on marine ecological system from oil spill pollution events.

  20. Canadian firm contains huge oil spill in Northern Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kharyaga-Usink pipeline, 1400 km northeast of Moscow, suffered a major failure in the fall of 1994, releasing some 100,000 tonnes of oil (three times more than the Exxon Valdez) into the frozen tundra. It was considered by environmental groups as one of the worst disasters of its kind. The oil threatened to seep into the nearby rivers and eventually into the Barents Sea. After a delay of some three months AGRA Earth and Environmental of Calgary, an engineering consulting firm, was called in to inspect the damage and to make recommendations for a successful cleanup operation. A multi-disciplinary emergency response team was formed to assess the environmental and socio-economic impacts of the spill, the state of the existing pipeline, and the Russian plans for spill containment and recovery. Community consultation, probably the first in Russia, was part of the evaluation, culminating in a three-volume appraisal report containing detailed recommendation on how to properly contain the spill. On the strength of the report the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development approved loans to the Russian Federation totaling 145 million dollars to undertake the work of pipeline restoration. Construction of the uniquely-designed dams as well as the Russian-pioneered siphon-dams was done by international contractors and maintained throughout the breakup period. A new pipeline is also being constructed to prevent future leaks

  1. Modelling Oil-Spill Detection with Swarm Drones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aznar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, swarm robotics research is having a great increase due to the benefits derived from its use, such as robustness, parallelism, and flexibility. Unlike distributed robotic systems, swarm robotics emphasizes a large number of robots, and promotes scalability. Among the multiple applications of such systems we could find are exploring unstructured environments, resource monitoring, or distributed sensing. Two of these applications, monitoring, and perimeter/area detection of a given resource, have several ecological uses. One of them is the detection and monitoring of pollutants to delimit their perimeter and area accurately. Maritime activity has been increasing gradually in recent years. Many ships carry products such as oil that can adversely affect the environment. Such products can produce high levels of pollution in case of being spilled into sea. In this paper we will present a distributed system which monitors, covers, and surrounds a resource by using a swarm of homogeneous low cost drones. These drones only use their local sensory information and do not require any direct communication between them. Taking into account the properties of this kind of oil spills we will present a microscopic model for a swarm of drones, capable of monitoring these spills properly. Furthermore, we will analyse the proper macroscopic operation of the swarm. The analytical and experimental results presented here show the proper evolution of our system.

  2. The role of remote sensing in operational oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of whether conventional thermal-infrared data gathered from surveillance aircraft could be used to determine the thickness of a marine oil spill was discussed. Field experiments were conducted to validate acquired data and to determine if neural network analysis of thermal-infrared imagery can be a cost-effective method to measure the extent and thickness of oil spills. Field trials consisted of four major experiments including two 50 tonne slicks of Forties blend crude oil, one 30 tonne slick of Alaska North Slope crude oil, and a 20 tonne slick of IFO-180 marine residual fuel oil. Results of the exercise showed that the neural network approach was not able to classify the oil thickness reliably for any of the field data sets, although it may still provide important parameters in predicting oil thickness, such as oil and sea brightness, oil type, sea temperature, wind speed and time of day. The main reason for the poor performance of the neural network analysis was the degree of solar heating on the surface oil during this set of field trials. However, one approach that showed promise was having the in-situ monitoring teams apply sorbent pads to the spill to provide spot samples of oil thickness as calibration for the thermal-infrared remote sensing technique. 7 refs., 9 tabs., 6 figs

  3. Spill sorbents: A comparison of water and oil sorbency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorbents for oil spills come in three general classes: organic, such as peat moss, sawdust, and paper fibre; inorganic, such as clay, vermiculite, and diatomaceous earth; and synthetic, including a variety of materials made from polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene. The water and oil sorptive properties of various sorbents are listed and their characteristics are described. In spill remediation, most synthetic adsorbents are oleophilic with some degree of hydrophobic properties to prevent them from taking up water as they clean up the oil. In some situations, such as maintenance spills where aqueous liquids are also encountered, universal sorbents which have both oleophilic and hydrophilic properties are used. Sorbents are sold in a variety of product configurations, including powders, beads, rolls, ropes, and booms. Melt blown polypropylene is widely used since it is inexpensive, easy to apply, a good insulator, relatively inert, non-hazardous, and available in a wide variety of configurations. Its approximate oil sorbency is 20-30 times its own weight while its water sorbency is 0.0-0.1 times its own weight. In the Canadian market, sorbent products are available from importers, packagers, and manufacturers. The market is dominated by a few large companies that provide a range of high- and low-tech products in addition to ancillary products such as drums and skimmers. 2 tabs

  4. Spreading of Oil Spill on Placid Aquatic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick O. NJOBUENWU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuous research in the development of suitable predictive model is vital as the input of oil spills into the aquatic environment particularly in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria is alarming due to frequent oil spills. This eventually affects aquatic organisms and shoreline activities. This work developed an semi-empirical expression that can predict the horizontal spreading of Niger Delta Oil Spills (NDOS on a placid water body using simple physical coefficients of the oil and the aquatic medium. The empirical expression developed is a function of the spreading coefficient which was derived from heuristic arguments and enhanced to deal with gravity, viscous and surface tension forces. The extent of spread of various oil samples was found to correlate with non-dimensional groups comprised of the ratios of the product between density, viscosity for oil and water respectively. This model provides an easy means to estimate oil slick transport under stagnant water conditions at specific locations in the Niger Delta area. The semi-empirical model is verified against most popular empirical model.

  5. Arctic climate change and oil spill risk analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William B. Samuels; David E. Amstutz; Heather A. Crowley

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to:1) describe the effects of climate change in the Arctic and its impact on circulation,2) describe hindcast data used in the Ocean Energy Management,Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) Oil Spill Risk Analysis (OSRA) model,3)evaluate alternatives such as using forecast results in the OSRA model,and 4) recommend future studies.Effects of climate change on winds,sea ice,ocean circulation and river discharge in the Arctic and impacts on surface circulation can be evaluated only through a series of specially designed numerical experiments using highresolution coupled ice-ocean models to elucidate the sensitivity of the models to various parameterizations or forcings.The results of these experiments will suggest what mechanisms are most important in controlling model response and guide inferences on how OSRA may respond to different climate change scenarios.Climatological change in the Arctic could lead to drastic alterations of wind,sea ice cover and concentration,and surface current fields all of which would influence hypothetical oil spill trajectories.Because of the pace at which conditions are changing,BOEMRE needs to assess whether forecast ice/ocean model results might contain useful information for the purposes of calculating hypothetical oil spill trajectories.

  6. Thresholds in marsh resilience to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, Brian R.; Dixon, Philip M.; Wobus, Cameron; He, Qiang; Daleo, Pedro; Hughes, Brent B.; Rissing, Matthew; Willis, Jonathan M.; Hester, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem boundary retreat due to human-induced pressure is a generally observed phenomenon. However, studies that document thresholds beyond which internal resistance mechanisms are overwhelmed are uncommon. Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, field studies from a few sites suggested that oiling of salt marshes could lead to a biogeomorphic feedback where plant death resulted in increased marsh erosion. We tested for spatial generality of and thresholds in this effect across 103 salt marsh sites spanning ~430 kilometers of shoreline in coastal Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi, using data collected as part of the natural resource damage assessment (NRDA). Our analyses revealed a threshold for oil impacts on marsh edge erosion, with higher erosion rates occurring for ~1–2 years after the spill at sites with the highest amounts of plant stem oiling (90–100%). These results provide compelling evidence showing large-scale ecosystem loss following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. More broadly, these findings provide rare empirical evidence identifying a geomorphologic threshold in the resistance of an ecosystem to increasing intensity of human-induced disturbance. PMID:27679956

  7. Alyeska/SERVS technological innovations for oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of technological innovations in spill response by Alyeska Pipeline Service Company/SERVS (ship escort response vessel system), was presented. The company has developed a number of spill response techniques which have needed new strategies and modified equipment for fulfillment of the Prince William Sound Tanker Oil Discharge Prevention and Contingency Plan. One of the strategies was the training of personnel to be ready to deploy massive quantities of equipment on short notice to potential spill sites over an 11,000 square mile water body with more than 3,200 miles of wilderness shoreline. Specific response equipment and decision-making tools have been developed in direct support of large scale programs. Along with oil slick tracking buoys and mini barges, SERVS has developed high capacity skimmers with recovery capacities approaching 2,000 to 3,000 barrels of liquid per hour and strategy boom-towing vessels which divert oil into a long U shaped containment boom. SERVS fishing vessel program, hatchery protection and remote response center equipment program, and wildlife treatment facilities were also described. 10 refs., 13 figs

  8. Enhanced oil spill detection sensors in low-light environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allik, Toomas H.; Ramboyong, Len; Roberts, Mark; Walters, Mark; Soyka, Thomas J.; Dixon, Roberta; Cho, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Although advances have been made in oil spill remote detection, many electro-optic sensors do not provide real-time images, do not work well under degraded visual environments, nor provide a measure of extreme oil thickness in marine environments. A joint program now exists between BSEE and NVESD that addresses these capability gaps in remote sensing of oil spills. Laboratory experiments, calibration techniques, and field tests were performed at Fort Belvoir, Virginia; Santa Barbara, California; and the Ohmsett Test Facility in Leonardo, New Jersey. Weathered crude oils were studied spectroscopically and characterized with LWIR, and low-light-level visible/NIR, and SWIR cameras. We designed and fabricated an oil emulsion thickness calibration cell for spectroscopic analysis and ground truth, field measurements. Digital night vision cameras provided real-time, wide-dynamic-range imagery, and were able to detect and recognize oil from full sun to partial moon light. The LWIR camera provided quantitative oil analysis (identification) for >1 mm thick crude oils both day and night. Two filtered, co-registered, SWIR cameras were used to determine whether oil thickness could be measured in real time. Spectroscopic results revealed that oil emulsions vary with location and weathered state and some oils (e.g., ANS and Santa Barbara seeps) do not show the spectral rich features from archived Deep Water Horizon hyperspectral data. Multi-sensor imagery collected during the 2015 USCG Airborne Oil Spill Remote Sensing and Reporting Exercise and the design of a compact, multiband imager are discussed.

  9. A study of oil spill detection using ASAR images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guiwu; ZHANG Yuanzhi; LIN Hui

    2009-01-01

    The oil spilled worldwide causes ecological disasters that result in enormous damages to the quality of marine environment, and great expenses on clear-up operations are needed. Due to its wide coverage and day-night all-weather observation capability, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an important tool for oil spill monitoring and detection. C-band SAR is well adapted to detect oil pollution because oil slicks dampen the Bragg waves and reduce radar backscattering coefficients. In order to detect the area of oil slicks, the algorithm consists of these steps: Preprocessing, Masking of land areas, Detection of dark spots, Spot feature extraction, Dark spot classification. In this paper, the authors examined two coastal regions around Hong Kong and Yantai, China. The obtained results performed on Envisat ASAR images have demonstrated that it is efficient to detect oil spill around the coastal regions. The methodology still needs to be refined with the collection of more SAR data in the near future.

  10. Bioremediation of oil spills in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The involvement of EPA in the cleanup of oil-contaminated beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, has generated a significant research effort in oil spill cleanup technology within EPA's Office of Research and Development. Because of the successful use of bioremediation in the Alaskan spill, a considerable portion of the research has been directed toward its further development, particularly as it might apply to other types of beaches and open water. In hindsight the problems faced in the application of bioremediation on the beaches of Prince William Sound appear relatively straightforward. First, the major obstacle of logistics on remote beaches was effectively overcome by using the operational capabilities created by the massive physical washing operation conducted from barges. Second, oil-degrading microbial communities were rapidly enriched in the oil-contaminated beach material, including subsurface, thereby precluding the need for any inoculation procedures. This situation, however, created a significant increased demand for nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients that was met through the application of commercially available fertilizers. Natural biodegradation of the oil was enhanced by the addition of fertilizer, substantially aiding in the overall cleanup operation. Third, the extremely high porosity of the cobblestone and mixed sand and gravel beach material allowed oil to be spread over a large surface area, thereby improving availability to the oil-degrading microbial communities and allowing, through tidal and wave action, the constant replenishment of oxygen. In addition, it created a high dilution capability that effectively prevented the accumulation of ammonia

  11. Bioremediation potential of crude oil spilled on soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spills sometimes occur during routine operations associated with exploration and production (E and P) of crude oil. These spills at E and P sites typically are small, less than 1 acre (0.4 ha), and the spill may be in remote locations. As a result, bioremediation often represents a cost-effective alternative to other cleanup technologies. The goal of this study was to determine the potential for biodegrading a range of crude oil types and determining the effect of process variables such as soil texture and soil salinity. Crude oils evaluated ranged in American Petroleum institute (API) gravity from 14 degree to 45 degree. The extent of biodegradation was calculated from oxygen uptake data and the total extractable material (TEM) concentration. Based on the data collected, a simple model was developed for predicting the bioremediation potential of a range of crude oil types. Biodegradation rates were significantly lower in sandy soils. Soil salinities greater than approximately 40 mmhos/cm adversely impacted soil microbial activity and biodegradation rate

  12. Biodeterioration of oil spills. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biodegradation, bioremediation, and bioreclamation of oil spills. Effectiveness and regulatory issues in oil spill control on lands, on water surface, and underwater are discussed. Topics include in-situ bioremediation, dispersants, gasoline spills from underground storage tanks, beach and harbor clean-up, groundwater pollution, and soil pollution. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Respiratory Effects of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill on Children in Taean, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Suk-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Mook; Lee, Kun-Song; Roh, Sangchul; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Kwak, Sahng-June; Lee, Ik-Jin; Choi, Young-Hyun; Noh, Su Ryeon; Hur, Jong-Il; Jee, Young-Koo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The oil spill from the Heibei Spirit in December 2007 contaminated the Yellow Coast of South Korea. We evaluated the respiratory effects of that spill on children who lived along the Yellow Coast. Methods Of 662 children living in the area exposed to the oil spill, 436 (65.9%) were enrolled as subjects. All subjects completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. A health examination, including a skin prick test, pulmonary function test, an...

  14. Characterization of water-in-crude oil emulsions in oil spill response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The formation of water-in-crude oil emulsions occurs when crude oils are spilled into sea. The water-in-crude oil emulsionssignificantly change the properties of the spilled crude oils and in turn influence the choices made relating to oil spill countermeasures. Thewater-in-crude oil emulsions were characterized using various techniques in this study. The environmental scanning electron microscopyobservation of water droplets in the emulsions is also presented. It is a powerful tool in emulsion observations.

  15. Remediation Technologies for Marine Oil Spills: A Critical Review and Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dave, D; Abdel E. Ghaly

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Anthropogenic activities pollute the oceans with oil through land run off, vessels accidents, periodic tanker discharges and bilge discharges. Oil spills are environmental disasters that impact human, plants and wild life including birds, fish and mammals. Approach: In this study, the International Guidelines for Preventing Oils Spills and Response to Disasters were reviewed and the characteristics of oil spills were discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of various oi...

  16. Corporate social responsibility or government regulation? evidence on oil spill prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Jedrzej G. Frynas

    2012-01-01

    Major oil spills normally occur from oil pipelines and oil tankers that are under operational control of companies, namely, oil companies and tanker owners. There are two generic responses for changing the behavior of companies with regard to oil spill prevention: mandatory government regulation or voluntary initiatives often pursued under the banner of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Here we investigate to what extent voluntary CSR initiatives can be effective in oil spill prevention....

  17. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-07 to 2010-05-12 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084555)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, tows and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-07 to 2010-05-12 in...

  18. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the Specialty Diver I in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-10 to 2010-09-15 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069081)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the Specialty Diver I in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-10 to 2010-09-15 in response to the...

  19. Two new tools and a working method for crisis management of accidental spills at sea. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koops, W.

    1992-12-14

    Tables of Contents: Accidental spills and crisis management at sea; Present global situation concerning prevention of accidental spills; Present regional situation concerning preparation for accidental spills in the North Sea; Present national (Dutch) situation concerning response to accidental spills; Improvements in present crisis management approach; Design of the gravity scale for accidental spills; Introduction and design of a diagnostic model for accidental spills at sea; Introduction and design of a working method to support decision making in response situations; The computer program; Calibration and evaluation of the newly developed tools and working method; and, Appendices with background information.

  20. Evaluation of oil spill sorbents in oil spill combating%防溢吸油剂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏取福; 王旭

    2002-01-01

    通过机械方法回收溢出油液评价项目的初始化工作进行了研究.该工作的重点在于对吸油剂的评价.为了评价不同类型的吸油剂的有效性,吸油剂在不同形态下受到测试,并且进行了定量的比较,从而为在给定条件下吸油剂的选择提供了依据.%This is the initial work of the project of evaluation of mechanical recovery of oil spills. A major focus of this part was the evaluation of oil sorbents. The various forms of sorbents were tested to evaluate the effectiveness of the various types of sorbents and a quantitative comparison was provided sorbent selection for given spill conditions.