WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical safety assessment

  1. Animal-Free Chemical Safety Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D Loizou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of the Internet of Things and the global popularity and remarkable decline in cost of the mobile phone is driving the digital transformation of medical practice. The rapidly maturing digital, nonmedical world of mobile (wireless devices, cloud computing and social networking is coalescing with the emerging digital medical world of omics data, biosensors and advanced imaging which offers the increasingly realistic prospect of personalized medicine. Described as a potential seismic shift from the current healthcare model to a wellness paradigm that is predictive, preventative, personalized and participatory, this change is based on the development of increasingly sophisticated biosensors which can track and measure key biochemical variables in people. Additional key drivers in this shift are metabolomic and proteomic signatures, which are increasingly being reported as pre-symptomatic, diagnostic and prognostic of toxicity and disease. These advancements also have profound implications for toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of pharmaceuticals and environmental chemicals. An approach based primarily on human in vivo and high-throughput in vitro human cell-line data is a distinct possibility. This would transform current chemical safety assessment practise which operates in a human data poor to a human data rich environment. This could also lead to a seismic shift from the current animal-based to an animal-free chemical safety assessment paradigm.

  2. Economic aspects of risk assessment in chemical safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, M F; Shannon, H S

    1986-05-01

    This paper considers how the economic aspects of risk assessment in chemical safety can be strengthened. Its main focus is on how economic appraisal techniques, such as cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis, can be adapted to the requirements of the risk-assessment process. Following a discussion of the main methodological issues raised by the use of economic appraisal, illustrated by examples from the health and safety field, a number of practical issues are discussed. These include the consideration of the distribution of costs, effects and benefits, taking account of uncertainty, risk probabilities and public perception, making the appraisal techniques useful to the early stages of the risk-assessment process and structuring the appraisal to permit continuous feedback to the participants in the risk-assessment process. It is concluded that while the way of thinking embodied in economic appraisal is highly relevant to the consideration of choices in chemical safety, the application of these principles in formal analysis of risk reduction procedures presents a more mixed picture. The main suggestions for improvement in the analyses performed are the undertaking of sensitivity analyses of study results to changes in the key assumptions, the presentation of the distribution of costs and benefits by viewpoint, the comparison of health and safety measures in terms of their incremental cost per life-year (or quality-adjusted life-year) gained and the more frequent retrospective review and revision of the economic analyses that are undertaken.

  3. Safety management and risk assessment in chemical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marendaz, Jean-Luc; Friedrich, Kirstin; Meyer, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    The present paper highlights a new safety management program, MICE (Management, Information, Control and Emergency), which has been specifically adapted for the academic environment. The process starts with an exhaustive hazard inventory supported by a platform assembling specific hazards encountered in laboratories and their subsequent classification. A proof of concept is given by a series of implementations in the domain of chemistry targeting workplace health protection. The methodology is expressed through three examples to illustrate how the MICE program can be used to address safety concerns regarding chemicals, strong magnetic fields and nanoparticles in research laboratories. A comprehensive chemical management program is also depicted.

  4. Probabilistic safety assessment in the chemical and nuclear industries

    CERN Document Server

    Fullwood, Ralph R

    2000-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) determines the probability and consequences of accidents, hence, the risk. This subject concerns policy makers, regulators, designers, educators and engineers working to achieve maximum safety with operational efficiency. Risk is analyzed using methods for achieving reliability in the space program. The first major application was to the nuclear power industry, followed by applications to the chemical industry. It has also been applied to space, aviation, defense, ground, and water transportation. This book is unique in its treatment of chemical and nuclear risk. Problems are included at the end of many chapters, and answers are in the back of the book. Computer files are provided (via the internet), containing reliability data, a calculator that determines failure rate and uncertainty based on field experience, pipe break calculator, event tree calculator, FTAP and associated programs for fault tree analysis, and a units conversion code. It contains 540 references and many...

  5. Ab initio chemical safety assessment: A workflow based on exposure considerations and non-animal methods

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Elisabet; White, Andrew; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Paini, Alicia; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Bois, Frederic Y.; Exner, Thomas; Leite, Sofia; Grunsven, Leo A. van; Worth, Andrew; Mahony, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Highlights • A workflow for an exposure driven chemical safety assessment to avoid animal testing. • Hypothesis based on existing data, in silico modelling and biokinetic considerations. • A tool to inform targeted and toxicologically relevant in vitro testing.

  6. Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions

  7. Aligning the 3Rs with new paradigms in the safety assessment of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Natalie; Mahony, Catherine; Müller, Boris P; Terry, Claire; Westmoreland, Carl; Kimber, Ian

    2015-04-01

    There are currently several factors driving a move away from the reliance on in vivo toxicity testing for the purposes of chemical safety assessment. Progress has started to be made in the development and validation of non-animal methods. However, recent advances in the biosciences provide exciting opportunities to accelerate this process and to ensure that the alternative paradigms for hazard identification and risk assessment deliver lasting 3Rs benefits, whilst improving the quality and relevance of safety assessment. The NC3Rs, a UK-based scientific organisation which supports the development and application of novel 3Rs techniques and approaches, held a workshop recently which brought together over 20 international experts in the field of chemical safety assessment. The aim of this workshop was to review the current scientific, technical and regulatory landscapes, and to identify key opportunities towards reaching these goals. Here, we consider areas where further strategic investment will need to be focused if significant impact on 3Rs is to be matched with improved safety science, and why the timing is right for the field to work together towards an environment where we no longer rely on whole animal data for the accurate safety assessment of chemicals.

  8. Ab initio chemical safety assessment: A workflow based on exposure considerations and non-animal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Elisabet; White, Andrew; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Paini, Alicia; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Bois, Frederic Y; Exner, Thomas; Leite, Sofia; Grunsven, Leo A van; Worth, Andrew; Mahony, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    We describe and illustrate a workflow for chemical safety assessment that completely avoids animal testing. The workflow, which was developed within the SEURAT-1 initiative, is designed to be applicable to cosmetic ingredients as well as to other types of chemicals, e.g. active ingredients in plant protection products, biocides or pharmaceuticals. The aim of this work was to develop a workflow to assess chemical safety without relying on any animal testing, but instead constructing a hypothesis based on existing data, in silico modelling, biokinetic considerations and then by targeted non-animal testing. For illustrative purposes, we consider a hypothetical new ingredient x as a new component in a body lotion formulation. The workflow is divided into tiers in which points of departure are established through in vitro testing and in silico prediction, as the basis for estimating a safe external dose in a repeated use scenario. The workflow includes a series of possible exit (decision) points, with increasing levels of confidence, based on the sequential application of the Threshold of Toxicological (TTC) approach, read-across, followed by an "ab initio" assessment, in which chemical safety is determined entirely by new in vitro testing and in vitro to in vivo extrapolation by means of mathematical modelling. We believe that this workflow could be applied as a tool to inform targeted and toxicologically relevant in vitro testing, where necessary, and to gain confidence in safety decision making without the need for animal testing.

  9. Report: EPA Should Assess Needs and Implement Management Controls to Ensure Effective Incorporation of Chemical Safety Research Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #17-P-0294, June 23, 2017. With management controls that ensure the collaborative development of research products and prioritize chemical safety research needs, the EPA would be better able to conduct faster chemical risk assessments.

  10. A Study on Safety and Risk Assessment of Dangerous Cargo Operations in Oil/Chemical Tankers

    OpenAIRE

    Cenk ŞAKAR; Yusuf ZORBA

    2017-01-01

    The safety and risk assessment of dangerous cargo operations in oil and chemical tankers is a necessary process to prevent possible accidents during these operations. Fire and explosion are the major accidents encountered in tanker operations. In this study, a model was constructed through the Fuzzy Bayes Network Method for the probabilistic relationships between the causes of fire and explosion accidents that could occur during the tank cleaning process. The study is composed of two stages. ...

  11. Tools to prevent process safety events at university research facility - chemical risk assessment and experimental set-up risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the two forms developed to examine the hazards of the chemicals to be used in the experiments in the experimental setup in the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering of the Technical University of Denmark. A system for the safety assessment of new experimental se...... setups in university research and teaching laboratories is presented. The significance of the forms for the effort of researchers in improving work with significant hazards is described....

  12. Health risk from radioactive and chemical environmental contamination: common basis for assessment and safety decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.

    2004-01-01

    To meet the growing practical need in risk analysis in Russia health risk assessment tools and regulations have been developed in the frame of few federal research programs. RRC Kurchatov Institute is involved in R and D on risk analysis activity in these programs. One of the objectives of this development is to produce a common, unified basis of health risk analysis for different sources of risk. Current specific and different approaches in risk assessment and establishing safety standards developed for chemicals and ionising radiation are analysed. Some recommendations are given to produce the common approach. A specific risk index R has been proposed for safety decision-making (establishing safety standards and other levels of protective actions, comparison of various sources of risk, etc.). The index R is defined as the partial mathematical expectation of lost years of healthy life (LLE) due to exposure during a year to a risk source considered. The more concrete determinations of this index for different risk sources derived from the common definition of R are given. Generic safety standards (GSS) for the public and occupational workers have been suggested in terms of this index. Secondary specific safety standards have been derived from GSS for ionizing radiation and a number of other risk sources including environmental chemical pollutants. Other general and derived levels for decision-making have also been proposed including the e-minimum level. Their possible dependence on the national or regional health-demographic data is shortly considered. Recommendations are given on methods and criteria for comparison of various sources of risk. Some examples of risk comparison are demonstrated in the frame of different comparison tasks. The paper has been prepared on the basis of the research work supported by International Science and Technology Centre, Moscow (project no. 2558). (author)

  13. Assessing food safety concepts on the dairy farm: the case of chemical hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Adaptive conjoint analysis was used to elicit farmers' and experts' preferences for attributes of improving food safety with respect to chemical hazards on the dairy farm. Groups of respondents were determined by cluster analysis based on similar farmers' and experts' perceptions of food safety

  14. A Study on Safety and Risk Assessment of Dangerous Cargo Operations in Oil/Chemical Tankers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk ŞAKAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The safety and risk assessment of dangerous cargo operations in oil and chemical tankers is a necessary process to prevent possible accidents during these operations. Fire and explosion are the major accidents encountered in tanker operations. In this study, a model was constructed through the Fuzzy Bayes Network Method for the probabilistic relationships between the causes of fire and explosion accidents that could occur during the tank cleaning process. The study is composed of two stages. Firstly, the variables that are the subject of the problem and that constitute the graphical structure of the Bayes Networks are identified. Then, expert opinion was sought as the statistical data on accident reports were not recorded properly while identifying the conditional probability of the relationships between the variables. Linguistic variables whose fuzzy membership functions were identified were used in detecting the probabilities. The findings of the sensitivity test revealed that the major reasons that could lead to fire and explosion during the tank cleaning process are ignition sources, reaction and safety culture.

  15. Chemical Safety – Introduction

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    A course of "Chemical Safety – Introduction" will be held in English on 29 May 2009, 9:30-12:00. There are some places left. If you are interested in participating, please register on the Training Catalogue. You will then receive an invitation by email.

  16. Transition towards replacing animal tests in safety assessment of cosmetics and chemicals: a combined TIS-MLP framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, M.; Meer, P. van de; Moors, E.H.M.; Schellekens, H.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    The urgency of the transition to replace animal tests in safety assessment of chemicals and cosmetics was triggered by societal resistance to animal testing (Rowan, 2007) and the scientific dispute concerning the value of animal testing (Olson et al., 2000). Since the 1980s the European Union (EU)

  17. The current status of exposure-driven approaches for chemical safety assessment: A cross-sector perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Fiona; Aggarwal, Manoj; Bachler, Gerald; Broadmeadow, Alan; Gellatly, Nichola; Moore, Emma; Robinson, Sally; Rooseboom, Martijn; Stevens, Alexander; Terry, Claire; Burden, Natalie

    2017-08-15

    For the purposes of chemical safety assessment, the value of using non-animal (in silico and in vitro) approaches and generating mechanistic information on toxic effects is being increasingly recognised. For sectors where in vivo toxicity tests continue to be a regulatory requirement, there has been a parallel focus on how to refine studies (i.e. reduce suffering and improve animal welfare) and increase the value that in vivo data adds to the safety assessment process, as well as where to reduce animal numbers where possible. A key element necessary to ensure the transition towards successfully utilising both non-animal and refined safety testing is the better understanding of chemical exposure. This includes approaches such as measuring chemical concentrations within cell-based assays and during in vivo studies, understanding how predicted human exposures relate to levels tested, and using existing information on human exposures to aid in toxicity study design. Such approaches promise to increase the human relevance of safety assessment, and shift the focus from hazard-driven to risk-driven strategies similar to those used in the pharmaceutical sectors. Human exposure-based safety assessment offers scientific and 3Rs benefits across all sectors marketing chemical or medicinal products. The UK's National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) convened an expert working group of scientists across the agrochemical, industrial chemical and pharmaceutical industries plus a contract research organisation (CRO) to discuss the current status of the utilisation of exposure-driven approaches, and the challenges and potential next steps for wider uptake and acceptance. This paper summarises these discussions, highlights the challenges - particularly those identified by industry - and proposes initial steps for moving the field forward. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical process safety at fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, D.A.

    1997-08-01

    This NUREG provides broad guidance on chemical safety issues relevant to fuel cycle facilities. It describes an approach acceptable to the NRC staff, with examples that are not exhaustive, for addressing chemical process safety in the safe storage, handling, and processing of licensed nuclear material. It expounds to license holders and applicants a general philosophy of the role of chemical process safety with respect to NRC-licensed materials; sets forth the basic information needed to properly evaluate chemical process safety; and describes plausible methods of identifying and evaluating chemical hazards and assessing the adequacy of the chemical safety of the proposed equipment and facilities. Examples of equipment and methods commonly used to prevent and/or mitigate the consequences of chemical incidents are discussed in this document

  19. Chemical conditions in present and future ecosystems in Forsmark - implications for selected radionuclides in the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troejbom, Mats; Grolander, Sara

    2010-12-01

    This report is a background report for the biosphere analysis of the SR-Site Safety Assessment. This work aims to describe the future development of the chemical conditions at Forsmark, based on the present chemical conditions at landscape level taking landscape development and climate cases into consideration. The results presented contribute to the overall understanding of the present and future chemistry in the Forsmark area, and specifically, to the understanding of the behaviour of some selected radionuclides in the surface system. The future development of the chemistry at the site is qualitatively discussed with focus on the interglacial within the next 10,000 years. The effects on the chemical environment of future climate cases as Global Warming and cold permafrost climates are also briefly discussed. The work is presented in two independent parts describing background radionuclide activities in the Forsmark area and the distribution and behaviour of a large number of stable elements in the landscape. In a concluding section, implications of the future chemical environment of a selection of radionuclides important in the Safety Assessment are discussed based on the knowledge of stable elements. The broad range of elements studied show that there are general and expected patterns for the distribution and behaviour in the landscape of different groups of elements. Mass balances reveal major sources and sinks, pool estimations show where elements are accumulated in the landscape and estimations of time-scales give indications of the potential future development. This general knowledge is transferred to radionuclides not measured in order to estimate their behaviour and distribution in the landscape. It could be concluded that the future development of the chemical environment in the Forsmark area might affect element specific parameters used in de radionuclide model in different directions depending on element. The alternative climate cases, Global Warming

  20. Chemical conditions in present and future ecosystems in Forsmark - implications for selected radionuclides in the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troejbom, Mats (Mats Troejbom Konsult AB (Sweden)); Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is a background report for the biosphere analysis of the SR-Site Safety Assessment. This work aims to describe the future development of the chemical conditions at Forsmark, based on the present chemical conditions at landscape level taking landscape development and climate cases into consideration. The results presented contribute to the overall understanding of the present and future chemistry in the Forsmark area, and specifically, to the understanding of the behaviour of some selected radionuclides in the surface system. The future development of the chemistry at the site is qualitatively discussed with focus on the interglacial within the next 10,000 years. The effects on the chemical environment of future climate cases as Global Warming and cold permafrost climates are also briefly discussed. The work is presented in two independent parts describing background radionuclide activities in the Forsmark area and the distribution and behaviour of a large number of stable elements in the landscape. In a concluding section, implications of the future chemical environment of a selection of radionuclides important in the Safety Assessment are discussed based on the knowledge of stable elements. The broad range of elements studied show that there are general and expected patterns for the distribution and behaviour in the landscape of different groups of elements. Mass balances reveal major sources and sinks, pool estimations show where elements are accumulated in the landscape and estimations of time-scales give indications of the potential future development. This general knowledge is transferred to radionuclides not measured in order to estimate their behaviour and distribution in the landscape. It could be concluded that the future development of the chemical environment in the Forsmark area might affect element specific parameters used in de radionuclide model in different directions depending on element. The alternative climate cases, Global Warming

  1. Chemical Hazards and Safety Issues in Fusion Safety Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Radiological inventory releases have dominated accident consequences for fusion; these consequences are important to analyze and are generally the most severe result of a fusion facility accident event. However, the advent of, or plan for, large-scale usage of some toxic materials poses the additional hazard of chemical exposure from an accident event. Examples of toxic chemicals are beryllium for magnetic fusion and fluorine for laser fusion. Therefore, chemical exposure consequences must also be addressed in fusion safety assessment. This paper provides guidance for fusion safety analysis. US Department of Energy (DOE) chemical safety assessment practices for workers and the public are reviewed. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published some guidance on public exposure to releases of mixtures of chemicals, this guidance has been used to create an initial guideline for treating mixed radiological and toxicological releases in fusion; for example, tritiated hazardous dust from a tokamak vacuum vessel. There is no convenient means to judge the hazard severity of exposure to mixed materials. The chemical fate of mixed material constituents must be reviewed to determine if there is a separate or combined radiological and toxicological carcinogenesis, or if other health threats exist with radiological carcinogenesis. Recommendations are made for fusion facility chemical safety evaluation and safety guidance for protecting the public from chemical releases, since such levels are not specifically identified in the DOE fusion safety standard

  2. Chemical Safety Assessment Using Read-Across: Assessing the Use of Novel Testing Methods to Strengthen the Evidence Base for Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Elisabet; Amcoff, Patric; Benigni, Romualdo; Blackburn, Karen; Carney, Edward; Cronin, Mark; Deluyker, Hubert; Gautier, Francoise; Judson, Richard S; Kass, Georges E N; Keller, Detlef; Knight, Derek; Lilienblum, Werner; Mahony, Catherine; Rusyn, Ivan; Schultz, Terry; Schwarz, Michael; Schüürmann, Gerrit; White, Andrew; Burton, Julien; Lostia, Alfonso M; Munn, Sharon; Worth, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Safety assessment for repeated dose toxicity is one of the largest challenges in the process to replace animal testing. This is also one of the proof of concept ambitions of SEURAT-1, the largest ever European Union research initiative on alternative testing, co-funded by the European Commission and Cosmetics Europe. This review is based on the discussion and outcome of a workshop organized on initiative of the SEURAT-1 consortium joined by a group of international experts with complementary knowledge to further develop traditional read-across and include new approach data. The aim of the suggested strategy for chemical read-across is to show how a traditional read-across based on structural similarities between source and target substance can be strengthened with additional evidence from new approach data--for example, information from in vitro molecular screening, "-omics" assays and computational models--to reach regulatory acceptance. We identified four read-across scenarios that cover typical human health assessment situations. For each such decision context, we suggested several chemical groups as examples to prove when read-across between group members is possible, considering both chemical and biological similarities. We agreed to carry out the complete read-across exercise for at least one chemical category per read-across scenario in the context of SEURAT-1, and the results of this exercise will be completed and presented by the end of the research initiative in December 2015.

  3. Specific environmental release categories--A tool for improving chemical safety assessment in the EC--report of a multi-stakeholder workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sättler, Daniel; Schnöder, Frank; Aust, Nannett; Ahrens, Andreas; Bögi, Christian; Traas, Theo; Tolls, Johannes

    2012-10-01

    In April 2011, experts from industry and authorities met for a workshop to discuss experience and future developments regarding the use of specific environmental release categories (SPERCs) in chemicals safety assessment (CSA) under the European Chemicals Regulation Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH). This article provides a summary of the workshop. It briefly explains what a SPERC is, why SPERCs are needed, where the challenges of the concept are, and what improvements are needed to make SPERCs a useful tool for assessments under REACH. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  4. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkner, K.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.

  5. Chemical Safety Assessment Using Read-Across: Assessing the Use of Novel Testing Methods to Strengthen the Evidence Base for Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amcoff, Patric; Benigni, Romualdo; Blackburn, Karen; Carney, Edward; Cronin, Mark; Deluyker, Hubert; Gautier, Francoise; Judson, Richard S.; Kass, Georges E.N.; Keller, Detlef; Knight, Derek; Lilienblum, Werner; Mahony, Catherine; Rusyn, Ivan; Schultz, Terry; Schwarz, Michael; Schüürmann, Gerrit; White, Andrew; Burton, Julien; Lostia, Alfonso M.; Munn, Sharon; Worth, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Safety assessment for repeated dose toxicity is one of the largest challenges in the process to replace animal testing. This is also one of the proof of concept ambitions of SEURAT-1, the largest ever European Union research initiative on alternative testing, co-funded by the European Commission and Cosmetics Europe. This review is based on the discussion and outcome of a workshop organized on initiative of the SEURAT-1 consortium joined by a group of international experts with complementary knowledge to further develop traditional read-across and include new approach data. Objectives The aim of the suggested strategy for chemical read-across is to show how a traditional read-across based on structural similarities between source and target substance can be strengthened with additional evidence from new approach data—for example, information from in vitro molecular screening, “-omics” assays and computational models—to reach regulatory acceptance. Methods We identified four read-across scenarios that cover typical human health assessment situations. For each such decision context, we suggested several chemical groups as examples to prove when read-across between group members is possible, considering both chemical and biological similarities. Conclusions We agreed to carry out the complete read-across exercise for at least one chemical category per read-across scenario in the context of SEURAT-1, and the results of this exercise will be completed and presented by the end of the research initiative in December 2015. Citation Berggren E, Amcoff P, Benigni R, Blackburn K, Carney E, Cronin M, Deluyker H, Gautier F, Judson RS, Kass GE, Keller D, Knight D, Lilienblum W, Mahony C, Rusyn I, Schultz T, Schwarz M, Schüürmann G, White A, Burton J, Lostia AM, Munn S, Worth A. 2015. Chemical safety assessment using read-across: assessing the use of novel testing methods to strengthen the evidence base for decision making. Environ Health Perspect 123:1232

  6. Application of the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept to the safety assessment of chemically complex food matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, M.A.J.; Koster, S.; Krul, C.A.M.; Houben, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    The toxicological assessment of chemically complex food matrices (CCFM) usually is very time consuming, expensive and uses many animal studies. Improvements to obtain a more efficient assessment process remain limited as long as we retain traditional approaches to toxicological risk assessment. New

  7. Review of the state of the art of human biomonitoring for chemical substances and its application to human exposure assessment for food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Judy; Mørck, Thit Aarøe; Polcher, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) measures the levels of substances in body fluids and tissues. Many countries have conducted HBM studies, yet little is known about its application towards chemical risk assessment, particularly in relation to food safety. Therefore a literature search was performed...... in several databases and conference proceedings for 2002 – 2014. Definitions of HBM and biomarkers, HBM techniques and requirements, and the possible application to the different steps of risk assessment were described. The usefulness of HBM for exposure assessment of chemical substances from food source...... safety areas (namely exposure assessment), and for the implementation of a systematic PMM approach. But further work needs to be done to improve usability. Major deficits are the lack of HBM guidance values on a considerable number of substance groups, for which health based guidance values (HBGVs) have...

  8. Comparing REACH Chemical Safety Assessment information with practice-a case-study of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in floor coating in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spee, Ton; Huizer, Daan

    2017-10-01

    On June 1st, 2007 the European regulation on Registration, Evaluation and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) came into force. Aim of the regulation is safe use of chemicals for humans and for the environment. The core element of REACH is chemical safety assessment of chemicals and communication of health and safety hazards and risk management measures throughout the supply chain. Extended Safety Data Sheets (Ext-SDS) are the primary carriers of health and safety information. The aim of our project was to find out whether the actual exposure to methyl methacrylate (MMA) during the application of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in floor coatings as assessed in the chemical safety assessment, reflect the exposure situations as observed in the Dutch building practice. Use of PMMA flooring and typical exposure situations during application were discussed with twelve representatives of floor laying companies. Representative situations for exposure measurements were designated on the basis of this inventory. Exposure to MMA was measured in the breathing zone of the workers at four construction sites, 14 full shift samples and 14 task based samples were taken by personal air sampling. The task-based samples were compared with estimates from the Targeted Risk Assessment Tool (v3.1) of the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC-TRA) as supplied in the safety assessment from the manufacturer. For task-based measurements, in 12 out of 14 (86%) air samples measured exposure was higher than estimated exposure. Recalculation with a lower ventilation rate (50% instead of 80%) together with a higher temperature during mixing (40°C instead of 20°C) in comparison with the CSR, reduced the number of underestimated exposures to 10 (71%) samples. Estimation with the EMKG-EXPO-Tool resulted in unsafe exposure situations for all scenarios, which is in accordance with the measurement outcomes. In indoor situations, 5 out of 8 full shift exposures (62

  9. Safety Assessment for Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    In the past few decades, international guidance has been developed on methods for assessing the safety of predisposal and disposal facilities for radioactive waste. More recently, it has been recognized that there is also a need for specific guidance on safety assessment in the context of decommissioning nuclear facilities. The importance of safety during decommissioning was highlighted at the International Conference on Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities held in Berlin in 2002 and at the First Review Meeting of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management in 2003. At its June 2004 meeting, the Board of Governors of the IAEA approved the International Action Plan on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (GOV/2004/40), which called on the IAEA to: ''establish a forum for the sharing and exchange of national information and experience on the application of safety assessment in the context of decommissioning and provide a means to convey this information to other interested parties, also drawing on the work of other international organizations in this area''. In response, in November 2004, the IAEA launched the international project Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety for Decommissioning of Facilities Using Radioactive Material (DeSa) with the following objectives: -To develop a harmonized approach to safety assessment and to define the elements of safety assessment for decommissioning, including the application of a graded approach; -To investigate the practical applicability of the methodology and performance of safety assessments for the decommissioning of various types of facility through a selected number of test cases; -To investigate approaches for the review of safety assessments for decommissioning activities and the development of a regulatory approach for reviewing safety assessments for decommissioning activities and as a basis for regulatory decision making; -To provide a forum

  10. Assessment of Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilic Zabric, T.; Kavsek, D.

    2006-01-01

    A strong safety culture leads to more effective conduct of work and a sense of accountability among managers and employees, who should be given the opportunity to expand skills by training. The resources expended would thus result in tangible improvements in working practices and skills, which encourage further improvement of safety culture. In promoting an improved safety culture, NEK has emphasized both national and organizational culture with an appropriate balance of behavioural sciences and quality management systems approaches. In recent years there has been particular emphasis put on an increasing awareness of the contribution that human behavioural sciences can make to develop good safety practices. The purpose of an assessment of safety culture is to increase the awareness of the present culture, to serve as a basis for improvement and to keep track of the effects of change or improvement over a longer period of time. There is, however, no single approach that is suitable for all purposes and which can measure, simultaneously, all the intangible aspects of safety culture, i.e. the norms, values, beliefs, attitudes or the behaviours reflecting the culture. Various methods have their strengths and weaknesses. To prevent significant performance problems, self-assessment is used. Self-assessment is the process of identifying opportunities for improvement actively or, in some cases, weaknesses that could cause more serious errors or events. Self-assessments are an important input to the corrective action programme. NEK has developed questionnaires for safety culture self-assessment to obtain information that is representative of the whole organization. Questionnaires ensure a greater degree of anonymity, and create a less stressful situation for the respondent. Answers to questions represent the more apparent and conscious values and attitudes of the respondent. NEK proactively co-operates with WANO, INPO, IAEA in the areas of Safety Culture and Human

  11. Chemical Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course is aimed at providing an overview of the fundamental guiding principles and general methods used in chemical risk assessment. Chemical risk assessment is a complex and ever-evolving process. These principles and methods have been organized by the National Research Cou...

  12. Safety Auditing and Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, James Ronald (Ronnie)

    2005-01-01

    Safety professionals typically do not engage in audits and independent assessments with the vigor as do our quality brethren. Taking advantage of industry and government experience conducting value added Independent Assessments or Audits benefits a safety program. Most other organizations simply call this process "internal audits." Sources of audit training are presented and compared. A relation of logic between audit techniques and mishap investigation is discussed. An example of an audit process is offered. Shortcomings and pitfalls of auditing are covered.

  13. New set of Chemical Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2011-01-01

    A new set of four Safety Rules was issued on 28 March 2011: Safety Regulation SR-C ver. 2, Chemical Agents (en); General Safety Instruction GSI-C1, Prevention and Protection Measures (en); General Safety Instruction GSI-C2, Explosive Atmospheres (en); General Safety Instruction GSI-C3, Monitoring of Exposure to Hazardous Chemical Agents in Workplace Atmospheres (en). These documents form part of the CERN Safety Rules and are issued in application of the “Staff Rules and Regulations” and of document SAPOCO 42. These documents set out the minimum requirements for the protection of persons from risks to their occupational safety and health arising, or likely to arise, from the effects of hazardous chemical agents that are present in the workplace or used in any CERN activity. Simultaneously, the HSE Unit has published seven Safety Guidelines and six Safety Forms. These documents are available from the dedicated Web page “Chemical, Cryogenic and Biological Safety&...

  14. Human factors in safety assessment. Safety culture assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Deng Zhiliang; Wang Yiqun; Huang Weigang

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the present conditions and problems in enterprises safety assessment, and introduces the characteristics and effects of safety culture. The authors think that safety culture must be used as a 'soul' to form the pattern of modern safety management. Furthermore, they propose that the human safety and synthetic safety management assessment in a system should be changed into safety culture assessment. Finally, the assessment indicators are discussed

  15. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

  16. Current concepts on integrative safety assessment of active substances of botanical, mineral or chemical origin in homeopathic medicinal products within the European regulatory framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholzer, Marie-Luise; Werner, Christine; Knoess, Werner

    2014-03-01

    For active substances of botanical, mineral or chemical origin processed in homeopathic medicinal products for human use, the adequate safety principles as with other human medicinal products are applied in line with the European regulatory framework. In homeopathy, nonclinical safety assessment is facing a particular challenge because of a multitude and diversity of source materials used and due to rarely available toxicological data. Thus, current concepts applied by the national regulatory authority in Germany (BfArM) on integrative safety assessment of raw materials used in homeopathic medicinal products involve several evaluation approaches like the use of the Lowest Human Recommended Dose (LHRD), toxicological limit values, Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC), data from food regulation or the consideration of unavoidable environmental or dietary background exposure. This publication is intended to further develop and clarify the practical use of these assessment routes by exemplary application on selected homeopathic preparations. In conclusion, the different approaches are considered a very useful scientific and simultaneously pragmatic procedure in differentiated risk assessment of homeopathic medicinal products. Overall, this paper aims to increase the visibility of the safety issues in homeopathy and to stimulate scientific discussion of worldwide existing regulatory concepts on homeopathic medicinal products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. New Safety rule for Chemical Agents

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2010-01-01

    The following Safety rule has been issued on 08-01-2010: Safety Regulation SR-C Chemical Agents This document applies to all persons under the Director General’s authority. It sets out the minimal requirements for the protection of persons from risks to their safety and health arising, or likely to arise, from the effects of hazardous chemical agents used in any CERN activity. All Safety rules are available on the web pages.

  18. Reactor Safety Assessment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebo, D.E.; Bray, M.A.; King, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Assessment System (RSAS) is an expert system under development for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). RSAS is designed for use at the USNRC Operations Center in the event of a serious incident at a licensed nuclear power plant. RSAS is a situation assessment expert system which uses plant parametric data to generate conclusions for use by the NRC Reactor Safety Team. RSAS uses multiple rule bases and plant specific setpoint files to be applicable to all licensed nuclear power plants in the United States. RSAS currently covers several generic reactor categories and multiple plants within each category

  19. Reactor safety assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebo, D.E.; Bray, M.A.; King, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Assessment System (RSAS) is an expert system under development for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). RSA is designed for use at the USNRC Operations Center in the event of a serious incident at a licensed nuclear power plant. RSAS is a situation assessment expert system which uses plant parametric data to generate conclusions for use by the NRC Reactor Safety Team. RSAS uses multiple rule bases and plant specific setpoint files to be applicable to all licensed nuclear power plants in the United States. RSAS currently covers several generic reactor categories and multiple plants within each category

  20. chemical safety and chemical security overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    Wafaa M. Abdou. Chemical Industries Division, National Research Centre, ... substances to attain an acceptably low risk of exposure. Security is: ... Sharing locations of chemicals can publicize targets for theft .... D. Personal Protective Equipments (PPE): ... E. Lighting & Noise Levels ... PPE. ➢ Autoclave or sterilize wastes.

  1. Metrics design for safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Yaping; van den Brand, M.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Context:In the safety domain, safety assessment is used to show that safety-critical systems meet the required safety objectives. This process is also referred to as safety assurance and certification. During this procedure, safety standards are used as development guidelines to keep the risk at an

  2. Probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoertner, H.; Schuetz, B.

    1982-09-01

    For the purpose of assessing applicability and informativeness on risk-analysis methods in licencing procedures under atomic law, the choice of instruments for probabilistic analysis, the problems in and experience gained in their application, and the discussion of safety goals with respect to such instruments are of paramount significance. Naturally, such a complex field can only be dealt with step by step, making contribution relative to specific problems. The report on hand shows the essentials of a 'stocktaking' of systems relability studies in the licencing procedure under atomic law and of an American report (NUREG-0739) on 'Quantitative Safety Goals'. (orig.) [de

  3. Safety and reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the course on safety and reliability assessment held at the CSIR Conference Centre, Scientia, Pretoria. The following topics were discussed: safety standards; licensing; biological effects of radiation; what is a PWR; safety principles in the design of a nuclear reactor; radio-release analysis; quality assurance; the staffing, organisation and training for a nuclear power plant project; event trees, fault trees and probability; Automatic Protective Systems; sources of failure-rate data; interpretation of failure data; synthesis and reliability; quantification of human error in man-machine systems; dispersion of noxious substances through the atmosphere; criticality aspects of enrichment and recovery plants; and risk and hazard analysis. Extensive examples are given as well as case studies

  4. Factors to consider in the use of stem cells for pharmaceutic drug development and for chemical safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosko, James Edward; Chang, Chia-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Given the reality of the inadequacies of current concepts of the mechanisms of chemical toxicities, of the various assays to predict toxicities from current molecular, biochemical, in vitro and animal bioassays, and of the failure to generate efficacious and safe chemicals for medicines, food supplements, industrial, consumer and agricultural chemicals, the recent NAS Report, 'Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy', has drawn attention to a renewed examination of what needs to be done to improve our current approach for better assessment of potential risk to human health. This 'Commentary' provides a major paradigm challenge to the current concepts of how chemicals induce toxicities and how these various mechanisms of toxicities can contribute to the pathogenesis of some human diseases, such as birth defects and cancer. In concordance with the NAS Report to take '... advantage of the on-going revolution in biology and biotechnology', this 'Commentary' supports the use of human embryonic and adult stem cells, grown in vitro under simulated 'in vivo niche conditions'. The human being should be viewed 'as greater than the sum of its parts'. Homeostatic control of the 'emergent properties' of the human hierarchy, needed to maintain human health, requires complex integration of endogenous and exogenous signaling molecules that control cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and senescence of stem, progenitor and differentiated cells. Currently, in vitro toxicity assays (mutagenesis, cytotoxicity, epigenetic modulation), done on 2-dimensional primary rodent or human cells (which are always mixtures of cells), on immortalized or tumorigenic rodent or human cell lines do not represent normal human cells in vivo [which do not grow on plastic and which are in micro-environments representing 3 dimensions and constantly interacting factors]. In addition, with the known genetic, gender, and developmental state of cells in vivo, any in vitro

  5. Testing REACH draft technical guidance notes for conducting chemical safety assessments-the experience of a downstream user of a preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Anne Lill; Ovrebø, Steinar; Hylland, Ketil

    2008-07-01

    The goal of REACH is the safe use of chemicals. This study examines the efficiency and usefulness of two draft technical guidance notes in the REACH Interim Project 3.2-2 for the development of the chemical safety report and exposure scenarios. A case study was carried out for a paint system for protection of structural steel. The focuses of the study were risk assessment of preparations based on Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) and Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) and on effective and accurate communication in the supply chain. Exposure scenarios and generic descriptions of uses, risk management measures, and exposure determinants were developed. The study showed that communication formats, software tools, and guidelines for chemical risk assessment need further adjustment to preparations and real-life situations. Web platforms may simplify such communication. The downstream formulator needs basic substance data from the substance manufacturer during the pre-registration phase to develop exposure scenarios for preparations. Default values need to be communicated in the supply chain because these were critical for the derivation of applicable risk management demands. The current guidelines which rely on the available toxicological knowledge are insufficient to advise downstream users on how to develop exposure scenarios for preparations.

  6. [Agricultural biotechnology safety assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Scott; Jones, Wendelyn; He, Xiaoyun; Ladics, Gregory; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Raybould, Alan; Lutter, Petra; Xu, Haibin; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first introduced to farmers in 1995 with the intent to provide better crop yield and meet the increasing demand for food and feed. GM crops have evolved to include a thorough safety evaluation for their use in human food and animal feed. Safety considerations begin at the level of DNA whereby the inserted GM DNA is evaluated for its content, position and stability once placed into the crop genome. The safety of the proteins coded by the inserted DNA and potential effects on the crop are considered, and the purpose is to ensure that the transgenic novel proteins are safe from a toxicity, allergy, and environmental perspective. In addition, the grain that provides the processed food or animal feed is also tested to evaluate its nutritional content and identify unintended effects to the plant composition when warranted. To provide a platform for the safety assessment, the GM crop is compared to non-GM comparators in what is typically referred to as composition equivalence testing. New technologies, such as mass spectrometry and well-designed antibody-based methods, allow better analytical measurements of crop composition, including endogenous allergens. Many of the analytical methods and their intended uses are based on regulatory guidance documents, some of which are outlined in globally recognized documents such as Codex Alimentarius. In certain cases, animal models are recommended by some regulatory agencies in specific countries, but there is typically no hypothesis or justification of their use in testing the safety of GM crops. The quality and standardization of testing methods can be supported, in some cases, by employing good laboratory practices (GLP) and is recognized in China as important to ensure quality data. Although the number of recommended, in some cases, required methods for safety testing are increasing in some regulatory agencies, it should be noted that GM crops registered to date have been shown to be

  7. Safety Considerations in the Chemical Process Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Stanley M.

    There is an increased emphasis on chemical process safety as a result of highly publicized accidents. Public awareness of these accidents has provided a driving force for industry to improve its safety record. There has been an increasing amount of government regulation.

  8. HSE's safety assessment principles for criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simister, D N; Finnerty, M D; Warburton, S J; Thomas, E A; Macphail, M R

    2008-01-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) published its revised Safety Assessment Principles for Nuclear Facilities (SAPs) in December 2006. The SAPs are primarily intended for use by HSE's inspectors when judging the adequacy of safety cases for nuclear facilities. The revised SAPs relate to all aspects of safety in nuclear facilities including the technical discipline of criticality safety. The purpose of this paper is to set out for the benefit of a wider audience some of the thinking behind the final published words and to provide an insight into the development of UK regulatory guidance. The paper notes that it is HSE's intention that the Safety Assessment Principles should be viewed as a reflection of good practice in the context of interpreting primary legislation such as the requirements under site licence conditions for arrangements for producing an adequate safety case and for producing a suitable and sufficient risk assessment under the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (SI1999/3232 www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1999/uksi_19993232_en.pdf). (memorandum)

  9. Safety criteria for nuclear chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, P.W.; Curtis, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Safety measures have always been required to limit the hazards due to accidental release of radioactive substances from nuclear power plants and chemical plants. The risk associated with the discharge of radioactive substances during normal operation has also to be kept acceptably low. BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels Ltd.) are developing risk criteria as targets for safe plant design and operation. The numerical values derived are compared with these criteria to see if plants are 'acceptably safe'. However, the criteria are not mandatory and may be exceeded if this can be justified. The risk assessments are subject to independent review and audit. The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate also has to pass the plants as safe. The assessment principles it uses are stated. The development of risk criteria for a multiplant site (nuclear chemical plants tend to be sited with many others which are related functionally) is discussed. This covers individual members of the general public, societal risks, risks to the workforce and external hazards. (U.K.)

  10. Safety assessment of smoke flavouring primary products by the European Food Safety Authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theobald, A.; Arcella, D.; Carere, A.; Croera, C.; Engel, K.H.; Gott, D.; Gurtler, R.; Meier, D.; Pratt, I.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Simon, R.; Walker, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarises the safety assessments of eleven smoke flavouring primary products evaluated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Data on chemical composition, content of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and results of genotoxicity tests and subchronic toxicity studies are presented and

  11. Experiences in assessing safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitalnik, J.

    2002-01-01

    Based on several Safety Culture self-assessment applications in nuclear organisations, the paper stresses relevant aspects to be considered when programming an assessment of this type. Reasons for assessing Safety Culture, basic principles to take into account, necessary resources, the importance of proper statistical analyses, the feed-back of results, and the setting up of action plans to enhance Safety Culture are discussed. (author)

  12. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  13. Consideration of the FQPA Safety Factor and Other Uncertainty Factors in Cumulative Risk Assessment of Chemicals Sharing a Common Mechanism of Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance document provides OPP's current thinking on application of the provision in FFDCA about an additional safety factor for the protection of infants and children in the context of cumulative risk assessments.

  14. chemical safety in laboratories of african universities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unesco

    Universities in Africa are in need of chemical safety and security facilities, ... In March 2009, fifty one 4th year undergraduate students (graduating class) of .... manufacturing industries, and many of them are concerned primarily ... advancement of chemistry world wide to do their best both to push the African chemistry.

  15. Derivation of a chemical-specific adjustment factor (CSAF) for use in the assessment of risk from chronic exposure to ethylene glycol: Application of international programme for chemical safety guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, Robert B.; Brent, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    The International Programme for Chemical Safety (IPCS) has developed a set of guidelines ('the Guidance') for the establishment of Chemical-Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAFs) for in the assessment of toxicity risk to the human population as a result of chemical exposure. The development of case studies is encouraged in the Guidance document and comments on them have been encouraged by the IPCS. One provision in the Guidance is for the determination of CSAFs based on human data. We present a case study of the use of the Guidance for the determination of the CSAF for ethylene glycol (EG) primarily utilizing clinically obtained data. The most relevant endpoint for this analysis was deemed to be acute renal injury. These data were applied based on an assessment of the known pharmaco/toxico-kinetic properties of EG. Because of the lack of both bioaccumulation of EG and reports of chronic or progressive renal injury from EG, it was concluded that the most appropriate model of chronic exposure is one of repeated acute episodes. The most relevant exposure metric was determined to be plasma glycolate concentration. Based on a prospective human study of EG-poisoned patients, the NOAEL for glycolate was found to be 10.1 mM. This value is similar to that obtained from animal data. The application of the Guidelines to this data resulted in a CSAF of 10.24, corresponding to a daily EG dose of 43.7 mg/kg/day. In 2000, Health Canada (HC) produced an animal data-based analysis of the maximum tolerated dose of EG. The results of our analysis are compared with those of HC, and the strengths and weaknesses of these two data types related to EG are discussed

  16. Food Safety and Chemical Contaminants: An Overview a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is a major consumer’s concern worldwide. Although several incidences of food poisoning have placed microbial contamination on the forefront during recent years, health risks due to chemical contamination still remain high. The most often cited chemical contaminants are derived from a variety of sources such as pesticides, environmental chemicals (PCBs. dioxin, heavy metals including lead, mercury, chemical contaminants as a result of food processing (acrylamide, nitrosamines etc., naturally occurring toxicants (glycoalkaloids, mycotoxins, antinutritives etc, chemicals migrating from packaging materials, veterinary drugs and other chemical residues. In addition to the presence of unintentional contaminants, the quality and safety of foods could also be compromised by the addition of certain food additives, phytonutrients, exposure to irradiation and other substances. Food processors and the regulatory and enforcement agencies are facing an ever-increasing challenge to meet the consumer’s demands for safe foods that do not pose health risks or alter their lifestyle. As the food trade expands throughout the world, food safety has become a shared concern among both the developed and developing countries. Although food control systems do exist in the countries of Gulf region, in most of the cases they are not in line with national and international needs and are not able to cope with the new challenges of the modern era. The most appropriate methods to ensure the safety of food supplies are the strengthening of regular surveillance systems, developing methods for the systematic application of risk analysis, risk assessment and risk management strategies, and timely communication of information to develop and enforce the appropriate food safety laws globally as well as the development of international and national cooperation. This paper reviews issues, challenges and solutions to achieve food safety with respect to chemical

  17. Safety Assessment of Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

    Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

  18. Chemical safety management in WIP, Kalpakkam - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Biplab; Ravi, K.V.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Waste Management necessitates several chemicals for its process. Many of them are substantially hazardous to health, if exposed. Our department takes utmost care in transport, storing and handling of chemicals. We must put maximum efforts to prevent spillage or leak of chemicals and prevent any exposure to employees, but once it occurs, safety of the employees depend on our quick and appropriate response. Therefore, periodical review of the chemical risk needs to be done to ensure that the steps taken by the plant are in place. Purpose of this paper is to assess the overall chemical management system of this plant to ensure the prevention of any untoward incident arising from chemicals. (author)

  19. Uncertainty analysis in safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Francisco Luiz de; Sullivan, Terry

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear waste disposal is a very complex subject which requires the study of many different fields of science, like hydro geology, meteorology, geochemistry, etc. In addition, the waste disposal facilities are designed to last for a very long period of time. Both of these conditions make safety assessment projections filled with uncertainty. This paper addresses approaches for treatment of uncertainties in the safety assessment modeling due to the variability of data and some current approaches used to deal with this problem. (author)

  20. Assessment of Chemical and Radiological Vulnerabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SETH, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    Following the May 14, 1997 chemical explosion at Hanford's Plutonium Reclamation Facility, the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and its prime contractor, Fluor Hanford, Inc., completed an extensive assessment to identify and address chemical and radiological safety vulnerabilities at all facilities under the Project Hanford Management Contract. This was a challenging undertaking because of the immense size of the problem, unique technical issues, and competing priorities. This paper focuses on the assessment process, including the criteria and methodology for data collection, evaluation, and risk-based scoring. It does not provide details on the facility-specific results and corrective actions, but discusses the approach taken to address the identified vulnerabilities

  1. Integrating process safety with molecular modeling-based risk assessment of chemicals within the REACH regulatory framework: benefits and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amanda; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Fishtik, Ilie; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2007-04-11

    Registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals (REACH) represents a recent regulatory initiative by the European union commission to protect human health and the environment from potentially hazardous chemicals. Under REACH, all stakeholders must submit (thermo)physical, thermochemical, and toxicological data for certain chemicals. The commission's impact assessment studies estimate that the costs of REACH will be approximately 3-5 billion Euros. The present study advocates the systematic incorporation of computational chemistry and computer-assisted chemical risk assessment methods into REACH to reduce regulatory compliance costs. Currently powerful computer-aided ab initio techniques can be used to generate predictions of key properties of broad classes of chemicals, without resorting to costly experimentation and potentially hazardous testing. These data could be integrated into a centralized IT decision and compliance support system, and stored in a retrievable, easily communicable manner should new regulatory and/or production requirements necessitate the introduction of different uses of chemicals under different conditions. For illustration purposes, ab initio calculations are performed on heterocyclic nitrogen-containing compounds which currently serve as high energy density materials in the chemical industry. Since investigations of these compounds are still in their infancy, stability studies are imperative regarding their safe handling and storage, as well as registration under REACH.

  2. Integrating process safety with molecular modeling-based risk assessment of chemicals within the REACH regulatory framework: Benefits and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Amanda; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Fishtik, Ilie; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals (REACH) represents a recent regulatory initiative by the European union commission to protect human health and the environment from potentially hazardous chemicals. Under REACH, all stakeholders must submit (thermo)physical, thermochemical, and toxicological data for certain chemicals. The commission's impact assessment studies estimate that the costs of REACH will be approximately 3-5 billion Euros. The present study advocates the systematic incorporation of computational chemistry and computer-assisted chemical risk assessment methods into REACH to reduce regulatory compliance costs. Currently powerful computer-aided ab initio techniques can be used to generate predictions of key properties of broad classes of chemicals, without resorting to costly experimentation and potentially hazardous testing. These data could be integrated into a centralized IT decision and compliance support system, and stored in a retrievable, easily communicable manner should new regulatory and/or production requirements necessitate the introduction of different uses of chemicals under different conditions. For illustration purposes, ab initio calculations are performed on heterocyclic nitrogen-containing compounds which currently serve as high energy density materials in the chemical industry. Since investigations of these compounds are still in their infancy, stability studies are imperative regarding their safe handling and storage, as well as registration under REACH

  3. 78 FR 48029 - Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security By the authority vested in me as President by the... at reducing the safety risks and security risks associated with hazardous chemicals. However... to further improve chemical facility safety and security in coordination with owners and operators...

  4. Technical safety appraisal of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    On June 27, 1989, Secretary of Energy, Admiral James D. Watkins, US Navy (Retired), announced a 10-point initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs and waste management operations in the Department of Energy (DOE). One of the initiatives involved conducting independent Tiger Team Assessments (TTA) at DOE operating facilities. A TTA of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was performed during June and July 1991. Technical Safety Appraisals (TSA) were conducted in conjunction with the TTA as its Safety and Health portion. However, because of operational constraints the the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), operated for the DOE by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO), was not included in the Safety and Health Subteam assessment at that time. This TSA, conducted April 12 - May 8, 1992, was performed by the DOE Office of Performance Assessment to complete the normal scope of the Safety and Health portion of the Tiger Team Assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The purpose of TSAs is to evaluate and strengthen DOE operations by verifying contractor compliance with DOE Orders, to assure that lessons learned from commercial operations are incorporated into facility operations, and to stimulate and encourage pursuit of excellence; thus, the appraisal addresses more issues than would be addressed in a strictly compliance-oriented appraisal. A total of 139 Performance Objectives have been addressed by this appraisal in 19 subject areas. These 19 areas are: organization and administration, quality verification, operations, maintenance, training and certification, auxiliary systems, emergency preparedness, technical support, packaging and transportation, nuclear criticality safety, safety/security interface, experimental activities, site/facility safety review, radiological protection, worker safety and health compliance, personnel protection, fire protection, medical services and natural

  5. Assessment of criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.C.; Heaberlin, S.W.; Clayton, E.D.; Carter, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of 100 violations of criticality safety specifications reported over a 10-y period in the operations of fuel reprocessing plants. The seriousness of each rule violation was evaluated by assigning it a severity index value. The underlying causes or reasons, for the violations were identified. A criticality event tree was constructed using the parameters, causes, and reasons found in the analysis of the infractions. The event tree provides a means for visualizing the paths to an accidental criticality. Some 65% of the violations were caused by misinterpretation on the part of the operator, being attributed to a lack of clarity in the specification and insufficient training; 33% were attributed to lack of care, whereas only 2% were caused by mechanical failure. A fault tree was constructed by assembling the events that could contribute to an accident. With suitable data on the probabilities of contributing events, the probability of the accident's occurrence can be forecast. Estimated probabilities for criticality were made, based on the limited data available, that in this case indicate a minimum time span of 244 y of plant operation per accident ranging up to approx. 3000 y subject to the various underlying assumptions made. Some general suggestions for improvement are formulated based on the cases studied. Although conclusions for other plants may differ in detail, the general method of analysis and the fault tree logic should prove applicable. 4 figures, 8 tables

  6. AGR core safety assessment methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, N.; Reed, J.; Metcalfe, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    To demonstrate the safety of its gas-cooled graphite-moderated AGR reactors, nuclear safety assessments of the cores are based upon a methodology which demonstrates no component failures, geometrical stability of the structure and material properties bounded by a database. All AGRs continue to meet these three criteria. However, predictions of future core behaviour indicate that the safety case methodology will eventually need to be modified to deal with new phenomena. A new approach to the safety assessment of the cores is currently under development, which can take account of these factors while at the same time providing the same level of protection for the cores. This approach will be based on the functionality of the core: unhindered movement of control rods, continued adequate cooling of the fuel and the core, continued ability to charge and discharge fuel. (author). 5 figs

  7. Model review and evaluation for application in DOE safety basis documentation of chemical accidents - modeling guidance for atmospheric dispersion and consequence assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Woodarad, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hanna, S. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hesse, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Huang, J. -C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lewis, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mazzola, C. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its Defense Programs (DP), Office of Engineering and Operations Suppon, established the Accident Phenomenology and Consequence (AP AC) Methodology Evaluation Program to identify and evaluate methodologies and computer codes to support accident phenomenological and consequence calculations for both radiological and nonradiological materials at DOE facilities and to identify development needs. The program is also intended to define and recommend "best or good engineering/safety analysis practices" to be followed in preparing ''design or beyond design basis" assessments to be included in DOE nuclear and nonnuclear facility safety documents. The AP AC effort is intended to provide scientifically sound and more consistent analytical approaches, by identifying model selection procedures and application methodologies, in order to enhance safety analysis activities throughout the DOE complex.

  8. Safety, health and environmental committee (JKSHE): Establishing chemical hazard management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyen, A.K.S.; Noriah Mod Ali; Sangau, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the laboratories in Malaysian Nuclear Agency are using chemicals in their research activities. However, it is known that using of chemicals without proper knowledge especially on the material characteristics as well as safe handling procedure may cause great harm to the workers. Therefore, Safety, Health and Environmental Committee (JKSHE) sees the need to establish a good chemical hazard management to ensure that a safe and healthy workplace and environment is provided. One of the elements in chemical hazard management is to carry out Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment (CHRA). The assessment was done so that decision can be made on suitable control measures upon use of such chemicals, such as induction and training courses to be given to the workers and health surveillance activities that may be needed to protect the workers. For this, JKSHE has recommended to conduct CHRA for one of the laboratories at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) namely Film Dosimeter Processing Room (dark room) as the initial effort towards a better chemical hazard management. This paper presents the case study where CHRA was conducted to identify the chemical hazards at the selected laboratory, the adequacy of existing control measures and finally the recommendation for more effective control measures. (author)

  9. Safety analysis and risk assessment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, V.L.; Colwell, R.G.; Dickey, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    This Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) provides guidance to the safety analyst at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in the preparation of safety analyses and risk assessments. Although the older guidance (the Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide) continues to be used for updating the Final Safety Analysis Reports developed in the mid-1980s, this new guidance is used with all new authorization basis documents. With the mission change at RFETS came the need to establish new authorization basis documents for its facilities, whose functions had changed. The methodology and databases for performing the evaluations that support the new authorization basis documents had to be standardized, to avoid the use of different approaches and/or databases for similar accidents in different facilities. This handbook presents this new standardized approach. The handbook begins with a discussion of the requirements of the different types of authorization basis documents and how to choose the one appropriate for the facility to be evaluated. It then walks the analyst through the process of identifying all the potential hazards in the facility, classifying them, and choosing the ones that need to be analyzed further. It then discusses the methods for evaluating accident initiation and progression and covers the basic steps in a safety analysis, including consequence and frequency binning and risk ranking. The handbook lays out standardized approaches for determining the source terms of the various accidents (including airborne release fractions, leakpath factors, etc.), the atmospheric dispersion factors appropriate for Rocky Flats, and the methods for radiological and chemical consequence assessments. The radiological assessments use a radiological open-quotes templateclose quotes, a spreadsheet that incorporates the standard values of parameters, whereas the chemical assessments use the standard codes ARCHIE and ALOHA

  10. Meeting on risk and monitoring analysis techniques for food safety - RLA/5/060/ARCAL Project (ARCAL CXXVIII): sampling plans and introduction to chemical risk assessment in food innocuousness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    Some of the Latinoamerican countries such us Bolivia, Colombia, Uruguay and Venezuela participant in the meeting gave an exposition about the risk analysis and monitoring techniques in food safety in their countyries. With the aim to study components of risk analysis, food innocuousness, evaluation and chemical dangers, toxicity, exposure, change of paradigms in the global food system, data sources, study in animals and in vitro, sensitivity analysis, risk assessment in health it carried out the meeting

  11. Confidence building in safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundfelt, Bertil

    1999-01-01

    Future generations should be adequately protected from damage caused by the present disposal of radioactive waste. This presentation discusses the core of safety and performance assessment: The demonstration and building of confidence that the disposal system meets the safety requirements stipulated by society. The major difficulty is to deal with risks in the very long time perspective of the thousands of years during which the waste is hazardous. Concern about these problems has stimulated the development of the safety assessment discipline. The presentation concentrates on two of the elements of safety assessment: (1) Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, and (2) validation and review. Uncertainty is associated both with respect to what is the proper conceptual model and with respect to parameter values for a given model. A special kind of uncertainty derives from the variation of a property in space. Geostatistics is one approach to handling spatial variability. The simplest way of doing a sensitivity analysis is to offset the model parameters one by one and observe how the model output changes. The validity of the models and data used to make predictions is central to the credibility of safety assessments for radioactive waste repositories. There are several definitions of model validation. The presentation discusses it as a process and highlights some aspects of validation methodologies

  12. Safety assessments for potential exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.I.

    2012-04-01

    Safety Assessment of potential exposures have been carried out in major practices, namely: industrial radiography, gamma irradiators and electron accelerators used in industry and research, and radiotherapy. This paper focuses on reviewing safety assessment methodologies and using developed software to analyse radiological accidents, also review, and discuss these past accidents.The primary objective of the assessment is to assess the adequacy of planned or existing measures for protection and safety and to identify any additional measures that should be put in place. As such, both routine use of the source and the probability and magnitude of potential exposures arising from accidents or incidents should be considered. Where the assessment indicates that there is a realistic possibility of an accident affecting workers or members of the public or having consequences for the environment, the registrant or licensee should prepare a suitable emergency plan. A safety assessment for normal operation addresses all the conditions under which the radiation source operates as expected, including all phases of the lifetime of the source. Due account needs to be taken of the different factors and conditions that will apply during non-operational phases, such as installation, commissioning and maintenance. (author)

  13. Safety assessment and verification for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication supports the Safety Requirements on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. This Safety Guide was prepared on the basis of a systematic review of all the relevant publications including the Safety Fundamentals, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design, current and ongoing revisions of other Safety Guides, INSAG reports and other publications that have addressed the safety of nuclear power plants. This Safety Guide also provides guidance for Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety in meeting their obligations under Article 14 on Assessment and Verification of Safety. The Safety Requirements publication entitled Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design states that a comprehensive safety assessment and an independent verification of the safety assessment shall be carried out before the design is submitted to the regulatory body. This publication provides guidance on how this requirement should be met. This Safety Guide provides recommendations to designers for carrying out a safety assessment during the initial design process and design modifications, as well as to the operating organization in carrying out independent verification of the safety assessment of new nuclear power plants with a new or already existing design. The recommendations for performing a safety assessment are suitable also as guidance for the safety review of an existing plant. The objective of reviewing existing plants against current standards and practices is to determine whether there are any deviations which would have an impact on plant safety. The methods and the recommendations of this Safety Guide can also be used by regulatory bodies for the conduct of the regulatory review and assessment. Although most recommendations of this Safety Guide are general and applicable to all types of nuclear reactors, some specific recommendations and examples apply mostly to water cooled reactors. Terms such as 'safety assessment', 'safety analysis' and 'independent

  14. Uncertainty analysis in safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Francisco Luiz de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Sullivan, Terry [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Nuclear waste disposal is a very complex subject which requires the study of many different fields of science, like hydro geology, meteorology, geochemistry, etc. In addition, the waste disposal facilities are designed to last for a very long period of time. Both of these conditions make safety assessment projections filled with uncertainty. This paper addresses approaches for treatment of uncertainties in the safety assessment modeling due to the variability of data and some current approaches used to deal with this problem. (author) 13 refs.; e-mail: lemos at bnl.gov; sulliva1 at bnl.gov

  15. Safety management system needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The safety of the traveling public is critical as each year there are approximately 200 highway fatalities in Nebraska and numerous crash injuries. The objective of this research was to conduct a needs assessment to identify the requirements of a sta...

  16. Prospects for probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.

    1992-01-01

    This article provides some reflections on future developments of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) in view of the present state of the art and evaluates current trends in the use of PSA for safety management. The main emphasis is on Level 1 PSA, although Level 2 aspects are also highlighted to some extent. As a starting point, the role of PSA is outlined from a historical perspective, demonstrating the rapid expansion of the uses of PSA. In this context the wide spectrum of PSA applications and the associated benefits to the users are in focus. It should be kept in mind, however, that PSA, in spite of its merits, is not a self-standing safety tool. It complements deterministic analysis and thus improves understanding and facilitating prioritization of safety issues. Significant progress in handling PSA limitations - such as reliability data, common-cause failures, human interactions, external events, accident progression, containment performance, and source-term issues - is described. This forms a background for expected future developments of PSA. Among the most important issues on the agenda for the future are PSA scope extensions, methodological improvements and computer code advancements, and full exploitation of the potential benefits of applications to operational safety management. Many PSA uses, if properly exercised, lead to safety improvements as well as major burden reductions. The article provides, in addition, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) perspective on the topics covered, as reflected in the current PSA programs of the agency. 74 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  17. Living probabilistic safety assessment (LPSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Over the past few years many nuclear power plant organizations have performed probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) to identify and understand key plant vulnerabilities. As a result of the availability of these PSA studies, there is a desire to use them to enhance plant safety and to operate the nuclear stations in the most efficient manner. PSA is an effective tool for this purpose as it assists plant management to target resources where the largest benefit to plant safety can be obtained. However, any PSA which is to be used in this way must have a credible and defensible basis. Thus, it is very important to have a high quality 'living PSA' accepted by the plant and the regulator. With this background in mind, the IAEA has prepared this report on Living Probabilistic Safety Assessment (LPSA) which addresses the updating, documentation, quality assurance, and management and organizational requirements for LPSA. Deficiencies in the areas addressed in this report would seriously reduce the adequacy of the LPSA as a tool to support decision making at NPPs. This report was reviewed by a working group during a Technical Committee Meeting on PSA Applications to Improve NPP Safety held in Madrid, Spain, from 23 to 27 February 1998

  18. LNG Safety Assessment Evaluation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods were evaluated for their potential applicability for use in the LNG railroad application. After reviewing the documents included in this report, as well as others not included because of repetition, the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist is most suitable to be adapted to the LNG railroad application. This report was developed to survey industries related to rail transportation for methodologies and tools that can be used by the FRA to review and evaluate safety assessments submitted by the railroad industry as a part of their implementation plans for liquefied or compressed natural gas storage ( on-board or tender) and engine fueling delivery systems. The main sections of this report provide an overview of various methods found during this survey. In most cases, the reference document is quoted directly. The final section provides discussion and a recommendation for the most appropriate methodology that will allow efficient and consistent evaluations to be made. The DOE Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist was then revised to adapt it as a methodology for the Federal Railroad Administration’s use in evaluating safety plans submitted by the railroad industry.

  19. Designing continuous safety improvement within chemical industrial areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.L.L.; Ale, B. J.M.; Dullaert, W.; Soudan, K.

    This article provides support in organizing and implementing novel concepts for enhancing safety on a cluster level of chemical plants. The paper elaborates the requirements for integrating Safety Management Systems of chemical plants situated within a so-called chemical cluster. Recommendations of

  20. [Non-animal toxicology in the safety testing of chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Tuula; Tähti, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop predictive test methods better than animal experiments for assessing the safety of chemical substances to man. According to today's vision this is achieved by using human cell based tissue and organ models. In the new testing strategy the toxic effects are assessed by the changes in the critical parameters of the cellular biochemical routes (AOP, adverse toxic outcome pathway-principle) in the target tissues. In vitro-tests are rapid and effective, and with them automation can be applied. The change in the testing paradigm is supported by all stakeholders: scientists, regulators and people concerned on animal welfare.

  1. Understanding and assessing safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalling, Ian

    1997-01-01

    The 'Dalling' integrated model of organisational performance is introduced and described. A principal element of this model is culture, which is dynamically contrasted with the five other interacting critical elements, which comprise: the management system, the knowledge base, corporate leadership, stakeholders and consciousness. All six of these principal driving elements significantly influence health, safety, environmental, security, or any other aspect of organisational performance. It is asserted that the elements of organisational performance must be clearly defined and understood if meaningful measurements are to be carried out and sustained progress made in improving the knowledge of organisational performance. AEA Technology's safety culture research programme is then described together with the application of a safety culture assessment tool to organisations in the nuclear, electricity, transport, and oil and gas industries, both within and outside of the United Kingdom. (author)

  2. Failure rate data for fusion safety and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Fusion Safety Program (FSP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducts safety research in materials, chemical reactions, safety analysis, risk assessment, and in component research and development to support existing magnetic fusion experiments and also to promote safety in the design of future experiments. One of the areas of safety research is applying probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods to fusion experiments. To apply PRA, we need a fusion-relevant radiological dose code and a component failure rate data base. This paper describes the FSP effort to develop a failure rate data base for fusion-specific components

  3. Fusion blanket inherent safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, D.K.; Jung, J.; Cheng, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Fusion has significant potential safety advantages. There is a strong incentive for designing fusion plants to ensure that inherent safety will be achieved. Accordingly, both the Tokamak Power Systems Studies and MINIMARS have identified inherent safety as a design goal. A necessary condition is for the blanket to maintain its configuration and integrity under all credible accident conditions. A main problem is caused by afterheat removal in an accident condition. In this regard, it is highly desirable to achieve the required level of protection of the plant capital investment and limitation of radioactivity release by systems that rely only on inherent properties of matter (e.g., thermal conductivity, specific heat, etc.) and without the use of active safety equipment. This paper assesses the conditions under which inherent safety is feasible. Three types of accident conditions are evaluated for two blankets. The blankets evaluated are a self cooled vanadium/lithium blanket and a self-cooled vanadium/Flibe blanket. The accident conditions evaluated are: (1) loss-of-flow accident; (2) loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA); and (3) partial loss-of-coolant accident

  4. Framework of nuclear safety and safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    Since enormous energy is released by nuclear chain reaction mainly as a form of radiation, a great potential risk accompanies utilization of nuclear energy. Safety has been continuously a critical issue therefore from the very beginning of its development. Though the framework of nuclear safety that has been established at an early developmental stage of nuclear engineering is still valid, more comprehensive approaches are required having experienced several events such as Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and JCO. This article gives a brief view of the most basic principles how nuclear safety is achieved, which were introduced and sophisticated in nuclear engineering but applicable also to other engineering domains in general. (author)

  5. The chemical safety of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    While animal feeding studies and other biological testing methods have contributed greatly to the establishment of the toxicological safety of irradiated foods, probably no other single factor has lent itself so conclusively to this end as the availability of an unprecedented volume of analytical chemistry data on radiolytic products generated in a variety of foods and their raw materials and ingredients, collected at laboratories worldwide over decades. Such direct analytical chemical evidence, backed up by a general knowledge of radiation chemistry of bio-organic materials has allowed regulatory scientists and other competent, qualified and objective interested parties to discern with a high degree of confidence what takes place chemically at the sub-molecular level, and in the parts-per-trillion range, as a result of food irradiation. Ironically, this has also opened the way for nonqualified, subjectively negatively biased individuals to, for example, grossly misrepresent such compounds as benzene and formaldehyde in this context in an alarmist fashion to anyone predisposed to listen

  6. Confidence building in safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osthols, E.

    1999-01-01

    Engineered disposal systems are necessary to isolate radioactive waste from humans and the environment. It is essential to have access to basic thermochemical data relevant to varying geological environments for the radioactive elements involved. The OECD/NEA Thermochemical Data Base project (TDB) aims to make widely available basic thermochemical data of the type needed for safety assessment of nuclear storage facilities. The history and the present status of the project are presented. (K.A.)

  7. Using game theory to improve safety within chemical industrial parks

    CERN Document Server

    Reniers, Genserik

    2013-01-01

    Though the game-theoretic approach has been vastly studied and utilized in relation to economics of industrial organizations, it has hardly been used to tackle safety management in multi-plant chemical industrial settings. Using Game Theory for Improving Safety within Chemical Industrial Parks presents an in-depth discussion of game-theoretic modelling which may be applied to improve cross-company prevention and -safety management in a chemical industrial park.   By systematically analyzing game-theoretic models and approaches in relation to managing safety in chemical industrial parks, Using Game Theory for Improving Safety within Chemical Industrial Parks explores the ways game theory can predict the outcome of complex strategic investment decision making processes involving several adjacent chemical plants. A number of game-theoretic decision models are discussed to provide strategic tools for decision-making situations.   Offering clear and straightforward explanations of methodologies, Using Game Theor...

  8. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

  9. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms

  10. Engineering safety assessment. An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    There have been several major industrial accidents in recent years, notably the Chernobyl reactor accident, the Bhopal disaster and the Mexico City gas explosions. It is essential that engineers should understand the natures of the hazards and risks of industrial plant. This book is intended to give an introduction to this subject. Determining the risks associated with hazardous plant such as a chemical plant or a nuclear power station requires knowledge of the probability of a given accident, as well as knowledge of the likely consequences in terms of human lives or damaged property. In this book, the author explains these two main themes in assessing overall risk. He introduces basic probability theory, the assessment of systems reliabilities and structural reliabilities, and the means used to estimate the consequences of hypothetical major accidents. In particular, the methodologies for estimating the consequences of accidental explosion and accidents involving the release of airborne toxic materials (including chemical toxins, carcinogens, and radioactive materials) are explained. A final chapter explores the difficult question of 'acceptable' risk, and how much can justifiably be spent on risk reduction. Intended for use by final year students of chemical, mechanical or nuclear engineering, this book will also be suitable for postgraduate students and practising engineers and scientists whose work involves them in risk assessment. (author)

  11. Safety assessment for spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Practice has been prepared as part of the IAEA's programme on the safety assessment of interim spent fuel storage facilities which are not an integral part of an operating nuclear power plant. This report provides general guidance on the safety assessment process, discussing both deterministic and probabilistic assessment methods. It describes the safety assessment process for normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences and also related to accident conditions. 10 refs, 2 tabs

  12. Aging in probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan Cizelj, R.; Kozuh, M.

    1995-01-01

    Aging is a phenomenon, which is influencing on unavailability of all components of the plant. The influence of aging on Probabilistic Safety Assessment calculations was estimated for Electrical Power Supply System. The average increase of system unavailability due to aging of system components was estimated and components were prioritized regarding their influence on change of system unavailability and relative increase of their unavailability due to aging. After the analysis of some numerical results, the recommendation for a detailed research of aging phenomena and its influence on system availability is given. (author)

  13. Waste isolation safety assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandstetter, A.; Harwell, M.A.

    1979-05-01

    Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE), through the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program, is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Among the analyses required for isolation system evaluation is the detailed assessment of the post-closure performance of nuclear waste repositories in geologic formations. This assessment is essential, since it is concerned with aspects of the nuclear power program which previously have not been addressed. Specifically, the nature of the isolation systems (e.g., involving breach scenarios and transport through the geosphere), and the time-scales necessary for isolation, dictate the development, demonstration and application of novel assessment capabilities. The assessment methodology needs to be thorough, flexible, objective, and scientifically defensible. Further, the data utilized must be accurate, documented, reproducible, and based on sound scientific principles

  14. Probabilistic safety assessment - regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanki, R.B.; Paul, U.K.; Hajra, P.; Agarwal, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear power plants (NPPs) have been designed, constructed and operated mainly based on deterministic safety analysis philosophy. In this approach, a substantial amount of safety margin is incorporated in the design and operational requirements. Additional margin is incorporated by applying the highest quality engineering codes, standards and practices, and the concept of defence-in-depth in design and operating procedures, by including conservative assumptions and acceptance criteria in plant response analysis of postulated initiating events (PIEs). However, as the probabilistic approach has been improved and refined over the years, it is possible for the designer, operator and regulator to get a more detailed and realistic picture of the safety importance of plant design features, operating procedures and operational practices by using probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) along with the deterministic methodology. At present, many countries including USA, UK and France are using PSA insights in their decision making along with deterministic basis. India has also made substantial progress in the development of methods for carrying out PSA. However, consensus on the use of PSA in regulatory decision-making has not been achieved yet. This paper emphasises on the requirements (e.g.,level of details, key modelling assumptions, data, modelling aspects, success criteria, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis) for improving the quality and consistency in performance and use of PSA that can facilitate meaningful use of the PSA insights in the regulatory decision-making in India. This paper also provides relevant information on international scenario and various application areas of PSA along with progress made in India. The PSA perspective presented in this paper may help in achieving consensus on the use of PSA for regulatory / utility decision-making in design and operation of NPPs

  15. Interactive Chemical Safety for Sustainablity Toxicity Forecaster Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA researchers have been using advances in computational toxicology to address lack of data on the thousands of chemicals. EPA released chemical data on 1,800 chemicals. The 1,800 chemicals were screened in more than 800 rapid, automated tests (called high-throughput screening assays) to determine potential human health effects. The data is available through the interactive Chemical Safety for Sustainability Dashboards (iCSS dashboard) and the complete data sets are also available for download.

  16. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 3 consists of eleven appendices containing the following: Field verification reports for Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rocky Flats Plant, Brookhaven National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., and Sandia National Laboratories (NM); Mini-visits to small DOE sites; Working Group meeting, June 7--8, 1994; Commendable practices; Related chemical safety initiatives at DOE; Regulatory framework and industry initiatives related to chemical safety; and Chemical inventory data from field self-evaluation reports

  17. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 3 consists of eleven appendices containing the following: Field verification reports for Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rocky Flats Plant, Brookhaven National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., and Sandia National Laboratories (NM); Mini-visits to small DOE sites; Working Group meeting, June 7--8, 1994; Commendable practices; Related chemical safety initiatives at DOE; Regulatory framework and industry initiatives related to chemical safety; and Chemical inventory data from field self-evaluation reports.

  18. Safety assessment for TA-48 radiochemical operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to document an assessment performed to evaluate the safety of the radiochemical operations conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory operations area designated as TA-48. This Safety Assessment for the TA-48 radiochemical operations was prepared to fulfill the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5481.1B, ''Safety Analysis and Review System.'' The area designated as TA-48 is operated by the Chemical Science and Technology (CST) Division and is involved with radiochemical operations associated with nuclear weapons testing, evaluation of samples collected from a variety of environmental sources, and nuclear medicine activities. This report documents a systematic evaluation of the hazards associated with the radiochemical operations that are conducted at TA-48. The accident analyses are limited to evaluation of the expected consequences associated with a few bounding accident scenarios that are selected as part of the hazard analysis. Section 2 of this report presents an executive summary and conclusions, Section 3 presents pertinent information concerning the TA-48 site and surrounding area, Section 4 presents a description of the TA-48 radiochemical operations, and Section 5 presents a description of the individual facilities. Section 6 of the report presents an evaluation of the hazards that are associated with the TA-48 operations and Section 7 presents a detailed analysis of selected accident scenarios

  19. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt

    2001-01-01

    European and International mechanism of handling safety- and risk-related matters. So, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) core objective on risk management is to support Member countries' efforts to develop national policies and actions, and, where appropriate, to develop and implement international risk management measures. In support of this objective, the OECD Risk Management Programme focuses on two areas: (1) developing methods and technical tools that can be used by OECD and Member countries to enhance their current risk management programmes; and (2) identifying specific chemical exposures of concern in Member countries and evaluating possible risk management opportunities. The current paper highlights the EU legislation on major accident hazards related to the chemical industry, differences in the national approaches to risk analyses in the process industry and European-scale activity in improving the understanding of the sources of uncertainty in risk assessments

  20. OSART Independent Safety Culture Assessment (ISCA) Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Safety culture is understood as an important part of nuclear safety performance. This has been demonstrated by the analysis of significant events such as Chernobyl, Davis Besse, Vandellos II, Asco, Paks, Mihamma and Forsmark, among others. In order to enhance safety culture, one essential activity is to perform assessments. IAEA Safety Standard Series No. GS-R-3, The Management System for Facilitites and Activities, states requirements for continuous improvement of safety culture, of which self, peer and independent safety culture assessments constitute an essential part. In line with this requirement, the Independent Safety Culture Assessment (ISCA) module is offered as an add-on module to the IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) programme. The OSART programme provides advice and assistance to Member States to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants during commissioning and operation. By including the ISCA module in an OSART mission, the receiving organization benefits from the synergy between the technical and the safety culture aspects of the safety review. The joint operational safety and safety culture assessment provides the organization with the opportunity to better understand the interactions between technical, human, organizational and cultural aspects, helping the organization to take a systemic approach to safety through identifying actions that fully address the root causes of any identified issue. Safety culture assessments provide insight into the fundamental drivers that shape organizational patterns of behaviour, safety consciousness and safety performance. The complex nature of safety culture means that the analysis of the results of such assessments is not as straightforward as for other types of assessment. The benefits of the results of nuclear safety culture assessments are maximized only if appropriate tools and guidance for these assessments is used; hence, this comprehensive guideline has been developed. The methodology explained

  1. Learning Safety Assessment from Accidents in a University Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Niels; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2013-01-01

    This contribution describes how a chemical engineering department started learning from accidents during experimental work and ended up implementing an industrially inspired system for risk assessment of new and existing experimental setups as well as a system for assessing potential risk from the chemicals used in the experimental work. These experiences have led to recent developments which focus increasingly on the a theoretical basis for modeling and reasoning on safety as well as operati...

  2. Evaluation model for safety capacity of chemical industrial park based on acceptable regional risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohua Chen; Shukun Wang; Xiaoqun Tan

    2015-01-01

    The paper defines the Safety Capacity of Chemical Industrial Park (SCCIP) from the perspective of acceptable regional risk. For the purpose of exploring the evaluation model for the SCCIP, a method based on quantitative risk assessment was adopted for evaluating transport risk and to confirm reasonable safety transport capacity of chemical industrial park, and then by combining with the safety storage capacity, a SCCIP evaluation model was put forward. The SCCIP was decided by the smaller one between the largest safety storage capacity and the maximum safety transport capacity, or else, the regional risk of the park will exceed the acceptable level. The developed method was applied to a chemical industrial park in Guangdong province to obtain the maximum safety transport capacity and the SCCIP. The results can be realized in the regional risk control of the park effectively.

  3. Probabilistic safety assessment for seismic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This Technical Document on Probabilistic Safety Assessment for Seismic Events is mainly associated with the Safety Practice on Treatment of External Hazards in PSA and discusses in detail one specific external hazard, i.e. earthquakes

  4. Taking into account chemical safety for French basic nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabard, Laurence; Conte, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Among nuclear installations, some fuel cycle facilities present a high level of chemical hazards. In France, the TSN law of the 13 June 2006 requires taking into account all the risks generated by a basic nuclear installation (BNI). But, as most of the implementing regulatory texts are under development at this time, part of the previous regulation settled down in the 1990's is still applying: the order of the 31 December 1999 concerning technical regulation in order to prevent and to limit hazards generated by nuclear facilities; the decree of the 4 May 1995 and the order of the 26 November 1999 that deal with BNI discharges. Moreover, some parts of BNI or of nuclear sites can be submitted to the general regulation concerning chemical hazards, which is part of the environment code. As a result, even if the TSN law and its implementing decree Nr 2007-1557 of the 2 November 2007 settle clearly that safety of BNI is not only radiological, but must take into account chemical hazards, the latter aspects are still under development. Moreover the application of the existing regulation, even if complex, has helped to assess chemical risks inside BNI and nuclear sites. (authors)

  5. Consideration of aging in probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titina, B.; Cepin, M.

    2007-01-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment is a standardised tool for assessment of safety of nuclear power plants. It is a complement to the safety analyses. Standard probabilistic models of safety equipment assume component failure rate as a constant. Ageing of systems, structures and components can theoretically be included in new age-dependent probabilistic safety assessment, which generally causes the failure rate to be a function of age. New age-dependent probabilistic safety assessment models, which offer explicit calculation of the ageing effects, are developed. Several groups of components are considered which require their unique models: e.g. operating components e.g. stand-by components. The developed models on the component level are inserted into the models of the probabilistic safety assessment in order that the ageing effects are evaluated for complete systems. The preliminary results show that the lack of necessary data for consideration of ageing causes highly uncertain models and consequently the results. (author)

  6. Safety assessment principles for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The present Safety Assessment Principles result from the revision of those which were drawn up following a recommendation arising from the Sizewell-B enquiry. The principles presented here relate only to nuclear safety; there is a section on risks from normal operation and accident conditions and the standards against which those risks are assessed. A major part of the document deals with the principles that cover the design of nuclear plants. The revised Safety assessment principles are aimed primarily at the safety assessment of new nuclear plants but they will also be used in assessing existing plants. (UK)

  7. Radiological safety and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.; Barg, D.C.; Baird, R.D.; Card, D.H.; de Souza, F.; Elder, J.; Felthauser, K.; Jensen, C.; Winkler, V.

    1982-02-01

    A brief radiological safety and risk assessment of a nuclear power generation center with an adjacent on-site waste disposal facility at a specific site in the State of Utah is presented. The assessment was conducted to assist in determining the feasibility and practicality of developing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in Utah consisting of nine 1250 MWe nuclear pressurized water reactor (PWR) electrical generating units arranged in 3 clusters of 3 units each known as triads. The site selected for this conceptual study is in the Horse Bench area about 15 miles directly south of the town of Green River, Utah. The radiological issues included direct radiation exposures to on-site workers and the off-site population, release of radioactive material, and effects of these releases for both normal operations and accidental occurrences. The basic finding of this study is that the concept of an NEC in the Green River area, specifically at the Horse Bench site, is radiologically feasible

  8. 78 FR 69433 - Executive Order 13650 Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security Listening Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Chemical Facility Safety and Security Listening Sessions AGENCY: National Protection and Programs... from stakeholders on issues pertaining to Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security (Executive... regulations, guidance, and policies; and identifying best practices in chemical facility safety and security...

  9. Development of safety related technology and infrastructure for safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkat Raj, V.

    1997-01-01

    Development and optimum utilisation of any technology calls for the building up of the necessary infrastructure and backup facilities. This is particularly true for a developing country like India and more so for an advanced technology like nuclear technology. Right from the inception of its nuclear power programme, the Indian approach has been to develop adequate infrastructure in various areas such as design, construction, manufacture, installation, commissioning and safety assessment of nuclear plants. This paper deals with the development of safety related technology and the relevant infrastructure for safety assessment. A number of computer codes for safety assessment have been developed or adapted in the areas of thermal hydraulics, structural dynamics etc. These codes have undergone extensive validation through data generated in the experimental facilities set up in India as well as participation in international standard problem exercises. Side by side with the development of the tools for safety assessment, the development of safety related technology was also given equal importance. Many of the technologies required for the inspection, ageing assessment and estimation of the residual life of various components and equipment, particularly those having a bearing on safety, were developed. This paper highlights, briefly, the work carried out in some of the areas mentioned above. (author)

  10. Thinking of the safety assessment of HLW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Honghui; Zhao Shuaiwei; Liu Jianqin; Liu Wei; Wan Lei; Yang Zhongtian; An Hongxiang; Sun Qinghong

    2014-01-01

    The function and the research methods of safety assessment are discussed. Two methods about safety assessment and the requirement of safety assessment are introduced. The key parameters and influence factors in nuclide transport of safety assessment are specialized. The works will be done on safety assessment is discussed which will give some suggests for the development of safety assessment. (authors)

  11. Regulatory review of safety cases and safety assessments - associated challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.G.; Ben Belfadhel, M.; Metcalf, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory reviews of safety cases and safety assessments are essential for credible decision making on the licensing or authorization of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Regulatory review also plays an important role in developing the safety case and in establishing stakeholders' confidence in the safety of the facility. Reviews of safety cases for radioactive waste disposal facilities need to be conducted by suitably qualified and experienced staff, following systematic and well planned review processes. Regulatory reviews should be sufficiently comprehensive in their coverage of issues potentially affecting the safety of the disposal system, and should assess the safety case against clearly established criteria. The conclusions drawn from a regulatory review, and the rationale for them should be reproducible and documented in a transparent and traceable way. Many challenges are faced when conducting regulatory reviews of safety cases. Some of these relate to issues of project and programme management, and resources, while others derive from the inherent difficulties of assessing the potential long term future behaviour of engineered and environmental systems. The paper describes approaches to the conduct of regulatory reviews and discusses some of the challenges faced. (author)

  12. Revising REACH guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment for engineered nanomaterials for aquatic ecotoxicity endpoints: recommendations from the EnvNano project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Skjolding, Lars Michael

    2017-01-01

    be made applicable to nanomaterials. European Research Council project EnvNano—Environmental Effects and Risk Evaluation of Engineered, which ran from 2011 to 2016, took another outset by assuming that: “The behaviour of nanoparticles in suspension is fundamentally different from that of chemicals......The European Chemical Agency (ECHA) is in the process of revising its guidance documents on how to address the challenges of ecotoxicological testing of nanomaterials. In these revisions, outset is taken in the hypothesis that ecotoxicological test methods, developed for soluble chemicals, can...... in solution”. The aim of this paper is to present the findings of the EnvNano project and through these provide the scientific background for specific recommendations on how ECHA guidance could be further improved. Key EnvNano findings such as the need to characterize dispersion and dissolution rates in stock...

  13. Intermediate probabilistic safety assessment approach for safety critical digital systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taeyong, Sung; Hyun Gook, Kang

    2001-01-01

    Even though the conventional probabilistic safety assessment methods are immature for applying to microprocessor-based digital systems, practical needs force to apply it. In the Korea, UCN 5 and 6 units are being constructed and Korean Next Generation Reactor is being designed using the digital instrumentation and control equipment for the safety related functions. Korean regulatory body requires probabilistic safety assessment. This paper analyzes the difficulties on the assessment of digital systems and suggests an intermediate framework for evaluating their safety using fault tree models. The framework deals with several important characteristics of digital systems including software modules and fault-tolerant features. We expect that the analysis result will provide valuable design feedback. (authors)

  14. JICST Factual DatabaseJICST Chemical Substance Safety Regulation Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Atsushi; Sohma, Tohru

    JICST Chemical Substance Safety Regulation Database is based on the Database of Safety Laws for Chemical Compounds constructed by Japan Chemical Industry Ecology-Toxicology & Information Center (JETOC) sponsored by the Sience and Technology Agency in 1987. JICST has modified JETOC database system, added data and started the online service through JOlS-F (JICST Online Information Service-Factual database) in January 1990. JICST database comprises eighty-three laws and fourteen hundred compounds. The authors outline the database, data items, files and search commands. An example of online session is presented.

  15. Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme bibliography, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.J.

    1990-10-01

    This bibliography lists reports and papers written as part of the Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme, which is concerned with disposal of low-level and intermediate-level waste (LLW and ILW) and associated radiological assessments. (author)

  16. Safety assessment of the Area 6 Decontamination Pad and Laundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilton, M.W.; Orcutt, J.A.

    1984-10-01

    The Safety Assessment of the Area 6 Decontamination Pad and Laundry, prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1A, identifies and evaluates potential radiation and chemical hazards to personnel, and impacts on the environment. Site and facility characteristics, as well as routine and nonroutine operations are discussed. Hypothetical incidents and accidents are described and evaluated. 3 figures, 1 table

  17. A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFERY ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

  18. Safety culture assessment developed by JANTI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Japan's JCO accident in September 1999 provided a real-life example of what can happen when insufficient attention is paid to safety culture. This accident brought to light the importance of safety culture and reinforced the movement to foster a safety culture. Despite this, accidents and inappropriate conduct have continued to occur. Therefore, there is a strong demand to instill a safety culture throughout the nuclear power industry. In this context, Japan's nuclear power regulator, the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA), decided to include in its safety inspections assessments of the safety culture found in power utilities' routine safety operations to get signs of deterioration in the organizational climate. In 2007, NISA constructed guidelines for their inspectors to carry out these assessments. At the same time, utilities have embarked on their own independent safety culture initiatives, such as revising their technical specifications and building effective PDCA cycle to promote safety culture. In concert with these developments, JANTI has also instituted safety culture assessments. (author)

  19. A Methodology for Safety Culture Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop methodology for assessing safety culture impact on nuclear power plants. A new methodology for assessing safety culture impact index has been developed and applied for the reference nuclear power plants. The developed SCII model might contribute to comparing the level of safety culture among nuclear power plants as well as to improving the safety of nuclear power plants. Safety culture is defined to be fundamental attitudes and behaviors of the plant staff which demonstrate that nuclear safety is the most important consideration in all activities conducted in nuclear power operation. Through several accidents of nuclear power plant including the Fukusima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernovyl accidents in 1986, the safety of nuclear power plant is emerging into a matter of interest. From the accident review report, it can be easily found out that safety culture is important and one of dominant contributors to accidents. However, the impact methodology for assessing safety culture has not been established analytically yet. It is difficult to develop the methodology for assessing safety culture impact quantitatively.

  20. A Methodology for Safety Culture Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop methodology for assessing safety culture impact on nuclear power plants. A new methodology for assessing safety culture impact index has been developed and applied for the reference nuclear power plants. The developed SCII model might contribute to comparing the level of safety culture among nuclear power plants as well as to improving the safety of nuclear power plants. Safety culture is defined to be fundamental attitudes and behaviors of the plant staff which demonstrate that nuclear safety is the most important consideration in all activities conducted in nuclear power operation. Through several accidents of nuclear power plant including the Fukusima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernovyl accidents in 1986, the safety of nuclear power plant is emerging into a matter of interest. From the accident review report, it can be easily found out that safety culture is important and one of dominant contributors to accidents. However, the impact methodology for assessing safety culture has not been established analytically yet. It is difficult to develop the methodology for assessing safety culture impact quantitatively

  1. Plant-beneficial elements status assessment in soil-plant system in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex: shedding light on forage grass safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2015-02-01

    Human health is closely linked with soils via plants, grazers, or plant-based products. This study estimated plant-beneficial elements (macronutrients: K, P; secondary macronutrients: Ca, Mg; micronutrients: Mo, Mn, Na, Ni, Se) in both soils and shoots of two forage grass species (Eriophorum angustifolium and Lolium perenne) prevalent in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex (Estarreja, Portugal). Both soils and plants from the chemical industrial areas exhibited differential concentrations of the studied elements. In soils, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in context of its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except P, and micronutrients such as Mo and Ni. In forage grass plant shoots, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in relation to its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except K. Between the two forage grass plants, high Se-harboring L. perenne cannot be recommended for its use as animal feed.

  2. Safety assessment for Generation IV nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM) for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. ISAM is an integrated 'tool-kit' consisting of 5 analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development: 1) qualitative safety features review - QSR, 2) phenomena identification and ranking table - PIRT, 3) objective provision tree - OPT, 4) deterministic and phenomenological analyses - DPA, and 5) probabilistic safety analysis - PSA. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time

  3. Chemical safety of food and drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M; Heijden, C.A. van der [WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1992-07-01

    Food and drinking water are major sources of human exposure to a large number of chemicals added intentionally for technological reasons or present unintentionally due to contamination. On the other hand, there is a public demand for an essentially risk-free supply of food and drinking water. The concern over the presence of chemicals in the human diet received further emphasis through the development of toxicological and analytical methodology with increased sensitivity over the years. In order to minimize the potential health hazards to the consumers, standards have been established which indicate levels of consumption that are - according to scientific evidence - considered safe and which, consequently, permit control measures to be taken. In this context, public perception of a particular risk, may not always be in line with what might be considered a 'real' risk. Thus, while in the public opinion risk associated with smoking or over-nutrition might be accepted or underestimated, certain food chemical related risks may not be accepted and are sometimes perceived as alarmingly high.

  4. Chemical safety of food and drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.; Heijden, C.A. van der

    1992-01-01

    Food and drinking water are major sources of human exposure to a large number of chemicals added intentionally for technological reasons or present unintentionally due to contamination. On the other hand, there is a public demand for an essentially risk-free supply of food and drinking water. The concern over the presence of chemicals in the human diet received further emphasis through the development of toxicological and analytical methodology with increased sensitivity over the years. In order to minimize the potential health hazards to the consumers, standards have been established which indicate levels of consumption that are - according to scientific evidence - considered safe and which, consequently, permit control measures to be taken. In this context, public perception of a particular risk, may not always be in line with what might be considered a 'real' risk. Thus, while in the public opinion risk associated with smoking or over-nutrition might be accepted or underestimated, certain food chemical related risks may not be accepted and are sometimes perceived as alarmingly high

  5. Probabilistic risk assessment for new and existing chemicals: Example calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager T; Hollander HA den; Janssen GB; Poel P van der; Rikken MGJ; Vermeire TG; ECO; CSR; LAE; CSR

    2000-01-01

    In the risk assessment methods for new and existing chemicals in the EU, "risk" is characterised by means of the deterministic quotient of exposure and effects (PEC/PNEC or Margin of Safety). From a scientific viewpoint, the uncertainty in the risk quotient should be accounted for explicitly in the

  6. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Department

    2001-07-01

    . In this respect there is a European and International mechanism of handling safety- and risk-related matters. So, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) core objective on risk management is to support Member countries' efforts to develop national policies and actions, and, where appropriate, to develop and implement international risk management measures. In support of this objective, the OECD Risk Management Programme focuses on two areas: (1) developing methods and technical tools that can be used by OECD and Member countries to enhance their current risk management programmes; and (2) identifying specific chemical exposures of concern in Member countries and evaluating possible risk management opportunities. The current paper highlights the EU legislation on major accident hazards related to the chemical industry, differences in the national approaches to risk analyses in the process industry and European-scale activity in improving the understanding of the sources of uncertainty in risk assessments.

  7. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 2 consists of seven appendices containing the following: Tasking memorandums; Project plan for the CSV Review; Field verification guide for the CSV Review; Field verification report, Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Field verification report, Oak Ridge Reservation; Field verification report, Savannah River Site; and the Field verification report, Hanford Site

  8. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 2 consists of seven appendices containing the following: Tasking memorandums; Project plan for the CSV Review; Field verification guide for the CSV Review; Field verification report, Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Field verification report, Oak Ridge Reservation; Field verification report, Savannah River Site; and the Field verification report, Hanford Site.

  9. NPP Krsko periodic safety review. Safety assessment and analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic, I.; Spiler, J.; Thaulez, F.

    2002-01-01

    Definition of a PSR (Periodic Safety Review) project is a comprehensive safety review of a plant after ten years of operation. The objective is a verification by means of a comprehensive review using current methods that the plant remains safe when judged against current safety objectives and practices and that adequate arrangements are in place to maintain plant safety. The overall goals of the NEK PSR Program are defined in compliance with the basic role of a PSR and the current practice typical for most of the countries in EU. This practice is described in the related guides and good practice documents issued by international organizations. The overall goals of the NEK PSR are formulated as follows: to demonstrate that the plant is as safe as originally intended; to evaluate the actual plant status with respect to aging and wear-out identifying any structures, systems or components that could limit the life of the plant in the foreseeable future, and to identify appropriate corrective actions, where needed; to compare current level of safety in the light of modern standards and knowledge, and to identify where improvements would be beneficial for minimizing deviations at justifiable costs. The Krsko PSR will address the following safety factors: Operational Experience, Safety Assessment, EQ and Aging Management, Safety Culture, Emergency Planning, Environmental Impact and Radioactive Waste.(author)

  10. ALARP considerations in criticality safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, Russell L.; Barnes, Andrew; Thorne, Peter R.; Venner, Jack

    2003-01-01

    Demonstrating that the risk to the public and workers is As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) is a fundamental requirement of safety cases for nuclear facilities in the United Kingdom. This is embodied in the Safety Assessment Principles (SAPs) published by the Regulator, the essence of which is incorporated within the safety assessment processes of the various nuclear site licensees. The concept of ALARP within criticality safety assessments has taken some time to establish in the United Kingdom. In principle, the licensee is obliged to search for a deterministic criticality safety solution, such as safe geometry vessels and passive control features, rather than placing reliance on active measurement devices and plant administrative controls. This paper presents a consideration of some ALARP issues in relation to the development of criticality safety cases. The paper utilises some idealised examples covering a range of issues facing the criticality safety assessor, including new plant design, operational plant and decommissioning activities. These examples are used to outline the elements of the criticality safety cases and present a discussion of ALARP in the context of criticality safety assessments. (author)

  11. Preliminary safety assessment of the WIPP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestri, R.J.; Torres, B.W.; Pahwa, S.B.; Brannen, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes the efforts to perform a safety assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility being proposed for southeastern New Mexico. This preliminary safety assessment is limited to a consequence assessment in terms of the dose to a maximally exposed individual as a result of introducing the radionuclides into the biosphere. The extremely low doses to the organs as a result of the liquid breach scenarios are contrasted with the background radiation

  12. Chemical process safety management within the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatt, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    Although the Department of Energy (DOE) is not well known for its chemical processing activities, the DOE does have a variety of chemical processes covered under OSHA's Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (the PSM Standard). DOE, like industry, is obligated to comply with the PSM Standard. The shift in the mission of DOE away from defense programs toward environmental restoration and waste management has affected these newly forming process safety management programs within DOE. This paper describes the progress made in implementing effective process safety management programs required by the PSM Standard and discusses some of the trends that have supported efforts to reduce chemical process risks within the DOE. In June of 1994, a survey of chemicals exceeding OSHA PSM or EPA Risk Management Program threshold quantities (TQs) at DOE sites found that there were 22 processes that utilized toxic or reactive chemicals over TQs; there were 13 processes involving flammable gases and liquids over TQs; and explosives manufacturing occurred at 4 sites. Examination of the survey results showed that 12 of the 22 processes involving toxic chemicals involved the use of chlorine for water treatment systems. The processes involving flammable gases and liquids were located at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve and Naval petroleum Reserve sites

  13. The role of probabilistic safety assessment and probabilistic safety criteria in nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Report is to provide guidelines on the role of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and a range of associated reference points, collectively referred to as probabilistic safety criteria (PSC), in nuclear safety. The application of this Safety Report and the supporting Safety Practice publication should help to ensure that PSA methodology is used appropriately to assess and enhance the safety of nuclear power plants. The guidelines are intended for use by nuclear power plant designers, operators and regulators. While these guidelines have been prepared with nuclear power plants in mind, the principles involved have wide application to other nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. In Section 2 of this Safety Report guidelines are established on the role PSA can play as part of an overall safety assurance programme. Section 3 summarizes guidelines for the conduct of PSAs, and in Section 4 a PSC framework is recommended and guidance is provided for the establishment of PSC values

  14. Complementary safety assessments - Report by the French Nuclear Safety Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    As an immediate consequence of the Fukushima accident, the French Authority of Nuclear Safety (ASN) launched a campaign of on-site inspections and asked operators (mainly EDF, AREVA and CEA) to make complementary assessments of the safety of the nuclear facilities they manage. The approach defined by ASN for the complementary safety assessments (CSA) is to study the behaviour of nuclear facilities in severe accidents situations caused by an off-site natural hazard according to accident scenarios exceeding the current baseline safety requirements. This approach can be broken into 2 phases: first conformity to current design and secondly an approach to the beyond design-basis scenarios built around the principle of defence in depth. 38 inspections were performed on issues linked to the causes of the Fukushima crisis. It appears that some sites have to reinforce the robustness of the heat sink. The CSA confirmed that the processes put into place at EDF to detect non-conformities were satisfactory. The complementary safety assessments demonstrated that the current seismic margins on the EDF nuclear reactors are satisfactory. With regard to flooding, the complementary safety assessments show that the complete reassessment carried out following the flooding of the Le Blayais nuclear power plant in 1999 offers the installations a high level of protection against the risk of flooding. Concerning the loss of electrical power supplies and the loss of cooling systems, the analysis of EDF's CSA reports showed that certain heat sink and electrical power supply loss scenarios can, if nothing is done, lead to core melt in just a few hours in the most unfavourable circumstances. As for nuclear facilities that are not power or experimental reactors, some difficulties have appeared to implement the CSA approach that was initially devised for reactors. Generally speaking, ASN considers that the safety of nuclear facilities must be made more robust to improbable risks which are not

  15. Food and feed safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, H.A.; Paoletti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The general principles for safety and nutritional evaluation of foods and feed and the potential health risks associated with hazardous compounds are described as developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and further elaborated in the

  16. Assessment of basic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1996-01-01

    Work on the French-German common safety approach for future nuclear power plants continued in 1994 to allow for more detailed discussion of some major issues, taking into account the options provided by the industry for the EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor) project, as described in the document entitled 'Conceptual Safety Features Review File'. Seven meetings of a GPR/RSK advisory experts subgroup, six GPR/RSK plenary sessions and six meetings of the safety authorities (DFD) dealt with the following topics: design of the systems and use of probabilistic approaches, application of a 'break preclusion' approach to the main primary pipings, protection against external hazards (aircraft crashes, explosions, earthquakes), provisions with respect to accidents involving core melt and to containment design, radiological consequences of reference accidents and accidents involving core melt at low pressure. The important aspects of the joint policy are recalled in the presentation. The whole set of GPR/RSK recommendations were agreed by the French and German safety authorities during the DFD meetings of 1994 and early 1995. The utilities decided to begin the basic design phase in February, 1995. Work is now continuing to develop the common French-German approach for future nuclear power plants, in the same way as before. In 1995, this mainly covers the design of the containment and of the systems, but also new issues such as the protection against secondary side overpressurization, radiological protection of workers and radioactive wastes. (J.S.). 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Chemical plant innovative safety investments decision-support methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, G L L; Audenaert, A

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which investing in safety during the creation of a new chemical installation proves profitable. The authors propose a management supporting cost-benefit model that identifies and evaluates investments in safety within a chemical company. This innovative model differentiates between serious accidents and less serious accidents, thus providing an authentic image of prevention-related costs and benefits. In classic cost-benefit analyses, which do not make such differentiations, only a rudimentary image of potential profitability resulting from investments in safety is obtained. The resulting management conclusions that can be drawn from such classical analyses are of a very limited nature. The proposed model, however, is applied to a real case study and the proposed investments in safety at an appointed chemical installation are weighed against the estimated hypothetical benefits resulting from the preventive measures to be installed at the installation. In the case-study carried out in question, it would appear that the proposed prevention investments are justified. Such an economic exercise may be very important to chemical corporations trying to (further) improve their safety investments.

  18. Independent assessment for new nuclear reactor safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Auria Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous framework for safety assessment is established in all countries where nuclear technology is used for the production of electricity. On the one side, industry, i.e. reactor designers, vendors and utilities perform safety analysis and demonstrate consistency between results of safety analyses and requirements. On the other side, regulatory authorities perform independent assessment of safety and confirm the acceptability of safety of individual reactor units. The process of comparing results from analyses by reactor utilities and regulators is very complex. The process is also highly dependent upon mandatory approaches pursued for the analysis and from very many details which required the knowledge of sensitive proprietary data (e.g. spacer designs. Furthermore, all data available for the design, construction and operation of reactors produced by the nuclear industry are available to regulators. Two areas for improving the process of safety assessment for individual Nuclear Power Plant Units are identified: New details introduced by industry are not always and systematically requested by regulators for the independent assessment; New analytical techniques and capabilities are not necessarily used in the analyses by regulators (and by the industry. The established concept of independent assessment constitutes the way for improving the process of safety assessment. This is possible, or is largely facilitated, by the recent availability of the so-called Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty approach.

  19. Independent assessment for new nuclear reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, F.; Glaeser, H.; Debrecin, N.

    2017-01-01

    A rigorous framework for safety assessment is established in all countries where nuclear technology is used for the production of electricity. On one side, industry, i.e. reactor designers, vendors and utilities perform safety analysis and demonstrate consistency between results of safety analyses and requirements. On the other side, regulatory authorities perform independent assessment of safety and confirm the acceptability of safety of individual reactor units. The process of comparing results from analyses by reactor utilities and regulators is very complex. The process is also highly dependent upon mandatory approaches pursued for the analysis and from very many details which required the knowledge of sensitive proprietary data (e.g. spacer designs). Furthermore, all data available for the design, construction and operation of reactors produced by the nuclear industry are available to regulators. Two areas for improving the process of safety assessment for individual Nuclear Power Plant Units are identified: New details introduced by industry are not always and systematically requested by regulators for the independent assessment; New analytical techniques and capabilities are not necessarily used in the analyses by regulators (and by the industry). The established concept of independent assessment constitutes the way for improving the process of safety assessment. This is possible, or is largely facilitated, by the recent availability of the so-called Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty (BEPU) approach. (authors)

  20. Developing IAM for Life Cycle Safety Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toxopeus, Marten E.; Lutters, Diederick; Nee, Andrew Y.C.; Song, Bin; Ong, Soh-Khim

    2013-01-01

    This publication discusses aspects of the development of an impact assessment method (IAM) for safety. Compared to the many existing IAM’s for environmentally oriented LCA, this method should translate the impact of a product life cycle on the subject of safety. Moreover, the method should be

  1. Safety profile assessment and efficacy of chemically characterized Cinnamomum glaucescens essential oil against storage fungi, insect, aflatoxin secretion and as antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Priyanka; Yadav, Shilpee; Singh, S C; Dubey, N K

    2013-03-01

    The study explores the efficacy of Cinnamomum glaucescens essential oil (EO) as insecticidal, antifungal, antiaflatoxin and antioxidant agent so as to recommend its application as plant based preservatives for food commodities. The study reports the chemical characterization of C. glaucescens oil and its 100% insecticidal activity against insect pest Callosobruchus chinensis on 12 h exposure and 98.74% oviposition deterrency at 0.15 μl/ml. The EO significantly inhibited growth and aflatoxin production by toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus LHP-10 at 4.5 and 3.5 μl/ml respectively. EO also showed appreciable antioxidant activity (IC(50) value=15.1 μl/ml), non phytotoxic nature on chickpea seed germination and in vivo potential as fumigant in food system providing 71.07% protection of chickpea samples from fungal contamination and 100% antifeedant activity against the insect invasion. The EO exhibited non-mammalian toxicity showing high LD(50) (3971.34 μl/kg) during oral toxicity on mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Safety factors for neutron fluences in NPP safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demekhin, V.L.; Bukanov, V.N.; Il'kovich, V.V.; Pugach, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with global practice and a number of existing regulations, the use of conservative approach is required for the calculations related to nuclear safety assessment of NPP. It implies the need to consider the determination of neutron fluence errors that is rather complicated. It is proposed to carry out the consideration by the way of multiplying the neutron fluences obtained with transport calculations by safety factors. The safety factor values are calculated by the developed technique based on the theory of errors, features of the neutron transport calculation code and the results obtained with the code. It is shown that the safety factor value is equal 1.18 with the confidence level of not less than 0.95 for the majority of VVER-1000 reactor places where neutron fluences are determined by MCPV code, and its maximum value is 1.25

  3. Assessment of safety culture at INPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesin, S.

    2002-01-01

    Safety Culture covers all main directions of plant activities and the plant departments involved through integration into the INPP Quality Assurance System. Safety Culture is represented by three components. The first is the clear INPP Safety and Quality Assurance Policy. Based on the Policy INPP is safely operated and managers' actions firstly aim at safety assurance. The second component is based on personal responsibility for safety and attitude of each employee of the plant. The third component is based on commitment to safety and competence of managers and employees of the plant. This component links the first two to ensure efficient management of safety at the plant. The above mentioned components including the elements which may significantly affect Safety Culture are also presented in the attachment. The concept of such model implies understanding of effect of different factors on the level of Safety Culture in the organization. In order to continuously correct safety problems, self-assessment of the Safety Culture level is performed at regular intervals. (author)

  4. OSHA safety requirements for hazardous chemicals in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohms, J

    1992-01-01

    This article outlines the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements set forth by the Hazard Communication Standard, which has been in effect for the healthcare industry since 1987. Administrators who have not taken concrete steps to address employee health and safety issues relating to hazardous chemicals are encouraged to do so to avoid the potential of large fines for cited violations. While some states administer their own occupational safety and health programs, they must adopt standards and enforce requirements that are at least as effective as federal requirements.

  5. Improving Chemical Plant Safety Training Using Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Nasios, Konstantinos

    2002-01-01

    The chemical engineering industry often requires people to work in hazardous environments and to operate complicated equipment which often limits the type of training that be carried out on site. The daily job of chemical plant operators is becoming more demanding due to the increasing plant complexity together with increasing requirements on plant safety, production capacity, product quality and cost effectiveness. The importance of designing systems and environments that are as safe as poss...

  6. Assessment of elementary school safety restraint programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify elementary school (K-6) safety belt : education programs in use in the United States, to review their development, and : to make administrative and impact assessments of their use in selected States. : Six...

  7. IAEA coordinated research project (CRP). The use of selected safety indicators (concentrations, fluxes) in the assessment of radioactive waste disposal. Report 5: Chemical weathering rates on the Baltic Shield of Finland for use as indicators of nuclear waste repository safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, T.; Backman, B.; Hatakka, T.; Savolainen, H.; Hellmuth, K.-H.

    2003-01-01

    In this report the available information from the literature on chemical erosion and weathering rates in Finland and northern Sweden is reviewed and experimental data from recent followup studies in defined catchments is discussed. In glaciated terrain as in Finland the best estimates of chemical erosion rates are obtained when geochemical data of glacial till is used. Elemental fluxes in free-flowing rivers and river-lake systems have been studied in greater detail only in a few case studies. The Kalix river drainage basin investigations gave evidence that the mobilization of rare earth elements (REE) is determined by weathering processes in the upper till layers and that the C-horizon below about 0.75 m depth or generally below the groundwater table is practically unaffected by weathering. Also the removal of U from the watershed was found to happen mostly by groundwater flow through predominantly shallow aquifers. Another type of case study is constrained to regions where certain phenomena cause enhanced trace metal mobilization, as in a region stretched along the western coast of Finland where land-uplift exposes clay sediments rich in sulphides above the groundwater level, with the consequence of increased mobilization of a number of heavy metals. Very little quantitative information on elemental flux balances is available from river-lake systems. Some modelling has been attempted on one great lake system the lake Paeijaenne by use of fall-out nuclides. From the same lake a detailed record of sedimentation rates covering the whole period from the end of the latest glaciation to present is available and erosion rate variations since the end of the latest glaciation can be assessed. The main part of this study focusses on investigations of well-defined small catchments over a longer time period, where groundwater is discharging in springs. Geochemical fluxes worth mentioning seem to be constrained to the surficial geological layers which include overburden and

  8. Learning Safety Assessment from Accidents in a University Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2013-01-01

    This contribution describes how a chemical engineering department started learning from accidents during experimental work and ended up implementing an industrially inspired system for risk assessment of new and existing experimental setups as well as a system for assessing potential risk from...... the chemicals used in the experimental work. These experiences have led to recent developments which focus increasingly on the a theoretical basis for modeling and reasoning on safety as well as operational aspects within a common framework. Presently this framework is being extended with barrier concepts both...

  9. The new risk paradigm for chemical process security and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David A

    2004-11-11

    The world of safety and security in the chemical process industries has certainly changed since 11 September, but the biggest challenges may be yet to come. This paper will explain that there is a new risk management paradigm for chemical security, discuss the differences in interpreting this risk versus accidental risk, and identify the challenges we can anticipate will occur in the future on this issue. Companies need to be ready to manage the new chemical security responsibilities and to exceed the expectations of the public and regulators. This paper will outline the challenge and a suggested course of action.

  10. Food safety. [chemical contaminants and human toxic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pier, S. M.; Valentine, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Illness induced by unsafe food is a problem of great public health significance. This study relates exclusively to the occurrence of chemical agents which will result in food unsafe for human consumption since the matter of food safety is of paramount importance in the mission and operation of the manned spacecraft program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  11. Chemical Risk Assessment Screening Tool of a Global Chemical Company

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn Tjoe-Nij; Christophe Rochin; Nathalie Berne; Alessandro Sassi; Antoine Leplay

    2018-01-01

    Background: This paper describes a simple-to-use and reliable screening tool called Critical Task Exposure Screening (CTES), developed by a chemical company. The tool assesses if the exposure to a chemical for a task is likely to be within acceptable levels. Methods: CTES is a Microsoft Excel tool, where the inhalation risk score is calculated by relating the exposure estimate to the corresponding occupational exposure limit (OEL) or occupational exposure band (OEB). The inhalation exposure i...

  12. Training courses on integrated safety assessment modelling for waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallants, D.

    2007-01-01

    Near-surface or deep repositories of radioactive waste are being developed and evaluated all over the world. Also, existing repositories for low- and intermediate-level waste often need to be re-evaluated to extend their license or to obtain permission for final closure. The evaluation encompasses both a technical feasibility as well as a safety analysis. The long term safety is usually demonstrated by means of performance or safety assessment. For this purpose computer models are used that calculate the migration of radionuclides from the conditioned radioactive waste, through engineered barriers to the environment (groundwater, surface water, and biosphere). Integrated safety assessment modelling addresses all relevant radionuclide pathways from source to receptor (man), using in combination various computer codes in which the most relevant physical, chemical, mechanical, or even microbiological processes are mathematically described. SCK-CEN organizes training courses in Integrated safety assessment modelling that are intended for individuals who have either a controlling or supervising role within the national radwaste agencies or regulating authorities, or for technical experts that carry out the actual post-closure safety assessment for an existing or new repository. Courses are organised by the Department of Waste and Disposal

  13. The Architecture of Chemical Alternatives Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Kenneth; Tickner, Joel; Edwards, Sally; Rossi, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Chemical alternatives assessment is a method rapidly developing for use by businesses, governments, and nongovernment organizations seeking to substitute chemicals of concern in production processes and products. Chemical alternatives assessment is defined as a process for identifying, comparing, and selecting safer alternatives to chemicals of concern (including those in materials, processes, or technologies) on the basis of their hazards, performance, and economic viability. The process is intended to provide guidance for assuring that chemicals of concern are replaced with safer alternatives that are not likely to be later regretted. Conceptually, the assessment methods are developed from a set of three foundational pillars and five common principles. Based on a number of emerging alternatives assessment initiatives, in this commentary, we outline a chemical alternatives assessment blueprint structured around three broad steps: Scope, Assessment, and Selection and Implementation. Specific tasks and tools are identified for each of these three steps. While it is recognized that on-going practice will further refine and develop the method and tools, it is important that the structure of the assessment process remain flexible, adaptive, and focused on the substitution of chemicals of concern with safer alternatives. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: An Undergraduate Chemical Laboratory Safety Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, L. Jewel

    1982-01-01

    Describes a two-quarter hour college chemistry course focusing on laboratory safety. Includes lists of topics/assignments, problem sets (toxicology, storage, and energy) and videotapes, films, and slide sets used in the course. (JN)

  15. Probabilistic safety assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.C.

    1987-07-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment codes are now widely used in radioactive waste disposal assessments. This report gives an overview of the current state of the field. The relationship between the codes and the regulations covering radioactive waste disposal is discussed and the characteristics of current codes is described. The problems of verification and validation are considered. (author)

  16. Safety assessment for radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanaletchumy Karuppiah; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof; Nik Marzuki Nik Ibrahim; Nurul Wahida Ahmad Khairuddin

    2008-08-01

    Safety assessments are used to evaluate the performance of a radioactive waste disposal facility and its impact on human health and the environment. This paper presents the overall information and methodology to carry out the safety assessment for a long term performance of a disposal system. A case study was also conducted to gain hands-on experience in the development and justification of scenarios, the formulation and implementation of models and the analysis of results. AMBER code using compartmental modeling approach was used to represent the migration and fate of contaminants in this training. This safety assessment is purely illustrative and it serves as a starting point for each development stage of a disposal facility. This assessment ultimately becomes more detail and specific as the facility evolves. (Author)

  17. Chemical Risk Assessment: Traditional vs Public Health ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. When done efficiently and properly, chemical risk assessment enables risk management actions that minimize the incidence and impacts of environmentally-induced diseases related to chemical exposure. However, traditional chemical risk assessment is faced with multiple challenges with respect to predicting and preventing disease in human populations, and epidemiological studies increasingly report observations of adverse health effects at exposure levels predicted from animal studies to be safe for humans. This discordance reinforces concerns about the adequacy of contemporary risk assessment practices (Birnbaum, Burke, & Jones, 2016) for protecting public health. It is becoming clear that to protect public health more effectively, future risk assessments will need to use the full range of available data, draw on innovative methods to integrate diverse data streams, and consider health endpoints that also reflect the range of subtle effects and morbidities observed in human populations. Given these factors, there is a need to reframe chemical risk assessment to be more clearly aligned with the public health goal of minimizing environmental exposures associated with disease. Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. Chemical risk assessments

  18. Probabilistic safety assessment for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    Increasing interest in using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) methods for research reactor safety is being observed in many countries throughout the world. This is mainly because of the great ability of this approach in achieving safe and reliable operation of research reactors. There is also a need to assist developing countries to apply Probabilistic Safety Assessment to existing nuclear facilities which are simpler and therefore less complicated to analyse than a large Nuclear Power Plant. It may be important, therefore, to develop PSA for research reactors. This might also help to better understand the safety characteristics of the reactor and to base any backfitting on a cost-benefit analysis which would ensure that only necessary changes are made. This document touches on all the key aspects of PSA but placed greater emphasis on so-called systems analysis aspects rather than the in-plant or ex-plant consequences

  19. Life cycle sustainability assessment of chemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Di; Lv, Liping; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an integrated vector-based three-dimensional (3D) methodology for the life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) of chemical process alternatives is proposed. In the methodology, a 3D criteria assessment system is first established by using the life cycle assessment, the life cycl...

  20. Fire safety assessment of tunnel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gkoumas, Konstantinos; Giuliani, Luisa; Petrini, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    .g. structural and non structural, organizational, human behavior). This is even more truth for the fire safety design of such structures. Fire safety in tunnels is challenging because of the particular environment, bearing in mind also that a fire can occur in different phases of the tunnel’s lifecycle. Plans...... for upgrading fire safety provisions and tunnel management are also important for existing tunnels. In this study, following a brief introduction of issues regarding the above mentioned aspects, the structural performance of a steel rib for a tunnel infrastructure subject to fire is assessed by means...

  1. Integrated Deterministic-Probabilistic Safety Assessment Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudinov, P.; Vorobyev, Y.; Sanchez-Perea, M.; Queral, C.; Jimenez Varas, G.; Rebollo, M. J.; Mena, L.; Gomez-Magin, J.

    2014-02-01

    IDPSA (Integrated Deterministic-Probabilistic Safety Assessment) is a family of methods which use tightly coupled probabilistic and deterministic approaches to address respective sources of uncertainties, enabling Risk informed decision making in a consistent manner. The starting point of the IDPSA framework is that safety justification must be based on the coupling of deterministic (consequences) and probabilistic (frequency) considerations to address the mutual interactions between stochastic disturbances (e.g. failures of the equipment, human actions, stochastic physical phenomena) and deterministic response of the plant (i.e. transients). This paper gives a general overview of some IDPSA methods as well as some possible applications to PWR safety analyses. (Author)

  2. HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS & RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EVANS, C B

    2004-12-21

    The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard.

  3. Regulation of chemical safety at fuel cycle facilities by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    When the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was established in 1975, its regulations were based on radiation dose limits. Chemical hazards rarely influenced NRC regulations. After the Three Mile Island reactor accident in 1979, the NRC staff was directed to address emergency planning at non-reactor facilities. Several fuel cycle facilities were ordered to submit emergency plans consistent with reactor emergency plans because no other guidance was available. NRC published a notice that it was writing regulations to codify the requirements in the Orders and upgrade the emergency plans to address all hazards, including chemical hazards. The legal authority of NRC to regulate chemical safety was questioned. In 1986, an overfilled uranium hexafluoride cylinder ruptured and killed a worker. The NRC staff was directed to address emergency planning for hazardous chemicals in its regulations. The final rule included a requirement for fuel cycle facilities to certify compliance with legislation requiring local authorities to establish emergency plans for hazardous chemicals. As with emergency planning, NRC's authority to regulate chemical safety during routine operations was limited. NRC established memoranda of understanding (MOUs) with other regulatory agencies to encourage exchange of information between the agencies regarding occupational hazards. In 2000, NRC published new, performance-based, regulations for fuel cycle facilities. The new regulations required an integrated safety analysis (ISA) which used quantitative standards to assess chemical exposures. Some unique chemical exposure cases were addressed while implementing the new regulations. In addition, some gaps remain in the regulation of hazardous chemicals at fuel cycle facilities. The status of ongoing efforts to improve regulation of chemical safety at fuel cycle facilities is discussed. (authors)

  4. Probabilistic safety assessment goals in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    CANDU safety philosphy, both in design and in licensing, has always had a strong bias towards quantitative probabilistically-based goals derived from comparative safety. Formal probabilistic safety assessment began in Canada as a design tool. The influence of this carried over later on into the definition of the deterministic safety guidelines used in CANDU licensing. Design goals were further developed which extended the consequence/frequency spectrum of 'acceptable' events, from the two points defined by the deterministic single/dual failure analysis, to a line passing through lower and higher frequencies. Since these were design tools, a complete risk summation was not necessary, allowing a cutoff at low event frequencies while preserving the identification of the most significant safety-related events. These goals gave a logical framework for making decisions on implementing design changes proposed as a result of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis. Performing this analysis became a regulatory requirement, and the design goals remained the framework under which this was submitted. Recently, there have been initiatives to incorporate more detailed probabilistic safety goals into the regulatory process in Canada. These range from far-reaching safety optimization across society, to initiatives aimed at the nuclear industry only. The effectiveness of the latter is minor at very low and very high event frequencies; at medium frequencies, a justification against expenditures per life saved in other industries should be part of the goal setting

  5. Probabilistic safety assessment of the Fugen NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotsu, Masutake; Iguchi, Yukihiro; Mizuno, Kouichi; Sato, Shinichirou; Shimizu, Miwako

    1999-01-01

    We performed a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) on the Fugen NPS. The main topic of assessment was internal factors. We assessment core damage frequency (level 1 PSA) and containment damage frequency (level 2 PSA) during rated operation, and core damage frequency during shutdown (PSA during shutdowns). Our assessment showed that the core damage frequency of Fugen is well below the IAEA criteria for existing plants, that the conditional containment damage during shutdown is almost the target value of 0.1, and that the core damage frequency during shutdown is almost the same as that assessed during operation. These results confirm that the Fugen plant maintains a sufficient safety margin during shutdowns for regular inspections and for refueling. We developed and verified the effectiveness of an accident management plan incorporating the results of the assessment. (author)

  6. The role of risk assessment and safety analysis in integrated safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niall, R.; Hunt, M.; Wierman, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    To ensure that the design and operation of both nuclear and non- nuclear hazardous facilities is acceptable, and meets all societal safety expectations, a rigorous deterministic and probabilistic assessment is necessary. An approach is introduced, founded on the concept of an ''Integrated Safety Assessment.'' It merges the commonly performed safety and risk analyses and uses them in concert to provide decision makers with the necessary depth of understanding to achieve ''adequacy.'' 3 refs., 1 fig

  7. Quantitative risk assessment of digitalized safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sung Min; Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hym Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Jun [UNIST, Ulasn (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A report published by the U.S. National Research Council indicates that appropriate methods for assessing reliability are key to establishing the acceptability of digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in safety-critical plants such as NPPs. Since the release of this issue, the methodology for the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of digital I and C systems has been studied. However, there is still no widely accepted method. Kang and Sung found three critical factors for safety assessment of digital systems: detection coverage of fault-tolerant techniques, software reliability quantification, and network communication risk. In reality the various factors composing digitalized I and C systems are not independent of each other but rather closely connected. Thus, from a macro point of view, a method that can integrate risk factors with different characteristics needs to be considered together with the micro approaches to address the challenges facing each factor.

  8. Assessing ecorelevance of emerging chemicals in sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Selck, Henriette; Salvito, D.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the Great Lakes and elsewhere has detected the presence of a wide variety of chemicals which has raised concern that these chemicals pose risks to resident species. Sediments are of particular interest due to their tendency to accumulate hydrophobic and persistent...... chemicals and because less is known about toxic effects of chemicals to sediment-feeding organisms than to pelagic species. Data collected on the polycyclic musks provides available evidence relevant to assessing exposure and effects in Great Lakes' sediments. Studies at Roskilde University demonstrate how...

  9. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ''more focused, concentrating on ES ampersand H management, ES ampersand H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES ampersand H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES ampersand H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual

  10. Safety assessment of novel foods and strategies to determine their safety in use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Gareth

    2005-01-01

    Safety assessment of novel foods requires a different approach to that traditionally used for the assessment of food chemicals. A case-by-case approach is needed which must be adapted to take account of the characteristics of the individual novel food. A thorough appraisal is required of the origin, production, compositional analysis, nutritional characteristics, any previous human exposure and the anticipated use of the food. The information should be compared with a traditional counterpart of the food if this is available. In some cases, a conclusion about the safety of the food may be reached on the basis of this information alone, whereas in other cases, it will help to identify any nutritional or toxicological testing that may be required to further investigate the safety of the food. The importance of nutritional evaluation cannot be over-emphasised. This is essential for the conduct of toxicological studies in order to avoid dietary imbalances, etc., that might lead to interpretation difficulties, but also in the context of its use as food and to assess the potential impact of the novel food on the human diet. The traditional approach used for chemicals, whereby an acceptable daily intake (ADI) is established with a large safety margin relative to the expected exposure, cannot be applied to foods. The assessment of safety in use should be based upon a thorough knowledge of the composition of the food, evidence from nutritional, toxicological and human studies, expected use of the food and its expected consumption. Safety equates to a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from intended uses under the anticipated conditions of consumption

  11. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  12. RSAS: a Reactor Safety Assessment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebo, D.E.; Dixon, B.W.; Bray, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Assessment System (RSAS) is an expert system under development for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). RSAS is being developed for use at the NRC's Operations Center in the event of a serious incident at a licensed nuclear power plant. The system generates situation assessments for the NRC Reactor Safety Team based on a limited number of plant parameters, known operator actions, and plant status data. The RSAS rule base currently covers one reactor type. The extension of the rule base to other reactor types is also discussed

  13. Overview of the ISAM safety assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeonov, G.

    2003-01-01

    The ISAM safety assessment methodology consists of the following key components: specification of the assessment context description of the disposal system development and justification of scenarios formulation and implementation of models running of computer codes and analysis and presentation of results. Common issues run through two or more of these assessment components, including: use of methodological and computer tools, collation and use of data, need to address various sources of uncertainty, building of confidence in the individual components, as well as the overall assessment. The importance of the iterative nature of the assessment should be recognised

  14. Safety management system in a Swiss chemical company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vouillamoz, R.

    1996-01-01

    Through the implementation of the fine chemical strategy, i.e. the manufacture of products with a higher value, the Lonza AG was confronted with a drastic increase of complexity in safety and disposal. In this connection, a concept of risk reduction was developed and carried out. This concept is based on 3 different steps: - prevention, - reduction, - provision. The details of these steps are explained here and illustrated with concrete examples. (author) 5 figs., tabs

  15. Safety assessment of HLW geological disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Morimasa

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the Japanese nuclear program, the liquid waste with a high level of radioactivity arising from reprocessing is solidified in a stable glass matrix (vitrification) in stainless steel fabrication containers. The vitrified waste is referred to as high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and is characterized by very high initial radioactivity which, even though it decreases with time, presents a potential long-term risk. It is therefore necessary to thoroughly manage HLW from human and his environment. After vitrification, HLW is stored for a period of 30 to 50 years to allow cooling, and finally disposed of in a stable geological environment at depths greater than 300 m below surface. The deep underground environment, in general, is considered to be stable over geological timescales compared with surface environment. By selecting an appropriate disposal site, therefore, it is considered to be feasible to isolate the waste in the repository from man and his environment until such time as radioactivity levels have decayed to insignificance. The concept of geological disposal in Japan is similar to that in other countries, being based on a multibarrier system which combines the natural geological environment with engineered barriers. It should be noted that geological disposal concept is based on a passive safety system that does not require any institutional control for assuring long term environmental safety. To demonstrate feasibility of safe HLW repository concept in Japan, following technical steps are essential. Selection of a geological environment which is sufficiently stable for disposal (site selection). Design and installation of the engineered barrier system in a stable geological environment (engineering measures). Confirmation of the safety of the constructed geological disposal system (safety assessment). For site selection, particular consideration is given to the long-term stability of the geological environment taking into account the fact

  16. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ''more focused, concentrating on ES ampersand H management, ES ampersand H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES ampersand H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES ampersand H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES ampersand H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy

  17. Model uncertainty in safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkinen, U.; Huovinen, T.

    1996-01-01

    The uncertainty analyses are an essential part of any risk assessment. Usually the uncertainties of reliability model parameter values are described by probability distributions and the uncertainty is propagated through the whole risk model. In addition to the parameter uncertainties, the assumptions behind the risk models may be based on insufficient experimental observations and the models themselves may not be exact descriptions of the phenomena under analysis. The description and quantification of this type of uncertainty, model uncertainty, is the topic of this report. The model uncertainty is characterized and some approaches to model and quantify it are discussed. The emphasis is on so called mixture models, which have been applied in PSAs. Some of the possible disadvantages of the mixture model are addressed. In addition to quantitative analyses, also qualitative analysis is discussed shortly. To illustrate the models, two simple case studies on failure intensity and human error modeling are described. In both examples, the analysis is based on simple mixture models, which are observed to apply in PSA analyses. (orig.) (36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.)

  18. Model uncertainty in safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulkkinen, U; Huovinen, T [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland). Industrial Automation

    1996-01-01

    The uncertainty analyses are an essential part of any risk assessment. Usually the uncertainties of reliability model parameter values are described by probability distributions and the uncertainty is propagated through the whole risk model. In addition to the parameter uncertainties, the assumptions behind the risk models may be based on insufficient experimental observations and the models themselves may not be exact descriptions of the phenomena under analysis. The description and quantification of this type of uncertainty, model uncertainty, is the topic of this report. The model uncertainty is characterized and some approaches to model and quantify it are discussed. The emphasis is on so called mixture models, which have been applied in PSAs. Some of the possible disadvantages of the mixture model are addressed. In addition to quantitative analyses, also qualitative analysis is discussed shortly. To illustrate the models, two simple case studies on failure intensity and human error modeling are described. In both examples, the analysis is based on simple mixture models, which are observed to apply in PSA analyses. (orig.) (36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.).

  19. Probabilistic safety assessment for food irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanki, R.B.; Prasad, M.; Sonawane, A.U.; Gupta, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Different considerations are required in PSA for Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities. ► We carried out PSA for food irradiation facility as a part of safety evaluation. ► The results indicate that the fatal exposure risk is below the ‘acceptable risk’. ► Adequate operator training and observing good safety culture would reduce the risk. - Abstract: Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is widely used for safety evaluation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) worldwide. The approaches and methodologies are matured and general consensus exists on using these approaches in PSA applications. However, PSA applications for safety evaluation for non-reactor facilities are limited. Due to differences in the processes in nuclear reactor facilities and non-reactor facilities, the considerations are different in application of PSA to these facilities. The food irradiation facilities utilize gamma irradiation sources, X-ray machines and electron accelerators for the purpose of radiation processing of variety of food items. This is categorized as Non-Reactor Nuclear Facility. In this paper, the application of PSA to safety evaluation of food irradiation facility is presented considering the ‘fatality due to radiation overexposure’ as a risk measure. The results indicate that the frequency of the fatal exposure is below the numerical acceptance guidance for the risk to the individual. Further, it is found that the overall risk to the over exposure can be reduced by providing the adequate operator training and observing good safety culture.

  20. Security risk assessment and protection in the chemical and process industry

    OpenAIRE

    Reniers, Genserik; van Lerberghe, Paul; van Gulijk, Coen

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a security risk assessment and protection methodology that was developed for use in the chemical- and process industry in Belgium. The approach of the method follows a risk-based approach that follows desing principles for chemical safety. That approach is beneficial for workers in the chemical industry because they recognize the steps in this model from familiar safety models .The model combines the rings-of-protection approach with generic security practices including...

  1. Plasma-safety assessment model and safety analyses of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, T.; Okazaki, T.; Bartels, H.-H.; Uckan, N.A.; Sugihara, M.; Seki, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A plasma-safety assessment model has been provided on the basis of the plasma physics database of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) to analyze events including plasma behavior. The model was implemented in a safety analysis code (SAFALY), which consists of a 0-D dynamic plasma model and a 1-D thermal behavior model of the in-vessel components. Unusual plasma events of ITER, e.g., overfueling, were calculated using the code and plasma burning is found to be self-bounded by operation limits or passively shut down due to impurity ingress from overheated divertor targets. Sudden transition of divertor plasma might lead to failure of the divertor target because of a sharp increase of the heat flux. However, the effects of the aggravating failure can be safely handled by the confinement boundaries. (author)

  2. Safety Culture: Lessons Learned from the US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigations Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffon, M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) investigation of the 2005 BP Texas City Refinery disaster as well as the Baker Panel Report have set the stage for the consideration of human and organizational factors and safety culture as contributing causes of major accidents in the oil and gas industry. The investigation of the BP Texas City tragedy in many ways started a shift in the way the oil and chemical industry sectors looked at process safety and the importance of human and organizational factors in improving safety. Since the BP Texas City incident the CSB has investigated several incidents, including the 2010 Macondo disaster in the Gulf of Mexico, where organizational factors and safety culture, once again, were contributing causes of the incidents. In the Texas City incident the CSB found that “while most attention was focused on the injury rate, the overall safety culture and process safety management (PSM) program had serious deficiencies.” The CSB concluded that “safety campaigns, goals, and rewards focused on improving personal safety metrics and worker behaviors rather than on process safety and management safety systems.” The Baker panel, established as a result of a CSB recommendation, did a more extensive review of BPs safety culture. The Baker panel found that ‘while BP has aspirational goals of “no accidents, no harm to people” BP has not provided effective leadership in making certain it’s management and US refining workforce understand what is expected of them regarding process safety performance.’ This may have been in part due to a misinterpretation of positive trends in personal injury rates as an indicator of effective process safety. The panel also found that “at some of its US refineries BP has not established a positive, trusting and open environment with effective lines of communication between management and the workforce, including employee representatives.” In 2010 when the CSB began to

  3. Safety assessment of plant food supplements (PFS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den S.J.P.L.; Serra-Majem, L.; Coppens, P.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    Botanicals and botanical preparations, including plant food supplements (PFS), are widely used in Western diets. The growing use of PFS is accompanied by an increasing concern because the safety of these PFS is not generally assessed before they enter the market. Regulatory bodies have become more

  4. Safety assessment for Dragon fuel element production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.

    1963-11-01

    This report shall be the Safety Assessment covering the manufacture of the First Charge of Fuel and Fuel Elements for the Dragon Reactor Experiment. It is issued in two parts, of which Part I is descriptive and Part II gives the Hazards Analysis, the Operating Limitations, the Standing Orders and the Emergency Drill. (author)

  5. Safety assessment of genetically modified foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Noordam, M.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has steadily increased since their introduction to the market in the mid-1990s. Before these crops can be grown and sold they have to obtain regulatory approval in many countries, the process of which includes a pre-market safety assessment. The

  6. Safety assessment of high consequence robotics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.G.; Atcitty, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper outlines the use of a failure modes and effects analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, the weigh and leak check system, is to replace a manual process for weight and leakage of nuclear materials at the DOE Pantex facility. Failure modes and effects analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the systems have been met. Due to the flexible nature of the robot configuration, traditional failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) were not applicable. In addition, the primary focus of safety assessments of robotics systems has been the protection of personnel in the immediate area. In this application, the safety analysis must account for the sensitivities of the payload as well as traditional issues. A unique variation on the classical FMEA was developed that permits an organized and quite effective tool to be used to assure that safety was adequately considered during the development of the robotic system. The fundamental aspects of the approach are outlined in the paper

  7. Safety Assessment for Research Reactors and Preparation of the Safety Analysis Report. Specific Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    . The standards are also applied by regulatory bodies and operators around the world to enhance safety in nuclear power generation and in nuclear applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Safety is not an end in itself but a prerequisite for the purpose of the protection of people in all States and of the environment - now and in the future. The risks associated with ionizing radiation must be assessed and controlled without unduly limiting the contribution of nuclear energy to equitable and sustainable development. Governments, regulatory bodies and operators everywhere must ensure that nuclear material and radiation sources are used beneficially, safely and ethically. The IAEA safety standards are designed to facilitate this, and I encourage all Member States to make use of them.

  8. Safety Assessment for Research Reactors and Preparation of the Safety Analysis Report. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    . The standards are also applied by regulatory bodies and operators around the world to enhance safety in nuclear power generation and in nuclear applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Safety is not an end in itself but a prerequisite for the purpose of the protection of people in all States and of the environment - now and in the future. The risks associated with ionizing radiation must be assessed and controlled without unduly limiting the contribution of nuclear energy to equitable and sustainable development. Governments, regulatory bodies and operators everywhere must ensure that nuclear material and radiation sources are used beneficially, safely and ethically. The IAEA safety standards are designed to facilitate this, and I encourage all Member States to make use of them.

  9. Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Waste from PyroGreen Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Hee Jae; Ham, In hye; Hwang, Il Soon

    2016-01-01

    The main object of PyroGreen processes is decontaminating SNFs into intermediate level waste meeting U.S. WIPP contact-handled (CH) waste characteristics to achieve long-term radiological safety of waste disposal. In this paper, radiological impact of PyroGreen waste disposal is probabilistically assessed using domestic input parameters for safety assessment of disposal. PyroGreen processes is decontamination technology using pyro-chemical process developed by Seoul National University in collaboration with KAERI, Chungnam University, Korea Hydro-Nuclear Power and Yonsei University. Advanced Korean Reference Disposal System (A-KRS) design for vitrified waste is applied to develop safety assessment model using GoldSim software. The simulation result shows that PyroGreen vitrified waste is expected to satisfy the regulatory dose limit criteria, 0.1 mSv/yr. With small probability, however, radiological impact to public can be higher than the expected value after 2E5-year. Although the result implies 100 times safety margin even in that case, further study will be needed to assess the sensitivity of other input parameters which can affect the radiological impact for long-term.

  10. Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Waste from PyroGreen Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Hee Jae; Ham, In hye; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The main object of PyroGreen processes is decontaminating SNFs into intermediate level waste meeting U.S. WIPP contact-handled (CH) waste characteristics to achieve long-term radiological safety of waste disposal. In this paper, radiological impact of PyroGreen waste disposal is probabilistically assessed using domestic input parameters for safety assessment of disposal. PyroGreen processes is decontamination technology using pyro-chemical process developed by Seoul National University in collaboration with KAERI, Chungnam University, Korea Hydro-Nuclear Power and Yonsei University. Advanced Korean Reference Disposal System (A-KRS) design for vitrified waste is applied to develop safety assessment model using GoldSim software. The simulation result shows that PyroGreen vitrified waste is expected to satisfy the regulatory dose limit criteria, 0.1 mSv/yr. With small probability, however, radiological impact to public can be higher than the expected value after 2E5-year. Although the result implies 100 times safety margin even in that case, further study will be needed to assess the sensitivity of other input parameters which can affect the radiological impact for long-term.

  11. Probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants: a monograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanki, R.B.; Prasad, Mahendra

    2007-11-01

    This monograph on probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is addressed to the wide community of professionals engaged in the nuclear industry and concerned with the safety issues of nuclear power plants (NPPs). While the monograph describes PSA of NPPs, the principles described in this monograph can be extended to other facilities like spent fuel storage, fuel reprocessing plants and non-nuclear facilities like chemical plants, refineries etc. as applicable. The methodology for risk assessment in chemical plants or refineries is generally known as quantitative risk analysis (QRA). The fundamental difference between NPP and chemical plant is that in NPPs the hazardous material (fuel and fission products) are contained at a single location (i.e. inside containment), whereas in a chemical plant and reprocessing plants, the hazardous material is present simultaneously at many places, like pipelines, reaction towers, storage tanks, etc. Also unlike PSA, QRA does not deal with levels; it uses an integrated approach combining all the levels. The monograph covers the areas of broad interest in the field of PSA such as historical perspective, fundamentals of PSA, strengths and weaknesses of PSA, applications of PSA, role of PSA in the regulatory decision making and issues for advancement of PSA

  12. Safety assessment of genetically modified crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, Keith T.

    2002-01-01

    The development of genetically modified (GM) crops has prompted widespread debate regarding both human safety and environmental issues. Food crops produced by modern biotechnology using recombinant techniques usually differ from their conventional counterparts only in respect of one or a few desirable genes, as opposed to the use of traditional breeding methods which mix thousands of genes and require considerable efforts to select acceptable and robust hybrid offspring. The difficulties of applying traditional toxicological testing and risk assessment procedures to whole foods are discussed along with the evaluation strategies that are used for these new food products to ensure the safety of these products for the consumer

  13. MAPLE-X10 reactor safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotnam, K.D.; Lounsbury, R.I.; Gillespie, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the safety assessment of the 10 MW MAPLE-X10 reactor which has involved a substantial component of PSA analysis to supplement deterministic analysis. Initiating events are identified through the use of a master logic diagram. The events are then examined through event sequence diagrams, at the concept design stage, followed by a set of reliability analyses that are coordinated with the event sequence diagrams. Improvements identified through the reliability analyses are incorporated into the design to ensure that safety objectives are attained

  14. Safety assessment of a lithium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgazzi, Luciano; Roberta, Ferri; Barbara, Giannone

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the safety assessment of the lithium target of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) through evaluating the most important risk factors related to system operation and verifying the fulfillment of the safety criteria. The hazard assessment is based on using a well-structured Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) procedure by detailing on a component-by-component basis all the possible failure modes and identifying their effects on the plant. Additionally, a systems analysis, applying the fault tree technique, is performed in order to evaluate, from a probabilistic standpoint, all the relevant and possible failures of each component required for safe system operation and assessing the unavailability of the lithium target system. The last task includes the thermal-hydraulic transient analysis of the target lithium loop, including operational and accident transients. A lithium target loop model is developed, using the RELAP5/Mod3.2 thermal-hydraulic code, which has been modified to include specific features of IFMIF itself. The main conclusions are that target safety is fulfilled, the hazards associated with lithium operation are confined within the IFMIF security boundaries, the environmental impact is negligible, and the plant responds to the simulated transients by being able to reach steady conditions in a safety situation

  15. Human reliability in probabilistic safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez Mendez, J.

    1989-01-01

    Nowadays a growing interest in medioambiental aspects is detected in our country. It implies an assessment of the risk involved in the industrial processess and installations in order to determine if those are into the acceptable limits. In these safety assessments, among which PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessments), can be pointed out the role played by the human being in the system is one of the more relevant subjects. (This relevance has been demostrated in the accidents happenned). However in Spain there aren't manuals specifically dedicated to asses the human contribution to risk in the frame of PSAs. This report aims to improve this situation providing: a) a theoretical background to help the reader in the understanding of the nature of the human error, b) a guide to carry out a Human Reliability Analysis and c) a selected overwiev of the techniques and methodologies currently applied in this area. (Author)

  16. Human Reliability in Probabilistic Safety Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez Mendez, J.

    1989-01-01

    Nowadays a growing interest in environmental aspects is detected in our country. It implies an assessment of the risk involved in the industrial processes and installations in order to determine if those are into the acceptable limits. In these safety assessments, among which PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessments), can be pointed out the role played by the human being in the system is one of the more relevant subjects (This relevance has been demonstrated in the accidents happened) . However, in Spain there aren't manuals specifically dedicated to asses the human contribution to risk in the frame of PSAs. This report aims to improve this situation providing: a) a theoretical background to help the reader in the understanding of the nature of the human error, b) a quid to carry out a Human Reliability Analysis and c) a selected overview of the techniques and methodologies currently applied in this area. (Author) 20 refs

  17. Views on chemical safety information and influences on chemical disposal behaviour in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinks, J.; Bush, J.; Andras, P.; Garratt, J.; Pigott, G.; Kennedy, A.; Pless-Mulloli, T.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how groups representing four tiers in the chemical supply chain (manufacturers, vendors, workers and consumers) understood safety information, and the factors that influenced disposal behaviour. Data from seven, semi-structured, focus groups was analysed both qualitatively (textual analysis) and quantitatively (network analysis). Such combined analytical methods enabled us to achieve both detailed insights into perceptions and behaviour and an objective understanding of the prevailing opinions that occurred within and between the focus group discussions. We found issues around awareness, trust, access and disposal behaviours differed between groups within the supply chain. Participants from the lower tiers perceived chemical safety information to be largely inaccessible. Labels were the main source of information on chemical risks for the middle and bottom tiers of the supply chain. Almost all of the participants were aware of the St Andrew's Cross and skull and crossbones symbols but few were familiar with the Volatile Organic Compound logo or the fish and tree symbol. Both the network and thematic analysis demonstrated that whilst frequent references to health risks associated with chemicals were made environmental risks were usually only articulated after prompting. It is clear that the issues surrounding public understanding of chemical safety labels are highly complex and this is compounded by inconsistencies in the cognitive profiles of chemical users. Substantially different cognitive profiles are likely to contribute towards communication difficulties between different tiers of the supply chain. Further research is needed to examine the most effective ways of communicating chemical hazards information to the public. The findings demonstrate a need to improve and simplify disposal guidance to members of the public, to raise public awareness of the graphic symbols in the CHIP 3.1, 2005 regulations and to improve access to disposal guidance

  18. Additional safety assessment of ITER - Addition safety investigation of the INB ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This assessment aims at re-assessing safety margins in the light of events which occurred in Fukushima Daiichi, i.e. extreme natural events challenging the safety of installations. After a presentation of some characteristics of the ITER installation (location, activities, buildings, premise detritiation systems, electric supply, handling means, radioactive materials, chemical products, nuclear risks, specific risks), the report addresses the installation robustness by identifying cliff-edge effect risks which can be related to a loss of confinement of radioactive materials, explosions, a significant increase of exposure level, a possible effect on water sheets, and so on. The next part addresses the various aspects related to a seismic risk: installation sizing (assessment methodology, seismic risk characterization in Cadarache), sizing protection measures, installation compliance, and margin assessment. External flooding is the next addressed risk: installation sizing with respect to this specific risk, protection measures, installation compliance, margin assessment, and studied additional measures. Other extreme natural phenomena are considered (meteorological conditions, earthquake and flood) which may have effects on other installations (dam, canal). Then, the report addresses technical risks like the loss of electric supplies and cooling systems, the way a crisis is managed in terms of technical and human means and organization in different typical accidental cases. Subcontracting practices are also discussed. A synthesis proposes an overview of this additional safety assessment and discusses the impact which could have additional measures which could be implemented

  19. Probabilistic assessment of nuclear safety and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear reactor accidents and diversions of materials from the nuclear fuel cycle are perceived by many people as particularly serious threats to society. Probabilistic assessment is a rational approach to the evaluation of both threats, and may provide a basis for decisions on appropriate actions to control them. Probabilistic method have become standard tools used in the analysis of safety, but there are disagreements on the criteria to be applied when assessing the results of analysis. Probabilistic analysis and assessment of the effectiveness of nuclear material safeguards are still at an early stage of development. (author)

  20. Using driving simulators to assess driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Linda Ng; Lee, John D

    2010-05-01

    Changes in drivers, vehicles, and roadways pose substantial challenges to the transportation safety community. Crash records and naturalistic driving data are useful for examining the influence of past or existing technology on drivers, and the associations between risk factors and crashes. However, they are limited because causation cannot be established and technology not yet installed in production vehicles cannot be assessed. Driving simulators have become an increasingly widespread tool to understand evolving and novel technologies. The ability to manipulate independent variables in a randomized, controlled setting also provides the added benefit of identifying causal links. This paper introduces a special issue on simulator-based safety studies. The special issue comprises 25 papers that demonstrate the use of driving simulators to address pressing transportation safety problems and includes topics as diverse as neurological dysfunction, work zone design, and driver distraction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultraviolet safety assessments of insect light traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, David H; Gilbert, David W; Lyon, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Near-ultraviolet (UV-A: 315-400 nm), "black-light," electric lamps were invented in 1935 and ultraviolet insect light traps (ILTs) were introduced for use in agriculture around that time. Today ILTs are used indoors in several industries and in food-service as well as in outdoor settings. With recent interest in photobiological lamp safety, safety standards are being developed to test for potentially hazardous ultraviolet emissions. A variety of UV "Black-light" ILTs were measured at a range of distances to assess potential exposures. Realistic time-weighted human exposures are shown to be well below current guidelines for human exposure to ultraviolet radiation. These UV-A exposures would be far less than the typical UV-A exposure in the outdoor environment. Proposals are made for realistic ultraviolet safety standards for ILT products.

  2. The 'PROCESO' index: a new methodology for the evaluation of operational safety in the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marono, M.; Pena, J.A.; Santamaria, J.

    2006-01-01

    The acknowledgement of industrial installations as complex systems in the early 1980s outstands as a milestone in the path to operational safety. Process plants are social-technical complex systems of a dynamic nature, whose properties depend not only on their components, but also on the inter-relations among them. A comprehensive assessment of operational safety requires a systemic approach, i.e. an integrated framework that includes all the relevant factors influencing safety. Risk analysis methodologies and safety management systems head the list of methods that point in this direction, but they normally require important plant resources. As a consequence, their use is frequently restricted to especially dangerous processes often driven by compliance with legal requirements. In this work a new safety index for the chemical industry, termed the 'Proceso' Index (standing for the Spanish terms for PROCedure for the Evaluation of Operational Safety), has been developed. PROCESO is based on the principles of systems theory, has a tree-like structure and considers 25 areas to guide the review of plant safety. The method uses indicators whose respective weight values have been obtained via an expert judgement technique. This paper describes the steps followed to develop this new Operational Safety Index, explains its structure and illustrates its application to process plants

  3. Electronuclear's safety culture assessment and enhancement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvatici, E.; Diaz-Francisco, J.M.; Diniz de Souza, V.

    2002-01-01

    The present paper describes the Eletronuclear's safety culture assessment and enhancement program. The program was launched by the company's top management one year after the creation of Eletronuclear in 1997, from the merging of two companies with different organizational cultures, the design and engineering company Nuclen and the nuclear directorate of the Utility Furnas, Operator of the Angra1 NPP. The program consisted of an assessment performed internally in 1999 with the support and advice of the IAEA. This assessment, performed with the help of a survey, pooled about 80% of the company's employees. The overall result of the assessment was that a satisfactory level of safety culture existed; however, a number of points with a considerable margin for improvement were also identified. These points were mostly related with behavioural matters such as motivation, stress in the workplace, view of mistakes, handling of conflicts, and last but not least a view by a considerable number of employees that a conflict between safety and production might exist. An Action Plan was established by the company managers to tackle these weak points. This Plan was issued as company guideline by the company's Directorate. The subsequent step was to detail and implement the different actions of the Plan, which is the phase that we are at present. In the detailing of the Action Plan, special care was taken to sum up efforts, avoiding duplication of work or competition with already existing programs. In this process it was identified that the company had a considerable number of initiatives directly related to organizational and safety culture improvement, already operational. These initiatives have been integrated in the detailed Action Plan. A new assessment, for checking the effectiveness of the undertaken actions, is planned for 2003. (author)

  4. Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Safety and Emission Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.-Y.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical sensor technology is being developed for leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire safety applications. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS)-based) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Using these technologies, sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed. A description is given of each sensor type and its present stage of development. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  5. The DYLAM approach to systems safety and reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendola, A.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of the principal features and applications of DYLAM (Dynamic Logical Analytical Methodology) is presented, whose basic principles can be summarized as follows: after a particular modelling of the component states, computerized heuristical procedures generate stochastic configurations of the system, whereas the resulting physical processes are simultaneously simulated to give account of the possible interactions between physics and states and, on the other hand, to search for system dangerous configurations and related probabilities. The association of probabilistic techniques for describing the states with physical equations for describing the process results in a very powerful tool for safety and reliability assessment of systems potentially subjected to dangerous incidental transients. A comprehensive picture of DYLAM capability for manifold applications can be obtained by the review of the study cases analyzed (LMFBR core accident, systems reliability assessment, accident simulation, man-machine interaction analysis, chemical reactors safety, etc.)

  6. Safety assessment, safety performance indicators at the Paks Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baji, C.; Vamos, G.; Toth, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Paks Nuclear Power Plant has been using different methods of safety assessment (event analysis, self-assessment, probabilistic safety analysis), including performance indicators characterizing both operational and safety performance since the early years of operation of the plant. Regarding the safety performance, the indicators include safety system performance, number of scrams, release of radioactive materials, number of safety significant events, industrial safety indicator, etc. The Paks NPP also reports a set of ten indicators to WANO Performance Indicator Programme which, among others, include safety related indicators as well. However, a more systematic approach to structuring and trending safety indicators is needed so that they can contribute to the enhancement of the operational safety. A more comprehensive set of indicators and a systematic evaluation process was introduced in 1996. The performance indicators framework proposed by the IAEA was adapted to Paks in this year to further improve the process. Safety culture assessment and characterizing safety culture is part of the assessment process. (author)

  7. [Formation mechanism and chemical safety of nonintentional chemical substances present in chlorinated drinking water and wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Sukeo

    2010-09-01

    This paper reviews the formation mechanism and chemical safety of nonintentional chemical substances (NICS) present in chlorine-treated water containing organic contaminants. Undesirable compounds, i.e., NICS, may be formed under certain conditions when chlorine reacts with organic matter. The rate and extent of chlorine consumption with organics are strongly dependent on their chemical structures, particularly whether double bonds or sulfur and nitrogen atoms occur in the molecules. Organothiophosphorus pesticides (P=S type) are easily oxidized to their phosphorus compounds (P=O type) in chlorinated water containing HOCl as little as 0.5 mg/l, resulting in an increase in cholinesterase-inhibitory activity. Chlorination of phenols in water also produces a series of highly chlorinated compounds, including chlorophenols, chloroquinones, chlorinated carboxylic acids, and polychlorinated phenoxyphenols (PCPPs). In some of these chloroquinones, 2,6-dichloroalkylsemiquinones exhibit a strong mutagenic response as do positive controls used in the Ames test. 2-phenoxyphenols in these PCPPs are particularly interesting, as they are present in the chlorine-treated phenol solution and they are also precursors (predioxins) of the highly toxic chlorinated dioxins. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were found to undergo chemical changes due to hypochlorite reactions to give chloro-substituted PAHs, oxygenated (quinones) and hydroxylated (phenols) compounds, but they exhibit a lower mutagenic response. In addition, field work was performed in river water and drinking water to obtain information on chemical distribution and their safety, and the results are compared with those obtained in the model chlorination experiments.

  8. Assessment of chemicals in construction products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Hanne; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2000-01-01

    . The reasons for that are lacks of product-specific emissions by manufacturing of chemical products, e.g. waterproofing systems and sealants. Besides, most LCA-models do not include assessments of emissions in working environment, in indoor environment or from disposal processes. It was therefore...

  9. The radiation safety self-assessment program of Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, G.; Chase, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has developed a self-assessment program to ensure that high quality in its radiation safety program is maintained. The self-assessment program has three major components: routine ongoing assessment, accident/incident investigation, and detailed assessments of particular radiation safety subsystems or of the total radiation safety program. The operation of each of these components is described

  10. Assessment of safety culture: Changing regulatory approach in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronaky, Jozsef; Toth, Andras

    2002-01-01

    Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) is changing its inspection practice and assessment methods of safety performance and safety culture in operating nuclear facilities. The new approach emphasises integrated team inspection of safety cornerstones and systematic assessment of safety performance of operators. (author)

  11. Seismic assessment of existing nuclear chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriman, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper outlines the generic approach to the seismic assessment of existing structures. It describes the role of the safety case in determining the studies carried out by the functional departments on individual projects. There is an emphasis on the role of existing information and material tests to provide realistic properties for analysis to account for possible degradation effects. Finally, a case study of a concrete containment cell is shown to illustrate the approach. (author)

  12. Safety (management and technology). Safety of chemical materials; Anzen (manejimento to tekunoroji). Kagaku busshitsu no anzensei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T. [Hosei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-08-05

    In chemical materials there exist hazardous materials causing health damages, environmental pollution, fires and explosions. The hazard analysis has been noted as a means for preventing accidents due to chemical materials. This means leads to an effective method of recognizing hazard, evaluating the risk, and lowering the degree of hazard to an allowable level. This paper describes a hazard analysis of autoreactive materials, out of chemical materials causing fires and explosions, which may react by theirselves and cause accidents. In particular, an example is introduced in which this hazard analysis method is adapted to an experimental production of the next generation gas generating agent for automobile collision safety air-bags. In this manufacturing process, in kneading and granulating processes where lots of materials are handled, materials are used in a moistened state, thus countermeasures for preventing occurrence of combustion and explosion being taken. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Development of a Safety Assessment Information System for the Management of Periodic Safety Assessment Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Young

    2007-01-01

    At present, the 10-year Periodic Safety Review(PSR) has been performing to confirm all the aspects of safety issues for all the operating plants in compliance with domestic nuclear law of article 23, subarticle 3. For each plant, in addition, Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) and Severe Accident Management Guideline(SAMG) are being implemented and revised periodically to reflect the latest safety level according to principle fulfillment of severe accident policy statement. The assessment reports, as one of outcomes from these activities, are submitted into and reviewed by domestic regulatory body. During reviewing (in-office duty) and licensing (regulatory duty) process, a large number of outcomes of which most are the formal technical reports and licensing materials, are inevitably produced. Moreover, repeated review process over the plants can make them accumulated and produce a variety of documents additionally. This circumstance motivates to develop effective tool or system for the management of these reports and related technical documents for the future use in licensing process and for subsequent plant assessments. This paper presents the development status of Safety Assessment Information System(SAIS) which manages safety-related documents of PSR, PSA and SAMG for practical use for experienced engineers in charge of these areas

  14. Development of a Safety Assessment Information System for the Management of Periodic Safety Assessment Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Tae Young [Nuclear Engineering and Technology Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    At present, the 10-year Periodic Safety Review(PSR) has been performing to confirm all the aspects of safety issues for all the operating plants in compliance with domestic nuclear law of article 23, subarticle 3. For each plant, in addition, Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) and Severe Accident Management Guideline(SAMG) are being implemented and revised periodically to reflect the latest safety level according to principle fulfillment of severe accident policy statement. The assessment reports, as one of outcomes from these activities, are submitted into and reviewed by domestic regulatory body. During reviewing (in-office duty) and licensing (regulatory duty) process, a large number of outcomes of which most are the formal technical reports and licensing materials, are inevitably produced. Moreover, repeated review process over the plants can make them accumulated and produce a variety of documents additionally. This circumstance motivates to develop effective tool or system for the management of these reports and related technical documents for the future use in licensing process and for subsequent plant assessments. This paper presents the development status of Safety Assessment Information System(SAIS) which manages safety-related documents of PSR, PSA and SAMG for practical use for experienced engineers in charge of these areas.

  15. Assessing safety culture using RADAR matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariscal-Saldana, M. a.; Garcia-Herrero, S.; Toca-Otero, A.

    2009-01-01

    Santa Maria de Garona nuclear power plant, in collaboration with Burgos University, has proceeded to conduct a pilot project aimed at seeing the possibilities for the RADAR (Results, Approach, Development, Assessment and review) logic of EFQM model, as a tool for self evaluation of Safety Culture in a nuclear power plant. In the work it has sought evidences of Safety culture implanted in the plant, and identify strengths and areas for improvement regarding this Culture. the score obtained by analyzing these strengths and areas for improvements has served to prioritize actions implemented. The nuclear power plant has been submitted voluntarily to the mission SCART (Safety Culture Assessment Review Team), an international review being done for the first time in the world at a plant in operation and the team of experts led by International Agency of Atomic Energy (IAEA) has identified this project as a good practice, an innovative process implemented in the plant, that must be transmitted to other plants. (Author) 10 refs

  16. Management of safety, safety culture and self assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnino, A.

    2000-01-01

    Safety management is the term used for the measures required to ensure that an acceptable level of safety is maintained throughout the life of an installation, including decommissioning. The safety culture concept and its implementation are described in part one of the paper. The principles of safety are now quite well known and are implemented worldwide. It leads to a situation where harmonization is being achieved as indicated by the entry into force of the Convention on Nuclear Safety. To go beyond the present nuclear safety levels, management of safety and safety culture will be the means for achieving progress. Recent events which took place in major nuclear power countries have shown the importance of the management and the consequences on safety. At the same time, electricity deregulation is coming and will impact on safety through reductions in staffing and in operation and maintenance cost at nuclear installations. Management of safety as well as its control and monitoring by the safety authorities become a key to the future of nuclear energy.(author)

  17. Risk assessment of chemicals in foundries: The International Chemical Toolkit pilot-project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Marcela G.; Filho, Walter R.P.

    2006-01-01

    In Brazil, problems regarding protection from hazardous substances in small-sized enterprises are similar to those observed in many other countries. Looking for a simple tool to assess and control such exposures, FUNDACENTRO has started in 2005 a pilot-project to implement the International Chemical Control Toolkit. During the series of visits to foundries, it was observed that although many changes have occurred in foundry technology, occupational exposures to silica dust and metal fumes continue to occur, due to a lack of perception of occupational exposure in the work environment. After introducing the Chemical Toolkit concept to the foundry work group, it was possible to show that the activities undertaken to improve the management of chemicals, according to its concept, will support companies in fulfilling government legislations related to chemical management, occupational health and safety, and environmental impact. In the following meetings, the foundry work group and FUNDACENTRO research team will identify 'inadequate work situations'. Based on the Chemical Toolkit, improvement measures will be proposed. Afterwards, a survey will verify the efficency of those measures in the control of hazards and consequently on the management of chemicals. This step is now in course

  18. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  19. Chemical Risk Assessment Screening Tool of a Global Chemical Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Tjoe-Nij

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper describes a simple-to-use and reliable screening tool called Critical Task Exposure Screening (CTES, developed by a chemical company. The tool assesses if the exposure to a chemical for a task is likely to be within acceptable levels. Methods: CTES is a Microsoft Excel tool, where the inhalation risk score is calculated by relating the exposure estimate to the corresponding occupational exposure limit (OEL or occupational exposure band (OEB. The inhalation exposure is estimated for tasks by preassigned ART1.5 activity classes and modifying factors. Results: CTES requires few inputs. The toxicological data, including OELs, OEBs, and vapor pressure are read from a database. Once the substance is selected, the user specifies its concentration and then chooses the task description and its duration. CTES has three outputs that may trigger follow-up: (1 inhalation risk score; (2 identification of the skin hazard with the skin warnings for local and systemic adverse effects; and (3 status for carcinogenic, mutagenic, or reprotoxic effects. Conclusion: The tool provides an effective way to rapidly screen low-concern tasks, and quickly identifies certain tasks involving substances that will need further review with, nevertheless, the appropriate conservatism. This tool shows that the higher-tier ART1.5 inhalation exposure assessment model can be included effectively in a screening tool. After 2 years of worldwide extensive use within the company, CTES is well perceived by the users, including the shop floor management, and it fulfills its target of screening tool. Keywords: occupational exposure, risk assessment, risk management

  20. Healthcare professionals’ views of feedback on patient safety culture assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Zwijnenberg, N.C.; Hendriks, M.; Hoogervorst-Schilp, J.; Wagner, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: By assessing patient safety culture, healthcare providers can identify areas for improvement in patient safety culture. To achieve this, these assessment outcomes have to be relevant and presented clearly. The aim of our study was to explore healthcare professionals’ views on the feedback of a patient safety culture assessment. Methods: Twenty four hospitals participated in a patient safety culture assessment in 2012. Hospital departments received feedback in a report and on a web...

  1. Safety assessment and verification for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. The present publication is a revision of the IAEA Safety Guide on Management of Nuclear Power Plants for Safe Operation issued in 1984. It supplements Section 2 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation. Nuclear power technology is different from the customary technology of power generation from fossil fuel and by hydroelectric means. One major difference between the management of nuclear power plants and that of conventional generating plants is the emphasis that should be placed on nuclear safety, quality assurance, the management of radioactive waste and radiological protection, and the accompanying national regulatory requirements. This Safety Guide highlights the important elements of effective management in relation to these aspects of safety. The attention to be paid to safety requires that the management recognize that personnel involved in the nuclear power programme should understand, respond effectively to, and continuously search for ways to enhance safety in the light of any additional requirements socially and legally demanded of nuclear energy. This will help to ensure that safety policies that result in the safe operation of nuclear power plants are implemented and that margins of safety are always maintained. The structure of the organization, management standards and administrative controls should be such that there is a high degree of assurance that safety policies and decisions are implemented, safety is continuously enhanced and a strong safety culture is promoted and supported. The objective of this publication is to guide Member States in setting up an operating organization which facilitates the safe operation of nuclear power plants to a high level internationally. The second objective is to provide guidance on the most important organizational elements in order to contribute to a strong safety

  2. Safety assessment and verification for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. The present publication is a revision of the IAEA Safety Guide on Management of Nuclear Power Plants for Safe Operation issued in 1984. It supplements Section 2 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation. Nuclear power technology is different from the customary technology of power generation from fossil fuel and by hydroelectric means. One major difference between the management of nuclear power plants and that of conventional generating plants is the emphasis that should be placed on nuclear safety, quality assurance, the management of radioactive waste and radiological protection, and the accompanying national regulatory requirements. This Safety Guide highlights the important elements of effective management in relation to these aspects of safety. The attention to be paid to safety requires that the management recognize that personnel involved in the nuclear power programme should understand, respond effectively to, and continuously search for ways to enhance safety in the light of any additional requirements socially and legally demanded of nuclear energy. This will help to ensure that safety policies that result in the safe operation of nuclear power plants are implemented and that margins of safety are always maintained. The structure of the organization, management standards and administrative controls should be such that there is a high degree of assurance that safety policies and decisions are implemented, safety is continuously enhanced and a strong safety culture is promoted and supported. The objective of this publication is to guide Member States in setting up an operating organization which facilitates the safe operation of nuclear power plants to a high level internationally. The second objective is to provide guidance on the most important organizational elements in order to contribute to a strong safety

  3. Safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Kuiper, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    The pre-market safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified crops is carried out according to the consensus approach of "substantial equivalence", in other words: the comparative safety assessment. Currently, the safety assessment of genetically modified foods is harmonized at the

  4. Retained gas sampler interim safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Miller, W.O.; Unal, C.; Fujita, R.K.

    1995-01-13

    This safety assessment addresses the proposed action to install, operate, and remove a Retained Gas Sampler (RGS) in Tank 101-SY at Hanford. Purpose of the RGS is to help characterize the gas species retained in the tank waste; the information will be used to refine models that predict the gas-producing behavior of the waste tank. The RGS will take samples of the tank from top to bottom; these samples will be analyzed for gas constituents. The proposed action is required as part of an evaluation of mitigation concepts for eliminating episodic gas releases that result in high hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space.

  5. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  6. Retained gas sampler interim safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Miller, W.O.; Unal, C.; Fujita, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This safety assessment addresses the proposed action to install, operate, and remove a Retained Gas Sampler (RGS) in Tank 101-SY at Hanford. Purpose of the RGS is to help characterize the gas species retained in the tank waste; the information will be used to refine models that predict the gas-producing behavior of the waste tank. The RGS will take samples of the tank from top to bottom; these samples will be analyzed for gas constituents. The proposed action is required as part of an evaluation of mitigation concepts for eliminating episodic gas releases that result in high hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space

  7. Efficacy and safety of superficial chemical peeling in treatment of active acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Talib, Hassanain; Al-Khateeb, Alyaa; Hameed, Ayad; Murugaiah, Chandrika

    2017-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is an extremely common condition affecting the pilosebaceous unit of the skin and characterized by presence of comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, cysts, which might result in permanent scars. Acne vulgaris commonly involve adolescents and young age groups. Active acne vulgaris is usually associated with several complications like hyper or hypopigmentation, scar formation and skin disfigurement. Previous studies have targeted the efficiency and safety of local and systemic agents in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. Superficial chemical peeling is a skin-wounding procedure which might cause some potentially undesirable adverse events. This study was conducted to review the efficacy and safety of superficial chemical peeling in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. It is a structured review of an earlier seven articles meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The clinical assessments were based on pretreatment and post-treatment comparisons and the role of superficial chemical peeling in reduction of papules, pustules and comedones in active acne vulgaris. This study showed that almost all patients tolerated well the chemical peeling procedures despite a mild discomfort, burning, irritation and erythema have been reported; also the incidence of major adverse events was very low and easily manageable. In conclusion, chemical peeling with glycolic acid is a well-tolerated and safe treatment modality in active acne vulgaris while salicylic acid peels is a more convenient for treatment of darker skin patients and it showed significant and earlier improvement than glycolic acid.

  8. The waste isolation safety assessment programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandstetter, A.; Harwell, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the USA is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE), through the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Programme, is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Programme (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Among the analyses required for isolation system evaluation is the detailed assessment of the post-closure performance of nuclear waste repositories in geologic formations. This assessment is essential, since it is concerned with aspects of the nuclear power programme which previously have not been addressed. Specifically, the nature of the isolation systems (e.g. involving breach scenarios and transport through the geosphere), and the time-scales necessary for isolation, dictate the development, demonstration and application of novel assessment capabilities. The assessment methodology needs to be thorough, flexible, objective, and scientifically defensible. Further, the data utilized must be accurate, documented, reproducible, and based on sound scientific principles. (author)

  9. NUSS safety standards: A critical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minogue, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The NUSS safety standards are based on systematic review of safety criteria of many countries in a process carefully defined to assure completeness of coverage. They represent an international consensus of accepted safety principles and practices for regulation and for the design, construction, and operation of nuclear power plants. They are a codification of principles and practices already in use by some Member States. Thus, they are not standards which describe methodologies at their present state of evolution as a result of more recent experience and improvements in technological understanding. The NUSS standards assume an underlying body of national standards and a defined technological base. Detailed design and industrial practices vary between countries and the implementation of basic safety standards within countries has taken approaches that conform with national industrial practices. Thus, application of the NUSS standards requires reconciliation with the standards of the country where the reactor will be built as well as with the country from which procurement takes place. Experience in making that reconciliation will undoubtedly suggest areas of needed improvement. After the TMI accident a reassessment of the NUSS programme was made and it was concluded that, given the information at that time and the then level of technology, the basic approach was sound; the NUSS programme should be continued to completion, and the standards should be brought into use. It was also recognized, however, that in areas such as probabilistic risk assessment, human factors methodology, and consideration of detailed accident sequences, more advanced technology was emerging. As these technologies develop, and become more amenable to practical application, it is anticipated that the NUSS standards will need revision. Ideally those future revisions will also flow from experience in their use

  10. International physical protection self-assessment tool for chemical facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewell, Craig R.; Burdick, Brent A.; Stiles, Linda L.; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2010-09-01

    This report is the final report for Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project No.130746, International Physical Protection Self-Assessment Tool for Chemical Facilities. The goal of the project was to develop an exportable, low-cost, computer-based risk assessment tool for small to medium size chemical facilities. The tool would assist facilities in improving their physical protection posture, while protecting their proprietary information. In FY2009, the project team proposed a comprehensive evaluation of safety and security regulations in the target geographical area, Southeast Asia. This approach was later modified and the team worked instead on developing a methodology for identifying potential targets at chemical facilities. Milestones proposed for FY2010 included characterizing the international/regional regulatory framework, finalizing the target identification and consequence analysis methodology, and developing, reviewing, and piloting the software tool. The project team accomplished the initial goal of developing potential target categories for chemical facilities; however, the additional milestones proposed for FY2010 were not pursued and the LDRD funding therefore was redirected.

  11. Progress of IRSN R&D on ITER Safety Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorsselaere, J. P.; Perrault, D.; Barrachin, M.; Bentaib, A.; Gensdarmes, F.; Haeck, W.; Pouvreau, S.; Salat, E.; Seropian, C.; Vendel, J.

    2012-08-01

    The French "Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire" (IRSN), in support to the French "Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire", is analysing the safety of ITER fusion installation on the basis of the ITER operator's safety file. IRSN set up a multi-year R&D program in 2007 to support this safety assessment process. Priority has been given to four technical issues and the main outcomes of the work done in 2010 and 2011 are summarized in this paper: for simulation of accident scenarios in the vacuum vessel, adaptation of the ASTEC system code; for risk of explosion of gas-dust mixtures in the vacuum vessel, adaptation of the TONUS-CFD code for gas distribution, development of DUST code for dust transport, and preparation of IRSN experiments on gas inerting, dust mobilization, and hydrogen-dust mixtures explosion; for evaluation of the efficiency of the detritiation systems, thermo-chemical calculations of tritium speciation during transport in the gas phase and preparation of future experiments to evaluate the most influent factors on detritiation; for material neutron activation, adaptation of the VESTA Monte Carlo depletion code. The first results of these tasks have been used in 2011 for the analysis of the ITER safety file. In the near future, this R&D global programme may be reoriented to account for the feedback of the latter analysis or for new knowledge.

  12. Assessment of radiation safety in well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alles, A.; Pérez, Y.; Duménigo, C.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation safety assessments required by current regulations are a means to verify compliance with the requirements. Different methods have been used for this purpose. In the paper the results of applying the method of risk matrices, applied for the first time in the practice of well logging are exposed. For each initiating event frequency of occurrence, the severity of its consequences and the probability of failure of the barriers identified were evaluated. Starting from these assumptions, the risk associated is determined for each of the identified accident sequences, using for this the SEVRRA code 'Risk Assessment System', originally designed for use in radiotherapy. As an result sequences increased risk associated with the practice of well logging were identified, which is the starting point for the further implementation of a coherent program of dose optimization in practice. [es

  13. Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme bibliography, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.J.

    1988-05-01

    This bibliography lists reports and papers written as part of the Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme, which is concerned with disposal of low-level and intermediate-level waste (LLW and ILW) and associated radiological assessments. All work referred to has been funded, or partly funded, by UK Nirex Limited, previously known as the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX). The bibliography has been divided into two sections, a List of Publications in roughly chronological order and an Author Index. The topics involved include near-field and far-field studies. The near-field includes the waste, its immobilising medium, its container, the engineered structure in which the containers are emplaced, and the immediately adjacent geological formation disturbed by the construction of the repository. The far-field is the undisturbed geological formation between the near-field and the biosphere. (author)

  14. Exploiting data from safety investigations and processes to assess performance of safety management aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanikas, Nektarios

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative way to use records from safety investigations as a means to support the evaluation of safety management (SM) aspects. Datasets from safety investigation reports and progress records of an aviation organization were analyzed with the scope of assessing safety

  15. The Safety Case and Safety Assessment for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    This Safety Guide provides guidance and recommendations on meeting the safety requirements in respect of the safety case and supporting safety assessment for the disposal of radioactive waste. The safety case and supporting safety assessment provide the basis for demonstration of safety and for licensing of radioactive waste disposal facilities and assist and guide decisions on siting, design and operations. The safety case is also the main basis on which dialogue with interested parties is conducted and on which confidence in the safety of the disposal facility is developed. This Safety Guide is relevant for operating organizations preparing the safety case as well as for the regulatory body responsible for developing the regulations and regulatory guidance that determine the basis and scope of the safety case. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Demonstrating the safety of radioactive waste disposal; 3. Safety principles and safety requirements; 4. The safety case for disposal of radioactive waste; 5. Radiological impact assessment for the period after closure; 6. Specific issues; 7. Documentation and use of the safety case; 8. Regulatory review process.

  16. 77 FR 71561 - Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ...). Manufacturers of basic organic chemical products (except aromatic petrochemicals, industrial gases, synthetic... Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... EPA. The Interagency Testing Committee (ITC), established under section 4(e) of the Toxic Substances...

  17. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  18. Regulatory review of safety cases and safety assessments for near surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nys, V.

    2003-01-01

    The activities of the ASAM Regulatory Review Working Group are presented. Regulatory review of the safety assessment is made. It includes the regulatory review of post-closure safety assessment; safety case development and confidence building. The ISAM methodology is reviewed and SA system description is presented. Recommendations on the review process management are given

  19. The main chemical safety problems in main process of nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Fengli; Zhao Shangui; Liu Xinhua; Zhang Chunlong; Lu Dan; Liu Yuntao; Yang Xiaowei; Wang Shijun

    2014-01-01

    There are many chemical reactions in the aqueous process of nuclear fuel reprocessing. The reaction conditions and the products are different so that the chemical safety problems are different. In the paper the chemical reactions in the aqueous process of nuclear fuel reprocessing are described and the main chemical safety problems are analyzed. The reference is offered to the design and accident analysis of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. (authors)

  20. Risk assessment for safety laboratories in Politeknik Negeri Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyata Sundawa, Bakti; Hutajulu, Elferida; Sirait, Regina; Banurea, Waldemar; Indrayadi; Mulyadi, Sangap

    2017-09-01

    International Labour Organization (ILO) estimated 2.34 million people die each year because accidents and diseases in workplace. It also impact to economic losses in some countries. It need to do safety and healthy in working environment especially in laboratory. Identification of potential hazards and risks must be done in Telecommunication Laboratory Politeknik Negeri Medan. Therefore, this study was assessed 5 of potential hazards and risks in our laboratory by Likert Scale. This object was divided into 2 assessment namely likelihood of hazards and severity of consequences. Collecting data is taken from questionnaire who involved 100 students at random academic level. The result showed The highest score is chemical hazards 73.2% in likelihood of hazards and electrical hazards 85% in severity of consequences. This condition is classified as “high” state. Big attention must be given to “high” state because it can help us to determine mitigate action.

  1. IAEA safety requirements for safety assessment of fuel cycle facilities and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorises the Agency to establish standards of safety for protection of health and minimisation of danger to life and property. In that respect, the IAEA has established a Safety Fundamentals publication which contains ten safety principles for ensuring the protection of workers, the public and the environment from the harmful effects of ionising radiation. A number of these principles require safety assessments to be carried out as a means of evaluating compliance with safety requirements for all nuclear facilities and activities and to determine the measures that need to be taken to ensure safety. The safety assessments are required to be carried out and documented by the organisation responsible for operating the facility or conducting the activity, are to be independently verified and are to be submitted to the regulatory body as part of the licensing or authorisation process. In addition to the principles of the Safety Fundamentals, the IAEA establishes requirements that must be met to ensure the protection of people and the environment and which are governed by the principles in the Safety Fundamentals. The IAEA's Safety Requirements publication 'Safety Assessment for Facilities and Activities', establishes the safety requirements that need to be fulfilled in conducting and maintaining safety assessments for the lifetime of facilities and activities, with specific attention to defence in depth and the requirement for a graded approach to the application of these safety requirements across the wide range of fuel cycle facilities and activities. Requirements for independent verification of the safety assessment that needs to be carried out by the operating organisation, including the requirement for the safety assessment to be periodically reviewed and updated are also covered. For many fuel cycle facilities and activities, environmental impact assessments and non-radiological risk assessments will be required. The

  2. Probabilistic safety assessment activities at Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdonas, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Barselina Project was initiated in the summer 1991. The project was a multilateral co-operation between Lithuania, Russia and Sweden up until phase 3, and phase 4 has been performed as a bilateral between Lithuania and Sweden. The long-range objective is to establish common perspectives and unified bases for assessment of severe accident risks and needs for remedial measures for the RBMK reactors. During phase 3, from 1993 to 1994, a full scope Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) model of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant unit 2 was developed to identify possible safety improvement of risk importance. The probabilistic methodology was applied on a plant specific basis for a channel type reactor of RBMK design. During phase 4, from 1994 to 1996, the PSA was further developed, taking into account plant changes, improved modelling methods and extended plant information concerning dependencies (area events, dynamic effects, electrical and signal dependencies). The model reflected the plant status before the outage 1996. During phase 4+, 1998 to 1999 the PSA model was upgraded taking into account the newest plant modifications. The new PSA model of CPS/AZRT was developed. Modelling was based on the Single Failure Analysis

  3. Determination of Safety Performance Grade of NPP Using Integrated Safety Performance Assessment (ISPA) Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Dae Wook

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of 2000, the safety regulation of nuclear power plant (NPP) has been challenged to be conducted more reasonable, effective and efficient way using risk and performance information. In the United States, USNRC established Reactor Oversight Process (ROP) in 2000 for improving the effectiveness of safety regulation of operating NPPs. The main idea of ROP is to classify the NPPs into 5 categories based on the results of safety performance assessment and to conduct graded regulatory programs according to categorization, which might be interpreted as 'Graded Regulation'. However, the classification of safety performance categories is highly comprehensive and sensitive process so that safety performance assessment program should be prepared in integrated, objective and quantitative manner. Furthermore, the results of assessment should characterize and categorize the actual level of safety performance of specific NPP, integrating all the substantial elements for assessing the safety performance. In consideration of particular regulatory environment in Korea, the integrated safety performance assessment (ISPA) program is being under development for the use in the determination of safety performance grade (SPG) of a NPP. The ISPA program consists of 6 individual assessment programs (4 quantitative and 2 qualitative) which cover the overall safety performance of NPP. Some of the assessment programs which are already implemented are used directly or modified for incorporating risk aspects. The others which are not existing regulatory programs are newly developed. Eventually, all the assessment results from individual assessment programs are produced and integrated to determine the safety performance grade of a specific NPP

  4. Assessment of Safety Standards for Automotive Electronic Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study that assessed and compared six industry and government safety standards relevant to the safety and reliability of automotive electronic control systems. These standards include ISO 26262 (Road Vehicles - ...

  5. Intrusion resistant underground structure (IRUS) - safety assessment and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, B. A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the safety goals, human exposure scenarios and critical groups, the syvac-nsure performance assessment code, groundwater pathway safety results, and inadvertent human intrusion of the IRUS. 2 tabs

  6. Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme bibliography, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.J.; Hodgkinson, D.P.

    1987-06-01

    This bibliography lists reports and papers written as part of the Nirex Safety Assessment Research programme, which is concerned with disposal of low-level and intermediate-level waste (LLW and ILW). All work referred to has been funded, or partly funded, by UK Nirex Limited, previously known as the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX). The bibliography has been divided into two sections, a List of Publications in roughly chronological order and an Author Index. The topics involved include near-field and far-field studies. The near-field includes the waste, its immobilising medium, its container, the engineered structure in which the containers are emplaced, and the immediately adjacent geological formation disturbed by the construction of the repository. The far-field is the undisturbed geological formation between the near-field and the biosphere. (author)

  7. Life Cycle assessment of basic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    , the most important application are in research and development to improve the environmental performance of processes and products, and as support for strategic decision making. However, the coherence between LCA and decision making needs to be addressed more specifically because most companies...... in the survey did not think LCA is sufficiently fit to support strategic decision making. Because, the chemical industry is a major supplier to other product systems the major incentive to perform LCAs has been to comply with customer requirements. An LCA may not always need to be very detailed to fulfil...... and output data (together interventions) from all unit processes in the system and assessing the potential environmental impact of these interventions. The LCA framework comprise four phases which are iteratively interlinked: · Goal and scope definition · Inventory · Impact assessment · Interpretation...

  8. Risk assessment of chemicals: A central European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencko, Vladimir [Institute of Hygiene, 1st Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Ungvary, Gyoergy [National Institute of Occupational Health, Budapest (Hungary)

    1992-07-01

    During the last four decades in the Czech and Slovak federal Republic (CSFR) and Hungary, similar to the previous Soviet Union and all the Central and East European countries the prevention of the adverse health effects of chemicals in occupational and environmental settings, drinking water and food of population was intended to be achieved by determination and compulsory observance of hygienic limit values. From recent political developments it can be expected that due to the decay of the former Warsaw Pact and the related Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) the next development of risk assessment will reflect that new situation. The OECD principles of toxicity testing and risk assessment of exposure to chemicals will be sooner or later accepted in principle in the framework of a general economic integration of Central and Eastern European countries with EEC. During the 80s there was a growing feeling of the necessity to harmonize the activities of OECD and CMEA countries in the field of toxicological methodology and approaches to risk assessment of chemicals because of the growing production and mutual trade including transport of industrial and agricultural chemicals. As a contributory factor supporting this effort there was growing cross boundary air and river pollution in Europe. The former Council for Mutual Economic Assistance was an intergovernmental organization of 10 countries with a number of other countries and agencies cooperating with it in its work. CMEA as, and OECD still is concerned primarily with economic development but both had stated commitments to protecting human health and the environment. To help to mutual understanding and to promote harmonization of above mentioned obligations and commitments of the both organizations United Nation Environment Programme's International Registry of Potentially Toxic Chemicals and The International Programme on Chemical Safety (UNEP/IRPTC/IPCS) convened an International Consultation on

  9. Risk assessment of chemicals: A central European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencko, Vladimir; Gyoergy Ungvary

    1992-01-01

    During the last four decades in the Czech and Slovak federal Republic (CSFR) and Hungary, similar to the previous Soviet Union and all the Central and East European countries the prevention of the adverse health effects of chemicals in occupational and environmental settings, drinking water and food of population was intended to be achieved by determination and compulsory observance of hygienic limit values. From recent political developments it can be expected that due to the decay of the former Warsaw Pact and the related Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) the next development of risk assessment will reflect that new situation. The OECD principles of toxicity testing and risk assessment of exposure to chemicals will be sooner or later accepted in principle in the framework of a general economic integration of Central and Eastern European countries with EEC. During the 80s there was a growing feeling of the necessity to harmonize the activities of OECD and CMEA countries in the field of toxicological methodology and approaches to risk assessment of chemicals because of the growing production and mutual trade including transport of industrial and agricultural chemicals. As a contributory factor supporting this effort there was growing cross boundary air and river pollution in Europe. The former Council for Mutual Economic Assistance was an intergovernmental organization of 10 countries with a number of other countries and agencies cooperating with it in its work. CMEA as, and OECD still is concerned primarily with economic development but both had stated commitments to protecting human health and the environment. To help to mutual understanding and to promote harmonization of above mentioned obligations and commitments of the both organizations United Nation Environment Programme's International Registry of Potentially Toxic Chemicals and The International Programme on Chemical Safety (UNEP/IRPTC/IPCS) convened an International Consultation on

  10. Do provisions to advance chemical facility safety also advance chemical facility security? - An analysis of possible synergies

    OpenAIRE

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2012-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a study on the applicability of existing chemical industry safety provisions to enhancing security of chemical facilities covering the situation in 18 EU Member States. This paper reports some preliminary analytical findings regarding the extent to which existing provisions that have been put into existence to advance safety objectives due to synergy effects could be expected advance security objectives as well.The paper provides a conceptual definition of...

  11. Considerations in the safety assessment of sealed nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This report is a part of the International Atomic Energy Agency's radioactive waste management programme, whose objective is to provide assistance to Member States in developing guidance for identifying safe alternatives for isolating radioactive waste from man and his environment. This report attempts to integrate information from the previous reports on decommissioning of nuclear facilities, mitigation of accidents at such facilities, and performance assessment of disposal systems to provide useful advice and qualitative guidance to those responsible for performance and safety assessments of sealed nuclear facilities by giving an overview of possible approaches and techniques for such assessments. In this context, the establishment of requirements and rules governing the radiological safety of personnel, the general public, and the environment for sealing and post-sealing activities will enable the choice of the most appropriated approach and help to promote consistency in both decommissioning and waste management standards. The near-field effects discussed in this document include gas generation, interactions of the groundwater and the residual water with other components of the system, thermal, thermo-mechanical, radiation effects and chemical and geochemical reactions. 59 refs, figs and tabs

  12. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: Implementing inherent safety perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-01-01

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design

  13. Development and applications of a safety assessment system for promoting safety culture in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Ken-ichi; Hasegawa, Naoko; Hirose, Ayako; Hayase, Ken-ichi

    2004-01-01

    For past five years, CRIEPI has been continuing efforts to develop and make applications of a 'safety assessment system' which enable to measure the safety level of organization. This report describe about frame of the system, assessment results and its reliability, and relation between labor accident rate in the site and total safety index (TSI), which can be obtained by the principal factors analysis. The safety assessment in this report is based on questionnaire survey of employee. The format and concrete questionnaires were developed using existing literatures including organizational assessment tools. The tailored questionnaire format involved 124 questionnaire items. The assessment results could be considered as a well indicator of the safety level of organization, safety management, and safety awareness of employee. (author)

  14. Chemical Safety Research Advances in Support of Lautenberg Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA researchers are developing new ways to identify which chemicals to prioritize for further testing, to provide better access to information about chemicals, and to understand what potential risks chemicals may pose to humans and the environment.

  15. Safety aspects in a chemical exchange process plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Based on a chemical exchange process involving solid liquid exchange, studies have been undertaken to enrich 10 B isotope of boron using ion exchange chromatography in which a strong base anion exchange resin in hydroxyl form is equilibrated with boric acid solution in presence of mannitol (a complexing reagent to boric acid) to enhance the acidity and hence the isotopic exchange separation factor for 10 B = 11 B exchange reaction. Using the electrochemical techniques such as pH-metry and conductimetry, the choice of a suitable complexing reagent was made amongst ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, dextrose and mannitol for cost-effective separation of isotopes of boron and monitoring of band movements using these electrochemical techniques. The optimum conditions for the regeneration of strong base anion exchange resins of type-I and type-II were determined for cost-effective separation of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography. The possibility of using unspent alkali content of the effluent was also exploited. Removal of carbonate impurity from Rayon grade caustic lye (used as regenerant after dilution) and recycling of Ba(OH) 2 was studied to avoid waste disposal problems. This process is an industrially viable process. The various safety aspects followed during operation of this plant are described in this paper. (author)

  16. Complementary safety assessment assessment of nuclear facilities - Tricastin facility - AREVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This complementary safety assessment analyses the robustness of the Areva part of the Tricastin nuclear site to extreme situations such as those that led to the Fukushima accident. This study includes the following facilities: Areva NC Pierrelatte, EURODIF production, Comurhex Pierrelatte, Georges Besse II plant and Socatri. Robustness is the ability for the plant to withstand events beyond which the plant was designed. Robustness is linked to safety margins but also to the situations leading to a sudden deterioration of the accidental sequence. Moreover, safety is not only a matter of design or engineered systems but also a matter of organizing: task organization (including subcontracting) as well as the setting of emergency plans or the inventory of nuclear materials are taken into consideration in this assessment. This report is divided into 10 main chapters: 1) the feedback experience of the Fukushima accident; 2) description of the site and its surroundings; 3) featuring of the site's activities and installations; 4) accidental sequences; 5) protection from earthquakes; 6) protection from floods; 7) protection from other extreme natural disasters; 8) the loss of electrical power and of the heat sink; 9) the management of severe accidents; and 10) subcontracting policy. This analysis has identified 5 main measures to be taken to limit the risks linked to natural disasters: -) continuing the program for replacing the current conversion plant and the enrichment plant; -) renewing the storage of hydrofluoric acid at the de-fluorination workshop; -) assessing the seismic behaviour of some parts of the de-fluorination workshop and of the fluorine fabrication workshop; -) improving the availability of warning and information means in case of emergency; and -) improving the means to mitigate accidental gaseous releases. (A.C.)

  17. Safety Assessment in Installation of Precast Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashrri S.N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify the safety aspects and the level of safety during the installation process in construction sites. A questionnaire survey and interviews were done to provide data on safety requirements in precast concrete construction. All of the interviews and the research questionnaire survey were conducted among contractors that are registered as class 1 to class 7 with the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB and class A to class G with Pusat Khidmat Kontraktor (PKK in Penang. Returned questionnaires were analysed with the use of simple percentages and the Likert Scale analysis method to identify safety aspects of precast construction. The results indicate that the safety aspect implemented by companies involved in the precast construction process is at a good level in the safety aspect during bracing, propping, welding and grouting processes and at a very good level of safety in general aspects and safety aspects during lifting processes.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF FOOD SAFETY PRACTICES AMONG CASSAVA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philips Olusola

    public policies on food safety management. ... in the contemporary world and a significant factor in the reduction of productivity. There is some .... adduced to the views of the majority who considered food safety practices a big ..... Contingency.

  19. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (Project W-296) Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    This Safety Assessment is based on information derived from the Conceptual Design Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (DOE/RL 1994) and ancillary documentation developed during the conceptual design phase of Project W-296. The Safety Assessment has been prepared to support the Solid Waste Burial Ground Interim Safety Basis document. The purpose of the Safety Assessment is to provide an evaluation of the design to determine if the process, as proposed, will comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) Limits for radioactive and hazardous material exposures and be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint. The evaluation considered affects on the worker, onsite personnel, the public, and the environment

  20. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (Project W-296) Safety Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    This Safety Assessment is based on information derived from the Conceptual Design Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (DOE/RL 1994) and ancillary documentation developed during the conceptual design phase of Project W-296. The Safety Assessment has been prepared to support the Solid Waste Burial Ground Interim Safety Basis document. The purpose of the Safety Assessment is to provide an evaluation of the design to determine if the process, as proposed, will comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) Limits for radioactive and hazardous material exposures and be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint. The evaluation considered affects on the worker, onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  1. Assessment of chemical exposures: calculation methods for environmental professionals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daugherty, Jack E

    1997-01-01

    ... on by scientists, businessmen, and policymakers. Assessment of Chemical Exposures: Calculation Methods for Environmental Professionals addresses the expanding scope of exposure assessments in both the workplace and environment...

  2. Safety Culture Monitoring: How to Assess Safety Culture in Real Time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zronek, B.; Maryska, J.; Treslova, L.

    2016-01-01

    Do you know what is current level of safety culture in your company? Are you able to follow trend changes? Do you know what your recent issues are? Since safety culture is understood as vital part of nuclear industry daily life, it is crucial to know what the current level is. It is common to perform safety culture survey or ad hoc assessment. This contribution shares Temelin NPP, CEZ approach how to assess safety culture level permanently. Using behavioral related outputs of gap solving system, observation program, dedicated surveys, regulatory assessment, etc., allows creating real time safety culture monitoring without the need to perform any other activities. (author)

  3. Safety evaluation and regulation of chemicals. 2. Impact of regulations - improvement of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homburger, F [ed.

    1985-01-01

    This volume assesses the impact of new scientific knowledge on the testing and regulation of chemicals, including food additives, drugs, cosmetics, pesticides, and other commercial substances. Apart from describing the newest tests, regulations, and risk assessment strategies, chapters reflect changes forced by both the growing need for cost containment and the mounting pressure to find alternatives to animal testing. Based on an international congress, the book also brings the advantage of diversity in the background and nationality of the authors, thus allowing a view of central problems according to the different interests of academics, industry scientists, government scientists, and regulators. The book opens with coverage of national and international regulations designed to prevent and control damage to human health and the environment. Topics range from basic problems of policy design and enforcement to the specific requirements for chemical regulation in developing countries. The next chapters cover new tests, systems, and assays used in in vivo safety testing. Readers will find a critical assessment of tests used to determine teratogenicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity and chemical lethality. Other topics include factors operating in the public perception of chemical hazards, guidelines for decision making in the management and regulation of risks, and future trends in the methodology of safety evaluation. The volume concludes with an overview of in vitro methods for testing hepatotoxicity. Several short-term in vitro test models and limited in vivo bioassays are presented and evaluated in terms of their capacity to substitute for long-term animal studies. Expert and thorough in its coverage, the book offers a wealth of technical and practical information for toxicologists, pharmacologists, industrial policy makers, and government regulators. (orig.). With 67 figs., 34 tabs.

  4. Nirex safety assessment research programme bibliography, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.J.

    1991-09-01

    This bibliography lists reports and papers written as part of the Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme, which is concerned with disposal of low-level and intermediate-level waste (LLW and ILW) and associated radiological assessments. The bibliography has been divided into two sections, a list of Publications in roughly chronological order and an Author Index. The topics involved include near-field and far-field studies. The near-field includes the waste package, filling or sealing materials, and those parts of the host medium whose characteristics have been or could be altered by the repository or its content. The far-field is the rock formation outside the repository, including the surrounding strata, at a distance from the waste disposal site such that, for modelling purposes, the site may be considered as a single entity, and the effects of individual waste packages are indistinguishable in the effects of the whole. The far-field includes also the biosphere, into which radionuclides from the waste could conceivably migrate in the future. (author)

  5. The Nirex safety assessment research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.J.

    1988-07-01

    This report describes progress on the Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme in 1987/88. The programme is concerned with research into the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and intermediate-level waste (ILW) into underground repositories. At the beginning of 1987/88 a range of techniques for measuring and modelling far-field phenomena were being applied to near-surface disposal of low-level waste in clay. However, during the year the far-field studies were redirected to consider generic geological materials of interest for deep disposal of low and intermediate-level waste, which is now the preferred option in the UK. A substantial part of the programme is concerned with the effectiveness of near-field barriers to water-borne leakage of radionuclides from cementitious repositories. Considerable progress has been made in quantifying this and laying the foundations for robust and reliable radiological assessments to be made with appropriate models. New projects have also been initiated to study the evolution and migration of gases from an underground repository and to consider the contribution of the biosphere to the retardation of radionuclides. (author)

  6. Correlation between safety climate and contractor safety assessment programs in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparer, Emily H; Murphy, Lauren A; Taylor, Kathryn M; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2013-12-01

    Contractor safety assessment programs (CSAPs) measure safety performance by integrating multiple data sources together; however, the relationship between these measures of safety performance and safety climate within the construction industry is unknown. Four hundred and one construction workers employed by 68 companies on 26 sites and 11 safety managers employed by 11 companies completed brief surveys containing a nine-item safety climate scale developed for the construction industry. CSAP scores from ConstructSecure, Inc., an online CSAP database, classified these 68 companies as high or low scorers, with the median score of the sample population as the threshold. Spearman rank correlations evaluated the association between the CSAP score and the safety climate score at the individual level, as well as with various grouping methodologies. In addition, Spearman correlations evaluated the comparison between manager-assessed safety climate and worker-assessed safety climate. There were no statistically significant differences between safety climate scores reported by workers in the high and low CSAP groups. There were, at best, weak correlations between workers' safety climate scores and the company CSAP scores, with marginal statistical significance with two groupings of the data. There were also no significant differences between the manager-assessed safety climate and the worker-assessed safety climate scores. A CSAP safety performance score does not appear to capture safety climate, as measured in this study. The nature of safety climate in construction is complex, which may be reflective of the challenges in measuring safety climate within this industry. Am. J. Ind. Med. 56:1463-1472, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Do provisions to advance chemical facility safety also advance chemical facility security? An analysis of possible synergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2012-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a study on the applicability of existing chemical industry safety provisions to enhancing security of chemical facilities covering the situation in 18 EU Member States. This paper reports some preliminary analytical findings regarding the extent to which exist...

  8. Geosphere process report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, Kristina

    2010-11-01

    This report documents geosphere processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository, and forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Site. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process reports in the assessment, is described in the SR-Site Main report /SKB 2011/

  9. Geosphere process report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, Kristina (ed.) (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    This report documents geosphere processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository, and forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Site. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process reports in the assessment, is described in the SR-Site Main report /SKB 2011/

  10. Safety assessment of radioactive wastes storage 'Mironova Gora'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serbryakov, B.; Karamushka, V.; Ostroborodov, V.

    2000-01-01

    A project of transforming the radioactive wastes storage 'Mironova Gora' is under development. A safety assessment of this storage facility was performed to gain assurance on the design decision. The assessment, which was based on the safety assessment methods developed for radioactive wastes repositories, is presented in this paper. (author)

  11. Probabilistic safety assessment as a standpoint for decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of probabilistic safety assessment in decision-making. The prerequisites for use of the results of probabilistic safety assessment and the criteria for the decision-making based on probabilistic safety assessment are discussed. The decision-making process is described. It provides a risk evaluation of impact of the issue under investigation. Selected examples are discussed, which highlight the described process. (authors)

  12. Probabilistic safety assessment in nuclear power plant management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) techniques have been widely used over the past few years to assist in understanding how engineered systems respond to abnormal conditions, particularly during a severe accident. The use of PSAs in the design and operation of such systems thus contributes to the safety of nuclear power plants. Probabilistic safety assessments can be maintained to provide a continuous up-to-date assessment (Living PSA), supporting the management of plant operations and modifications

  13. [Patient safety in antibiotics administration: Risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqueda Palau, M; Pérez Juan, E

    To determine the level of risk in the preparation and administration of antibiotics frequently used in the Intensive Care Unit using a risk matrix. A study was conducted using situation analysis and literature review of databases, protocols and good practice guidelines on intravenous therapy, drugs, and their administration routes. The most used antibiotics in the ICU registered in the ENVIN-HELICS program from 1 April to 30 June 2015 were selected. In this period, 257 patients received antimicrobial treatment and 26 antibiotics were evaluated. Variables studied: A risk assessment of each antibiotic using the scale Risk Assessment Tool, of the National Patient Safety Agency, as well as pH, osmolarity, type of catheter recommended for administration, and compatibility and incompatibility with other antibiotics studied. Almost two-thirds (65.3%) of antibiotics had more than 3 risk factors (represented by a yellow stripe), with the remaining 34.7% of antibiotics having between 0 and 2 risk factors (represented by a green stripe). There were no antibiotics with 6 or more risk factors (represented by a red stripe). Most drugs needed reconstitution, additional dilution, and the use of part of the vial to administer the prescribed dose. More than half of the antibiotics studied had a moderate risk level; thus measures should be adopted in order to reduce it. The risk matrix is a useful tool for the assessment and detection of weaknesses associated with the preparation and administration of intravenous antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Safety assessment of the BELENE NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruna, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    The most important outcome of the RISKAUDIT’s review of the BELENE’s ISAR was that the design of the plant is in general conformity with the applied requirements, the Bulgarian regulation and the international practice.No substantial design flaws have been identified and no major issues are found as missing. However, the ISAR should be significantly improved before issuing the construction permit. RISKAUDIT asked for elaboration of a revised version of the ISAR, in which all the recommendations, the requests for information as well the questions should be comprehensively addressed, and explicitly referenced to facilitate their assessment. The satisfactory accomplishment of this duty has been considered. The considered as a as prerequisite for the issuance of the construction permit, 2.The REV 2 of the ISAR have been issued at the beginning of this year, BNRA and RISKAUDIT signed on a new collaboration under the above-mentioned Contract, which has the following main objectives:a. Assessing the implementation of the above-mentioned recommendations, b.Verifying and integrating the answers provided to the questions,c.Performing additional in-depth analysis aimed at completing and finalizing the previous investigations as well as addressing some complementary relevant safety issues.3.The inception meeting of this Contract is planed June 17 –18 in Sofia. Details on the planning have to be defined, but, tentatively, the assessment activity should be completed by the end of current year and the accompanying in-depth analysis at the latest at the beginnings of 2011. 4.4.The issuance of those Reports is an important technical support., The support to to the process for granting the construction permit

  15. Rad waste disposal safety analysis / Integrated safety assessment of a waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jongtae; Choi, Jongwon; Kang, Chulhyung

    2012-04-01

    We developed CYPRUS+and adopted PID and RES method for the development of scenario. Safety performance assessment program was developed using GoldSim for the safety assessment of disposal system for the disposal of spnet fuels and wastes resulting from the pyrpoprocessing. Biosphere model was developed and verified in cooperation with JAEA. The capability to evaluate post-closure performance and safety was added to the previously developed program. And, nuclide migration and release to the biosphere considering site characteristics was evaluated by using deterministic and probabilistic approach. Operational safety assessment for drop, fire, and earthquake was also statistically evaluated considering well-established input parameter distribution. Conservative assessment showed that dose rate is below the limit value of low- and intermediate-level repository. Gas generation mechanism within engineered barrier was defined and its influence on safety was evaluated. We made probabilistic safety assessment by obtaining the probability distribution functions of important input variables and also made a sensitivity analysis. The maximum annual dose rate was shown to be below the safety limit value of 10 mSv/yr. The structure and element of safety case was developed to increase reliability of safety assessment methodology for a deep geological repository. Finally, milestone for safety case development and implementation strategy for each safety case element was also proposed

  16. Safety standards for near surface disposal and the safety case and supporting safety assessment for demonstrating compliance with the standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.

    2003-01-01

    The report presents the safety standards for near surface disposal (ICRP guidance and IAEA standards) and the safety case and supporting safety assessment for demonstrating compliance with the standards. Special attention is paid to the recommendations for disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The requirements are based on the principle for the same level of protection of future individuals as for the current generation. Two types of exposure are considered: human intrusion and natural processes and protection measures are discussed. Safety requirements for near surface disposal are discussed including requirements for protection of human health and environment, requirements or safety assessments, waste acceptance and requirements etc

  17. Safety Assessment of Polyether Lanolins as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan; Heldreth, Bart

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 39 polyether lanolin ingredients as used in cosmetics. These ingredients function mostly as hair conditioning agents, skin conditioning agent-emollients, and surfactant-emulsifying agents. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, from previous CIR safety assessments of related ingredients and components. The similar structure, properties, functions, and uses of these ingredients enabled grouping them and using the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. The Panel concluded that these polyether lanolin ingredients are safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  18. Evaluation of a chemical risk assessment method of South Korea for chemicals classified as carcinogenic, mutagenic or reprotoxic (CMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Uk; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2017-12-12

    Chemicals were used in various fields by the development of industry and science and technology. The Chemical Hazard Risk Management (CHARM) was developed to assess the risk of chemicals in South Korea. In this study, we were to evaluate the CHARM model developed for the effective management of workplace chemicals. We used 59 carcinogenic, mutagenic or reprotoxic (CMR) materials, which are both the work environment measurement result and the usage information among the manufacturer data. The CHARM model determines the risk to human health using the exposure level (based on working environment measurements or a combination of the quantity used and chemical physical properties (e.g., fugacity and volatility)), hazard (using occupational exposure limit (OEL) or Risk phrases (R-phrases)/Hazard statements (H-statements) from the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)). The risk level was lower when using the results of the work environment measurement than when applying the chemical quantity and physical properties in the exposure level evaluation method. It was evaluated as grade 4 for the CMR material in the hazard class determination. The risk assessment method by R-phrases was evaluated more conservatively than the risk assessment method by OEL. And the risk assessment method by H-statements was evaluated more conservatively than the risk assessment method by R-phrases. The CHARM model was gradually conservatively assessed as it proceeded in the next step without quantitative information for individual workplaces. The CHARM is expected to help identify the risk if the hazards and exposure levels of chemicals were identified in individual workplaces. For CMR substances, although CHARM is highly evaluated for hazards, the risk is assessed to be low if exposure levels are assessed low. When evaluating the risk of highly hazardous chemicals such as CMR substances, we believe the model should be adapted to be more conservative and classify these as higher risk. This work is

  19. Safety assessment of OPG's used fuel for dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.; Khan, A.

    2005-01-01

    'Full text:' Ontario Power Generation (OPG) operates the Pickering Waste Management Facility (PWMF) and Western Waste Management Facility (WWMF) where OPG has been storing 10-year or older used fuel in the Dry Storage Containers (DSCs) since 1996 and 2003 respectively. The construction licence for the Darlington Used Fuel Dry Storage Facility (DUFDSF) was obtained in August 2004. Safety assessment of the used fuel for dry storage is required to support each request for regulatory approval to construct and operate a dry storage facility. The objective of the safety assessment is to assess the used fuel performance under normal operation and postulated credible accident scenarios. A reference used fuel bundle is defined based on the operating history and data on fuel discharged from the reactors of the specific nuclear generating station. The characteristics of the reference used fuel bundle are used to calculate the nuclide inventory, source term and decay heat used for the assessment. When assessing malfunctions and accidents, postulated external and internal events are considered. Consideration is also given to the design basis accidents of the specific nuclear generating station that could affect the used fuel under dry storage. For those events deemed credible (i.e. probability > 10 -7 ), a bounding fuel failure consequence is predicted. Given the chemical characteristics of the radionuclides in used fuel, the design of the CANDU fuel and the conditions inside the DSC, in the event that a used fuel bundle should become damaged during used fuel dry storage operations, the only significant radionuclides species that are volatile are krypton-85 and tritium. Release of these radionuclides is considered in calculating public and worker doses. (author)

  20. 76 FR 74723 - New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA 2010-0025] RIN 2127-AK51 New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling AGENCY... NHTSA's regulation on vehicle labeling of safety rating information to reflect the enhanced NCAP ratings... Traffic Safety Administration under the enhanced NCAP testing and rating program. * * * * * (e) * * * (4...

  1. Promoting and assessment of safety culture within regulatory body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, Sumit; Bhattacharya, D.; Koley, J.; Krishnamurthy, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Regulators have an important role to play in assisting organizations under their jurisdiction to develop positive safety cultures. It is therefore essential for the regulator to have a robust safety culture as an inherent strategy and communication of this strategy to the organizations it supervises. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) emphasizes every utility to institute a good safety culture during various stages of a NPP. The regulatory requirement for establishing organisational safety culture within utility at different stages are delineated in the various AERB safety codes which are presented in the paper. Although the review and assessment of the safety culture is a part of AERB’s continual safety supervision through existing review mechanism, AERB do not use any specific indicators for safety culture assessment. However, establishing and nurturing a good safety culture within AERB helps in encouraging the utility to institute the same. At the induction level AERB provides training to its staffs for regulatory orientation which include a specific course on safety culture. Subsequently, the junior staffs are mentored by seniors while involving them in various regulatory processes and putting them as observers during regulatory decision making process. Further, AERB established a formal procedure for assessing and improving safety culture within its staff as a management system process. The paper describes as a case study the above safety culture assessment process established within AERB

  2. 78 FR 14912 - International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION..., into the U.S., or codeshare with a U.S. air carrier, complies with international aviation safety... subject to that country's aviation safety oversight can serve the United States using its own aircraft or...

  3. Safety assessment of research reactors and preparation of the safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Guide presents guidelines, approved by international consensus, for the preparation, review and assessment of safety documentation for research reactors such as the Safety Analysis Report. While the Guide is most applicable to research reactors in the design and construction stage, it is also recommended for use during relicensing or reassessment of existing reactors

  4. Assessing progress in the development of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, Ioan; Ghita, Sorin

    1999-01-01

    The concept of safety culture was introduced by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) in the Summary Report on the Post-Accident Meeting on the Chernobyl Accident in 1986. The concept was further expanded in the 1988 INSAG-3 report, Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants, and again in 1991 in the INSAG-4 report. Recognizing the increasing role that safety culture is expected to play in nuclear installations worldwide, the Convention on Nuclear Safety states the Contracting Parties' desire 'to promote an effective nuclear safety culture'. The concept of safety culture is defined in INSAG-4 as follows: Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance. Safety culture is also an amalgamation of values, standards, morals and norms of acceptable behaviour. These are aimed at maintaining a self disciplined approach to the enhancement of safety beyond legislative and regulatory requirements. Therefore, the safety culture has to be inherent in the thoughts and actions of all the individuals at every level in an organization. The leadership provided by top management is crucial. Safety culture applies to conventional and personal safety as well as nuclear safety. All safety consideration are affected by common points of beliefs, attitudes, behaviour, and cultural differences, closely linked to a shared system of values and standards. The paper poses questions and tries to find answers relative to issues like: - how to assess progress; - specific organizational indicators of a progressive safety culture; - detection of incipient weaknesses in safety culture (organizational issues, employee issues, technology issues); - revitalizing a weakened safety culture; - overall assesment of safety culture; - general evaluation model. In conclusion, there is no consistent and

  5. Development of Safety Culture Assessment Strategy for Korean NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at developing the requirements for a method to evaluate the operational safety culture, evaluating currently available methods based on the requirements, and suggesting a method to evaluate and improve the operational safety culture for Korean nuclear power plants. This paper reviews the widely-used methods to assess safety culture for NPPs and their basis. Then, this paper develops the requirements for the method to evaluate operational safety culture for Korean NPPs. Based on these requirements, Korean Safety Culture Indicators (KSCI) and evaluation measures are also suggested. Finally this paper proposes the guidelines to develop improvements to safety culture from the evaluation results

  6. Development of Safety Culture Assessment Strategy for Korean NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    This paper aims at developing the requirements for a method to evaluate the operational safety culture, evaluating currently available methods based on the requirements, and suggesting a method to evaluate and improve the operational safety culture for Korean nuclear power plants. This paper reviews the widely-used methods to assess safety culture for NPPs and their basis. Then, this paper develops the requirements for the method to evaluate operational safety culture for Korean NPPs. Based on these requirements, Korean Safety Culture Indicators (KSCI) and evaluation measures are also suggested. Finally this paper proposes the guidelines to develop improvements to safety culture from the evaluation results.

  7. The role of probabilistic safety assessment in the design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.; Ingham, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    The use of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for Heysham 2 and Torness marked a major change in the design approach to nuclear safety within the U.K. Design Safety Guidelines incorporating probabilistic safety targets required that design justification would necessitate explicit consideration of the consequence of accidents in relation to their frequency. The paper discusses these safety targets and their implications, the integration of PSA into the design process and an outline of the methodology. The influence of PSA on the design is discussed together with its role in the overall demonstration of reactor safety. (author)

  8. Plant assessment system and safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Chuyoung

    1996-01-01

    The government, upon these events, keenly felt the necessity for developing the safety culture which was already forwarded in nuclear industries and started taking actions to propagate it to all parts of society. The government established a social safety director position under the Prime Minister's jurisdiction and also established a Safety Culture Promotion Headquarters in which 7 ministries and other organizations, such as Korea Economic Council, Federation of Korea Trade Union and Women's Federation Council were participating. In accordance with the government's strong will to enhance the safety consciousness of people, safety campaigns are being developed voluntarily in the private sector. The formation of non-governmental organizations, such as People's Central Council of Safety Culture Promotion, shows a good example of such movement

  9. ITER plasma safety interface models and assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Bartels, H-W.; Honda, T.; Amano, T.; Boucher, D.; Post, D.; Wesley, J.

    1996-01-01

    Physics models and requirements to be used as a basis for safety analysis studies are developed and physics results motivated by safety considerations are presented for the ITER design. Physics specifications are provided for enveloping plasma dynamic events for Category I (operational event), Category II (likely event), and Category III (unlikely event). A safety analysis code SAFALY has been developed to investigate plasma anomaly events. The plasma response to ex-vessel component failure and machine response to plasma transients are considered

  10. Assessing verticalization effects on urban safety perception

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Ricardo Barros

    2017-01-01

    We describe an experiment with the modeling of urban verticalization effects on perceived safety scores as obtained with computer vision on Google Streetview data for New York City. Preliminary results suggests that for smaller buildings (between one and seven floors), perceived safety increases with building height, but that for high-rise buildings, perceived safety decreases with increased height. We also determined that while height contributing for this relation, other zonal aspects also ...

  11. Risk measures in living probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.; Niemelae, I.

    1993-05-01

    The main objectives of the study are: to define risk measures and suggested uses of them in various living PSA applications for the operational safety management and to describe specific model features required for living PSA applications. The report is based on three case studies performed within the Nordic research project Safety Evaluation by Use of Living PSA and Safety Indicators. (48 refs., 11 figs., 17 tabs.)

  12. [Risk Assessment and Risk Management of Chemicals in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tie-yu; Zhou, Yun-qiao; Li, Qi-feng; Lü, Yong-long

    2016-02-15

    Risk assessment and risk management have been increasingly approved as an effective approach for appropriate disposal and scientific management of chemicals. This study systematically analyzed the risk assessment methods of chemicals from three aspects including health risk, ecological risk and regional risk. Based on the current situation of classification and management towards chemicals in China, a specific framework of risk management on chemicals was proposed by selecting target chemicals, predominant industries and related stakeholders as the objects. The results of the present study will provide scientific support for improving risk assessment and reasonable management of chemicals in China.

  13. Systematic assessment of laser safety in otolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswal, V. H.

    2001-01-01

    Risk management of lasers can be broadly define das a process of identification of the risk, assessment of the risk and steps taken to avert the risk. The risk management may be divided into: Risk inherent to the technology and risk in clinical use. Within the National Health Service in the UK, a useful document, which provides hospital laser users with advice on safety, is the 'Guidance on the Safe Use of Lasers in Medical and Dental Practice' issued by the Medical Devices Agency for the Department of Health in the UK. It recommends the appointment of a Laser Protection Adviser (LPA) who is knowledgeable in the evaluation of laser hazards. One of the duties LPA is to ensure that Local Rules are drawn up for each specific application of a laser. A Laser Protection Supervisor (LPS) should also be appointed with responsibility to ensure that the Local Rules are observed. It is a sensible precaution that laser users should be those approved by the Laser Protection Supervisor in consultation with the Laser Protection Advisor. All laser users should sign a statement that they have read and understood the Local Rules.

  14. Bounding probabilistic safety assessment probabilities by reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragola, J.R.; Shooman, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The investigation of the failure in systems where failure is a rare event makes the continual comparisons between the developed probabilities and empirical evidence difficult. The comparison of the predictions of rare event risk assessments with historical reality is essential to prevent probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) predictions from drifting into fantasy. One approach to performing such comparisons is to search out and assign probabilities to natural events which, while extremely rare, have a basis in the history of natural phenomena or human activities. For example the Segovian aqueduct and some of the Roman fortresses in Spain have existed for several millennia and in many cases show no physical signs of earthquake damage. This evidence could be used to bound the probability of earthquakes above a certain magnitude to less than 10 -3 per year. On the other hand, there is evidence that some repetitive actions can be performed with extremely low historical probabilities when operators are properly trained and motivated, and sufficient warning indicators are provided. The point is not that low probability estimates are impossible, but continual reassessment of the analysis assumptions, and a bounding of the analysis predictions by historical reality. This paper reviews the probabilistic predictions of PSA in this light, attempts to develop, in a general way, the limits which can be historically established and the consequent bounds that these limits place upon the predictions, and illustrates the methodology used in computing such limits. Further, the paper discusses the use of empirical evidence and the requirement for disciplined systematic approaches within the bounds of reality and the associated impact on PSA probabilistic estimates

  15. Interactive Chemical Safety for Sustainablity Toxicity Forecaster Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA researchers have been using advances in computational toxicology to address lack of data on the thousands of chemicals. EPA released chemical data on 1,800...

  16. Clinical Considerations in the Assessment of Adolescent Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Ken

    1990-01-01

    Discusses relevant research findings of clinical assessment of adolescent chemical dependency so that service providers can better address these concerns. Three major issues are discussed: the definition of adolescent chemical dependency, clinical domains of assessment (chemical use problem severity, precipitating and perpetuating risk factors,…

  17. Tree Simulation Techniques for Integrated Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendez Asensio, E.; Izquierdo Rocha, J.M.; Sanchez Perez, M.; Hortal Reymundo, J.; Perez Mulas, A.

    1999-01-01

    techniques are: (a) An unifying theory that should (i) establish the relationship among different approaches and, in particular, be able to demonstrate the standard safety assessment approach as a particular case, (ii) identify implicit assumptions in present practice and (iii) establish a sound scientific reference for an ideal treatment in order to judge the relative importance of implicit and explicit assumptions. In addition, the theoretical developments help to identify the type of applications where the new developments will be a necessary requirement. (b) The capability for simulation of trees. By this we mean the techniques required to be able to efficiently simulate all branches. Historically algorithms able to do this were already implemented in earlier pioneering work for discrete number of branches while stochastic branching requires Montecarlo techniques. (c) The capability to incorporate new types of branching, particularly operator actions. This paper shortly reviews these aspects and justifies in that frame our particular development, denoted here as Integrated Safety Assessment methodology. In this method, the dynamics of the event is followed by transient simulation in tree form, building a Setpoint or Deterministic Dynamic Event Tree (DDET). When a setpoint that should trigger the actuation of a protection is crossed, the tree is opened in branches corresponding to different functioning states of the protection device and each branch followed by the engineering simulator. One of these states is the nominal state, which, in the PSAs, is Associated to the success criterion of the system

  18. Safety culture' is integrating 'human' into risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Taiji

    2014-01-01

    Significance of Fukushima nuclear power accident requested reconsideration of safety standards, of which we had usually no doubt. Risk assessment standard (JIS B 9702), Which was used for repetition of database preparation and cumulative assessment, defined allowable risk and residual risk. However, work site and immediate assessment was indispensable beside such assessment so as to ensure safety. Risk of casualties was absolutely not acceptable in principle and judgments to approve allowable risk needed accountability, which was reminded by safety culture proposed by IAEA and also identified by investigation of organizational cause of Columbia accident. Actor of safety culture would be organization and individual, and mainly individual. Realization of safety culture was conducted by personnel having moral consciousness and firm sense of mission in the course of jobs and working daily with sweat pouring. Safety engineering/technology should have framework integrating human as such totality. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Key issues on safety design basis selection and safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, S.; Togo, Y.

    1976-01-01

    In current fast reactor design in Japan, four design accident conditions and four design seismic conditions are adopted as the design base classifications. These are classified by the considerations on both likelihood of occurrence and the severeness of the consequences. There are several major problem areas in safety design consideration such as core accident problems which include fuel sodium interaction, fuel failure propagation and residual decay heat removal, and decay heat removal systems problems which is more or less the problem of selection of appropriate system and of assurance of high reliability of the system. In view of licensing, two kinds of accidents are postulated in evaluating the adequacy of a reactor site. The one is the ''major accident'' which is the accident to give most severe radiation hazard to the public from technical point of view. The other is the ''hypothetical accident'', induced public accident of which is severer than that of major accident. While the concept of the former is rather unique to Japanese licensing, the latter is almost equivalent to design base hypothetical accident of the US practice. In this paper, design bases selections, key safety issues and some of the licensing considerations in Japan are described

  20. Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs.

  1. Radionuclide transport report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    This document compiles radionuclide transport calculations of a KBS-3 repository for the safety assessment SR-Site. The SR-Site assessment supports the licence application for a final repository at Forsmark, Sweden

  2. Geosphere process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, Kristina

    2006-09-01

    This report documents geosphere processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS- repository, and forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process report in the assessment, is described in the SR-Can Main report. The following excerpts describe the methodology, and clarify the role of this process report in the assessment. The repository system, broadly defined as the deposited spent nuclear fuel, the engineered barriers surrounding it, the host rock and the biosphere in the proximity of the repository, will evolve over time. Future states of the system will depend on the initial state of the system, a number of radiation related, thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, chemical and biological processes acting within the repository system over time, and external influences acting on the system. A methodology in ten steps has been developed for SR-Can described below. Identification of factors to consider (FEP processing): This step consists of identifying all the factors that need to be included in the analysis. Experience from earlier safety assessments and KBS-specific and international databases of relevant features, events and processes influencing long-term safety are utilised. Based on the results of the FEP processing, an SR-Can FEP catalogue, containing FEPs to be handled in SR-Can, has been established. The initial state of the system is described based on the design specifications of the KBS repository, a descriptive model of the repository site and a site-specific layout of the repository. The initial state of the fuel and the engineered components is that immediately after deposition, as described in the SR-Can Initial state report. The initial state of the geosphere and the biosphere is that of the natural system prior to excavation, as described in the site descriptive models. The repository layouts adapted to the sites are provided in underground

  3. Geosphere process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, Kristina [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (SE)] (ed.)

    2006-09-15

    This report documents geosphere processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS- repository, and forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process report in the assessment, is described in the SR-Can Main report. The following excerpts describe the methodology, and clarify the role of this process report in the assessment. The repository system, broadly defined as the deposited spent nuclear fuel, the engineered barriers surrounding it, the host rock and the biosphere in the proximity of the repository, will evolve over time. Future states of the system will depend on the initial state of the system, a number of radiation related, thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, chemical and biological processes acting within the repository system over time, and external influences acting on the system. A methodology in ten steps has been developed for SR-Can described below. Identification of factors to consider (FEP processing): This step consists of identifying all the factors that need to be included in the analysis. Experience from earlier safety assessments and KBS-specific and international databases of relevant features, events and processes influencing long-term safety are utilised. Based on the results of the FEP processing, an SR-Can FEP catalogue, containing FEPs to be handled in SR-Can, has been established. The initial state of the system is described based on the design specifications of the KBS repository, a descriptive model of the repository site and a site-specific layout of the repository. The initial state of the fuel and the engineered components is that immediately after deposition, as described in the SR-Can Initial state report. The initial state of the geosphere and the biosphere is that of the natural system prior to excavation, as described in the site descriptive models. The repository layouts adapted to the sites are provided in underground

  4. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of fission reactors are considered - control, heat removal and containment. Brief descriptions of the reactor accidents at the SL-1 reactor (1961), Windscale (1957), Browns Ferry (1975), Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) are given. The idea of inherently safe reactor designs is discussed. Safety assessment is considered under the headings of preliminary hazard analysis, failure mode analysis, event trees, fault trees, common mode failure and probabalistic risk assessments. These latter can result in a series of risk distributions linked to specific groups of fault sequences and specific consequences. A frequency-consequence diagram is shown. Fatal accident incidence rates in different countries including the United Kingdom for various industries are quoted. The incidence of fatal cancers from occupational exposure to chemicals is tabulated. Human factors and the acceptability of risk are considered. (U.K.)

  5. Healthcare professionals’ views of feedback on patient safety culture assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenberg, N.C.; Hendriks, M.; Hoogervorst-Schilp, J.; Wagner, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: By assessing patient safety culture, healthcare providers can identify areas for improvement in patient safety culture. To achieve this, these assessment outcomes have to be relevant and presented clearly. The aim of our study was to explore healthcare professionals’ views on the

  6. Safety assessment of primary system components at the USNRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpan, C Z; Chen, C Y; Taboada, A

    1988-12-31

    This document deals with the safety assessment in nuclear reactor components at the USNRC. The USNRC regulations and requirements concerning nuclear reactor design and operations are presented, together with guides and standards which describe how the actions should be implemented. The safety assessment relies on fracture analysis and Non Destructive Examination (NDE). (TEC).

  7. Safety assessment requirements for onsite transfers of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opperman, E.K.; Jackson, E.J.; Eggers, A.G.

    1992-05-01

    This document contains the requirements for developing a safety assessment document for an onsite package containing radioactive material. It also provides format and content guidance to establish uniformity in the safety assessment documentation and to ensure completeness of the information provided

  8. Vulnerability assessment of chemical industry facilities in South Korea based on the chemical accident history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, S.; Lee, W. K.; Jong-Ryeul, S.; Kim, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    The use of chemical compounds are keep increasing because of their use in manufacturing industry. Chemical accident is growing as the consequence of the chemical use increment. Devastating damages from chemical accidents are far enough to aware people's cautious about the risk of the chemical accident. In South Korea, Gumi Hydrofluoric acid leaking accident triggered the importance of risk management and emphasized the preventing the accident over the damage reducing process after the accident occurs. Gumi accident encouraged the government data base construction relate to the chemical accident. As the result of this effort Chemical Safety-Clearing-house (CSC) have started to record the chemical accident information and damages according to the Harmful Chemical Substance Control Act (HCSC). CSC provide details information about the chemical accidents from 2002 to present. The detail informations are including title of company, address, business type, accident dates, accident types, accident chemical compounds, human damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, human damage outside of the chemical industry facilities, financial damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, and financial damages outside of the chemical industry facilities, environmental damages and response to the chemical accident. Collected the chemical accident history of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and provide the spatial information to the each accident records based on their address. With the spatial information, compute the data on ArcGIS for the spatial-temporal analysis. The spatial-temporal information of chemical accident is organized by the chemical accident types, damages, and damages on environment and conduct the spatial proximity with local community and environmental receptors. Find the chemical accident vulnerable area of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and add the vulnerable area of total period to examine the historically vulnerable area from the chemical accident in

  9. A Chemical Activity Approach to Exposure and Risk Assessment of Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobas, Frank A. P. C.; Mayer, Philipp; Parkerton, Thomas F.

    2018-01-01

    activity approach, its strengths and limitations, and provides examples of how this concept may be applied to the management of single chemicals and chemical mixtures. The examples demonstrate that the chemical activity approach provides a useful framework for 1) compiling and evaluating exposure......To support the goals articulated in the vision for exposure and risk assessment in the twenty-first century, we highlight the application of a thermodynamic chemical activity approach for the exposure and risk assessment of chemicals in the environment. The present article describes the chemical...... assessment. The article further illustrates that the chemical activity approach can support an adaptive management strategy for environmental stewardship of chemicals where “safe” chemical activities are established based on toxicological studies and presented as guidelines for environmental quality...

  10. Patient safety culture assessment in oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mandhari, Ahmed; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Kindi, Moosa; Tawilah, Jihane; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2014-07-01

    To illustrate the patient safety culture in Oman as gleaned via 12 indices of patient safety culture derived from the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC) and to compare the average positive response rates in patient safety culture between Oman and the USA, Taiwan, and Lebanon. This was a cross-sectional research study employed to gauge the performance of HSPSC safety indices among health workers representing five secondary and tertiary care hospitals in the northern region of Oman. The participants (n=398) represented different professional designations of hospital staff. Analyses were performed using univariate statistics. The overall average positive response rate for the 12 patient safety culture dimensions of the HSPSC survey in Oman was 58%. The indices from HSPSC that were endorsed the highest included 'organizational learning and continuous improvement' while conversely, 'non-punitive response to errors' was ranked the least. There were no significant differences in average positive response rates between Oman and the United States (58% vs. 61%; p=0.666), Taiwan (58% vs. 64%; p=0.386), and Lebanon (58% vs. 61%; p=0.666). This study provides the first empirical study on patient safety culture in Oman which is similar to those rates reported elsewhere. It highlights the specific strengths and weaknesses which may stem from the specific milieu prevailing in Oman.

  11. Patient Safety Culture Assessment in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mandhari, Ahmed; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Kindi, Moosa; Tawilah, Jihane; Dorvlo, Atsu S.S.; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Objective To illustrate the patient safety culture in Oman as gleaned via 12 indices of patient safety culture derived from the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC) and to compare the average positive response rates in patient safety culture between Oman and the USA, Taiwan, and Lebanon. Methods This was a cross-sectional research study employed to gauge the performance of HSPSC safety indices among health workers representing five secondary and tertiary care hospitals in the northern region of Oman. The participants (n=398) represented different professional designations of hospital staff. Analyses were performed using univariate statistics. Results The overall average positive response rate for the 12 patient safety culture dimensions of the HSPSC survey in Oman was 58%. The indices from HSPSC that were endorsed the highest included ‘organizational learning and continuous improvement’ while conversely, ‘non-punitive response to errors’ was ranked the least. There were no significant differences in average positive response rates between Oman and the United States (58% vs. 61%; p=0.666), Taiwan (58% vs. 64%; p=0.386), and Lebanon (58% vs. 61%; p=0.666). Conclusion This study provides the first empirical study on patient safety culture in Oman which is similar to those rates reported elsewhere. It highlights the specific strengths and weaknesses which may stem from the specific milieu prevailing in Oman. PMID:25170407

  12. MAPLE research reactor safety uncertainty assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sills, H.E.; Duffey, R.B.; Andres, T.H.

    1999-01-01

    The MAPLE (multipurpose Applied Physics Lattice Experiment) reactor is a low pressure, low temperature, open-tank-in pool type research reactor that operates at a power level of 5 to 35 MW. MAPLE is designed for ease of operation, maintenance, and to meet today's most demanding requirements for safety and licensing. The emphasis is on the use of passive safety systems and environmentally qualified components. Key safety features include two independent and diverse shutdown systems, two parallel and independent cooling loops, fail safe operation, and a building design that incorporates the concepts of primary containment supported by secondary confinement

  13. Methodology for assessment of safety risk due to potential accidents in US gaseous diffusion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.H.; O'Kain, D.U.

    1991-01-01

    Gaseous diffusion plants that operate in the United States represent a unique combination of nuclear and chemical hazards. Assessing and controlling the health, safety, and environmental risks that can result from natural phenomena events, process upset conditions, and operator errors require a unique methodology. Such a methodology has been developed for the diffusion plants and is being utilized to assess and control the risk of operating the plants. A summary of the methodology developed to assess the unique safety risks at the US gaseous diffusion plants is presented in this paper

  14. A Computer Program for Assessing Nuclear Safety Culture Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Through several accidents of NPP including the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernobyl accidents in 1986, a lack of safety culture was pointed out as one of the root cause of these accidents. Due to its latent influences on safety performance, safety culture has become an important issue in safety researches. Most of the researches describe how to evaluate the state of the safety culture of the organization. However, they did not include a possibility that the accident occurs due to the lack of safety culture. Because of that, a methodology for evaluating the impact of the safety culture on NPP's safety is required. In this study, the methodology for assessing safety culture impact is suggested and a computer program is developed for its application. SCII model which is the new methodology for assessing safety culture impact quantitatively by using PSA model. The computer program is developed for its application. This program visualizes the SCIs and the SCIIs. It might contribute to comparing the level of the safety culture among NPPs as well as improving the management safety of NPP.

  15. An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated 'toolkit' consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

  16. The probability safety assessment impact on the BR2 refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouleur, Yvan

    1995-01-01

    The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) study has proven its worth by establishing a sensitive safety screening of the reactor. It has focused engineering forces to technically improve safety systems and to measure the influence of functional modifications. In the future, the project will be developed in a living way, to reinforce the present structure along with continuous safety monitoring of the reactor and to develop engineers and operators safety skills. This paper presents the PSA impact on the BR2 (Belgian Reactor Two) refurbishment. (author)

  17. Epigenetics and cancer: implications for drug discovery and safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moggs, Jonathan G.; Goodman, Jay I.; Trosko, James E.; Roberts, Ruth A.

    2004-01-01

    It is necessary to determine whether chemicals or drugs have the potential to pose a threat to human health. Research conducted over the last two decades has led to the paradigm that chemicals can cause cancer either by damaging DNA or by altering cellular growth, probably via receptor-mediated changes in gene expression. However, recent evidence suggests that gene expression can be altered markedly via several diverse epigenetic mechanisms that can lead to permanent or reversible changes in cellular behavior. Key molecular events underlying these mechanisms include the alteration of DNA methylation and chromatin, and changes in the function of cell surface molecules. Thus, for example, DNA methyltransferase enzymes together with chromatin-associated proteins such as histone modifying enzymes and remodelling factors can modify the genetic code and contribute to the establishment and maintenance of altered epigenetic states. This is relevant to many types of toxicity including but not limited to cancer. In this paper, we describe the potential for interplay between genetic alteration and epigenetic changes in cell growth regulation and discuss the implications for drug discovery and safety assessment

  18. Preliminary investigation on reliability assessment of passive safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Changfan; Kuang Bo

    2012-01-01

    The reliability evaluation of passive safety system plays an important part in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plant applying passive safety design, which depends quantitatively on reliabilities of passive safety system. According to the object of reliability assessment of passive safety system, relevant parameters are identified. Then passive system behavior during accident scenarios are studied. A practical example of this method is given for the case of reliability assessment of AP1000 passive heat removal system in loss of normal feedwater accident. Key and design parameters of PRHRS are identified and functional failure criteria are established. Parameter combinations acquired by Latin hyper~ cube sampling (LHS) in possible parametric ranges are input and calculations of uncertainty propagation through RELAP5/MOD3 code are carried out. Based on the calculations, sensitivity assessment on PRHRS functional criteria and reliability evaluation of the system are presented, which might provide further PSA with PRHR system reliability. (authors)

  19. Planning report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This document is a planning report for SKB's next assessment of long-term safety for a KBS 3 repository. The assessment, SR-Can, is to be finished by the end of 2005 and will be used for SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel. Apart from outlining the methodology, the report discusses the handling in SR-Can of a number of important issues regarding the near field, the geosphere, the biosphere, the climatic evolution etc. The Swedish nuclear safety and radiation protection authorities have recently issued regulations concerning the final disposal of nuclear waste. The principal compliance criterion states that the annual risk of harmful effects must not exceed 10 -6 for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk. There are also a number of requirements on methodological aspects of the safety assessment as well as on the contents of a safety report. The regulations are reproduced in an Appendix to this report. The primary safety function of the KBS 3 system is to completely isolate the spent nuclear fuel within copper canisters over the entire assessment period, which will be one million years in SR-Can. Should a canister be damaged, the secondary safety function is to retard any releases from the canisters. The main steps of the assessment are the following: 1. Qualitative system description, FEP processing: This step consists of defining a system boundary and of describing the system on a format suitable for the safety assessment. Databases of relevant features, events and processes influencing long-term safety are structured and used as one starting point for the assessment. 2. Initial state descriptions. 3. Process descriptions: In this step all identified processes within the system boundary involved in the long-term evolution of the system are described in detail. 4. Description of boundary conditions: This step is a broad description of the evolution of the boundaries of the system, focussing mainly

  20. Corrosion calculations report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    This report is a compilation of the quantitative assessments of corrosion of the copper canisters in a KBS-3 repository. The calculations are part of the safety assessment SR-Site that is the long-term safety assessment to support the license application for building a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, Sweden. The safety assessment methodology gives the frame for the structured and documented approach to assess all conceivable corrosion processes. The quantitative assessments are done in different ways depending on the nature of the process and on the implications for the long-term safety. The starting point for the handling of the corrosion processes is the description of all known corrosion processes for copper with the current knowledge base and applied to the specific system and geology. Already at this stage some processes are excluded for further analysis, for example if the repository environment is not a sufficient prerequisite for the process to occur. The next step is to identify processes where the extent of corrosion could be bounded, e.g. by a mass balance approach. For processes where a mass balance is not limiting, the mass transport of corrodants (or corrosion products) is taken into account. A simple approach would be just to calculate the diffusive transport of corrodants through the bentonite, but generally the transport resistance for the interface between groundwater in a rock fracture intersecting the deposition hole and the bentonite buffer is more important. In SR-Site, the concept of equivalent flowrate, Q eq , is used. This assessment is done integrated with the evaluation of the geochemical and hydrogeological evolution of the repository. For most of the corrosion processes analysed, the corrosion depth is much smaller than the copper shell thickness, even for the assessment time of 10 6 years. Several processes give corrosion depths less than 100 μm, but no process give corrosion depths larger than a few millimetres

  1. Corrosion calculations report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    This report is a compilation of the quantitative assessments of corrosion of the copper canisters in a KBS-3 repository. The calculations are part of the safety assessment SR-Site that is the long-term safety assessment to support the license application for building a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, Sweden. The safety assessment methodology gives the frame for the structured and documented approach to assess all conceivable corrosion processes. The quantitative assessments are done in different ways depending on the nature of the process and on the implications for the long-term safety. The starting point for the handling of the corrosion processes is the description of all known corrosion processes for copper with the current knowledge base and applied to the specific system and geology. Already at this stage some processes are excluded for further analysis, for example if the repository environment is not a sufficient prerequisite for the process to occur. The next step is to identify processes where the extent of corrosion could be bounded, e.g. by a mass balance approach. For processes where a mass balance is not limiting, the mass transport of corrodants (or corrosion products) is taken into account. A simple approach would be just to calculate the diffusive transport of corrodants through the bentonite, but generally the transport resistance for the interface between groundwater in a rock fracture intersecting the deposition hole and the bentonite buffer is more important. In SR-Site, the concept of equivalent flowrate, Q{sub eq}, is used. This assessment is done integrated with the evaluation of the geochemical and hydrogeological evolution of the repository. For most of the corrosion processes analysed, the corrosion depth is much smaller than the copper shell thickness, even for the assessment time of 106 years. Several processes give corrosion depths less than 100 mum, but no process give corrosion depths larger than a few

  2. Chemical Dependency Regional Needs Assessment: Northeastern Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Marylee

    The Minnesota Model of Chemical Dependency Treatment, which evolved from a combination of the grassroots Alcoholics Anonymous movement and the State Mental Health Services in the 1960s has made Minnesota an international leader in chemical dependency treatment efforts. Northeastern Minnesota has shared this reputation with the state. In spite of…

  3. The Safety Assessment Framework Tool (SAFRAN) - Description, Overview and Applicability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alujevic, Luka

    2014-01-01

    The SAFRAN tool (Safety Assessment Framework) is a user-friendly software application that incorporates the methodologies developed in the SADRWMS (Safety Assessment Driven Radioactive Waste Management Solutions) project. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) to examine international approaches to safety assessment for predisposal management of all types of radioactive waste, including disused sources, small volumes, legacy and decommissioning waste, operational waste, and large volume naturally occurring radioactive material residues. SAFRAN provides aid in: Describing the predisposal RW management activities in a systematic way, Conducting the SA (safety assessment) with clear documentation of the methodology, assumptions, input data and models, Establishing a traceable and transparent record of the safety basis for decisions on the proposed RW management solutions, Demonstrating clear consideration of and compliance with national and international safety standards and recommendations. The SAFRAN tool allows the user to visibly, systematically and logically address predisposal radioactive waste management and decommissioning challenges in a structured way. It also records the decisions taken in such a way that it constitutes a justifiable safety assessment of the proposed management solutions. The objective of this paper is to describe the SAFRAN architecture and features, properly define the terms safety case and safety assessment, and to predict the future development of the SAFRAN tool and assess its applicability to the construction of a future LILW (Low and Intermediate Level Waste) storage facility and repository in Croatia, taking into account all the capabilities and modelling features of the SAFRAN tool. (author)

  4. Computational Approaches to Chemical Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luechtefeld, Thomas; Hartung, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Summary Computational prediction of toxicity has reached new heights as a result of decades of growth in the magnitude and diversity of biological data. Public packages for statistics and machine learning make model creation faster. New theory in machine learning and cheminformatics enables integration of chemical structure, toxicogenomics, simulated and physical data in the prediction of chemical health hazards, and other toxicological information. Our earlier publications have characterized a toxicological dataset of unprecedented scale resulting from the European REACH legislation (Registration Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals). These publications dove into potential use cases for regulatory data and some models for exploiting this data. This article analyzes the options for the identification and categorization of chemicals, moves on to the derivation of descriptive features for chemicals, discusses different kinds of targets modeled in computational toxicology, and ends with a high-level perspective of the algorithms used to create computational toxicology models. PMID:29101769

  5. Suggestions on the Development of Safety Culture Assessment Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Choi, Kwang Sik; Kim, Woong Sik

    2006-01-01

    Several efforts have been made to assess safety culture of organization that operates nuclear power plants in Korea. The MOST and KINS played a major role to develop assessment methods and KHNP applied them to its NPPs. This paper explains the two methods developed by KINS briefly and presents the insights obtained from the two different applications. It concludes with some suggestions for safety culture assessment based on the insights

  6. Transparency of chemical risk assessment data under REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingre-Khans, Ellen; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Beronius, Anna; Rudén, Christina

    2016-12-08

    The REACH regulation requires EU manufacturers and importers of substances to register information on the hazard and risk of their substances with the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Risk management of the substances is based on the provided information. It is known that conclusions on hazard and risk are influenced by expert judgements as well as potential conflict of interests. Thus, it is important that hazard and risk assessments are transparent and can be evaluated by a third party. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the transparency, i.e. the accessibility and comprehensibility, of information on substances registered under REACH. Data on repeated dose toxicity and hazard assessment conclusions were extracted for 60 substances from the REACH registration database available on the ECHA website. The data were compiled in a database for systematically evaluating the transparency of information related to the conclusions on hazard or risk. In addition, chemical safety reports (CSR) were requested from ECHA for five substances. The transparency of information on the hazard and risk of substances was found to be limited for several reasons. First, certain information was removed due to confidentiality and certain fields were not published because they could contain confidential information although the information had not been claimed confidential. Also, the extent to which registrants reported information varied, and the presentation of some data and certain terminology required further clarification. In addition, the data source for the majority of the key and supporting studies could not be identified due to confidentiality. Since registrants are only required to summarise studies, it cannot be verified whether all relevant information from non-public industry reports have been reported. Lastly, certain information related to the hazard and risk assessment were only reported in the CSR which is only available upon request; a time-consuming and work

  7. The role of natural analogues in safety assessment and acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, Toenis

    1987-01-01

    The safety assessment must evaluate the level of safety for a repository, the confidence that can be placed on the assessment and how well the repository can meet the acceptance criteria of the society. Many of the processes and phenomena that govern the long term performance of a deep geologic repository for radioactive waste also take place in nature. To investigate these natural analogues and try to validate the models on which the safety assessment are based is a main task in the effort to build of confidence in the safety assessments. The assessment of the safety of a repository can, however, not only be based on good models. The possible role of natural analogues or natural evidence in other parts of the safety assessment is discussed. Specially with regard to - the need to demonstrate that all relevant processes have been taken into account, and that the important ones have been validated to an acceptable level for relevant parameters spans, -the definition and analysis of external scenarios for the safety assessment and for the claim that all reasonable scenarios have been addressed, - the public confidence in the long-term relevance of the acceptance criteria. (author)

  8. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Safety in the Chemistry Laboratories: A Specific Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkern, Walter H.; Munchausen, Linda L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a safety program adopted by Southeastern Louisiana University. Students are given detailed instructions on laboratory safety during the first laboratory period and a test which must be completely correct before they are allowed to return to the laboratory. Test questions, list of safety rules, and a laboratory accident report form are…

  9. Assessment of the long-term safety for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greis Dahlberg, Christina; Vahlund, Frederik [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    During operation and decommissioning of the Swedish nuclear facilities, radioactive waste is generated that must be disposed of. Besides waste from the nuclear facilities, some waste derives from other activities such as industry, research, medical care, etc. Short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste from these activities is disposed of in the final repository for short-lived radioactive waste, SFR, in Forsmark. The facility, which has been in operation since 1988, is owned and operated by Svensk Karnbranslehantering AB, SKB. The existing facility has neither sufficient space nor a license to receive decommissioning waste. SFR must therefore be extended so that shortlived low- and intermediate-level decommissioning waste from the nuclear facilities can also be received. The need for additional capacity has been accentuated by the closure of two reactors in Barseback. These reactors cannot be dismantled until the SFR facility has been extended. The existing repository is built to receive, and after closure serve as a passive repository for, low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The disposal rooms are situated in the bedrock beneath the sea floor, covered by about 60 metres of rock. The repository has been designed so that it can be abandoned after closure without requiring further measures to maintain its function. The extension of SFR, is done at the -120 m level immediately adjacent to, and within the same depth range as, the existing facility. The basic function of the existing SFR and of the extended one will be the same. However, a clear difference is the design of the tunnel and the rock vault that are required to permit transport and storage of whole reactor pressure vessels. The application for a license to build this extension includes an assessment of the long-term safety (post-closure safety) of the facility. The safety assessment also contains an updated assessment of the long-term safety of the existing facility. The safety assessment for

  10. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains a discussion of the chemical safety improvements planned or already underway at DOE sites to correct facility or site-specific vulnerabilities. The main part of the report is a discussion of each of the programmatic deficiencies; a description of the tasks to be accomplished; the specific actions to be taken; and the organizational responsibilities for implementation

  11. Ultraviolet safety assessments of insect light traps

    OpenAIRE

    Sliney, David H.; Gilbert, David W.; Lyon, Terry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Near-ultraviolet (UV-A: 315?400?nm), ?black-light,? electric lamps were invented in 1935 and ultraviolet insect light traps (ILTs) were introduced for use in agriculture around that time. Today ILTs are used indoors in several industries and in food-service as well as in outdoor settings. With recent interest in photobiological lamp safety, safety standards are being developed to test for potentially hazardous ultraviolet emissions. A variety of UV ?Black-light? ILTs were measured at...

  12. Self-assessment of operational safety for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    Self-assessment processes have been continuously developed by nuclear organizations, including nuclear power plants. Currently, the nuclear industry and governmental organizations are showing an increasing interest in the implementation of this process as an effective way for improving safety performance. Self-assessment involves the use of different types of tools and mechanisms to assist the organizations in assessing their own safety performance against given standards. This helps to enhance the understanding of the need for improvements, the feeling of ownership in achieving them and the safety culture as a whole. Although the primary beneficiaries of the self-assessment process are the plant and operating organization, the results of the self-assessments are also used, for example, to increase the confidence of the regulator in the safe operation of an installation, and could be used to assist in meeting obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. Such considerations influence the form of assessment, as well as the type and detail of the results. The concepts developed in this report present the basic approach to self-assessment, taking into consideration experience gained during Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) missions, from organizations and utilities which have successfully implemented parts of a self-assessment programme and from meetings organized to discuss the subject. This report will be used in IAEA sponsored workshops and seminars on operational safety that include the topic of self-assessment

  13. Safety assessment as basis for the decision making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, P.; Didita, L.; Danchiv, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the safety assessment for a new near surface repository, particularly for the early stage of repository development using ISAM (Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities) safety assessment methodology. In this stage of the repository life cycle the main purpose of the safety assessment is to demonstrate that the plant is capable to be constructed and operated safely. The paper is based on development of the ASAM (Application of the Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near-Surface Disposal Facilities) Decision Support Subgroup of the Common Aspects Working Group. The implications of decision making for the application of the ISAM methodology on post-closure safety assessment are analysed. Some important elements of the decision-making process with impact on key components of the ISAM process are described. Following the development of Decision Support Subgroup of the ASAM Common Aspects Working Group the proposed change of ISAM methodology is analysed. This approach puts all activities in a decision context where the first iteration of the safety assessment is based on the existing state of knowledge and the initial engineering design. Confidence in the process is accomplished through the direct inclusion of all decision makers and stakeholders in the formulation of decisions, the definition of the state of knowledge, and decision making activities. The decision process is developed in context of undertaking assessments with little site-specific information, this situation is specifically for new planned repository. Limited site-specific information can result in a high degree of uncertainty, therefore it is important first of all to identify the sources of uncertainty arising from the limited nature of the site-specific information and then to apply appropriate approaches to manage the uncertainties and to determine whether the uncertainties are important to the overall safety of the disposal facility

  14. Application of fuzzy set theory for safety culture and safety management assessment of Kartini research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syarip; Hauptmanns, U.

    2000-01-01

    The safety culture status of nuclear power plant is usually assessed through interview and/or discussions with personnel and management in plant, and an assessment of the pertinent documentation. The approach for safety culture assessment described in IAEA Safety Series, make uses of a questionnaire composed of questions which require 'Yes' or 'No' as an answer. Hence, it is basically a check-list approach which is quite common for safety assessments in industry. Such a procedure ignores the fact that the expert answering the question usually has knowledge which goes far beyond a mere binary answer. Additionally, many situations cannot readily be described in such restricted terms. Therefore, it was developed a checklist consisting of questions which are formulated such that they require more than a simple 'yes' or 'no' as an answer. This allows one to exploit the expert knowledge of the analyst appropriately by asking him to qualify the degree of compliance of each of the topics examined. The method presented has proved useful in assessing the safety culture and quality of safety management of the research reactor. The safety culture status and the quality of safety management of Kartini research reactor is rated as 'average'. The method is also flexible and allows one to add questions to existing areas or to introduce new areas covering related topics

  15. Revolutionizing safety and security in the chemical and process industry: applying the CHESS concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.; Khakzad Rostami, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that a new concept, summarized as ‘CHESS’, should be used in the chemical industry to further substantially advance safety (where we use the term in a broad sense, that is, safety and physical security, amongst others). The different domains that need to be focused upon, and where

  16. Nirex safety assessment research programme: 1987/88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, D.; Hodgkinson, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    The Nirex Safety Assessment Research programme's objective is to provide information for the radiological safety case for disposing low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in underground repositories. The programme covers a wide range of experimental studies and mathematical modelling for the near and far field. It attempts to develop a quantitative understanding of events and processes which have an impact on the safety of radioactive waste disposal. (U.K.)

  17. Procedures for self-assessment of operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    Self-assessment processes have been continuously developed by nuclear organizations, including nuclear power plants. Currently, the nuclear industry and governmental organizations are showing an increasing interest in the implementation of this process as an effective way for improving safety performance. Self-assessment involves the use of different types of tools and mechanisms to assist the organizations in assessing their own safety performance against given standards. This helps to enhance the understanding of the need for improvements, the feeling of ownership in achieving them and and the safety culture as a whole. The concepts developed in this report present the basic approach to self-assessment taking into consideration experience gained during Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) missions, from organizations and utilities which have successfully implemented parts of a self-assessment programme and from meetings organized to discuss the subject

  18. Safety/security interface assessments at commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, K.R.; Brown, P.J.; Norderhaug, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    The findings of the Haynes Task Force Committee (NUREG-0992) are used as the basis for defining safety/security assessment team activities at commercial nuclear power plants in NRC Region V. A safety/security interface assessment outline and the approach used for making the assessments are presented along with the composition of team members. As a result of observing simulated plant emergency conditions during scheduled emergency preparedness exercises, examining security and operational response procedures, and interviewing plant personnel, the team has identified instances where safety/security conflicts can occur

  19. Visualization of Safety Assessment Result Using GIS in SITES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Bong-Yo; Park, Joo Wan; Park, Se-Moon; Kim, Chang-Lak

    2006-01-01

    Site Information and Total Environmental database management System (SITES) is an integrated program for overall data analysis, environmental monitoring, and safety analysis that are produced from the site investigation and environmental assessment of the relevant nuclear facility. SITES is composed of three main modules such as Site Environment Characterization database for Unified and Reliable Evaluation system (SECURE), Safety Assessment INTegration system (SAINT) and Site Useful Data Analysis and ALarm system (SUDAL). The visualization function of safety assessment and environmental monitoring results is designed. This paper is to introduce the visualization design method using Geographic Information System (GIS) for SITES

  20. Safety/security interface assessments at commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, K.R.; Brown, P.J.; Norderhaug, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    The findings of the Haynes Task Force Committee (NUREG-0992) are used as the basis for defining safety/security assessment team activities at commercial nuclear power plants in NRC Region V. A safety/security interface assessment outline and the approach used for making the assessments are presented along with the composition of team members. As a result of observing simulated plant emergency conditions during scheduled emergency preparedness exercises, examining security and operational response procedures, and interviewing plant personnel, the team has identified instances where safety/security conflicts can occur. 2 refs

  1. Major food safety episodes in Taiwan: implications for the necessity of international collaboration on safety assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jih-Heng; Yu, Wen-Jing; Lai, Yuan-Hui; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2012-07-01

    The major food safety episodes that occurred in Taiwan during the past decade are briefly reviewed in this paper. Among the nine major episodes surveyed, with the exception of a U.S. beef (associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease)-related incident, all the others were associated with chemical toxicants. The general public, which has a layperson attitude of zero tolerance toward food safety, may panic over these food-safety-associated incidents. However, the health effects and impacts of most incidents, with the exception of the melamine incident, were essentially not fully evaluated. The mass media play an important role in determining whether a food safety concern becomes a major incident. A well-coordinated and harmonized system for domestic and international collaboration to set up standards and regulations is critical, as observed in the incidents of pork with ractopamine, Chinese hairy crab with nitrofuran antibiotics, and U.S. wheat with malathion. In the future, it can be anticipated that food safety issues will draw more attention from the general public. For unknown new toxicants or illicit adulteration of food, the establishment of a more proactive safety assessment system to monitor potential threats and provide real-time information exchange is imperative. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. NUMO's approach for long-term safety assessment - 59404

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebashi, Takeshi; Kaku, Kenichi; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    One of NUMO's policies for ensuring safety is staged and flexible project implementation and decision-making based on iterative confirmation of safety. The safety assessment takes the central role in multiple lines of reasoning and argumentation by providing a quantitative evaluation of long-term safety; a key aspect is uncertainty management. This paper presents NUMO's basic strategies for long-term safety assessment based on the above policy. NUMO's approach considering Japanese boundary conditions is demonstrated as a starting-point for evaluating the long-term safety of an actual site. In Japan, the Act on Final Disposal of Specified Radioactive Waste states that the siting process shall consist of three stages. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) is responsible for geological disposal of vitrified high-level waste and some types of TRU waste. NUMO has chosen to implement a volunteer approach to siting. NUMO decided to prepare the so-called 2010 technical report, which sets out three safety policies, one of which is staged project implementation and decision-making based on iterative confirmation of safety. Based on this policy, NUMO will gradually integrate relevant interdisciplinary knowledge to build a safety case when a formal volunteer application is received that would allow site investigations to be initiated. The safety assessment takes the central role in multiple lines of reasoning and argumentation by providing a quantitative evaluation of long-term safety; one of a key aspect is uncertainty management. This paper presents the basic strategies for NUMO's long-term safety assessment based on the above policy. In concrete terms, the common procedures involved in safety assessment are applied in a stepwise manner, based on integration of knowledge obtained from site investigations/evaluations and engineered measures. The results of the safety assessment are then reflected in the planning of site investigations and engineered

  3. Seismic and tsunami safety margin assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Nuclear Regulation Authority is going to establish new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines to increase the safety of NPPs. The main purpose of this research is testing structures/components important to safety and tsunami resistant structures/components, and evaluating the capacity of them against earthquake and tsunami. Those capacity data will be utilized for the seismic and tsunami back-fit review based on the new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines. The summary of the program in 2012 is as follows. 1. Component seismic capacity test and quantitative seismic capacity evaluation. PWR emergency diesel generator partial-model seismic capacity tests have been conducted and quantitative seismic capacities have been evaluated. 2. Seismic capacity evaluation of switching-station electric equipment. Existing seismic test data investigation, specification survey and seismic response analyses have been conducted. 3. Tsunami capacity evaluation of anti-inundation measure facilities. Tsunami pressure test have been conducted utilizing a small breakwater model and evaluated basic characteristics of tsunami pressure against seawall structure. (author)

  4. Safety assessment in primary Mycobacterium tuberculosis smear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is transmitted mainly through aerosolization of infected sputum which puts laboratory workers at risk in spite of the laboratory workersf risk of infection being at 3 to 9 times higher than the general public. Laboratory safety should therefore be ...

  5. Seismic and tsunami safety margin assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Regulation Authority is going to establish new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines to increase the safety of NPPs. The main purpose of this research is testing structures/components important to safety and tsunami resistant structures/components, and evaluating the capacity of them against earthquake and tsunami. Those capacity data will be utilized for the seismic and tsunami back-fit review based on the new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines. The summary of the program in 2012 is as follows. 1. Component seismic capacity test and quantitative seismic capacity evaluation. PWR emergency diesel generator partial-model seismic capacity tests have been conducted and quantitative seismic capacities have been evaluated. 2. Seismic capacity evaluation of switching-station electric equipment. Existing seismic test data investigation, specification survey and seismic response analyses have been conducted. 3. Tsunami capacity evaluation of anti-inundation measure facilities. Tsunami pressure test have been conducted utilizing a small breakwater model and evaluated basic characteristics of tsunami pressure against seawall structure. (author)

  6. Swedish REGULATORY APPROACH TO SAFETY Assessment AND SEVERE ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.; Sandervaag, O.

    1997-01-01

    The Swedish regulatory approach to safety assessment and severe accident management is briefly described. The safety assessment program, which focuses on prevention of incidents and accidents, has three main components: periodic safety reviews, probabilistic safety analysis, and analysis of postulated disturbances and accident progression sequences. Management and man-technology-organisation issues, as well as inspections, play a key role in safety assessment. Basis for severe accident management were established by the Government decisions in 1981 and 1986. By the end of 1988, the severe accident mitigation systems and emergency operating procedures were implemented at all Swedish reactors. The severe accident research has continued after 1988 for further verification of the protection provided by the systems and reduction of remaining uncertainties in risk dominant phenomena

  7. Complementary assessment of the safety of French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarcat, N.; Pouget-Abadie, X.

    2011-01-01

    As an immediate consequence of the Fukushima accident the French nuclear safety Authority (ASN) asked EDF to perform a complementary safety assessment for each nuclear power plant dealing with 3 points: 1) the consequences of exceptional natural disasters, 2) the consequences of total loss of electrical power, and 3) the management of emergency situations. The safety margin has to be assessed considering 3 main points: first a review of the conformity to the initial safety requirements, secondly the resistance to events overdoing what the facility was designed to stand for, and the feasibility of any modification susceptible to improve the safety of the facility. This article details the specifications of such assessment, the methodology followed by EDF, the task organization and the time schedule. (A.C.)

  8. ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    KEY WORDS: Physico-chemical, Pollution, Irrigation, Tsaeda Agam River ... Rivers are the main sources of both drinking water and irrigation for agriculture. They also ..... Suspended solids are present in sanitary wastewater and many types of.

  9. Tolerability of risk, safety assessment principles and their implications for probabilistic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, D.J.F.; Campbell, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper gives a regulatory view of probabilistic safety assessment as seen by the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) and in the light of the general regulatory risk aims set out in the Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) The tolerability of risk from nuclear power stations (TOR) and in Safety assessment principles for nuclear plants (SAPs), prepared by NII on behalf of the HSE. Both of these publications were revised and republished in 1992. This paper describes the SAPs, together with the historical background, the motivation for review, the effects of the Sizewell and Hinkley Point C public inquiries, changes since the original versions, comparison with international standards and use in assessment. For new plant, probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is seen as an essential tool in balancing the safety of the design and in demonstrating compliance with TOR and the SAPs. (Author)

  10. Safety Management and Safety Culture Self Assessment of Kartini Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syarip, S., E-mail: syarip@batan.go.id [Centre for Accelerator and Material Process Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2014-10-15

    The self-assessment of safety culture and safety management status of Kartini research reactor is a step to foster safety culture and management by identifying good practices and areas for improvement, and also to improve reactor safety in a whole. The method used in this assessment is based on questionnaires provided by the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), then reviewed by experts. Based on the assessment and evaluation results, it can be concluded that there were several good practices in maintaining the safety status of Kartini reactor such as: reactor operators and radiation protection workers were aware and knowledgeable of the safety standards and policies that apply to their operation, readily accept constructive criticism from their management and from the inspectors of regulatory body that address safety performance. As a proof, for the last four years the number of inspection/audit findings from Regulatory Body (BAPETEN) tended to decrease while the reactor utilization and its operating hour increased. On the other hands there were also some comments and recommendations for improvement of reactor safety culture, such as that there should be more frequent open dialogues between employees and managers, to grow and attain a mutual support to achieve safety goals. (author)

  11. Assessing propensity to learn from safety-related events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Wybo, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Most organisations aim to use experience from the past to improve safety, for instance through learning from safety-related incidents and accidents. Whether an organisation is able to learn successfully can however only be determined afterwards. So far, there are no proactive measures to assess

  12. 76 FR 45453 - New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Testing F. Consumer Survey and Label Research G. Other Issues 1. Legend for Star Ratings 2. Overall... consumers to consider and assess the relative safety of vehicles before deciding which new vehicle they want..., and prominent fashion, and that the safety rating area of the Monroney label meet minimum size...

  13. Assessing the safety of the road network : a simple method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Research by the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research in The Netherlands assessing the safety of the Dutch road network is presented. In The Netherlands urban and rural roads and motorways are used roughly equally, however accident rates vary greatly. These are discussed in this paper. Tables show

  14. Uncertainty in safety : new techniques for the assessment and optimisation of safety in process industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouvroye, J.L.; Nieuwenhuizen, J.K.; Brombacher, A.C.; Stavrianidis, P.; Spiker, R.Th.E.; Pyatt, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    At this moment there is no standardised method for the assessment for safety in the process industry. Many companies and institutes use qualitative techniques for safety analysis while other companies and institutes use quantitative techniques. The authors of this paper will compare different

  15. Workshop on Indian Chemical Industry: perspectives on safety, cleaner production and environment production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A Workshop on "Indian Chemical Industry: Perspectives on Safety, Cleaner Production and Environmental Protection" was held on 3, 4 and 5 January 1996, in Bombay, India. The main objective of the workshop, which was organised jointly by the Government of India, UNIDO/UNDP and the Indian Chemical

  16. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.; Chitundu, M.

    2011-01-01

    and perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic...... of products commercially available on the market. Risk assessments disclose that effects harmful to the developing central nervous system (CNS) may be observed at a lower exposure than previously anticipated. We interviewed farmers in Zambia and Malawi about their cultivars, processing procedures......The cassava belt area in Southern Africa is experiencing an unforeseen surge in cassava production, processing and consumption. Little documentation exists on the effects of this surge on processing procedures, the prevailing levels of cyanogenic glucosides of products consumed and the levels...

  17. Development of Safety Assessment Information System (SAIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Shik; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech. Co. Ltd. SNU, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Tae Young; Lee, Chang Ho [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Many reports and documents about nuclear power plant safety analysis like a Periodic Safe Review (PSR), Periodic Safety Analysis (PSA) and Severe Accident Management Guideline (SAMG) come to be drawn up from KHNP. Since these are not arranged easy to look up, the systematic arrangement of data was necessary. The solution against hereupon is to store database, and it was developed with the name, SAIS, by FNC Tech. Co. together with NETEC KHNP. In this web program it is easy to manage (registration, search and statistics) data. And the authorized user can approach this system. This was developed, and was verified under the development environment of; - Web Server : Apache 2.2.5 - Program Language : PHP 5.2 - DBMS : Oracle 10g.

  18. Development of Safety Assessment Information System (SAIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung Shik; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Byung Chul; Song, Tae Young; Lee, Chang Ho

    2007-01-01

    Many reports and documents about nuclear power plant safety analysis like a Periodic Safe Review (PSR), Periodic Safety Analysis (PSA) and Severe Accident Management Guideline (SAMG) come to be drawn up from KHNP. Since these are not arranged easy to look up, the systematic arrangement of data was necessary. The solution against hereupon is to store database, and it was developed with the name, SAIS, by FNC Tech. Co. together with NETEC KHNP. In this web program it is easy to manage (registration, search and statistics) data. And the authorized user can approach this system. This was developed, and was verified under the development environment of; - Web Server : Apache 2.2.5 - Program Language : PHP 5.2 - DBMS : Oracle 10g

  19. Safety Assessment of Radioactive waste Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    It is planned to dispose of high-level radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. To access the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal systems, mathematical models are used to describe groundwater flow, chemistry and potential radionuclide migration through these formations. Establishing the validity of such models is important in order to obtain the necessary confidence in the safety of the disposal method. The papers in these proceedings of the GEOVAL'90 Symposium describe the current state of knowledge on the validation of geosphere flow and transport models. This symposium, divided into five sessions, contains 65 technical papers: session 1 - Necessity of validation. Session 2 - Progress in validation of flow and transport models in orystalline rock, unsaturated media, salt media or clay. Session 3 - Progress in validation of geochemical models. Session 4 - Progress in validation of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical effects. Session 5 - Validation strategy

  20. Safety assessment of the liquid-fed ceramic melter process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Partain, W.L.

    1980-08-01

    As part of its development program for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste, Pacific Northwest Laboratory assessed the safety issues for a complete liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process. The LFCM process, an adaption of commercial glass-making technology, is being developed to convert high-level liquid waste from the nuclear fuel cycle into glass. This safety assessment uncovered no unresolved or significant safety problems with the LFCM process. Although in this assessment the LFCM process was not directly compared with other solidification processes, the safety hazards of the LFCM process are comparable to those of other processes. The high processing temperatures of the glass in the LFCM pose no additional significant safety concerns, and the dispersible inventory of dried waste (calcine) is small. This safety assessment was based on the nuclear power waste flowsheet, since power waste is more radioactive than defense waste at the time of solidification, and all accident conditions for the power waste would have greater radiological consequences than those for defense waste. An exhaustive list of possible off-standard conditions and equipment failures was compiled. These accidents were then classified according to severity of consequence and type of accident. Radionuclide releases to the stack were calculated for each group of accidents using conservative assumptions regarding the retention and decontamination features of the process and facility. Two recommendations that should be considered by process designers are given in the safety assessment

  1. Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, B.; Torres-Vidal, C.

    2002-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated research program ''Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities'' (ISAM) has developed improved safety assessment methodology for near surface disposal facilities. The program has been underway for three years and has included around 75 active participants from 40 countries. It has also provided examples for application to three safety cases--vault, Radon type and borehole radioactive waste disposal facilities. The program has served as an excellent forum for exchange of information and good practices on safety assessment approaches and methodologies used worldwide. It also provided an opportunity for reaching broad consensus on the safety assessment methodologies to be applied to near surface low and intermediate level waste repositories. The methodology has found widespread acceptance and the need for its application on real waste disposal facilities has been clearly identified. The ISAM was finalized by the end of 2000, working material documents are available and an IAEA report will be published in 2002 summarizing the work performed during the three years of the program. The outcome of the ISAM program provides a sound basis for moving forward to a new IAEA program, which will focus on practical application of the safety assessment methodologies to different purposes, such as licensing radioactive waste repositories, development of design concepts, upgrading existing facilities, reassessment of operating repositories, etc. The new program will also provide an opportunity for development of guidance on application of the methodology that will be of assistance to both safety assessors and regulators

  2. Ensuring the quality of occupational safety risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Abel; Ribeiro, Rita A; Nunes, Isabel L

    2013-03-01

    In work environments, the main aim of occupational safety risk assessment (OSRA) is to improve the safety level of an installation or site by either preventing accidents and injuries or minimizing their consequences. To this end, it is of paramount importance to identify all sources of hazards and assess their potential to cause problems in the respective context. If the OSRA process is inadequate and/or not applied effectively, it results in an ineffective safety prevention program and inefficient use of resources. An appropriate OSRA is an essential component of the occupational safety risk management process in industries. In this article, we performed a survey to elicit the relative importance for identified OSRA tasks to enable an in-depth evaluation of the quality of risk assessments related to occupational safety aspects on industrial sites. The survey involved defining a questionnaire with the most important elements (tasks) for OSRA quality assessment, which was then presented to safety experts in the mining, electrical power production, transportation, and petrochemical industries. With this work, we expect to contribute to the main question of OSRA in industries: "What constitutes a good occupational safety risk assessment?" The results obtained from the questionnaire showed that experts agree with the proposed OSRA process decomposition in steps and tasks (taxonomy) and also with the importance of assigning weights to obtain knowledge about OSRA task relevance. The knowledge gained will enable us, in the near future, to build a framework to evaluate OSRA quality for industrial sites. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Data used for safety assessment of reprocessing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasushi; Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Kanagawa, Akira

    1990-08-01

    For safety assessment of a reprocessing facility, it is important to know performance of radioactive materials in their accidental release and transfer. Accordingly, it is necessary to collect and prepare data for use in analyses for their performance. In JAERI, experiments such as for data acquisition, for source-term evaluation and for radioactive material transfer, are now planned to be performed. Prior to these experiments, it is decided to investigate data in use for accidental safety assessment of reprocessing plants and their based experimental data, thus to make it possible to recommend reasonable values for safety analysis parameters by evaluating the investigated results, to select the experimental items, to edit a safety assessment handbook and so on. In this line of objectives, JAERI rewarded a two-year contract of investigation to Nuclear Safety Research Association, to make a working group under a special committee on data investigation for reprocessing facility safety assessment. This report is a collection of results reviewed and checked by the working group. The contents consist of two parts, one for investigation and review of data used for safety assessment of domestic or oversea reprocessing facilities, and the other for investigation, review and evaluation of ANSI recommended American standard data reported by E. Walker together with their based experimental data resorting to the original referred reports. (author)

  4. Planning report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This document is a planning report for SKB's next assessment of long-term safety for a KBS 3 repository. The assessment, SR-Can, is to be finished by the end of 2005 and will be used for SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel. Apart from outlining the methodology, the report discusses the handling in SR-Can of a number of important issues regarding the near field, the geosphere, the biosphere, the climatic evolution etc. The Swedish nuclear safety and radiation protection authorities have recently issued regulations concerning the final disposal of nuclear waste. The principal compliance criterion states that the annual risk of harmful effects must not exceed 10{sup -6} for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk. There are also a number of requirements on methodological aspects of the safety assessment as well as on the contents of a safety report. The regulations are reproduced in an Appendix to this report. The primary safety function of the KBS 3 system is to completely isolate the spent nuclear fuel within copper canisters over the entire assessment period, which will be one million years in SR-Can. Should a canister be damaged, the secondary safety function is to retard any releases from the canisters. The main steps of the assessment are the following: 1. Qualitative system description, FEP processing: This step consists of defining a system boundary and of describing the system on a format suitable for the safety assessment. Databases of relevant features, events and processes influencing long-term safety are structured and used as one starting point for the assessment. 2. Initial state descriptions. 3. Process descriptions: In this step all identified processes within the system boundary involved in the long-term evolution of the system are described in detail. 4. Description of boundary conditions: This step is a broad description of the evolution of the boundaries of the system

  5. Re-assessment of safety and ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudot, R.; Dallery, D.; Delmas, J.; Balley, J.; Acalet, R.; Bignan, G.; Mergui, C.; Mazoyer, R.; Maegey, M.; Laigneau, P.

    2007-01-01

    The first article presents the research program led conjointly by Cea, EDF and Areva to face ageing of nuclear power plants. 3 axis have been defined: 1) the damaging processes in equipment, 2) the damaging processes in concrete structures, and 3) inspection and monitoring techniques. In the context of the preparation of the third decennial safety review of its 900 MWe PWR units, EDF was asked by the Nuclear Authority (ANS) to write up documentation (DAPE) whose purpose is to show that the aging processes are mastered and adequately handled in the unit concerned and that the carrying on of reactor operation for the next 10 years will not degrade its safety standard. The second article presents the specific purposes of the second (VD2) and third (VD3) decennial safety reviews. The last article deals with the renovation work planned on the Masurca research reactor. Masurca installation is dedicated to the setting of neutron experiments necessary for the validation of neutron calculations in fast neutron spectra configurations. The reactor upgrade will concern: -) the power system, -) the instrumentation and control of the reactor, -) the ventilation of the reactor building, -) the seismic reinforcement of an auxiliary building, -) fire protection, and -) radiation monitoring. (A.C.)

  6. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, B. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs.

  7. Modern Aspects of Safety Assessment of Foodstuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Chorna

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is one of the decisive components of the economic security of each state and is determined by the ability of the country to control effectively the production and import of safe and high-quality food on the generally accepted principles of the world. This sphere of activity in human society has extremely important humanitarian, social, economic and political aspects. The food raw materials and food products quality and safety control is currently the most relevant analytical task. It is more important than environmental pollution, according to some data, more than 70 % of harmful pollutants in the human body gets through food, 20% of water and 10 % of the air. Technogenic pollution of the environment through soil, water and air gets directly into the food. However, food products are contaminated with natural harmful substances that appear in improper storage, in violation of technologies, food processing and processing charts. The article is devoted to the main factors analysis influencing the safety of food products and the improvement of instrumental methods for the study of quality aromatic products (for example, coffee.

  8. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellstroem, B.

    1996-01-01

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs

  9. Assessment of public safety around EDF facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poupart, M. [Electricite de France, Paris (France)

    2004-09-01

    Electricite de France (EDF) recognizes that a dam's structural resistance and its capacity to withstand heavy flooding are 2 of the most significant safety aspects for hydroelectric power stations. However, in addition to dam failure, there are safety risks for the public who frequent the rivers up and down stream from the dam, as well as on property and the environment. A fatal accident which occurred in 1995 down river from EDF's Monteynard hydroelectric facility on the Drac River prompted the utility to take measures to improve control over this type of hazard. Collaboration with public authorities led to an action plan to educate the public about possible danger areas and to improve methods of reducing risks. Regulations regarding access to these areas were also studied along with ways of informing and warning the public. All the stretches of river directly above and below the power stations and dams were listed systematically and a qualitative analysis was carried out of any possible dangers. This led to changes in operating rules, technical instructions and power plant operating regulations. Certain areas are designated as prohibited areas, such as places subject to hazards caused by violent and unexpected water discharges. This paper outlined the Hydraulic Safety Significant Event (HSSE) classification which relates to an operational event related to water that is liable to affect human beings, the environment, water level or flow rate. 9 figs.

  10. Health Risk Assessment of Harmful Chemicals: Case Study in a Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Motovagheh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims In the most chemical process industries, workers are exposed to various chemicals and working with these chemicals without considering safety and health considerations can lead to different harmful symptoms. For deciding about control measures and reducing risk to acceptable level , it is necessary to assess the health risk of exposing to harmful chemicals by aid of specific risk assessment techniques in the process industries. The purpose of this study was to assess the health risks arising from the exposures to chemicals in a petrochemical industry.  methods A simple and applied method was used for health risk assessment of chemicals in a petrochemical industry. Firstly job tasks and work process were determined and then different chemicals in each tasks identified and risk ranking was calculated in each job task by aid of hazard and exposure rate.   Results The result showed that workers are exposed to 10 chemicals including Methyl ethyl ketone, Epichlorohydrin, Sulfuric acid, Phenol, Chlorobenzene, Toluene, Isopropanol, Methylene chloride, Chlorideric Acid and Acetone during their work in plant. From these chemicals, the highest risk level was for Epichlorohydrin in the jobs of tank and utility operations and maintenance workers. The next high risk level was for Epichlorohydrin in technical inspecting and Methyl ethyl ketone in Tank and utility operations operator.     Conclusion Hazard information and monitoring data of chemical agents in the chemical industries can be used for assessing health risks from exposures to chemicals and ranking jobs by their risk level. These data can be used for resource allocation for control measures and reducing risk level to acceptable level.    

  11. Risk assessment of safety violations for coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megan Orsulaka; Vladislav Kecojevicb; Larry Graysona; Antonio Nietoa [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Dept of Energy and Mineral Engineering

    2010-09-15

    This article presents an application of a risk assessment approach in characterising the risks associated with safety violations in underground bituminous mines in Pennsylvania using the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) citation database. The MSHA database on citations provides an opportunity to assess risks in mines through scrutiny of violations of mandatory safety standards. In this study, quantitative risk assessment is performed, which allows determination of the frequency of occurrence of safety violations (through associated citations) as well as the consequences of them in terms of penalty assessments. Focus is on establishing risk matrices on citation experiences of mines, which can give early indication of emerging potentially serious problems. The resulting frequency, consequence and risk rankings present valuable tools for prioritising resource allocations, determining control strategies, and could potentially contribute to more proactive prevention of incidents and injuries.

  12. Use of agent based simulation for traffic safety assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of an agent based Computational Building Simulation (CBS) tool, termed KRONOS that is being used to work on advanced research questions such as traffic safety assessment and user behaviour in buildings...

  13. NANoREG framework for the safety assessment of nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Gottardo, Stefania; Alessandrelli, Maria; Amenta, Valeria; Atluri, Rambabu; Barberio, Grazia; Bekker, Cindy; Bergonzo, Philippe; Bleeker, Eric; Booth, Andy; Borges, Teresa; Buttol, Patrizia; Carlander, David; Castelli, Stefano; Chevillard, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    The NANoREG framework addresses the need to ease the nanomaterials safety assessment in the REACH Regulation context. It offers forward-looking strategies: Safe-by-Design, a Nanospecific Prioritisation and Risk Assessment, and Life Cycle Assessment. It is intended for scientific experts, regulatory authorities and industry.

  14. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Tested Disposal Methods for Chemical Wastes from Academic Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, M. A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes procedures for disposing of dichromate cleaning solution, picric acid, organic azides, oxalic acid, chemical spills, and hydroperoxides in ethers and alkenes. These methods have been tested under laboratory conditions and are specific for individual chemicals rather than for groups of chemicals. (JN)

  15. Selected component failure rate values from fusion safety assessment tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers

  16. Selected component failure rate values from fusion safety assessment tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1998-09-01

    This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

  17. Selected Component Failure Rate Values from Fusion Safety Assessment Tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles

    1998-09-01

    This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

  18. A probabilistic safety assessment PEER review: Case study on the use of probabilistic safety assessment for safety decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this case study is to illustrate, using an actual example, the organizing and carrying out of an independent peer review of a draft full-scope (level 3) probabilistic safety assessment. The specific findings of the peer review are of less importance than the approach taken, the interaction between sponsor and study team, and the technical and administrative issues that can arise during a peer review. This case study will examine the following issues: how the scope of the peer review was established, based on how it was to be used by the review sponsoring body; how the level of effort was determined, and what this determination meant for the technical quality of the review; how the team of peer reviewers was selected; how the review itself was carried out; what findings were made; what was done with these findings by both the review sponsoring body and the PSA analysis team. 9 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  19. Assessing progress in the development of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, I.; Ghita, S.; Biro, L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is focussed on the organizational culture and learning processes required for the implementation of all aspects of safety culture. There is no prescriptive formula for improving safety culture. However, some common characteristics and practices are emerging that can be adopted by organizations in order to make progress. The paper refers to some approaches that have been successful in a number of countries. The experience of the international nuclear industry in the development and improvement of safety culture could be extended and found useful in other nuclear activities, irrespective of scale. The examples given of specific practice cover a wide range of activities including analysis of events, the regulatory approach on safety culture, employee participation and safety performance measures. Many of these practices may be relevant to smaller organizations and could contribute to improving safety culture, whatever the size of the organization. The most effective approach is to pursue a range of practices that can be mutually supportive in the development of a progressive safety culture, supported by professional standards, organizational and management commitment. Some guidance is also given on the assessment of safety culture and on the detection of a weakening safety culture. Few suggestions for accelerating the safety culture development and improvement process are also provided. (author)

  20. Flightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) Model for Safety Technology Portfolio Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) develops and advances methodologies and technologies to improve air transportation safety. The Safety Analysis and Integration Team (SAIT) conducts a safety technology portfolio assessment (PA) to analyze the program content, to examine the benefits and risks of products with respect to program goals, and to support programmatic decision making. The PA process includes systematic identification of current and future safety risks as well as tracking several quantitative and qualitative metrics to ensure the program goals are addressing prominent safety risks accurately and effectively. One of the metrics within the PA process involves using quantitative aviation safety models to gauge the impact of the safety products. This paper demonstrates the role of aviation safety modeling by providing model outputs and evaluating a sample of portfolio elements using the Flightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) model. The model enables not only ranking of the quantitative relative risk reduction impact of all portfolio elements, but also highlighting the areas with high potential impact via sensitivity and gap analyses in support of the program office. Although the model outputs are preliminary and products are notional, the process shown in this paper is essential to a comprehensive PA of NASA's safety products in the current program and future programs/projects.

  1. Savannah River Site K-Reactor Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandyberry, M.D.; Bailey, R.T.; Baker, W.H.; Kearnaghan, D.P.; O'Kula, K.R.; Wittman, R.S.; Woody, N.D.; Amos, C.N.; Weingardt, J.J.

    1992-12-01

    This report gives the results of a Savannah River Site (SRS) K-Reactor Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Measures of adverse consequences to health and safety resulting from representations of severe accidents in SRS reactors are presented. In addition, the report gives a summary of the methods employed to represent these accidents and to assess the resultant consequences. The report is issued to provide useful information to the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the risk of operation of SRS reactors, for insights into severe accident phenomena that contribute to this risk, and in support of improved bases for other DOE programs in Heavy Water Reactor safety

  2. Hazard assessment and risk management of offshore production chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schobben, H.P.M.; Scholten, M.C.T.; Vik, E.A.; Bakke, S.

    1994-01-01

    There is a clear need for harmonization of the regulations with regard to the use and discharge of drilling and production chemicals in the North Sea. Therefore the CHARM (Chemical Hazard Assessment and Risk Management) model was developed. Both government (of several countries) and industry (E and P and chemical suppliers) participated in the project. The CHARM model is discussed and accepted by OSPARCON. The CHARM model consists of several modules. The model starts with a prescreening on the basis of hazardous properties like persistency, accumulation potential and the appearance on black lists. The core of the model.consists of modules for hazard assessment and risk analysis. Hazard assessment covers a general environmental evaluation of a chemical on the basis of intrinsic properties of that chemical. Risk analysis covers a more specific evaluation of the environmental impact from the use of a production chemical, or a combination of chemicals, under actual conditions. In the risk management module the user is guided to reduce the total risk of all chemicals used on a platform by the definition of measures in the most cost-effective way. The model calculates the environmental impact for the marine environment. Thereto three parts are distinguished: pelagic, benthic and food chain. Both hazard assessment and risk analysis are based on a proportional comparison of an estimated PEC with an estimated NEC. The PEC is estimated from the use, release, dilution and fate of the chemical and the NEC is estimated from the available toxicity data of the chemicals

  3. Chemical equivalence assessment of three brands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assay for content of active ingredients is a critical test of drug quality; failure to meet up the standard for content of active ingredients will result to sub therapeutic quantities. Three brands (A, B and C) of carbamazepine were assayed to determine their chemical equivalence as well as their anticonvulsant activities. This was ...

  4. Microbiological Quality Assessment and Physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two commercial poultry diets namely chick mash and grower mash were obtained from five (5) major poultry feed millers in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. A total of seventy – five (75) samples were collected and these diets were examined for their microbiological and physico-chemical qualities. Total bacterial counts in the chick ...

  5. Space, time, and chemical risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to manufactured chemicals is a fact of contemporary life for both humans and wildlife. In many cases, these exposures occur at safe environmental concentrations. However, spectacular exceptions have occurred (e.g., DDT and eggshell thinning, monocrotophos and Swainson&r...

  6. AP1000 Containment Design and Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Richard F.; Ofstun, Richard P.; Bachere, Sebastien

    2002-01-01

    The AP1000 is an up-rated version of the AP600 passive plant design that recently received final design certification from the US NRC. Like AP600, the AP1000 is a two-loop, pressurized water reactor featuring passive core cooling and passive containment safety systems. One key safety feature of the AP1000 is the passive containment cooling system which maintains containment integrity in the event of a design basis accident. This system utilizes a high strength, steel containment vessel inside a concrete shield building. In the event of a pipe break inside containment, a high pressure signal actuates valves which allow water to drain from a storage tank atop the shield building. Water is applied to the top of the containment shell, and evaporates, thereby removing heat. An air flow path is formed between the shield building and the containment to aid in the evaporation and is exhausted through a chimney at the top of the shield building. Extensive testing and analysis of this system was performed as part of the AP600 design certification process. The AP1000 containment has been designed to provide increased safety margin despite the increased reactor power. The containment volume was increased to accommodate the larger steam generators, and to provide increased margin for containment pressure response to design basis events. The containment design pressure was increased from AP600 by increasing the shell thickness and by utilizing high strength steel. The passive containment cooling system water capacity has been increased and the water application rate has been scaled to the higher decay heat level. The net result is higher margins to the containment design pressure limit than were calculated for AP600 for all design basis events. (authors)

  7. Guidelines for pressure vessel safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, S.

    1990-04-01

    A technical overview and information on metallic pressure containment vessels and tanks is given. The intent is to provide Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) personnel and other persons with information to assist in the evaluation of the safety of operating pressure vessels and low pressure storage tanks. The scope is limited to general industrial application vessels and tanks constructed of carbon or low alloy steels and used at temperatures between -75 and 315 C (-100 and 600 F). Information on design codes, materials, fabrication processes, inspection and testing applicable to the vessels and tanks are presented. The majority of the vessels and tanks are made to the rules and requirements of ASME Code Section VIII or API Standard 620. The causes of deterioration and damage in operation are described and methods and capabilities of detecting serious damage and cracking are discussed. Guidelines and recommendations formulated by various groups to inspect for the damages being found and to mitigate the causes and effects of the problems are presented.

  8. General approaches to the risk assessment of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Patrick [Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General XI, Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection (Belgium)

    1992-07-01

    In the context of the UNCED 92 'Earth Summit' in Rio, the following definition of chemical risk assessment has been developed: 'Chemical risk assessment is a scientific process that identifies and quantifies the potential adverse effects on human health or ecosystems of defined exposures to chemical substances, to mixtures that include chemicals, or to chemically hazardous processes or situations. Risk itself is the probability of the occurrence of a defined adverse effect in a defined group and in defined circumstances'. I would not be so impertinent as to try and improve upon a definition that has the tacit endorsement of the majority of world-leaders. Furthermore, I consider that too many man-years have been spent discussing this topic. Thankfully the UNCED definition recognises chemical risk assessment as being a process and not some immutable physical law. In this presentation I will attempt to explain some of the details and mechanisms of that process but first of all it is worthwhile to spend a few moments putting chemical risk assessment in its proper context and asking the simple question: why do we want/need to assess the potential risk of chemicals?. In general terms, chemicals risk assessment is carried out in order to ensure that neither man (consumer/worker/general public) nor the environment are exposed to unacceptable risks arising from the production, use and disposal of chemicals. At a national and/or international level, risk assessments are performed by the regulatory authorities before they accept notification dossiers (e.g. new industrial chemicals) or grant authorizations (e.g. pharmaceuticals, pesticides, cosmetics, food additives). At the local level, plant-operators must carry out risk assessments to ensure that in the particular circumstances of their factory the workers are adequately protected and that satisfactory accident prevention and contingency plans are prepared. Similarly, local authorities must carry out risk assessments before

  9. General approaches to the risk assessment of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    In the context of the UNCED 92 'Earth Summit' in Rio, the following definition of chemical risk assessment has been developed: 'Chemical risk assessment is a scientific process that identifies and quantifies the potential adverse effects on human health or ecosystems of defined exposures to chemical substances, to mixtures that include chemicals, or to chemically hazardous processes or situations. Risk itself is the probability of the occurrence of a defined adverse effect in a defined group and in defined circumstances'. I would not be so impertinent as to try and improve upon a definition that has the tacit endorsement of the majority of world-leaders. Furthermore, I consider that too many man-years have been spent discussing this topic. Thankfully the UNCED definition recognises chemical risk assessment as being a process and not some immutable physical law. In this presentation I will attempt to explain some of the details and mechanisms of that process but first of all it is worthwhile to spend a few moments putting chemical risk assessment in its proper context and asking the simple question: why do we want/need to assess the potential risk of chemicals?. In general terms, chemicals risk assessment is carried out in order to ensure that neither man (consumer/worker/general public) nor the environment are exposed to unacceptable risks arising from the production, use and disposal of chemicals. At a national and/or international level, risk assessments are performed by the regulatory authorities before they accept notification dossiers (e.g. new industrial chemicals) or grant authorizations (e.g. pharmaceuticals, pesticides, cosmetics, food additives). At the local level, plant-operators must carry out risk assessments to ensure that in the particular circumstances of their factory the workers are adequately protected and that satisfactory accident prevention and contingency plans are prepared. Similarly, local authorities must carry out risk assessments before

  10. LANL Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE) Self-Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargis, Barbara C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-29

    On December 21, 2012 Secretary of Energy Chu transmitted to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) revised commitments on the implementation plan for Safety Culture at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. Action 2-5 was revised to require contractors and federal organizations to complete Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE) selfassessments and provide reports to the appropriate U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Headquarters Program Office by September 2013. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) planned and conducted a Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE) Self-Assessment over the time period July through August, 2013 in accordance with the SCWE Self-Assessment Guidance provided by DOE. Significant field work was conducted over the 2-week period August 5-16, 2013. The purpose of the self-assessment was to evaluate whether programs and processes associated with a SCWE are in place and whether they are effective in supporting and promoting a SCWE.

  11. Research on advanced system safety assessment procedures (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Yukiyasu

    2001-03-01

    The past research reports in the area of safety engineering proposed the Computer-aided HAZOP system to be applied to Nuclear Reprocessing Facilities. Automated HAZOP system has great advantage compared with human analysts in terms of accuracy of the results, and time required to conduct HAZOP studies. This report surveys the literature on risk assessment and safety design based on the concept of independent protection layers (IPLs). Furthermore, to improve HAZOP System, tool is proposed to construct the basic model and the internal state model. Such HAZOP system is applied to analyze two kinds of processes, where the ability of the proposed system is verified. In addition, risk assessment support system is proposed to integrate safety design environment and assessment result to be used by other plants as well as to enable the underline plant to use other plants' information. This technique can be implemented using web-based safety information systems. (author)

  12. Tools and perspectives for assessing chemical mixtures and multiple stressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans; Ragas, Ad M. J.; Holmstrup, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the most important insights and findings of the EU NoMiracle project with a focus on (1) risk assessment of chemical mixtures, (2) combinations of chemical and natural stressors, and (3) the receptor-oriented approach in cumulative risk assessment. The project aimed...... is suggested. The results are discussed in the light of recent developments in risk assessment of mixtures and multiple stressors....

  13. Research on fuzzy comprehensive assessment method of nuclear power plant safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Yuanyuan; Chen Xukun; Xu Rongbin

    2012-01-01

    Considering the traits of safety culture in nuclear plant, 38 safety culture assessment indexes are established from 4 aspects such as safety values, safety institution, safety behavior and safety sub- stances. Based on it, a comprehensive assessment method for nuclear power plant safety culture is constructed by using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) approach and fuzzy mathematics. The comprehensive assessment method has the quality of high precision and high operability, which can support the decision making of safety culture development. (authors)

  14. Value of preapproval safety data in predicting postapproval hepatic safety and assessing the legitimacy of class warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yeong-Liang; Wu, Ya-Chi; Gau, Churn-Shiouh; Lin, Min-Shung

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate whether preapproval safety data for nonhepatotoxic drugs and hepatotoxic drugs can be compared to improve preapproval prediction of postapproval hepatic safety and to assess the legitimacy of applying class warnings. Drugs within a therapeutic class that included at least one drug that had been withdrawn from the market because of liver toxicity or had a warning of potential liver toxicity issued by major regulatory agencies, and at least one drug free from such regulatory action, were identified and divided into two groups: drugs with and drugs without regulatory action. Preapproval clinical data [including the elevation rates of alanine aminotransferse (ALT) and withdrawal due to liver toxicity, the number of patients with combined elevation of ALT and bilirubin, and liver failure] and nonclinical data (including chemical structures, metabolic pathways, and other significant findings in animal studies) were compared between the two groups. Six drug classes were assessed in this study: thiazolidinediones, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, fluoroquinolones, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors, leukotriene receptor inhibitors, and endothelin receptor antagonists. In two classes (COMT inhibitors and endothelin receptor antagonists), drugs with regulatory action had significantly higher rates of ALT elevation of more than threefold and greater numbers of patients with combined elevation of ALT and bilirubin than drugs without regulatory action. Drugs with regulatory action also had chemical structures or metabolic pathways associated with the toxicity. The legitimacy of class warnings was refuted in all six classes of drugs. Preapproval safety data may help predict postapproval hepatic safety and can be used to assess the legitimacy of applying class warnings.

  15. 77 FR 66638 - The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office of Management...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Process Safety Management...: The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). OMB Number...

  16. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. To address the facility-specific and site-specific vulnerabilities, responsible DOE and site-contractor line organizations have developed initial site response plans. These plans, presented as Volume 2 of this Management Response Plan, describe the actions needed to mitigate or eliminate the facility- and site-specific vulnerabilities identified by the CSV Working Group field verification teams. Initial site response plans are described for: Brookhaven National Lab., Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Lab., Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., Oak Ridge Reservation, Rocky Flats Plant, Sandia National Laboratories, and Savannah River Site

  17. School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Patricia; Palassis, John

    2006-01-01

    The guide presents information about ordering, using, storing, and maintaining chemicals in the high school laboratory. The guide also provides information about chemical waste, safety and emergency equipment, assessing chemical hazards, common safety symbols and signs, and fundamental resources relating to chemical safety, such as Material…

  18. Development and assessment of frying characteristics, chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Completely randomized design was used to assess and compare frying characteristics, proximate and vitamin A contents between samples with bread types being the principal factor while Randomised complete Block design was used to assess sensory properties and consumer acceptability of the bread samples with ...

  19. Exposure Assessment Tools by Chemical Classes - Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  20. Safety assessments for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of safety assessment for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes is to evaluate how well the engineered barriers and geological setting inhibit radionuclide migration and prevent radiation dose to man. Safety assessment is influenced through interaction with the regulatory agencies, research groups, the public and the various levels of government. Under the auspices of the IAEA, a generic disposal system description has been developed to facilitate international exchange and comparison of data and results, and to enable development and comparison of performance for all components of the disposal system. It is generally accepted that a systems modelling approach is required and that safety assessment can be considered on two levels. At the systems level, all components of the system are taken into account to evaluate the risk to man. At the systems level, critical review and quality assurance on software provide the major validation techniques. Risk is a combination of dose estimate and probability of that dose. For analysis of the total system to be practical, the components are usually represented by simplified models. Recently, assessments have been taking uncertainties in the input data into account. At the detailed level, large-scale, complex computer programs model components of the system in sufficient detail that validation by comparison with field and laboratory measurements is possible. For example, three-dimensional fluid-flow, heat-transport and solute-transport computer programs have been used. Approaches to safety assessment are described, with illustrations from safety assessments performed in a number of countries. (author)

  1. Safety studies on Korean fusion DEMO plant using integrated safety assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyemin; Kang, Myoung-suk; Heo, Gyunyoung; Kim, Hyoung-chan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant. •The concepts of integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM) that can be applied in addressing regulatory requirements and recognizing safety issues for K-DEMO were emphasized. •Phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) was proposed. It can recognize vulnerabilities of systems and identify the gaps in technical areas requiring additional researches. •This work is expected to contribute on the conceptual design of safety features for K-DEMO to design engineers and the guidance for regulatory requirements to licensers. -- Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant (K-DEMO) as a part of R and D program through the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea. Even though nuclear regulation and licensing framework is well setup due to the operating and design experience of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) since 1970s, the regulatory authority of South Korea has concerns on the challenge of facing new nuclear facilities including K-DEMO due to the differences in systems, materials, and inherent safety feature from conventional PWRs. Even though the follow-up of the ITER license process facilitates to deal with significant safety issues of fusion facilities, a licensee as well as a licenser should identify the gaps between ITER and DEMO in terms of safety issues. First we reviewed the methods of conducting safety analysis for unprecedented nuclear facilities such as Generation IV reactors, particularly very high temperature reactor (VHTR), which is called as integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM). Second, the analysis for the conceptual design of K-DEMO on the basis of ISAM was conducted. The ISAM consists of five analytical tools to develop the safety requirements from licensee

  2. Safety studies on Korean fusion DEMO plant using integrated safety assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyemin; Kang, Myoung-suk [Kyung Hee University, Youngin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung, E-mail: gheo@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee University, Youngin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung-chan [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon-si 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant. •The concepts of integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM) that can be applied in addressing regulatory requirements and recognizing safety issues for K-DEMO were emphasized. •Phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) was proposed. It can recognize vulnerabilities of systems and identify the gaps in technical areas requiring additional researches. •This work is expected to contribute on the conceptual design of safety features for K-DEMO to design engineers and the guidance for regulatory requirements to licensers. -- Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant (K-DEMO) as a part of R and D program through the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea. Even though nuclear regulation and licensing framework is well setup due to the operating and design experience of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) since 1970s, the regulatory authority of South Korea has concerns on the challenge of facing new nuclear facilities including K-DEMO due to the differences in systems, materials, and inherent safety feature from conventional PWRs. Even though the follow-up of the ITER license process facilitates to deal with significant safety issues of fusion facilities, a licensee as well as a licenser should identify the gaps between ITER and DEMO in terms of safety issues. First we reviewed the methods of conducting safety analysis for unprecedented nuclear facilities such as Generation IV reactors, particularly very high temperature reactor (VHTR), which is called as integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM). Second, the analysis for the conceptual design of K-DEMO on the basis of ISAM was conducted. The ISAM consists of five analytical tools to develop the safety requirements from licensee

  3. Assessing chemical mutagens: the risk to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewen, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: chromosomal aberrations induced by x radiation, tritiated thymidine, maleic hydrazide, and nitrogen mustard; removal of pyrimidine dimers by photoreactivation in amphibian cells following uv radiation; effects of 4-nitroquinoline-oxide on leukocytes from XP and normal patients; DNA as a target for alkylating agents; sensitivity of spermatogonia to chemical mutagens; chromosomal aberrations induced by 8-ethoxycaffeine, methoxycaffeine, cytosine arabinoside, streptonigrin, bleomycin, and phleomycin; effects of MMS and triethylenemelamine on germ cells; and use of chromosomal aberrations for improving risk estimates for ionizing radiation

  4. National Waste Repository Novi Han operational safety analysis report. Safety assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The scope of the safety assessment (SA), presented includes: waste management functions (acceptance, conditioning, storage, disposal), inventory (current and expected in the future), hazards (radiological and non-radiological) and normal and accidental modes. The stages in the development of the SA are: criteria selection, information collection, safety analysis and safety assessment documentation. After the review the facilities functions and the national and international requirements, the criteria for safety level assessment are set. As a result from the 2nd stage actual parameters of the facility, necessary for safety analysis are obtained.The methodology is selected on the base of the comparability of the results with the results of previous safety assessments and existing standards and requirements. The procedure and requirements for scenarios selection are described. A radiological hazard categorisation of the facilities is presented. Qualitative hazards and operability analysis is applied. The resulting list of events are subjected to procedure for prioritization by method of 'criticality analysis', so the estimation of the risk is given for each event. The events that fall into category of risk on the boundary of acceptability or are unacceptable are subjected to the next steps of the analysis. As a result the lists with scenarios for PSA and possible design scenarios are established. PSA logical modeling and quantitative calculations of accident sequences are presented

  5. Assessment of the safety of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, A; Cockburn, A; Crevel, R W R; Debruyne, E; Grafstroem, R; Hammerling, U; Kimber, I; Knudsen, I; Kuiper, H A; Peijnenburg, A A C M; Penninks, A H; Poulsen, M; Schauzu, M; Wal, J M

    2004-07-01

    This paper provides guidance on how to assess the safety of foods derived from genetically modified crops (GM crops); it summarises conclusions and recommendations of Working Group 1 of the ENTRANSFOOD project. The paper provides an approach for adapting the test strategy to the characteristics of the modified crop and the introduced trait, and assessing potential unintended effects from the genetic modification. The proposed approach to safety assessment starts with the comparison of the new GM crop with a traditional counterpart that is generally accepted as safe based on a history of human food use (the concept of substantial equivalence). This case-focused approach ensures that foods derived from GM crops that have passed this extensive test-regime are as safe and nutritious as currently consumed plant-derived foods. The approach is suitable for current and future GM crops with more complex modifications. First, the paper reviews test methods developed for the risk assessment of chemicals, including food additives and pesticides, discussing which of these methods are suitable for the assessment of recombinant proteins and whole foods. Second, the paper presents a systematic approach to combine test methods for the safety assessment of foods derived from a specific GM crop. Third, the paper provides an overview on developments in this area that may prove of use in the safety assessment of GM crops, and recommendations for research priorities. It is concluded that the combination of existing test methods provides a sound test-regime to assess the safety of GM crops. Advances in our understanding of molecular biology, biochemistry, and nutrition may in future allow further improvement of test methods that will over time render the safety assessment of foods even more effective and informative. Copryright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Probabilistic assessment of NPP safety under aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birbraer, A.N.; Roleder, A.J.; Arhipov, S.B.

    1999-01-01

    Methodology of probabilistic assessment of NPP safety under aircraft impact is described below. The assessment is made taking into account not only the fact of aircraft fall onto the NPP building, but another casual parameters too, namely an aircraft class, velocity and mass, as well as point and angle of its impact with the building structure. This analysis can permit to justify the decrease of the required structure strength and dynamic loads on the NPP equipment. It can also be especially useful when assessing the safety of existing NPP. (author)

  7. Objective, Quantitative, Data-Driven Assessment of Chemical Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolin, Albert A; Tym, Joseph E; Komianou, Angeliki; Collins, Ian; Workman, Paul; Al-Lazikani, Bissan

    2018-02-15

    Chemical probes are essential tools for understanding biological systems and for target validation, yet selecting probes for biomedical research is rarely based on objective assessment of all potential compounds. Here, we describe the Probe Miner: Chemical Probes Objective Assessment resource, capitalizing on the plethora of public medicinal chemistry data to empower quantitative, objective, data-driven evaluation of chemical probes. We assess >1.8 million compounds for their suitability as chemical tools against 2,220 human targets and dissect the biases and limitations encountered. Probe Miner represents a valuable resource to aid the identification of potential chemical probes, particularly when used alongside expert curation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Human exposure assessment to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Silva, Manori J; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Needham, Larry L

    2006-02-01

    In modern societies, humans may be exposed to a wide spectrum of environmental chemicals. Although the health significance of this exposure for many chemicals is unknown, studies to investigate the prevalence of exposure are warranted because of the chemicals' potential harmful health effects, as often indicated in animal studies. Three tools have been used to assess exposure: exposure history/questionnaire information, environmental monitoring, and biomonitoring (i.e. measuring concentrations of the chemicals, their metabolites, or their adducts in human specimens). We present an overview on the use of biomonitoring in exposure assessment using phthalates, bisphenol A and other environmental phenols, and perfluorinated chemicals as examples. We discuss some factors relevant for interpreting and understanding biomonitoring data, including selection of both biomarkers of exposure and human matrices, and toxicokinetic information. The use of biomonitoring in human risk assessment is not discussed.

  9. Assessment of the factors with significant influence on safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcasiu, M.; Nitoi, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a qualitative and a quantitative evaluation of the factors with significant impact on safety culture were performed. These techniques were established and applied in accordance with IAEA standards. In order to show the applicability and opportunity of the methodology a specific case study was prepared: safety culture evaluation for INR Pitesti. The qualitative evaluation was performed using specific developed questionnaires. Through analysis of the completed questionnaires was established the development stage of safety culture at INR. The quantitative evaluation was performed using a guide to rate the influence factors. For each factor was identified the influence (negative or positive) and ranking score was estimated using scoring criteria. The results have emphasized safety culture stages. The paper demonstrates the fact that using both quantitative and qualitative assessment techniques, a practical value of the safety culture concept is given. (authors)

  10. Safety assessment of existing highway bridges and viaducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Steenbergen, R.; Abspoel, L.; Kolstein, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of the structural safety of existing br idges and viaducts becomes increasingly important in many countries owing to an increase in traffic loads. Most existing standards, however, are developed for the design of new structures. For this reason, an assessment method for determining

  11. Risk assessment and safety regulations in offshore oil and gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk management of which risk assessment is part, and safety regulations are common in the offshore oil and gas industry management system. The process of conducting risk assessment is mostly a challenge for operational personnel assigned to perform this function. The most significant problem is the decision to use ...

  12. Evaluation of Hazardous Material Management Safety in the Chemical Laboratory in BATAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur-Rahmah-Hidayati

    2005-01-01

    The management safety of the hazardous material (B3) in the chemical laboratory of BATAN was evaluated. The evaluation is necessary to be done because B3 is often used together with radioactive materials in the laboratory, but the attention to the safety aspect of B3 is not paid sufficiently in spite of its big potential hazard. The potential hazard generated from the nature of B3 could be flammable, explosive, oxidative, corrosive and poisonous. The handling of B3 could be conducted by enforcing the labelling and classification in the usage and disposal processes. Some observations of the chemical laboratory of BATAN show that the management safety of hazardous material in compliance with the government regulation no. 74 year 2001 has not been dully conducted. The management safety of B3 could be improved by, designating one who has adequate skill in hazardous material safety specially as the B3 safety officer, providing the Material Safety Data Sheet that is updated periodically to use in the laboratory and storage room, updating periodically the inventory of B3, performing training in work safety periodically, and monitoring the ventilation system intensively in laboratory and storage room. (author)

  13. The use of probabilistic safety assessments for improving nuclear safety in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    1992-01-01

    The political changes in Europe broadened the scope of international nuclear safety matters considerably. The Western world started to receive reliable and increasingly detailed information on Eastern European nuclear technology and took note of a broad range of technical and administrative problems relevant for nuclear safety in these countries. Reunification made Germany a focus of information exchange on these matters. Here, cooperation with the former German Democratic Republic and with other Eastern European countries as well as safety analyses of Soviet-built nuclear power plants started rather early. Meanwhile, these activities are progressing toward all-European cooperation in the nuclear safety sector. This cooperation includes the use of probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) addressing applications in both Western and Eastern Europe as well as the further development of this methodology in a converging Europe

  14. Assessment of safety regulation using an artificial society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Kazuo; Nagase, Masaya

    2005-01-01

    This study proposes using an artificial society to assess impacts of safety regulation on the society. The artificial society used in this study is a multi-agent system, which consists of many agents representing companies. The agents cannot survive unless they get profits by producing some products. Safety regulation functions as the business environment, which the agents will evolve to fit to. We modeled this process of survival and adaptation by the genetic algorithm. Using the proposed model, case simulations were performed to compare various regulation styles, and some interesting insights were obtained how regulation style influences behavior of the agents and then productivity and safety level of the industry. In conclusion, an effective method for assessment of safety regulation has been developed, and then several insights were shown in this study

  15. Assessment of safety of the nuclear installations of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.A.; Pozniakov, N.; Banga, U.

    1992-01-01

    Incidents and accidents periodically remind us that preventive measures at nuclear installations are not fully reliable. Although sound design is widely recognized to be prerequisite for safe operation, it is not sufficient. An active management that compensates for the weak aspects of the installations design by redundant operational provisions, is the key factor to ensure safe operation. Safety of nuclear installations cannot be assessed on an emotional basis. Since 1986, accurate safety assessment techniques based on an integrated approach to operational safety have been made available by the ASSET services and are applicable to any industrial process dealing with nuclear materials. The ASSET methodology enables to eliminate in advance the Root Causes of the future accidents by introducing practical safety culture principles in the current managerial practices

  16. Practicing chemical process safety: a look at the layers of protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Roy E.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation will review a few public perceptions of safety in chemical plants and refineries, and will compare these plant workplace risks to some of the more traditional occupations. The central theme of this paper is to provide a 'within-the-fence' view of many of the process safety practices that world class plants perform to pro-actively protect people, property, profits as well as the environment. It behooves each chemical plant and refinery to have their story on an image-rich presentation to stress stewardship and process safety. Such a program can assure the company's employees and help convince the community that many layers of safety protection within our plants are effective, and protect all from harm

  17. Method to Find Recovery Event Combinations in Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Woo Sik; Riley, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    These research activities may develop mathematical methods, engineering analyses, and business processes. The research activities of the project covered by this scope are directed toward the specific issues of implementing the methods and strategies on a computational platform, identifying the features and enhancements to EPRI tools that would be necessary to realize significant improvements to the risk assessments performed by the end user. Fault tree analysis is extensively and successfully applied to the risk assessment of safety-critical systems such as nuclear, chemical and aerospace systems. The fault tree analysis is being used together with an event tree analysis in PSA of nuclear power plants. Fault tree solvers for a PSA are mostly based on the cutset-based algorithm. They generate minimal cut sets (MCSs) from a fault tree. The most popular fault tree solver in the PSA industry is FTREX. During the course of this project, certain technical issues (see Sections 2 to 5) have been identified that need to be addressed regarding how minimal cut sets are generated and quantified. The objective of this scope of the work was to develop new methods or techniques to address these technical limitations. By turning on all the cutset initiators (%1, %2, %3, %), all the possible minimal cut sets can be calculated easier than with the original fault tree. It is accomplished by the fact that the number of events in the minimal cut sets are significantly reduced by using cutset initiators instead of random failure events. And byy turning on a few chosen cutset initiators and turning off the other cutset initiators, minimal cut sets of the selected cutset initiator(s) can be easily calculated. As explained in the previous Sections, there is no way to calculate these minimal cut sets by turning off/on the random failure events in the original fault tree

  18. Method to Find Recovery Event Combinations in Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Woo Sik [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Riley, Jeff [Electric Power Research, Palo Alto (United States)

    2016-05-15

    These research activities may develop mathematical methods, engineering analyses, and business processes. The research activities of the project covered by this scope are directed toward the specific issues of implementing the methods and strategies on a computational platform, identifying the features and enhancements to EPRI tools that would be necessary to realize significant improvements to the risk assessments performed by the end user. Fault tree analysis is extensively and successfully applied to the risk assessment of safety-critical systems such as nuclear, chemical and aerospace systems. The fault tree analysis is being used together with an event tree analysis in PSA of nuclear power plants. Fault tree solvers for a PSA are mostly based on the cutset-based algorithm. They generate minimal cut sets (MCSs) from a fault tree. The most popular fault tree solver in the PSA industry is FTREX. During the course of this project, certain technical issues (see Sections 2 to 5) have been identified that need to be addressed regarding how minimal cut sets are generated and quantified. The objective of this scope of the work was to develop new methods or techniques to address these technical limitations. By turning on all the cutset initiators (%1, %2, %3, %), all the possible minimal cut sets can be calculated easier than with the original fault tree. It is accomplished by the fact that the number of events in the minimal cut sets are significantly reduced by using cutset initiators instead of random failure events. And byy turning on a few chosen cutset initiators and turning off the other cutset initiators, minimal cut sets of the selected cutset initiator(s) can be easily calculated. As explained in the previous Sections, there is no way to calculate these minimal cut sets by turning off/on the random failure events in the original fault tree.

  19. Criticality safety evaluations - a open-quotes stalking horseclose quotes for integrated safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Columbia Fuel Fabrication Facility of the Westinghouse Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division manufactures low-enriched uranium fuel and associated components for use in commercial pressurized water power reactors. To support development of a comprehensive integrated safety assessment (ISA) for the facility, as well as to address increasing U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expectations regarding such a facility's criticality safety assessments, a project is under way to complete criticality safety evaluations (CSEs) of all plant systems used in processing nuclear materials. Each CSE is made up of seven sections, prepared by a multidisciplinary team of process engineers, systems engineers, safety engineers, maintenance representatives, and operators. This paper provides a cursory outline of the type of information presented in a CSE

  20. Criticality safety evaluations - a {open_quotes}stalking horse{close_quotes} for integrated safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.A. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Columbia, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Columbia Fuel Fabrication Facility of the Westinghouse Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division manufactures low-enriched uranium fuel and associated components for use in commercial pressurized water power reactors. To support development of a comprehensive integrated safety assessment (ISA) for the facility, as well as to address increasing U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expectations regarding such a facility`s criticality safety assessments, a project is under way to complete criticality safety evaluations (CSEs) of all plant systems used in processing nuclear materials. Each CSE is made up of seven sections, prepared by a multidisciplinary team of process engineers, systems engineers, safety engineers, maintenance representatives, and operators. This paper provides a cursory outline of the type of information presented in a CSE.

  1. A preliminary assessment of the chemical and microbial water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary assessment of the chemical and microbial water quality of the Chunies River - Limpopo: short communication. ... For this purpose sampling was undertaken on 25 and 26 May 2002, and a range of chemical (macro-elements, micro-elements and heavy metals) and microbial variables (HPC, total coliforms and ...

  2. Analysis of truncation limit in probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, Marko

    2005-01-01

    A truncation limit defines the boundaries of what is considered in the probabilistic safety assessment and what is neglected. The truncation limit that is the focus here is the truncation limit on the size of the minimal cut set contribution at which to cut off. A new method was developed, which defines truncation limit in probabilistic safety assessment. The method specifies truncation limits with more stringency than presenting existing documents dealing with truncation criteria in probabilistic safety assessment do. The results of this paper indicate that the truncation limits for more complex probabilistic safety assessments, which consist of larger number of basic events, should be more severe than presently recommended in existing documents if more accuracy is desired. The truncation limits defined by the new method reduce the relative errors of importance measures and produce more accurate results for probabilistic safety assessment applications. The reduced relative errors of importance measures can prevent situations, where the acceptability of change of equipment under investigation according to RG 1.174 would be shifted from region, where changes can be accepted, to region, where changes cannot be accepted, if the results would be calculated with smaller truncation limit

  3. Results of the CANDU 3 probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaitly, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Conceptual Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of the CANDU 3 reactor was to provide safety assistance in the early stages of design to ensure that the design included adequate redundancy and functional separation of the mitigating systems; the final design should therefore give better results, particularly after modifications involving control, electrical power, instrument air, and service water. The initial PSA gave a total CANDU 3 core damage frequency of 7.8 x 10 -6 /year. 4 refs., 1 fig

  4. HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS and RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EVANS, C.B.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard

  5. A Methodology To Incorporate The Safety Culture Into Probabilistic Safety Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sunghyun; Kim, Namyeong; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In order to incorporate organizational factors into PSA, a methodology needs to be developed. Using the AHP to weigh organizational factors as well as the SLIM to rate those factors, a methodology is introduced in this study. The safety issues related to nuclear safety culture have occurred increasingly. The quantification tool has to be developed in order to include the organizational factor into Probabilistic Safety Assessments. In this study, the state-of-the-art for the organizational evaluation methodologies has been surveyed. This study includes the research for organizational factors, maintenance process, maintenance process analysis models, a quantitative methodology using Analytic Hierarchy Process, Success Likelihood Index Methodology. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to incorporate the safety culture into PSA for obtaining more objective risk than before. The organizational factor considered in nuclear safety culture might affect the potential risk of human error and hardware-failure. The safety culture impact index to monitor the plant safety culture can be assessed by applying the developed methodology into a nuclear power plant.

  6. A Methodology To Incorporate The Safety Culture Into Probabilistic Safety Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sunghyun; Kim, Namyeong; Jae, Moosung

    2015-01-01

    In order to incorporate organizational factors into PSA, a methodology needs to be developed. Using the AHP to weigh organizational factors as well as the SLIM to rate those factors, a methodology is introduced in this study. The safety issues related to nuclear safety culture have occurred increasingly. The quantification tool has to be developed in order to include the organizational factor into Probabilistic Safety Assessments. In this study, the state-of-the-art for the organizational evaluation methodologies has been surveyed. This study includes the research for organizational factors, maintenance process, maintenance process analysis models, a quantitative methodology using Analytic Hierarchy Process, Success Likelihood Index Methodology. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to incorporate the safety culture into PSA for obtaining more objective risk than before. The organizational factor considered in nuclear safety culture might affect the potential risk of human error and hardware-failure. The safety culture impact index to monitor the plant safety culture can be assessed by applying the developed methodology into a nuclear power plant

  7. Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Towards a Life Cycle Based Chemical Alternative Assessment (LCAA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, O.; Huang, L.; Overcash, Michael

    2017-01-01

    approach combines the following elements: a) The manufacturing phase chemical inventory is based on the environmental genome of industrial products database, ensuring mass and energy balance, b) near-field exposure to consumer products during the use phase is determined based on the mass of chemical......There is a need for an operational quantitative screening-level assessment of alternatives, that is life-cycle based and able to serve both Life cycle Assessment (LCA and chemical alternatives assessment (CAA). This presentation therefore aims to develop and illustrate a new approach called “Life...... Cycle Based Chemical Alternative Assessment (LCAA)” that will quantify exposure and life cycle impacts consistently and efficiently over the main life cycle stages. The new LCAA approach is illustrated though a proof-of-concept case study of alternative plasticizers in vinyl flooring. The proposed LCAA...

  9. Nirex safety assessment research programme: annual report for 1985/86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgkinson, D.P.; Cooper, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information for post-emplacement radiological safety assessment relating to the disposal of intermediate-level and low-level radioactive wastes into underground repositories and the sea bed. Topics reported are chemical equilibrium studies, laser spectroscopy, the corrosion of containers, properties of concretes, microbiology, transport in clays, the behaviour of sea disposal packages and leaching from cements in seawater. There is close contact between experimental work and mathematical modelling. (U.K.)

  10. Safety assessment of emergency power systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is intended to assist the safety assessor within a regulatory body, or one working as a consultant, in assessing the safety of a given design of the emergency power systems (EPS) for a nuclear power plant. The present publication refers closely to the NUSS Safety Guide 50-SG-D7 (Rev. 1), Emergency Power Systems at Nuclear Power Plants. It covers therefore exactly the same technical subject as that Safety Guide. In view of its objective, however, it attempts to help in the evaluation of possible technical solutions which are intended to fulfill the safety requirements. Section 2 clarifies the scope further by giving an outline of the assessment steps in the licensing process. After a general outline of the assessment process in relation to the licensing of a nuclear power plant, the publication is divided into two parts. First, all safety issues are presented in the form of questions that have to be answered in order for the assessor to be confident of a safe design. The second part presents the same topics in tabulated form, listing the required documentation which the assessor has to consult and those international and national technical standards pertinent to the topics. An extensive reference list provides information on standards. 1 tab

  11. Application of risk assessment in upgrading safety and quality of radiochemical operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, K.H.; Hightower, J.R.; Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1990-01-01

    A Comprehensive Safety Assessment and Upgrade Program (CSAUP) was commenced by the Chemical Technology Division (Chem Tech) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to achieve excellence in the safety and quality of its operations and condition of its facilities. In the course of conducting CSAUP, a number of issues of concern were identified. The safety risk of these issues has been assessed, and planned actions were prepared for those issues that require corrective actions or improvement/upgrading. The planned actions were evaluated on consideration for the uniqueness of Chem Tech facilities and operations to determine the risks (high, moderate or low) involved by failure to implement the actions. The risk was defined in terms of the frequency and severity of impact. Priority of categorized actions was based on the urgency of the actions. 2 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  12. Need for an "integrated safety assessment" of GMOs, linking food safety and environmental considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslberger, Alexander G

    2006-05-03

    Evidence for substantial environmental influences on health and food safety comes from work with environmental health indicators which show that agroenvironmental practices have direct and indirect effects on human health, concluding that "the quality of the environment influences the quality and safety of foods" [Fennema, O. Environ. Health Perspect. 1990, 86, 229-232). In the field of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), Codex principles have been established for the assessment of GM food safety and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety outlines international principles for an environmental assessment of living modified organisms. Both concepts also contain starting points for an assessment of health/food safety effects of GMOs in cases when the environment is involved in the chain of events that could lead to hazards. The environment can act as a route of unintentional entry of GMOs into the food supply, such as in the case of gene flow via pollen or seeds from GM crops, but the environment can also be involved in changes of GMO-induced agricultural practices with relevance for health/food safety. Examples for this include potential regional changes of pesticide uses and reduction in pesticide poisonings resulting from the use of Bt crops or influences on immune responses via cross-reactivity. Clearly, modern methods of biotechnology in breeding are involved in the reasons behind the rapid reduction of local varieties in agrodiversity, which constitute an identified hazard for food safety and food security. The health/food safety assessment of GM foods in cases when the environment is involved needs to be informed by data from environmental assessment. Such data might be especially important for hazard identification and exposure assessment. International organizations working in these areas will very likely be needed to initiate and enable cooperation between those institutions responsible for the different assessments, as well as for exchange and analysis of

  13. Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van; Brouwer, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    The methods for the dermal exposure assessment vary in their complexity and are in some sense complementary to each other. The most easy-to-use methods involve a pseudo-skin-approach, such as gloves and removal by washing. In some cases generic modelling appears to be possible. The experimental

  14. Chemical Safety Alert: Safe Storage and Handling of Swimming Pool Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazards of pool water treatment and maintenance chemicals (e.g., chlorine), and the protective measures pool owners should take to prevent fires, toxic vapor releases, and injuries. Triggered by improper wetting, mixing, or self-reactivity over time.

  15. DHS Office of Health Affairs Chemical Defense Program Analyzes Subway Safety Against Chemical Terrorist Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2012-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, OUT OF THE CLASSROOM In an article for the journal Domestic Preparedness, Joselito Ignacio examines how to protect subway riders from chemical attacks. Ignacio graduated from the Center for Homeland Defense and Security in...

  16. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory--Chemical Management: A Method for Waste Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Stanley H.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods for reducing or eliminating waste disposal problems in the chemistry laboratory, considering both economic and environmental aspects of the problems. Proposes inventory control, shared use, solvent recycling, zero effluent, and various means of disposing of chemicals. (JM)

  17. Safety Assessment for Facilities and Activities. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Safety Fundamentals publication, Fundamental Safety Principles, establishes principles for ensuring the protection of workers, the public and the environment, now and in the future, from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The objective of this Safety Requirements publication is to establish the generally applicable requirements to be fulfilled in safety assessment for facilities and activities, with special attention paid to defence in depth, quantitative analyses and the application of a graded approach to the ranges of facilities and of activities that are addressed. The publication also addresses the independent verification of the safety assessment that needs to be carried out by the originators and users of the safety assessment. This publication is intended to provide a consistent and coherent basis for safety assessment across all facilities and activities, which will facilitate the transfer of good practices between organizations conducting safety assessments and will assist in enhancing the confidence of all interested parties that an adequate level of safety has been achieved for facilities and activities. The requirements, which are derived from the Fundamental Safety Principles, relate to any human activity that may cause people to be exposed to radiation risks arising from facilities and activities, as follows: Facilities includes: (a) Nuclear power plants; (b) Other reactors (such as research reactors and critical assemblies); (c) Enrichment facilities and fuel fabrication facilities; (d) Conversion facilities used to generate UF6; (e) Storage and reprocessing plants for irradiated fuel; (f) Facilities for radioactive waste management where radioactive waste is treated, conditioned, stored or disposed of; (g) Any other places where radioactive materials are produced, processed, used, handled or stored; (h) Irradiation facilities for medical, industrial, research and other purposes, and any places where radiation generators are installed; (i

  18. Safety assessment for facilities and activities. General safety requirements. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Safety Fundamentals publication, Fundamental Safety Principles, establishes principles for ensuring the protection of workers, the public and the environment, now and in the future, from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The objective of this Safety Requirements publication is to establish the generally applicable requirements to be fulfilled in safety assessment for facilities and activities, with special attention paid to defence in depth, quantitative analyses and the application of a graded approach to the ranges of facilities and of activities that are addressed. The publication also addresses the independent verification of the safety assessment that needs to be carried out by the originators and users of the safety assessment. This publication is intended to provide a consistent and coherent basis for safety assessment across all facilities and activities, which will facilitate the transfer of good practices between organizations conducting safety assessments and will assist in enhancing the confidence of all interested parties that an adequate level of safety has been achieved for facilities and activities. The requirements, which are derived from the Fundamental Safety Principles, relate to any human activity that may cause people to be exposed to radiation risks arising from facilities and activities, as follows: Facilities includes: (a) Nuclear power plants; (b) Other reactors (such as research reactors and critical assemblies); (c) Enrichment facilities and fuel fabrication facilities; (d) Conversion facilities used to generate UF 6 ; (e) Storage and reprocessing plants for irradiated fuel; (f) Facilities for radioactive waste management where radioactive waste is treated, conditioned, stored or disposed of; (g) Any other places where radioactive materials are produced, processed, used, handled or stored; (h) Irradiation facilities for medical, industrial, research and other purposes, and any places where radiation generators are installed; (i

  19. Safety Assessment for Facilities and Activities. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Safety Fundamentals publication, Fundamental Safety Principles, establishes principles for ensuring the protection of workers, the public and the environment, now and in the future, from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The objective of this Safety Requirements publication is to establish the generally applicable requirements to be fulfilled in safety assessment for facilities and activities, with special attention paid to defence in depth, quantitative analyses and the application of a graded approach to the ranges of facilities and of activities that are addressed. The publication also addresses the independent verification of the safety assessment that needs to be carried out by the originators and users of the safety assessment. This publication is intended to provide a consistent and coherent basis for safety assessment across all facilities and activities, which will facilitate the transfer of good practices between organizations conducting safety assessments and will assist in enhancing the confidence of all interested parties that an adequate level of safety has been achieved for facilities and activities. The requirements, which are derived from the Fundamental Safety Principles, relate to any human activity that may cause people to be exposed to radiation risks arising from facilities and activities, as follows: Facilities includes: (a) Nuclear power plants; (b) Other reactors (such as research reactors and critical assemblies); (c) Enrichment facilities and fuel fabrication facilities; (d) Conversion facilities used to generate UF6; (e) Storage and reprocessing plants for irradiated fuel; (f) Facilities for radioactive waste management where radioactive waste is treated, conditioned, stored or disposed of; (g) Any other places where radioactive materials are produced, processed, used, handled or stored; (h) Irradiation facilities for medical, industrial, research and other purposes, and any places where radiation generators are installed; (i

  20. Safety Assessment for Facilities and Activities. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Safety Fundamentals publication, Fundamental Safety Principles, establishes principles for ensuring the protection of workers, the public and the environment, now and in the future, from harmful effects of ionizing radiation.? read more The objective of this Safety Requirements publication is to establish the generally applicable requirements to be fulfilled in safety assessment for facilities and activities, with special attention paid to defence in depth, quantitative analyses and the application of a graded approach to the ranges of facilities and of activities that are addressed. The publication also addresses the independent verification of the safety assessment that needs to be carried out by the originators and users of the safety assessment. This publication is intended to provide a consistent and coherent basis for safety assessment across all facilities and activities, which will facilitate the transfer of good practices between organizations conducting safety assessments and will assist in enhancing the confidence of all interested parties that an adequate level of safety has been achieved for facilities and activities. The requirements, which are derived from the Fundamental Safety Principles, relate to any human activity that may cause people to be exposed to radiation risks arising from facilities and activities, as follows: Facilities includes: (a) Nuclear power plants; (b) Other reactors (such as research reactors and critical assemblies); (c) Enrichment facilities and fuel fabrication facilities; (d) Conversion facilities used to generate UF6; (e) Storage and reprocessing plants for irradiated fuel; (f) Facilities for radioactive waste management where radioactive waste is treated, conditioned, stored or disposed of; (g) Any other places where radioactive materials are produced, processed, used, handled or stored; (h) Irradiation facilities for medical, industrial, research and other purposes, and any places where radiation generators are

  1. Evaluation of safety assessment methodologies in Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide (1985) and Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report (1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, B.; Fisher, C.; Zigler, G.; Clark, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    FSARs. Rockwell International, as operating contractor at the Rocky Flats plant, conducted a safety analysis program during the 1980s. That effort resulted in Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSARs) for several buildings, one of them being the Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report, June 87 (707FSAR) and a Plant Safety Analysis Report. Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide, March 1985 (RFRAG85) documents the methodologies that were used for those FSARs. Resources available for preparation of those Rocky Flats FSARs were very limited. After addressing the more pressing safety issues, some of which are described below, the present contractor (EG ampersand G) intends to conduct a program of upgrading the FSARs. This report presents the results of a review of the methodologies described in RFRAG85 and 707FSAR and contains suggestions that might be incorporated into the methodology for the FSAR upgrade effort

  2. Toxicity assessment of chemical contaminants;transition from in vitromethods to novel in vitro methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Farshad

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to occupational and environmental contaminants is a major contributor to human health problems. Despite significant achievements in the risk assessment of chemicals, the toxicological database, particularly for industrial chemicals, remains limited. Considering there areapproximately 80, 000 chemicals in commerce, and an extremely large number of chemical mixtures, in vivo testing of this large number is unachievable from ethical, economical and scientific perspectives. Therefore, increasing the number of available industrial chemicals andnew products has created a demand for alternatives to animal methods for better safety evaluation. Recent toxicity studies have demonstrated that in vitro methods are capable of rapidly providing toxicity information. In this review, current toxicity test methods for risk evaluation of industrial chemical contaminants are presented. To evaluate the potential applications of  more recent test methods developed for toxicity testing of chemical contaminants are discussed. Although  to be considered more broadly for risk assessment of human chemical exposures. In vitro methods,in vitro toxicology methods cannot exactly mimic the biodynamics of the whole body, in vitro  relationships (QSARs and physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK models have a potentialtest systems in combination with the knowledge of quantitative structure activity.

  3. Efficacy and safety of a new superficial chemical peel using alpha-hydroxy acid, vitamin C and oxygen for melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Serk

    2013-02-01

    Facial skin pigmentary disorders can be resistant to conventional treatment. Superficial chemical peel is an effective and safe treatment in pigmentary problems including melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and aging spots. To assess the efficacy and safety of new superficial chemical peel (Melasma peel, Theraderm®), this is composed of alpha-hydroxy acid (AHAs), vitamin C and oxygen for melasma. Twenty-five ethnic Korean patients (Fitzpatrick skin phototypes IV and V) with moderate to severe melasma were enrolled. The patients underwent four treatments at 1-2-week intervals for 8 weeks. Clinical improvement was evaluated on a 5-point scale by participants and by the same dermatologist, and adverse effects were checked during the study. Improvement in the degree of pigmentation, pores, and evenness were noted. Significant clinical improvement of hyperpigmentation was evident. No adverse effects were reported. New superficial chemical peel using AHAs, vitamin C and oxygen is an effective and very safe treatment for melasma.

  4. Impacts on health and safety from transfer/consolidation of nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1994-11-01

    Environmental restoration plans at the US Department of Energy (USDOE) Hanford Site calls for transfer/consolidation of ''targets/threats,'' namely nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals. Reductions in the health and safety hazards will depend on the plans implemented. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) estimated these potential impacts, assuming implementation of the current reference plan and employing ongoing risk and safety analyses. The results indicated the potential for ''significant'' reductions in health and safety hazards in the long term (> 25 years) and a potentially ''noteworthy'' reduction in health hazard in the short term (≤ 25 years)

  5. Safety assessment of discharge chute isolation barrier preparation and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meichle, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    This analysis examines activities associated with the installation of isolation barriers in the K Basins at the Hanford Reservation. This revision adds evaluation of barrier drops on stored fuel and basin floor, identifies fuel which will be moved and addresses criticality issues with sludge. The safety assessment is made for the activities for the preparation and installation of the discharge chute isolation barriers. The safety assessment includes a hazard assessment and comparisons of potential accidents/events to those addressed by the current safety basis documentation. No significant hazards were identified. An evaluation against the USQ evaluation questions was made and the determination made that the activities do not represent a USQ. Hazard categorization techniques were used to provide a basis for readiness review classifications

  6. [Safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöting, A; Schauzu, M

    2010-06-01

    The placing of genetically modified plants and derived food on the market falls under Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003. According to this regulation, applicants need to perform a safety assessment according to the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. This article gives an overview of the underlying legislation as well as the strategy and scientific criteria for the safety assessment, which should generally be based on the concept of substantial equivalence and carried out in relation to an unmodified conventional counterpart. Besides the intended genetic modification, potential unintended changes also have to be assessed with regard to potential adverse effects for the consumer. All genetically modified plants and derived food products, which have been evaluated by EFSA so far, were considered to be as safe as products derived from the respective conventional plants.

  7. Intelligent Chemical Sensor Systems for In-space Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Neudeck, P. G.; Makel, D. B.; Ward, B.; Liu, C. C.

    2006-01-01

    Future in-space and lunar operations will require significantly improved monitoring and Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) throughout the mission. In particular, the monitoring of chemical species is an important component of an overall monitoring system for space vehicles and operations. For example, in leak monitoring of propulsion systems during launch, inspace, and on lunar surfaces, detection of low concentrations of hydrogen and other fuels is important to avoid explosive conditions that could harm personnel and damage the vehicle. Dependable vehicle operation also depends on the timely and accurate measurement of these leaks. Thus, the development of a sensor array to determine the concentration of fuels such as hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine as well as oxygen is necessary. Work has been on-going to develop an integrated smart leak detection system based on miniaturized sensors to detect hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine, and oxygen. The approach is to implement Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) based sensors incorporated with signal conditioning electronics, power, data storage, and telemetry enabling intelligent systems. The final sensor system will be self-contained with a surface area comparable to a postage stamp. This paper discusses the development of this "Lick and Stick" leak detection system and it s application to In-Space Transportation and other Exploration applications.

  8. Psychometric model for safety culture assessment in nuclear research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, C.S. do; Andrade, D.A.; Mesquita, R.N. de

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A psychometric model to evaluate ‘safety climate’ at nuclear research facilities. • The model presented evidences of good psychometric qualities. • The model was applied to nuclear research facilities in Brazil. • Some ‘safety culture’ weaknesses were detected in the assessed organization. • A potential tool to develop safety management programs in nuclear facilities. - Abstract: A safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants depends not only on technical performance, but also on the people and on the organization. Organizational factors have been recognized as the main causal mechanisms of accidents by research organizations through USA, Europe and Japan. Deficiencies related with these factors reveal weaknesses in the organization’s safety culture. A significant number of instruments to assess the safety culture based on psychometric models that evaluate safety climate through questionnaires, and which are based on reliability and validity evidences, have been published in health and ‘safety at work’ areas. However, there are few safety culture assessment instruments with these characteristics (reliability and validity) available on nuclear literature. Therefore, this work proposes an instrument to evaluate, with valid and reliable measures, the safety climate of nuclear research facilities. The instrument was developed based on methodological principles applied to research modeling and its psychometric properties were evaluated by a reliability analysis and validation of content, face and construct. The instrument was applied to an important nuclear research organization in Brazil. This organization comprises 4 research reactors and many nuclear laboratories. The survey results made possible a demographic characterization and the identification of some possible safety culture weaknesses and pointing out potential areas to be improved in the assessed organization. Good evidence of reliability with Cronbach's alpha

  9. Psychometric model for safety culture assessment in nuclear research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, C.S. do, E-mail: claudio.souza@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CTMSP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, D.A., E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN – SP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mesquita, R.N. de, E-mail: rnavarro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN – SP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • A psychometric model to evaluate ‘safety climate’ at nuclear research facilities. • The model presented evidences of good psychometric qualities. • The model was applied to nuclear research facilities in Brazil. • Some ‘safety culture’ weaknesses were detected in the assessed organization. • A potential tool to develop safety management programs in nuclear facilities. - Abstract: A safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants depends not only on technical performance, but also on the people and on the organization. Organizational factors have been recognized as the main causal mechanisms of accidents by research organizations through USA, Europe and Japan. Deficiencies related with these factors reveal weaknesses in the organization’s safety culture. A significant number of instruments to assess the safety culture based on psychometric models that evaluate safety climate through questionnaires, and which are based on reliability and validity evidences, have been published in health and ‘safety at work’ areas. However, there are few safety culture assessment instruments with these characteristics (reliability and validity) available on nuclear literature. Therefore, this work proposes an instrument to evaluate, with valid and reliable measures, the safety climate of nuclear research facilities. The instrument was developed based on methodological principles applied to research modeling and its psychometric properties were evaluated by a reliability analysis and validation of content, face and construct. The instrument was applied to an important nuclear research organization in Brazil. This organization comprises 4 research reactors and many nuclear laboratories. The survey results made possible a demographic characterization and the identification of some possible safety culture weaknesses and pointing out potential areas to be improved in the assessed organization. Good evidence of reliability with Cronbach's alpha

  10. New safety performance indicators for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta Vital, J.L.; Castillo, R.G.; Olivera, J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper shows the Cuban experience on implementing geological disposal of radioactive waste and the necessity for identifying new safety performance indicators for the safety assessment (SA) of radioactive waste disposal facilities. The selected indicator was the concentration of natural radioactive elements (U, Ra, Th, K) in the Cuban geologic environment. We have carried out a group of investigations, which have allowed characterising the concentration for the whole Country, creating a wide database where this indicator is associated with the lithology. The main lithologies in Cuba are: the sedimentary rocks (70 percent of national occurrence), which are present in the three regions (limestone and lutite), and finally the igneous and metamorphic rocks. The results show the concentrations ranges of the natural radionuclides associated fundamentally to the variation in the lithology and geographical area of the Country. In Cuba, the higher concentration (ppm) of Uranium and Radium are referenced to the Central region associated to Skarn, while for Thorium (ppm) and Potassium (%), in the East region the concentration peaks in Tuffs have been found. The concentrations ranges obtained are preliminary, they characterise the behaviour of this parameter for the Cuban geology, but they do not represent limits for safety assessment purposes yet. Also other factors should be taken into account as the assessment context, time scales and others assumptions before establishing the final concentration limits for the natural radionuclides as a radiological and nuclear safety performance indicator complementary to dose and risk for safety assessment for radiological and nuclear facilities. (author)

  11. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: Implementing inherent safety perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-01-01

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design

  12. Hurricane Harvey, Houston's Petrochemical Industry, and US Chemical Safety Policy: Impacts to Environmental Justice Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, G. T.; Johnson, C.; Gutierrez, A.; Declet-Barreto, J.; Berman, E.; Bergman, A.

    2017-12-01

    When Hurricane Harvey made landfall outside Houston, Texas, the storm's wind speeds and unprecedented precipitation caused significant damage to the region's petrochemical infrastructure. Most notably, the company Arkema's Crosby facility suffered a power failure that led to explosions and incineration of six of its peroxide tanks. Chemicals released into the air from the explosions sent 15 emergency responders to the hospital with severe respiratory conditions and led to the evacuation of hundreds of surrounding households. Other petrochemical facilities faced other damages that resulted in unsafe and acute chemical releases into the air and water. What impacts did such chemical disasters have on the surrounding communities and emergency responders during Harvey's aftermath? What steps might companies have taken to prevent such chemical releases? And what chemical safety policies might have ensured that such disaster risks were mitigated? In this talk we will report on a survey of the extent of damage to Houston's oil and gas infrastructure and related chemical releases and discuss the role of federal chemical safety policy in preventing and mitigating the potential for such risks for future storms and other extreme weather and climate events. We will also discuss how these chemical disasters created acute toxics exposures on environmental justice communities already overburdened with chronic exposures from the petrochemical industry.

  13. Interim process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, Patrick

    2004-08-01

    This report is a documentation of buffer processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. The report is part of the interim reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can, see further the Interim main report. The final SR-Can reporting will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of this report is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. The documentation is thus from a scientific point of not exhaustive since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. The purpose is further to determine the handling of each process in the safety assessment and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling. The process documentation in the SR 97 version of the Process report is a starting point for this SR-Can interim version. As further described in the Interim main report, the list of relevant processes has been reviewed and slightly extended by comparison to other databases. Furthermore, the backfill has been included as a system part of its own, rather than being described together with the buffer as in SR 97. Apart from giving an interim account of the documentation and handling of buffer processes in SR-Can, this report is meant to serve as a template for the forthcoming documentation of processes occurring in other parts of the repository system. A complete list of processes can be found in the Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can. All material presented in this document is preliminary in nature and will possibly be updated as the SR-Can project progresses

  14. Interim process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellin, Patrick (ed.)

    2004-08-01

    This report is a documentation of buffer processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. The report is part of the interim reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can, see further the Interim main report. The final SR-Can reporting will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of this report is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. The documentation is thus from a scientific point of not exhaustive since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. The purpose is further to determine the handling of each process in the safety assessment and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling. The process documentation in the SR 97 version of the Process report is a starting point for this SR-Can interim version. As further described in the Interim main report, the list of relevant processes has been reviewed and slightly extended by comparison to other databases. Furthermore, the backfill has been included as a system part of its own, rather than being described together with the buffer as in SR 97. Apart from giving an interim account of the documentation and handling of buffer processes in SR-Can, this report is meant to serve as a template for the forthcoming documentation of processes occurring in other parts of the repository system. A complete list of processes can be found in the Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can. All material presented in this document is preliminary in nature and will possibly be updated as the SR-Can project progresses.

  15. A proposal of safety indicators aggregation to assess the safety management effectiveness of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Jose Antonio B.; Saldanha, Pedro L.C.; Melo, Paulo F.F. Frutuoso e

    2009-01-01

    Safety management has changed with the evolution of management methods, named Quality Systems, moving from Quality Control, where the focus was the product, passing through Quality Assurance, which takes care of the whole manufacturing process and reaching the Total Quality Management, where policies and goals are established. Nowadays, there is a trend towards Management Systems, which integrate all different aspects related to the management of an organization (safety, environment, security, quality, costs and, etc), but it is necessary to have features to establish and assure that safety overrides the remaining aspects. The most usual way to reach this goal is to establish a policy where safety is a priority, but its implementation and the assessment of its effectiveness are no so simple. Nuclear power plants usually have over a hundred safety indicators in many processes dedicated to prevent and detect problems, although a lot of them do not evaluate these indicators in an integrated manner or point out degradation trends of organizational aspects, which can affect the plant safety. This work develops an aggregation of proactive and reactive safety indicators in order to evaluate the effectiveness of nuclear power plant safety management and to detect, at early stages, signs of process degradation or activities used to establish, maintain and assure safety conditions. The aggregation integrates indicators of the usual processes and is based on the manner the management activities have been developed in the last decades, that is: Planning, Doing, Checking and Acting - known as PDCA cycle - plus a fifth element related to the capability of those who perform safety activities. The proposed aggregation is in accordance to Brazilian standards and international recommendations and constitutes a friendly link between the top management level and the daily aspects of the organization. (author)

  16. A proposal of safety indicators aggregation to assess the safety management effectiveness of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Jose Antonio B.; Saldanha, Pedro L.C. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao-Geral de Reatores e Ciclo Combustivel], e-mail: jantonio@cnen.gov.br, e-mail: saldanha@cnen.gov.br; Melo, Paulo F.F. Frutuoso e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear], e-mail: frutuoso@con.ufrj.br

    2009-07-01

    Safety management has changed with the evolution of management methods, named Quality Systems, moving from Quality Control, where the focus was the product, passing through Quality Assurance, which takes care of the whole manufacturing process and reaching the Total Quality Management, where policies and goals are established. Nowadays, there is a trend towards Management Systems, which integrate all different aspects related to the management of an organization (safety, environment, security, quality, costs and, etc), but it is necessary to have features to establish and assure that safety overrides the remaining aspects. The most usual way to reach this goal is to establish a policy where safety is a priority, but its implementation and the assessment of its effectiveness are no so simple. Nuclear power plants usually have over a hundred safety indicators in many processes dedicated to prevent and detect problems, although a lot of them do not evaluate these indicators in an integrated manner or point out degradation trends of organizational aspects, which can affect the plant safety. This work develops an aggregation of proactive and reactive safety indicators in order to evaluate the effectiveness of nuclear power plant safety management and to detect, at early stages, signs of process degradation or activities used to establish, maintain and assure safety conditions. The aggregation integrates indicators of the usual processes and is based on the manner the management activities have been developed in the last decades, that is: Planning, Doing, Checking and Acting - known as PDCA cycle - plus a fifth element related to the capability of those who perform safety activities. The proposed aggregation is in accordance to Brazilian standards and international recommendations and constitutes a friendly link between the top management level and the daily aspects of the organization. (author)

  17. Technical Issues and Proposes on the Legislation of Probabilistic Safety Assessment in Periodic Safety Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Seok-Won; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Na, Jang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Korean Nuclear Power Plants have performed a comprehensive safety assessment reflecting design and procedure changes and using the latest technology every 10 years. In Korea, safety factors of PSR are revised to 14 by revision of IAEA Safety Guidelines in 2003. In the revised safety guidelines, safety analysis field was subdivided into deterministic safety analysis, PSA (Probabilistic safety analysis), and hazard analysis. The purpose to examine PSA as a safety factor on PSR is to make sure that PSA results and assumptions reflect the latest state of NPPs, validate the level of computer codes and analytical models, and evaluate the adequacy of PSA instructions. In addition, its purpose is to derive the plant design change, operating experience of other plants and safety enhancement items as well. In Korea, PSA is introduced as a new factor. Thus, the overall guideline development and long-term implementation strategy are needed. Today in Korea, full-power PSA model revision and low-power and shutdown (LPSD) PSA model development is being performed as a part of the post Fukushima action items for operating plants. The scope of the full-power PSA is internal/external level 1, 2 PSA. But in case of fire PSA, the scope is level 1 PSA using new method, NUREG/CR-6850. In case of LPSD PSA, level 1 PSA for all operating plants, and level 2 PSA for 2 demonstration plants are under development. The result of the LPSD PSA will be used as major input data for plant specific SAMG (Severe Accident Management Guideline). The scope of PSA currently being developed in Korea cannot fulfill 'All Mode, All Scope' requirements recommended in the IAEA Safety Guidelines. Besides the legislation of PSA, step-by-step development strategy for non-performed scopes such as level 3 PSA and new fire PSA is one of the urgent issues in Korea. This paper suggests technical issues and development strategies for each PSA technical elements.

  18. Data report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    This report compiles, documents, and qualifies input data identified as essential for the long-term safety assessment of a KBS-3 repository, and forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment project SR-Site. The input data concern the repository system, broadly defined as the deposited spent nuclear fuel, the engineered barriers surrounding it, the host rock, and the biosphere in the proximity of the repository. The input data also concern external influences acting on the system, in terms of climate related data. Data are provided for a selection of relevant conditions and are qualified through traceable standardised procedures

  19. Building quality into performance and safety assessment software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Quality assurance is integrated throughout the development lifecycle for performance and safety assessment software. The software used in the performance and safety assessment of a Canadian deep geological repository (DGR) follows the CSA quality assurance standard CSA-N286.7 [1], Quality Assurance of Analytical, Scientific and Design Computer Programs for Nuclear Power Plants. Quality assurance activities in this standard include tasks such as verification and inspection; however, much more is involved in producing a quality software computer program. The types of errors found with different verification methods are described. The integrated quality process ensures that defects are found and corrected as early as possible. (author)

  20. Safety and security risk assessments--now demystified!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Donald E

    2011-01-01

    Safety/security risk assessments no longer need to spook nor baffle healthcare safety/security managers. This grid template provides at-at-glance quick lookup of the possible threats, the affected people and things, a priority ranking of these risks, and a workable solution for each risk. Using the standard document, spreadsheet, or graphics software already available on your computer, you can easily use a scientific method to produce professional looking risk assessments that get quickly understood by both senior managers and first responders alike!

  1. Data report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    This report compiles, documents, and qualifies input data identified as essential for the long-term safety assessment of a KBS-3 repository, and forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment project SR-Site. The input data concern the repository system, broadly defined as the deposited spent nuclear fuel, the engineered barriers surrounding it, the host rock, and the biosphere in the proximity of the repository. The input data also concern external influences acting on the system, in terms of climate related data. Data are provided for a selection of relevant conditions and are qualified through traceable standardised procedures

  2. Safety Culture Assessment at Regulatory Body - PNRA Experience of Implementing IAEA Methodology for Safety Culture Self Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, S.A.N.; Arshad, N.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of a good safety culture is equally important for all kind of organizations involved in nuclear business including operating organizations, designers, regulator, etc., and this should be reflected through all the processes and activities of these organizations. The need for inculcating safety culture into regulatory processes and practices is gradually increasing since the major accident at Fukushima. Accordingly, several international fora in last few years repeatedly highlighted the importance of prevalence of safety culture in regulatory bodies as well. The utilisation of concept of safety culture always remained applicable in regulatory activities of PNRA in the form of core values. After the Fukushima accident, PNRA considered it important to check the extent of utilisation of safety culture concept in organizational activities and decided to conduct its “Safety Culture Self-Assessment (SCSA)” for presenting itself as a role model in-order to endorse the fact that safety culture at regulatory authority plays an important role to influence safety culture at licenced facilities.

  3. Guidelines for Self-assessment of Research Reactor Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    Self-assessment is an organization’s internal process to review its current status, processes and performance against predefined criteria and thereby to provide key elements for the organization’s continual development and improvement. Self-assessment helps the organization to think through what it is expected to do, how it is performing in relation to these expectations, and what it needs to do to improve performance, fulfil the expectations and achieve better compliance with the predefined criteria. This publication provides guidelines for a research reactor operating organization to perform a self-assessment of the safety management and the safety of the facility and to identify gaps between the current situation and the IAEA safety requirements for research reactors. These guidelines also provide a methodology for Member States, regulatory bodies and operating organizations to perform a self-assessment of their application of the provisions of the Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors. This publication also addresses planning, implementation and follow-up of actions to enhance safety and strengthen application of the Code. The guidelines are applicable to all types of research reactor and critical and subcritical assemblies, at all stages in their lifetimes, and to States, regulatory bodies and operating organizations throughout all phases of research reactor programmes. Research reactor operating organizations can use these guidelines at any time to support self-assessments conducted in accordance with the organization’s integrated management system. These guidelines also serve as a tool for an organization to prepare to receive an IAEA Integrated Safety Assessment of Research Reactors (INSARR) mission. An important result of this is the opportunity for an operating organization to identify focus areas and make safety improvements in advance of an INSARR mission, thereby increasing the effectiveness of the mission and efficiency of the

  4. Chemical and radiological vulnerability assessment in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities and towns are faced with various types of threat from the extraordinary events involving chemical and radiological materials as exemplified by major chemical accidents, radiological incidents, fires, explosions, traffic accidents, terrorist attacks, etc. On the other hand, many sensitive or vulnerable assets exist within cities, such as: settlements, infrastructures, hospitals, schools, churches, businesses, government, and others. Besides emergency planning, the land use planning also represents an important tool for prevention or reduction of damages on people and other assets due to unwanted events. This paper considers development of method for inclusion vulnerability assessment in land use planning with objective to assess and limit the consequences in cities of likely accidents involving hazardous materials. We made preliminary assessment of criticality and vulnerability of the assets within Belgrade city area in respect to chemical sites and transportation roads that can be exposed to chemical accidents, or terrorist attacks.

  5. The applicability of chemical alternatives assessment for engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Jacobs, Molly

    2017-01-01

    The use of alternatives assessment to substitute hazardous chemicals with inherently safer options is gaining momentum worldwide as a legislative and corporate strategy to minimize consumer, occupational, and environmental risks. Engineered nanomaterials represent an interesting case......, such as the use of mechanistic toxicity screens and control banding tools, alternatives assessment can be adapted to evaluate engineered nanomaterials both as potential substitutes for chemicals of concern and to ensure safer nanomaterials are incorporated in the design of new products. This article is protected...... for alternatives assessment approaches as they can be considered both emerging “chemicals” of concern, as well as potentially safer alternatives to hazardous chemicals. However, comparing the hazards of nanomaterials to traditional chemicals or to other nanomaterials is challenging and critical elements...

  6. Assessment of Electrical Safety Beliefs and Practices: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Boubaker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the electrical safety beliefs and practices in Hail region, Saudi Arabia, have been assessed. Based on legislative recommendations and rules applied in Saudi Arabia, on official statistics regarding the electricity-caused accidents and on the analysis of more than 200 photos captured in Hail (related to electrical safety, a questionnaire composed of 36 questions (10 for the respondents information, 16 for the home safety culture and 10 for the electrical devices purchasing culture has been devised and distributed to residents. 228 responses have been collected and analyzed. Using a scale similar to the one adopted for a university student GPA calculation, the electrical safety level (ESL in Hail region has been found to be 0.76 (in a scale of 4 points which is a very low score and indicates a poor electrical safety culture. Several recommendations involving different competent authorities have been proposed. Future work will concern the assessment of safety in industrial companies in Hail region.

  7. Probabilistic safety assessment (Cernavoda). Experience and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mircea, Mariana

    2000-01-01

    An IAEA project named 'Support for PSA related activities for Cernavoda NPP' was agreed at the beginning of 2000. The objectives were: upgrading of capability and framework to perform deterministic analyses as support for PSA (accident analyses and severe accident analyses); upgrading of capability and framework to extend the scope of PSA model for Cernavoda NPP to include internal and external hazards (internal fire, internal flooding, earthquake); upgrading of capability and framework to perform the Level 2 PSA for Cernavoda NPP. valuation was done for the status of the development of the seismic PSA, fire PSA and flooding PSA. For seismic PSA it was concluded by IAEA experts that this work needs adequate human and financial resources. Decision was taken to coordinate this project from Cernavoda but using specialists from external institutions. A Fire Hazard Assessment-FHA is in progress for Unit 1. First stage, regarding the methodology, was reviewed by IAEA experts in November 1999. In present, work is done for Reactor and Service Buildings. Work on flooding PSA was not started yet. To extend the PSA scope: Capability will be extended to develop the seismic PSA, fire PSA, flooding PSA (procurement of supplementary computer codes and specialist training); the extension of PSA scope to include internal and external hazards will continue after the completion of deterministic studies and is expected that the effective inclusion in the PSA model will start at the end of 2002

  8. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  9. A Framework for Assessment of Aviation Safety Technology Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    The programs within NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) conduct research and development to improve the national air transportation system so that Americans can travel as safely as possible. NASA aviation safety systems analysis personnel support various levels of ARMD management in their fulfillment of system analysis and technology prioritization as defined in the agency's program and project requirements. This paper provides a framework for the assessment of aviation safety research and technology portfolios that includes metrics such as projected impact on current and future safety, technical development risk and implementation risk. The paper also contains methods for presenting portfolio analysis and aviation safety Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) output results to management using bubble charts and quantitative decision analysis techniques.

  10. Safety re-assessment of AECL test and research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited currently has four operating engineering test/research reactors of various sizes and ages; a new isotope-production reactor Maple-X10, under construction at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), and a heating demonstration reactor, SDR, undergoing high-power commissioning at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE). The company is also performing design studies of small reactors for hot water and electricity production. The older reactors are ZED-2, PTR, NRX, and NRU; these range in age from 42 years (NRX) to 29 years (ZED-2). Since 1984, limited-scope safety re-assessments have been underway on three of these reactors (ZED-2, NRX AND NRU). ZED-2 and PTR are operated by the Reactor Physics Branch; all other reactors are operated by the respective site Reactor Operations Branches. For the older reactors the original safety reports produced were entirely deterministic in nature and based on the design-basis accident concept. The limited scope safety re-assessments for these older reactors, carried out over the past 5 years, have comprised both quantitative probabilistic safety-assessment techniques, such as event tree and fault analysis, and/or qualitative techniques, such as failure mode and effect analysis. The technique used for an individual assessment was dependent upon the specific scope required. This paper discusses the types of analyses carried out, specific insights/recommendations resulting from the analysis, and the plan for future analysis. In addition, during the last four years safety assessments have been carried out on the new isotope-, heat-, and electricity-producing reactors, as part of the safety design review, commissioning and licensing activities

  11. Validity of instruments to assess students' travel and pedestrian safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranowski Tom

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe Routes to School (SRTS programs are designed to make walking and bicycling to school safe and accessible for children. Despite their growing popularity, few validated measures exist for assessing important outcomes such as type of student transport or pedestrian safety behaviors. This research validated the SRTS school travel survey and a pedestrian safety behavior checklist. Methods Fourth grade students completed a brief written survey on how they got to school that day with set responses. Test-retest reliability was obtained 3-4 hours apart. Convergent validity of the SRTS travel survey was assessed by comparison to parents' report. For the measure of pedestrian safety behavior, 10 research assistants observed 29 students at a school intersection for completion of 8 selected pedestrian safety behaviors. Reliability was determined in two ways: correlations between the research assistants' ratings to that of the Principal Investigator (PI and intraclass correlations (ICC across research assistant ratings. Results The SRTS travel survey had high test-retest reliability (κ = 0.97, n = 96, p Conclusions These validated instruments can be used to assess SRTS programs. The pedestrian safety behavior checklist may benefit from further formative work.

  12. Mathematical Safety Assessment Approaches for Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-Xiao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to use system analysis methods to identify the hazards in the industrialized process, working environment, and production management for complex industrial processes, such as thermal power plants, is one of the challenges in the systems engineering. A mathematical system safety assessment model is proposed for thermal power plants in this paper by integrating fuzzy analytical hierarchy process, set pair analysis, and system functionality analysis. In the basis of those, the key factors influencing the thermal power plant safety are analyzed. The influence factors are determined based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process. The connection degree among the factors is obtained by set pair analysis. The system safety preponderant function is constructed through system functionality analysis for inherence properties and nonlinear influence. The decision analysis system is developed by using active server page technology, web resource integration, and cross-platform capabilities for applications to the industrialized process. The availability of proposed safety assessment approach is verified by using an actual thermal power plant, which has improved the enforceability and predictability in enterprise safety assessment.

  13. The Safety "Use Case": Co-Developing Chemical Information Management and Laboratory Safety Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Ralph B.; McEwen, Leah R.

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 edition of the American Chemical Society's "Guidelines and Evaluation Procedures for Bachelor's Degree Programs" identifies six skill sets that undergraduate chemistry programs should instill in their students. In our roles as support staff for chemistry departments at two different institutions (one a Primarily Undergraduate…

  14. Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure: A Safety Program Manual. Participatory Education with Farmworkers in Pesticide Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC. Dept. of Family and Community Medicine.

    Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure among North Carolina Farmworkers (PACE) is a project designed to describe farmworker pesticide exposure and to develop an educational intervention to reduce farmworker pesticide exposure. The PACE project used a community participation framework to ensure that the community played a significant role in…

  15. Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.…

  16. Integrating Exposure into Chemical Alternatives Assessment Using a Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most alternatives assessments (AA) published to date are largely hazard-based rankings, and as such may not represent a fully informed consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives. With an assessment goal of identifying an alternative chemical that i...

  17. Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures: A Review of Mixtures Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bjarnason, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    .... Recent advances in disciplines such as genomics, proteomics, metabonomics and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling should assist in the hazard assessment of complex chemical mixtures. However, the process of regulatory assessment of these types of exposures will remain both complex and difficult.

  18. Human exposure assessment: Approaches for chemicals (REACH) and biocides (BPD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van; Gerritsen-Ebben, R.

    2008-01-01

    The approaches that are indicated in the various guidance documents for the assessment of human exposure for chemicals and biocides are summarised. This reflects the TNsG (Technical notes for Guidance) version 2: human exposure assessment for biocidal products (1) under the BPD (Biocidal Products

  19. Materials Safety Data Sheets: the basis for control of toxic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketchen, E.E.; Porter, W.E.

    1979-09-01

    The Material Safety Data Sheets contained in this volume are the basis for the Toxic Chemical Control Program developed by the Industrial Hygiene Department, Health Division, ORNL. The three volumes are the update and expansion of ORNL/TM-5721 and ORNL/TM-5722 Material Safety Data Sheets: The Basis for Control of Toxic Chemicals, Volume I and Volume II. As such, they are a valuable adjunct to the data cards issued with specific chemicals. The chemicals are identified by name, stores catalog number where appropriate, and sequence numbers from the NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, 1977 Edition, if available. The data sheets were developed and compiled to aid in apprising the employees of hazards peculiar to the handling and/or use of specific toxic chemicals. Space limitation necessitate the use of descriptive medical terms and toxicological abbreviations. A glossary and an abbreviation list were developed to define some of those sometimes unfamiliar terms and abbreviations. The page numbers are keyed to the catalog number in the chemical stores at ORNL.

  20. Safety assessment of geologic repositories for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.; Burkholder, H.C.; Winegardner, W.K.

    1977-01-01

    Consideration of geologic isolation for final disposition of radioactive wastes has led to the need for evaluation of the safety of the concept. Such evaluations require consideration of factors not encountered in conventional risk analysis: consequences at times and places far removed from the repository site; indirect, complex, and alternative pathways between the waste and the point of potential consequences; a highly limited data base; and limited opportunity for experimental verification of results. R and D programs to provide technical safety evaluations are under way. Three methods are being considered for the probabilistic aspects of the evaluations: fault tree analysis, repository simulation analysis, and system stability analysis. Nuclide transport models, currently in a relatively advanced state of development, are used to evaluate consequences of postulated loss of geologic isolation. This paper outlines the safety assessment methods, unique features of the assessment problem that affect selection of methods and reliability of results, and available results. It also discusses potential directions for future work

  1. Safety Assessment of Talc as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Boyer, Ivan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of talc for use in cosmetics. The safety of talc has been the subject of much debate through the years, partly because the relationship between talc and asbestos is commonly misunderstood. Industry specifications state that cosmetic-grade talc must contain no detectable fibrous, asbestos minerals. Therefore, the large amount of available animal and clinical data the Panel relied on in assessing the safety of talc only included those studies on talc that did not contain asbestos. The Panel concluded that talc is safe for use in cosmetics in the present practices of use and concentration (some cosmetic products are entirely composed of talc). Talc should not be applied to the skin when the epidermal barrier is missing or significantly disrupted. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Safety assessment for the underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This document is addressed to authorities and specialists responsible for or involved in planning, performing and reviewing safety assessments of underground radioactive waste repositories. It introduces and discusses in a general manner approaches and areas to be considered in making such safety assessments; its emphasis is on repositories for long-lived radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. It is hoped that this document will contribute to providing a base for a common understanding among the authorities and specialists concerned with the numerous studies involving a variety of scientific disciplines. While providing guidance, the document is also intended to stimulate further international discussion on this subject. It is the intention of the IAEA to develop more specific reports providing examples for the application of safety analyses for underground waste disposal

  3. Cyber Security Risk Assessment for the KNICS Safety Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C. K.; Park, G. Y.; Lee, Y. J.; Choi, J. G.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, D. Y.; Kwon, K. C.

    2008-01-01

    In the Korea Nuclear I and C Systems Development (KNICS) project the platforms for plant protection systems are developed, which function as a reactor shutdown, actuation of engineered safety features and a control of the related equipment. Those are fully digitalized through the use of safety-grade programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and communication networks. In 2006 the Regulatory Guide 1.152 (Rev. 02) was published by the U.S. NRC and it describes the application of a cyber security to the safety systems in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Therefore it is required that the new requirements are incorporated into the developed platforms to apply to NPP, and a cyber security risk assessment is performed. The results of the assessment were input for establishing the cyber security policies and planning the work breakdown to incorporate them

  4. Safety assessment for the underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This document is addressed to authorities and specialists responsible for or involved in planning, performing and reviewing safety assessments of underground radioactive waste repositories. It introduces and discusses in a general manner approaches and areas to be considered in making such safety assessments; its emphasis is on repositories for long-lived radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. It is hoped that this document will contribute to providing a base for a common understanding among the authorities and specialists concerned with the numerous studies involving a variety of scientific disciplines. While providing guidance, the document is also intended to stimulate further international discussion on this subject. It is the intention of the IAEA to develop more specific reports providing examples for the application of safety analyses for underground waste disposal.

  5. Adverse Outcome Pathways can drive non-animal approaches for safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Natalie; Sewell, Fiona; Andersen, Melvin E; Boobis, Alan; Chipman, J Kevin; Cronin, Mark T D; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Kimber, Ian; Whelan, Maurice

    2015-09-01

    Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) provide an opportunity to develop new and more accurate safety assessment processes for drugs and other chemicals, and may ultimately play an important role in regulatory decision making. Not only can the development and application of AOPs pave the way for the development of improved evidence-based approaches for hazard and risk assessment, there is also the promise of a significant impact on animal welfare, with a reduced reliance on animal-based methods. The establishment of a useable and coherent knowledge framework under which AOPs will be developed and applied has been a first critical step towards realizing this opportunity. This article explores how the development of AOPs under this framework, and their application in practice, could benefit the science and practice of safety assessment, while in parallel stimulating a move away from traditional methods towards an increased acceptance of non-animal approaches. We discuss here the key areas where current, and future initiatives should be focused to enable the translation of AOPs into routine chemical safety assessment, and lasting 3Rs benefits. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A sequential-move game for enhancing safety and security cooperation within chemical clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlova, Yulia; Reniers, Genserik

    2011-01-01

    The present paper provides a game theoretic analysis of strategic cooperation on safety and security among chemical companies within a chemical industrial cluster. We suggest a two-stage sequential move game between adjacent chemical plants and the so-called Multi-Plant Council (MPC). The MPC is considered in the game as a leader player who makes the first move, and the individual chemical companies are the followers. The MPC's objective is to achieve full cooperation among players through establishing a subsidy system at minimum expense. The rest of the players rationally react to the subsidies proposed by the MPC and play Nash equilibrium. We show that such a case of conflict between safety and security, and social cooperation, belongs to the 'coordination with assurance' class of games, and we explore the role of cluster governance (fulfilled by the MPC) in achieving a full cooperative outcome in domino effects prevention negotiations. The paper proposes an algorithm that can be used by the MPC to develop the subsidy system. Furthermore, a stepwise plan to improve cross-company safety and security management in a chemical industrial cluster is suggested and an illustrative example is provided.

  7. A sequential-move game for enhancing safety and security cooperation within chemical clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Yulia; Reniers, Genserik

    2011-02-15

    The present paper provides a game theoretic analysis of strategic cooperation on safety and security among chemical companies within a chemical industrial cluster. We suggest a two-stage sequential move game between adjacent chemical plants and the so-called Multi-Plant Council (MPC). The MPC is considered in the game as a leader player who makes the first move, and the individual chemical companies are the followers. The MPC's objective is to achieve full cooperation among players through establishing a subsidy system at minimum expense. The rest of the players rationally react to the subsidies proposed by the MPC and play Nash equilibrium. We show that such a case of conflict between safety and security, and social cooperation, belongs to the 'coordination with assurance' class of games, and we explore the role of cluster governance (fulfilled by the MPC) in achieving a full cooperative outcome in domino effects prevention negotiations. The paper proposes an algorithm that can be used by the MPC to develop the subsidy system. Furthermore, a stepwise plan to improve cross-company safety and security management in a chemical industrial cluster is suggested and an illustrative example is provided. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Value-impact assessment of safety-related modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, W.M.C.; Dinnie, K.S.; Gordon, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Like other nuclear utilities, Ontario Hydro, as part of its risk management activities, continually assesses the safety of its nuclear operations. In addition, new regulatory requirements are being applied to the older nuclear power plants. Both of these result in proposed plant modifications designed to reduce the risk to the public. However, modifications to an operating plant can have serious economic effects, and the resources, both financial and personnel, required for the implementation of these modifications are limited. Thus, all potential benefits and effects of a proposed modification must be thoroughly investigated to judge whether the modification is beneficial. Ontario Hydro has begun to use comprehensive value-impact assessments, utilizing plant-specific probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), as tools to provide an informed basis for judgments on the benefit of safety-related modifications. The results from value-impact assessments can also be used to prioritize the implementation of these modifications

  9. Current issues and perspectives in food safety and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrand, G

    2015-12-01

    In this review, current issues and opportunities in food safety assessment are discussed. Food safety is considered an essential element inherent in global food security. Hazard characterization is pivotal within the continuum of risk assessment, but it may be conceived only within a very limited frame as a true alternative to risk assessment. Elucidation of the mode of action underlying a given hazard is vital to create a plausible basis for human toxicology evaluation. Risk assessment, to convey meaningful risk communication, must be based on appropriate and reliable consideration of both exposure and mode of action. New perspectives, provided by monitoring human exogenous and endogenous exposure biomarkers, are considered of great promise to support classical risk extrapolation from animal toxicology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Safety assessment for the IS process in a hydrogen production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nam Chul

    2005-08-01

    A substitute energy development have been required due to the dry up of the fossil fuel and an environmental problem. Consequently, among substitute energy to be discussed, producing hydrogen from water which does not release carbon is a very promising technology. Also, Iodine-Sulfur(IS) thermochemical water decomposition is one of the promising process which is used to produce hydrogen efficiently using the high temperature gas-cooled reactor(HTGR) as an energy source that is possible to supply heat over 1000 .deg. C. In this study, to make a safety assessment of the hydrogen production using the IS process, an initiating events analysis and an accident scenario modeling considering the relief system were carried out. A method for initiating event identification used the Master Logic Diagram(MLD) that is logical and deductive. As a result, 9 initiating events that cause a leakage of the chemical material were identified. 6 accident scenario based on the initiating event are identified and quantified to the event trees. The frequency of the chemical material leakage produced by IS process is estimated relatively high to the value of 1.22x10 -4 /y. Therefore, it requires more effort on safety of the hydrogen production which can be considered as a part of the nuclear system and safety management research to increase social acceptability. Moreover, these methods will be helpful to the safety assessment of the hydrogen production system of the IS process in general

  11. Microbial safety assessment of recreation water at Lake Nabugabo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Key words: Lake Nabugabo, microbial safety assessment, recreation water, water quality. ... the environment is favourable for growth (Jaiani et al., ... Swimming and bathing in inland waters are recognized .... in India. This can be attributed to variation in number of recreational users and the frequency of use of the various.

  12. Nuclear data for radiation damage assessment and related safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocherov, N.P.

    1989-12-01

    The IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on Nuclear Data for Radiation Damage Assessment and Related Safety Aspects was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, 19-22 September 1989. This report contains the conclusions and recommendations of this meeting. The papers which the participants prepared for and presented at the meeting will be published as an IAEA Technical Document. (author)

  13. Safety assessment standards for modern plants in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbison, S.A.; Hannaford, J.

    1993-01-01

    The NII has revised its safety assessment principles (SAPs). This paper discusses the revised SAPs and their links with international standards. It considers the licensing of foreign designs of plant - a matter under active consideration in the UK -and discusses how the SAPs and the licensing process cater for that possibility. (author)

  14. Assessing the Food Safety Knowledge of University of Maine Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferk, Chelsea C.; Calder, Beth L.; Camire, Mary Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness is a global public health issue. Young adults may work in foodservice while they are university students, and their habits may later shape the practices and well-being of their children. The objective of this study was to establish baseline data and assess the food safety knowledge of 18- to 26-year-old Univ. of Maine students.…

  15. Waste isolation safety assessment program. Summary of FY-77 progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkholder, H.C.; Greenborg, J.; Stottlemyre, J.A.; Bradley, D.J.; Raymond, J.R.; Serne, R.J.

    1977-11-01

    Objective is to provide long-term safety information for the National Waste Terminal Storage Program. Work in FY 77 supported the development of the generic assessment method (release scenario analysis, release consequence analysis) and of the generic data base (waste form release rate data, radionuclide geochemical interaction data)

  16. A review of international sources for road safety measures assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W. & Kauppila, J.

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency assessment of road safety measures is considered to be an extremely useful tool in decision making; in particular, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses are carried out in several countries, in a more or less systematic way. The objective of this paper is to present findings

  17. Safety assessment of indoor live fire range, May 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the indoor live fire range (LFR) at EG&G Mound Applied Technology plant. The purpose of the indoor LFR is to conduct training with live ammunition for all designated personnel. The SA examines the risks that are attendant to the operation of an indoor LFR for this purpose.

  18. Probabilistic Safety Assessment Of It TRIGA Mark-II Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergun, E; Kadiroglu, O.S.

    1999-01-01

    The probabilistic safety assessment for Istanbul Technical University (ITU) TRIGA Mark-II reactor is performed. Qualitative analysis, which includes fault and event trees and quantitative analysis which includes the collection of data for basic events, determination of minimal cut sets, calculation of quantitative values of top events, sensitivity analysis and importance measures, uncertainty analysis and radiation release from fuel elements are considered

  19. Nuclear Criticality Safety Assessment for Tank 38H Salt Dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    This assessment report of sample results of the accumulating insoluble solids from Tank 38H demonstrates that an inherent subcritical condition for nuclear criticality safety exists during saltcake dissolution. This report also defines criteria for future sampling of Tank 38H for continued verification of the inherent subcritical condition as saltcake dissolution proceeds

  20. Comparative safety assessment of plant-derived foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, E.J.; Keijer, J.; Kleter, G.A.; Kuiper, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    The second generation of genetically modified (GM) plants that are moving towards the market are characterized by modifications that may be more complex and traits that more often are to the benefit of the consumer. These developments will have implications for the safety assessment of the resulting