WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical plants

  1. Design of chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes design of chemical plant, which includes chemical engineer and plan for chemical plant, development of chemical process, cost engineering pattern, design and process development, general plant construction plan, project engineering, foundation for economy on assets and depreciation, estimation for cost on capital investment and manufacturing cost, design with computers optimal design and method like fluid mechanics design chemical device and estimation for cost, such as dispatch of material and device writing on design report and appendixes.

  2. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  3. Chemical Control of Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Research Center (USDA), Beltsville, MD.

    Seven experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to help students investigate the control of plant growth with chemicals. Plant growth regulators, weed control, and chemical pruning are the topics studied in the experiments which are based on investigations that have been and are being conducted at the U. S. Agricultural Research Center,…

  4. Rhizosphere chemical dialogues: plant-microbe interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badri, D.V.; van der Lelie, D.; Weir, T. L.; Vivanco, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Every organism on earth relies on associations with its neighbors to sustain life. For example, plants form associations with neighboring plants, microflora, and microfauna, while humans maintain symbiotic associations with intestinal microbial flora, which is indispensable for nutrient assimilation and development of the innate immune system. Most of these associations are facilitated by chemical cues exchanged between the host and the symbionts. In the rhizosphere, which includes plant roots and the surrounding area of soil influenced by the roots, plants exude chemicals to effectively communicate with their neighboring soil organisms. Here we review the current literature pertaining to the chemical communication that exists between plants and microorganisms and the biological processes they sustain.

  5. REDUCING TOXICITY CHEMICALS PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Litvishko, Valery; Myaskovskaya, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    The samples of microencapsulated pesticide have been investigated in acute experiments on laboratory animals. The results of the research have determined that microencapsulation can reduce toxicity of plant protection chemicals.

  6. Chemical composition of selected Saudi medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsanullah Daur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are important in traditional medicine and modern pharmaceutical drugs; therefore, the interest in the analysis of their chemical composition is increasing. In this study, selected medicinal plants including Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk Sch., Amaranthus viridis L., Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk. Less., Chenopodium album L., and Conyza bonariensis (L. Cronquist were collected from the rangeland of western regions (Bahra and Hada areas of Saudi Arabia to study their chemical composition. Eight minerals (Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity, and free-radical scavenging ability were examined in order to evaluate the medicinal potential of these plants. All the plants were found to be rich sources of minerals and antioxidants, although there were significant differences (p < 0.05 in their chemical composition, which may provide a rationale for generating custom extracts from specific plants depending on the application. The findings of this study will thus facilitate herbalists in their efforts to incorporate these plants into various formulations based on their chemical composition.

  7. Integrated chemical plants at the pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehtonen, P.; Hurme, M.; Jaervelaeinen, M.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to present how the chemical plants can be integrated to the pulp mill. The integration renders possible to balance the chemical consumptions. The total mass balance of a pulp mill with the incoming fuel material and the outgoing waste and flue gases are discussed. The balance figures are presented for the chemicals of the modern fibre line, which will produce fully bleached softwood pulp with an improved effluent quality. The main benefits are lower chemical and transportation costs. The principal over-all plant process block diagrams and process descriptions are presented. The presented info system provides real time information on process and production status at overall mill and department levels. (author)

  8. Target identification strategies in plant chemical biology

    OpenAIRE

    Dejonghe, Wim; Russinova, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    The current needs to understand gene function in plant biology increasingly require more dynamic and conditional approaches opposed to classic genetic strategies. Gene redundancy and lethality can substantially complicate research, which might be solved by applying a chemical genetics approach. Now understood as the study of small molecules and their effect on biological systems with subsequent target identification, chemical genetics is a fast developing field with a strong history in pharma...

  9. Safety criteria for nuclear chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety measures have always been required to limit the hazards due to accidental release of radioactive substances from nuclear power plants and chemical plants. The risk associated with the discharge of radioactive substances during normal operation has also to be kept acceptably low. BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels Ltd.) are developing risk criteria as targets for safe plant design and operation. The numerical values derived are compared with these criteria to see if plants are 'acceptably safe'. However, the criteria are not mandatory and may be exceeded if this can be justified. The risk assessments are subject to independent review and audit. The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate also has to pass the plants as safe. The assessment principles it uses are stated. The development of risk criteria for a multiplant site (nuclear chemical plants tend to be sited with many others which are related functionally) is discussed. This covers individual members of the general public, societal risks, risks to the workforce and external hazards. (U.K.)

  10. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) mission is to receive and store spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes for disposition for Department of Energy (DOE) in a cost-effective manner that protects the safety of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) employees, the public, and the environment by: Developing advanced technologies to process spent nuclear fuel for permanent offsite disposition and to achieve waste minimization. Receiving and storing Navy and other DOE assigned spent nuclear fuels. Managing all wastes in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Identifying and conducting site remediation consistent with facility transition activities. Seeking out and implementing private sector technology transfer and cooperative development agreements. Prior to April 1992, the ICPP mission included fuel reprocessing. With the recent phaseout of fuel reprocessing, some parts of the ICPP mission have changed. Others have remained the same or increased in scope

  11. Chemical Priming of Plants Against Multiple Abiotic Stresses: Mission Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvides, Andreas; Ali, Shawkat; Tester, Mark; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-04-01

    Crop plants are subjected to multiple abiotic stresses during their lifespan that greatly reduce productivity and threaten global food security. Recent research suggests that plants can be primed by chemical compounds to better tolerate different abiotic stresses. Chemical priming is a promising field in plant stress physiology and crop stress management. We review here promising chemical agents such as sodium nitroprusside, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydrosulfide, melatonin, and polyamines that can potentially confer enhanced tolerance when plants are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses. The challenges and opportunities of chemical priming are addressed, with the aim to boost future research towards effective application in crop stress management.

  12. Chemical Priming of Plants Against Multiple Abiotic Stresses: Mission Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvides, Andreas; Ali, Shawkat; Tester, Mark; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-04-01

    Crop plants are subjected to multiple abiotic stresses during their lifespan that greatly reduce productivity and threaten global food security. Recent research suggests that plants can be primed by chemical compounds to better tolerate different abiotic stresses. Chemical priming is a promising field in plant stress physiology and crop stress management. We review here promising chemical agents such as sodium nitroprusside, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydrosulfide, melatonin, and polyamines that can potentially confer enhanced tolerance when plants are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses. The challenges and opportunities of chemical priming are addressed, with the aim to boost future research towards effective application in crop stress management. PMID:26704665

  13. Chemical Priming of Plants Against Multiple Abiotic Stresses: Mission Possible?

    KAUST Repository

    Savvides, Andreas

    2015-12-15

    Crop plants are subjected to multiple abiotic stresses during their lifespan that greatly reduce productivity and threaten global food security. Recent research suggests that plants can be primed by chemical compounds to better tolerate different abiotic stresses. Chemical priming is a promising field in plant stress physiology and crop stress management. We review here promising chemical agents such as sodium nitroprusside, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydrosulfide, melatonin, and polyamines that can potentially confer enhanced tolerance when plants are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses. The challenges and opportunities of chemical priming are addressed, with the aim to boost future research towards effective application in crop stress management.

  14. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  15. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond

  16. Chemical defence and toxins of plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Yamane; K. Konno; M. Sabelis; J. Takabayashi; T. Sassa; H. Oikawa

    2010-01-01

    Higher plants protect themselves by producing a variety of secondary metabolites and proteins that are involved in defense against herbivores as well as microbial pathogens. Concerning microbial pathogenesis in plants, in many cases, it is known that phytotoxins that are produced by plant pathogens

  17. Large JV Chemical Plant Kicks Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jie

    2002-01-01

    @@ Construction of one of the largest petrochemical joint venture projects in the country - and BP's largest project in China - kicked off in the Shanghai Chemical Industrial Park in late-March, 2002.

  18. A Novel Real-time Optimization Methodology for Chemical Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄静雯; 李宏光

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach termed process goose queue (PGQ) is suggested to deal with real-time optimization (RTO) of chemical plants. Taking advantage of the ad-hoc structure of PGQ which imitates biologic nature of flying wild geese, a chemical plant optimization problem can be re-formulated as a combination of a multi-layer PGQ and a PGQ-Objective according to the relationship among process variables involved in the objective and constraints. Subsequently, chemical plant RTO solutions are converted into coordination issues among PGQs which could be dealt with in a novel way. Accordingly, theoretical definitions, adjustment rule and implementing procedures associated with the approach are explicitly introduced together with corresponding enabling algorithms. Finally, an exemplary chemical plant is employed to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the contribution.

  19. How insects overcome two-component plant chemical defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Rook, Frederik;

    2014-01-01

    Insect herbivory is often restricted by glucosylated plant chemical defence compounds that are activated by plant β-glucosidases to release toxic aglucones upon plant tissue damage. Such two-component plant defences are widespread in the plant kingdom and examples of these classes of compounds...... are alkaloid, benzoxazinoid, cyanogenic and iridoid glucosides as well as glucosinolates and salicinoids. Conversely, many insects have evolved a diversity of counteradaptations to overcome this type of constitutive chemical defence. Here we discuss that such counter-adaptations occur at different time points......, before and during feeding as well as during digestion, and at several levels such as the insects’ feeding behaviour, physiology and metabolism. Insect adaptations frequently circumvent or counteract the activity of the plant β-glucosidases, bioactivating enzymes that are a key element in the plant’s two...

  20. The chemical characteristic and distribution of brassinosteroids in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Bajguz, Andrzej; Tretyn, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    Brassinosteroids represent a class of plant hormones with high-growth promoting activity. They are found at low levels in pollen, anthers, seeds, leaves, stems, roots, flowers, grain, and young vegetative tissues throughout the plant kingdom. Brassinosteroids are a family of about 60 phytosteroids. The article gives a comprehensive survey on the hitherto known brassinosteroids isolated from plants. The chemical characteristic of brassinosteroids is also presented.

  1. Allelophaty - the chemical information system in plants adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia CHIRCA

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available The plant, as a living system, is an informational system too, with transmission and reception of different messages between the individuals of the community in which is integrated. The most common and most efficient system in the plant kingdom is of chemical nature. Through this system energy and information are transmitted among individuals, or even communities, in order to ensure the homeostasis of the system. The study of these signals in the supraindividual level is designated as ecochemistry (Florkin, 1966 or ecological biochemistry (Schlee, 1981. Plant metabolic substance - especially those designed as "secondary" organic substances works as allelopathic information signalsin plant communities and function as stabilisers in a agiven community Owing to this chemical mediators the stability of the structure and the function in an ecosystem is granted. In industrialized societies a lot of pseudosignals of chemical nature may occur (pollution, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers which may alter considerably the normal allelopathic relations. Research in this direction is almost neglected.

  2. Global Change Effects on Plant Chemical Defenses against Insect Herbivores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Gabriela Bidart-Bouzat; Adebobola Imeh-Nathaniel

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on individual effects of major global change factors, such as elevated CO2, Oa, UV light and temperature,on plant secondary chemistry. These secondary metabolites are well-known for their role in plant defense against insect herbivory. Global change effects on secondary chemicals appear to be plant species-specific and dependent on the chemical type. Even though plant chemical responses induced by these factors are highly variable, there seems to be some specificity in the response to different environmental stressors. For example, even though the production of phenolic compounds is enhanced by both elevated CO2 and UV light levels, the latter appears to primarily increase the concentrations of fiavonoids. Likewise, specific phenolic metabolites seem to be induced by O3 but not by other factors, and an increase in volatile organic compounds has been particularly detected under elevated temperature. More information is needed regarding how global change factors influence inducibility of plant chemical defenses as well as how their indirect and direct effects impact insect performance and behavior, herbivory rates and pathogen attack. This knowledge is crucial to better understand how plants and their associated natural enemies will be affected in future changing environments.

  3. Chemical manipulation of plant water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Jonathan D M; Vaidya, Aditya S; Cutler, Sean R

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural productivity is dictated by water availability and consequently drought is the major source of crop losses worldwide. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is elevated in response to water deficit and modulates drought tolerance by reducing water consumption and inducing other drought-protective responses. The recent identification of ABA receptors, elucidation of their structures and understanding of the core ABA signaling network has created new opportunities for agrochemical development. An unusually large gene family encodes ABA receptors and, until recently, it was unclear if selective or pan-agonists would be necessary for modulating water use. The recent identification of the selective agonist quinabactin has resolved this issue and defined Pyrabactin Resistance 1 (PYR1) and its close relatives as key targets for water use control. This review provides an overview of the structure and function of ABA receptors, progress in the development of synthetic agonists, and the use of orthogonal receptors to enable agrochemical control in transgenic plants. PMID:26612713

  4. Chemical constituents and bioactivity of Formosan lauraceous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsun-Shuo Chang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is rich in lauraceous plants. A review of 197 references based on the chemical analysis and bioactivity of indigenous lauraceous plants carried out by native scientists from 1963 to 2014 has been compiled. About 303 new compounds and thousands of known compounds comprising alkaloids and non-alkaloids with diverse structures have been isolated or identified from indigenous plants belonging to the 11 lauraceous genera. The volatile components, however, have been excluded from this review. This review provides an overview of the past efforts of Taiwan scientists working on secondary metabolites and their bioactivity in native lauraceous plants. The potential of lauraceous plants worthy of further study is also noted. The contents will be helpful for the chemotaxonomy of Lauraceae and be of value for the development of native Formosan lauraceous plants.

  5. Arid lands plants as feedstocks for fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the recent research on arid-adapted plants that have potential as producers of fuels or chemicals. The major focus will be on plant species that appear to have commercial value. Research on guayule (Parthenium argentatum) and jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) will be mentioned only briefly, since these plants have been discussed extensively in the literature, and excellent reviews are already in existence. In this review the literature on arid-adapted plants that have potential uses for solid fuels, liquid fuels, and chemical feedstocks is summarized, followed by an overview of the research directions and types of development that are needed in order for bio-energy production systems to reach the commercial stage. 127 references.

  6. The impact of plant chemical diversity on plant-herbivore interactions at the community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Diego; Jaramillo, Alejandra; Marquis, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the role of diversity in ecosystem processes and species interactions is a central goal of ecology. For plant-herbivore interactions, it has been hypothesized that when plant species diversity is reduced, loss of plant biomass to herbivores increases. Although long-standing, this hypothesis has received mixed support. Increasing plant chemical diversity with increasing plant taxonomic diversity is likely to be important for plant-herbivore interactions at the community level, but the role of chemical diversity is unexplored. Here we assess the effect of volatile chemical diversity on patterns of herbivore damage in naturally occurring patches of Piper (Piperaceae) shrubs in a Costa Rican lowland wet forest. Volatile chemical diversity negatively affected total, specialist, and generalist herbivore damage. Furthermore, there were differences between the effects of high-volatility and low-volatility chemical diversity on herbivore damage. High-volatility diversity reduced specialist herbivory, while low-volatility diversity reduced generalist herbivory. Our data suggest that, although increased plant diversity is expected to reduce average herbivore damage, this pattern is likely mediated by the diversity of defensive compounds and general classes of anti-herbivore traits, as well as the degree of specialization of the herbivores attacking those plants. PMID:27129320

  7. Chemical and pharmacological studies of the plants from genus Celastrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Man-Li; Zhan, Wen-Hong; Huo, Chang-Hong; Shi, Qing-Wen; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Kiyota, Hiromasa

    2009-02-01

    The plants of genus Celastrus, distributed in Asia, have been used as natural insecticides and folk medicines to treat fever, chill, joint pain, edema, rheumatoid arthritis, and bacterial infection in China for a long time. This contribution reviews the chemical constituents, isolated from the plants in genus Celastrus in the past few decades, and their biological activities. The compounds listed are sesquiterpenes (beta-agarofurans), diterpenes, triterpenes, alkaloids, and flavonoids.

  8. Chemical and pharmacological studies of the plants from genus Celastrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Man-Li; Zhan, Wen-Hong; Huo, Chang-Hong; Shi, Qing-Wen; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Kiyota, Hiromasa

    2009-02-01

    The plants of genus Celastrus, distributed in Asia, have been used as natural insecticides and folk medicines to treat fever, chill, joint pain, edema, rheumatoid arthritis, and bacterial infection in China for a long time. This contribution reviews the chemical constituents, isolated from the plants in genus Celastrus in the past few decades, and their biological activities. The compounds listed are sesquiterpenes (beta-agarofurans), diterpenes, triterpenes, alkaloids, and flavonoids. PMID:19235157

  9. Urinary thioether of employees of a chemical plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, H; Savolainen, H; Kilpikari, I

    1978-08-01

    The thiols in the morning urine of 224 employees of a chemical plant were determined after alkaline hydrolysis of all urinary thioethers. The highest thioether excretion was found in rubber workers and radial tyre builders in comparison with clerks, plastic monomer mixers and footwear preparers. Smoking and medication tended to increase thioether excretion. Urinary thioether determination may prove to be a valuable tool in assessing exposure to mixtures of chemicals regardless of the route of absorption. PMID:698138

  10. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

    1993-03-01

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs.

  11. Plant chemical biology: Are we meeting the promise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn R. Hicks

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As an early adopter of plant chemical genetics to the study of endomembrane trafficking, we have observed the growth of small molecule approaches. Within the field, we often describe the strengths of the approach in a broad, generic manner, such as the ability to address redundancy and lethality. But, we are now in a much better position to evaluate the demonstrated value of the approach based on examples. In this perspective, we offer an assessment of chemical genetics in plants and where its applications may be of particular utility from the perspective of the cell biologist. Beyond this, we suggest areas to be addressed to provide broader access and enhance the effectiveness of small molecule approaches in plant biology.

  12. Chemical defenses promote persistence of the aquatic plant Micranthemum umbrosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John D; Collins, Dwight O; Kubanek, Julia; Sullards, M Cameron; Bostwick, David; Hay, Mark E

    2006-04-01

    Five of the most common macrophytes from an aquaculture facility with high densities of the herbivorous Asian grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were commonly unpalatable to three generalist consumers-grass carp and the native North American crayfishes Procambarus spiculifer and P. acutus. The rooted vascular plant Micranthemum umbrosum comprised 89% of the total aboveground plant biomass and was unpalatable to all three consumers as fresh tissues, as homogenized pellets, and as crude extracts. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract from M. umbrosum led to four previously known compounds that each deterred feeding by at least one consumer: 3,4,5-trimethoxyallylbenzene (1) and three lignoids: beta-apopicropodophyllin (2); (-)-(3S,4R,6S)-3-(3',4'-methylenedioxy-alpha-hydroxybenzyl)-4-(3'',4''-dimethoxybenzyl)butyrolactone (3); and (-)-hibalactone (4). None of the remaining four macrophytes produced a chemically deterrent extract. A 16-mo manipulative experiment showed that the aboveground biomass of M. umbrosum was unchanged when consumers were absent, but the biomass of Ludwigia repens, a plant that grass carp preferentially consumed over M. umbrosum, increased over 300-fold. Thus, selective feeding by grass carp effectively eliminates most palatable plants from this community and promotes the persistence of the chemically defended M. umbrosum, suggesting that plant defenses play critical yet understudied roles in the structure of freshwater plant communities.

  13. Botanical insecticides inspired by plant-herbivore chemical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miresmailli, Saber; Isman, Murray B

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved a plethora of secondary chemicals to protect themselves against herbivores and pathogens, some of which have been used historically for pest management. The extraction methods used by industry render many phytochemicals ineffective as insecticides despite their bioactivity in the natural context. In this review, we examine how plants use their secondary chemicals in nature and compare this with how they are used as insecticides to understand why the efficacy of botanical insecticides can be so variable. If the commercial production of botanical insecticides is to become a viable pest management option, factors such as production cost, resource availability, and extraction and formulation techniques need be considered alongside innovative application technologies to ensure consistent efficacy of botanical insecticides.

  14. Chemical plants: high-value molecules from essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lummiss, Justin A M; Oliveira, Kelley C; Pranckevicius, Alexandre M T; Santos, Alexandra G; dos Santos, Eduardo N; Fogg, Deryn E

    2012-11-21

    As society faces a future of dwindling petrochemical supplies at increasing cost, much attention has been focused on methods to degrade biomass into renewable commodity-chemical building blocks. Reported here is a powerful complementary approach that amplifies the complexity of molecular structures present in plant materials. Essential-oil phenylpropenoids are transformed via acrylate cross-metathesis into potent antioxidants that are widely used in perfumery and cosmetics, and in treating disorders associated with oxidative damage. PMID:23126387

  15. Chemical sensing of plant stress at the ecosystem scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, T.; Guenther, A.; Turnipseed, A.; Patton, E. G.; Jardine, K.

    2008-09-01

    Significant ecosystem-scale emissions of methylsalicylate (MeSA), a semivolatile plant hormone thought to act as the mobile signal for systemic acquired resistance (SAR), were observed in an agroforest. Our measurements show that plant internal defence mechanisms can be activated in response to temperature stress and are modulated by water availability on large scales. Highest MeSA fluxes (up to 0.25 mg/m2/h) were observed after plants experienced ambient night-time temperatures of ~7.5°C followed by a large daytime temperature increase (e.g. up to 22°C). Under these conditions estimated night-time leaf temperatures were as low as ~4.6°C, likely inducing a response to prevent chilling injury. Our observations imply that plant hormones can be a significant component of ecosystem scale volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes (e.g. as high as the total monoterpene (MT) flux) and therefore contribute to the missing VOC budget. If generalized to other ecosystems and different types of stresses these findings suggest that semivolatile plant hormones have been overlooked by investigations of the impact of biogenic VOCs on aerosol formation events in forested regions. Our observations show that the presence of MeSA in canopy air serves as an early chemical warning signal indicating ecosystem-scale stresses before visible damage becomes apparent. As a chemical metric, ecosystem emission measurements of MeSA in ambient air could therefore support field studies investigating factors that adversely affect plant growth.

  16. Chemical sensing of plant stress at the ecosystem scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karl

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant ecosystem-scale emissions of methylsalicylate (MeSA, a semivolatile plant hormone thought to act as the mobile signal for systemic acquired resistance (SAR (Park et al., 2006, were observed in an agroforest. Our measurements show that plant internal defence mechanisms can be activated in response to temperature stress and are modulated by water availability on large scales. Highest MeSA fluxes (up to 0.25 mg/m2/h were observed after plants experienced ambient night-time temperatures of ~7.5°C followed by a large daytime temperature increase (e.g. up to 22°C. Under these conditions estimated night-time leaf temperatures were as low as ~4.6°C, likely inducing a response to prevent chilling injury (Ding et al., 2002. Our observations imply that plant hormones can be a significant component of ecosystem scale volatile organic compound (VOC fluxes (e.g. as high as the total monoterpene (MT flux and therefore contribute to the missing VOC budget (de Carlo et al., 2004; Goldstein and Galbally, 2007. If generalized to other ecosystems and different types of stresses these findings suggest that semivolatile plant hormones have been overlooked by investigations of the impact of biogenic VOCs on aerosol formation events in forested regions (Kulmala et al., 2001; Boy et al., 2000. Our observations show that the presence of MeSA in canopy air serves as an early chemical warning signal indicating ecosystem-scale stresses before visible damage becomes apparent. As a chemical metric, ecosystem emission measurements of MeSA in ambient air could therefore support field studies investigating factors that adversely affect plant growth.

  17. Chemical sensing of plant stress at the ecosystem scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karl

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Significant ecosystem-scale emissions of methylsalicylate (MeSA, a semivolatile plant hormone thought to act as the mobile signal for systemic acquired resistance (SAR, were observed in an agroforest. Our measurements show that plant internal defence mechanisms can be activated in response to temperature stress and are modulated by water availability on large scales. Highest MeSA fluxes (up to 0.25 mg/m2/h were observed after plants experienced ambient night-time temperatures of ~7.5°C followed by a large daytime temperature increase (e.g. up to 22°C. Under these conditions estimated night-time leaf temperatures were as low as ~4.6°C, likely inducing a response to prevent chilling injury. Our observations imply that plant hormones can be a significant component of ecosystem scale volatile organic compound (VOC fluxes (e.g. as high as the total monoterpene (MT flux and therefore contribute to the missing VOC budget. If generalized to other ecosystems and different types of stresses these findings suggest that semivolatile plant hormones have been overlooked by investigations of the impact of biogenic VOCs on aerosol formation events in forested regions. Our observations show that the presence of MeSA in canopy air serves as an early chemical warning signal indicating ecosystem-scale stresses before visible damage becomes apparent. As a chemical metric, ecosystem emission measurements of MeSA in ambient air could therefore support field studies investigating factors that adversely affect plant growth.

  18. Chemical constituents of selected Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants (Alternanthra repens, Ambrosia maritima, Citrus paradisi, Croton zambesicus, Lepidium sativum, Morettia phillaena, Nauclea latifolia, Plectranthus barbatus, Pluchea dioscorides, and Sphaeranthus suaveolens) were analyzed for their chemical composition, mineral contents and secondary constituents. The concentration of manganese, copper, iron, nickel, lead, zinc and potassium in plant samples was performed using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The trace elements found in the smallest amount of the investigated plant species are lead, nickel and copper, while high concentration was detected for potassium, iron and manganese. Mn was accumulated with high level in Alternanthra repens species. Potassium was abundant in S. suaveolens and Ambrosia maritima. The values of concentration obtained for all studied elements were compared with published values of reference material, trace elements in Hay (powder) by International Atomic Energy Agency. Phyto chemical analysis of investigated plants was performed for constituents: Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The methanolic extracts of P.barbatus, C.paradisi, A.repens, N.latifolia, L. sativum and C. zambesicus are found to contain alkaloids. Results of TLC analysis were shown as Rf values for saponins, bitter principles, essential oils, flavonoids and alkaloids. Quantification of flavonoids and tannins showed that flavonoid content was highest in case of Alternanthera repens and Sphaeranthus suavertens, whereas the highest tannin content was in case of Nauclea latifolia and Sphaearanthus suavertens. The results suggest that the user of traditional Sudanese crude drugs should be warned of potential danger of heavy metal poisoning because their concentrations seem to be higher than maximum values allowed by health agencies in several countries. This study has provided some biochemical basis for the ethno medical use of extracts from different candidate plant

  19. Thermoeconomic Evaluation of Cogeneration Systems for a Chemical Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de Oliveira Júnior

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper presents the comparative exergy and thermoeconomic analysis of three cogeneration systems designed for a chemical plant. These systems must produce steam and electricity for the processes of the plant. These comparisons are developed for two scenarios: in the first one the systems generate steam and electricity for the plant and in the second one the systems generate steam and electricity for the plant and export electricity. The cogeneration systems are: a steam cycle with condensation-extraction steam turbine, a gas turbine based system and a combined cycle based system.

    The exergy analysis developed for the cogeneration systems evaluates the exergy efficiency and the exergy destroyed in each set of equipment, as well as the overall cogeneration plant performance. The overall exergy efficiency of the plants and the exergy efficiency of each set of equipment are defined as the ratio of the useful exergetic effect of the equipment/system to the consumed exergy. The importance of each set of equipment in the overall exergy efficiency is quantified by the use of the factor f, defined as the ratio of the supplied exergy in a particular set of equipment to the consumed exergy in the plant. Equality and extraction cost partition methods are utilised (in the steam and gas turbines in order to determine the production costs of steam (at 6 and 18 bar and electricity, for each one of the considered operating scenarios of the plants. This comparison indicates the feasibility of the cogeneration systems for each production scenario.

  20. Distribution of 90Sr in soil, rhizosphere and plants of the near impact zone of Krasnoyarsk mining-chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is devoted to content of 90Sr in system 'soil - rhizosphere - plant' in a near impact zone of Krasnoyarsk mining-chemical plant. Also in the paper are shown a change of specific activity in environmental compartment at removal from Krasnoyarsk mining-chemical plant, accumulation of radiostrontium by rhizosphere, soil and roots of plants, its distribution in the top parts of plants. Also the comparison 90Sr and stable Sr in all studied objects was made.

  1. Potential of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers on soil enzymes and plant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation deals with the role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers alone or in combination on urease, invertase and phosphatase activities of rhizospheric soil and also on general impact on growth of safflower cvv. Thori and Saif-32. The PGPR (Azospirillum brasilense and Azotobacter vinelandii) were applied at 10/sup 6/ cells/mL as seed inoculation prior to sowing. Chemical fertilizers were applied at full (Urea 60 Kg ha/sup -1/ and Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 30 Kg ha/sup -1/), half (Urea 30 Kg ha/sup -1/ and DAP 15 Kg ha/sup -1/) and quarter doses (Urea 15 Kg ha-1 and DAP 7.5 Kg ha/sup -1/) during sowing. The chemical fertilizers and PGPR enhanced urease and invertase activities of soil. Presence of PGPR in combination with quarter and half doses of chemical fertilizers further augmented their effect on soil enzymes activities. The soil phosphatase activity was greater in Azospirillum and Azotobacter in combination with half dose of chemical fertilizers. Maximum increase in leaf melondialdehyde content was recorded in full dose of chemical fertilizers whereas coinoculation treatment exhibited significant reduction in cv. Thori. Half and quarter dose of chemical fertilizers increased the shoot length of safflower whereas maximum increase in leaf protein was recorded in Azotobacter in combination with full dose of chemical fertilizers. Root length was improved by Azospirillum and Azotobacter in combination with quarter dose of chemical fertilizers. Leaf area and chlorophyll contents were significantly improved by Azotobacter in combination with half dose of chemical fertilizers. It is inferred that PGPR can supplement 50 % chemical fertilizers for better plant growth and soil health. (author)

  2. Design of Uranium Isotope Separation Plant by Chemical Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methodology to design a solvent extraction plant for uranium isotope separation by chemical exchange is outlined. This process involves the calculator of the number of stages,the capacity of the plant,the flow rates,and reflux ration in banks of mixer settlers or pulse column used in such a plant. The feed is introduced at the middle of the plant,and the product is withdrawn at one end and the tailings at another. The redox reaction system selected is U(IV)-U(VI) and the equilibrium data of the 40% tri-n-octylamine (TOA) in benzene as the organic phase and 4 M HCI as the aqueous phase are used for the design of the real plant. The resulting analysis for the uranium isotope separation shows that more than 4000 number of stages are required and the reflux ratio is around 700 to produce only 1m3 of product containing 3% of U235 and 0,3% of U235 in the tailings. It is also known that the larger the isotope separation constant the smaller the number of stages needed. The method of design can be used for other systems where the isotope separation constants are more favorable

  3. Effect of plant chemicals on the behavior of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, N.T., E-mail: nikopap@uth.g [University of Thessaly (Greece). Dept. of Crop Production and Rural Environment. Lab. of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology; Kouloussis, N.A.; Katsoyannos, B.I. [University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). School of Agriculture

    2006-07-01

    A review of current information on the relation between plant chemicals and the Mediterranean fruit fly is presented. The influence of age and adult physiology on the response of med flies to plant chemicals is studied. The effect of plant chemicals on med fly behavior during host finding, mating and oviposition is analysed. The possible influence of plant chemicals on the dispersion patterns and spatial distribution of the fly is also addressed. (MAC)

  4. Effect of plant chemicals on the behavior of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of current information on the relation between plant chemicals and the Mediterranean fruit fly is presented. The influence of age and adult physiology on the response of med flies to plant chemicals is studied. The effect of plant chemicals on med fly behavior during host finding, mating and oviposition is analysed. The possible influence of plant chemicals on the dispersion patterns and spatial distribution of the fly is also addressed. (MAC)

  5. Leaching characteristics of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant calcines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents leaching studies conducted on two non-radioactive, pilot-plant calcines produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The two pilot-plant calcines simulate radioactive calcine which may be produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility by blending high-level liquid waste and sodium-bearing liquid waste. The calcines were subjected to the Environmental Protection Agency's Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test and to a test based on the Materials Characterization Center's MCC-1 Static Leach Test. Following the protocol of these tests, leachates were obtained and analyzed for chemical composition to develop information about component mass loss and total mass loss. Surface analysis techniques were employed in an attempt to identify species that were leached from the calcines, but later precipitated during the MCC-1 tests. This report also documents leaching studies conducted on a radioactive fluorinel-sodium blend calcine produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility. This calcine was also subjected to a static leach test based on the MCC-1 test. The leachate was analyzed to develop information about total mass loss and leaching characteristics of radioactive species. 12 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  6. Leaching characteristics of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant calcines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipman, N A

    1990-02-01

    This report documents leaching studies conducted on two non-radioactive, pilot-plant calcines produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The two pilot-plant calcines simulate radioactive calcine which may be produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility by blending high-level liquid waste and sodium-bearing liquid waste. The calcines were subjected to the Environmental Protection Agency's Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test and to a test based on the Materials Characterization Center's MCC-1 Static Leach Test. Following the protocol of these tests, leachates were obtained and analyzed for chemical composition to develop information about component mass loss and total mass loss. Surface analysis techniques were employed in an attempt to identify species that were leached from the calcines, but later precipitated during the MCC-1 tests. This report also documents leaching studies conducted on a radioactive fluorinel-sodium blend calcine produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility. This calcine was also subjected to a static leach test based on the MCC-1 test. The leachate was analyzed to develop information about total mass loss and leaching characteristics of radioactive species. 12 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Pollution control in oil, gas and chemical plants

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    This unique book covers the fundamental requirements for air, soil, noise and water pollution control in oil and gas refineries, chemical plants, oil terminals, petrochemical plants, and related facilities. Coverage includes design and operational considerations relevant to critical systems such as monitoring of water pollution control, equipment, and engineering techniques as well as engineering/technological methods related to soil, noise and air pollution control. This book also: ·         Covers a diverse list of pollution control strategies important to practitioners, ranging from waste water gathering systems and oil/suspended solids removal to chemical flocculation units, biological treatment, and sludge handling and treatment ·         Provides numerous step-by-step tutorials that orient both entry level and veteran engineers to the essentials of pollution control methods in petroleum and chemical industries ·         Includes a comprehensive glossary providing readers with...

  8. Monte Carlo optimization for site selection of new chemical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tianxing; Wang, Sujing; Xu, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Geographic distribution of chemical manufacturing sites has significant impact on the business sustainability of industrial development and regional environmental sustainability as well. The common site selection rules have included the evaluation of the air quality impact of a newly constructed chemical manufacturing site to surrounding communities. In order to achieve this target, the simultaneous consideration should cover the regional background air-quality information, the emissions of new manufacturing site, and statistical pattern of local meteorological conditions. According to the above information, the risk assessment can be conducted for the potential air-quality impacts from candidate locations of a new chemical manufacturing site, and thus the optimization of the final site selection can be achieved by minimizing its air-quality impacts. This paper has provided a systematic methodology for the above purpose. There are total two stages of modeling and optimization work: i) Monte Carlo simulation for the purpose to identify background pollutant concentration based on currently existing emission sources and regional statistical meteorological conditions; and ii) multi-objective (simultaneous minimization of both peak pollutant concentration and standard deviation of pollutant concentration spatial distribution at air-quality concern regions) Monte Carlo optimization for optimal location selection of new chemical manufacturing sites according to their design data of potential emission. This study can be helpful to both determination of the potential air-quality impact for geographic distribution of multiple chemical plants with respect to regional statistical meteorological conditions, and the identification of an optimal site for each new chemical manufacturing site with the minimal environment impact to surrounding communities. The efficacy of the developed methodology has been demonstrated through the case studies.

  9. Design and operation of a 1 MWth chemical looping plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • First chemical looping combustion tests worldwide in 1 MWth scale were performed in a pilot plant in Darmstadt. • The oxygen demand required for oxidizing unconverted gases is in line with previous experiments at smaller scale. • A system for oxygen injection to fully oxidize unconverted gases in the flue gas duct proved to work successfully. - Abstract: Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an efficient combustion technology with inherent separation of CO2. A metal oxide is used to transport oxygen from air to the fuel, thus avoiding direct contact between fuel and air. The CLC process imposes a very low energy penalty and low CO2 capture costs. The largest CLC pilot plant worldwide with a nominal power of 1 MWth has been erected at Technische Universität Darmstadt. This paper presents the layout of the 1 MWth pilot plant and first operational results using ilmenite and hard coal as fuel. The fuel reactor was fluidized with a mixture of air and steam, so that partial CLC operation was achieved. Conversion of coal was gradually shifted from combustion to gasification by decreasing the air ratio from 1 to 0.55 in the fuel reactor, leading to production of unconverted gases at the fuel reactor exit. The oxygen demand required for fully oxidizing the unconverted gases varied between 12 and 17. Relating the unconverted gases to the remaining 45% of the fuel that have not been oxidized by air, the oxygen demand would be in the range of 26–38%. A system for oxygen injection to fully convert the unconverted gases in the flue gas duct was proven to work successfully

  10. Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in plant-soil systems: Plant responses to a chemical stress in the root zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoylman, A.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Ecology; Walton, B.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Under laboratory conditions selected to maximize root uptake, plant tissue distribution of PAH-derived {sup 14}C was largely limited to root tissue of Malilotus alba. These results suggest that plant uptake of PAHs from contaminated soil via roots, and translocation to aboveground plant tissues (stems and leaves), is a limited mechanism for transport into terrestrial food chains. However, these data also indicate that root surface sorption of PAHs may be important for plants grown in soils containing elevated concentration PAHs. Root surface sorption of PAHs may be an important route of exposure for plants in soils containing elevated concentrations of PAHS. Consequently, the root-soil interface may be the site of plant-microbial interactions in response to a chemical stress. In this study, evidence of a shift in carbon allocation to the root zone of plants exposed to phenanthrene and corresponding increases in soil respiration and heterotrophic plate counts provide evidence of a plant-microbial response to a chemical stress. The results of this study establish the importance of the root-soil interface for plants growing in PAH contaminated soil and indicate the existence of plant-microbial interactions in response to a chemical stress. These results may provide new avenues of inquiry for studies of plant toxicology, plant-microbial interactions in the rhizosphere, and environmental fates of soil contaminants. In addition, the utilization of plants to enhance the biodegradation of soil contaminants may require evaluation of plant physiological changes and plant shifts in resource allocation.

  11. [Measurement of chemical agents in metallurgy field: electric steel plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottica, D; Grignani, E; Ghitti, R; Festa, D; Apostoli, P

    2012-01-01

    The steel industry maintains its important position in the context of the Italian production involving thousands of workers. The iron and steel processes are divided into primary steel industry, production of intermediate minerals, and secondary steel, scrap from the production of semi-finished industrial and consumer sector (metal inserted into components and metal used for dissipative uses, primarily coatings) and industrial waste. The paper presents the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some electric steel plant for the measurement of airborne chemicals that characterize the occupational exposure of workers employed in particular area like electric oven, to treatment outside the furnace, continuous casting area. For the sampling of the pollutants were used both personal and in fixed positions samplers. The pollutants measured are those typical of steel processes inhalable dust, metals, respirable dust, crystalline silica, but also Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs).

  12. Chemical Profiling of the Plant Cell Wall through Raman Microspectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Ju; Singh, Seema; Sun, Lan; Simmons, Blake; Auer, Manfred; Parvin, Bahram

    2010-03-02

    This paper presents a computational framework for chemical pro.ling of the plant cell wall through the Raman spectroscopy. The system enables query of known spectral signatures and clustering of spectral data based on intrinsic properties. As a result, presence and relative concentration of speci.c chemical bonds can be quanti.ed. The primary contribution of this paper is in representation of raman pro.le in terms of .uorescence background and multiscale peak detection at each grid point (voxel). Such a representation allows ef.cient spatial segmentation based on the coupling between high-level salient properties and low-level symbolic representation at each voxel. The high-level salient properties refer to preferred peaks and their attributes for the entire image. The low-level symbolic representations are based on .uorescence background, spectral peak locations, and their attributes. We present results on a corn stover tissue section that is imaged through Raman microscopy, and the results are consistent with the literature. In addition, automatic clustering indicates several distinct layers of the cell walls with different spectral signatures.

  13. Plant uptake of pharmaceutical chemicals detected in recycled organic manure and reclaimed wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoue, Rumi; Sato, Yuri; Motoyama, Miki; Nakagawa, Shuhei; Shinohara, Ryota; Nomiyama, Kei

    2012-10-17

    Land application of recycled manure produced from biosolids and reclaimed wastewater can transfer pharmaceutical chemicals to terrestrial environments, giving rise to potential accumulation of these residues in edible plants. In this study, the potential for plant uptake of 13 pharmaceutical chemicals, and the relation between the accumulation features within the plant and the physicochemical properties were examined by exposing pea and cucumber to an aqueous solution containing pharmaceutical chemicals. Ten of 13 compounds tested were detected in plant leaves and stems. Comparison of the plant uptake characteristics and the octanol-water partition coefficient of pharmaceutical chemicals showed that compounds with an intermediate polarity such as carbamazepine and crotamiton could be easily transported to plant shoots. Moreover, these results suggest the possibility of highly hydrophilic pharmaceutical chemicals such as trimethoprim and sulfonamides to be accumulated in plant roots owing to their low permeability in root cell membranes. PMID:23003104

  14. Physical-chemical pretreatment as an option for increased sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : municipal wastewater treatment, physical-chemical pretreatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment, organic polymers, environmental sustainabilityMost of the currently applied municipal wastewater treatment plants in The Netherlands are based on the activated sludge process and include

  15. Some Sensitivity Studies of Chemical Transport Simulated in Models of the Soil-Plant-Litter System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begovich, C.L.

    2002-10-28

    Fifteen parameters in a set of five coupled models describing carbon, water, and chemical dynamics in the soil-plant-litter system were varied in a sensitivity analysis of model response. Results are presented for chemical distribution in the components of soil, plants, and litter along with selected responses of biomass, internal chemical transport (xylem and phloem pathways), and chemical uptake. Response and sensitivity coefficients are presented for up to 102 model outputs in an appendix. Two soil properties (chemical distribution coefficient and chemical solubility) and three plant properties (leaf chemical permeability, cuticle thickness, and root chemical conductivity) had the greatest influence on chemical transport in the soil-plant-litter system under the conditions examined. Pollutant gas uptake (SO{sub 2}) increased with change in plant properties that increased plant growth. Heavy metal dynamics in litter responded to plant properties (phloem resistance, respiration characteristics) which induced changes in the chemical cycling to the litter system. Some of the SO{sub 2} and heavy metal responses were not expected but became apparent through the modeling analysis.

  16. Computational insight into the chemical space of plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushkov, Nikolay A; Veselov, Mark S; Chuprov-Netochin, Roman N; Marusich, Elena I; Majouga, Alexander G; Volynchuk, Polina B; Shumilina, Daria V; Leonov, Sergey V; Ivanenkov, Yan A

    2016-02-01

    An enormous technological progress has resulted in an explosive growth in the amount of biological and chemical data that is typically multivariate and tangled in structure. Therefore, several computational approaches have mainly focused on dimensionality reduction and convenient representation of high-dimensional datasets to elucidate the relationships between the observed activity (or effect) and calculated parameters commonly expressed in terms of molecular descriptors. We have collected the experimental data available in patent and scientific publications as well as specific databases for various agrochemicals. The resulting dataset was then thoroughly analyzed using Kohonen-based self-organizing technique. The overall aim of the presented study is to investigate whether the developed in silico model can be applied to predict the agrochemical activity of small molecule compounds and, at the same time, to offer further insights into the distinctive features of different agrochemical categories. The preliminary external validation with several plant growth regulators demonstrated a relatively high prediction power (67%) of the constructed model. This study is, actually, the first example of a large-scale modeling in the field of agrochemistry.

  17. Assessing Risk in Chemical Plant with Pattern Matching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses potential application of fuzzy set theory, more specifically, pattern matching, in assessing risk in chemical plants. Risk factors have been evaluated using linguistic representations of the quantity of the hazardous substance involved, its frequency of interaction with the environment, severity of its impact and the uncertainty involved in its detection in advance. For each linguistic value there is a corresponding membership function ranging over a universe of discourse. The risk scenario created by a hazard/hazardous situation having highest degree of featural value is taken as the known pattern. Each sample pattern of hazard/hazardous situation with their known featural values is then matched with the known pattern. The concept of multifeature pattern matching based on fuzzy logic is used to derive the rank ordering of process hazards. In multifeature pattern recognition/matching, a sample pattern is compared to a number of known data patterns or a known pattern is compared to a number of sample data patterns. The process assesses which known pattern resembles most closely data sample using Wang's approaching degree method. A methodology has been developed and the same has been exemplified by presenting a case example with a limited number of hazards.

  18. Automation of the chemical treatment plant of radioactive wastes at the RACSO Nuclear Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RACSO Nuclear Center has a chemical treatment plant which has been designed and built for the low and medium activity radioactive residual treatment. Considering the Radiological Security standards and the optimization principle in order to reduce the doses of the operator personnel, the chemical treatment plant automation development was carried out

  19. Bioconcentration of gaseous organic chemicals in plant leaves: comparison of experimental data with model predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder MD; Hulzebos EM, Jager DT; CSR; ECO

    1997-01-01

    Chemical substances are distributed in the environment between compartments such as soil, water, air, and biota. Chemicals may be concentrated by plants from soil and air, and therefore plants may contribute substantially to the total daily intake of humans. This study was performed to support the i

  20. Technical safety appraisal of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 27, 1989, Secretary of Energy, Admiral James D. Watkins, US Navy (Retired), announced a 10-point initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs and waste management operations in the Department of Energy (DOE). One of the initiatives involved conducting independent Tiger Team Assessments (TTA) at DOE operating facilities. A TTA of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was performed during June and July 1991. Technical Safety Appraisals (TSA) were conducted in conjunction with the TTA as its Safety and Health portion. However, because of operational constraints the the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), operated for the DOE by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO), was not included in the Safety and Health Subteam assessment at that time. This TSA, conducted April 12 - May 8, 1992, was performed by the DOE Office of Performance Assessment to complete the normal scope of the Safety and Health portion of the Tiger Team Assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The purpose of TSAs is to evaluate and strengthen DOE operations by verifying contractor compliance with DOE Orders, to assure that lessons learned from commercial operations are incorporated into facility operations, and to stimulate and encourage pursuit of excellence; thus, the appraisal addresses more issues than would be addressed in a strictly compliance-oriented appraisal. A total of 139 Performance Objectives have been addressed by this appraisal in 19 subject areas. These 19 areas are: organization and administration, quality verification, operations, maintenance, training and certification, auxiliary systems, emergency preparedness, technical support, packaging and transportation, nuclear criticality safety, safety/security interface, experimental activities, site/facility safety review, radiological protection, worker safety and health compliance, personnel protection, fire protection, medical services and natural

  1. Chemical composition of buckwheat plant parts and selected buckwheat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vojtíšková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition plant parts (roots, stalks, leaves, blossoms of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and selected products made from its seeds (peels, whole seed, wholemeal flour, broken seeds, crunchy products Natural and Cocoa, flour, and pasta was determined. Samples were dried and ground to a fine powder. All analyses were performed according to the Commission Regulation no. 152/2009, while rutin concentration was determined by the modified HPLC method. The lowest content of moisture was found in roots (4.3% and in peels (almost 8% and the highest moisture (nearly 11% was discovered in seeds. The lowest amount of crude protein (3.5% was found in peels, the highest crude protein amount (>13% in both flours and leaves (23%. The starch content (>50% in dry matter differs from one sample to another. Only in peels the content of starch was about 3.5%. From all examined samples, the lowest content of fat was found in crunchy products Cocoa, 1.7%. The lowest amount of histidine was determined in all studied samples, except peels, the highest content of glutamic acid was determined in almost all samples, except peels. Whole-meal flour is very rich source of Ca and Fe. The content of these elements was 1172 mg.kg-1 and 45.9 mg.kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the highest content of Pb (>1 mg.kg-1 was found in broken seeds. The greatest concentration of rutin was determined in blossoms and leaves (83.6 and 69.9 mg.g-1, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest concentrations of rutin were found in buckwheat products (generally less then 1 mg.g-1, i.e. in wholemeal flour, 702 μg.kg-1, the lowest almost 10 μg.kg-1 in pasta.

  2. Mortality among flavour and fragrance chemical plant workers in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, T L

    1987-01-01

    Vital status on 1 January 1981 was determined for a cohort of 1412 white men employed in a flavour and fragrance chemical plant between 1945 and 1965 in order to investigate the risks from fatal diseases among men exposed to multiple chemicals in the manufacture of fragrances, flavours, aroma chemicals, and other organic substances. Cause specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for the entire study population and for several subsets by likelihood of exposure to chemicals...

  3. Chemical aspects of the commissioning and early operation of the BNL pond water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the chemical aspects of the work done in commissioning and setting-to-work the pond water treatment plant at BNL. The plant is designed to maintain the fuel pond within the specified chemical conditions for Magnox fuel storage. In normal operation the treatment requirements are met by anion exchange, i.e. the carbonate and other impurity anions in the pond water are replaced by hydroxide held on an anion exchange resin. This method is referred to as ''anion only''. In the commissioning tests the performance of the plant was substantiated by passing simulated pond water of the correct chemical composition through the plant and monitoring the water quality at the plant outlet. During the first phase of operation on the pond itself the plant was operated in non-standard fashion to convert the chemistry from the previous ''carbonate'' regime to the required conditions. (author)

  4. Chemical- and pathogen-induced programmed cell death in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Atanassov, A.; Woltering, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    This review focuses on recent update in the understanding of programmed cell death regarding the differences and similarities between the diverse types of cell death in animal and plant systems and describes the morphological and some biochemical determinants. The role of PCD in plant development an

  5. Can phylogeny predict chemical diversity and potential medicinal activity of plants? A case study of Amaryllidaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønsted, Nina; Symonds, Matthew RE; Birkholm, Trine;

    2012-01-01

    Background: During evolution, plants and other organisms have developed a diversity of chemical defences, leading to the evolution of various groups of specialized metabolites selected for their endogenous biological function. A correlation between phylogeny and biosynthetic pathways could offer ...

  6. Predicting partitioning of volatile organic compounds from air into plant cuticular matrix by quantum chemical descriptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on theoretical linear solvation energy relationship and quantum chemical descriptors computed by AM1 Hamiltonian, a new model is developed to predict the partitioning of some volatile organic compounds between the plant cuticular matrix and air.

  7. Physico-chemical profile of some colouring plants used in homoeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, P; Sunilkumar

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this paper deal with the physico chemical aspects of certain colouring plants namely. Bixa orellana Linn. (Leaves) and Lawsonia inermis Linn (Leaves). The determined data under the physico chemical, chromatographic and spectrophotometric studies can be taken as a pharmacopoeial standards. PMID:22557040

  8. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROFILE OF SOME COLOURING PLANTS USED IN HOMOEOPATHY

    OpenAIRE

    P.Subramaniam; Sunilkumar,

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper deal with the physico chemical aspects of certain colouring plants namely. Bixa orellana Linn. (Leaves) and Lawsonia inermis Linn (Leaves). The determined data under the physico chemical, chromatographic and spectrophotometric studies can be taken as a pharmacopoeial standards.

  9. On-line periodic scheduling of hybrid chemical plants with parallel production lines and shared resources

    OpenAIRE

    Simeonova, Iliyana

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with chemical plants constituted by parallel batch-continuous production lines with shared resources. For such plants, it is highly desirable to have optimal operation schedules which determine the starting times of the various batch processes and the flow rates of the continuous processes in order to maximize the average plant productivity and to have a continuous production without interruptions. This optimization problem is constrained by the limitation of the resource...

  10. Chemical operating experience in several European pressurized water reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade the number lightwater cooled nuclear power stations in Europe has increased considerably. This has also increased our knowledge of the behaviour of constructional materials, water qualities and the influence of the design on the operating performance of these plants. The present paper reviews some aspects of the obtained experiences. (orig./RW)

  11. Chemical Constituents of Plants from the Genus Psychotria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Hongmei; Yang, Caiqiong; Chen, Yegao

    2016-07-01

    Psychotria is a genus of ca. 1500 species in the family Rubiaceae. Up to now, 41 species of the Psychotria genus have been chemically investigated, and 159 compounds, including alkaloids of indole, quinoline and benzoquinolizidine type, terpenoids, steroids, phenolics and aliphatic compounds have been isolated. These compounds show potent bioactivities, such as antimicrobial, antiviral, and antiparasitic activities. PMID:27206020

  12. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oil from Salvia sclarea Plants Regenerated in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Marzena Więckowska-Szakiel; Halina Wysokińska; Urszula Krajewska; Marek Różalski; Barbara Różalska; Danuta Kalemba; Łukasz Kuźma

    2009-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of dried aerial parts of Salvia sclarea L. plants, regenerated in vitro and reproduced from seeds, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils from in vitro and in vivo plants were compared in respect to their chemical composition as well as antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. The chemical profiles of both oils were very similar, although the yield of essential oil from in vitro plants was lower (0.1%, v/w) than the oil yield isolated from in v...

  13. Web based distance education in chemical industrial plants

    OpenAIRE

    De Giusti, Armando Eduardo; Pessacq, Raúl Adolfo

    2005-01-01

    The development of ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) and their application in Engineering Education (in a knowledge-centered world) is one of the axes of an ongoing educative transformation. In particular, when the objective is updating professionals and training the industrial plant personnel at the work place, the use of Distance Education tools is of utmost importance. The employment of “Web Based” technologies allows using an expert’s know-how, without requiring his/her pr...

  14. Chemical and molecular basis of the carcinogenicity of Aristolochia plants

    OpenAIRE

    Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Stiborova, Marie; Arlt, Volker M.

    2009-01-01

    The herbal drug aristolochic acid (AA), which is derived from the Aristolochia species, has been associated with the development of a novel nephropathy, designated as aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), and with human urothelial cancer. The major components of the plant extract AA are nitrophenanthrene carboxylic acids, which, after metabolic activation, are genotoxic mutagens. The major activation pathway of AA involves reduction of the nitro group, primarily catalyzed by NAD(P) H: quinone ...

  15. FMC Chemicals: Burner Management System Upgrade Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Chemical Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    FMC Chemicals Corporation increased the efficiency of two large coal-fired boilers at its soda ash mine in Green River, Wyoming, by upgrading the burner management system. The project yields annual energy savings of 250,000 MMBtu.

  16. IN-LINE CHEMICAL SENSOR DEPLOYMENT IN A TRITIUM PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovo, L.; Wright, J.; Torres, R.; Peters, B.

    2013-10-02

    The Savannah River Tritium Plant (TP) relies on well understood but aging sensor technology for process gas analysis. Though new sensor technologies have been brought to various readiness levels, the TP has been reluctant to install technologies that have not been tested in tritium service. This gap between sensor technology development and incorporating new technologies into practical applications demonstrates fundamental challenges that exist when transitioning from status quo to state-of-the-art in an extreme environment such as a tritium plant. These challenges stem from three root obstacles: 1) The need for a comprehensive assessment of process sensing needs and requirements; 2) The lack of a pick-list of process-compatible sensor technologies; and 3) The need to test technologies in a tritium-contaminated process environment without risking production. At Savannah River, these issues are being addressed in a two phase project. In the first phase, TP sensing requirements were determined by a team of process experts. Meanwhile, Savannah River National Laboratory sensor experts identified candidate technologies and related them to the TP processing requirements. The resulting roadmap links the candidate technologies to actual plant needs. To provide accurate assessments of how a candidate sensor technology would perform in a contaminated process environment, an instrument demonstration station was established within a TP glove box. This station was fabricated to TP process requirements and designed to handle high activity samples. The combination of roadmap and demonstration station provides the following assets: Creates a partnership between the process engineers and researchers for sensor selection, maturation, and insertion, Selects the right sensors for process conditions Provides a means for safely inserting new sensor technology into the process without risking production, and Provides a means to evaluate off normal occurrences where and when they occur

  17. Medicinal Plants Database and Three Dimensional Structure of the Chemical Compounds from Medicinal Plants in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Arry Yanuar; Abdul Mun'im; Akma Bertha Aprima Lagho; Rezi Riadhi Syahdi; Marjuqi Rahmat; Heru Suhartanto

    2011-01-01

    During this era of new drug designing, medicinal plants had become a very interesting object of further research. Pharmacology screening of active compound of medicinal plants would be time consuming and costly. Molecular docking is one of the in silico method which is more efficient compare to in vitro or in vivo method for its capability of finding the active compound in medicinal plants. In this method, three-dimensional structure becomes very important in the molecular docking methods, so...

  18. Role of plant growth regulators as chemical signals in plant-microbe interactions: a double edged sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Carla; Bais, Harsh

    2015-10-01

    Growth regulators act not only as chemicals that modulate plant growth but they also act as signal molecules under various biotic and abiotic stresses. Of all growth regulators, abscisic acid (ABA) is long known for its role in modulating plants response against both biotic and abiotic stress. Although the genetic information for ABA biosynthesis in plants is well documented, the knowledge about ABA biosynthesis in other organisms is still in its infancy. It is known that various microbes including bacteria produce and secrete ABA, but the overall functional significance of why ABA is synthesized by microbes is not known. Here we discuss the functional involvement of ABA biosynthesis by a pathogenic fungus. Furthermore, we propose that ABA biosynthesis in plant pathogenic fungi could be targeted for novel fungicidal discovery.

  19. Chemical constituents of marine medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Minqing; Dai, Haofu; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bingui

    2009-05-01

    Twenty-four compounds including eight steroids ( 1-8), nine triterpenoids ( 9-16, 24), three flavonoids ( 20-22), and four benzenecarboxylic derivatives ( 17-19, 23) were isolated and identified from stems and twigs of medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. Among these metabolites, compounds 1, 4-20 and 22-24 were isolated and identified for the first time from S. caseolaris. In the in vitro cytotoxic assay against SMMC-7721 human hepatoma cells, compound 21 (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) exhibited significant activity with IC50 2.8 μg/mL, while oleanolic acid ( 14), 3,3'-di- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 18), and 3,3',4- O-tri- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 19) showed weak activity. None of these compounds displayed significant antibacterial activites.

  20. Chemical constituents of marine medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Minqing; DAI Haofu; LI Xiaoming; WANG Bingui

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-four compounds including eight steroids (1-8), nine triterpenoids (9-16, 24), three flavonoids (20-22), and four benzenecarboxylic derivatives (17-19, 23) were isolated and identified from stems and twigs of medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. Among these metabolites, compounds 1, 4-20 and 22-24 were isolated and identified for the f'urst time from S. caseolaris. In the in vitro cytotoxic assay against SMMC-7721 human hepatoma cells, compound 21 (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone)exhibited significant activity with IC50 2.8 μg/mL, while oleanolic acid (14), 3,3'-di-O-methyl ether ellagic acid (18), and 3,3',4-O-tri-O-methyl ether ellagic acid (19) showed weak activity. None of these compounds displayed significant antibacterial activites.

  1. ASSESSING CHEMICAL HAZARDS AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) FOR PLANNING FUTURE D&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; KLOS, D.B.; MINETT, M.J.

    2007-01-25

    This paper documents the fiscal year (FY) 2006 assessment to evaluate potential chemical and radiological hazards associated with vessels and piping in the former plutonium process areas at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Evaluations by PFP engineers as design authorities for specific systems and other subject-matter experts were conducted to identify the chemical hazards associated with transitioning the process areas for the long-term layup of PFP before its eventual final decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities in the main process facilities were suspended in September 2005 for a period of between 5 and 10 years. A previous assessment conducted in FY 2003 found that certain activities to mitigate chemical hazards could be deferred safely until the D and D of PFP, which had been scheduled to result in a slab-on-grade condition by 2009. As a result of necessary planning changes, however, D and D activities at PFP will be delayed until after the 2009 time frame. Given the extended project and plant life, it was determined that a review of the plant chemical hazards should be conducted. This review to determine the extended life impact of chemicals is called the ''Plutonium Finishing Plant Chemical Hazards Assessment, FY 2006''. This FY 2006 assessment addresses potential chemical and radiological hazard areas identified by facility personnel and subject-matter experts who reevaluated all the chemical systems (items) from the FY 2003 assessment. This paper provides the results of the FY 2006 chemical hazards assessment and describes the methodology used to assign a hazard ranking to the items reviewed.

  2. THE USE OF CHEMICALS AS INSECTICIDES--PLANTS. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS GUIDE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PROVIDE GROUP INSTRUCTION AND INDIVIDUAL OCCUPATIONAL EXPERIENCE FOR POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS PREPARING FOR EMPLOYMENT AS AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL TECHNICIANS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDY DATA. THE OBJECTIVES ARE TO DEVELOP (1) INTEREST, APPRECIATION, AND UNDERSTANDING…

  3. Chemical structures of constituents from the whole plant of Bacopa monniera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Tomoe; Nakamura, Seikou; Nakashima, Souichi; Oda, Yoshimi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Fukaya, Masashi; Yano, Mamiko; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2016-07-01

    Two new dammarane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, bacomosaponins A and B, and three new phenylethanoid glycosides, bacomosides A, B1, and B2, were isolated from the whole plant of Bacopa monniera Wettst. The chemical structures of the new constituents were characterized on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. In the present study, bacomosaponins A and B with acyl groups were obtained from the whole plant of B. monniera. This is the first report of acylated dammarane-type triterpene oligoglycosides isolated from B. monniera. In addition, dammarane-type triterpene saponins significantly inhibited the aggregation of 42-mer amyloid β-protein.

  4. Integration of chemical product development, process design and operation based on a kilo-plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yu; WU Zhihui; JIANG Yanbin

    2006-01-01

    Presented in this paper is an integrated approach of computer-aided product development, process design and operation analysis based on a kilo-plant. The implemented kilo-plant, as a research platform to manufacture product in kilogram-scale, was designed especially for fine and specialty chemicals. The characteristics of product synthesis, process operation and product quality control are investigated coupled with computer-aided monitoring, online modeling, simulation and operation process optimization. In this way, chemical product discovery, process design and operation are integrated in a systematic approach, in the aim to respond to rapid changing marketplace demands to new products.

  5. Consequences of plant-chemical diversity for domestic goat food preference in Mediterranean forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraza, Elena; Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino

    2009-01-01

    The domestic goat, a major herbivore in the Mediterranean basin, has demonstrated a strong ability to adapt its feeding behaviour to the chemical characteristics of food, selecting plants according to their nutritive quality. In this study, we determine some chemical characteristics related to plant nutritional quality and its variability among and within five tree species, these being the main components of the mountain forests of SE Spain, with the aim of determining their influence on food selection by this generalist herbivore. We analyse nitrogen, total phenols, condensed tannins and fibre concentration as an indicator of the nutritive value of the different trees. To determine the preference by the domestic goat, we performed two types of feeding-choice assays, where goats had to select between different species or between branches of the same species but from trees of different nutritional quality. The analysis of the plant nutritional quality showed significant differences in the chemical characteristics between species, and a high variability within species. However, when faced with different tree species, the domestic goat selected some of them but showed striking individual differences between goats. When selecting between trees of the same species, the goats showed no differential selection. This limited effect of chemical plant characteristics, together with the variability in foraging behaviour, resulted in a widespread consumption of diverse plant species, which can potentially modulate the effect of the goat on vegetation composition, and open the way for the conservation of traditional livestock grazing on natural protected areas.

  6. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils of Twelve Spice Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Politeo, Olivera; Jukić, Mila; Miloš, Mladen

    2006-01-01

    Chemical compositions and related total antioxidant capacities of twelve spice essential oils were analyzed. To enable a comparison of their relative antioxidant potentials, essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from selected spice plants and their chemical compositions were determined by the GC-MS system on two fused-silica capillary columns of different polarity. Antioxidant effectiveness was examined by four different methods: the 2,2'-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical...

  7. Chemical and radiochemical specifications - PWR power plants; Specifications chimiques et radiochimiques - Centrales REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutzmann, A. [Electricite de France (EDF), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    1997-07-01

    Published by EDF this document gives the chemical specifications of the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) nuclear power plants. Among the chemical parameters, some have to be respected for the safety. These parameters are listed in the STE (Technical Specifications of Exploitation). The values to respect, the analysis frequencies and the time states of possible drops are noticed in this document with the motion STE under the concerned parameter. (A.L.B.)

  8. US Chemical Giant in Talks to Build US$3b Plant in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ To boost its annual sales in China by 20 percent this year and in coming years, top US chemical maker Dow is reportedly in talks with unspecified Chinese partners to build a US$3 billion plant in China to tap feverish demand. The complex would be able to produce over 1 million tons a year of ethylene - the building block for most chemicals - and would be the country's second-largest when completed.

  9. Phenotypic and biochemical profile changes in calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) plants treated with two chemical mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nashar, Y I; Asrar, A A

    2016-01-01

    Chemical mutagenesis is an efficient tool used in mutation-breeding programs to improve the vital characters of the floricultural crops. This study aimed to estimate the effects of different concentrations of two chemical mutagens; sodium azide (SA) and diethyl sulfate (DES). The vegetative growth and flowering characteristics in two generations (M1 and M2) of calendula plants were investigated. Seeds were treated with five different concentrations of SA and DES (at the same rates) of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 ppm, in addition to a control treatment of 0 ppm. Results showed that lower concentrations of SA mutagen had significant effects on seed germination percentage, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh weight, flowering date, inflorescence diameter, and gas-exchange measurements in plants of both generations. Calendula plants tended to flower earlier under low mutagen concentrations (1000 ppm), whereas higher concentrations delayed flowering significantly. Positive results on seed germination, plant height, number of branches, plant fresh weight, and leaf area were observed in the M2-generation at lower concentrations of SA (1000 ppm), as well as at 4000 ppm DES on number of leaves and inflorescences. The highest total soluble protein was detected at the concentrations of 1000 ppm SA and 2000 ppm DES. DES showed higher average of acid phosphatase activity than SA. Results indicated that lower concentrations of SA and DES mutagens had positive effects on seed germination percentage, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh weight, flowering date, inflorescence diameter, and gas-exchange measurements. Thus, lower mutagen concentrations could be recommended for better floral and physio-chemical performance. PMID:27173326

  10. Omani propolis: chemical profiling, antibacterial activity and new propolis plant sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Propolis (bee glue) is a resinous honeybee product having a long history of application in many countries as a traditional remedy for treating wounds, burns, soar throat, stomach disorders, etc. It has been proved to possess beneficial biological effects, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antiulcer, and many others. Bees gather propolis from diverse resinous plant parts and in different phytogeographic regions its chemical composition might vary significantly. In this article we report the results of the first study on the chemical profiles of propolis from Oman, its plant origin and antibacterial activity. Results The chemical profiles of Omani propolis extracts were obtained by GC-MS analysis after silylation. Over 50 individual compounds were identified in the samples, belonging to different compound types: sugars, polyols, hydroxy acids, fatty acids, cardanols and cardols, anacardic acids, flavan derivatives, triterpenes, prenylated flavanones and chalcones. The profiles were dissimilar from other known propolis types. They demonstrate that although Oman is not a large country, the plant sources of propolis vary significantly, even in the same apiary and the same season. Based on chemical profiles, and isolation and identification of major marker compounds (new propolis constituents), new plant sources of propolis were found: Azadiracta indica (neem tree) and Acacia spp. (most probably A. nilotica). The ethanol extracts of the studied propolis samples demonstrated activity against S. aureus (MIC < 100 μg. mL-1) and E. coli (MIC < 380 μg. mL-1). Conclusion Omani propolis is different form the known propolis types and demonstrates significant chemical diversity. Its most important plant source is the resin of Azadirachta indica, and as a result its typical components are С5-prenyl flavanones. Other plant sources have been identified, too, playing some role in resin collection by bees in Oman: Acacia spp

  11. Improvement of chemical control in the water-steam cycle of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A more effective chemical control in the water-steam cycle (WSC) of thermal power plants (TPP) is proposed in this paper. Minimization of corrosion effects by the production of ultra pure water and its strict control is the basis of all the investigated processes. The research involved the analysis of water samples in the WSC through key water quality parameters and by the most convenient analytical tools. The necessity for the stricter chemical control is demonstrated through a concrete example of the TPP Nikola Tesla, Serbia. After a thorough analysis of the chemical control system of the WSC, diagnostic and control parameters were chosen for continuous systematic measurements. Sodium and chloride ions were recognized as the ions which indicate the corrosion potential of the water and give insight into the proper production and maintenance of water within the WSC. Chemical transformations of crucial corrosion elements, iron and silica, were considered and related to their quantitative values. - Research highlights: → The more effective chemical control in the water-steam cycle of thermal power plant Nikola Tesla, Serbia. → In chemical control the diagnostic and control parameters were optimized and introduced for the systematic measurements in the water-steam cycle. → Sodium and chloride ions were recognized as ions which indicate corrosion potential of water and give insight to proper function of production and maintenance of water within water-team cycle. Chemical transformations of crucial corrosion elements, iron and silica are considered and related with their quantitative values.

  12. Chemical plant protection outlays in vast areas farming at the beginning of 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Golinowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, several investigations were conducted in the area of chemical plant protection outlays in two vast area farms where simplified system of farming was applied. Analysed outlays consisted of: use of pesticides in kilograms of active substance per 1 ha and real costs of plant protection procedures. Profitability of the outlay was identified with approximate indicator of outlay E1 and E2. The research showed that farm during plant production use from 1 to 10.28 kg AS/ha. Costs of these procedures ranged from 100.50 to 1253.84 PLN/ha depending on the cultivated plant. Profitability of plant protection procedures in wheat and rape cultivation was at the same level in both farms. The highest profitability was reached by maize cultivation.

  13. Environmentally-engineered concrete system - concrete for oil and chemical plant environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, K; Early, C.; Gillen, M. [Dupont Civil Engineering Systems (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Properties expected of concrete used in oil production and refining facilities and chemical plants are discussed. Concrete in these types of applications must be capable of resisting a wide range of deleterious chemical and thermal exposure conditions, therefore, compressive strength is of lesser importance than the ability to resist chemical attack, maximum resistance to cracking, and other properties relating to durability. Environmental requirements are also an important factor in concrete used in containment structures where potentially hazardous materials are stored or used in plant operations. This paper describes the development, performance characteristics and field experience with what is known as an 'environmentally engineered concrete system' (EECS), which consists of mixture proportions, design details and construction methods which was developed and used for production and environmental containment concrete structures in Dupont plants and plants of its former subsidiary, Conoco. The EECS technology, with its emphasis on the special demands on concrete performance under severe exposure conditions, is considered to have significant potential for application within the oil and chemical industries, including remote overseas locations. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  14. PHYTOTOX: DATABASE DEALING WITH THE EFFECT OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS ON TERRESTRIAL VASCULAR PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new database, PHYTOTOX, dealing with the direct effects of exogenously supplied organic chemicals on terrestrial vascular plants is described. The database consists of two files, a Reference File and Effects File. The Reference File is a bibliographic file of published research...

  15. REMOTE SENSING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL PLANTS AND REFINERIES FOLLOWING HURRICANES KATRINA AND RITA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The massive destruction brought by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita also impacted the many chemical plants and refineries in the region. The achievement of this rapid analysis capability highlights the advancement of this technology for air quality assessment and monitoring. Case st...

  16. Effect of Gamma Rays and Salinity on Growth and Chemical Composition of Ambrosia maritima L. Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work achieved to study the effects of, mixture of salt 2:2:1 (Na Cl-CaCl2 and Mg SO4), concentration of (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). on growth characters, some chemical components and some active ingredients in shoots of Ambrosia maritima plants, at different stages of growth, during two seasons. Pots 30 cm in diameter were filled of sand-loamy soils in appropriate concentration, all pots were irrigated with tap water. The exposed damsisa seeds to gamma rays, doses (0, 20, 40, and 80 Gy) before sowing together with control non irradiated seeds were sown in saline soils (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). Soil salinity treatments caused a decrease in plant height, number of leaves, content of damsin, and an increase in fresh weigh, dry weight, total sugars, total chlorophyll, amino acids and ambrosine content. Also, Gamma rays caused an increase in most of growth parameters and most of chemical composition. It was observed that 40 or 80 Gy was more effective. We investigated the combined effect of levels of salinity and doses of radiation used, this interference improve growth parameters and chemical composition in ambrosia maritima plants and caused ascertain the role of gamma irradiation in plants tolerance to soil salinity and alleviation their harmful effect on plants.

  17. Use of physical/chemical mutagens in plant breeding program in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among more than 1870 new plant varieties formed by mutation breeding in the world, 44 varieties of different plants were formed by Vietnamese scientists. Research on induced mutation in Vietnam started in 1966, was promoted in Agricultural Institute, Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute, Institute of Food Crop Research, and Agriculture Universities, and has produced varieties of rice, maize, soybean, peanut, tomato, jujuba, green bean etc using physical and chemical mutagens: Irradiation with gamma rays or neutrons, and use of such chemicals as dimethylsulfate (DMS), diethylsulfate (DES), ethyleneimine (EI), N-nitrosomethylurea (NUM), N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU), and sodium azide (NaN3). In the present report, the results of cytological and genetic effects in M1 plants, the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and morphological mutants, the mutants obtained and the genetic nature of the next generation are described, particularly for the case of rice. Radiation dose and dose rate used as mutagens are also reported. (S. Ohno)

  18. Use of physical/chemical mutagens in plant breeding program in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Duy Quy; Nguyen Huu Dong; Bui Huy Thuy; Le Van Nha; Nguyen Van Bich [Agricultural Genetics Institute, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Among more than 1870 new plant varieties formed by mutation breeding in the world, 44 varieties of different plants were formed by Vietnamese scientists. Research on induced mutation in Vietnam started in 1966, was promoted in Agricultural Institute, Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute, Institute of Food Crop Research, and Agriculture Universities, and has produced varieties of rice, maize, soybean, peanut, tomato, jujuba, green bean etc using physical and chemical mutagens: Irradiation with gamma rays or neutrons, and use of such chemicals as dimethylsulfate (DMS), diethylsulfate (DES), ethyleneimine (EI), N-nitrosomethylurea (NUM), N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU), and sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}). In the present report, the results of cytological and genetic effects in M1 plants, the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and morphological mutants, the mutants obtained and the genetic nature of the next generation are described, particularly for the case of rice. Radiation dose and dose rate used as mutagens are also reported. (S. Ohno)

  19. Application of a new TLC chemical method for detection of cyclopeptides in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cyclopeptides have been investigated phytochemically less often because until now there has not been a special chemical method to detect them. Since we found cyclopeptides in Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Caryophyllaceae) in 1991, we have gradually established a special chemical detection method for detecting cyclopeptides in plants, which induces a new thin layer chromatography (TLC) protosite reaction with ninhydrin reagent. With this method, our group isolated and determined 73 cyclopeptides from 17 plants which belong to 5 families and 14 genuses, they are from dicyclopeptides to undecacyclopeptides, including 68 new ones, and were determined based on spectral, chemical and enzymic methods, especially 2D NMR and FAB-MS. Meantime, with this method cyclopeptides can be distinguished from peptidic amides based on their behaviour in TLC.

  20. A novel analytical approach for visualizing and tracking organic chemicals in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Edward; Dent, John; Barber, Jonathan L; Thomas, Gareth O; Jones, Kevin C

    2004-08-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in the environmental fate of many organic chemicals, from pesticides applied to plants, to the air-vegetation exchange and global cycling of atmospheric organic contaminants. Our ability to locate such compounds in plants has traditionally relied on inferences being made from destructive chemical extraction techniques or methods with potential artifacts. Here, for the first time, two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) is coupled with plant autofluorescence to visualize and track trace levels of an organic contaminant in living plant tissue, without any form of sample modification or manipulation. Anthracene-a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-was selected for study in living maize (Zea mays) leaves. Anthracene was tracked over 96 h, where amounts as low as approximately 0.1-10 pg were visible, as it moved through the epicuticular wax and plant cuticle, and was observed reaching the cytoplasm of the epidermal cells. By this stage, anthracene was identifiable in five separate locations within the leaf: (1) as a thin (approximately 5 microm) diffuse layer, in the upper surface of the epicuticular wax; (2) as thick (approximately 28 microm) diffuse bands extending from the epicuticular wax through the cuticle, to the cell walls of the epidermal cells; (3) on the external surface of epidermal cell walls; (4) on the internal surface of epidermal cell walls; and (5) within the cytoplasm of the epidermal cells. This technique provides a powerful nonintrusive tool for visualizing and tracking the movement, storage locations, and degradation of organic chemicals within vegetation using only plant and compound autofluorescence. Many other applications are envisaged for TPEM, in visualizing organic chemicals within different matrixes. PMID:15352460

  1. Analysis and modelling of the energy consumption of chemical batch plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes two different approaches for the energy analysis and modelling of chemical batch plants. A top-down model consisting of a linear equation based on the specific energy consumption per ton of production output and the base consumption of the plant is postulated. The model is shown to be applicable to single and multi-product batches for batch plants with constant production mix and multi-purpose batch plants in which only similar chemicals are produced. For multipurpose batch plants with highly varying production processes and changing production mix, the top-down model produced inaccurate results. A bottom-up model is postulated for such plants. The results obtained are discussed that show that the electricity consumption for infrastructure equipment was significant and responsible for about 50% of total electricity consumption. The specific energy consumption for the different buildings was related to the degree of automation and the production processes. Analyses of the results of modelling are presented. More detailed analyses of the energy consumption of this apparatus group show that about 30 to 40% of steam energy is lost and thus a large potential for optimisation exists. Various potentials for making savings, ranging from elimination of reflux conditions to the development of a new heating/cooling-system for a generic batch reactor, are identified.

  2. Successful herbivore attack due to metabolic diversion of a plant chemical defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittstock, Ute; Agerbirk, Niels; Stauber, Einar J; Olsen, Carl Erik; Hippler, Michael; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Vogel, Heiko

    2004-04-01

    Plants protect themselves against herbivory with a diverse array of repellent or toxic secondary metabolites. However, many herbivorous insects have developed counteradaptations that enable them to feed on chemically defended plants without apparent negative effects. Here, we present evidence that larvae of the specialist insect, Pieris rapae (cabbage white butterfly, Lepidoptera: Pieridae), are biochemically adapted to the glucosinolate-myrosinase system, the major chemical defense of their host plants. The defensive function of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system results from the toxic isothiocyanates that are released when glucosinolates are hydrolyzed by myrosinases on tissue disruption. We show that the hydrolysis reaction is redirected toward the formation of nitriles instead of isothiocyanates if plant material is ingested by P. rapae larvae, and that the nitriles are excreted with the feces. The ability to form nitriles is due to a larval gut protein, designated nitrile-specifier protein, that by itself has no hydrolytic activity on glucosinolates and that is unrelated to any functionally characterized protein. Nitrile-specifier protein appears to be the key biochemical counteradaptation that allows P. rapae to feed with impunity on plants containing glucosinolates and myrosinases. This finding sheds light on the ecology and evolution of plant-insect interactions and suggests novel highly selective pest management strategies. PMID:15051878

  3. Influence of Host-Plant Surface Chemicals on the Oviposition of the Cereal Stemborer Busseola Fusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Gerald; Clément, Gilles; Ahuya, Peter; Hassanali, Ahmed; Derridj, Sylvie; Gaertner, Cyrile; Linard, Romain; Le Ru, Bruno; Frérot, Brigitte; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2016-05-01

    The chemical composition of plant surfaces plays a role in selection of host plants by herbivorous insects. Once the insect reaches the plant, these cues determine host acceptance. Laboratory studies have shown that the stem borer Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important pest of sorghum and maize in sub-Saharan Africa, is able to differentiate between host and non-host plant species. However, no information is available on the cues used by this insect to seek and accept the host plant. Thus, the role of surface phytochemical stimuli on host selection and oviposition by B. fusca was studied in the laboratory using two host plants, sorghum, Sorghum bicolor, and maize, Zea mays, and one non-host plant, Napier grass, Pennisetum purpureum. The numbers of eggs and egg masses deposited on the three plant species were compared first under no-choice and choice conditions. In both cases, more eggs and egg masses were laid on maize and sorghum than on the non-host. Artificial surrogate stems treated with a water or chloroform surface extract of each plant were then compared with surrogate stems treated with, respectively, water or chloroform as controls, under similar conditions. Surrogate stems treated with plant water extracts did not show an increase in oviposition when compared to controls, indicating that the major compounds in these extracts, i.e., simple sugars and free amino acids, are not significantly responsible for the oviposition preference. By contrast, a chloroform extract of sorghum enhanced oviposition on the surrogate stems compared to the control, while those of maize and Napier grass showed no significant effects. Analysis of the chloroform extract of sorghum showed higher amounts of α-amyrin, ß-amyrin, and n-nonacosane compared to those of maize and Napier grass. A blend of the three chemicals significantly increased oviposition compared to the chloroform-treated control, indicating that these compounds are part of the surface chemical

  4. Pilot plant SERSE: Description and results of the experimental tests under treatment of simulated chemical liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical processes for the selective separation of the actinides and long lived fission products from aged liquid wastes is described. The SERSE pilot plant is a cold facility which has been designed, by ENEA, for the engineering scale demonstration of the chemical separation processes. The experimental tests carried out in the plant are described and the results confirm the laboratory data. (author)

  5. Can Coffee Chemical Compounds and Insecticidal Plants Be Harnessed for Control of Major Coffee Pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul W C; Davis, Aaron P; Cossé, Allard A; Vega, Fernando E

    2015-11-01

    Pests and pathogens threaten coffee production worldwide and are difficult to control using conventional methods, such as insecticides. We review the literature on the chemistry of coffee, concentrating on compounds most commonly reported from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Differences in chemistry can distinguish coffee species and varieties, and plants grown under different biogeographic conditions exhibit different chemotypes. A number of chemical groups, such as alkaloids and caffeoylquinic acids, are known to be insecticidal, but most studies have investigated their effects on coffee quality and flavor. More research is required to bridge this gap in knowledge, so that coffee can be bred to be more resistant to pests. Furthermore, we report on some pesticidal plants that have been used for control of coffee pests. Locally sourced pesticidal plants have been underutilized and offer a sustainable alternative to conventional insecticides and could be used to augment breeding for resilience of coffee plants.

  6. Can Coffee Chemical Compounds and Insecticidal Plants Be Harnessed for Control of Major Coffee Pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul W C; Davis, Aaron P; Cossé, Allard A; Vega, Fernando E

    2015-11-01

    Pests and pathogens threaten coffee production worldwide and are difficult to control using conventional methods, such as insecticides. We review the literature on the chemistry of coffee, concentrating on compounds most commonly reported from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Differences in chemistry can distinguish coffee species and varieties, and plants grown under different biogeographic conditions exhibit different chemotypes. A number of chemical groups, such as alkaloids and caffeoylquinic acids, are known to be insecticidal, but most studies have investigated their effects on coffee quality and flavor. More research is required to bridge this gap in knowledge, so that coffee can be bred to be more resistant to pests. Furthermore, we report on some pesticidal plants that have been used for control of coffee pests. Locally sourced pesticidal plants have been underutilized and offer a sustainable alternative to conventional insecticides and could be used to augment breeding for resilience of coffee plants. PMID:26458882

  7. Assessment of impacts at the advanced test reactor as a result of chemical releases at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an assessment of potential impacts at the Advanced Test Reactor Facility (ATR) resulting from accidental chemical spill at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Spills postulated to occur at the Lincoln Blvd turnoff to ICPP were also evaluated. Peak and time weighted average concentrations were calculated for receptors at the ATR facility and the Test Reactor Area guard station at a height above ground level of 1.0 m. Calculated concentrations were then compared to the 15 minute averaged Threshold Limit Value - Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) and the 30 minute averaged Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) limit. Several different methodologies were used to estimate source strength and dispersion. Fifteen minute time weighted averaged concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and anhydrous ammonia exceeded TLV-STEL values for the cases considered. The IDLH value for these chemicals was not exceeded. Calculated concentrations of ammonium hydroxide, hexone, nitric acid, propane, gasoline, chlorine and liquid nitrogen were all below the TLV-STEL value

  8. Responses to chemical cues from animal and plant foods by actively foraging insectivorous and omnivorous scincine lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W E; Al-Johany, A M; Vitt, L J; Habegger, J J

    2000-10-01

    If tongue-flicking is important to lizards to sample chemical cues permitting identification of foods, tongue-flicking and subsequent feeding responses should be adjusted to match diet. This hypothesis can be examined for plant foods because most lizards are insectivores, but herbivory/omnivory has evolved independently in many lizard taxa. Here we present experimental data on chemosensory responses to chemical cues from animal prey and palatable plants by three species of the scincine lizards. When tested with chemical stimuli presented on cotton swabs, the insectivorous Eumeces fasciatus responded strongly to prey chemicals but not to chemicals from plants palatable to omnivorous lizards or to pungent or odorless control stimuli. Two omnivorous species, E. schneideri and Scincus mitranus, responded more strongly to chemical cues from both prey and food plants than to the control chemicals. All available data for actively foraging lizards, including these skinks, show that they are capable of prey chemical discrimination, and insectivores do not exhibit elevated tongue-flicking or biting responses to chemical cues from palatable plants. In all of the several species of herbivores/omnivores tested, the lizards show elevated responses to both animal and plant chemicals. We suggest two independent origins of both omnivory and plant chemical discrimination that may account for the evolution of diet and food chemical discriminations in the eight species of skinks studied, five of which are omnivores. All data are consistent with the hypothesis that acquisition of omnivory is accompanied by acquisition of plant chemical discrimination, but data on a broad diversity of taxa are needed for a definitive comparative test of the evolutionary hypothesis. J. Exp. Zool. 287:327-339, 2000. PMID:10980491

  9. Towards personalized agriculture: What chemical genomics can bring to plant biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Stokes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the dominant drug paradigm in which compounds were developed to fit all, new models focused around personalized medicine are appearing where treatments are customized for individual patients. The agricultural biotechnology industry should also think about these new personalized models. For example, most common herbicides are generic in action, which led to the development of genetically modified crops to add specificity. The ease and accessibility of modern genomic analysis should facilitate the discovery of chemicals that are more selective in their utility. Is it possible to develop species-selective herbicides and growth regulators? More generally put, is plant research at a stage where chemicals can be developed that streamline plant development and growth to various environments? We believe the advent of chemical genomics now opens up these and other opportunities to personalize agriculture. Furthermore, chemical genomics does not necessarily require genetically tractable plant models, which in principle should allow quick translation to practical applications. For this to happen, however, will require collaboration between the Ag-biotech industry and academic labs for early-stage research and development.

  10. Automated chemical monitoring in new projects of nuclear power plant units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanok, O. I.; Fedoseev, M. V.

    2013-07-01

    The development of automated chemical monitoring systems in nuclear power plant units for the past 30 years is briefly described. The modern level of facilities used to support the operation of automated chemical monitoring systems in Russia and abroad is shown. Hardware solutions suggested by the All-Russia Institute for Nuclear Power Plant Operation (which is the General Designer of automated process control systems for power units used in the AES-2006 and VVER-TOI Projects) are presented, including the structure of additional equipment for monitoring water chemistry (taking the Novovoronezh 2 nuclear power plant as an example). It is shown that the solutions proposed with respect to receiving and processing of input measurement signals and subsequent construction of standard control loops are unified in nature. Simultaneous receipt of information from different sources for ensuring that water chemistry is monitored in sufficient scope and with required promptness is one of the problems that have been solved successfully. It is pointed out that improved quality of automated chemical monitoring can be supported by organizing full engineering follow-up of the automated chemical monitoring system's equipment throughout its entire service life.

  11. Plant community diversity influences allocation to direct chemical defence in Plantago lanceolata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mraja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Forecasting the consequences of accelerating rates of changes in biodiversity for ecosystem functioning requires a mechanistic understanding of the relationships between the structure of biological communities and variation in plant functional characteristics. So far, experimental data of how plant species diversity influences the investment of individual plants in direct chemical defences against herbivores and pathogens is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Plantago lanceolata as a model species in experimental grasslands differing in species richness and composition (Jena Experiment to investigate foliar concentrations of the iridoid glycosides (IG, catalpol and its biosynthetic precursor aucubin. Total IG and aucubin concentrations decreased, while catalpol concentrations increased with increasing plant diversity in terms of species or functional group richness. Negative plant diversity effects on total IG and aucubin concentrations correlated with increasing specific leaf area of P. lanceolata, suggesting that greater allocation to light acquisition reduced the investment into these carbon-based defence components. In contrast, increasing leaf nitrogen concentrations best explained increasing concentrations of the biosynthetically more advanced IG, catalpol. Observed levels of leaf damage explained a significant proportion of variation in total IG and aucubin concentrations, but did not account for variance in catalpol concentrations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results clearly show that plants growing in communities of varying species richness and composition differ in their defensive chemistry, which may modulate plant susceptibility to enemy attack and consequently their interactions with higher trophic level organisms.

  12. Analysis of chemical factors affecting marine ecosystem around nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Choi, Yoon Dong; Chun, Ki Jeong; Kim, Jin Kyu; Jung, Kyeong Chai; Lee, Yeong Keun; Park, Hyo Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    The ecological data of the coastal area of Youngkwang nuclear power plant from 1987 to 1993 were comprehensively analyzed, and various physical and chemical properties of sea water and sediments were measured. Major factors affecting phytoplankton standing crops were suspended substances, nitrate, and silicate. The contents of iron, chromium, copper, and sulfur in sediments sampled from the discharge channel were slightly higher than those in the other areas. In order to qantify the chemical impacts on marine ecosystem, it is desirable that a systematic survey be made through the whole year cycle to assure the consistency and confidence of the related data. (Author).

  13. Selected bibliography for the extraction of uranium from seawater: chemical process and plant design feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A selected annotated bibliography of 521 references was prepared as a part of a feasibility study of the extraction of uranium from seawater. For the most part, these references are related to the chemical processes whereby the uranium is removed from the seawater. A companion docment contains a similar bibliography of 471 references related to oceanographic and uranium extraction plant siting considerations, although some of the references are in common. The bibliography was prepared by computer retrieval from Chemical Abstracts, Nuclear Science Abstracts, Energy Data Base, NTIS, and Oceanic Abstracts. References are listed by author, country of author, and selected keywords

  14. Selected bibliography for the extraction of uranium from seawater: chemical process and plant design feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binney, S.E.; Polkinghorne, S.T.; Jante, R.R.; Rodman, M.R.; Chen, A.C.T.; Gordon, L.I.

    1979-02-01

    A selected annotated bibliography of 521 references was prepared as a part of a feasibility study of the extraction of uranium from seawater. For the most part, these references are related to the chemical processes whereby the uranium is removed from the seawater. A companion docment contains a similar bibliography of 471 references related to oceanographic and uranium extraction plant siting considerations, although some of the references are in common. The bibliography was prepared by computer retrieval from Chemical Abstracts, Nuclear Science Abstracts, Energy Data Base, NTIS, and Oceanic Abstracts. References are listed by author, country of author, and selected keywords.

  15. Chemical composition analysis of raw materials used in iron ore sinter plants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was the analysis of the chemical compositions of raw materials used in iron ore sinter plants in Poland. The iron ore sintering process is the largest source of emissions of dust and gas pollution in the iron and steel industry. Hematite ores, magnetite concentrates, admixtures (dolomite, limestone and burnt lime, fuels (coke breeze, anthracite and by-products are used in Poland to produce the sinter mixture.

  16. Chemical reactor for a PUREX reprocessing plant of 200Kg U/day capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissolution of spent reactor fuels in Purex process is studied. Design of a chemical reactor for PWR elements, 3% enriched uranium dioxide with zircaloy cladding, for a 200Kg/day uranium plant is the main objective. Chop-leach process is employed and 7.5M nitric acid is used. Non-criticality was obtained by safe geometry and checked by spectrum homogeneous calculus and diffusion codes. Fuel cycle is considered and decladding and dissolution are treated more accurately

  17. Chemical constituents and toxicological studies of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Brazilian honey plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nayana Bruna Nery Monção; Luciana Muratori Costa; Daniel Dias Rufino Arcanjo; Bruno Quirino Araújo; Maria do Carmo Gomes Lustosa; Klinger Antônio da França Rodrigues; Fernando Aécio Amorim de Carvalho; Amilton Paulo Raposo Costa; Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes Citó

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Leguminosae) is widely found in the Brazilian Northeast region and markedly contributes to production of pollen and honey, being considered an important honey plant in this region. Objective: To investigate the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of leaves from M. caesalpiniifolia by GC-MS after derivatization (silylation), as well as to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects and androgenic activity in rats. Materials and Me...

  18. Renal failure caused by chemicals, foods, plants, animal venoms, and misuse of drugs. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, J G

    1990-03-01

    Nephrotoxicity caused by contrast media and drugs is a frequent cause of renal failure in medical practice. However, there are only sporadic cases of renal failure caused by chemicals, foods, plants, animal venoms, and misused or illegal drugs, and standard medical textbooks are limited in the coverage given to the subject. This review provides a referenced compilation of these lesser-known nephrotoxins and gives an overview of renal failure caused by substances other than properly used medications.

  19. Chemical, biological and ethnopharmacological studies of two Malian medicinal plants: Terminalia macroptera and Biophytum umbraculum

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the chemical and biochemical properties of the Malian medicinal plants Terminalia macroptera and Biophytum umbraculum, with main focus on its phenolic substances. This thesis is a part of a research project in which the ultimate goal is to provide efficient, non-toxic and inexpensive medicines for the Malian population. Extraction and purification of fractions from T. macroptera resulted in the isolation of several polyphenolic compounds such as h...

  20. Optical methods for creating delivery systems of chemical compounds to plant roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Pavel E.; Rogacheva, Svetlana M.; Arefeva, Oksana A.; Minin, Dmitryi V.; Tolmachev, Sergey A.; Kupadze, Machammad S.

    2004-08-01

    Spectrophotometric and fluorescence methods have been used for creation and investigation of various systems of target delivery of chemical compounds to roots of plants. The possibility of using liposomes, incrusted by polysaccharides of the external surface of nitrogen-fixing rizospheric bacteria Azospirillum brasilense SP 245, and nanoparticles incrusted by polysaccharides of wheat roots, as the named systems has been shown. The important role of polysaccharide-polysaccharide interaction in the adsorption processes of bacteria on wheat roots has been demonstrated.

  1. BIOACTIVITIES AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF A VIETNAMESE MEDICINAL PLANT JASMINUM SUBTRIPLINERVE BLUME (CHE VANG )

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Hue Ngan

    2006-01-01

    #This thesis encompasses two parts. The first part deals with general introduction to isolation, characterization, and bioactivities of natural products, with emphasis on Jasminum Subtriplinerve Blume spp., and its genus. The second is experimental study of J.subtriplinerve Bl. about its bioactivities and chemical constituents. In first part (from chapter 1 to 6), the botanical of two varieties of J.subtriplinerve Bl., a medicinal plant widely distributed in Middle area of Viet...

  2. Influence of plants on the chemical extractability and biodegradability of 2,4-dichlorophenol in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the fate and behaviour of [UL-14C] 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) in planted (Lolium perenne L.) and unplanted soils over 57 days. Extractability of [UL-14C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was measured using calcium chloride (CaCl2), acetonitrile-water and dichloromethane (DCM) extractions. Biodegradability of [UL-14C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was assessed through measurement of 14CO2 production by a degrader inoculum (Burkholderia sp.). Although extractability and mineralisation of [UL-14C] 2,4-DCP associated activity decreased significantly in both planted and unplanted soils, plants appeared to enhance the sequestration process. After 57 days, in unplanted soil, 27% of the remaining [UL-14C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was mineralised by Burkholderia sp., and 13%, 48%, and 38% of 14C-activity were extracted by CaCl2, acetonitrile-water and DCM, respectively. However, after 57 days, in planted soils, only 10% of the [UL-14C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was available for mineralisation, whilst extractability was reduced to 2% by CaCl2, 17% by acetonitrile-water and 11% by DCM. This may be due to the effect of plants on soil moisture conditions, which leads to modification of the soil structure and trapping of the compound. However, the influence of plants on soil biological and chemical properties may also play a role in the ageing process

  3. Design criteria for the new waste calcining facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is being built to replace the existing fluidized-bed, high-level waste calcining facility (WCF). Performance of the WCF is reviewed, equipment failures in WCF operation are examined, and pilot-plant studies on calciner improvements are given in relation to NWCF design. Design features of the NWCF are given with emphasis on process and equipment improvements. A major feature of the NWCF is the use of remote maintenance facilities for equipment with high maintenance requirements, thereby reducing personnel exposures during maintenance and reducing downtime resulting from plant decontamination. The NWCF will have a design net processing rate of 11.36 m3 of high-level waste per day, and will incorporate in-bed combustion of kerosene for heating the fluidized bed calciner. The off-gas cleaning system will be similar to that for the WCF

  4. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jun-hyung [Department of Nuclear and Energy System, Dongguk University, Gyeongju Campus, Gyeongju, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  5. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of two medicinal wild plants grown in Moldova region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this study is to report physico-chemical (moisture, ash, protein, total phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid and the antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of nettle (Urtica dioica L. and typical romaine spice "leurda" (Allium ursinum, wild garlic fresh and dried. The antioxidant properties of methanol extract of medicinal herbs were evaluated using free radical scavenging test. The phenols were extracted from the medicinal plants with methanol solvent and were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The ascorbic acid content varied between 77.94 mg/100g in the fresh Urtica dioica L. and 39.55 from fresh Allium ursinum. The results showed that the total phenolic compounds in all medicinal plants decreased along processing. These results suggest that the medicinal plants sample extract with highest polyphenolic content will indicates the possibility of using them  as ingredients in functional foods.

  6. Strategy for seismic upgrading of chemical plant taking productivity as criterion of judgment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic upgrading and modification of existing chemical plant facilities have been performed by means of a procedure of the Seismic Design Code and Guidelines of High-pressure Gas Facilities in Japan. Main purpose of this seismic design code is to ensure public safety at seismic events. From the viewpoints of seismic risk of corporate management, CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) and productivity of the plants are also important for seismic assessment. In this paper, authors proposed strategy for seismic assessment to select appropriate pre-earthquake upgrading and modification considering productivity of plants based on fault tree analysis. This assessment will enable to select weak damage modes and to allocate countermeasure cost optimally to the selected damage modes. (authors)

  7. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  8. Physico-chemical treatment of coke plant effluents for control of water pollution in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, M.K. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Center of Mining Environmental

    2002-01-01

    Coal carbonizing industries in India are important and are growing every year. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced in this industry contain a large amount of suspended solids, high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances, which are causing serious surface water pollution in the area. There is a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). The working principle of a coke plant and the effluents produced is described. One large coke plant was chosen to evaluate characteristics of the effluent and to suggest a proper treatment method. Present effluent treatment system was found to be inadequate and a large quantity of a very good quality coke breeze is being lost, which is also causing siltation on the riverbed in addition to surface water pollution. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. A scheme has been proposed for the treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse or safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations are discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale for various sites so as to maintain a clean environment.

  9. Description of Survey Data Regarding the Chemical Repackaging Plant Accident West Helena, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.H.; Vogt, B.M.

    1999-03-01

    Shortly after 1:00 p.m. on Thursday, May 8, 1997, clouds of foul-smelling smoke began pouring from an herbicide and pesticide packaging plant in West Helena, Arkansas. An alert was sounded, employees evacuated, and the West Helena fire department was called. As three firefighters prepared to enter the plant, the chemical compounds exploded, collapsing a solid concrete block wall, and killing all three firefighters. As the odorous smoky cloud drifted away from the plant, authorities ordered residents in a 2-mile area downwind of the plant to evacuate and those in the 2- to 3-mile zone to shelter in place. This study examines and compares the responses to a mail survey of those ordered to evacuate and those told to shelter in place. Among the variables examined are compliance with official orders and perceived warnings, threat perception, time and source of first warning, response times, and behavior characteristics for both populations. The findings indicate that 90% of those that were told to evacuate did so but only 27% of those told to shelter-in-place did so, with 68% opting to evacuate instead. The implications of these findings for emergency managers is that people will likely choose to evacuate when both warnings to evacuate and warnings to shelter are issued to residents in close proximity to each other. The findings on warning times closely resemble other findings from evacuations when chemical accidents occur and route notification is used for warning residents.

  10. Toxicological actions of plant-derived and anthropogenic methylenedioxyphenyl-substituted chemicals in mammals and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The methylenedioxyphenyl (MDP) substituent is a structural feature present in many plant chemicals that deter foraging by predatory insects and herbivores. With increasing use of herbal extracts in alternative medicine, human exposure to MDP-derived plant chemicals may also be significant. Early studies found that most MDP agents themselves possess relatively low intrinsic toxicity, but strongly influence the actions of other xenobiotics in mammals and insects by modulating cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-dependent biotransformation. Thus, after exposure to MDP chemicals an initial phase of CYP inhibition is followed by a sustained phase of CYP induction. In insects CYP inhibition by MDP agents underlies their use as pesticide synergists, but analogous inhibition of mammalian CYP impairs the clearance of drugs and foreign compounds. Conversely, induction of mammalian CYP by MDP agents increases xenobiotic oxidation capacity. Exposure of insects to MDP-containing synergists in the environment, in the absence of coadministered pesticides, may also enhance xenobiotic detoxication. Finally, although most MDP agents are well tolerated, several, typified by safrole, aristolochic acid, and MDP-kavalactones, are associated with significant toxicities, including the risk of hepatotoxicity or tumorigenesis. Thus, the presence of MDP-substituted chemicals in the environment may produce a range of direct and indirect toxicities in target and nontarget species.

  11. Molybdenum and technetium cycle in the environment. Physical chemical evolution and mobility in soils and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molybdenum 99 and technetium 99 from liquid discharges of base nuclear installations (reactors, reprocessing plants, UF6 treatment, etc.) can reach the environment via irrigation waters and atmospheric deposits. The contribution to the soil by irrigation results in a physical-chemical transformation, the results of which, in the case of technetium 99, could be volatilization via microbes. The changes in the physical-chemical forms of technetium in different soils reveals the preponderant effect of the initial amount deposited. The determination of the rate of technetium and molybdenum assimilation shows a certain similarity in behaviour; yet the localization of these isotopes is not the same. The transfer of molybdenum and technetium via the root system is different in its intensity; this is mainly due to different physical-chemical forms. Finally, each isotope has an optimum assimilation threshold and a toxicity threshold. The study of the physical-chemical evolution and the mobility in the soil-plant-water table system of these two isotopes shows a new aspect with respect to certain transfer channels to the human being

  12. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) injection well: Operations history and hydrochemical inventory of the waste stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department of Energy (DOE), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) documents were searched for information regarding service disposal operations, and the chemical characteristics and volumes of the service waste emplaced in, and above, the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer (ESRP) from 1953-1992. A summary database has been developed which synthesizes available, but dispersed, information. This assembled data records spatial, volumetric and chemical input patterns which will help establish the initial contaminant water characteristics required in computer modeling, aid in interpreting the monitoring well network hydrochemical information, and contribute to a better understanding of contaminant transport in the aquifer near the ICPP. Gaps and uncertainties in the input record are also identified with respect to time and type. 39 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  13. The uptake of polluting chemicals into the plant and its relationship to physical-chemical substance properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation behaviour of 14C-labelled organic pollutants under laboratory and field conditions was investigated in spring barley and garden cress and evaluated in the light of a number of previously selected substance properties. The studies in the laboratory were restricted to one week, while those in the field were carried out over the entire growing season. They had the purpose of determining the accumulation of certain pollutants in the test plants with reference to the residues detected for those substances in the soil. The laboratory studies were focused on benzene and five chlorated derivatives as well as a further few chemicals from other groups of substances. The substances investigated in the field were benzene and an additional three chlorated benzenes. The accumulation of organic pollutants in the above-ground parts and roots of barley can rather easily be forecasted on the basis of the compounds' structural properties like molecular weight, molecule volume and connectivity indices. This applies to the majority of cases, providing the mineralisation of the substances in the soil is only minor and no unduly large amounts of metabolites are formed, the physical-chemical properties of which deviate greatly from those of the mother substances. Any such forecasts for cress should preferably be made on the basis of distribution parameters of the individual compounds. It was found that the results from laboratory and field studies were in reasonable agreement, thus permitting the same conclusions to be drawn as to the biotransfer of the test substances from the soil and the probable links between these observations and physical-chemical substance properties. (orig./MG)

  14. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janeen Denise Robertson

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  15. Is the efficacy of biological control against plant diseases likely to be more durable than that of chemical pesticides?

    OpenAIRE

    Marc eBardin; Sakhr eAjouz; Morgane eComby; Miguel eLopez-Ferber; Benoît eGraillot; Myriam eSiegwart; Philippe Claude Nicot

    2015-01-01

    The durability of a control method for plant protection is defined as the persistence of its efficacy in space and time. It depends on (i) the selection pressure exerted by it on populations of plant pathogens and (ii) on the capacity of these pathogens to adapt to the control method. Erosion of effectiveness of conventional plant protection methods has been widely studied in the past. For example, apparition of resistance to chemical pesticides in plant pathogens or pests has been extensivel...

  16. Residential and biological exposure assessment of chemicals from a wood treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, James; Takhar, Harpreet; Schecter, Arnold; Schmidt, Reynold; Horsak, Randy; Paepke, Olaf; Warshaw, Raphael; Lee, Alexander; Anderson-Mahoney, Pamela

    2007-04-01

    This paper evaluates the results of contamination of residents and residential homes located in close proximity to a Wood Treatment Plant. The plant has produced treated wood products continuously since 1904. The principle chemicals used to treat the wood, which is primarily used for railroad ties (oblong objects laid perpendicular to the rails to act as a base for the tracks), are creosote and pentachlorophenol. For a number of years, the plant burned treated waste wood products containing creosote and pentachlorophenol. First the plant pressure impregnates the wood with creosote and pentachlorophenol, and then the wood is stacked on open ground to allow it to air dry. Chemicals from recently treated wood ties are allowed to evaporate into the air or drip onto the ground surrounding the stacked wood. Small drainage ditches carry the liquid wastes into larger water channels where eventually the waste streams are discharged into a river adjacent to the plant. The river serves as a source of drinking water for the nearby community. Prevailing wind patterns favor a drift of air emissions from the plant's boiler stack over the nearby community and its residents. Over the past few years, the town's residents have become increasingly concerned about their health status and have voiced concerns regarding multiple health problems (including cancer), possibly associated with plant discharges. The intention of this study is to examine a representative sample of the potentially affected residents and to evaluate their residential environment for the presence of dioxin and/or its congeners. Data obtained from EPA's Toxic Release Information (TRI) database revealed the plant routinely discharged creosote, pentachlorophenol, dioxin and dioxin-like compounds into the ambient air via fugitive air emissions and surface waste waters. Sampling of household dust and water sediment within and outside of residences within a 2-mile radius of the plant revealed the presence of

  17. Biogeography of Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana): latitudinal patterns in chemical defense and plant architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael T; Brown, Sarah C; Bothwell, Helen M; Bryant, John P

    2016-02-01

    The latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis (LHDH) predicts that plants near the equator will be more heavily defended against herbivores than are plants at higher latitudes. Although this idea is widely found in the literature, recent studies have called this biogeographic pattern into question. We sought to evaluate the LHDH in a high-latitude terrestrial ecosystem where fire and mammalian herbivores may contribute to selection for higher levels of defensive chemistry. To address this objective, we collected seeds of Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) from nine locations along two north-south transects between 55 degrees N and 62 degrees N latitudes in western, interior Canada. The birch seeds were planted in pots in a common garden in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. From the resulting seedlings, we determined levels of chemical defense by assessing the density of resin glands, which have been shown to be negatively correlated with browsing. To assess plant architectural traits such as height, mean individual leaf area, and root-to-shoot ratio, we harvested a subset of the birch seedlings. Further, we used these traits to examine growth-defense trade-offs. Contrary to the LHDH, we found a positive correlation between chemical defense and latitude. Investigating relationships with fire, we found a strong positive correlation between resin gland density and percentage of area annually burned (PAAB) around each collection location and also between PAAB and latitude. Additionally, birch seedlings originating from higher latitudes were shorter, smaller-leaved, and rootier than their lower-latitude counterparts. Growth-defense trade-offs were observed in negative correlations between resin gland density and height and leaf size. Seedlings with higher resin gland densities also allocated less biomass to shoots and more to roots. These results further call into question the LHDH and provide specific information about latitudinal trends in plant defense at high, northern

  18. [Development of Chemical Exposure Prediction Model for Aerobic Sewage Treatment Plant for Biochemical Wastewaters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin-jun; Liu, Ji-ning; Shi, Li-li; Feng, Jie; Xu, Yan-hua

    2016-01-15

    Sewage treatment plant (STP) is a key transfer station for chemicals distributed into different environment compartment, and hence models of exposure prediction play a crucial role in the environmental risk assessment and pollution prevention of chemicals. A mass balance model namely Chinese Sewage treatment plant (C-STP(O)) was developed to predict the fate and exposure of chemicals in a conventional sewage treatment plant. The model was expressed as 9 mixed boxes by compartment of air, water, suspended solids, and settled solids. It was based on the minimum input data required on the notification in new chemicals, such as molecular weight, absorption coefficient, vapor pressure, water solubility, ready or inherent biodegradability. The environment conditions ( Temperature = 283 K, wind speed = 2 m x s(-1)) and the classic STP scenario parameters of China, especially the scenario parameters of water quality and sludge properties were adopted in C-STP( 0) model to reflect Chinese characteristics, these parameters were sewage flow of 35 000 m3 x d(-1), influent BOD5 of 0.15 g x L(-1), influent SS of 0.2 kg x m(-3), effluent SS of 0.02 kg x m(-3), BOD5 removal in aerator of 90% sludge density of 1.6 kg x L(3) and organic carbon content of 0.18-0.19. It adopted the fugacity express for mechanism of linear absorption, first-order degradation, Whitman two resistances. An overall interphase transfer constant which was the sum of surface volatilization and stripping was used to assess the volatilization in aerator. The most important and uncertain input value was the biodegradation rate constant, and determination of which required a tier test strategy from ready or inherent biodegradability data to simulate test in STP. An extrapolated criterion of US EPA to derive biodegradation rate constant using the results of ready and inherent biodegradability was compared with that of EU and was recommended. C-STP ( 0 ) was valid to predict the relative emission of volatilization

  19. The Chemical Hazards Assessment Prior to D&D of the Plutonium Finishing Plant, Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, A. M.; Prevette, S. S.; Sherwood, A. R.; Fitch, L. R.; Ranade, D. G.; Oldham, R. W.

    2003-02-26

    This report describes the evaluation methods and results of a chemical safety status assessment of the process equipment at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Nuclear Reservation Plutonium Finishing Plant. This assessment, designated as the Plutonium Finishing Plant Residual Chemical Hazards Assessment, focused particular emphasis on the idle and inactive plant systems, though certain active areas also were examined to the extent that these were examined during a previous facility vulnerability assessment completed in 1999. The Plutonium Finishing Plant is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation that is situated in south central Washington State.

  20. INITIAL CHEMICAL AND RESERVOIR CONDITIONS AT LOS AZUFRES WELLHEAD POWER PLANT STARTUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, P.; Semprini, L.; Verma, S.; Barragan, R.; Molinar, R.; Aragon, A.; Ortiz, J.; Miranda, C.

    1985-01-22

    One of the major concerns of electric utilities in installing geothermal power plants is not only the longevity of the steam supply, but also the potential for changes in thermodynamic properties of the resource that might reduce the conversion efficiency of the design plant equipment. Production was initiated at Los Azufres geothermal field with wellhead generators not only to obtain electric energy at a relatively early date, but also to acquire needed information about the resource so that plans for large central power plants could be finalized. Commercial electric energy production started at Los Azufres during the summer of 1982 with five 5-MWe wellhead turbine-generator units. The wells associated with these units had undergone extensive testing and have since been essentially in constant production. The Los Azufres geothermal reservoir is a complex structural and thermodynamic system, intersected by at least 4 major parallel faults and producing geothermal fluids from almost all water to all steam. The five wellhead generators are associated with wells of about 30%, 60%, and 100% steam fraction. A study to compile existing data on the chemical and reservoir conditions during the first two years of operation has been completed. Data have been compiled on mean values of wellhead and separator pressures, steam and liquid flowrates, steam fraction, enthalpy, and pertinent chemical components. The compilation serves both as a database of conditions during the start-up period and as an initial point to observe changes with continued and increased production. Current plans are to add additional wellhead generators in about two years followed by central power plants when the data have been sufficiently evaluated for optimum plant design. During the next two years, the data acquired at the five 5-MWe wellhead generator units can be compared to this database to observe any significant changes in reservoir behavior at constant production.

  1. OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE: UPGRADED MPC AND A SYSTEMS FOR THE RADIOCHEMICAL PLANT OF THE SIBERIAN CHEMICAL COMBINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of reducing the risk of nuclear proliferation through physical protection and material control/accounting systems depends upon the development of an effective design that includes consideration of the objectives of the systems and the resources available to implement the design. Included among the objectives of the design are facility characterization, definition of threat, and identification of targets. When considering resources, the designer must consider funds available, rapid low-cost elements, technology elements, human resources, and the availability of resources to sustain operation of the end system. The Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) is a multi-function nuclear facility located in the Tomsk region of Siberia, Russia. Beginning in 1996, SCC joined with the United States Department of Energy (US/DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program to develop and implement MPC and A upgrades for the Radiochemical, Chemical Metallurgical, Conversion, Uranium Enrichment, and Reactor Plants of the SCC. At the Radiochemical Plant the MPC and A design and implementation process has been largely completed for the Plutonium Storage Facility and related areas of the Radiochemical Plant. Design and implementation of upgrades for the Radiochemical Plant include rapid physical protection upgrades such as bricking up of doors and windows, and installation of security-hardened doors. Rapid material control and accounting upgrades include installation of modern balances and bar code equipment. Comprehensive MPC and A upgrades include the installation of access controls to sensitive areas of the Plant, alarm communication and display (AC and D) systems to detect and annunciate alarm conditions, closed circuit (CCTV) systems to assess alarm conditions, central and secondary alarm station upgrades that enable security forces to assess and respond to alarm conditions, material control and accounting upgrades that include upgraded physical

  2. Defesas químicas de plantas: fitoalexinas Chemical defense of plants: phytoalexins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Braga

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de plantas ao ataque de microorganismos causadores de doenças relaciona-se à presença de barreiras físicas e (juímicas de defesa. Dentre as barreiras químicas destacam-se as fitoalexinas, substâncias fungitoxicas sintetizadas de novo pelas plantas principalmente após a invasão ou o contato de seus tecidos com microorganismos, Essas substâncias englobam vários grupos compostos naturais tais como terpenos, isoflavonóides e poliacetilenos e seu acúmulo pode ser induzido por organismos vivos, seus produtos (elíciadores ou ainda agentes químicos, como sais de metais pesados, ou físicos (congelamento, luz U.U.. Alguns aspectos abordados nesta revisão são: a ocorrência de fitoalexinas em angiospermas, a relação entre sua natureza química e o grupo taxonômico das plantas que as produzem, a sua ação sobre organismos pró e eucarióticos. São descritas também os fatores que interferem nas respostas das plantas aos agentes indutores e as técnicas usuais para a indução e detecção de fitoalexinas. O papel dos eliciadores na indução da sâitese de fitoalexinas e o mecanismo pelo qual exercem sua função indutora são discutidos. Nesse contexto está incluída a teoria das oligossacarinas, fragmentos de parede celular que parecem controlar não só a resposta de defesa em plantas mas também outros fenômenos fisiológicos em plantas.Chemical defense of plants: phytoalexins - This review describes the concept of phytoalexins as a chemical defense of plants against microorganisms as well as a response of plants to chemical or physical agents. The current information on phytoalexins is presented, regarding the following aspects: occurrence in angiosperms; relation-snips between chemical composition and taxonomy; toxicity; factors affecting plant response; techniques for induction and detection of phytoalexins; role of elicitors and mechanisms of action. The latter includes the oligosaccharins-fragments of cell

  3. Biological effects of activation products and other chemicals released from fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Poston, T.M.

    1976-09-01

    Literature reviews indicate that existing information is incomplete, often contradictory, and of questionable value for the prediction and assessment of ultimate impact from fusion-associated activation products and other chemical releases. It is still uncertain which structural materials will be used in the blanket and first wall of fusion power plants. However, niobium, vanadium, vanadium-chromium alloy, vanadium-titanium alloy, sintered aluminum product, and stainless steel have been suggested. The activation products of principal concern will be the longer-lived isotopes of /sup 26/Al, /sup 49/V, /sup 51/Cr, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 93/Nb, and /sup 94/Nb. Lithium released to the environment either during the mining cycle, from power plant operation or accident, may be in the form of a number of compound types varying in solubility and affinity for biological organisms. The effects of a severe liquid metal fire or explosion involving Na or K will vary according to inherent abiotic and biotic features of the affected site. Saline, saline-alkaline, and sodic soils of arid lands would be particularly susceptible to alkaline stress. Beryllium released to the environment during the mining cycle or reactor accident situation could be in the form of a number of compound types. Adverse effects to aquatic species from routine chemical releases (biocides, corrosion inhibitors, dissolution products) may occur in the discharge of both fission and fusion power plant designs.

  4. Experimental investigation of the chemical looping method on a 1 MW pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attempting to counteract the consequences of climate change, leading industrial nations have agreed on reducing their CO2 emissions significantly. To reach these reduction goals, it is essential to reduce the CO2 emissions in the field of energy conversion. This PHD thesis covers the field of chemical looping combustion, a technology that uses fossil fuels for energy conversion with inherent capture of CO2. Since the research regarding chemical looping had so far focused mainly on lab scale or small scale experiments, a 1 MW pilot plant has been erected at Technische Universitaet Darmstadt in order to investigate the process in a semi-industrial scale and to check the process efficiency with commercially usable equipment. This pilot consists of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors and has an overall height of more than 11 m. In this thesis, some experiments with ilmenite - used as the oxygen carrier - are explained. Furthermore, the design, erection and commissioning of the pilot plant are presented as well as the results of the first test campaigns. The evaluation of the latter proves that the process can be handled in the design configuration and that CO2 can be safely captured in a pilot plant of this scale.

  5. Biological effects of activation products and other chemicals released from fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature reviews indicate that existing information is incomplete, often contradictory, and of questionable value for the prediction and assessment of ultimate impact from fusion-associated activation products and other chemical releases. It is still uncertain which structural materials will be used in the blanket and first wall of fusion power plants. However, niobium, vanadium, vanadium-chromium alloy, vanadium-titanium alloy, sintered aluminum product, and stainless steel have been suggested. The activation products of principal concern will be the longer-lived isotopes of 26Al, 49V, 51Cr, 54Mn, 55Fe, 58Co, 60Co, 93Nb, and 94Nb. Lithium released to the environment either during the mining cycle, from power plant operation or accident, may be in the form of a number of compound types varying in solubility and affinity for biological organisms. The effects of a severe liquid metal fire or explosion involving Na or K will vary according to inherent abiotic and biotic features of the affected site. Saline, saline-alkaline, and sodic soils of arid lands would be particularly susceptible to alkaline stress. Beryllium released to the environment during the mining cycle or reactor accident situation could be in the form of a number of compound types. Adverse effects to aquatic species from routine chemical releases (biocides, corrosion inhibitors, dissolution products) may occur in the discharge of both fission and fusion power plant designs

  6. Characterization of nuclear decontamination solutions at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from 1982-1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohner, S.K.

    1996-03-01

    This report represents possibly the single largest collection of operational decontamination data from a nuclear reprocessing facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and perhaps anywhere in the world. The uniqueness of this data is due to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant`s (ICPP`s) ability to process different types of highly enriched nuclear fuel. The report covers an 8-year period, during which six campaigns were conducted to dissolve nuclear fuel clad in stainless steel, aluminum, graphite, and zirconium. Each fuel type had a separate head-end process with unique dissolution chemistry, but shared the same extraction process equipment. This report presents data about decontamination activities of the ICPP`s First Cycle extraction vessels, columns, piping, and aluminum dissolution vessels. Operating data from 1982 through 1990 has been collected, analyzed, and characterized. Chemicals used in the decontamination processes are documented along with quantities used. The chemical solutions are analyzed to compare effectiveness. Radioisotopic analysis is recorded, showing and quantifying what nuclides were removed by the various solutions. The original data is also provided to make it possible for researchers to address questions and test other hypotheses not discussed in this report.

  7. Antifoaming materials studies in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) heavy water plants. Chemical and thermical stability. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Girlder sulfide (G.S.) heavy water plants hydrogen sulfide-water systems are inherentely foaming, so the adding of antifoaming materials is of great importance. These may be of high volatility, pyrolizable or chemically unstable in plant operation conditions (water and hydrogen sulfide at 2 MPa, up to 230 deg C). Five commercial surfactants were studied from the point of view of their chemical and thermical stability in order to select the most suitable. (Author)

  8. How does plant chemical diversity contribute to biodiversity at higher trophic levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Meredith C; van Dam, Nicole M; Beran, Franziska; Harpole, W Stanley

    2016-04-01

    Plants, perhaps Earth's most accomplished chemists, produce thousands of specialized metabolites having no direct role in cell division or growth. These phytochemicals vary by taxon, with many taxa producing characteristic substance classes; and within taxa, with individual variation in structural variety and production patterns. Observations of corresponding variation in herbivore metabolism, behavior, and diet breadth motivated the development of chemical ecology research. We discuss the importance of plant biodiversity in general and phytochemical diversity in particular for biodiversity and ecological interactions at higher trophic levels. We then provide an overview of the descriptive, molecular and analytical tools which allow modern biologists to investigate phytochemical diversity and its effects on higher trophic levels, from physiological mechanisms to ecological communities. PMID:27436646

  9. FUNCTION OF HYDRAULIC AND CHEMICAL WATER STRESS SIGNALIZATION IN EVALUATION OF DROUGHT RESISTANCE OF JUVENILE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K OLŠOVSKÁ

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In laboratory hydroponic experiments with spring barley genotypes the juvenile plants with 5 leaves were tested for their physiological responses to osmotic stress evoked by blocking the water uptake in roots by polyethylenglycol (PEG-6000 and to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA applied in the nutrient solution which inhibits the stomata opening. Results from the measurements of leaf diffusion resistance, relative water content, transpiration and leaf elongation rates show dominant role of chemical signalization drought from root environment and of stomata in the regulation of water loss as well as sensitiveness of leaf elongation to lowered water availability. Maintenance of water content and turgor in the leaf tissues resulted from expression of morphological and physiological mechanisms of resistance and tolerance to drought different from that in mature plants which might be useful in the screening genotypes with different level of drought tolerance.

  10. Sampling and chemical analysis in environmental samples around Nuclear Power Plants and some environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Woo; Han, Man Jung; Cho, Seong Won; Cho, Hong Jun; Oh, Hyeon Kyun; Lee, Jeong Min; Chang, Jae Sook [KORTIC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Twelve kinds of environmental samples such as soil, seawater, underground water, etc. around Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs) were collected. Tritium chemical analysis was tried for the samples of rain water, pine-needle, air, seawater, underground water, chinese cabbage, a grain of rice and milk sampled around NPPs, and surface seawater and rain water sampled over the country. Strontium in the soil that sere sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were analyzed in 21 samples of surface seawater around the Korea peninsular that were supplied from KFRDI(National Fisheries Research and Development Institute). Sampling and chemical analysis environmental samples around Kori, Woolsung, Youngkwang, Wooljin Npps and Taeduk science town for tritium and strontium analysis was managed according to plans. Succeed to KINS after all samples were tried.

  11. Chemical diversity of microbial volatiles and their potential for plant growth and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIDANANDA NAGAMANGALA KANCHISWAMY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs are produced by a wide array of microorganisms ranging from bacteria to fungi. A growing body of evidence indicates that MVOCs are ecofriendly and can be exploited as a cost-effective sustainable strategy for use in agricultural practice as agents that enhance plant growth, productivity and disease resistance. As naturally occurring chemicals, MVOCs have potential as possible alternatives to harmful pesticides, fungicides and bactericides as well as genetic modification. Recent studies performed under open field conditions demonstrate that efficiently adopting MVOCs may contribute to sustainable crop protection and production. We review here the chemical diversity of MVOCs and their potential physiological effects on crops and analyze potential and actual limitations for MVOC use as a sustainable strategy for improving productivity and reducing pesticide use.

  12. Chemical residue interactions and effects in soil-plant-animal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A range of ongoing studies is reported. They deal with interactions between two chemical residues in soils, plants or animals and factors which indirectly affect the appearance and biological significance of the residues. The metabolic inhibitors (KCN or DNE) increased penetration of 14C-lindane into pea root cells but decreased translocation into green tissue. Lindane at low concentrations stimulated plant development. The effects of plant nutritional status on 14C-Dyfonate (a phosphonodithioate insecticide) behaviour in pea plants were studied. Potassium, calcium or magnesium deficiency reduced uptake by the root system. Triazine herbicides and 2,4-D apparently enhanced the toxicity of certain insecticides to insects. Experiments with perfused rat liver confirmed the important role of this organ in the degradation of organophosphorus insecticides. Conditions of application and the presence of microflora were shown to be imported factors in the persistence of insecticide residues in soil. Granular application of phorate provided for greater insecticidal persistence than application as an emulsifiable concentrate. (author)

  13. Antioxidant Status of Plants in Conditions of Chemical Pollution of the Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. MOSINA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are substances that slow down the oxidation of organic compounds that protect the body from the negative effects of free radicals antioxidant connected with free radical and puts up a barrier to the corrosive effects of the electron. Enzyme protective system of the body converts cell oxidant into the water and oxygen.The body has its own system of struggle with excessive amounts of free radicals, but it has weakened under the impact of the polluted environment, direct sunlight and needs support. Scientists found that many plants contain substances flavonoids - a large group of polyphenolic compounds structure, which bind free radicals.This article presents a review of research performed in the Russian state endowment of the University of Immanuel Kant, the influence of chemical contaminated areas in the antioxidant status of the plants.Thus the study of the influence of factors on the formation of antioxidants plants is a fragment of a large-scale work on the study of natural antioxidants, which not only protect living organisms but also determine the quality of plant foods, feeds, and ultimately the quality of life and its duration. The solution of the problems of modern society - environmental, health, demography is impossible without change of attitude to food.

  14. WSSRAP chemical plant geotechnical investigations for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    This document has been prepared for the United states Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which consists of MK-Ferguson Company (MKF) and Morrison Knudsen Corporation Environmental Services Group (MKES) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as MKF's predesignated subcontractor. This report presents the results of site geotechnical investigations conducted by the PMC in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pits (WSCP/RP) and in potential on-site and off-site clayey material borrow sources. The WSCP/RP is the proposed disposal cell (DC) site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Design of Sensor Networks for Chemical Plants Based on Meta-Heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel C. Sánchez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work the optimal design of sensor networks for chemical plants is addressed using stochastic optimization strategies. The problem consists in selecting the type, number and location of new sensors that provide the required quantity and quality of process information. Ad-hoc strategies based on Tabu Search, Scatter Search and Population Based Incremental Learning Algorithms are proposed. Regarding Tabu Search, the intensification and diversification capabilities of the technique are enhanced using Path Relinking. The strategies are applied for solving minimum cost design problems subject to quality constraints on variable estimates, and their performances are compared.

  16. Study of the influence of central nuclear power plants at Valdaliga (Civitavecchia) on the chemical composition of local rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from a wet deposition sampling over the area collocated nearby Civitavecchia power plants are here presented and discussed. In order to establish the possible influence of the power plants emission on the chemical composition of the rain collected, the experimental data have been correlated with synoptic and local meteorological conditions. (author)

  17. Accelerating the degradation of green plant waste with chemical decomposition agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kejun, Sun; Juntao, Zhang; Ying, Chen; Zongwen, Liao; Lin, Ruan; Cong, Liu

    2011-10-01

    Degradation of green plant waste is often difficult, and excess maturity times are typically required. In this study, we used lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose assays; scanning electron microscopy; infrared spectrum analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the effects of chemical decomposition agents on the lignocellulose content of green plant waste, its structure and major functional groups and the mechanism of accelerated degradation. Our results showed that adding chemical decomposition agents to Ficus microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust reduced the contents of lignin by 0.53%-11.48% and the contents of cellulose by 2.86%-7.71%, and increased the contents of hemicellulose by 2.92%-33.63% after 24 h. With increasing quantities of alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, the lignin content decreased. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, lignocellulose tube wall thickness increased significantlyIncreases of 29.41%, 3.53% and 34.71% were observed after treatment with NaOH, alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy showed that CO and aromatic skeleton stretching absorption peaks were weakened and the C-H vibrational absorption peak from out-of-plane in positions 2 and 6 (S units) (890-900 cm(-1)) was strengthened after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, indicating a reduction in lignin content. Several absorption peaks [i.e., C-H deformations (asymmetry in methyl groups, -CH(3)- and -CH(2)-) (1450-1460 cm(-1)); Aliphatic C-H stretching in methyl and phenol OH (1370-1380 cm(-1)); CO stretching (cellulose and hemicellulose) (1040-1060 cm(-1))] that indicate the presence of a chemical bond between lignin and cellulose was reduced, indicating that the chemical bond between lignin and cellulose had been partially broken. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that Na

  18. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance in sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Benin is a major public health issue hindering the control of the malaria vectors. Each Anopheles species has developed a resistance to one or several classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. Therefore, it is urgent to find alternative compounds to conquer the vector. In this study, the efficacies of essential oils of nine plant species, which are traditionally used to avoid mosquito bites in Benin, were investigated. Methods Essential oils of nine plant species were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. These oils were tested on susceptible “kisumu” and resistant “ladji-Cotonou” strains of Anopheles gambiae, following WHO test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes. Results Different chemical compositions were obtained from the essential oils of the plant species. The major constituents identified were as follows: neral and geranial for Cymbopogon citratus, Z-carveol, E-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol and E-p-mentha-2,8-dienol for Cymbopogon giganteus, piperitone for Cymbopogon schoenanthus, citronellal and citronellol for Eucalyptus citriodora, p-cymene, caryophyllene oxide and spathulenol for Eucalyptus tereticornis, 3-tetradecanone for Cochlospermum tinctorium and Cochlospermum planchonii, methyl salicylate for Securidaca longepedunculata and ascaridole for Chenopodium ambrosioides. The diagnostic dose was 0.77% for C. citratus, 2.80% for E. tereticornis, 3.37% for E. citriodora, 4.26% for C. ambrosioides, 5.48% for C. schoenanthus and 7.36% for C. giganteus. The highest diagnostic doses were obtained with S. longepedunculata (9.84%), C. tinctorium (11.56%) and C. planchonii (15.22%), compared to permethrin 0.75%. A. gambiae cotonou, which is resistant to pyrethroids, showed significant tolerance to essential oils from C. tinctorium and S. longepedunculata as expected but was

  19. Using magnetic and chemical measurements to detect atmospherically-derived metal pollution in artificial soils and metal uptake in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, B; Cioppa, M T

    2012-11-01

    Quantification of potential effects of ambient atmospheric pollution on magnetic and chemical properties of soils and plants requires precise experimental studies. A controlled growth experiment assessing magnetic and chemical parameters was conducted within (controls) and outside (exposed) a greenhouse setting. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements showed that while initial MS values were similar for the sample sets, the overall MS value of exposed soil was significantly greater than in controls, suggesting an additional input of Fe-containing particles. Scanning electron microscope images of the exposed soils revealed numerous angular magnetic particles and magnetic spherules typical of vehicular exhaust and combustion processes, respectively. Similarly, chemical analysis of plant roots showed that plants grown in the exposed soil had higher concentrations of Fe and heavy (toxic) metals than controls. This evidence suggests that atmospheric deposition contributed to the MS increase in exposed soils and increased metal uptake by plants grown in this soil.

  20. Chemical composition and digestibility of some browse plant species collected from Algerian arid rangelands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boufennara, S.; Lopez, S.; Boussebouna, H.; Bodas, R.; Bouazza, L.

    2012-11-01

    Many wild browse and bush species are undervalued mainly because of insufficient knowledge about their potential feeding value. The objective was to evaluate some nutritional attributes of various Algerian browse and shub species (Atriplex halimus, Artemisia campestris, Artemisia herba-alba, Astragalus gombiformis, Calobota saharae, Retama raetam, Stipagrostis pungens, Lygeum spartum and Stipa tenacissima). Chemical composition, phenols and tannins concentration, in vitro digestibility, in vitro gas production kinetics and in vitro bio-assay for assessment of tannins using buffered rumen fluid, and in situ disappearence of the edible parts of the plants (leaves, thin twigs and flowers) were determined. In general, protein content in dicotyledon species was always greater than in monocotyledon grasses, these showing higher neutral and acid detergent fibre and lower lignin contents than dicots. The tannin concentrations varied considerably between species, but in general the plants investigated in this study had low tannin contents (except for Artemisia spp. and S. tenacissima). Monocots showed lower in vitro and in situ digestibilities, fermentation rate, cumulative gas production and extent of degradation than dicot species. The plants were clustered by principal components analysis in two groups: poor-quality grasses and the most digestible dicot species. Chemical composition (neutral detergent fibre and protein) and digestibility were the main influential variables determining the ranking. In conclusion, A. halimus, A. campestris, A. herba-alba and A. gombiformis can be considered of greater nutritional value than the highly fibrous and low digestible grasses (S. pungens, L. spartum and S. tenacissima) that should be considered emergency roughages. (Author) 46 refs.

  1. Chemical and Plant-Based Insect Repellents: Efficacy, Safety, and Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2016-03-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases today are arthropod-borne and cannot be prevented by vaccinations. Because insect repellents offer important topical barriers of personal protection from arthropod-borne infectious diseases, the main objectives of this article were to describe the growing threats to public health from emerging arthropod-borne infectious diseases, to define the differences between insect repellents and insecticides, and to compare the efficacies and toxicities of chemical and plant-derived insect repellents. Internet search engines were queried with key words to identify scientific articles on the efficacy, safety, and toxicity of chemical and plant-derived topical insect repellants and insecticides to meet these objectives. Data sources reviewed included case reports; case series; observational, longitudinal, and surveillance studies; and entomological and toxicological studies. Descriptive analysis of the data sources identified the most effective application of insect repellents as a combination of topical chemical repellents, either N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (formerly N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide, or DEET) or picaridin, and permethrin-impregnated or other pyrethroid-impregnated clothing over topically treated skin. The insecticide-treated clothing would provide contact-level insecticidal effects and provide better, longer lasting protection against malaria-transmitting mosquitoes and ticks than topical DEET or picaridin alone. In special cases, where environmental exposures to disease-transmitting ticks, biting midges, sandflies, or blackflies are anticipated, topical insect repellents containing IR3535, picaridin, or oil of lemon eucalyptus (p-menthane-3, 8-diol or PMD) would offer better topical protection than topical DEET alone. PMID:26827259

  2. Allocation of nitrogen to chemical defence and plant functional traits is constrained by soil N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Judy; Gleadow, Roslyn M; Woodrow, Ian E

    2010-09-01

    Plants have evolved a vast array of defence mechanisms to avoid or minimize damage caused by herbivores and pathogens. The costs and benefits of defences are thought to vary with the availability of resources, herbivore pressure and plant functional traits. We investigated the resource (nitrogen) and growth cost of deploying cyanogenic glycosides in seedlings of Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae). To do this, we grew the plants under a range of soil N conditions, from levels that were limiting for growth to those that were saturating for growth, and we measured correlations between foliar chemical and performance attributes. Within each N treatment, we found evidence that, for every N invested in cyanogenic glycosides, additional N is added to the leaf. For the lowest N treatment, the additional N was less than one per cyanogenic glycoside, rising to some two Ns for the other treatments. The interaction between cyanogenic glycosides and both condensed tannins and total phenolic compounds was also examined, but we did not detect correlations between these compounds under constant leaf N concentrations. Finally, we did not detect a correlation between net assimilation rate, relative growth rate and cyanogenic glycoside concentrations under any soil N treatment. We conclude that the growth cost of cyanogenic glycosides was likely too low to detect and that it was offset to some degree by additional N that was allocated alongside the cyanogenic glycosides.

  3. Potassium fertilization for pineapple: effects on soil chemical properties and plant nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out on an Ultisol located at the city of Agudos (22º30'S; 49º03'W, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to determine the effects of rates and sources of potassium fertilizer on nutritional status of 'Smooth Cayenne' pineapple and on some soil chemical properties. The experiment was a complete factorial design with four rates (0, 175, 350, and 700 kg ha-1 of K2O and three combinations of K sources (100% KCl, 100% K2SO4 and 40% K2SO4 + 60% KCl. Soil samples were taken from the depths 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm at planting and 14 months after. Nutritional status of pineapple plants was assessed by means of tissue analysis. Soil K availability increased with application of K fertilizer, regardless of K sources. Soil chlorine and Cl concentration in pineapple leaves increased with application of KCl or K2SO4+KCl. Plant uptake of potassium was shaped by soil K availability and by the application rates of K fertilizer, independently of K sources.

  4. [Characteristics of Chemical Components in PM₂.₅ from the Coal Dust of Power Plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-xiu; Peng, Lin; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Teng; Liu, Hai-li; Mu, Ling

    2016-01-15

    The ashes under dust catcher of typical power plants in Yangquan was collected and the contents of elements, irons, EC (elemental carbon) and OC (organic carbon) were measured in PM₂. The characteristics of its chemical composition was studied and the degree of similarity of coal dust's source profiles of PM₂.₅ between Yangquan and other cities were compared using the coefficient of divergence method. The result indicated that the main chemical components of PM₂.₅ from the coal dust were SO₄²⁻,Ca, NO₃⁻, OC, EC, Al, Si, Na, Fe, Mg and Cl⁻, accounting for 57.22% of the total mass. The enrichment factor of Pb in PM₂.₅ of coal dust was the largest with a significant enrichment condition, reaching 10.66-15.91. The coefficient of divergence of source profiles of PM₂.₅ between blind coal and fault coal was 0.072, so it was believed that they must be similar. Compared with other cities, the chemical composition of coal dust in Yangquan had specificity, in particular, the content of Ca was obviously higher than those in other domestic cities. PMID:27078941

  5. Chemical constituents and toxicological studies of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Brazilian honey plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monção, Nayana Bruna Nery; Costa, Luciana Muratori; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Araújo, Bruno Quirino; Lustosa, Maria do Carmo Gomes; Rodrigues, Klinger Antônio da França; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim; Costa, Amilton Paulo Raposo; Lopes Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Leguminosae) is widely found in the Brazilian Northeast region and markedly contributes to production of pollen and honey, being considered an important honey plant in this region. Objective: To investigate the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of leaves from M. caesalpiniifolia by GC-MS after derivatization (silylation), as well as to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects and androgenic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia was submitted to derivatization by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identification of chemical constituents. In vitro toxicological evaluation was performed by MTT assay in murine macrophages and by Artemia salina lethality assay, and the in vivo acute oral toxicity and androgenic evaluation in rats. Results: Totally, 32 components were detected: Phytol-TMS (11.66%), lactic acid-2TMS (9.16%), α-tocopherol-TMS (7.34%) and β-sitosterol-TMS (6.80%) were the major constituents. At the concentrations analyzed, the ethanol extract showed low cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and murine macrophages. In addition, the extract did not exhibit any toxicological effect or androgenic activity in rats. Conclusions: The derivatization by silylation allowed a rapid identification of chemical compounds from the M. caesalpiniifolia leaves extract. Besides, this species presents a good safety profile as observed in toxicological studies, and possess a great potential in the production of herbal medicines or as for food consumption. PMID:25298660

  6. Chemical constituents and toxicological studies of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Brazilian honey plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana Bruna Nery Monção

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Leguminosae is widely found in the Brazilian Northeast region and markedly contributes to production of pollen and honey, being considered an important honey plant in this region. Objective: To investigate the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of leaves from M. caesalpiniifolia by GC-MS after derivatization (silylation, as well as to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects and androgenic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia was submitted to derivatization by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS to identification of chemical constituents. In vitro toxicological evaluation was performed by MTT assay in murine macrophages and by Artemia salina lethality assay, and the in vivo acute oral toxicity and androgenic evaluation in rats. Results: Totally, 32 components were detected: Phytol-TMS (11.66%, lactic acid-2TMS (9.16%, α-tocopherol-TMS (7.34% and β-sitosterol-TMS (6.80% were the major constituents. At the concentrations analyzed, the ethanol extract showed low cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina and murine macrophages. In addition, the extract did not exhibit any toxicological effect or androgenic activity in rats. Conclusions: The derivatization by silylation allowed a rapid identification of chemical compounds from the M. caesalpiniifolia leaves extract. Besides, this species presents a good safety profile as observed in toxicological studies, and possess a great potential in the production of herbal medicines or as for food consumption.

  7. REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE PAVLODAR CHEMICAL PLANT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHRAPUNOV, V. YE.; ISAKOVA, R.A.; LEVINTOV, B.L.; KALB, P.D.; KAMBEROV, I.M.; TREBUKHOV, A.

    2004-09-25

    Soils beneath and adjacent to the Pavlodar Chemical Plant in Kazakhstan have been contaminated with elemental mercury as a result of chlor alkali processing using mercury cathode cell technology. The work described in this paper was conducted in preparation for a demonstration of a technology to remove the mercury from the contaminated soils using a vacuum assisted thermal distillation process. The process can operate at temperatures from 250-500 C and pressures of 0.13kPa-1.33kPa. Following vaporization, the mercury vapor is cooled, condensed and concentrated back to liquid elemental mercury. It will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as described in a companion paper at this conference. The overall project objectives include chemical and physical characterization of the contaminated soils, study of the influence of the soil's physical-chemical and hydro dynamical characteristics on process parameters, and laboratory testing to optimize the mercury sublimation rate when heating in vacuum. Based on these laboratory and pilot-scale data, a full-scale production process will be designed for testing. This paper describes the soil characterization. This work is being sponsored by the International Science and Technology Center.

  8. Environmental parameters of the Tennessee River in Alabama. 2: Physical, chemical, and biological parameters. [biological and chemical effects of thermal pollution from nuclear power plants on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosing, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    Physical, chemical and biological water quality data from five sites in the Tennessee River, two in Guntersville Reservoir and three in Wheeler Reservoir were correlated with climatological data for three annual cycles. Two of the annual cycles are for the years prior to the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant operations and one is for the first 14 months of Plant operations. A comparison of the results of the annual cycles indicates that two distinct physical conditions in the reservoirs occur, one during the warm months when the reservoirs are at capacity and one during the colder winter months when the reservoirs have been drawn-down for water storage during the rainy months and for weed control. The wide variations of physical and chemical parameters to which the biological organisms are subjected on an annual basis control the biological organisms and their population levels. A comparison of the parameters of the site below the Power plant indicates that the heated effluent from the plant operating with two of the three reactors has not had any effect on the organisms at this site. Recommendations given include the development of prediction mathematical models (statistical analysis) for the physical and chemical parameters under specific climatological conditions which affect biological organisms. Tabulated data of chemical analysis of water and organism populations studied is given.

  9. Effect of consolidate application of organic and chemical fertilizers on the physical and chemical traits of soil and qualitative index of corn (Zea mays L plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Namazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to analysis the effect of Vermicompost and chemical nitrogen fertilizer on physical and chemical traits of soil's and qualitative indexes of corn plant. A factorial test with complete random block designs with 4 repetitions was conducted in the year of 2012. Three doses of chemical nitrogen fertilizers viz 50, 75 & 100 kg/hectare and two level of vermicompost viz 5 & 10 tons/hectare were used either individually or in combination with each others. Results of the study revealed that the use of Vermicompost and chemical nitrogen fertilizer caused a significant increase in the percentage of seed oil contents. At individual application of chemical nitrogen fertilizer highest increment in seed oil content was reported at 100 kg/hectare application, while in combination it was reported higher in the combination of 75 kg/hectare chemical Nitrogen fertilizer and 10ton/hectare vermicompost. The least effective treatment of was the combination of 100 kg/hectare chemical nitrogen fertilizer and 10 tons/hectare vermicompost combination. The most bulk gravity and real gravity is due to the treatment of Nitrogen chemical fertilizer at 50kg/hectare of soil test and without the use of vermicompost and the least bulk and real gravity of soil belong to the treatment of Nitrogen chemical fertilizer at the amount of 100kg/hectare of soil test and use of vermicompost at the amount of 10 tons in hectare.

  10. Modeling the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor process heat plant: a nuclear to chemical conversion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-temperature heat available from the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) makes it suitable for many process applications. One of these applications is a large-scale energy production plant where nuclear energy is converted into chemical energy and stored for industrial or utility applications. This concept combines presently available nuclear HTGR technology and energy conversion chemical technology. The design of this complex plant involves questions of interacting plant dynamics and overall plant control. This paper discusses how these questions were answered with the aid of a hybrid computer model that was developed within the time-frame of the conceptual design studies. A brief discussion is given of the generally good operability shown for the plant and of the specific potential problems and their anticipated solution. The paper stresses the advantages of providing this information in the earliest conceptual phases of the design

  11. Features of adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in iodine air filters AU-1500 at nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Neklyudov, I M; Dikiy, N P; Ledenyov, O P; Lyashko, Yu V

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of research is to investigate the physical features of spatial distribution of the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the iodine air filters of the type of AU1500 in the forced exhaust ventilation systems at the nuclear power plant. The gamma activation analysis method is applied to accurately characterize the distribution of the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the AU1500 iodine air filter after its long term operation at the nuclear power plant. The typical spectrum of the detected chemical elements and their isotopes in the AU1500 iodine air filter, which was exposed to the bremsstrahlung gamma quantum irradiation, produced by the accelerating electrons in the tantalum target, are obtained. The spatial distributions of the detected chemical element 127I and some other chemical elements and their isotopes in the layer of absorber, which was made of the cylindrical coal granule...

  12. National symposium on commissioning and operating experiences in heavy water plants and associated chemical industries [Preprint volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A symposium on commissioning and operating experiences in heavy water plants and associated chemical industries (SCOPEX-92) was organised to share the experience and exchange the ideas among plant operators, designers, consultants and vendors in the areas of operation, commissioning and equipment performance. This pre-print volume has been brought out as an integrated source of information on commissioning and operation of heavy water plants. The following aspects of heavy water plants are covered: commissioning and operation, instrumentation and control, and safety and environment. (V.R.)

  13. A fugacity approach for modeling the transport of airborne organic chemicals in an air/plant/soil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important issue facing both public and private agencies is the identification and quantification of exposures by indirect pathways to toxic chemicals released to the atmosphere. With recent public concerns over pesticides such as malathion and alar in foods, greater attention is being given to the process of chemical uptake by plants. Whether chemicals taken up by plants can accumulate and ultimately enter the human food chain are important questions for determining health risks and safe levels of toxic air-pollutant emissions and pesticide application. A number of plant-toxicokinetic, or ''botanicokinetic,'' models have been developed to give estimates of how chemicals are partitioned and transported within plants. In this paper, we provide a brief review of these models, describing their main features and listing some of their advantages and disadvantages. We then describe and demonstrate a five-compartment air/plant/soil model, which builds on and extends the features included in previous models. We apply this model to the steady-state chemical partitioning of perchloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in grass as test cases. We conclude with a discussion of the advantages and limitations of the model

  14. The role of the chemist/chemical engineer for the trouble-free operation of thermal plants with heat recovery steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addison, David; Weir, Judy [Thermal Chemistry Limited, Horsham Downs, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2012-06-15

    The importance of a chemist/chemical engineer for the reliable and efficient operation of combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plants is discussed along with the key differences between routine and strategic chemistry and how these potentially impact on CCGT plant operation. Potential risks and issues with the full outsourcing of cycle chemistry services for a CCGT plant to chemical service providers are outlined. Also discussed are the interactions between a chemist/chemical engineer and plant management, operations, engineering and maintenance personnel. Proposed chemist/chemical engineer staffing levels for a number of hypothetical CCGT plants are also discussed. (orig.)

  15. A Combined Heuristic and Indicator-based Methodology for Design of Sustainable Chemical Process Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Iskandar; Carvalho, Ana; Srinivasan, Rajagopalan;

    2011-01-01

    The current emphasis on sustainable production has prompted chemical plants to minimize raw material and energy usage without compromising on economics. While computer tools are available to assistin sustainability assessment, their applications are constrained to a specific domain of the design...... synthesis problem. This paper outlines a design synthesis strategy that integrates two computer methodologies – ENVOPExpert and SustainPro – for simultaneous generation, analysis, evaluation, and optimization of sustainable process alternatives. ENVOPExpert diagnoses waste sources, identifies alternatives......, and high-lights trade-offs between environmental and economic objectives. This is complemented by SustainPro which evaluates the alternatives and screens them in-depth through indicators for profit and energy, water, and raw material usage. This results in accurate identification of the root causes...

  16. Plant Species Rather Than Climate Greatly Alters the Temporal Pattern of Litter Chemical Composition During Long-Term Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfu; Chen, Na; Harmon, Mark E.; Li, Yuan; Cao, Xiaoyan; Chappell, Mark A.; Mao, Jingdong

    2015-10-01

    A feedback between decomposition and litter chemical composition occurs with decomposition altering composition that in turn influences the decomposition rate. Elucidating the temporal pattern of chemical composition is vital to understand this feedback, but the effects of plant species and climate on chemical changes remain poorly understood, especially over multiple years. In a 10-year decomposition experiment with litter of four species (Acer saccharum, Drypetes glauca, Pinus resinosa, and Thuja plicata) from four sites that range from the arctic to tropics, we determined the abundance of 11 litter chemical constituents that were grouped into waxes, carbohydrates, lignin/tannins, and proteins/peptides using advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques. Decomposition generally led to an enrichment of waxes and a depletion of carbohydrates, whereas the changes of other chemical constituents were inconsistent. Inconsistent convergence in chemical compositions during decomposition was observed among different litter species across a range of site conditions, whereas one litter species converged under different climate conditions. Our data clearly demonstrate that plant species rather than climate greatly alters the temporal pattern of litter chemical composition, suggesting the decomposition-chemistry feedback varies among different plant species.

  17. Foaming and cell flotation in suspended plant cell cultures and the effect of chemical antifoams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsamuth, R; Doran, P M

    1994-08-01

    Foam development and stability in Atropa belladonna suspensions were investigated as a function of culture conditions. Foaming was due mainly to properties of the cell-free broth and was correlated with protein content; effects due to presence of cells increased towards the end of batch culture. Highest foam levels were measured 11 days after inoculation. Air flow rate was of major importance in determining foam volume; foam volume and stability were also strongly dependent on pH. Foam flotation of plant cells was very effective. After 30 min foaming, ca. 55% of cells were found in the foam; this increased to ca. 75% after 90 min. Polypropylene glycol 1025 and 2025, Pluronic PE 6100, and Antifoam-C emulsion were tested as chemical antifoams. Polypropylene glycol 1025 and Antifoam C at concentrations up to 600 ppm had no adverse effect on growth in shake flasks; Pluronic PE 6100 has an inhibitory effect at all levels tested. Concentrations of polypropylene glycol 2025 and Pluronic PE 6100 as low as 20 ppm reduced foam volumes by a factor of ca. 10. Addition of antifoam reduced k(L)a values in bubble-column and stirred-tank bioreactors. After operation of a stirred reactor for 2 days using Antifoam C for foam control, cell production was limited by oxygen due to the effect of antifoam on mass transfer. Theoretical analysis showed that maximum cell concentrations and biomass levels decline with increasing reactors working volume due to greater consumption of antifoam to prevent foam overflow. The results indicate that when chemical foam control is used in plant cell cultures, head-space volume and tolerable foam levels must be considered to optimize biomass production. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Foaming and cell flotation in suspended plant cell cultures and the effect of chemical antifoams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsamuth, R; Doran, P M

    1994-08-01

    Foam development and stability in Atropa belladonna suspensions were investigated as a function of culture conditions. Foaming was due mainly to properties of the cell-free broth and was correlated with protein content; effects due to presence of cells increased towards the end of batch culture. Highest foam levels were measured 11 days after inoculation. Air flow rate was of major importance in determining foam volume; foam volume and stability were also strongly dependent on pH. Foam flotation of plant cells was very effective. After 30 min foaming, ca. 55% of cells were found in the foam; this increased to ca. 75% after 90 min. Polypropylene glycol 1025 and 2025, Pluronic PE 6100, and Antifoam-C emulsion were tested as chemical antifoams. Polypropylene glycol 1025 and Antifoam C at concentrations up to 600 ppm had no adverse effect on growth in shake flasks; Pluronic PE 6100 has an inhibitory effect at all levels tested. Concentrations of polypropylene glycol 2025 and Pluronic PE 6100 as low as 20 ppm reduced foam volumes by a factor of ca. 10. Addition of antifoam reduced k(L)a values in bubble-column and stirred-tank bioreactors. After operation of a stirred reactor for 2 days using Antifoam C for foam control, cell production was limited by oxygen due to the effect of antifoam on mass transfer. Theoretical analysis showed that maximum cell concentrations and biomass levels decline with increasing reactors working volume due to greater consumption of antifoam to prevent foam overflow. The results indicate that when chemical foam control is used in plant cell cultures, head-space volume and tolerable foam levels must be considered to optimize biomass production. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18618782

  19. Ecological risk of estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals in sewage plant effluent and reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Huang, Huang; Sun, Ying; Wang, Chao; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Hu, Hong-Ying; Kameya, Takashi; Fujie, Koichi

    2013-09-01

    The long-term ecological risk of micropollutants, especially endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has threatened reclaimed water quality. In this study, estrogenic activity and ecological risk of eight typical estrogenic EDCs in effluents from sewage plants were evaluated. The estrogenic activity analysis showed that steroidal estrogens had the highest estrogenic activity (ranged from 10(-1) to 10(3) ng-E2/L), phenolic compounds showed weaker estrogenic activity (mainly ranged from 10(-3) to 10 ng-E2/L), and phthalate esters were negligible. The ecological risk of the estrogenic EDCs which was characterized by risk quotient ranged from 10(-4) to 10(3), with an order in descending: steroids estrogens, phenolic compounds and phthalate esters. The eight estrogenic EDCs were scored and sorted based on the comparison of the estrogenic activity and the ecological risk, suggesting that 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2) should be the priority EDCs to control in municipal sewage plants. PMID:23735815

  20. Chemical, aerosol and optical measurements in the plumes of three midwestern coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, L. W.; Anderson, J. A.; Blumenthal, D. L.; Mcdonald, J. A.; Macias, E. S.; Hering, S. V.; Wilson, W. E.

    Airborne measurements were made in and near the plumes of the following mid western coal-fired power plants in 1981: Kincaid in central Illinois in February, La Cygne near Kansas City in March and Labadie near St. Louis in August and September. One objective of these measurements was to obtain data (reported elsewhere) to be used for the evaluation of plume visibility models. The results of the chemical and aerosol measurements are reported here. Good agreement was obtained from different measurement methods for SO 2 and sulfate, but not for two different nitrate measurement methods. No more than a few per cent of the NO x emitted by these plants was NO 2, and NO 2 formation in the plumes could be accounted for by the ozone loss at the observed distances (up to 100 km in winter and 40 km in summer). Sulfate formation rates were in agreement with prior data, and there was no evidence of increased sulfate formation rates in a scrubbed plume (La Cygne). Both aerosol size distributions and sulfur particle size distributions were measured and showed reasonable agreement. The amount of light scattering by particles in the plume was quite variable, in pan because of variations in their mean particle size. The summer measurements were conducted during a rainy and hazy period when the Labadie plume typically could be seen from the ground only within a few km of the source. During this time, the visual impact of the plume was minimal.

  1. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ocheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

  2. Chemical evaluation of strawberry plants produced by tissue culturing of gamma irradiated seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation as a supplementary factor precedes tissue culture application on strawberry seedlings (c.v.Rosa Linda). the strawberry seedling were irradiated using 8 doses of co 60 gamma rays 50.75.100.125 ,150,250, 350 and 500 gray. tissue culture technique was applied on irradiated and unirradiated strawberry seedling. different characteristics of plantlets, plant and fruit of strawberry produced from the double treatment (irradiation followed by tissue culture) were studied as well as the early, total and exportable fruit yields. data indicated that, low radiation doses 50,75 and 100 gray increased all morphological and chemical characteristics of the plantlets, plant and fruit of strawberry, whereas radiation doses higher than 100 gray decreased them significantly. moreover 350 and gray were lethal doses. radiation dose 50 gray increased the survival percentage and the length of plantlets by 1.5% and 50% respectively more than the unirradiated treatment in all multiplication stages

  3. Number concentration and chemical composition of ultrafine and nanoparticles from WTE (waste to energy) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernuschi, Stefano; Giugliano, Michele; Ozgen, Senem; Consonni, Stefano

    2012-03-15

    Stack field testing at four municipal waste-to-energy (WTE) plants was conducted to investigate total number concentrations and size distributions in a size range extended towards the evaluation of ultrafine (UFP) and nanoparticle (NP) fractions with diameters smaller than 100nm and 50nm, respectively. Measurements were performed with a specifically designed sampling line, equipped with a dilution system and a particle counting device for measuring both primary particles in raw flue gases at stack conditions and the contributions of condensable origin, arising from their cooling and dilution immediately following stack release into the atmosphere. Average concentration levels detected ranged between 5×10(3)-6×10(5)cm(-3): for all sampling conditions, ultrafine fractions largely prevailed in number size distributions, with average diameters constantly located in the nanoparticle size range. Stack concentrations appeared to be influenced by the design and process configuration of flue gas cleaning systems, with most significant effects related to the presence of wet scrubbing units and the baghouse operating temperature of dry removal processes. Chemical speciation (i.e., trace metals, anions and cations, carbonaceous compounds) of size-resolved particulate fractions was performed on one of the plants. NP and UFP composition was essentially in accordance with the most important fuel and combustion process characteristics: in particular, the presence of chlorides and metal species was consistent with the respective waste feed content and their expected behavior during combustion and flue gas cleaning processes. PMID:22326138

  4. Adsorption treatment of oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Wei-Lung, E-mail: wlchou@sunrise.hk.edu.tw [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34, Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Ta [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan Hsien 717, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wen-Chun; Chang, Shih-Yu [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34, Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2010-08-15

    In this study, metal hydroxides generated during electrocoagulation (EC) were used to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by EC. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system for various current densities and temperatures. The COD concentration in the oxide-CMP wastewater was effectively removed and decreased by more than 90%, resulting in a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg L{sup -1}). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process was best described using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities and temperatures. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model predictions matched satisfactorily with the experimental observations. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the COD adsorption of oxide-CMP wastewater on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K.

  5. Adsorption treatment of oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by electrocoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, metal hydroxides generated during electrocoagulation (EC) were used to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by EC. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system for various current densities and temperatures. The COD concentration in the oxide-CMP wastewater was effectively removed and decreased by more than 90%, resulting in a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg L-1). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process was best described using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities and temperatures. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model predictions matched satisfactorily with the experimental observations. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the COD adsorption of oxide-CMP wastewater on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K.

  6. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BUCKWHEAT PLANT (Fagopyrum esculentum AND SELECTED BUCKWHEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine chemical composition of buckwheat plant (Fagopyrum esculentum and products made from its seeds. From the products, peels, groats, flour and wholemeal flour were chosen. Samples were dried and ground to a fine powder. All analyses, except rutin concentration, were determined according to the Commission Regulation no.152/2009. Rutin concentration was performed by the modified method. Almost in all studied samples, the moisture content was about 6 to 8%. The lowest content of moisture was found in roots, 4.3% and the highest was discovered in both flours, about 12%. From buckwheat products, the lowest amount of crude protein was found in peels, 3.5%. On the other hand, the highest crude protein amount of the buckwheat plant was determined in leaves, 22.7%, and in blossoms, 19.1%. The starch content differs from one sample to another. In buckwheat products, its content was about 60 to 70% in dry matter. From all examined samples, the lowest content of fat was found in peels, 0.6%. The greatest concentration of rutin was determined in blossoms and leaves, 83.6 and 69.9 mg per g, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest concentration of rutin was found in buckwheat products, less than 1 mg per g in dry matter. All obtained values, when compared with literature, can differ. Experiments are influenced by the laboratory temperature, method of analysis, reagents and also by the variety of the buckwheat plant.

  7. Effects of Organic and Chemical Fertilizations and Microbe Inoculation on Physiology and Growth ofSweet Corn Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out in a glasshouse to compare the physiology and growth of sweet corn plants (Zea mays L. cv. Honey Bantam) grown under organic and chemical fertilizations with or without microbial inoculation (MI). The organic fertilizer used was fermented mainly using rice bran and oil mill sludge, and the MI was a liquid product containing many beneficial microbes such as lactic acid bacteria, yeast, photosynthetic bacteria and actinomycetes. The application amounts of the organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizers were based on the same rate of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Sweet corn plants fertilized with organic materials inoculated with beneficial microbes grew better than those without inoculation. There were no significant differences in physiology and growth of the sweet corn plants between treatments of chemical fertilizers with and without MI. Among the organic fertilization treatments, only the sweet corn plants with organic fertilizer and MI applied 4 weeks before sowing had similar photosynthetic capacity, total dry matter yield and ear yield to those with chemical fertilizers. Sweet corn plants in other organic fertilization treatments were weaker in physiology and growth than those in chemical fertilization treatments. There was no significant variance among chemical fertilization treatments at different time. It is concluded from this research that this organic fertilizer would be more effective if it was inoculated with the beneficial microbes. Early application of the organic fertilizer with beneficial microbes before sowing was recommended to make the nutrients available before the rapid growth at the early stage and obtain a yield similar to or higher than that with chemical fertilizations.

  8. Lessons learned from an installation perspective for chemical demilitarization plant start-up at four operating incineration sites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motz, L.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2011-02-21

    This study presents the lessons learned by chemical storage installations as they prepared for the start of chemical demilitarization plant operations at the four current chemical incinerator sites in Alabama, Arkansas, Oregon, and Utah. The study included interviews with persons associated with the process and collection of available documents prepared at each site. The goal was to provide useful information for the chemical weapons storage sites in Colorado and Kentucky that will be going through plant start-up in the next few years. The study is not a compendium of what to do and what not to do. The information has been categorized into ten lessons learned; each is discussed individually. Documents that may be useful to the Colorado and Kentucky sites are included in the appendices. This study should be used as a basis for planning and training.

  9. QUANTITY DETERMINATION OF MOLYBDENUM FROM PISUM SATIVUM PLANTS AND THE INFLUENCE OF HEAVY METAL TO CHEMICAL ELEMENTS ACCUMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA BUTNARIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the pea plant as sentinel specie for the heavy metal molybdenum. Evaluation of soil quality after the molybdenum uptake by pea revealed the following results: Pea plant is a bioindicator that concentrates molybdenum with fast reaction to increasing concentrations in soil. Molybdenum had a positive effect concerning the plant growth (throughout all experimental process, pea plants treated with highest concentrated metal solution reached the largest dimensions. Accumulated molybdenum was directly proportional to increasing concentration of the applied solution to roots, stem, leaves and flowers of the experimental plants; however it resided in flowerpot soil too .In the leguminous roots where the nitroreductase and nitrogenese activity is increased, molybdenum content was much higher compared to the aerial parts of the plant. All the way through molybdenum accumulation in the experimental plants up to high concentrations, other chemical elements revealed lower concentration although within the normal limits, with the exception of phosphorus. These plants were found to assimilate high molybdenum quantities without any detrimental consequences for them since molybdenum accumulation occurred in vacuoles in innocuous chemical forms.

  10. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Charles; Wilson, Robert

    2014-04-30

    This project culminated in the demonstration of a full-scale industrial burner which allows a broad range of “opportunity” gaseous fuels to be cost-effectively and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria air pollutants. The burner is capable of maintaining a stable flame when the fuel composition changes rapidly. This enhanced stability will contribute significantly to improving the safety and reliability of burner operation in manufacturing sites. Process heating in the refining and chemicals sectors is the primary application for this burner. The refining and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. Prior to the completion of this project, an enabling technology did not exist that would allow these energy-intensive industries to take full advantage of opportunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. Opportunity gaseous fuels include biogas (from animal and agricultural wastes, wastewater plants, and landfills) as well as syngas (from the gasification of biomass, municipal solid wastes, construction wastes, and refinery residuals). The primary challenge to using gaseous opportunity fuels is that their composition and combustion performance differ significantly from those of conventional fuels such as natural gas and refinery fuel gas. An effective fuel-flexible burner must accept fuels that range widely in quality and change in composition over time, often rapidly. In Phase 1 of this project, the team applied computational fluid dynamics analysis to optimize the prototype burner’s aerodynamic, combustion, heat transfer, and emissions performance. In Phase 2, full-scale testing and refinement of two prototype burners were conducted in test furnaces at Zeeco’s offices in Broken Arrow, OK. These tests demonstrated that the full range of conventional and opportunity fuels could be utilized by the project’s burner while achieving robust flame stability and very low levels of

  11. [Research progress in chemical communication among insect-resistant genetically modified plants, insect pests and natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Song; Li, Yun-He; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2014-08-01

    Semiochemicals released by plants or insects play an important role in the communication among plants, phytophagous insects and their natural enemies. They thus form a chemical information network which regulates intra- and inter-specific behaviors and sustains the composition and structure of plant and insect communities. The application of insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) crops may affect the chemical communication within and among the tritrophic levels, and thus cause disturbances to the biotic community structure and the stability of the farmland ecosystem. This has raised concerns about the environmental safety of IRGM crops and triggered research worldwide. In the current article we provided a brief summary of the chemical communication among plants, herbivores and natural enemies; analyzed the potential of IRGM crops to affect the chemical communication between plants and arthropods and the related mechanisms; and discussed the current research progress and the future prospects in this field. We hope that this will promote the research in this field by Chinese scientists and increase our understanding of the potential effects of growing of IRGM crops on the arthropod community structure.

  12. Soil chemical properties as affected by plant derived ash to replace potassium fertilizer and its conversion value

    OpenAIRE

    John Bako Baon; Sugiyanto Sugiyanto

    2011-01-01

    Potassium chloride (KCl) presently used as main source of K, tends to become more expensive, therefore, there is a need for a breakthrough in finding alternative materials to replace KCl. The aim of this paper is to present recent research on the use of plant derived ash to replace KCl fertilizer, especially in relation with soil chemical characteristics and its conversion value. Plant derived ash coming from palm sugar processing unit which use farm waste as main fuel was used in this experi...

  13. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Centralized Wastewater Treatment Plant in a Chemical Industry Zone: Source, Distribution, and Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Min Yao; Zhongjian Li; Xingwang Zhang; Lecheng Lei

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) could be dissolved in wastewater or adsorbed on particulate. The fate of PCBs in wastewater is essential to evaluate the feasibility of wastewater treatment processes and the environmental risk. Here dissolved and adsorbed concentrations of twenty concerned PCB congeners and total PCBs have been measured in the centralized wastewater treatment plant of a chemical industry zone in Zhejiang, China. It was found that the dyeing chemical processes were the main so...

  14. Antirheumatoid Arthritis Activities and Chemical Compositions of Phenolic Compounds-Rich Fraction from Urtica atrichocaulis, an Endemic Plant to China

    OpenAIRE

    Mengyue Wang; Ke Li; Yuxiao Nie; Yingfang Wei; Xiaobo Li

    2012-01-01

    Urtica atrichocaulis, an endemic plant to China, is commonly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis even though its pharmaceutical activities and chemical constituents were not studied. Herein, we reported our investigations on the chemical compositions of the phenolic compounds-rich fraction from U. atrichocaulis (TFUA) and their antirheumatoid arthritis activities. We found that the TFUA significantly inhibited the adjuvant-induced rats arthritis, carrageenin-induced rats paw edema, cotton pell...

  15. Karrikins Identified in Biochars Indicate Post-Fire Chemical Cues Can Influence Community Diversity and Plant Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, Jitka; Flematti, Gavin R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Karrikins are smoke-derived compounds that provide strong chemical cues to stimulate seed germination and seedling growth. The recent discovery in Arabidopsis that the karrikin perception system may be present throughout angiosperms implies a fundamental plant function. Here, we identify the most potent karrikin, karrikinolide (KAR1), in biochars and determine its role in species unique plant responses. Methods Biochars were prepared by three distinct commercial-scale pyrolysis technologies using systematically selected source material and their chemical properties, including karrikinolide, were quantified. Dose-response assays determined the effects of biochar on seed germination for two model species that require karrikinolide to break dormancy (Solanum orbiculatum, Brassica tourneforttii) and on seedling growth using two species that display plasticity to karrikins, biochar and phytotoxins (Lactuca sativa, Lycopersicon esculentum). Multivariate analysis examined relationships between biochar properties and the plant phenotype. Findings and Conclusions Results showed that karrikin abundant biochars stimulated dormant seed germination and seedling growth via mechanisms analogous to post-fire chemical cues. The individual species response was associated with its sensitivity to karrikinolide and inhibitory compounds within the biochars. These findings are critical for understanding why biochar influences community composition and plant physiology uniquely for different species and reaffirms that future pyrolysis technologies promise by-products that concomitantly sequester carbon and enhance plant growth for ecological and broader plant related applications. PMID:27536995

  16. Final Report: Signal Transduction in Plant Development: chemical and Biochemical Approaches to Receptor Identification, May 15, 1991 - May 14, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, David

    1997-05-14

    Work on the phenolic signals in Striga has provided evidence that the compounds are detected via a chemical reaction, quite distinct from our current models of hormone/growth factor detection by membrane localized binding proteins. Evidence ha been obtained that the recognition mechanism is a redox reaction most likely controlled by plasma membrane localized oxidoreductases. While the existence of these redox systems have been demonstrated in both plants and animals, only recently has convincing evidence connecting e- transport with plant development emerged. These discoveries have profound consequences for both the control of plant cell growth as well as strategies for general growth control.

  17. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 {micro}g/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  18. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greef, J; Villani, K; Goethals, J; Van Belle, H; Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C

    2013-11-01

    Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation - before and after optimisation - as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  19. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greef, J; Villani, K; Goethals, J; Van Belle, H; Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C

    2013-11-01

    Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation - before and after optimisation - as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential. PMID:23810322

  20. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  1. The Unsuspected Roles of Chemistry in Nuclear Power Plants: Special Chemical Technologies for Enhanced Safety and Increased Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sempere Belda, Luis [AREVA NP GmbH, An AREVA and SIEMENS Company, P.O. Box 1109, Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The plant's chemists main responsibility is the establishment and monitoring of an adequate water chemistry to minimize corrosion and in PWRs, to control the neutron flux. But this is by no means the only way in which chemical applications contribute to the performance and safety of a NPP during its entire life: The use of special coatings and treatment protects the plant's components from aggressive environmental conditions. The chemical scale removal in steam generators improves the power output of aging plants, helping even to achieve permissions for NPP life extension. The use of special adhesives can replace welding in complicated or high-dose areas, even underwater. And chemical decontamination is used to remove activity from the components of the primary circuit prior to maintenance or replacement works in order to decrease the radiation exposure of the plant's personnel, employing revolutionary methods of waste minimization to limit the amount of generated radioactive waste to a minimum. The AREVA Group, in its pursue of excellence in all stages of the nuclear cycle, has devoted years of research and development to be able to provide the most advanced technological solutions in this field. The awareness of the existing possibilities will help present and future nuclear professionals, chemists and non-chemists alike, to benefit from the years of experience and continuous development in chemical technologies at the service of the nuclear industry. (authors)

  2. Assessment of airborne dust associated with chemical plant: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattajoshi P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of alumina production involves refining of bauxite ore into tri-hydrated alumina (Al2O3, 3H2O by chemical method followed by process of calcinations. This method possesses various kinds of dust hazards in its work environment amongst the people involved. Poor health of industrial employees in India is due to its occupational environment (Park & Park, 1970, which is a major concern now-a-days. Attempts have been made to recognize the potential sources of airborne dust and to assess the dust load upon exposed workers at different work sites of alumina plants by comparing the observations with the standard values called ′Threshold Limit Values′ (T.L.V. assigned by the international body ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists, USA, and also permissible exposure limit values prescribed in the second schedule Section F of Factories Act (Amendment, 1987. Alumina plant operation includes various physical operations like crushing, grinding, conveying, loading, transporting, etc., which generate finer particles. It can cause serious health hazards on inhalation, depending upon its size, shape, constituents and duration of exposure. Out of all these parameters, concentration of respirable fraction of airborne dust (0.5 to 5.0 micron size and its free silica content have been reported to cause lung fibrosis as well as occupational disorders. In the present study, attempts have been made to make a survey of respirable fraction of the airborne dust (that remains suspended in air for quite an appreciable time associated with various operations according to job profiles. It also outlines the probable control measures in order to provide a healthy working environment. Present work aims at identifying and evaluating the degree of workplace dust with special reference to respirable fraction and for recommending suitable suggestive control measures for an effective management of occupational environment.

  3. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management technology development program plan: 1994 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium and the management of the resulting high-level wastes (HLW). In 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the continued safe management and disposition of SNF and radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3,800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons heavy metal of SNF are in inventory at the ICPP. Disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF ampersand WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will be properly stored and prepared for final disposal in accordance with regulatory drivers. This Plan presents a brief summary of each of the major elements of the SF ampersand WMTDP; identifies key program assumptions and their bases; and outlines the key activities and decisions that must be completed to identify, develop, demonstrate, and implement a process(es) that will properly prepare the SNF and radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP for safe and efficient interim storage and final disposal

  4. In Situ Chemical Oxidation Through Lance Permeation at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ chemical oxidation through lance permeation (ISCO-LP) is an emerging remediation technology in which chemical oxidants (such as potassium or sodium permanganate) are delivered to the subsurface using vertical lance-like injectors. It is applicable to sites with oxidizable contaminants such as chlorinated solvents and fuel hydrocarbons. Because vertical lance injections can be deployed at relatively close spacing, ISCO-LP potentially can be used to clean-up contamination in low-permeability media. This document provides information that can help potential users determine whether ISCO-LP would apply to a particular environmental management problem. It contains a general description of the technology (Section 2), performance data from a field demonstration (Section 3), an assessment of technology applicability (Section 4), a summary of cost elements (Section 5), and a list of regulatory, environmental safety and health issues (Section 6). It is patterned after the Innovative Technology Summary Reports (ITSR) published by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology under the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA). As in the previously published ITSRs, the technology described in this report was developed through funding from SCFA. Most of the information contained in this report was obtained from a field demonstration of ISCO-LP conducted in July-August 2000 at DOE's Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The field test was not completed due to an accident that caused a field worker serious injuries. Although performance assessment data are very limited, the field test highlighted important health and safety issues that must be considered by site managers and technology vendors interested in implementing ISCO-LP

  5. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage and reprocessing since 1953. Reprocessing of SNF has resulted in an existing inventory of 1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid waste and 3800 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of calcine, in addition to the 768 metric tons (MT) of SNF and various other fuel materials in inventory. To date, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, recent changes in world events have diminished the demand to recover and recycle this material. As a result, DOE has discontinued reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery, making the need to properly manage and dispose of these and future materials a high priority. In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, as amended, disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a geological repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will properly stored and prepared for final disposal. Program elements in support of acceptable interim storage and waste minimization include: developing and implementing improved radioactive waste treatment technologies; identifying and implementing enhanced decontamination and decommissioning techniques; developing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) recycle capabilities; and developing and implementing improved technologies for the interim storage of SNF.

  6. Environmental degradation as the result of NATO air-raids against Pancevo chemical plants - oil refinery/petrochemical plant/azotara fertilizer plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long period of sanctions followed by the NATO air raids against the chemical plants of Pancevo caused ecological disaster of enormous proportions in the district, leaving the consequences to the population of the region,making it a transboundary issue of utmost urgency and importance. Due to the impossibility to organize the running under normal conditions during a decade of sanctions imposed on our country, the mentioned companies were constantly facing difficulties concerning the purchasing of the raw materials, devices and equipment since the export to FRY was banned. Thus the companies have been prevented from the realization of the environmental programs and plans including the introduction and implementation of new technologies having as the objectives the remediation of the already existing environmental problems, instead the environmental degradation was increased. During the period from 4th April-7th June 1999, Pancevo was targeted by the NATO on seven occasions. The area where the chemical plants are located was targeted with 35 missiles causing not only the damages but also endangered the environment of Pancevo and the consequences remain to be monitored in the coming years. Three employees of the Oil Refinery were killed at work while more than 50 were injured. Approximately 58.500 tons of crude oil, oil derivates, vinylchloride monomer and other petrochemical products and components were burnt in fire. Serious spills of approximately 5.000 tons of crude oil, oil derivates, 23.000 tons of 1,2 dichloroethane (EDC), 600 tons of HCl, 8 tons of mercury, 3000 tons of NaOH, 230 tons of ammonia water and ammonia and large quantities of other toxic substances contaminated the surrounding soil, ground water, the waste water canal and the river Danube.The sewerage systems were seriously damaged and blocked. A considerable damage was caused to the wastewater treatment facilities resulting in pollution of HIP-Azotara wastewater canal and the river Danube. The

  7. ANALYSIS OF MACRO AND MICROELEMENTS IN TEETH, SALIVA, AND BLOOD OF WORKERS IN FERGANA CHEMICAL PLANT OF FURAN COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunnatillo Gaffarov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to share the results of research conducted in the Fergana chemical plant of furan compounds (FCPFC in Uzbekistan.19 workers of the Furan compounds plant, in Fergana, Uzbekistan, were tested. By neutron activation analysis method, we have studied microelement composition of saliva, blood, dental hard tissue, and the level of Ca, Zn, Fe, and Ag in these subjects. We havedetected that the level of chemical elements in dental hard tissue, blood, and saliva of these workers was subject to negative changes as compared to the analysis results from those in the control group.The research results havepractical value for the prophylaxis, treatment, and health resumption of the people living in rugged ecological environment and workers who are engagedwith harmful substances in chemical industry.  Furthermore,this research also provides recommendations fortreatment of dental diseases related to common conditions of pathophysiological processes carried out bylivingorganisms.

  8. Genetic and chemical diversity of high mucilaginous plants of Sida complex by ISSR markers and chemical fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thul, Sanjog T; Srivastava, Ankit K; Singh, Subhash C; Shanker, Karuna

    2011-09-01

    A method was developed based on multiple approaches wherein DNA and chemical analysis was carried out toward differentiation of important species of Sida complex that is being used for commercial preparation. Isolated DNA samples were successfully performed through PCR amplification using ISSR markers and degree of genetic diversity among the different species of Sida is compared with that of chemical diversity. For genetic fingerprint investigation, selected 10 ISSR primers generating reproducible banding patterns were used. Among the total of 63 amplicons, 62 were recorded as polymorphic, genetic similarity index deduced from ISSR profiles ranged from 12 to 51%. Based on similarity index, S. acuta and S. rhombifolia found to be most similar (51%). High number of species-specific bands played pivotal role to delineate species at genetic level. Investigation based on HPTLC fingerprints analysis revealed 23 bands representing to characteristic chemicals and similarity index ranged from 73 to 91%. Prominent distinguishable bands were observed only in S. acuta, while S. cordifolia and S. rhombifolia shared most bands making them difficult to identify on chemical fingerprint basis. This report summarizes the genotypic and chemotypic diversity and the use of profiles for authentication of species of Sida complex.

  9. Studying How Plants Defend Themselves: A Chemical Weapon Produced by Chilli Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantawanit, Nantawan; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2011-01-01

    Students often prefer to study animals rather than plants, because they see plants as passive, less interesting organisms. This paper proposes a simple hands-on laboratory exercise for high-school students (grade 12) to arouse their interest in learning about plants and to demonstrate to them that plants are active organisms capable of defending…

  10. Chemical evolution of an isolated power plant plume during the TexAQS 2000 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Stephen R.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Brechtel, Frederick; Lee, Yin-Nan; Nunnermacker, Linda J.; Wang, Jian

    Stack emissions from a coal-burning power plant were measured during a research flight of the DOE G-1 during the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS 2000) on 10 September 2000. Clean upstream air and an isolated location allowed the plume to be unambiguously sampled during 12 successive downwind transects to a distance of 63 km—corresponding to a processing time of 4.6 h. The chemical transformation rates of sulfur and nitrogen primary pollutants into aerosol SO 42- and HNO 3 yield independent values of OH concentration (8.0 and 11×106 cm -3, respectively) that are consistent within experimental uncertainty and qualitatively agree with constrained steady-state (CSS) box model calculations. Ozone production efficiency increases with plume age as expected. Primary aerosol emissions with Dp>5 μm were sampled near the stack. As the plume ages, aerosol size distributions adjusted for dilution show constant number concentrations of aerosols Dp>10 nm and a marked increase in accumulation-mode particles ( Dp>0.1 μm) as gas-to-particle-conversion causes smaller particles to grow.

  11. Formaldehyde: a chemical of concern in the vicinity of MBT plants of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilavert, Lolita; Figueras, María J; Schuhmacher, Marta; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2014-08-01

    The mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) has a number of advantages in comparison to other MSW management possibilities. However, adverse health effects related to this practice are not well known yet, as a varied typology of microbiological and chemical agents may be generated and released. In 2010, we initiated an environmental monitoring program to control air levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and microbiological pollutants near an MBT plant in Montcada i Reixac (Catalonia, Spain). In order to assess any temporal and seasonal trends, four 6-monthly campaigns were performed. Important fluctuations were observed in the levels of different biological indicators (total and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi grown at 25 °C and 37 °C, and more specifically, Aspergillus fumigatus). Although overall bioaerosols concentrations were rather low, a certain increase in the mean values of bacteria and fungi was observed in summer. In contrast, higher concentrations of VOCs were found in winter, with the only exception of formaldehyde. Interestingly, although this compound was not detected in one of the sampling campaigns, current airborne levels of formaldehyde were higher than those previously reported in urban areas across Europe. Furthermore, the non-carcinogenic risks (Hazard Quotient), particularly in winter, as well as the cancer risks associated with the inhalation of VOCs, exceeded the threshold values (1 and 10(-5), respectively), reaffirming the need of continuing with the monitoring program, with special emphasis on formaldehyde, a carcinogenic/mutagenic substance. PMID:24906065

  12. Occurrence and fate of endocrine disrupting chemicals in ASP based sewage treatment plant in Hardwar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Gita; Pant, Shalini; Alam, Tanveer; Kazmi, A A

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of emerging contaminants such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in our water resources is of prime concern. With this context, fate and seasonal variation of six EDCs (testosterone, T; progesterone, P; diethyl phthalate, DEP; dibutyl phthalate, DBP; propyl-paraben, PP and butyl-paraben, BP) were assessed throughout the year, i.e. in rainy, winter, spring and summer seasons in the raw, treated wastewater and activated sludge in an activated sludge process (ASP) based sewage treatment plant (STP) located in Haridwar, India. Qualitative and quantitative measurements were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Results indicate that in summer, the examined STP could effectively remove 82.9% of T, 86.4% of P, 95.5% of DEP, 92.4% of DBP, 91.5% of PP, and 89.9% of BP from the wastewater. Among the EDCs considered, higher removal efficiencies were achieved for phthalates in the summer season. GC-MS analysis showed that a small fraction of EDCs was sorbed on the solid fraction of activated sludge. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy analysis were also performed to investigate the occurrence of EDCs in biomass samples. Results of this study also demonstrated that removal efficiency, assessed in terms of physicochemical and microbiological parameters, was maximum in summer and reached minimum in rainy season. PMID:27642823

  13. Remedial investigation for the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for management of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. Major goals include eliminating potential public and environmental hazards due to site contamination and releasing the property for alternate uses to the maximum extent practicable. The purpose of the remedial investigation described in this report was to determine the extent of contamination associated with the portion of the Weldon Spring site known as the chemical plant and raffinate pit area. The DOE has assumed responsibility for investigating and remediating all on-site soil contamination and off-site soil which is radiologically contaminated as a result of uranium and thorium processing operations. The DOE has also assumed the responsibility for radiologically contaminated groundwater on and off site. The Weldon Spring site remedial investigation also involved the evaluation of the sources, nature and extent, and environmental fate and transport of contaminants to provide a basis for defining the risks that the contaminants may pose to human health and the environment. Data are included in this report to support the screening of remedial technologies and to permit the development and detailed analysis of alternatives for remedial action at the site during the feasibility study process

  14. Chemical durability of Savannah River Plant waste glass as a function of waste loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leachability of Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste forms was assessed for glass containing up to 50 wt % simulated waste oxides. Leach tests included standard MCC-1 static tests and pH-buffered solution experiments. An integrated approach combining leachate solution analysis with both bulk and surface analyses was used to study waste glass corrosion as a function of waste loading. Leachate solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy and atomic absorption. Bulk and surface analyses were performed using optical microscopy, wide angle x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray energy spectroscopy, and electron microprobe analysis. Scouting tests on key processing and product parameters, such as viscosity, electrical resistivity, and density were also performed. Results of this study show that the durability of SRP waste glass improves due to the presence of the waste, for waste loadings up to 50 wt % because of the formation of protective surface layers. In addition, the data indicate that the practical limit of waste loading will be determined not by chemical durability of the product, but by processing considerations

  15. Morphogenetic and chemical stability of long-term maintained Agrobacterium-mediated transgenic Catharanthus roseus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Sharma, Abhishek; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Shanker, Karuna

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic Catharanthus roseus plants (transgenic Dhawal [DT] and transgenic Nirmal [NT]) obtained from the Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizognenes-mediated transformations, respectively, have been maintained in vitro for 5 years. Plants were studied at regular intervals for various parameters such as plant height, leaf size, multiplication rate, alkaloid profile and presence of marker genes. DT plant gradually lost the GUS gene expression and it was not detected in the fifth year while NT plant demonstrated the presence of genes rolA, rolB and rolC even in the fifth year, indicating the more stable nature of Ri transgene. Vindoline content in the DT was two times more than in non-transformed control plants. Alkaloid and tryptophan profiles were almost constant during the 5 years. The cluster analysis revealed that the DT plant is more close to the control Nirmal plant followed by NT plant. PMID:25102992

  16. Effects of chitosan on growth of an aquatic plant (Hydrilla verticillata) in polluted waters with different chemical oxygen demands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qiu-jin; NIAN Yue-gang; JIN Xiang-can; YAN Chang-zhou; LIU Jin; Jiang Gao-ming

    2007-01-01

    Effects of chitosan on a submersed plant, Hydrilla verticillata, were investigated. Results indicated that H. verticillata could prevent ultrastructure phytotoxicities and oxidativereaction from polluted water with high chemical oxygen demand (COD). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in H. verticillata treated with 0.1% chitosan in wastewater increased with high COD (980 mg/L) and decreased with low COD (63 mg/L), respectively. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the stroma and grana of chloroplast basically remained normal. However, plant cells from the control experiment (untreated with chitosan) were vacuolated and the cell interval increased. The relict of protoplast moved to the center, with cells tending to disjoint. Our findings indicate that wastewater with high COD concentration can cause a substantial damage to submersed plant, nevertheless, chitosan probably could alleviate the membrane lipid peroxidization and ultrastructure phytotoxicities, and protect plant cells from stress of high COD concentration polluted water.

  17. Plant seed species identification from chemical fingerprints: a high-throughput application of direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, Ashton D; Cody, Robert B; Dane, A John; Musah, Rabi A

    2015-09-01

    Plant species identification based on the morphological features of plant parts is a well-established science in botany. However, species identification from seeds has largely been unexplored, despite the fact that the seeds contain all of the genetic information that distinguishes one plant from another. Using seeds of genus Datura plants, we show here that the mass spectrum-derived chemical fingerprints for seeds of the same species are similar. On the other hand, seeds from different species within the same genus display distinct chemical signatures, even though they may contain similar characteristic biomarkers. The intraspecies chemical signature similarities on the one hand, and interspecies fingerprint differences on the other, can be processed by multivariate statistical analysis methods to enable rapid species-level identification and differentiation. The chemical fingerprints can be acquired rapidly and in a high-throughput manner by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) analysis of the seeds in their native form, without use of a solvent extract. Importantly, knowledge of the identity of the detected molecules is not required for species level identification. However, confirmation of the presence within the seeds of various characteristic tropane and other alkaloids, including atropine, scopolamine, scopoline, tropine, tropinone, and tyramine, was accomplished by comparison of the in-source collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation patterns of authentic standards, to the fragmentation patterns observed in the seeds when analyzed under similar in-source CID conditions. The advantages, applications, and implications of the chemometric processing of DART-MS derived seed chemical signatures for species level identification and differentiation are discussed.

  18. Antibacterial activity chemical composition relationship of the essential oils from cultivated plants from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Nemanja S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial effects of essential oils from Serbian cultivated plants, Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiace and Lavandula angustifolia L. (Lamiace on different bacteria were investigated, with an emphasis on an antibacterial activity-chemical composition relationship. Essential oil was obtained from airdried aerial parts of the plants by hydrodistillation for 3 h using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The essential oil analyses were performed simultaneously by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS systems. The main constituents of thyme oil were thymol (59.95% and p-cymene (18.34%. Linalyl acetate (38.23% and linalool (35.01% were main compounds in lavender oil. The antibacterial activity of the essential oils samples was tested towards 5 different bacteria: laboratory control strain obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and clinical isolates from different pathogenic media. Gram negative bacteria were represented by Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 43895 and Salmonella enteretidis ATCC 9027 while researched Gram positive strains were Bacillus cereus ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. A broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC. Essential oils from thyme have been found to have antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested, with a range of MIC values from 0.025 to 0.10 l/ml and MBC values from 0.05 to 0.78 l/ml. Lavender oils demonstrated MIC values from 0.025 to 0.20 l/ml and MBC values from 0.05 and 0.78 l/ml. Reference antibiotic tetracycline was active in concentrations between 0.025 and 0.05 l/ml. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the essential oil of thyme, while Gram-negative bacteria were more sensitive to the essential oil of lavender. Essential oils from thyme and lavender may be used at low concentrations for prevention and treatment of

  19. Chemical, dimensional and morphological ultrafine particle characterization from a waste-to-energy plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Particle size distributions and total concentrations measurement at the stack and before the fabric filter of an incinerator. → Chemical characterization of UFPs in terms of heavy metal concentration through a nuclear method. → Mineralogical investigation through a Transmission Electron Microscope equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer. → Heavy metal concentrations on UFPs as function of the boiling temperature. → Different mineralogical and morphological composition amongst samples collected before the fabric filter and at the stack. - Abstract: Waste combustion processes are responsible of particles and gaseous emissions. Referring to the particle emission, in the last years specific attention was paid to ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter less than 0.1 μm), mainly emitted by combustion processes. In fact, recent findings of toxicological and epidemiological studies indicate that fine and ultrafine particles could represent a risk for health and environment. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify particle emissions from incinerators also to perform an exposure assessment for the human populations living in their surrounding areas. To these purposes, in the present work an experimental campaign aimed to monitor UFPs was carried out at the incineration plant in San Vittore del Lazio (Italy). Particle size distributions and total concentrations were measured both at the stack and before the fabric filter inlet in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of the filter in terms of UFPs. A chemical characterization of UFPs in terms of heavy metal concentration was performed through a nuclear method, i.e. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), as well as a mineralogical investigation was carried out through a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) in order to evaluate shape, crystalline state and mineral compound of sampled particles. Maximum values of 2.7 x 107 part. cm-3

  20. The genetic origins of biosynthesis and light-responsive control of the chemical UV screen of land plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most land plants possess the capacity to protect themselves from UV light, and do so by producing pigments that absorb efficiently in the UV-A and UV-B regions of the spectrum while allowing transmission of nearly all photosynthetically useful wavelengths. These UV-absorbing pigments are mainly phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. This chapter summarizes current understanding of the mechanism of UV protection in higher land plants, evaluates the information available from lower land plants and their green-algal relatives, and then considers the possible evolutionary origins of this use of chemical filters for selectively screening UV light from solar radiation. It is proposed that photo control over the biosynthesis of UV-absorbing phenylpropanoids and flavonoids may have evolved in concert with the evolution of the high biosynthetic activity necessary for UV protection. The toxicity of phenylpropanoids and flavonoids has been postulated to have been a barrier to the evolution of an effective chemical UV screen, and that some means for sequestering these compounds and/or for controlling their synthesis probably evolved prior to, or in concert with, the evolution of high rates of biosynthesis. The original photoreceptor and signal transduction system is speculated to have been based on photo isomerization of a phenylpropanoid ester and a pre-existing product feedback mechanism for controlling phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Understanding the original mechanism for photo control of the chemical UV screen of land plants could be valuable for understanding the adaptability of extant land plants to rising levels of solar UV-B radiation and may suggest genetic strategies for engineering improved UV tolerance in crop plants. (author)

  1. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H. [Keppel Seghers, Center of Excellence, Hoofd 1, B-2830 Willebroek (Belgium); Van Caneghem, J., E-mail: jo.vancaneghem@cit.kuleuven.be [University of Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, ProcESS (Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems) Division, Willem De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Group T Leuven Engineering College, Association of the University of Leuven, Andreas Vesaliusstraat 13, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Vandecasteele, C. [University of Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, ProcESS (Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems) Division, Willem De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  2. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential

  3. Nuclear fuel reprocessing deactivation plan for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision was announced on April 28, 1992 to cease all United States Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels. This decision leads to the deactivation of all fuels dissolution, solvent extraction, krypton gas recovery operations, and product denitration at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The reprocessing facilities will be converted to a safe and stable shutdown condition awaiting future alternate uses or decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D). This ICPP Deactivation Plan includes the scope of work, schedule, costs, and associated staffing levels necessary to achieve a safe and orderly deactivation of reprocessing activities and the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF). Deactivation activities primarily involve shutdown of operating systems and buildings, fissile and hazardous material removal, and related activities. A minimum required level of continued surveillance and maintenance is planned for each facility/process system to ensure necessary environmental, health, and safety margins are maintained and to support ongoing operations for ICPP facilities that are not being deactivated. Management of the ICPP was transferred from Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) to Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) on October 1, 1994 as part of the INEL consolidated contract. This revision of the deactivation plan (formerly the Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Phaseout Plan for the ICPP) is being published during the consolidation of the INEL site-wide contract and the information presented here is current as of October 31, 1994. LITCO has adopted the existing plans for the deactivation of ICPP reprocessing facilities and the plans developed under WINCO are still being actively pursued, although the change in management may result in changes which have not yet been identified. Accordingly, the contents of this plan are subject to revision

  4. Fitness costs of animal medication: antiparasitic plant chemicals reduce fitness of monarch butterfly hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Leiling; Hoang, Kevin M; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of ecological immunology demonstrates that allocation by hosts to immune defence against parasites is constrained by the costs of those defences. However, the costs of non-immunological defences, which are important alternatives to canonical immune systems, are less well characterized. Estimating such costs is essential for our understanding of the ecology and evolution of alternative host defence strategies. Many animals have evolved medication behaviours, whereby they use antiparasitic compounds from their environment to protect themselves or their kin from parasitism. Documenting the costs of medication behaviours is complicated by natural variation in the medicinal components of diets and their covariance with other dietary components, such as macronutrients. In the current study, we explore the costs of the usage of antiparasitic compounds in monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), using natural variation in concentrations of antiparasitic compounds among plants. Upon infection by their specialist protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, monarch butterflies can selectively oviposit on milkweed with high foliar concentrations of cardenolides, secondary chemicals that reduce parasite growth. Here, we show that these antiparasitic cardenolides can also impose significant costs on both uninfected and infected butterflies. Among eight milkweed species that vary substantially in their foliar cardenolide concentration and composition, we observed the opposing effects of cardenolides on monarch fitness traits. While high foliar cardenolide concentrations increased the tolerance of monarch butterflies to infection, they reduced the survival rate of caterpillars to adulthood. Additionally, although non-polar cardenolide compounds decreased the spore load of infected butterflies, they also reduced the life span of uninfected butterflies, resulting in a hump-shaped curve between cardenolide non-polarity and the life span of infected butterflies

  5. Fitness costs of animal medication: antiparasitic plant chemicals reduce fitness of monarch butterfly hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Leiling; Hoang, Kevin M; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of ecological immunology demonstrates that allocation by hosts to immune defence against parasites is constrained by the costs of those defences. However, the costs of non-immunological defences, which are important alternatives to canonical immune systems, are less well characterized. Estimating such costs is essential for our understanding of the ecology and evolution of alternative host defence strategies. Many animals have evolved medication behaviours, whereby they use antiparasitic compounds from their environment to protect themselves or their kin from parasitism. Documenting the costs of medication behaviours is complicated by natural variation in the medicinal components of diets and their covariance with other dietary components, such as macronutrients. In the current study, we explore the costs of the usage of antiparasitic compounds in monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), using natural variation in concentrations of antiparasitic compounds among plants. Upon infection by their specialist protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, monarch butterflies can selectively oviposit on milkweed with high foliar concentrations of cardenolides, secondary chemicals that reduce parasite growth. Here, we show that these antiparasitic cardenolides can also impose significant costs on both uninfected and infected butterflies. Among eight milkweed species that vary substantially in their foliar cardenolide concentration and composition, we observed the opposing effects of cardenolides on monarch fitness traits. While high foliar cardenolide concentrations increased the tolerance of monarch butterflies to infection, they reduced the survival rate of caterpillars to adulthood. Additionally, although non-polar cardenolide compounds decreased the spore load of infected butterflies, they also reduced the life span of uninfected butterflies, resulting in a hump-shaped curve between cardenolide non-polarity and the life span of infected butterflies

  6. Post-combustion CO2 capture : energetic evaluation of chemical absorption processes in coal-fired steam power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Oexmann, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a semi-empirical column model is developed to represent absorber and desorber columns of post-combustion CO2 capture processes in coal-fired steam power plants. The chemical solvents are represented by empirical correlations on the basis of fundamental measurement data (CO2 solubility, heat capacity, density). The model of a CO2 capture process including the column model is coupled to detailed models of a hard-coal-fired steam power plant and of a CO2 compressor to evaluate and ...

  7. Chemical profile studies on the secondary metabolites of medicinally important plant Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb.) DC using HPTLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Priya Alphonso; Aparna Saraf

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish the chemical fingerprint of various secondary metabolites of Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb.) DC, a medicinally important plant. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening for various secondary metabolites was carried out. HPTLC profiles of various individual secondary metabolites were done and profiles were developed for authentication. Result: The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of 8 Glycosides, 10 Flavonoids, 6 Essential Oils, 5 Anthraquinones, 9 bitter principles, 7 Coumarins and 8 Terpenoids. Conclusions: The development of such fingerprint for the fruits of Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb.) DC is useful in differentiating the species from the adulterant and also act as biomarker for this plant in the Pharmaceutical industry.

  8. The Surface Coat of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes: Chemical Composition, Origin, and Biological Role—A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel, Y.; McClure, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Chemical composition, origin, and biological role of the surface coat (SC) of plant-parasitic nematodes are described and compared with those of animal-parasitic and free-living nematodes. The SC of the plant-parasitic nematodes is 5-30 nm thick and is characterized by a net negative charge. It consists, at least in part, of glycoproteins and proteins with various molecular weights, depending upon the nematode species. The lability of its components and the binding of human red blood cells to...

  9. Gamma-ray scanning for troubleshooting and optimisation of distillation columns in petroleum refineries and chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique and facilities for gamma-ray scanning have been developed by the Plant Assessment Technology (PAT) Group at the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT). The technology has been successfully used for on-line troubleshooting and investigation of various types of distillation columns in petroleum refineries, gas processing installations and chemical plants in the country and the region. This paper outlines the basic principle of the technology and describes the inspection procedures, and in addition, a few case studies are presented. (Author)

  10. Dynamic Modeling and Plantwide Control of a Hybrid Power and Chemical Plant: An Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Coupled with a Methanol Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Patrick J.

    Gasification has been used in industry on a relatively limited scale for many years, but it is emerging as the premier unit operation in the energy and chemical industries. The switch from expensive and insecure petroleum to solid hydrocarbon sources (coal and biomass) is occurring due to the vast amount of domestic solid resources, national security and global warming issues. Gasification (or partial oxidation) is a vital component of "clean coal" technology. Sulfur and nitrogen emissions can be reduced, overall energy efficiency is increased and carbon dioxide recovery and sequestration are facilitated. Gasification units in an electric power generation plant produce a fuel gas for driving combustion turbines. Gasification units in a chemical plant generate synthesis gas, which can be used to produce a wide spectrum of chemical products. Future plants are predicted to be hybrid power/chemical plants with gasification as the key unit operation. The coupling of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) with a methanol plant can handle swings in power demand by diverting hydrogen gas from a combustion turbine and synthesis gas from the gasifier to a methanol plant for the production of an easily-stored, hydrogen-consuming liquid product. An additional control degree of freedom is provided with this hybrid plant, fundamentally improving the controllability of the process. The idea is to base-load the gasifier and use the more responsive gas-phase units to handle disturbances. During the summer days, power demand can fluctuate up to 50% over a 12-hour period. The winter provides a different problem where spikes of power demand can go up 15% within the hour. The following dissertation develops a hybrid IGCC / methanol plant model, validates the steady-state results with a National Energy Technical Laboratory study, and tests a proposed control structure to handle these significant disturbances. All modeling was performed in the widely used chemical process

  11. Influence of perennial plants on chemical properties of arid calcareous soils in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimian, N.; Razmi, K. (Shiraz Univ. (Iran))

    1990-10-01

    The authors conducted a study in Bajgah to determine the influence of perennial plants on some selected properties of soils formed on the highly calcareous parent material. The major plant genera were determined to be Agropyron, Artemisia, Astragalus, Dianthus, Eryngium, Peganum, Polygonum, Stipa, and Thymus. Tops of plants genera were found to be significantly different in ash, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Zn, and Cu; the concentration of Fe was not significantly different. The authors found the plants to differ significantly in their influence on soil properties. Peganum caused an accumulation of organic matter (OM) as high as 7% in the soil, in an environment where the soils typically contain less than 1% OM. Soil concentrations of P, K, Mn, Zn, and Cu were also found to vary significantly beneath different plant genera. They suggest these differences in OM accumulation were caused by plant litter. Concentration of Fe in the soils formed beneath different plant genera was statistically unchanged.

  12. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF MAIZE STEMS DEPENDING ON THE CUTTING HEIGHT OF PLANTS AT HARVEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneus KOWALIK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out in the two years in Trzcianka near Nowy Tomyśl, on brown soil, IIIa – IVa with pH 7.1 – 7.2. Plants of five maize cultivars were cut at the height of 15 cm and 55 cm. The lower parts of stems with leaves which remain on the field in case of high cutting, were characterized by a smaller content of protein and by a greater content of fibre, in comparison with the higher parts of plants. The energetic value of 1 kg of dry matter of the lower 40 cm part with leaves expressed in MJ NEL, in spite of significant differences in the chemical composition, was only insignificantly lower than the upper part. The content of dry matter, the chemical composition and the energetic value of both parts differed, depending on the cultivar.

  13. Chemical analysis of sewage sludge of southern sewerage treatment plant (SSTP) Hyderabad for achieving sustainable development in sector of agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the chemical analysis of sewage sludge of southern sewerage treatment plant (SSPP) Hyderabad was studied. Chemical analysis on sludge samples collected form the waste stabilization for different micro-nutrients (essential manures, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium) were conducted in year 1999-2000. These nutrients and metal were detected by reliable analytical method i.e. Kjeldahls method and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The analysis showed that sewage sludge contained sufficient quantity of primary and secondary nutrients, hence sewage sludge could be utilized as a natural fertilizer. This will not only solve the disposal problem but it would also be environmentally safer way of providing regulators to the plants. (author)

  14. Minimization of water and chemical usage in the cleaning in place process of a milk pasteurization plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathit Niamsuwan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cleaning in place (CIP is a method of cleaning inner surfaces of piping, vessel, equipment, and associated fitting withdisassembly. Although, the CIP processes have been studied continually to improve efficiency for chemical and water consumption,the real conventional plant operations of this process still have been considered as a large amount of consumption.The objectives of this work are to study process behaviors and to find out the optimal draining ratio of the CIP cleaningchemicals in a pasteurized milk plant. To achieve these, mathematical models of the CIP process have been developed andvalidated by the actual process data. With these models, simulation study has been carried out to describe the dynamicbehaviors of the process with respect to the concentrations and contaminations in CIP cleaning chemicals. The optimizationproblem has been formulated and solved using written programs based on MATLAB application program.

  15. Lessons learned from non-medical industries: root cause analysis as culture change at a chemical plant

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, J; J. Rudolph; Hatakenaka, S

    2002-01-01

    

 Root cause analysis was introduced to a chemical plant as a way of enhancing performance and safety, exemplified by the investigation of an explosion. The cultural legacy of the root cause learning intervention was embodied in managers' increased openness to new ideas, individuals' questioning attitude and disciplined thinking, and a root cause analysis process that provided continual opportunities to learn and improve. Lessons for health care are discussed, taking account of differences b...

  16. A Q-learning with Selective Generalization Capability and its Application to Layout Planning of Chemical Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hirashima, Yoichi

    2009-01-01

    A design method for CMAC that has selective generalization (SG-CMAC) has been proposed. Also, a Q-learning system using SG-CMAC is proposed, and the proposed system is applied to allocation problem of chemical plant. In the computer simulations, the proposed method could obtain optimal solutions with feasible computational cost, and the learning performance was improved as compared to conventional methods.

  17. Fate of Organohalogens in U.S. Wastewater Treatment Plants and Estimated Chemical Releases to Soils Nationwide from Biosolids Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Heidler, Jochen; Halden, Rolf U.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the occurrence in wastewater of 11 aromatic biocides, pesticides and degradates, and their fate during passage through U.S. treatment plants, as well as the chemical mass contained in sewage sludge (biosolids) destined for land application. Analyte concentrations in wastewater influent, effluent and sludge from 25 facilities in 18 U.S. states were determined by liquid chromatography electrospray (tandem) mass spectrometry. Dichlorocarbanilide, fipronil, triclocarban, and t...

  18. Medicinal Plants Recommended by the World Health Organization: DNA Barcode Identification Associated with Chemical Analyses Guarantees Their Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Melo Palhares; Marcela Gonçalves Drummond; Bruno Dos Santos Alves Figueiredo Brasil; Gustavo Pereira Cosenza; Maria das Graças Lins Brandão; Guilherme Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used throughout the world, and the regulations defining their proper use, such as identification of the correct species and verification of the presence, purity and concentration of the required chemical compounds, are widely recognized. Herbal medicines are made from vegetal drugs, the processed products of medicinal species. These processed materials present a number of challenges in terms of botanical identification, and according to the World Health Organization (WHO)...

  19. Assessing potential health hazards from radiation generated at the tailings management facilities of the Prydniprovsky chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study has involved the assessment of the tailings management facilities operated at the Prydniprovsky Chemical Plant. The authors have estimated individual and collective exposure doses that may be caused by the emissions of radon, radon decay products and radioactive dust, for each human settlement located within the area of impact of the tailings management facilities. These tailings management facilities have been ranked to describe their relative hazard based on their estimated contribution to the collective exposure dose levels and associated risks

  20. Chemical Ceratoides, Years Composition and Ruminal Digestibility of a Salt-tolerant Perennial Plant,at Different

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN H; ISHIKAWA N; VIN G; SHIMIZU K; CAO W; Hasiqiqige; AMARI M; Alata

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that salt-tolerant plant could be used as a feed resource for ruminants whereby salt would be removed from salinized land (Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. (2002) 15:998-1001). Ceratoides arborescens (Losinsk.) Tsien et C. G. Ma is known as a drought- and salt-tolerant plant,a kind of shrubs, growing in semi-arid land of Inner Mongolia. Because the covering effect of the perennial plant as a mulch over the soil might be expected, the optimum covering effect would be obtained after the growth period.The perennial plant produces seeds around summer and end its growth thereafter. Nutrient value of the perennial salt-tolerant plant, however, had not been reported in flowering period at different year. It is necessary to know the ruminal degradability of the plants of each growing year in order to determine the regimen to diet for ruminants. The present experiment,therefore,was undertaken to analyze the digestibility and chemical composition of Ceratoides arborescens as feed for ruminants.

  1. Geochemistry and stratigraphic correlation of basalt lavas beneath the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M.F.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Hughes, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-nine samples of basaltic core were collected from wells 121 and 123, located approximately 1.8 km apart north and south of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Samples were collected from depths ranging from 15 to 221 m below land surface for the purpose of establishing stratigraphic correlations between these two wells. Elemental analyses indicate that the basalts consist of three principal chemical types. Two of these types are each represented by a single basalt flow in each well. The third chemical type is represented by many basalt flows and includes a broad range of chemical compositions that is distinguished from the other two types. Basalt flows within the third type were identified by hierarchical K-cluster analysis of 14 representative elements: Fe, Ca, K, Na, Sc, Co, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, Hf, Ta, and Th. Cluster analyses indicate correlations of basalt flows between wells 121 and 123 at depths of approximately 38-40 m, 125-128 m, 131-137 m, 149-158 m, and 183-198 m. Probable correlations also are indicated for at least seven other depth intervals. Basalt flows in several depth intervals do not correlate on the basis of chemical compositions, thus reflecting possible flow margins in the sequence between the wells. Multi-element chemical data provide a useful method for determining stratigraphic correlations of basalt in the upper 1-2 km of the eastern Snake River Plain.

  2. Nuclear power plant life management: flow accelerated corrosion and chemical control. Application to Embalse Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of a water-steam cycle is one of the main aspects of the Plant Life Management of a Nuclear Power Plant and it is important for the preservation, efficiency and availability of the whole system. In that sense this aspect has to be prioritized in any study whose aim is the life extension of the plant. In particular, the flow-assisted -corrosion or FAC is a problem that worldwide has been considered important due to the piping wall thinning that in some occasions has led to severe accidents. The FAC phenomena is not easy to be interpreted and addressed although nowadays there are some accepted models to understand and predict sensitive areas of the cycle. The objectives of the present paper have been: a) The construction of an integrated code that involves all the aspects that have influence on FAC, i.e., materials, composition, geometry, temperature and flow rate, quality, chemistry, etc.; b) Establish or adapting current models to the circuit of Embalse PHWR NPP; c) Identify new locations for inspection and wall thickness measurement in order to predict residual life; d) Compare different chemistries and e) handle large sets of inspection data. Among the results, new lines have been incorporated to the inspection schedule of the 2005' programmed outage. Also, the evaluation is part of the PLIM-PLEX programme at Embalse-N.A.S.A. in collaboration with C.N.E.A. is being carried out. (author)

  3. An Improved Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Chemical Plant Layout Optimization with Novel Non-overlapping and Toxic Gas Dispersion Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yuan; WANG Zhenyu; ZHU Qunxiong

    2013-01-01

    New approaches for facility distribution in chemical plants are proposed including an improved non-overlapping constraint based on projection relationships of facilities and a novel toxic gas dispersion constraint.In consideration of the large number of variables in the plant layout model,our new method can significantly reduce the number of variables with their own projection relationships.Also,as toxic gas dispersion is a usual incident in a chemical plant,a simple approach to describe the gas leakage is proposed,which can clearly represent the constraints of potential emission source and sitting facilities.For solving the plant layout model,an improved genetic algorithm (GA) based on infeasible solution fix technique is proposed,which improves the globe search ability of GA.The case study and experiment show that a better layout plan can be obtained with our method,and the safety factors such as gas dispersion and minimum distances can be well handled in the solution.

  4. Sulfonamides identified as plant immune-priming compounds in high-throughput chemical screening increase disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiteru eNoutoshi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant activators are agrochemicals that protect crops from diseases by activating the plant immune system. To isolate lead compounds for use as practical plant activators, we screened 2 different chemical libraries composed of various bioactive substances by using an established screening procedure that can selectively identify immune-priming compounds. We identified and characterized a group of sulfonamide compounds—sulfameter, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfabenzamide, and sulfachloropyridazine—among the various isolated candidate molecules. These sulfonamide compounds enhanced the avirulent Pseudomonas-induced cell death of Arabidopsis suspension cell cultures and increased disease resistance in Arabidopsis plants against both avirulent and virulent strains of the bacterium. These compounds did not prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria in minimal liquid media at 200 µM. They also did not induce the expression of defense-related genes in Arabidopsis seedlings, at least not at 24 and 48 h after treatment, suggesting that they do not act as salicylic acid analogs. In addition, although sulfonamides are known to be folate biosynthesis inhibitors, the application of folate did not restore the potentiation effects of the sulfonamides on pathogen-induced cell death. Our data suggest that sulfonamides potentiate Arabidopsis disease resistance by their novel chemical properties.

  5. Antirheumatoid Arthritis Activities and Chemical Compositions of Phenolic Compounds-Rich Fraction from Urtica atrichocaulis, an Endemic Plant to China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyue Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urtica atrichocaulis, an endemic plant to China, is commonly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis even though its pharmaceutical activities and chemical constituents were not studied. Herein, we reported our investigations on the chemical compositions of the phenolic compounds-rich fraction from U. atrichocaulis (TFUA and their antirheumatoid arthritis activities. We found that the TFUA significantly inhibited the adjuvant-induced rats arthritis, carrageenin-induced rats paw edema, cotton pellet-induced mice granuloma, and the acetic acid-induced mice writhing response. Our phytochemical investigations on the TFUA resulted in the first-time isolation and identification of 17 phenolic constituents and a bis (5-formylfurfuryl ether. The extensive HPLC analysis also revealed the chemical compositions of TFUA. Our further biological evaluation of the main phenolic components, individually and collectively, indicated that the antirheumatoid arthritis activities of TFUA were the combined effect of multiple phenolic constituents.

  6. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Slag Waste Coming From IGCC Thermal Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Anselmo; Aineto, Mónica; Iglesias, Isabel; Romero, Maximina; Rincón López, Jesús María

    2001-01-01

    The new gas installations of combined cycle (GICC) thermal power plants for production of electricity are more efficient than conventional thermal power plants, but they produce a high quantity of wastes in the form of slags and fly ashes. Nowadays, these by-products are stored within the production plants with, until now, no applications of recycling in other industrial processes. In order to evaluate the capability of these products for recycling in glass and ceramics inductory, an investig...

  7. Investigations on the optimum design of chemical addition system for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Byong Hoon [Junior College of Inchon, Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Chang Kyu; Choi, Han Rim; Kim, Eun Kee; Ro, Tae Sun [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc. Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Mixing characteristics of the chemical additives in the chemical injection tank of the chemical and volume control system(CVCS) were investigated for the Yonggwang Nuclear units 5 and 6. Numerical calculations were performed with a low-Reynolds number turbulence model. Studies were also conducted for the injection tank with a disk located at 1/4H, 2/4H, and 3/4H from the inlet in order to see the effect in the enhancement of chemical mixing. Results show that the optimum arrangement is to locate a disk close to the inlet. 10 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  8. Soil chemical properties as affected by plant derived ash to replace potassium fertilizer and its conversion value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bako Baon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Potassium chloride (KCl presently used as main source of K, tends to become more expensive, therefore, there is a need for a breakthrough in finding alternative materials to replace KCl. The aim of this paper is to present recent research on the use of plant derived ash to replace KCl fertilizer, especially in relation with soil chemical characteristics and its conversion value. Plant derived ash coming from palm sugar processing unit which use farm waste as main fuel was used in this experiment. Treatments investigated were no K2O application (control, applied with K2O in forms of both KCl and plant derived ash in dosages of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mg kg-1 air dry soil. The mixture of soil with those treatments were then incubated for one year. After incubation period, the soil in pots were divided into two parts, first part was added with 2g urea, while other part was added with 2 g SP 36. Both parts were incubated for two months. Results of this experiment showed that plant derived ash can be used to replaced KCl. To obtain similar soil K content, the amount of K2O in form of plant derived ash needed to be added or its conversion value is 1.44 times the amount of K2O in form of KCl. Use of plant derived ash also increased the content of soil Ca, available P, ratio of Ca/Mg and pH. Plant derived ash did not caused nitrogen loss. Key words: Potassium, fertilizer, plant derived ash, pH, soil.

  9. Chemical and structural effects of invasive plants on herbivore-parasitoid/predator interactions in native communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Fortuna, T.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction and/or spread of exotic organisms into new habitats is considered a major threat to biodiversity. Invasive plants have been shown to negatively affect native communities, competing with and excluding other plants and disrupting a wide range of trophic interactions associated with th

  10. Chemical Defenses (Glucosinolates) of Native and Invasive Populations of the Range Expanding Invasive Plant Rorippa austriaca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huberty, M.; Tielborger, K.; Harvey, J.A.; Muller, C.; Macel, M.

    2014-01-01

    Due to global warming, species are expanding their range to higher latitudes. Some range expanding plants have become invasive in their new range. The Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA) hypothesis and the Shifting Defense Hypothesis (SDH) predict altered selection on plant defenses in

  11. Plant chemical defense against herbivores and pathogens: generalized defense or trade-offs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biere, A.; Marak, H.B.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Plants are often attacked by multiple enemies, including pathogens and herbivores. While many plant secondary metabolites show specific effects toward either pathogens or herbivores, some can affect the performance of both these groups of natural enemies and are considered to be generalized defense

  12. The mechanisms and effects off the plant-activations of chemicals in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewa, Michael J.

    1993-12-01

    Plants can activate promutagens into stable mutagens and these genotoxic agents may be hazardous to the environment and to the public health. Plant systems have been widely employed in classical and environmental mutagenesis. However, the environmental and human health impact of plants exposed to environmental xenobiotics were not well recognized until the presence of pesticide contaminants in food supplies caused alarm. The capability of plants to bioconcentrate environmental agents and activate promutagens into toxic metabolites is significant when one realizes the immense diversity of xenobiotics to which plants are intentionally and unintentionally exposed. Finally, we all must be attentive to the effects that toxic agents may have on the biosphere and the grave global consequences that would result in a disruption in the carbon cycle.

  13. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Activity of Plant Extracts from Ferula communis and Dittrichia viscosa against Postharvest Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Mondelli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available F. communis and D. viscosa are perennial Mediterranean weeds that have been used for different therapeutic purposes in traditional pharmacopeia. Plant extracts were obtained from air dried D. viscosa young shoots (DvA and F. communis aerial part (FcA and roots (FcR with n-hexane. The chemical compositions of the extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD, LC-MS (ESI and LC-Q-TOF techniques. Two sesquiterpene lactones (inuviscolide, tomentosin and three sesquiterpene acids (costic acid, hydroxycostic acid, ilicic acid were identified from the D. viscosa extract, while in F. communis extracts three daucane sesquiterpenes (acetoxyferutinin, oxojaeskeanadioyl anisate, fertidin and one coumarin (ferulenol derivates were found. Biological activities of plant extracts were studied in in vitro experiments on the colonies and conidia of Botryotinia fuckeliana, Penicillium digitatum, P. expansum, Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena and Aspergillus spp. Extracts showed varying degree of antifungal activities on colony growth and conidia germination. The extract from FcA showed the least effect, while DvA extract had the strongest fungitoxic effects. FcR extract presented a fungitoxic effect on the colony growth, but it was not able to inhibit the conidia germination. These distinctions can be attributed to the differences in chemical composition of plant extracts.

  14. Effect of storage on the chemical composition and biological activity of several popular South African medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, G I; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J

    2005-02-10

    The in vitro biological activity of nine frequently used medicinal plants in South Africa was assessed and re-assessed after various lengths of storage. The plants investigated were Alepidea amatymbica, Leonotis leonurus, Drimia robusta, Vernonia colorata, Merwilla natalensis, Eucomis autumnalis, Bowiea volubilis, Helichrysum cymosum and Siphonochilus aethiopicus. Water, ethanol and hexane extracts of fresh, 90-day-old and 1-year-old material were assayed for antibacterial activity against four strains of bacteria and for COX-1 inhibition activity. TLC-fingerprints of the fresh and stored extracts were produce to document chemical changes. Alepidea amatymbica, Eucomis autumnalis, Helichrysum cymosum, Leonotis leonurus, Siphonochilus aethiopicus and Vernonia colorata were investigated further as to the effect of 1 year's storage. Elevated temperature and humidity (55 degrees C and 100% relative humidity) were used to accelerate the ageing process of Alepidea amatymbica, Leonotis leonurus and Vernonia colorata plant material for further investigation. The TLC-fingerprints indicated that there was chemical breakdown during storage in certain species. The degree of changes in biological activity and chemistry due to storage were species-specific. In general, antibacterial activity was retained in most species while COX-1 inhibition activity was lost rapidly. PMID:15652284

  15. Chemical composition and bioethanol potential of different plant species found in Pacific Northwest conservation buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lands producing mixed lignocellulosic ethanol feedstocks may be able to produce more biomass with fewer resources than conventional monoculture crops, but lignocellulosic ethanol production processes and efficiencies can be highly dependent on feedstock composition. In this study, plants were collec...

  16. Effect of gamma radiation on some chemical constituents and growth of mint plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 K-rad gamma rays on peppermint (Mentha piperiata L.) growth, essential oil, nitrogen and pigments content was investigated. Pre-planting radiation dose of 1.0 K-rad was the best stimulant rather than other doses. It improved growth expressed as dry matter accumulation and essential oil yield. The effectiveness of applied gamma radiation on enhancing total oil content is a function of the enhanced plant growth rather than the oil per cent. High contents (mg/plant) of chlorophyll and carotenoids were resulted from plants pre-treated with 1.0 K-rad. Exposure to 1.0 and 2.0 K-rad induced maximum N contents. On the other hand, relatively higher dose (4 K-rad) induced slight effect on the studied parameters

  17. Effect of gamma radiation on some chemical constituents and growth of mint plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragab, M.A.; Abou-Elsoud, M.A. (Agriculture Department for Soil and Water Researches, Nuclear Research Centre, A.E.A., Cairo (Egypt)); Khalil, M.M. (Horticulture Dept., College of Agriculture, Tanta Univ. (Egypt))

    1983-01-01

    The effectiveness of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 K-rad gamma rays on peppermint (Mentha piperiata L.) growth, essential oil, nitrogen and pigments content was investigated. Pre-planting radiation dose of 1.0 K-rad was the best stimulant rather than other doses. It improved growth expressed as dry matter accumulation and essential oil yield. The effectiveness of applied gamma radiation on enhancing total oil content is a function of the enhanced plant growth rather than the oil per cent. High contents (mg/plant) of chlorophyll and carotenoids were resulted from plants pre-treated with 1.0 K-rad. Exposure to 1.0 and 2.0 K-rad induced maximum N contents. On the other hand, relatively higher dose (4 K-rad) induced slight effect on the studied parameters.

  18. Hormesis and a Chemical Raison D’être for Secondary Plant Metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Hadacek, Franz; Bachmann, Gert; Engelmeier, Doris; Chobot, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    In plants, accumulation in specific compartments and huge structural diversity of secondary metabolites is one trait that is not understood yet. By exploring the diverse abiotic and biotic interactions of plants above- and belowground, we provide examples that are characterized by nonlinear effects of the secondary metabolites. We propose that redox chemistry, specifically the reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and, in their absence, reduction of molecular oxygen by the identical seco...

  19. Conventional Exergetic and Exergoeconomic Analyses of a Power Plant with Chemical Looping Combustion for CO2 Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Morosuk

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Exergy-based methods can be used as a tool for examining, comparing and assessing thermodynamic systems. In this paper, an exergoeconomic analysis is used to evaluate a power plant with chemical looping combustion (CLC for CO2 capture. This oxy-fuel plant is compared, from an exergetic and an economic perspective, to a conventional, reference power plant without CO2 capture. The exergetic analysis shows decreased exergy destruction in the CLC reactors, compared to the exergy destruction in the conventional combustion chamber of the reference case; thus, the irreversibilities caused by combustion in the CLC are reduced. However, due to the addition of the CO2 compression unit, the overall exergetic efficiency of the plant with CLC is lower than that of the reference plant by approximately 5 percentage points. The economic analysis confirms a significant increase in the investment cost of the CO2 capture plant, due to the addition of the units for CO2 compression and CLC. Thus, the cost of electricity is 24% higher for this plant in comparison to that of the reference case. Nevertheless, when compared to the reference plant with CO2 capture with monoethanolamine, the plant with CLC was found to be a more economical option. Since CO2 abatement must be realized in the future, given expected environmental or tax measures, CLC provides relatively low cost carbon dioxide capture and it, therefore, appears to be a promising option for

  20. Data Quality Objectives Workbook for Assessing Chemical Vulnerability Potential in REDOX and U Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this data quality objective workbook is to present the rationale for selecting the sampling and characterization strategy that supports the assessment of the chemical vulnerabilities of the five tanks. Since characterization of the tanks' contents is likely to be expensive, a secondary goal was established to characterize the tank contents for proper waste designation and disposal at the same time the tanks are characterized for chemical vulnerability

  1. Accumulation of carbohydrates in the development of tomato plants treated with different chemical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Ribeiro Pereira Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work had the purpose to study the physiological effects of pyraclostrobin, boscalid, plant growth regulators and plant extract on the accumulation of carbohydrates during the development of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L., hybrid Giuliana, in protected environment conditions. The treatments were: T1- control; T2- pyraclostrobin 0.2 g L-1; T3- boscalid 0.075 g L-1, T4- pyraclostrobin 0.2 g L-1 + boscalid 0.075 g L-1, T5- IBA + GA3 + kinetin 375 mg L-1, T6- GA4+7 + benzylaminopurine 100 mg L-1 and T7- plant extract 100 mg L-1. The carbohydrate accumulation curve was accomplished with 5 samples, at 20-day intervals between evaluations, the 1st evaluation being carried out at 30 days after transplantation, on the day of the first treatment application. At each sampling the plants were separated in stem, leaves and fruits, of which the contents of total soluble sugars, reducing sugars and saccharose were evaluated. The effects of the treatments on chlorophyll content and gas exchanges were also evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 4 repetitions and 6 destructive evaluations during the development, with 1 plant per experimental unit for each sampling. The pyraclostrobin and boscalid applied in isolation and/or combined favor the increase of carbohydrates in leaves, stems and fruits of tomato hybrid Giuliana

  2. Chemosensory basis of behavioural plasticity in response to deterrent plant chemicals in the larva of the Small Cabbage White butterfly Pieris rapae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, D.S.; Wang, C.Z.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural and electrophysiological responsiveness to three chemically different secondary plant substances was studied in larvae of Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Three groups of caterpillars were studied that during their larval development were exposed to different rearing diets: an ar

  3. Anaerobic soil disinfestation:A chemical-independent approach to pre-plant control of plant pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S L Strauss; D A Kluepfel

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing regulations and restrictions, there is an urgent need to develop effective alternatives to chemical-de-pendent fumigation control of soilborne pests and pathogens. Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) is one such alternative showing great promise for use in the control of soilborne pathogens and pests. This method involves the application of a carbon source, irrigation to ifeld capacity, and covering the soil with a plastic tarp. While the mechanisms of ASD are not completely understood, they appear to be a combination of changes in the soil microbial community composition, production of volatile organic compounds, and the generation of lethal anaerobic conditions. The variety of materials and options for ASD application, including carbon sources, soil temperature, and plastic tarp type, inlfuence the efifcacy of pathogen sup-pression and disease control. Currently, both dry (e.g., rice bran) and liquid (e.g., ethanol) carbon sources are commonly used, but with different results depending on environmental conditions. While solarization is not an essential component of ASD, it can enhance efifcacy. Understanding the mechanisms that mediate biological changes occurring in the soil during ASD wil facilitate our ability to increase ASD efifcacy while enhancing its commercial viability.

  4. Disinfection of Citrus Storage Room by Fumigation with Two Plants and Chemical Product Deccofenato Pot against the Viability of Penicillium Spp Spores

    OpenAIRE

    M. C. Elbouchtaoui; L. M. Idrissi Hassani

    2014-01-01

    Citrus fruits are subject to many postharvest phytopathogenic fungi that cause severe economic losses. The most attacks are mainly due the genus Penicillium spp. The treatment of these fungi uses a lot of chemicals that negatively affect environment and human health. Our study aims to test the antifungal activity by fumigation of two plants and a new chemical pesticide at the station Agrumar Souss, Ait Melloul. Plants and pesticide Deccofenato pot were used as fumigation in or...

  5. Chemical form of technetium in corn (Zea mays) and the gastrointestinal absorption of plant-incorporated Tc by laboratory rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The food chain availability of technetium incorporated into plant tissue, its chemical form in corn leaves, and the potential for gastrointestinal absorption of plant-incorporated technetium was investigated. Technetium-95m was incorporated into corn leaves via root uptake. Chemical fractionation of the /sup 95m/Tc in leaves showed that 60% was extractable with boiling ethanol and weak mineral acids. The remainder was associated with cell walls and was extractable by harsh chemical treatment. Gel permeation chromatography of the cytosol, indicated that 50% of the /sup 95m/Tc co-chromatographed with anionic pertechnetate; however, it was impossible to distinguish if this pure pertechnetate or technetium complexed with organic molecules. Technetium-95m was administered to laboratory rats in a single dose as: (1) intravenous injection of pertechnetate, (2) pertechnetate mixed with standard laboratory food, and (3) a meal containing /sup 95m/Tc biologically incorporated into corn leaves. High concentrations of /sup 95m/Tc were found in the thyroids, hair, kidneys, and liver of rats. Technetium rapidly disappeared from the liver, kidneys, and other tissues, but remained in the thyroids and hair. Urinary excretion of technetium decreased, and fecal excretion increased when technetium was fed to rats as a /sup 95m/Tc incorporated into corn leaves. The percent of the administered dose absorbed into thyroid gland and the kidneys was less when technetium was biologically incorporated into corn leaves than when pertechnetate was mixed with food. Biological incorporation of technetium into plants appears to reduce its potential for food chain transfer by decreasing its availability for gastrointestinal absorption. 5 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  6. Viability of fuel switching of a gas-fired power plant operating in chemical looping combustion mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CLC (chemical looping combustion) promises to be a more efficient way of CO2 capture than conventional oxy-fuel combustion or post-combustion absorption. While much work has been done on CLC in the past two decades, the issue of multi-fuel compatibility has not been addressed sufficiently, especially with regard to plant layout and reactor design. In the present work, it is shown that this is non-trivial in the case of a CLC-based power plant. The underlying factors have been examined in depth and design criteria for fuel compatibility have been formulated. Based on these, a layout has been developed for a power plant which can run with either natural gas or syngas without requiring equipment changes either on the steam side or on the furnace side. The layout accounts for the higher CO2 compression costs associated with the use of syngas in place of natural gas. The ideal thermodynamic cycle efficiency, after accounting for the energy penalty of CO2 compression, is 43.11% and 41.08%, when a supercritical steam cycle is used with natural gas and syngas, respectively. It is shown that fuel switching can be enabled by incorporating the compatibility conditions at the design stage itself. - Highlights: • Concept of fuel sensitivity of plant layout with carbon capture and sequestration. • Power plant layout for natural gas and syngas as fuels. • Criteria for compatibility of air and fuel reactors for dual fuel mode operation. • Layout of a plant for carbon-neutral or carbon negative power generation

  7. An Overview on the Progress of Chemical Constituents and Bioactivities of Plants in Urticaceae during 2000-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; YANG Hong-xing; TENG Yong-zhen; YUAN Pei; TIAN Rui; LIAO Chun-bi

    2011-01-01

    Utticaceae includes about 1300 species in 47 genera which largely spread in wet tropical regions,and 341 species in 25 genera are in China.Some species are used in Chinese folk medicine.So far,studies on chemistry and pharmacology of Urticaceous plants are mainly focused on nettle of Urtica L.In this review,the chemical researches on 35 new compounds and related pharmacological effects of the plants in Urticaceae reported during2000-2010 are described.The 35 new compounds belong to the classes of lignan,secolignan,norlignan,flavonoid,alkaloid,sesquiterpenoid,triterpenoid,sterol,and sphingolipid.The main bioactivities include cytotoxic,antitumor,antimicrobial,antifungal,anti-BPH,anti-HIV,antidiabetic,hypolipidemic,5α-reductase inhibitory,hair regrowth promotion,and anti-oxidative activities.

  8. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of contaminated water impounded at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support the proposed removal action for managing contaminated surface waters impounded at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The US Department of Energy is responsible for cleanup activities at the site under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The major goals of SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to human health and the environment that are associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus real property available for other uses, to the extent possible. The objectives of this EE/CA report are to identify the cleanup as a removal action, document the selection of a response that will mitigate the potential release of radioactive or chemical contaminants from the impounded waters into the nearby environment, and address environmental impacts associated with the proposed action. 41 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  9. Medicinal plants recommended by the world health organization: DNA barcode identification associated with chemical analyses guarantees their quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Melo Palhares

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are used throughout the world, and the regulations defining their proper use, such as identification of the correct species and verification of the presence, purity and concentration of the required chemical compounds, are widely recognized. Herbal medicines are made from vegetal drugs, the processed products of medicinal species. These processed materials present a number of challenges in terms of botanical identification, and according to the World Health Organization (WHO, the use of incorrect species is a threat to consumer safety. The samples used in this study consisted of the dried leaves, flowers and roots of 257 samples from 8 distinct species approved by the WHO for the production of medicinal herbs and sold in Brazilian markets. Identification of the samples in this study using DNA barcoding (matK, rbcL and ITS2 regions revealed that the level of substitutions may be as high as 71%. Using qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses, this study identified situations in which the correct species was being sold, but the chemical compounds were not present. Even more troubling, some samples identified as substitutions using DNA barcoding contained the chemical compounds from the correct species at the minimum required concentration. This last situation may lead to the use of unknown species or species whose safety for human consumption remains unknown. This study concludes that DNA barcoding should be used in a complementary manner for species identification with chemical analyses to detect and quantify the required chemical compounds, thus improving the quality of this class of medicines.

  10. Medicinal plants recommended by the world health organization: DNA barcode identification associated with chemical analyses guarantees their quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palhares, Rafael Melo; Gonçalves Drummond, Marcela; Dos Santos Alves Figueiredo Brasil, Bruno; Pereira Cosenza, Gustavo; das Graças Lins Brandão, Maria; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used throughout the world, and the regulations defining their proper use, such as identification of the correct species and verification of the presence, purity and concentration of the required chemical compounds, are widely recognized. Herbal medicines are made from vegetal drugs, the processed products of medicinal species. These processed materials present a number of challenges in terms of botanical identification, and according to the World Health Organization (WHO), the use of incorrect species is a threat to consumer safety. The samples used in this study consisted of the dried leaves, flowers and roots of 257 samples from 8 distinct species approved by the WHO for the production of medicinal herbs and sold in Brazilian markets. Identification of the samples in this study using DNA barcoding (matK, rbcL and ITS2 regions) revealed that the level of substitutions may be as high as 71%. Using qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses, this study identified situations in which the correct species was being sold, but the chemical compounds were not present. Even more troubling, some samples identified as substitutions using DNA barcoding contained the chemical compounds from the correct species at the minimum required concentration. This last situation may lead to the use of unknown species or species whose safety for human consumption remains unknown. This study concludes that DNA barcoding should be used in a complementary manner for species identification with chemical analyses to detect and quantify the required chemical compounds, thus improving the quality of this class of medicines. PMID:25978064

  11. Medicinal Plants Recommended by the World Health Organization: DNA Barcode Identification Associated with Chemical Analyses Guarantees Their Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palhares, Rafael Melo; Gonçalves Drummond, Marcela; dos Santos Alves Figueiredo Brasil, Bruno; Pereira Cosenza, Gustavo; das Graças Lins Brandão, Maria; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used throughout the world, and the regulations defining their proper use, such as identification of the correct species and verification of the presence, purity and concentration of the required chemical compounds, are widely recognized. Herbal medicines are made from vegetal drugs, the processed products of medicinal species. These processed materials present a number of challenges in terms of botanical identification, and according to the World Health Organization (WHO), the use of incorrect species is a threat to consumer safety. The samples used in this study consisted of the dried leaves, flowers and roots of 257 samples from 8 distinct species approved by the WHO for the production of medicinal herbs and sold in Brazilian markets. Identification of the samples in this study using DNA barcoding (matK, rbcL and ITS2 regions) revealed that the level of substitutions may be as high as 71%. Using qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses, this study identified situations in which the correct species was being sold, but the chemical compounds were not present. Even more troubling, some samples identified as substitutions using DNA barcoding contained the chemical compounds from the correct species at the minimum required concentration. This last situation may lead to the use of unknown species or species whose safety for human consumption remains unknown. This study concludes that DNA barcoding should be used in a complementary manner for species identification with chemical analyses to detect and quantify the required chemical compounds, thus improving the quality of this class of medicines. PMID:25978064

  12. Simulation of a complex chemical plant taking the example of uranium-plutonium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first extraction cycle of a reprocessing plant is simulated by means of the ABAS program system. A program-orientated modular arranged simulation system is presented and described with ABAS which is suitable for the simulation of stationary as well as instationary operation states of engineering plants. The program system can be flexibly applied and independently of computers by using the FORTRAN program language. The functioning ABAS is demonstrated by the example of the reprocessing plant of Eurochemic in Mol, Belgium which works according to the Purex process. The stationary concentration profile in the pulsed sieve diaphragm extraction column of this plant are calculated using the Backflow model. The agreement of the results with the operational data is good if one takes the deficiencies into account when determining the model parameters and equilibrium relationships applied. In the simulation of the transient behaviour of the plant, in the start-up procedure and in accidents, concentration maxima can arise as a result of competing extraction of the components taking part, which are not observed in systems only having one extractable component. (orig.)

  13. Physico-chemical change and heat stability of extra virgin olive oils flavoured by selected Tunisian aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, M A; Grati-Kamoun, N; Attia, H

    2009-10-01

    Objectives of this work were studying physico-chemical change and heat stability of olive oils flavoured by selected Tunisian aromatic plants. Flavoured olive oils were prepared by maceration of fresh plant materials (rosemary, lavender, sage, menthe, basil, lemon and thyme) with olive oil at a 5% w/w level for 15 days. A sensorial evaluation was applied to select more appreciate flavoured olive oils by consumers. An oxidative procedure was applied to test the stability of selected flavoured olive oils: oils samples were kept in glass bottles and heated at 60 and 130 degrees C during 55 days and 6h, respectively. The resistance to oxidation of these selected flavoured oils was compared to a control samples by measuring PV, K232 and K270 values and change in chlorophyll, carotenes and polyphénols contents. Obtained results show that addition of aromatic plants causes a slight increase in free acidity and viscosity of aromatised olive oils. L*, b* and a* values show that addition of thyme cause a great change in olive oil colours. Heat stability results shows that from selected aromatic plants, rosemary was effectiveness against oxidation followed by thyme and lemon. However, olive oil flavoured with basil exhibit a similar behaviour versus thermal oxidation then the natural olive oil. PMID:19635520

  14. Geochemistry and migration of contaminants at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site, St. Charles County, Missouri, 1989--91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, J.G.

    1993-12-31

    Investigations were conducted by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the US Department of Energy at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site to determine the geochemistry of the shallow aquifer and geochemical controls on the migration of uranium and other constituents from the raffinate (waste) pits. Water-quality analyses from monitoring wells at the site and vicinity property indicate that water in the shallow aquifer is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type that is at equilibrium with respect to calcite and slightly supersaturated with respect to dolomite.

  15. Gamma scanning for troubleshooting, optimisation and predictive maintenance of distillation columns in petroleum refineries and chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-ray scanning is a non-intrusive technique to examine inner details of a distillation column, while it is in operation. It provides essential data to optimise the performance of columns, extend column run times, track the performance deteriorating effects of fouling and solids deposition, and identify maintenance requirements well in advance of scheduled turnarounds. The technology has been successfully used for on-line investigation of various types of distillation columns in petroleum refineries, gas processing installations and chemical plants in the country and the region. This paper outlines the basic principle of the technology and describes the inspection procedures, and in addition, a few case studies are presented. (Author)

  16. Investigation of the chemical composition-changes in horticultural plants as a function of x-ray stimulation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the low dose experiments of radish, lettuce, tomato, paprika, pea and bean the presowing stimulation does not influence the chemical parameters (e.g. protein, fat, fibre, ash, macro and trace elements) of the edible parts of the plants. Stimulation has a favourable effect on vitamin C content of the horticultural vegetables. The irradiation of the seeds was performed using 5-15 Gy dose and a mobile X-ray generator, GIGANT-18, with dose of 2 Gy/min. (author) 11 refs.; 3 tabs

  17. Plants and chemical constituents with giardicidal activity Plantas e constituintes químicos com atividade giardicida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia M.M. Amaral

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal infection caused by Giardia lamblia represents a serious public health problem, with increased rates of prevalence in numerous countries. Increased resistance of the parasite and the side-effects of the reference drugs employed in the treatment of giardiasis make necessary to seek new therapeutic agents. Natural products, especially of plant origin, represent excellent starting point for research. The objective of this study is to review the literature on plant extracts, fractions and chemical constituents whose giardicidal activity has been investigated in vitro. The review describes 153 (one hundred and fifty-three plant species from 69 (sixty-nine families that were evaluated for their giardicidal activity. The geographical distribution of the plant species, the part used, preparation, strain of Giardia lamblia tested and the results obtained by the authors are also given. One hundred and one compounds isolated from plant species, classified by chemical class, are presented. Recent aspects of research on natural products of plant origin employed in the treatment of giardiasis are also discussed.Infecção intestinal causada por Giardia lamblia representa grave problema de saúde pública, com elevadas taxas de prevalência em diversos países. O aumento de resistência do parasita e os efeitos colaterais dos fármacos de referência empregados no tratamento da giardíase, tornam necessário a busca de novos agentes terapêuticos. Produtos naturais, especialmente de origem vegetal, representam excelentes fontes de pesquisas. Este trabalho tem como objetivo revisar a literatura de extratos de plantas, frações e compostos químicos com estudos in vitro de avaliação da atividade giardicida. A revisão refere 153 (cento e cinqüenta e três espécies vegetais de 69 (sessenta e nove famílias que foram submetidas à avaliação da atividade giardicida. Descreve a distribuição geográfica das espécies vegetais, parte usada, prepara

  18. Legal considerations involving chemical control of iron and other deficiencies in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, A; Samman, Y. S.

    1981-01-01

    Four cases of lawsuits involving use of chelating agents in plant nutrition are discussed. Three of them involved use of iron. One concerned addition of FeDTPA to nursery trees in containers. One case involved foliar application of FeHEDTA to potatoes in July by airplane. Another case not involving iron chelate was with ZnEDTA and MnEDTA with Fe as FeSO/sub 4/ later as a foliar spray. The Zn and MnEDTA were applied as a band 8 inches (20 cm) on both sides of nursery tree rows just as the buds that had been placed in the fall began growing in the spring. In the fourth case, many tomato transplants died when the transplanting was done with about 120 ml per plant of transplant solution containing besides N, P and K, about 19 mg Zn as ZnEDTA, 14 mg Mn as MnEDTA and 7 mg Fe as FeHEDTA. Cases such as these will probably discourage use of chelating agents in plant nutrition even if the chelating agents were not the damaging agent. Not enough developmental work was done on the potential toxicities from metal chelates. This trend to lawsuits makes it even more important to solve iron chlorosis problems via plant breeding.

  19. Functional, genetic and chemical characterization of biosurfactants produced by plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida 267

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijt, M.; Tran, H.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida strain 267, originally isolated from the rhizosphere of black pepper, produces biosurfactants that cause lysis of zoospores of the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici. The biosurfactants were characterized, the biosynthesis gene(s) partially identif

  20. Physical and chemical characterization of residual oil-fired power plant emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the toxicity of oil combustion emissions is a significant public health concern, few studies characterize the emissions from plant-scale utility boilers firing residual oil. This study remedies that deficiency by sampling and monitoring stack emissions from a 432 Giga Jo...

  1. Experiments on rehabilitation of radioactive metallic waste (RMW) of reactor stainless steels of Siberian chemical plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpakov, G. N.; Zakusilov, V. V.; Demyanenko, N. V.; Mishin, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    Stainless steel pipes, used to cool a reactor plant, have a high cost, and after taking a reactor out of service they must be buried together with other radioactive waste. Therefore, the relevant problem is the rinse of pipes from contamination, followed by returning to operation.

  2. Physico-chemical attributes of seed oil from drought stressed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water deficit conditions on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of sunflower seed and seed oils were assessed. Two sunflower cultivars (Gulshan-98 and Suncross were sown in the field. The water stress treatment was applied at the vegetative or the reproductive stage. Analysis of the sunflower seed showed that the oil content decreased (a decline of 10.52% relative to the control significantly (p ≤ 0.05 due to water stress when imposed at either of the growth stages. Both of the sunflower cultivars studied showed differential responses to water stress with respect to oil oleic and linoleic acid contents. A significant negative correlation in oil oleic and linoleic acid was observed in cv. Gulshan-98 under water deficit conditions as compared to Suncross in which no such effect of water stress on oleic and linoleic acid was observed. Water deficit conditions caused a reduction in linolenic acid in Gulshan-98, whereas it remained unaffected in Suncross. The stearic acid content increased in cv. Gulshan-98 due to drought, whereas no effect due to water stress was observed on oil palmitic acid content in either sunflower cultivar. Overall, oil unsaturated fatty acids remained unchanged in the drought stressed or normally irrigated plants of both cultivars but saturated fatty acid increased in Gulshan-98. Individual (α, γ, and δ and total tocopherol contents in the seed oil increased significantly with the application of water stress in both cultivars. An assessment of the physical and chemical characteristics of the oils of both sunflower cultivars revealed that drought stress caused a marked increase in the content of un-saponifiable matter (18.75% with respect to the control and a decrease in iodine value (5.87% with respect to the control, but saponifcation value, density, specific gravity and refractive index remained unchanged.El efecto de las condiciones de déficit de agua sobre las caracter

  3. Toxic Gas Put 161 Workers of Jilin Chemical Fiber Plant in Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ A news briefing held on May 13 by local government in Jilin city of Jilin province released that 161 workers got sick symptoms as a result of their contact with an unidentified gas emitting from Jilin Chemical Fiber Group Corp. Right now, 11 workers recovered, leaving 150 victims under special care in hospital.

  4. Evaluation of a sulfur oxide chemical heat storage process for a steam solar electric plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayan, J.; Lynn, S.; Foss, A.

    1979-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate technically feasible process configurations for the use of the sulfur oxide system, 2 SO/sub 3/ reversible 2 SO/sub 2/ + O/sub 2/, in energy storage. The storage system is coupled with a conventional steam-cycle power plant. Heat for both the power plant and the storage system is supplied during sunlit hours by a field of heliostats focussed on a central solar receiver. When sunlight is not available, the storage system supplies the heat to operate the power plant. A technically feasible, relatively efficient configuration is proposed for incorporating this type of energy storage system into a solar power plant. Complete material and energy balances are presented for a base case that represents a middle range of expected operating conditions. Equipment sizes and costs were estimated for the base case to obtain an approximate value for the cost of the electricity that would be produced from such an installation. In addition, the sensitivity of the efficiency of the system to variations in design and operating conditions was determined for the most important parameters and design details. In the base case the solar tower receives heat at a net rate of 230 MW(t) for a period of eight hours. Daytime electricity is about 30 MW(e). Nighttime generation is at a rate of about 15 MW(e) for a period of sixteen hours. The overall efficiency of converting heat into electricity is about 26%. The total capital cost for the base case is estimated at about $68 million, of which about 67% is for the tower and heliostats, 11% is for the daytime power plant, and 22% is for the storage system. The average cost of the electricity produced for the base case is estimated to be about 11 cents/kW(e)-hr.

  5. Alternative forms of energy transmission from OTEC plants. [Chemical and electrical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopka, A.; Biederman, N.; Talib, A.; Yudow, B.

    1977-01-01

    The transmission of OTEC-derived chemical and electrical energy is compared. The chemical energy-carriers considered are the following: gaseous and liquid hydrogen, liquid ammonia, methanol, gasoline, hydrazine hydrate, anhydrous hydrazine, unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), 1,7-Octadiyne, and tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene. The assessment assumes that each of the above energy carriers were transported by barge and/or pipeline. The delivered costs were then compared with transmission of electricity by submarine cables. Because chemical and electrical energy are not equivalent, however, their comparison can only be done after the outputs are converted to a common form. Thus, in addition to presenting the delivered cost and overall energy efficiency of the chemical energy-carriers, we have provided a discussion of the equipment, costs, and efficiencies of converting the hydrogen and ammonia delivered into electricity, and the electricity delivered into hydrogen and ammonia. A concise technical assessment and economic analysis of components associated with the conversion, storage, transportation, and shore-based receiving facilities for the conversion of OTEC mechanical energy to chemical energy is provided and compared to the conversion and transmission of electrical power. Results concerning the hydrogen and ammonia analysis were determined as part of the OTEC program at IGT from May 1975 through May 1976 under Contract No. NSF-C1008 (AER-75-00033) with the National Science Foundation and ERDA. Information concerning carbonaceous fuels and high-energy fuels production was developed as part of the current IGT OTEC program under Contract No. E(49-18)-2426 with ERDA.

  6. Influence of chemical and organic fertilizer on growth, yield and essential oil of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L. plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen JANMOHAMMADI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out to study the response of Dracocephalum moldavica L. to NPK fertilizer and different application techniques of MOG organic fertilizer in two regions of Iran (Piranshahr with cold Mediterranean climate and clay loam soil,  Maragheh with cool sub-humid temperate climate and sandy loam  soil. MOG is bio-organic fertilizer with plant origin and contains different natural enzymes and amino acids. In current study following treatments have been applied: NPK (a complete NPK 20-20-20, 90 kg fertilizer ha-1; MOG1 (soil application of MOG organic fertilizer at sowing stage; MOG2 (foliar application of MOG organic fertilizer at early stage of flowering; MOG3 (soil application of MOG organic fertilizer at sowing and at 5 to 6 leaf stage; MOG4 (soil application of MOG organic fertilizer at sowing and at 5 to 6 leaf stage with foliar application at early stage of flowering. Results indicated that all MOG treatments overcome the chemical fertilizers in both locations. However, plants grown in Piranshahr were more responsive to MOG fertilizer treatments than those grown in Mragheh. Overall, it could be concluded that utilization of MOG fertilizer as both soil and foliar application (MOG4 may increase content and yield of essential oil, which could be suggested as a suitable alternative for chemical fertilizers.

  7. RIPEN FRUITS OF INDIAN GINSENG: PHYTO-CHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EXAMINATION AGAINST HUMAN AND PLANT PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premlata Singariya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ripen fruit extracts of Withania somniferawere evaluated against medically importantbacteria viz.Proteusmerabilis, Klebsiella pnemoniae, Agerobacterium tumefaciens(plant pathogenandone fungi Aspergillus niger.The dried and powdered ripen fruits were successively extracted with a seriesof non polar to polar solvents using soxhlet assembly. The antimicrobial assay was done by both discdiffusion and broth dilution methods. Glacial acetic acid extract of W. somniferashow highest activityagainst A. tumefaciens(plant pathogen and water extract againstK. pnemoniaeto varying degrees in theterms of high inhibition zone and activity index. A. tumefacienswas the most susceptible organism incompare to the other organism. Gentamycin and Ketoconazole, the standard antibacterial and antifungalused was effective against the bacteria and fungi. The extract of W. somniferaalso significantly (P>0.005inhibited the bacterial and fungal growth. The inhibitory effect is very identical in magnitude andcomparable with that of standard antibiotics used.

  8. FUNCTION OF HYDRAULIC AND CHEMICAL WATER STRESS SIGNALIZATION IN EVALUATION OF DROUGHT RESISTANCE OF JUVENILE PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    OLŠOVSKÁ, K.; BRESTIČ, M.

    2002-01-01

    In laboratory hydroponic experiments with spring barley genotypes the juvenile plants with 5 leaves were tested for their physiological responses to osmotic stress evoked by blocking the water uptake in roots by polyethylenglycol (PEG-6000) and to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) applied in the nutrient solution which inhibits the stomata opening. Results from the measurements of leaf diffusion resistance, relative water content, transpiration and leaf elongation rates show dominant role of chem...

  9. Plant chemical defense against herbivores and pathogens: generalized defense or trade-offs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biere, Arjen; Marak, Hamida B; van Damme, Jos M M

    2004-08-01

    Plants are often attacked by multiple enemies, including pathogens and herbivores. While many plant secondary metabolites show specific effects toward either pathogens or herbivores, some can affect the performance of both these groups of natural enemies and are considered to be "generalized defense compounds". We tested whether aucubin and catalpol, two iridoid glycosides present in ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), confer in vivo resistance to both the generalist insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua and the biotrophic fungal pathogen Diaporthe adunca using plants from P. lanceolata lines that had been selected for high- and low-leaf iridoid glycoside concentrations for four generations. The lines differed approximately three-fold in the levels of these compounds. Plants from the high-selection line showed enhanced resistance to both S. exigua and D. adunca, as evidenced by a smaller lesion size and a lower fungal growth rate and spore production, and a lower larval growth rate and herbivory under both choice and no-choice conditions. Gravimetric analysis revealed that the iridoid glycosides acted as feeding deterrents to S. exigua, thereby reducing its food intake rate, rather than having post-ingestive toxic effects as predicted from in vitro effects of hydrolysis products. We suggest that the bitter taste of iridoid glycosides deters feeding by S. exigua, whereas the hydrolysis products formed after tissue damage following fungal infection mediate pathogen resistance. We conclude that iridoid glycosides in P. lanceolata can serve as broad-spectrum defenses and that selection for pathogen resistance could potentially result in increased resistance to generalist insect herbivores and vice versa, resulting in diffuse rather than pairwise coevolution. PMID:15146326

  10. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles)

    OpenAIRE

    Bossou, Annick; Mangelinckx, Sven; Yedomonhan, Hounnankpon; Boko, Pelagie M; Akogbeto, Martin C; De Kimpe, Norbert; Avlessi, Felicien; Sohounhloue, Dominique CK

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance in sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Benin is a major public health issue hindering the control of the malaria vectors. Each Anopheles species has developed a resistance to one or several classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. Therefore, it is urgent to find alternative compounds to conquer the vector. In this study, the efficacies of essential oils of nine plant species, which are traditionally used to avoid mosquito bites in Benin, we...

  11. Chemical characterization of emissions from a municipal solid waste treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Caballero, Ana Isabel; Arnaiz Arnaiz, Noelia; Font Montesinos, Rafael; Carratalá, Adoración

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous emissions are an important problem in municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plants. The sources points of emissions considered in the present work are: fresh compost, mature compost, landfill leaks and leachate ponds. Hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analysed in the emissions from these sources. Hydrogen sulphide and ammonia were important contributors to the total emission volume. Landfill leaks are significant source points of emissions of H2S; t...

  12. Perspectives of Siberian chemical plant in increasing volumes of uranium concentrates recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarchuk, V. V.; Shikerun, T. G.; Ryabov, A. S.; Shamin, V. I.; Zhiganov, A. N.

    2007-01-01

    The purification technology of uranium concentrate of natural isotopic composition developed at Siberian chemical enterprise is basically universal, allows recycling uranium concentrates with different content of impurities and obtaining uranium nitrate solutions corresponding by quality to the international standards requirements to uranium hexafluoride preparation for isotopes ASTM C 787-03 separation and to ceramic fuel ASTM C 788-02 preparation. Uranium reserves in Russia and abroad were ...

  13. Ultra-spatial synchrotron radiation for imaging molecular chemical structure: Applications in plant and animal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (S-FTIR) has been developed as a rapid, direct, non-destructive, bioanalytical technique. This technique takes advantage of synchrotron light brightness and small effective source size and is capable of exploring the molecular chemical features and make-up within microstructures of a biological tissue without destruction of inherent structures at ultra-spatial resolutions within cellular dimension. To date there has been very litt...

  14. Plant flavonol isorhamnetin attenuates chemically induced inflammatory bowel disease via a PXR-dependent pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Dou, Wei; Zhang, Jingjing; Li, Hao; Kortagere, Sandhya; Sun, Katherine; Ding, Lili; Ren, Gaiyan; WANG Zhengtao; Mani, Sridhar

    2014-01-01

    Isorhamnetin is an O-methylated flavonol present in fruit and vegetables. We recently reported the identification of isorhamnetin as an activator of the human pregnane X receptor (PXR), a known target for abrogating inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The current study investigated the role of isorhamnetin as a putative mouse PXR activator in ameliorating chemically induced IBD. Using two different models (Ulcerative colitis-like and Crohn’s disease-like) of experimental IBD in ...

  15. Historic American Engineering Record, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Stacy; Julie Braun

    2006-12-01

    Just as automobiles need fuel to operate, so do nuclear reactors. When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned to power an automobile, they are consumed immediately and nearly completely in the process. When the fuel is gone, energy production stops. Nuclear reactors are incapable of achieving this near complete burn-up because as the fuel (uranium) that powers them is burned through the process of nuclear fission, a variety of other elements are also created and become intimately associated with the uranium. Because they absorb neutrons, which energize the fission process, these accumulating fission products eventually poison the fuel by stopping the production of energy from it. The fission products may also damage the structural integrity of the fuel elements. Even though the uranium fuel is still present, sometimes in significant quantities, it is unburnable and will not power a reactor unless it is separated from the neutron-absorbing fission products by a method called fuel reprocessing. Construction of the Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Chem Plant started in 1950 with the Bechtel Corporation serving as construction contractor and American Cyanamid Company as operating contractor. Although the Foster Wheeler Corporation assumed responsibility for the detailed working design of the overall plant, scientists at Oak Ridge designed all of the equipment that would be employed in the uranium separations process. After three years of construction activity and extensive testing, the plant was ready to handle its first load of irradiated fuel.

  16. Extraction of uranium from seawater: chemical process and plant design feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major assessment was made of the uranium resources in seawater. Several concepts for moving seawater to recover the uranium were investigated, including pumping the seawater and using natural ocean currents or tides directly. The optimal site chosen was on the southeastern Puerto Rico coast, with the south U.S. Atlantic coast as an alternate. The various processes for extracting uranium from seawater were reviewed, with the adsorption process being the most promising at the present time. Of the possible adsorbents, hydrous titanium oxide was found to have the best properties. A uranium extraction plant was conceptually designed. Of the possible methods for contacting the seawater with the adsorbent, a continuous fluidized bed concept was chosen as most practical for a pumped system. A plant recovering 500 tonnes of U3O8 per year requires 5900 cubic meters per second of seawater to be pumped through the adsorbent beds for a 70% overall recovery efficiency. Total cost of the plant was estimated to be about $6.2 billion. A computer model for the process was used for parametric sensitivity studies and economic projections. Several design case variations were developed. Other topics addressed were the impact of co-product recovery, environmental considerations, etc

  17. Chemical characteristics of organic aerosols in Algiers city area: influence of a fat manufacture plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaa, Noureddine; Meklati, Brahim Youcef; Cecinato, Angelo

    Total concentrations and homologue distributions of organic fraction constituents have been determined in particulate matter emitted from different units of a fat manufacturer (i.e. oils refining and conditioning plants, and production and conditioning units of a soap industry) located in Algiers area, as well as in atmospheric aerosols. In particular n-alkanes, n-alkanoic and n-alkenoic acids, n-alkan-2-ones and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated. Organic aerosol contents varied broadly among the plant units, depending upon nature of the manufactured products. The percent composition of all classes of compounds investigated in ambient atmosphere was similar to those observed indoor at industrial plant units. Organic acids, n-alkanoic as well as n-alkenoic, appeared by far the most abundant organic constituents of aerosols, both indoor and outdoor, ranging from 7.7 to 19.8 and from 12.7 to 17.1 μg m -3, respectively. The huge occurrence of acids and n-alkanes in ambient aerosols was consistent with their high levels present in oil and fat materials. Among minor components of aerosols, n-alkan-2-ones and PAH, seemed to be related to thermally induced ageing and direct combustion of raw organic material used for oil and soap production.

  18. CHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOME ANTI DIABETIC PLANTS IN YEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Jawfi Yaser

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many hypoglycemic plants known through the folklore in Yemen and some of Arabic Countries. The study was carried out to analyze the nutritional composition, mineral content and phytochemicals of the seeds of Trigonella foenum L, Apium graveoleus L and risen of Commiphora myrrha which are used traditionally in Yemen to treat diabetic patients. For different plant species the crude fat content ranged between (9.61 to 0.54 g/100 g and crude fiber (14.77 to 1.51 g/100 g. The crude protein content was determined high in the seeds of T. foenum L (26.78 %, seeds A. graveoleus L (16.37 % and risen C. myrrha (10.45 % while the carbohydrate content was highest in the C. myrrha (71.21 %. The nutritive value ranged from 362.35 - 306.49 cal/100 g in the various plants. Calcium was present in the highest quantity (14000 ppm in the C. myrrha. The content of total phenol varied from 1422.622 mgGAE/100 g to 505.286 mgGAE/100 g in the extracts.

  19. Extraction of uranium from seawater: chemical process and plant design feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, M.H.; Frame, J.M.; Dudey, N.D.; Kiel, G.R.; Mesec, V.; Woodfield, F.W.; Binney, S.E.; Jante, M.R.; Anderson, R.C.; Clark, G.T.

    1979-02-01

    A major assessment was made of the uranium resources in seawater. Several concepts for moving seawater to recover the uranium were investigated, including pumping the seawater and using natural ocean currents or tides directly. The optimal site chosen was on the southeastern Puerto Rico coast, with the south U.S. Atlantic coast as an alternate. The various processes for extracting uranium from seawater were reviewed, with the adsorption process being the most promising at the present time. Of the possible adsorbents, hydrous titanium oxide was found to have the best properties. A uranium extraction plant was conceptually designed. Of the possible methods for contacting the seawater with the adsorbent, a continuous fluidized bed concept was chosen as most practical for a pumped system. A plant recovering 500 tonnes of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ per year requires 5900 cubic meters per second of seawater to be pumped through the adsorbent beds for a 70% overall recovery efficiency. Total cost of the plant was estimated to be about $6.2 billion. A computer model for the process was used for parametric sensitivity studies and economic projections. Several design case variations were developed. Other topics addressed were the impact of co-product recovery, environmental considerations, etc.

  20. The environmental behavior and chemical fate of energetic compounds (TNT, RDX, tetryl) in soil and plant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.

    1993-06-01

    Munitions materials can accumulate or cycle in terrestrial environs at production and manufacturing facilities and thus pose potential heath and environmental concerns. To address questions related to food chain accumulation, the environmental behavior of energetic compounds (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene,TNT; hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, RDX; 2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine, tetryl) was evaluated. Emphasis was placed on determining the potential for soil/plant transfer of munitions residues, translocation and distribution within the plant, the extent to which compounds were metabolized following accumulation, and the chemical nature and form of accumulated residues. Both TNT and tetryl undergo extensive chemical transformation in soil, forming aminodinitrotoluene isomers and N-methyl-2,4,6-trinitroaniline residues, respectively, along with a series of unknowns. After 60 days, only 30% of the amended TNT and 8% of the amended tetryl remained unchanged in the soil. In contrast, 78% of the soil-amended RDX remained unchanged after 60 days. After 60 days, plants grown in soils containing 10 ppm residues contained from 5 {mu}g TNT/g to 600 {mu}g RDX/G fresh wt. tissue. TNT and tetryl residues were primarily accumulated in roots (75%), while RDX was concentrated in leaves and seed. The principal transport form for TNT (root to shoot) was an acid labile conjugate of aminodinitrotoluene; RDX was transported unchanged. On accumulation in roots and leaves, highly polar and non-extractable TNT metabolites dominated, with the aminodinitrotoluene isomers accounting for less than 20% of the residues present. Only a few percent were present as the parent TNT. RDX was partitioned similarly to TNT, with 8 to 30% of the RDX appearing as polar metabolites, 20--50% as parent RDX, and the balance as non-extractable residues. Tetryl was metabolized to N-methyl-2,4,6-trinitroaniline and a variety of polar metabolites.

  1. The environmental behavior and chemical fate of energetic compounds (TNT, RDX, tetryl) in soil and plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munitions materials can accumulate or cycle in terrestrial environs at production and manufacturing facilities and thus pose potential heath and environmental concerns. To address questions related to food chain accumulation, the environmental behavior of energetic compounds (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene,TNT; hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, RDX; 2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine, tetryl) was evaluated. Emphasis was placed on determining the potential for soil/plant transfer of munitions residues, translocation and distribution within the plant, the extent to which compounds were metabolized following accumulation, and the chemical nature and form of accumulated residues. Both TNT and tetryl undergo extensive chemical transformation in soil, forming aminodinitrotoluene isomers and N-methyl-2,4,6-trinitroaniline residues, respectively, along with a series of unknowns. After 60 days, only 30% of the amended TNT and 8% of the amended tetryl remained unchanged in the soil. In contrast, 78% of the soil-amended RDX remained unchanged after 60 days. After 60 days, plants grown in soils containing 10 ppm residues contained from 5 μg TNT/g to 600 μg RDX/G fresh wt. tissue. TNT and tetryl residues were primarily accumulated in roots (75%), while RDX was concentrated in leaves and seed. The principal transport form for TNT (root to shoot) was an acid labile conjugate of aminodinitrotoluene; RDX was transported unchanged. On accumulation in roots and leaves, highly polar and non-extractable TNT metabolites dominated, with the aminodinitrotoluene isomers accounting for less than 20% of the residues present. Only a few percent were present as the parent TNT. RDX was partitioned similarly to TNT, with 8 to 30% of the RDX appearing as polar metabolites, 20--50% as parent RDX, and the balance as non-extractable residues. Tetryl was metabolized to N-methyl-2,4,6-trinitroaniline and a variety of polar metabolites

  2. INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH HEAVY METALS CONTENT AND PHYSICO CHEMICAL PROPERTIES FROM THERMAL POWER PLANT, REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TENA SIJAKOVA-IVANOVA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main intention of this research was to determinate the contents of heavy metals and physico chemical properties of coal fly ash and to find out if it is possible to reuse it in embankments, soil stabilization, flow able fill, asphalt, geopolymers and so on.The chemical properties included in this study were: pH, Electrical conductivity, Organic carbon, and Cation exchange capacity. A physical property such as specific gravity was determined.Four samples of coal fly ash were analysed for the presence of As, Cr, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Co. We made comparison between concentration of heavy metals in coal fly ash in Macedonia and concentration of these metals in coal fly ash from Spain, Greece, India, Philippines and the UK, given in literatures. The concentrationof As in the fly ash from thermal power plant MEC - Bitola in Macedonia is lower than the contents of this element in the fly ash in thermal power plants from the Philippines and the UK. The contents of other heavy metals is in the range same as theirs. Cation exchange capacity (CEC and ammonium exchange capacity (AEC values for fly ash from investigation thermal power plant are in the range of 0.19-0.28 meq/ g for CECs and 0.17-0.33 meq/g for AECs. Ec 0.13-0.15mmhos/cm, Organic carbon 3.17-3.85 and specific gravity 2.04-2.37g/cm3. Every year in Macedonia 900 000 – 1 100 000 t of coal fly ash are produced. Only 10% of coal fly ash is used in cement products which are far below the global utilization rate (25%. We hope that the results of this study will be the basis for further research aimed at increasing the percentage of utilization of coal ash.

  3. [Effects of Different Modifier Concentrations on Lead-Zinc Tolerance, Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms for Four Kinds of Woody Plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-hua; Zhang, Fu-yun; Wu, Xiao-fu; Liang, Xi; Yuan, Si-wen

    2015-10-01

    Four kinds of lead-zinc tolerant woody plants: Nerium oleander, Koelreuteria paniculata, Paulownia and Boehmeria were used as materials to estimate their enrichment and transferable capacity of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and analyze the subcellular distribution and chemical speciation of Zn and Ph in different parts of plants, under different modifier concentrations (CK group: 100% lead-zinc slag plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved one: 85% of lead-zinc slag ± 10% peat ± 5% bacterial manure plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved two: 75% lead-zinc slag ± 20% peat ± 5% bacterial manure ± a small amount of phosphate). Results showed that: (1) The content of Pb, Zn in matrix after planting four kinds of plants was lower than before, no significant difference between improved one and improved two of Nerium oleander and Boehmeria was found, but improved two was better than improved one of Paulownia, while improved one was better than improved two of Koelreuteria paniculata; Four plants had relatively low aboveground enrichment coefficient of Pb and Zn, but had a high transfer coefficient, showed that the appropriate modifier concentration was able to improve the Pb and Zn enrichment and transfer ability of plants. (2) In subcellular distribution, most of Pb and Zn were distributed in plant cell wall components and soluble components while the distribution in cell organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts and nucleus component were less. Compared with CK group, two improved group made soluble components of the cell walls of Pb fixation and retention of zinc role in the enhancement. (3) As for the chemical forms of Pb and Zn in plants, the main chemical forms of Pb were hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and ethanol extractable forms, while other chemical form contents were few, the main chemical forms of Zn were different based on plant type. Compared with CK group, the proportion of the active Pb chemical form in different plant

  4. A worldwide analysis of within-canopy variations in leaf structural, chemical and physiological traits across plant functional types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo; Keenan, Trevor F; Hallik, Lea

    2015-02-01

    Extensive within-canopy light gradients importantly affect the photosynthetic productivity of leaves in different canopy positions and lead to light-dependent increases in foliage photosynthetic capacity per area (AA). However, the controls on AA variations by changes in underlying traits are poorly known. We constructed an unprecedented worldwide database including 831 within-canopy gradients with standardized light estimates for 304 species belonging to major vascular plant functional types, and analyzed within-canopy variations in 12 key foliage structural, chemical and physiological traits by quantitative separation of the contributions of different traits to photosynthetic acclimation. Although the light-dependent increase in AA is surprisingly similar in different plant functional types, they differ fundamentally in the share of the controls on AA by constituent traits. Species with high rates of canopy development and leaf turnover, exhibiting highly dynamic light environments, actively change AA by nitrogen reallocation among and partitioning within leaves. By contrast, species with slow leaf turnover exhibit a passive AA acclimation response, primarily determined by the acclimation of leaf structure to growth light. This review emphasizes that different combinations of traits are responsible for within-canopy photosynthetic acclimation in different plant functional types, and solves an old enigma of the role of mass- vs area-based traits in vegetation acclimation. PMID:25318596

  5. Near-term lander experiments for growing plants on Mars: requirements for information on chemical and physical properties of Mars regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Newsom, Horton E.; Ferl, Robert J.; McKay, Christopher P.

    2002-01-01

    In order to support humans for long-duration missions to Mars, bioregenerative Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems have been proposed that would use higher plants as the primary candidates for photosynthesis. Hydroponic technologies have been suggested as the primary method of plant production in ALS systems, but the use of Mars regolith as a plant growth medium may have several advantages over hydroponic systems. The advantages for using Mars regolith include the likely bioavailability of plant-essential ions, mechanical support for plants, and easy access of the material once on the surface. We propose that plant biology experiments must be included in near-term Mars lander missions in order to begin defining the optimum approach for growing plants on Mars. Second, we discuss a range of soil chemistry and soil physics tests that must be conducted prior to, or in concert with, a plant biology experiment in order to properly interpret the results of plant growth studies in Mars regolith. The recommended chemical tests include measurements on soil pH, electrical conductivity and soluble salts, redox potential, bioavailability of essential plant nutrients, and bioavailability of phytotoxic elements. In addition, a future plant growth experiment should include procedures for determining the buffering and leaching requirements of Mars regolith prior to planting. Soil physical tests useful for plant biology studies in Mars regolith include bulk density, particle size distribution, porosity, water retention, and hydraulic conductivity.

  6. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi, E-mail: shilpi@dbeb.iitd.ac.in

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Non-target effects of pesticides employing qualitative and quantitative approaches. • Qualitative shifts in resident and active bacterial community structure. • Abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts were reduced significantly. • Effects of biological pesticide similar to chemical pesticides on rhizospheric bacteria. - Abstract: With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture.

  7. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Non-target effects of pesticides employing qualitative and quantitative approaches. • Qualitative shifts in resident and active bacterial community structure. • Abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts were reduced significantly. • Effects of biological pesticide similar to chemical pesticides on rhizospheric bacteria. - Abstract: With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture

  8. Impacts of rice plant roots on the variation in electro-physico-chemical properties of soil waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowland rice crop is cultivated under continuous flooding and anaerobic conditions but rhizospheric region of the rice plants can have different physico-chemical conditions than in the absence of roots. However, it is very difficult to measure all physico-chemical parameters instantaneously in the rhizos phere because this region, being highly dynamic, altering rapidly those parameters of surrounding soil waters. Present study has compared the evolution of electro-physico-chemical properties (pH, redox potentials (pe), Electrical Conductivity (EC) and temperature) of soil waters during a complete day at two different phenological stages in the presence of rice roots (rhizosphere) and in the absence of roots to analyse the effect of rhizosphere on soil waters. In the rhizosphere, pH of soil waters was found comparatively low (7). Similarly, small EC values were observed in the rhizosphere. Great fluctuations (diurnal patterns) were observed during the complete days which were directly associated to atmospheric conditions (temperature and light) and rhizospheric activity, and these fluctuations were more during vegetative phase as compared to maturation stage of rice. It was also observed that incorporation of crop residues resulted in the more reductive conditions in the rice culture. (author)

  9. Evaluation of physical stability and leachability of Portland Pozzolona Cement (PPC) solidified chemical sludge generated from textile wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Stabilization/solidification of chemical sludge from textile wastewater treatment plants using Portland Pozzolona Cement (PPC) containing fly ash. ► Physical engineering (compressive strength and block density) indicates that sludge has potential to be reused for construction purpose after stabilization/solidification. ► Leaching of heavy metals from stabilized/solidified materials were within stipulated limits. ► There is a modification of microstructural properties of PPC with sludge addition as indicated by XRD and SEM patterns. - Abstract: The chemical sludge generated from the treatment of textile dyeing wastewater is a hazardous waste as per Indian Hazardous Waste Management rules. In this paper, stabilization/solidification of chemical sludge was carried out to explore its reuse potential in the construction materials. Portland Pozzolona Cement (PPC) was selected as the binder system which is commercially available cement with 10–25% fly ash interground in it. The stabilized/solidified blocks were evaluated in terms of unconfined compressive strength, block density and leaching of heavy metals. The compressive strength (3.62–33.62 MPa) and block density (1222.17–1688.72 kg/m3) values as well as the negligible leaching of heavy metals from the stabilized/solidified blocks indicate that there is a potential of its use for structural and non-structural applications.

  10. Effect of woody and herbaceous plants on chemical weathering of basalt material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, N.; Dontsova, K.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    Worldwide, semi-arid landscapes are transitioning from shallow-rooted grasslands to mixed vegetation savannas composed of deeper-rooted shrubs. These contrasting growth forms differentially drive below-ground processes because they occupy different soil horizons, are differentially stressed by periods of drought, and unequally stimulate soil weathering. Our study aims to determine the effect of woody and herbaceous plants on weathering of granular basalt serving as a model for soil. We established pots with velvet mesquite (Prosopis veluntina), sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), and bare-soil pots within two temperature treatments in University of Arizona Biosphere 2. The Desert biome served as the ambient temperature treatment, while the Savanna biome was maintained 4°C warmer to simulate projected air temperatures if climate change continues unabated. Rhizon water samplers were installed at a depth of one inch from the soil surface to monitor root zone exudates (total dissolved carbon and nitrogen), dissolved inorganic carbon, and lithogenic elements resulting from basalt weathering. Soil leachates were collected through the course of the experiment. The anion content of the leachates was determined using the ICS-5000 Reagent-Free ion chromatography system. Dissolved carbon and nitrogen were analyzed by combustion using the Shimadzu TOC-VCSH with TN module. Metals and metalloids were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Irrigation of the pots was varied in time to simulate periods of drought and determine the effect of stress on root exudation. Leachates from all treatments displayed higher pH and electrical conductivity than water used for irrigation indicating weathering. On average, leachates from the potted grasses displayed higher pH and electrical conductivity than mesquites. This agreed with higher concentrations of organic carbon, a measure of root exudation, and inorganic carbon, measure of soil respiration. Both organic

  11. ASSESSMENT OF CYTOMORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND CHEMICAL CONTENTS IN IN VITRO AND SEED PROPAGATED PLANTS OF ELITE GENOTYPES OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA (L. DUNAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Ananya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological parameters (plant height, total branches/plant, leaf and seed yield/plant, total plant weight, root length, root weight, and total branches/root and chemical (from root contents (amount of total alkaloids and withanolides; withaferin A-in root and also in leaf and withanolide A content estimated by HPLC are assessed in tissue culture developed hardened matured (shoot tip regenerated plantlets, age is 280 days old from the day of inoculation plants as well as field grown seed propagated plants of two high performing recommended varieties (Poshita and Jawahar 22 of Withania somnifera (L. Dunal (Family: Solanaceae following cultivation in experimental field plot of University of Kalyani (West Bengal plains-22° 99’ N, 88° 45’ E, elevation- 48 feet above mean sea level, sandy loamy soil, organic carbon 0.76%, soil pH 6.85 during the months of September to February at a spacing of 4.5 cm between lines and 30 cm between plants. Chromosome number (2n=48 is also being studied from root tip mitosis and PMC squash preparations in both genotypes (in vitro and ex vitro raised plants. Result obtained suggested fidelity of in vitro raised plants and also ensures the significance of biotechnological approaches in production of bioactive chemicals and planting materials of W. somnifera.

  12. Regulation of a chemical defense against herbivory produced by symbiotic fungi in grass plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Xiu; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Schardl, Christopher L

    2009-06-01

    Neotyphodium uncinatum and Neotyphodium siegelii are fungal symbionts (endophytes) of meadow fescue (MF; Lolium pratense), which they protect from insects by producing loline alkaloids. High levels of lolines are produced following insect damage or mock herbivory (clipping). Although loline alkaloid levels were greatly elevated in regrowth after clipping, loline-alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene expression in regrowth and basal tissues was similar to unclipped controls. The dramatic increase of lolines in regrowth reflected the much higher concentrations in young (center) versus older (outer) leaf blades, so LOL gene expression was compared in these tissues. In MF-N. siegelii, LOL gene expression was similar in younger and older leaf blades, whereas expression of N. uncinatum LOL genes and some associated biosynthesis genes was higher in younger than older leaf blades. Because lolines are derived from amino acids that are mobilized to new growth, we tested the amino acid levels in center and outer leaf blades. Younger leaf blades of aposymbiotic plants (no endophyte present) had significantly higher levels of asparagine and sometimes glutamine compared to older leaf blades. The amino acid levels were much lower in MF-N. siegelii and MF-N. uncinatum compared to aposymbiotic plants and MF with Epichloë festucae (a closely related symbiont), which lacked lolines. We conclude that loline alkaloid production in young tissue depleted these amino acid pools and was apparently regulated by availability of the amino acid substrates. As a result, lolines maximally protect young host tissues in a fashion similar to endogenous plant metabolites that conform to optimal defense theory. PMID:19403726

  13. [Chemical and biological evaluation of the effect of plant extracts against Plasmodium berghei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, O; Barrios, M; Chinchilla, M; Guerrero, O

    1996-08-01

    Extracts from thirteen species of plants were evaluated by "in vivo" antimalarial test against plasmodium berghei effects. Significant activities were observed in the ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts, elaborated of Cedrela tonduzii leaves, Trichilia havanensis and Trichilia americana barks, Neurolaena lobata and Gliricidia sepium leaves and Duranta repens fruits. Compounds identified include flavanoids, coumarins, mellilotic acid and iridoids which some kind of biodynamic activity has previously been reported. The flavone quercetin 1 purified from C. tonduzii gave strong antimalarial activity, however, its respective glucosides (quercetin 3-glucoside 2 y robinine 7) showed little significant activity. PMID:9246360

  14. Antibacterial activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of Ten Aromatic Plants against selected Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Bharti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of essential oils from ten aromatic plants Thymus vulgaris, Melaleuca alternifolia, Zanthoxylum rhetsa, Coriandrum sativum, Nardostachys jatamansi, Eucalyptus globules, Cyperus scariosus, Cinnamomum cecidodaphne, Olea europea, Foeniculum vulgare have been determined against nine selected bacteria. Essential oils from Thymus vulgaris, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were found to possess maximum antibacterial activity. The GC-MS analyses of these oils showed that α-Terpine, Thymol and β -Cymene were the main compounds responsible for the inhibitory effects of thyme oil. α- Pinene and Cymene were the major compounds in the Tea tree oil. The major compound in the Eucalyptus oil was found to be Eucalyptol.

  15. Potassium fertilization for pineapple: effects on soil chemical properties and plant nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira; José Antonio Quaggio; Heitor Cantarella; Estêvão Vicari Mellis

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out on an Ultisol located at the city of Agudos (22º30'S; 49º03'W), in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to determine the effects of rates and sources of potassium fertilizer on nutritional status of 'Smooth Cayenne' pineapple and on some soil chemical properties. The experiment was a complete factorial design with four rates (0, 175, 350, and 700 kg ha-1 of K2O) and three combinations of K sources (100% KCl, 100% K2SO4 and 40% K2SO4 + 60% KCl). Soil samp...

  16. Proceedings of the 8th workshop on plant mutation breeding. Effective use of physical/chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Tano, Shigemitsu (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The Workshop on Plant Mutation Breeding of FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia), was held on 9-13 October 2000 in Hanoi, Vietnam. The Workshop was co-sponsored by the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE of Vietnam) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD of Vietnam) in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), National Institute of Agrobiological Resources (NIAR of Vietnam), the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Two Scientists, a Project Leader and an expert on methodology for plant/crop mutation breeding, participated from each of the member countries, i.e. China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam and Japan. Also attending the Workshop were, one participant from Korea, seven participants from both Japan and Vietnam. The number of the participants in the Workshop totalled about sixty people including guests and observers. Sixteen papers including eight invited papers on the current status of methodology for plant/crop mutation breeding in the participating countries were presented. Discussions were focused on the subject concerning 'Effective Use of Physical/Chemical Mutagens', as well as a detailed report on the current status of research in each participating country. In addition, the topics of developing a mutant breeding database, an information exchange for plant/crop mutation breeding, and more tightly bound international co-operative research in the near future were also high on the agenda. This proceeding compiles the invited and contributed papers that were submitted from the speakers. (author)

  17. Proceedings of the 8th workshop on plant mutation breeding. Effective use of physical/chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Workshop on Plant Mutation Breeding of FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia), was held on 9-13 October 2000 in Hanoi, Vietnam. The Workshop was co-sponsored by the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE of Vietnam) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD of Vietnam) in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), National Institute of Agrobiological Resources (NIAR of Vietnam), the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Two Scientists, a Project Leader and an expert on methodology for plant/crop mutation breeding, participated from each of the member countries, i.e. China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam and Japan. Also attending the Workshop were, one participant from Korea, seven participants from both Japan and Vietnam. The number of the participants in the Workshop totalled about sixty people including guests and observers. Sixteen papers including eight invited papers on the current status of methodology for plant/crop mutation breeding in the participating countries were presented. Discussions were focused on the subject concerning 'Effective Use of Physical/Chemical Mutagens', as well as a detailed report on the current status of research in each participating country. In addition, the topics of developing a mutant breeding database, an information exchange for plant/crop mutation breeding, and more tightly bound international co-operative research in the near future were also high on the agenda. This proceeding compiles the invited and contributed papers that were submitted from the speakers. (author)

  18. Delisting efforts for mixed radioactive and chemically hazardous waste at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently, there are four hazardous wastes at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant that are candidates for the delisting from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste regulations. These candidates are the sludges from K-1407-B and C ponds, Central Neutralization Facility sludges, mixed sludges from Y-12 and the ash generated by the RCRA/Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. All of these hazardous wastes contain radioactive constituents as well as hazardous constituents. The delisting will be based upon the nonradioactive constituents. Whether the delisting petition is granted or not, the wastes will be handled according to the Department of Energy guidelines for radioactive wastes. The presentation discusses the methodologies for delisting these wastes and the rationale behind the processes

  19. Chemical Constituents of the Rare Cliff Plant Oresitrophe rupifraga and Their Antineuroinflammatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi-Ying; Xiong, Juan; Liu, Xin-Hua; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Four new (1 - 4) and thirteen known (5 - 17) compounds were isolated from a rare cliff plant, Oresitrophe rupifraga. Based on spectroscopic evidence, the new structures were established to be [(2S,3R,4R)-4-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-tetrahydrofuran-3-yl]methanol (1), (3α)-23-(acetyloxy)-3-hydroxyolean-12-en-29-oic acid (2), 3α,23-(isopropylidenedioxy)olean-12-en-29-oic acid (3, artifact of isolation), and (3β,15β)-3-hydroxycholest-5-en-15-yl β-d-glucopyranoside (4), respectively. Among the isolates, compounds 1, 4, epieudesmin (7), and 1-O-(9Z,12Z,15Z-octadecatrienoyl)glycerol (17) were found to show significant antineuroinflammatory effects by inhibiting the NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV-2 microglial cells, with IC50 values of 7.21, 9.39, 4.96, and 8.51 μm, respectively.

  20. [Sensitivity of Pseudomonas chlororaphis to antibiotics and chemical tools of plant protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelevich, V V; Kiprianova, E A; Iaroshenko, L V; Avdeeva, L V

    2012-01-01

    Examination of sensitivity of 10 Pseudomonas chlororaphis strains belonging to different subspecies to 54 antibiotics has shown that all studied representatives of Pchlororaphis subsp. chlororaphis, P. chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens and Pchlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca were sensitive to aminoglycoside antibiotics and fluoroquinolones derivatives. Only part of studied strains has shown sensitivity to some beta-lactam antibiotics, imipeneme and meropeneme. In contrast to representatives of two other subspecies both strains of P. chlororaphis subsp. chlororaphis proved to be sensitive to chlortetracycline and cefepime that allows to consider this difference as the characteristic useful for differentiation. All studied P. chlororaphis strains were resistant to chemical fungicides (Scor and Svitch) and the insect growth regulators (Match, Lufox, Engio, Actellik). Resistance of bacteria to these herbicides gives evidence that their combined use is possible.

  1. Chemical and physical reactions in SO/sub 2/ fumigated plants and leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K.

    1971-01-01

    Intact plants of Brassica napus, Nicotiana tabacum, Vicia faba and Borago officinalis were subjected to continuous exposure to SO/sub 2/ and their leaves examined at different stages of damage for changes in certain vital substances. Even before there were any visible signs of damage to the leaves of Brassica napus the concentrations of thiamin, pantothenic acid and folic acid were found to be lower. In necrotic areas the amounts of niacin and biotin were also found to be reduced. The influence of SO/sub 2/ on the energy level of the leaves was confirmed by measurement of the ATP concentrations. After exposure to 4, 2 mg SO/sub 2//m/sup 3/ the leaves of Vicia faba partly showed a sizeable increase in the ATP level. A slight increase was also found in Nicotiana tabacum after exposure to 0, 8 mg SO/sub 2//m/sup 3/. When more concentrated SO/sub 2/ (4, 8 mg/m/sup 3/) was used, a reduction in the ATP concentrations was observed in Nicotiana tab. and Borago officinalis. The sensitivity of Vicia f. to SO/sub 2/ could be increased by prior treatment of the plants with kinetin. Measurement of the gas exchange in certain leaves, before, during and after exposure to SO/sub 2/ showed a strong dependence of the assimilation of CO/sub 2/ on the absorption of SO/sub 2/ and a correlation to transpiration. There would appear to be a certain feed-back between photosynthesis and absorption of SO/sub 2/ through the stomata which seems partly to express itself in a well-defined oscillation between photosynthesis, transpiration and absorption of SO/sub 2/.

  2. Occurrence and fate of emerging trace organic chemicals in wastewater plants in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumol, Tarun; Vijayanandan, Arya; Park, Minkyu; Philip, Ligy; Snyder, Shane A

    2016-01-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals, hormones, pesticides and industrial contaminants collectively termed as trace organic compounds (TOrCs) in wastewater has been well-documented in USA, Europe, China and other regions. However, data from India, the second most populous country in the world is severely lacking. This study investigated the occurrence and concentrations of twenty-two indicator TOrCs at three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in South India serving diverse communities across three sampling campaigns. Samples were collected after each WWTP treatment unit and removal efficiencies for TOrCs were determined. Eleven TOrCs were detected in every sample from every location at all sites, while only five TOrCs were detected consistently in effluent samples. Caffeine was present at greatest concentration in the influent of all three plants with average concentrations ranging between 56 and 65μg/L. In contrast, the x-ray contrast media pharmaceutical, iohexol, was the highest detected compound on average in the effluent at all three WWTPs (2.1-8.7μg/L). TOrCs were not completely removed in the WWTPs with removal efficiencies being compound specific and most of the attenuation being attributed to the biological treatment processes. Caffeine and triclocarban were well removed (>80%), while other compounds were poorly removed (acesulfame, sucralose, iohexol) or maybe even formed (carbamazepine) within the WWTPs. The effluent composition of the 22 TOrCs were similar within the three WWTPs but quite different to those seen in the US, indicating the importance of region-specific monitoring. Diurnal trends indicated that variability is compound specific but trended within certain classes of compounds (artificial sweeteners, and pharmaceuticals). The data collected on TOrCs from this study can be used as a baseline to identify potential remediation and regulatory strategies in this understudied region of India. PMID:27054837

  3. Non-chemical water purification a Westinghouse/Wallenius product for nuclear power plant needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing demand for ecologically effective water treatment technologies has resulted in the development of several new oxidation methods. These technologies are generally labelled Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOT) or Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) and currently represent the most widely recognized alternative for ecologically sound, high-tech water purification. Many years of intensive research have culminated in the innovative Wallenius-AOT technology, a patented method that is remarkable in several ways. It imitates nature's own water purification method. This means no chemical additives are needed. The technology utilizes the ability of light, together with photo-catalytic semiconductor surfaces, to produce free radicals, like nature does. These reactive radicals create an environment in which organic and inorganic substances oxidize, whereby a broad spectrum of organisms is rendered harmless more effectively than with conventional UV technology. The entire process takes just a few micro-seconds. A major advantage of the technology is that it can be adjusted according to the desired degree of purification. By altering the dynamics of the process, the purification can be designed for specific applications. In this way, AOT tackles precise problems, regardless of flow and whether the problem is chemical or biological. The product was originally introduced for ballast treatment in the shipping industry. Ballast water has created severe damages to the biology at many locations. By moving an organism from one ocean to another we have introduced a possible threat to the local ecosystem. This has been prevented by using the AOT water treatment units. During ballasting and de-ballasting, the units create radicals with the help of a catalyst and a light source. These radicals then destroy the cell membrane of microorganisms. The radicals, which never leave the unit, have a lifetime of only a few milliseconds and pose no risk to the environment or crew

  4. Development of a strategy for biological monitoring in a chemical plant producing 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine dihydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoell, Kristian F; Will, Norbert; Leng, Gabriele; Selinski, Silvia; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann M

    2012-01-01

    In a chemical plant in Germany producing 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine dihydrochloride for the manufacture of colorants, blood and urine samples were taken for biological monitoring. 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (DBZ) was analyzed in urine by thin-layer chromatography and subsequently further combined with analysis of adducts of 3,3'-DBZ in hemoglobin. Data highlight current ranges of industrial exposure to 3,3'-DBZ in Germany and demonstrate the applicability of biological monitoring to minimize this exposure. Effective biological monitoring was achieved by a combination of monitoring hemoglobin adducts with spot samplings of urinary 3,3'-DBZ excretion in cases of reported exposure periods. Data presented might help to identify biological guidance values (BGV/BAR) for 3,3'-DBZ-exposed individuals.

  5. Chemical characterization and bioactive properties of two aromatic plants: Calendula officinalis L. (flowers) and Mentha cervina L. (leaves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, María; Barros, Lillian; Pereira, Carla; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Garcia, Pablo A; Castro, MaÁngeles; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-05-18

    The chemical composition and bioactive properties of two plants (Calendula officinalis L. and Mentha cervina L.) were studied. Their nutritional value revealed a high content of carbohydrates and low fat levels, and very similar energy values. However, they presented different profiles in phenolic compounds and fatty acids; C. officinalis presented mainly glycosylated flavonols and saturated fatty acids, while M. cervina presented mainly caffeoyl derivatives and polyunsaturated fatty acids. M. cervina showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds while C. officinalis presented higher amounts of sugars, organic acids and tocopherols. The highest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were obtained for the hydromethanolic extract of M. cervina, which presented the lowest values of EC50 and exhibited cytotoxicity against the four tumor cell lines tested. Infusions showed no cytotoxicity for the tumor cell lines, and none of the extracts showed toxicity against non-tumor cells. This study contributes to expand the knowledge on both natural sources and therefore their use. PMID:27110832

  6. Total phenolic content,in vitro antioxidant activity and chemical composition of plant extracts from semiarid Mexican region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge E Wong-Paz; Juan C Contreras-Esquivel; Ral Rodrguez-Herrera; Mara L Carrillo-Inungaray; Lluvia I Lpez; Guadalupe V Nevrez-Moorilln; Cristbal N Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the extraction suitable conditions of total phenolic content(TPC) by heat-reflux system, antioxidant activities andHPLC characterization of the aqueous-ethanolic extracts ofJatropha dioica (J. dioica)(Dragon’s blood),Flourensia cernua (F. cernua)(Tar bush), Eucalyptus camaldulensis(E. camaldulensis)(Eucalyptus) and Turnera diffusa (T. diffusa) (Damiana).Methods:TPC was evaluated by the well-known colorimetric assay usingFolin-Ciocalteu reagent.The antioxidant activities were assayed by three methods based on scavenging ofDPPH,ABTS and by lipid oxidation inhibition.The chemical composition of the extracts obtained was subject toHPLC analysis.Results:TPC in the plant extracts ranged from2.3 to 14.12 mg gallic acid equivalents/g for J. dioica and E. camaldulensis, respectively.The plant extracts ofF. cernua,E. camaldulensis andT. diffusa showed similar strong antioxidant activities on scavenging ofDPPH and lipid oxidation inhibition.In contrast,J. dioica extracts had lowest potential antioxidant in three assays used.HPLC assay showed the presence of several phenolic compounds in the extracts used.Conclusions:The results obtained suggest thatF. cernua, E. camaldulensis andT. diffusa are potential sources to obtain bioactive phenolic compounds with high antioxidant properties which can be used in the factories as antioxidant agents or for treatments in diseases.

  7. Total phenolic content,in vitro antioxidant activity and chemical composition of plant extracts from semiarid Mexican region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge; E.Wong-Paz; Juan; C.Contreras-Esquivel; Raúl; Rodríguez-Herrera; María; L.Carrillo-Inungaray; Lluvia; I.López; Guadalupe; V.Nevárez-Moorillón; Cristóbal; N.Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the extraction suitable conditions of total phenolic content(TPC) by heat-reflux system,antioxidant activities and HPLC characterization of the aqueous-ethanolic extracts of Jatropha dioica(J.dioica)(Dragon’s blood).Flourensia cernua(F.cernua)(Tar bush).Eucalyptus camaldulensis(E.camaldulensis)(Eucalyptus) and Turnera diffusa(T.diffusa)(Damiana).Methods:TPC was evaluated by the well-known colorimetric assay using FolinCiocalteu reagent.The antioxidant activities were assayed by three methods based on scavenging of DPPH,ABTS and by lipid oxidation inhibition.The chemical composition of the extracts obtained was subject to HPLC analysis.Results:TPC in the plant extracts ranged from 2.3 to14.12 mg gallic acid equivalents/g for J.dioica and E.camaldulensis,respectively.The plant extracts of F.cernua,E.camaldulensis and T.diffusa showed similar strong antioxidant activities on scavenging of DPPH and lipid oxidation inhibition.In contrast,J.dioica extracts had lowest potential antioxidant in three assays used.HPLC assay showed the presence of several phenolic compounds in the extracts used.Conclusions:The results obtained suggest that F.cernua,E.camaldulensis and T.diffusa are potential sources to obtain bioactive phenolic compounds with high antioxidant properties which can be used in the factories as antioxidant agents or for treatments in diseases.

  8. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-06-30

    With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture. PMID:25791643

  9. Chemical and ecotoxicological assessments of water samples before and after being processed by a Water Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Teresa Rosim Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical and ecotoxicological measurements were employed to appraise the water quality of the Corumbataí River raw water (RW intake, and that of its filtered (FW and treated (TW waters, processed by the Water Treatment Plant (WTP of Piracicaba (SP, Brazil during 2010. Some herbicides: ametrine, atrazine, simazine and tebuthiuron, were measured, with levels ranging from 0.01 to 10.3 µg L-1 . These were lower than those required to produce ecotoxicological effects to aquatic life based on published literature. Similarly, trihalomethanes, such as chloroform and bromodichloromethane produced as a result of the WTP process were also shown to be present in concentrations that would neither harm environmental nor human health. Elevated free chlorine concentrations found in FW and TW were credibly responsible for toxicity effects observed in algae and daphnids. (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Daphnia magna. In contrast, results of toxicity testing conducted with Hydra attenuata suggested that this organism is resistant to free chorine and could be used for drinking water evaluations. Coupling bioassays with chemical analyses proved valuable to uncover putative cause-effect relationships existing between physical, chemical and toxic results, as well as in optimizing data interpretation of water quality.

  10. Assessment of endocrine-disrupting chemicals attenuation in a coastal plain stream prior to wastewater treatment plant closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a combined pre/post-closure assessment at a long-term wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) site at Fort Gordon near Augusta, Georgia. Here, we assess select endocrine-active chemicals and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure prior to closure of the WWTP. Substantial downstream transport and limited instream attenuation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) was observed in Spirit Creek over a 2.2-km stream segment downstream of the WWTP outfall. A modest decline (less than 20% in all cases) in surface water detections was observed with increasing distance downstream of the WWTP and attributed to partitioning to the sediment. Estrogens detected in surface water in this study included estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3). The 5 ng/l and higher mean estrogen concentrations observed in downstream locations indicated that the potential for endocrine disruption was substantial. Concentrations of alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) metabolite EDCs also remained statistically elevated above levels observed at the upstream control site. Wastewater-derived pharmaceutical and APE metabolites were detected in the outflow of Spirit Lake, indicating the potential for EDC transport to aquatic ecosystems downstream of Fort Gordon. The results indicate substantial EDC occurrence, downstream transport, and persistence under continuous supply conditions and provide a baseline for a rare evaluation of ecosystem response to WWTP closure.

  11. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of plant extracts from Clausena dentata (Willd) (Rutaceae) against dengue, malaria, and filariasis vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjari, Murugesan Susitra; Karthi, Sengodan; Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Shivakumar, Muthugoundar Subramanian

    2014-07-01

    Mosquitoes in the larval stage are attractive targets for pesticides because mosquitoes breed in water, and thus, it is easy to deal with them in this habitat. The use of conventional pesticides in the water sources, however, introduces many risks to people and/or the environment. Natural pesticides, especially those derived from plants, are more promising in this aspect. Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used in different respects. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative to chemical insecticides. Acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum benzine leaf extracts of Clausena dentata were tested against the fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The highest larval mortality was found in acetone leaf extract, C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 0.150278 mg/ml; LC90 = 7.302613 mg/ml), A. aegypti (LC50 = 0.169495 mg/ml; LC90 = 1.10034 mg/ml), and A. stephensi (LC50 = 0.045684 mg/ml; LC90 = 0.045684 mg/ml). GC-MS analysis of plant extracts of acetone solvent revealed 16 compounds, of which the major compounds were benzene,1,2,3-trimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl) (14.97%), Z,Z-6,28-heptatriactontadien-2-one (6.81%), 2-allyl-4-methylphenol (28.14%), 2-allyl-4-methylphenol (17.34%), and 2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl (10.35%). Our result shows acetone leaf extracts of C. dentata have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for mosquito control.

  12. Chemical Interactions of Uranium in Water, Sediments, and Plants Along a Watershed Adjacent to the Abandoned Jackpile Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J.; De Vore, C. L.; Avasarala, S.; Ali, A.; Roldan, C.; Bowers, F.; Spilde, M.; Artyushkova, K.; Cerrato, J.

    2015-12-01

    The chemical interactions, mobility, and plant uptake of uranium (U) near abandoned mine wastes was investigated along the Rio Paguate, adjacent to the Jackpile Mine, located in Laguna Pueblo, New Mexico. Elevated U concentrations in surface water adjacent to mine waste range from 30 to 710 μg/L seasonally and decrease to 5.77 to 10.0 μg/L at a wetland 4.5 kilometers downstream of the mine. Although U concentrations in stream water are elevated, aqua regia acid digestions performed on co-located stream bed and stream bank sediments reveal that there is limited U accumulation on sediments along the reach between the mine and wetland, with most sediment concentrations being near the 3 mg/kg crustal average. However, U concentrations in sediments in the wetland are 4 times the background concentrations in the area. Individual results from salt cedar roots, stems, and leaves collected along the river transect show higher U concentrations in the roots adjacent to the mine waste (20 and 55 mg/kg) and lower in the stems and leaves. Translocation values calculated below 1 are evident in many of the plant samples, suggesting that U root to shoot translocation is minimal and U is accumulating in the roots. Concentrations of U in salt cedar roots from downstream of the mine waste decrease to 15 mg/kg. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis on sediment samples adjacent to the mine waste show a 75:25% ratio of Fe(III) to Fe(II), which can have an effect on adsorption properties. Electron microprobe results suggest that the ore in this area is present as a uranium-phosphate phase. Our results suggest that dilution, uptake by plants, and U sorption to wetland sediments are the dominant factors that help to decrease the U concentrations downstream of the mine.

  13. Chemical characterization of emissions from a municipal solid waste treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A I; Arnáiz, N; Font, R; Carratalá, A

    2014-11-01

    Gaseous emissions are an important problem in municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plants. The sources points of emissions considered in the present work are: fresh compost, mature compost, landfill leaks and leachate ponds. Hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analysed in the emissions from these sources. Hydrogen sulphide and ammonia were important contributors to the total emission volume. Landfill leaks are significant source points of emissions of H2S; the average concentration of H2S in biogas from the landfill leaks is around 1700 ppmv. The fresh composting site was also an important contributor of H2S to the total emission volume; its concentration varied between 3.2 and 1.7 ppmv and a decrease with time was observed. The mature composting site showed a reduction of H2S concentration (<0.1 ppmv). Leachate pond showed a low concentration of H2S (in order of ppbv). Regarding NH3, composting sites and landfill leaks are notable source points of emissions (composting sites varied around 30-600 ppmv; biogas from landfill leaks varied from 160 to 640 ppmv). Regarding VOCs, the main compounds were: limonene, p-cymene, pinene, cyclohexane, reaching concentrations around 0.2-4.3 ppmv. H2S/NH3, limonene/p-cymene, limonene/cyclohexane ratios can be useful for analysing and identifying the emission sources.

  14. Chemical constitution and effect of extracts of tomato plants byproducts on the enteric viral surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Beltrán, Norma Patricia; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Chaidez, Cristobal; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; López-Mata, Marco A; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique; Estrada, Maria Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Byproducts of tomato are known to include phenolic compounds but have not been studied in depth. In this study, the phenolic compositions of (stem, leaf, root, and whole plant) of two tomato cultivars, Pitenza and Floradade, were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. In parallel, the antiviral effects of crude extracts on viral surrogates, the bacteriophages MS2 and Av-05 were evaluated. The leaf extracts from the two varieties showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds. The compounds identified were gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, cafeic acid, rutin, and quercetin, and they represented 3174.3 and 1057.9 mg/100 g dried weight of the Pitenza and Floradade cultivars, respectively. MS2 and Av-05 titers at 5 mg/mL were reduced by 3.47 and 5.78 log10 PFU/mL and 3.78 and 4.93 log10 PFU/mL by Pitenza and Floradade cultivar leaf extract, respectively. These results show that tomato extracts are natural sources of bioactive substances with antiviral activity. PMID:25059828

  15. Chemical characterization of emissions from a municipal solid waste treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A I; Arnáiz, N; Font, R; Carratalá, A

    2014-11-01

    Gaseous emissions are an important problem in municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plants. The sources points of emissions considered in the present work are: fresh compost, mature compost, landfill leaks and leachate ponds. Hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analysed in the emissions from these sources. Hydrogen sulphide and ammonia were important contributors to the total emission volume. Landfill leaks are significant source points of emissions of H2S; the average concentration of H2S in biogas from the landfill leaks is around 1700 ppmv. The fresh composting site was also an important contributor of H2S to the total emission volume; its concentration varied between 3.2 and 1.7 ppmv and a decrease with time was observed. The mature composting site showed a reduction of H2S concentration (biogas from landfill leaks varied from 160 to 640 ppmv). Regarding VOCs, the main compounds were: limonene, p-cymene, pinene, cyclohexane, reaching concentrations around 0.2-4.3 ppmv. H2S/NH3, limonene/p-cymene, limonene/cyclohexane ratios can be useful for analysing and identifying the emission sources. PMID:25106121

  16. Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO{sub 2} Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, Herbert; Chiu, John; Edberg, Carl; Thibeault, Paul; Turek, David

    2012-09-30

    Alstom’s Limestone Chemical Looping (LCL™) process has the potential to capture CO{sub 2} from new and existing coal-fired power plants while maintaining high plant power generation efficiency. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion- gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology. This process could also be potentially configured as a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas or hydrogen for various applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. The targets set for this technology is to capture over 90% of the total carbon in the coal at cost of electricity which is less than 20% greater than Conventional PC or CFB units. Previous work with bench scale test and a 65 kWt Process Development Unit Development (PDU) has validated the chemistry required for the chemical looping process and provided for the investigation of the solids transport mechanisms and design requirements. The objective of this project is to continue development of the combustion option of chemical looping (LCL-C™) by designing, building and testing a 3 MWt prototype facility. The prototype includes all of the equipment that is required to operate the chemical looping plant in a fully integrated manner with all major systems in service. Data from the design, construction, and testing will be used to characterize environmental performance, identify and address technical risks, reassess commercial plant economics, and develop design information for a demonstration plant planned to follow the proposed Prototype. A cold flow model of the prototype will be used to predict operating conditions for the prototype and help in operator training. Operation of the prototype will provide operator experience with this new technology and performance data of the LCL-C™ process, which will be applied to the commercial design and economics and plan for a future demonstration plant.

  17. Non—linear Chemical Process Modelling and Application in Epichlorhydrine Production Plant Using Wavelet Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGDexian; ZHANGJie; 等

    2002-01-01

    A type of wavelet neural network, in which the scale function is adopted only,is proposed in this paper for non-linear dynamic process modelling.Its network size is decreased significantly and the weight coefficients can be estimated by a linear algorithm.The wavelet neural network holds some advantages supeiior to other types of neural networks.First, its network structure is easy to specify based on its theoretical analysis and intuition.Secondly, network training does not rely on stochastic gradient type techniques and avoidd the problem of poor convergence or undesirable local minima.The excellent statistic properties of the weight parameter estimations can be proven here.Both theoretical analysis and simulation study show that the identification method is robust and reliable. Furthermore,a hybrid network structure incorporating first-principle knowledge and wavelet network is developed to solve a commonly existing problem in chemical production processes.Applications of the hybrid network to a practical production process demonstrates that model generalisation capability is significantly improved.

  18. Plant absorption of trace elements in sludge amended soils and correlation with soil chemical speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torri, Silvana, E-mail: torri@agro.uba.ar [Catedra de Fertilidad y Fertilizantes, Facultad de Agronomia, UBA, Avda San Martin 4453, Buenos Aires (C1417 DSE) (Argentina); Lavado, Raul [Catedra de Fertilidad y Fertilizantes, Facultad de Agronomia, UBA, Avda San Martin 4453, Buenos Aires (C1417 DSE) (Argentina)

    2009-07-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Lolium perenne L. uptake of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in sludge amended soils and soil availability of these elements assessed by soil sequential extraction. A greenhouse experiment was set with three representative soils of the Pampas Region, Argentina, amended with sewage sludge and sewage sludge enriched with its own incinerated ash. After the stabilization period of 60 days, half of the pots were sampled for soil analysis; the rest of the pots were sown with L. perenne and harvested 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks after sowing, by cutting just above the soil surface. Cadmium and Pb concentrations in aerial tissues of L. perenne were below detection limits, in good agreement with the soil fractionation study. Copper and Zn concentration in the first harvest were significantly higher in the coarse textured soil compared to the fine textured soil, in contrast with soil chemical speciation. In the third harvest, there was a positive correlation between Cu and Zn concentration in aerial biomass and soil fractions usually considered of low availability. We conclude that the most available fractions obtained by soil sequential extraction did not provide the best indicator of Cu and Zn availability to L. perenne.

  19. The physical and chemical evolution of aerosols in smelter and power plant plumes: an airborne study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banic, C.; Leaitch, W.R.; Strawbridge, K.; Tanabe, R.; Wong, H.; Gariepy, C.; Simonetti, A.; Nejedly, Z.; Campbell, J.L.; Lu, J.; Skeaff, J.; Paktunc, D.; MacPherson, J.I.; Daggupaty, S.; Geonac' h, H.; Chatt, A.; Lamoureux, M. [Environmental Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-06-15

    National and international concern about the health effects and continued use of Pb, Cd, As and Hg as well as other metals has defined a need for improved estimates of the long-term risks to ecosystems and human health from metals released from mining, metallurgical and energy production activities. A research aircraft was used to determine the microphysical and chemical properties of airborne particulate metal emissions from the Nanticoke coal-fired power-generating station located on the north shore of Lake Erie, Ontario, and the Horne copper smelter at Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec. These properties are critical to the determination of the deposition rates of the metals emitted, and hence the potential for these species to have impacts on local or distant ecosystems. An overview of the measurements made during the study is given. The size distributions of particles emitted from the stacks and observed within 5 km of the point of emission are briefly described. After dilution by ambient air, the concentration of particles smaller than 0.135 {mu}m in diameter in the plumes is tens of thousands per cubic centimetre, far exceeding the concentrations found in ambient air. However, in the size range 0.135 to 3 {mu}m diameter the plumes generally contribute about one to four times more particles than present in ambient air.

  20. Bioactivity of chemically transformed humic matter from vermicompost on plant root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbss, Leonardo Barros; Pasqualoto Canellas, Luciano; Lopes Olivares, Fábio; Oliveira Aguiar, Natália; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Azevedo, Mariana; Spaccini, Riccardo; Piccolo, Alessandro; Façanha, Arnoldo R

    2010-03-24

    Chemical reactions (hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction, methylation, alkyl compounds detachment) were applied to modify the structure of humic substances (HS) isolated from vermicompost. Structural and conformational changes of these humic derivatives were assessed by elemental analyses, size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CPMAS-NMR), and diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY-NMR), whereas their bioactivity was evaluated by changes in root architecture and proton pump activation of tomato and maize. All humic derivatives exhibited a large bioactivity compared to original HS, both KMnO(4)-oxidized and methylated materials being the most effective. Whereas no general relationship was found between bioactivity and humic molecular sizes, the hydrophobicity index was significantly related with proton pump stimulation. It is suggested that the hydrophobic domain can preserve bioactive molecules such as auxins in the humic matter. In contact with root-exuded organic acids the hydrophobic weak forces could be disrupted, releasing bioactive compounds from humic aggregates. These findings were further supported by the fact that HS and all derivatives used in this study activated the auxin synthetic reporter DR5::GUS. PMID:20232906

  1. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM LAMIACEAE FAMILY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Laudy, Agnieszka E; Przybył, Jarosław; Ziarno, Małgorzata; Majewska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of aqueous (ethanolic and methanolic) extracts from herbs often used in Polish cuisine and traditional herbal medicine including thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were compared. The aqueous ethanolic extracts contained slightly higher levels of phenolics compared to the aqueous methanolic extracts. In turn, GC-MS analysis showed that the aqueous methanolic extracts of thyme, rosemary and sage contained several additional compounds such as eugenol or ledol. The present studies also indicated that the bacterial species applied in the experiment exhibited different sensitivities towards tested extracts. Staphylococcus aureus strains were found to be the most sensitive bacteria to aqueous (ethanolic and methanolic) rosemary and sage extracts and aqueous methanolic thyme extract. Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and Proteus vulgaris NCTC 4635 were more susceptible to the aqueous methanolic thyme extract. However, Listeria monocytogenes 1043S was the most sensitive to the aqueous ethanolic rosemary extract. Gram-positive bacteria were generally more sensitive to the tested extracts than Gram-negative ones. PMID:26647633

  2. Stirling engine based solar-thermal power plant with a thermo-chemical storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The system is unaffected by climatic and seasonal variation. • Drawbacks of solar power generation are eliminated. • A constant uninterrupted output power is obtained. - Abstract: This paper describes a solar-thermal run Stirling engine based uninterrupted power generating system employing magnesium sulphate impregnated Zeolite pellets for thermal energy storage. In the proposed system, Stirling engine design is based on the average temperature difference of 480 °C, assuming the heat sink temperature equal to the ambient temperature of that place. In presence of sun, Fresnel lenses of a specially designed hybrid capsule capture solar energy and concentrate them to provide necessary heat for the operation of the engine. In absence of the sun, required heat is provided by the thermo-chemical energy stored in Zeolite pellets. Working methodologies, modelling and simulation of the proposed system along with analyses of the obtained simulated results are presented in this paper. Possible performance of the scheme at different global positions for different period of a year has also been investigated

  3. Correlation between Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand for Various Wastewater Treatment Plants in Egypt to Obtain the Biodegradability Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Zaher Abdallah; Gina Hammam

    2014-01-01

    Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) are the most commonly used parameters for the characterization of wastewaters. Both of these parameters have advantages and disadvantages, and the choice usually depends on many factors such as the time period required to determine each one of them. It is essential to obtain a correlation between BOD5 and COD for various wastewater treatment plants, to help in the design and operation of these plants. In this paper, the biodegr...

  4. A Survey of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) in Marine Sediments, Influents/Effluents and Biosolids in Vancouver Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs)

    OpenAIRE

    Louie, Alvin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to apply a panel of yeast bioassays in the quantification and identification of chemicals from 4 different classes of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in marine sediments and wastewater samples from Vancouver wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In wastewater, estrogenic activity and AhR activity was detected in the ng/L range, while no glucocorticoid or androgenic activity was detected. There was also an observed general reduction in the estrogenic and Ah...

  5. Mercury speciation in highly contaminated soils from chlor-alkali plants using chemical extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neculita, Carmen-Mihaela; Zagury, Gérald J; Deschênes, Louise

    2005-01-01

    A four-step novel sequential extraction procedure (SEP) was developed to assess Hg fractionation and mobility in three highly contaminated soils from chlor-alkali plants (CAPs). The SEP was validated using a certified reference material (CRM) and pure Hg compounds. Total, volatile, and methyl Hg concentrations were also determined using single extractions. Mercury was separated into four fractions defined as water-soluble (F1), exchangeable (F2) (0.5 M NH4Ac-EDTA and 1 M CaCl2 were tested), organic (F3) (successive extractions with 0.2 M NaOH and CH3COOH 4% [v/v]), and residual (F4) (HNO3 + H2SO4 + HClO4). The soil characterization revealed extremely contaminated (295 +/- 18 to 11 500 +/- 500 mg Hg kg(-1)) coarse-grained sandy soils having an alkaline pH (7.9-9.1), high chloride concentrations (5-35 mg kg(-1)), and very low organic carbon content (0.00-18.2 g kg(-1)). Methyl Hg concentrations were low (0.2-19.3 microg kg(-1)) in all soils. Sequential extractions indicated that the majority of the Hg was associated with the residual fraction (F4). In Soils 1 and 3, however, high percentages (88-98%) of the total Hg were present as volatile Hg. Therefore, in these two soils, a high proportion of volatile Hg was present in the residual fraction. The nonresidual fraction (F1 + F2 + F3) was most abundant in Soil 1 (14-42%), suggesting a higher availability of Hg in this soil. The developed and validated SEP was reproducible and efficient for highly contaminated samples. Recovery ranged between 93 and 98% for the CRM and 70 and 130% for the CAP-contaminated soils.

  6. Chemical composition and efficacy of some selected plant oils against Pediculus humanus capitis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yones, Doaa A; Bakir, Hanaa Y; Bayoumi, Soad A L

    2016-08-01

    Natural compounds have been suggested as alternative sources for pediculosis capitis control. We aimed to investigate the chemical composition and evaluate the pediculicidal activity of spearmint, clove, cassia, thyme, eucalyptus, and anise essential oils in addition to sesame oil against human head lice in vitro. A filter paper contact bioassay method was used by applying 0.25 and 0.5 mg/cm(2) of each tested oil to filter paper in Petri dishes with 15 females head lice and another with ten nits. The lice mortalities were reported every 5 min for 180 min. The percentage of inhibition of hatch (PIH) was used to calculate ovicidal activity by daily microscopic inspections 5 days after the hatching of controls. Comparison with the widely used pediculicide (malathion) was performed. The most effective essential oil was spearmint followed by cassia and clove with KT50 values of 4.06, 7.62, and 12.12 at 0.5 mg/cm(2) and 8.84, 11.38, and 19.73 at 0.25 mg/cm(2), respectively. Thyme, eucalyptus, and anise were also effective adulticides with KT50 values of 18.61, 32.65, and 37.34 at 0.5 mg/cm(2) and 29.92, 43.16, and 45.37 at 0.25 mg/cm(2), respectively. Essential oils were also successful in inhibiting nymph emergence. Spearmint oil was the most effective, with a complete inhibition of emergence at 0.5 mg/cm(2). Sesame fixed oil did not show any adulticidal or ovicidal activity against head lice in vitro. The observed insecticidal activity was comparable to malathion. The results herein described the effectiveness of these essential oils as potential pediculicides for head lice control. Incorporation of essential oils in pediculicide formulations needs proper formulation and clinical trials. PMID:27112758

  7. Analysis of thermally coupled chemical looping combustion-based power plants with carbon capture

    KAUST Repository

    Iloeje, Chukwunwike

    2015-04-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. A number of CO2 capture-enabled power generation technologies have been proposed to address the negative environmental impact of CO2 emission. One important barrier to adopting these technologies is the associated energy penalty. Chemical-looping Combustion (CLC) is an oxy-combustion technology that can significantly lower this penalty. It utilizes an oxygen carrier to transfer oxygen from air/oxidizing stream in an oxidation reactor to the fuel in a reduction reactor. Conventional CLC reactor designs employ two separate reactors, with metal/metal oxide particles circulating pneumatically in-between. One of the key limitations of these designs is the entropy generation due to reactor temperature difference, which lowers the cycle efficiency. Zhao et al. (Zhao et al., 2014; Zhao and Ghoniem, 2014) proposed a new CLC rotary reactor design, which overcomes this limitation. This reactor consists of a single rotating wheel with micro-channels designed to maintain thermal equilibrium between the fuel and air sides. This study uses three thermodynamic models of increasing fidelity to demonstrate that the internal thermal coupling in the rotary CLC reactor creates the potential for improved cycle efficiency. A theoretical availability model and an ideal thermodynamic cycle model are used to define the efficiency limits of CLC systems, illustrate the impact of reactor thermal coupling and discuss relevant criteria. An Aspen Plus® model of a regenerative CLC cycle is then used to show that this thermal coupling raises the cycle efficiency by up to 2% points. A parametric study shows that efficiency varies inversely with pressure, with a maximum of 51% at 3bar, 1000C and 60% at 4bar, 1400C. The efficiency increases with CO2 fraction at high pressure ratios but exhibits a slight inverse dependence at low pressure ratios. The parametric study shows that for low purge steam demand, steam generation improves exhaust heat recovery and increases efficiency

  8. Enzymes from fungal and plant origin required for chemical diversification of insecticidal loline alkaloids in grass-Epichloe symbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pan

    Full Text Available The lolines are a class of bioprotective alkaloids that are produced by Epichloë species, fungal endophytes of grasses. These alkaloids are saturated 1-aminopyrrolizidines with a C2 to C7 ether bridge, and are structurally differentiated by the various modifications of the 1-amino group: -NH2 (norloline, -NHCH3 (loline, -N(CH32 (N-methylloline, -N(CH3Ac (N-acetylloline, -NHAc (N-acetylnorloline, and -N(CH3CHO (N-formylloline. Other than the LolP cytochrome P450, which is required for conversion of N-methylloline to N-formylloline, the enzymatic steps for loline diversification have not yet been established. Through isotopic labeling, we determined that N-acetylnorloline is the first fully cyclized loline alkaloid, implying that deacetylation, methylation, and acetylation steps are all involved in loline alkaloid diversification. Two genes of the loline alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL gene cluster, lolN and lolM, were predicted to encode an N-acetamidase (deacetylase and a methyltransferase, respectively. A knockout strain lacking both lolN and lolM stopped the biosynthesis at N-acetylnorloline, and complementation with the two wild-type genes restored production of N-formylloline and N-acetylloline. These results indicated that lolN and lolM are required in the steps from N-acetylnorloline to other lolines. The function of LolM as an N-methyltransferase was confirmed by its heterologous expression in yeast resulting in conversion of norloline to loline, and of loline to N-methylloline. One of the more abundant lolines, N-acetylloline, was observed in some but not all plants with symbiotic Epichloë siegelii, and when provided with exogenous loline, asymbiotic meadow fescue (Lolium pratense plants produced N-acetylloline, suggesting that a plant acetyltransferase catalyzes N-acetylloline formation. We conclude that although most loline alkaloid biosynthesis reactions are catalyzed by fungal enzymes, both fungal and plant enzymes are responsible for

  9. Enzymes from fungal and plant origin required for chemical diversification of insecticidal loline alkaloids in grass-Epichloë symbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Juan; Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Grossman, Robert B; Schardl, Christopher L

    2014-01-01

    The lolines are a class of bioprotective alkaloids that are produced by Epichloë species, fungal endophytes of grasses. These alkaloids are saturated 1-aminopyrrolizidines with a C2 to C7 ether bridge, and are structurally differentiated by the various modifications of the 1-amino group: -NH2 (norloline), -NHCH3 (loline), -N(CH3)2 (N-methylloline), -N(CH3)Ac (N-acetylloline), -NHAc (N-acetylnorloline), and -N(CH3)CHO (N-formylloline). Other than the LolP cytochrome P450, which is required for conversion of N-methylloline to N-formylloline, the enzymatic steps for loline diversification have not yet been established. Through isotopic labeling, we determined that N-acetylnorloline is the first fully cyclized loline alkaloid, implying that deacetylation, methylation, and acetylation steps are all involved in loline alkaloid diversification. Two genes of the loline alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene cluster, lolN and lolM, were predicted to encode an N-acetamidase (deacetylase) and a methyltransferase, respectively. A knockout strain lacking both lolN and lolM stopped the biosynthesis at N-acetylnorloline, and complementation with the two wild-type genes restored production of N-formylloline and N-acetylloline. These results indicated that lolN and lolM are required in the steps from N-acetylnorloline to other lolines. The function of LolM as an N-methyltransferase was confirmed by its heterologous expression in yeast resulting in conversion of norloline to loline, and of loline to N-methylloline. One of the more abundant lolines, N-acetylloline, was observed in some but not all plants with symbiotic Epichloë siegelii, and when provided with exogenous loline, asymbiotic meadow fescue (Lolium pratense) plants produced N-acetylloline, suggesting that a plant acetyltransferase catalyzes N-acetylloline formation. We conclude that although most loline alkaloid biosynthesis reactions are catalyzed by fungal enzymes, both fungal and plant enzymes are responsible for the

  10. Do chemical gradients within soil aggregates reflect plant/soil interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Jaane; Hallas, Till; Kinsch, Lena; Stahr, Simon; Prietzel, Jörg; Lang, Friederike

    2016-04-01

    -specific: On P-rich study sites the results reveal a significant depletion of citric acid-extractable PO4 and P on aggregate surfaces in subsoil horizons, while at the other study sites a slight enrichment at the aggregate surfaces could be observed. Total P concentrations show no distinct gradients within topsoil aggregates, but a slight P enrichment at the surface of subsoil aggregates at the P-rich site. A strong correlation with the total Al concentrations may indicate a P speciation change within aggregates (e.g., due to acidification processes). These results were also confirmed by P K-edge XANES spectra of aggregate core and shell samples of the P-rich site: In the aggregate shells of topsoil as well as subsoil aggregates, organic P forms are most dominant (82 and 80 %, respectively) than in the aggregate interior (54 and 66%, respectively). Moreover, P in the shell seems to be completely associated to Al, whereas some of the P in the aggregate interior is bound to Fe and/or Ca. Overall, our results show that plant/soil interactions impact on small-scale distribution and bioavailability of nutrients by root uptake and root-induced aggregate engineering.

  11. Integrated use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, biogas slurry and chemical nitrogen for sustainable production of maize under salt-affected conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity is one of the most critical constraints hampering agricultural production throughout the world, including Pakistan. Some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have the ability to reduce the deleterious effect of salinity on plants due to the presence of ACC-deaminase enzyme along with some other mechanisms. The integrated use of organic, chemical and biofertilizers can reduce dependence on expensive chemical inputs. To sustain high crop yields without deterioration of soil fertility, it is important to work out optimal combination of chemical and biofertilizers, and manures in the cropping system. A pot trial was conducted to study the effect of integrated use of PGPR, chemical nitrogen, and biogas slurry for sustainable production of maize under salt-stressed conditions and for good soil health. Results showed that sole application of PGPR, chemical nitrogen and biogas slurry enhanced maize growth but their combined application was more effective. Maximum improvement in maize growth, yield, ionic concentration in leaves and nutrient concentration in grains was observed in the treatment where PGPR and biogas slurry was used in the presence of 100% recommended nitrogen as chemical fertilizer. It also improved the soil pH, ECe, and available N, P and K contents. It is concluded that integrated use of PGPR, biogas slurry and chemical nitrogen not only enhanced maize growth, yield and quality but also improved soil health. So, it may be evaluated under field conditions to get sustained yield of maize from salt-affected soils. (author)

  12. Chemical inducible promoter used to obtain transgenic plants with a silent marker and organisms and cells and methods of using same for screening for mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jianru; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2007-06-12

    Disclosed is a chemically inducible promoter for transforming plants or plant cells with genes which are regulatable by adding the plants or cells to a medium containing an inducer or by removing them from such medium. The promoter is inducible by a glucocorticoid, estrogen or inducer not endogenous to plants. Such promoters may be used with any plant genes that can promote shoot regeneration and development to induce shoot formation in the presence of a glucocorticoid, estrogen or inducer. The promoter may be used with antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes or other genes which are regulatable by the presence or absence of a given inducer. Also presented are organisms or cells comprising a gene wherein the natural promoter of the gene is disrupted and the gene is placed under the control of a transgenic inducible promoter. These organisms and cells and their progeny are useful for screening for conditional gain of function and loss of function mutations.

  13. Use of Several Plant Materials and Chemicals to inhibit Soil Urease Activity and Increase Nitrogen Recovery Rate of Urea by Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Effects of residues of 9 plants, lemon eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook., P1), robust eucalyptus (E. robusta Smith, P2), Nepal camphortree (Cinnamomum glanduliferum (Wall.) Nees, P3), tea (Camellia sinensis (Linn.) O. Ktze. f., P4), oleander (Nerium indicum Mill, P5), rape (Brassica campestris L., P6),Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum L., P7), tung (Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.), P8), and croton (Croton tiglium L., P9), 7 chemicals, boric acid (C1), borax (C2), oxalic acid (C3), sodium oxalite (C4), sodium dihydrogen phosphate (C6), sodium silicate (C7) and sodium citrate (C8), and a natural organic substance,humic acid (C5), on urease activity of a neutral purple soil and recovery of urea nitrogen by maize were studied through incubation and pot experiments. Hydroquinone (HQ) was applied as the reference inhibitor. After incubation at 37 ℃ for 24 h, 7 inhibitors with higher ability to inhibit urease activity were selected and then incubated for 14 days at 25 ℃. Results of the incubation experiments showed that soil urease activity was greatly inhibited by them, and the inhibition effect followed an order of P2>P4>C3>C2>P3>C1>HQ>P1.The 7 selected materials reduced the accumulative amounts of N released from urea and the maximum urease activity by 11.7%~28.4% and 26.7%~39.7%, respectively, and postponed the N release peak by 2~4 days in the incubation period of 14 days under constant temperature, as compared to the control (no inhibitor).In the pot experiment with the 7 materials at two levels of addition, low (L) and high (H), the C1 (H), C3(H), C1 (L), P4 (L) and C2 (L) treatments could significantly increase the dry weights of the aboveground parts and the total biomass of the maize plants and the apparent recovery rate of urea-N was increased by 6.3%~32.4% as compared to the control (no hibitor).

  14. Chemical and plant tests to assess the viability of amendments to reduce metal availability in mine soils and tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Luis; Gómez, Rocío; Sánchez, Virtudes; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this research was to assess the potential of several industrial wastes to immobilise metals in two polluted soils deriving from an old Pb/Zn mine. Two different approaches were used to assess the performance of different amendments: a chemical one, using extraction by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and a biological one, using Lupinus albus as a bio-indicator. Four amendments were used: inorganic sugar production waste (named 'sugar foam', SF), sludge from a drinking water treatment sludge (DWS), organic waste from olive mill waste (OMW) and paper mill sludge (PMS). Amendment to soil ratios ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 (w/w). All the amendments were capable of significantly decreasing (p < 0.05) EDTA-extractable Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in the two soils used, with decreases in ranges 21-100, 25-100 and 2-100 % for Pb, Zn and Cu, respectively. The amendments tested were also effective in reducing the bioavailability of Pb and Zn for L. albus, which gave rise to a decrease in shoot metal accumulation by the lupine plants compared to that found in the control soil. That decrease reached up to 5.6 and 2.8 times for Pb and Zn, respectively, being statistically significant in most cases. Moreover, application of the OMW, DWS and SF amendments led to higher average values of plant biomass (up to 71 %) than those obtained in the control soil. The results obtained showed the technology put forward to be a viable means of remediating mine soils as it led to a decrease in the availability and toxicity of metals and, thus, facilitated the growth of a vegetation layer. PMID:25772873

  15. Hydrogen production by the solar-powered hybrid sulfur process: Analysis of the integration of the CSP and chemical plants in selected scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Raffaele; Lanchi, Michela; Turchetti, Luca

    2016-05-01

    The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) is a water splitting process for hydrogen production powered with high temperature nuclear heat and electric power; among the numerous thermo-chemical and thermo-electro-chemical cycles proposed in the literature, such cycle is considered to have a particularly high potential also if powered by renewable energy. SOL2HY2 (Solar to Hydrogen Hybrid Cycles) is a 3 year research project, co-funded by the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU). A significant part of the project activities are devoted to the analysis and optimization of the integration of the solar power plant with the chemical, hydrogen production plant. This work reports a part of the results obtained in such research activity. The analysis presented in this work builds on previous process simulations used to determine the energy requirements of the hydrogen production plant in terms of electric power, medium (550°C) temperature heat. For the supply of medium temperature (MT) heat, a parabolic trough CSP plant using molten salts as heat transfer and storage medium is considered. A central receiver CSP (Concentrated Solar Power) plant is considered to provide high temperature (HT) heat, which is only needed for sulfuric acid decomposition. Finally, electric power is provided by a power block included in the MT solar plant and/or drawn from the grid, depending on the scenario considered. In particular, the analysis presented here focuses on the medium temperature CSP plant, possibly combined with a power block. Different scenarios were analysed by considering plants with different combinations of geographical location and sizing criteria.

  16. Disease incidence and severity of rice plants in conventional chemical fertilizer input compared with organic farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Luo, Fan

    2015-04-01

    To study the impacts of different fertilizer applications on rice growth and disease infection, a 3-year field experiment of rice cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai from 2012-2014. No any pesticides and herbicides were applied during the entire experiment to prevent their disturbance to rice disease. Compared with green (GM) and cake manures (CM), the application of chemical fertilizer (CF) stimulated the photosysthesis and vegetative growth of rice plants more effectively. Chlorophyll content, height and tiller number of the rice plants treated with the CF were generally higher than those treated with the GM and CM and the control; the contents of nitrate (NO3--N), ammonium (NH4+-N), Kjeldahl nitrogen (KN) and soluble protein treated with the CF were also higher than those with the others during the 3-year experiment. The 3-year experiment also indicated that the incidences of stem borers, shreath blight, leaf rollers and planthoppers of the rice treated with the CF were signficantly higher than those treated with the GM and CM and the control. Especially in 2012 and 2014, the incidences of rice pests and diseases treated with the CF were far more severe than those with the others. As a result, the grain yield treated with the CF was not only lower than that treated with the GM and CM, but also lower than that of the no-fertilizer control. This might be attributed to two reasons: Pests favor the rice seedlings with sufficient N-related nutrients caused by CF application; the excessive accumulation of nutrients in the seedlings might have toxic effects and weaken their immune systems, thus making them more vulnerable to pests and diseases. In comparison, the plants treated with a suitable amount of organic manure showed a better capability of disease resistance and grew more healthy. In addition, the incidences of rice pests and diseases might also be related to climatic conditions. Shanghai was hit by strong subtropical storms in the summer of

  17. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure

  18. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure.

  19. Lagrangian sampling of wastewater treatment plant effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa, during the summer of 2003 and spring of 2005--Hydrological and chemical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Brown, Gregory K.; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Gray, James L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Taylor, Howard E.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents methods and data for a Lagrangian sampling investigation into chemical loading and in-stream attenuation of inorganic and organic contaminants in two wastewater treatment-plant effluent-dominated streams: Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa. Water-quality sampling was timed to coincide with low-flow conditions when dilution of the wastewater treatment-plant effluent by stream water was at a minimum. Sample-collection times corresponded to estimated travel times (based on tracer tests) to allow the same "parcel" of water to reach downstream sampling locations. The water-quality data are linked directly to stream discharge using flow- and depth-integrated composite sampling protocols. A range of chemical analyses was made for nutrients, carbon, major elements, trace elements, biological components, acidic and neutral organic wastewater compounds, antibiotic compounds, pharmaceutical compounds, steroid and steroidal-hormone compounds, and pesticide compounds. Physical measurements were made for field conditions, stream discharge, and time-of-travel studies. Two Lagrangian water samplings were conducted in each stream, one in the summer of 2003 and the other in the spring of 2005. Water samples were collected from five sites in Boulder Creek: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, and three downstream sites. Fourmile Creek had seven sampling sites: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, four downstream sites, and a tributary. At each site, stream discharge was measured, and equal width-integrated composite water samples were collected and split for subsequent chemical, physical, and biological analyses. During the summer of 2003 sampling, Boulder Creek downstream from the wastewater treatment plant consisted of 36 percent effluent, and Fourmile Creek downstream from the respective wastewater treatment plant was 81 percent effluent. During the spring of 2005

  20. Bioactive polysaccharides from the stems of the Thai medicinal plant Acanthus ebracteatus: their chemical and physical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokputsa, Sanya; Harding, Stephen E; Inngjerdingen, Kari; Jumel, Kornelia; Michaelsen, Terje E; Heinze, Thomas; Koschella, Andreas; Paulsen, Berit S

    2004-03-15

    Crude water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from Acanthus ebracteatus by hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation after pre-treatment with 80% ethanol. The crude polysaccharides were separated into neutral and acidic polysaccharides by anion-exchange chromatography. The neutral polysaccharide (A1001) was rich in galactose, 3-O-methylgalactose and arabinose, whereas the acidic polysaccharide (A1002) consisted mainly of galacturonic acid along with rhamnose, arabinose and galactose as minor components indicating a pectin-type polysaccharide with rhamnogalacturonan type I (RG-1) backbone. 3-O-Methylgalactose is also present in the acidic fraction. Both neutral and acidic fractions showed potent effects on the complement system using pectic polysaccharide PM II from Plantago major as a positive control. A small amount of 3-O-methylgalactose present in the pectin seemed to be of importance for activity enhancement in addition to the amount of neutral sugar side chains attached to RG-1. The relationship between chemical structure and effect on the complement system of the isolated polysaccharides is considered in the light of these data. The presence of the rare monosaccharide 3-O-methylgalactose may indicate that this can be used as a chemotaxonomic marker. The traditional way of using this plant as a medical remedy appears to have a scientific basis. PMID:14980816

  1. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  2. MEDICINAL PLANTS AND HERBS OF NEWFOUNDLAND. PART 1. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF THE AERIAL PART OF PINEAPPLE WEED (Matricaria matricarioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIMOTHY F. LOOMIS

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aerial part of Pineapple weed (Matricaria matricarioides, an adulterant of Chamomile, was investigated for its chemical constituents. Nine compounds were isolated and identified as two spiroethers [cis - en - yn - dicycloether 1 and trans - en - yn - dicycloether 2], three coumarins [7 - methoxycoumarin (Herniarin 3, umbelliferone 4 and 7 - methoxy - 3, 4 -dihydrocoumarin 5], phytol 6, luteolin - 7 - glucoside 7, (Z - 2 - β - D - Glucopyranosyloxyl - 4 - methoxycinnamic acid 8, and (E - 2 - β -D-Glucopyranosyloxyl - 4 -methoxycinnamic acid 9. By GC-MS analysis, the major components of the steam distilled volatile oil were identified as trans-en-yn-dicycloether and cis-en- yn-dicycloether, with the trans-form being more abundant than the cis-form. The results indicated some similarities between the constituents of Pineapple weed and those of German Chamomile. All these nine compounds are reported for the first time from Pineapple weed growing in Newfoundland. Compound 5 is reported from this plant genus for the first time.

  3. Chemically induced skin carcinogenesis in mice and its prevention by Aegle marmelos (an Indian medicinal plant) fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Annapurna; Jahan, Swafiya; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the chemopreventive potential of the Aegle marmelos plant on mouse skin tumorigenesis initiated by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by croton oil. A significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor burden, tumor multiplicity, and the cumulative number of papillomas, along with a significant increase in the average latent period, was recorded in mice treated orally with A. marmelos extract (AME) at peri - and post-initiation phases (i.e., 7 days before DMBA application and continued until the end of the experiment) of papillomagenesis as compared with the carcinogen-treated controls. Furthermore, a significant increase in catalase activity, reduced glutathione and total proteins, and a depleted level of lipid peroxidation were observed in liver and skin of AME-treated animals as compared with the carcinogen-treated controls. Thus, the oral administration of AME, at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt per day per animal, was found to be significantly effective in reducing skin tumors against chemical carcinogenesis in mice. PMID:22126618

  4. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R J; Johnson, Jr, A B; Lund, A L; Gilbert, E R [and others

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  5. Phase 2 groundwater quality assessment for the Weldon Spring site chemical plant/raffinate pits and surrounding vicinity properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report brings together the most current information on groundwater contamination in the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant/Raffinate Pits (WSCP/WSRP) area and vicinity properties (WSVP) of the Weldon Spring Site (WSS). In 1988 the monitoring well network was extended by the addition of 33 new wells installed at two depths so they could be used for vertical and lateral characterization. The analytical categories for the study were inorganic anions, nitroaromatic compounds, radiochemical parameters, metals, and total organic carbon. Nitrate contamination in groundwater is a result of leaking raffinate pits. The apparent sources of sulfate contamination are associated with the manufacturing of TNT and DNT. Nitroaromatic compounds are present in the groundwater at the WSS as a result of operations at the WSOW during World War II. Historically, only two monitoring wells indicate uranium levels greater than 40 pCi/L which at this time seems to be the most likely drinking water standard the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will establish. Some metals concentrations in groundwater appear to be connected to the raffinate pits as a point source. Other metals are present in the groundwater, not point sources have been identified for them. The contract required detection limits (CRDLs) for some metals higher than regulatory drinking water standards. 19 refs., 24 figs., 13 tabs

  6. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAlx, UAlx-Al and U3O8-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrHx, UErZrH, UO2-stainless steel cermet, and U3O8-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified

  7. A comparative evaluation of conceptual models for the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geologic and hydrologic data collected by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) are used to evaluate the existing ground water monitoring well network completed in the upper portion of the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) beneath the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The USGS data analyzed and compared in this study include: (a) lithologic, geophysical, and stratigraphic information, including the conceptual geologic models intrawell, ground water flow measurement (Tracejector tests) and (c) dedicated, submersible, sampling group elevations. Qualitative evaluation of these data indicate that the upper portion of the SRPA is both heterogeneous and anisotropic at the scale of the ICPP monitoring well network. Tracejector test results indicate that the hydraulic interconnection and spatial configuration of water-producing zones is extremely complex within the upper portion of the SRPA. The majority of ICPP monitoring wells currently are equipped to sample ground water only the upper lithostratigraphic intervals of the SRPA, primarily basalt flow groups E, EF, and F. Depth-specific hydrogeochemical sampling and analysis are necessary to determine if ground water quality varies significantly between the various lithostratigraphic units adjacent to individual sampling pumps

  8. Determination of thephysico-chemical 131I species in the exhausts and stack effluent of a PWR power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To quantify the credit that can be granted in the assessment of the 131I ingestion doses and the improvement that can be achieved in the ventilation systems if differences of the physico-chemical 131I species with respect to the environmental impact are taken into account, the fractions of the 131I species were determined in the stack effluent and in various exhausts of a 1300 MW/sub e/ PWR power plant during a period of 3 months. Based on these measurements, calculations for different cases of filtration of the main exhausts for iodine were carried out. The average fractions of elemental and organic 131I were about 70 and 30% respectively in the stack effluent during the time indicated. Elem. 131I orginated mainly from the hoods in which samples of the primary coolant are taken and processed. Org. 131I was mainly contributed by the equipment compartments. If the hood exhaust had been filtered, as was the case with the equipment compartment exhaust, the fractions of elem. and org. 131I would have been on the order of 50% each and the calculated 131I ingestion doses would have been a factor of 3 lower

  9. Evaluating the impact of a fluoropolymer plant on a river macrobenthic community by a combined chemical, ecological and genetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Marianna; Marziali, Laura; Stefani, Fabrizio; Valsecchi, Sara; Bettinetti, Roberta; Mazzoni, Michela; Rosignoli, Federica; Polesello, Stefano

    2015-12-15

    Effect-based monitoring is a recommended approach suggested in European Guidelines to assess the response of ecosystem affected by a pollution source, considering the effects at community, population, individual but also at suborganism level. A combined chemical, ecological and genetic approach was applied in order to assess the impact of a fluoropolymer plant on the macrobenthic community of the Northern Italian river Bormida (Piedmont region). The macrobenthic community living downstream of the industrial discharge was chronically exposed to a mixture of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), with perfluorooctanoic acid as the main compound, at concentrations up to several μgL(-1). Ecological assessment proved that the downstream community was not substantially different from that living upstream of the pollution source. The impact on community is not quantifiable with the traditional monitoring methods used for ecological classification under European regulation because macrobenthic communities showed only slight differences in their structure. In order to highlight effects on genetic variability of the native population, a subcellular analysis by using the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) genetic technique was applied to genotype of individuals of a selected species (Hydropsyche modesta, Trichoptera) collected in the two sampling sites. Percentage of variation between the two populations was 6.8%, a threshold compatible with a genetic drift induced in the downstream population. The genetic study carried out in field identified a significant divergence between exposed and non-exposed populations, but at present it is not possible to associate this divergence to a specific effect induced by PFAS.

  10. A comparative evaluation of conceptual models for the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Geologic and hydrologic data collected by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) are used to evaluate the existing ground water monitoring well network completed in the upper portion of the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) beneath the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The USGS data analyzed and compared in this study include: (a) lithologic, geophysical, and stratigraphic information, including the conceptual geologic models intrawell, ground water flow measurement (Tracejector tests) and (c) dedicated, submersible, sampling group elevations. Qualitative evaluation of these data indicate that the upper portion of the SRPA is both heterogeneous and anisotropic at the scale of the ICPP monitoring well network. Tracejector test results indicate that the hydraulic interconnection and spatial configuration of water-producing zones is extremely complex within the upper portion of the SRPA. The majority of ICPP monitoring wells currently are equipped to sample ground water only the upper lithostratigraphic intervals of the SRPA, primarily basalt flow groups E, EF, and F. Depth-specific hydrogeochemical sampling and analysis are necessary to determine if ground water quality varies significantly between the various lithostratigraphic units adjacent to individual sampling pumps.

  11. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane Dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair Dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  12. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Noleto Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul. A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50 ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors.

  13. Physical features of accumulation and distribution processes of small disperse coal dust precipitations and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Ledenyov, Oleg P; Poltinin, P Ya; Fedorova, L I

    2012-01-01

    The physical features of absorption process of radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filters of the type of AU-1500 at the nuclear power plants are researched. It is shown that the non-homogenous spatial distribution of absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter, probed by the gamma-activation analysis method, is well correlated with the spatial distribution of small disperse coal dust precipitations in the iodine air filter. This circumstance points out to an important role by the small disperse coal dust fractions of absorber in the absorption process of radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter. The physical origins of characteristic interaction between the radioactive chemical elements and the accumulated small disperse coal dust precipitations in an iodine air filter are considered. The analysis of influence by the researched physical processes on the technical characteristics and functionality of iodine ...

  14. 化工装置建筑工程测量技术研究%Chemical Plant Construction Engineering Measurement Technology Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松

    2015-01-01

    The construction of chemical plant is related to the production of the country, the development of the economy. However, construction measurement technology and relates to the construction of a chemical plant level is in line with the standard . So construction engineering measurement technology is particularly important. From another aspect of construction engi-neering survey is to determine the stand or fall of chemical pro-duction equipment to build. Chemical plant construction engi-neering measurement technology research is of great importance.%化工装置的建筑施工关系到国家的生产、经济的发展。然而建筑工程的测量技术水平又关系到化工装置的建造水平是否符合标准。所以化工装置的测量技术研究就显得非常有必要了。从另一个方面说建筑工程测量是决定化工生产装置建造的好坏。因此,该项技术研究就具有重要的意义。

  15. Endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals of concern in surface water, wastewater-treatment plant effluent, and bed sediment, and biological characteristics in selected streams, Minnesota-design, methods, and data, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Ferrey, Mark L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Martinovic, Dalma; Woodruff, Olivia R.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Brown, Greg K.; Taylor, Howard E.; Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the study design, environmental data, and quality-assurance data for an integrated chemical and biological study of selected streams or lakes that receive wastewater-treatment plant effluent in Minnesota. This study was a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Cloud State University, the University of St. Thomas, and the University of Colorado. The objective of the study was to identify distribution patterns of endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other organic and inorganic chemicals of concern indicative of wastewater effluent, and to identify biological characteristics of estrogenicity and fish responses in the same streams. The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water, bed-sediment, and quality-assurance samples, and measured or recorded streamflow once at each sampling location from September through November 2009. Sampling locations included surface water and wastewater-treatment plant effluent. Twenty-five wastewater-treatment plants were selected to include continuous flow and periodic release facilities with differing processing steps (activated sludge or trickling filters) and plant design flows ranging from 0.002 to 10.9 cubic meters per second (0.04 to 251 million gallons per day) throughout Minnesota in varying land-use settings. Water samples were collected from the treated effluent of the 25 wastewater-treatment plants and at one point upstream from and one point downstream from wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharges. Bed-sediment samples also were collected at each of the stream or lake locations. Water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pharmaceuticals, phytoestrogens and pharmaceuticals, alkylphenols and other neutral organic chemicals, carboxylic acids, and steroidal hormones. A subset (25 samples) of the bed-sediment samples were analyzed for carbon, wastewater-indicator chemicals, and steroidal hormones; the

  16. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-09-30

    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The

  17. Biological and chemical control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum using Trichoderma spp. and Ulocladium atrum and pathogenicity to bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girlene Soares de Figueirêdo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Four isolates of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were tested for pathogenicity in IPA-10 variety bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L., and all were pathogenic. Biological control in vitro was evaluated using eight isolates of Trichoderma spp. and, one of Ulocladium atrum. Chemical control in vitro with fungicides Thiophanate methyl, Iprodione and Carbendazim was also tested. Except U. atrum, all Trichoderma isolates showed antagonistic potential against S. sclerotiorum, where isolate 3601 presented the best performance. Thiophanate methyl chemical control was the most efficient. This fungicide and isolate 3601were compared in vivo in greenhouse. There was statistical difference between the treatments, and the application of fungicide and antagonist before the pathogen was the most efficient approach, reducing the percentage of pathogenicity to 32.94% and 37.04%, respectively.Quatro isolados de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, foram testados quanto à patogenicidade em plantas de feijão, variedade IPA-10 sendo que todos se mostraram patogênicos. Foram avaliados o controle biológico e químico in vitro, utilizando-se oito isolados de Trichoderma e um de Ulocladium atrum, e o controle químico in vitro, com os fungicidas Tiofanato metílico, Iprodione e Carbendazim. Com exceção de U. atrum todos os isolados dos antagonistas mostraram potencial antagônico contra S. sclerotiorum, destacando-se o isolado 3601 como o de melhor desempenho. No controle químico, Tiofanato metílico foi o mais eficiente, sendo este fungicida e o isolado 3601 comparados in vivo em casa-de-vegetação. Foram observadas diferenças estatísticas entre os tratamentos, sendo que a aplicação do fungicida e do antagonista antes da introdução do patógeno foi mais eficiente, com redução do percentual de incidência em 32,94% e 37,04%, respectivamente.

  18. COMPREHENSIVE CHEMICAL PROFILING OF GRAMINEOUS PLANT ROOT EXUDATES USING HIGH-RESOLUTION NMR AND MS. (R825433C007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root exudates released into soil have important functions in mobilizing metal micronutrients and for causing selective enrichment of plant beneficial soil micro-organisms that colonize the rhizosphere. Analysis of plant root exudates typically has involved chromatographic meth...

  19. Technical study for the automation and control of processes of the chemical processing plant for liquid radioactive waste at Racso Nuclear Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to introduce the development of an automation and control system in a chemical processing plant for liquid radioactive waste of low and medium activity. The control system established for the chemical processing plant at RACSO Nuclear Center is described. It is an on-off sequential type system with feedback. This type of control has been chosen according to the volumes to be treated at the plant as processing is carried out by batches. The system will be governed by a programmable controller (PLC), modular, with a minimum of 24 digital inputs, 01 analog input, 16 digital outputs and 01 analog input. Digital inputs and outputs are specifically found at the level sensors of the tanks and at the solenoid-type electro valve control. Analog inputs and outputs have been considered at the pH control. The comprehensive system has been divided into three control bonds, The bonds considered for the operation of the plant are described, the plant has storing, fitting, processing and clarifying tanks. National Instruments' Lookout software has been used for simulation, constituting an important tool not only for a design phase but also for a practical one since this software will be used as SCADA system. Finally, the advantages and benefits of this automation system are analyzed, radiation doses received by occupationally exposed workers are reduced and reliability on the operation on the system is increased. (authors)

  20. Plant-symbiotic fungi as chemical engineers: multi-genome analysis of the clavicipitaceae reveals dynamics of alkaloid loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Schardl

    Full Text Available The fungal family Clavicipitaceae includes plant symbionts and parasites that produce several psychoactive and bioprotective alkaloids. The family includes grass symbionts in the epichloae clade (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species, which are extraordinarily diverse both in their host interactions and in their alkaloid profiles. Epichloae produce alkaloids of four distinct classes, all of which deter insects, and some-including the infamous ergot alkaloids-have potent effects on mammals. The exceptional chemotypic diversity of the epichloae may relate to their broad range of host interactions, whereby some are pathogenic and contagious, others are mutualistic and vertically transmitted (seed-borne, and still others vary in pathogenic or mutualistic behavior. We profiled the alkaloids and sequenced the genomes of 10 epichloae, three ergot fungi (Claviceps species, a morning-glory symbiont (Periglandula ipomoeae, and a bamboo pathogen (Aciculosporium take, and compared the gene clusters for four classes of alkaloids. Results indicated a strong tendency for alkaloid loci to have conserved cores that specify the skeleton structures and peripheral genes that determine chemical variations that are known to affect their pharmacological specificities. Generally, gene locations in cluster peripheries positioned them near to transposon-derived, AT-rich repeat blocks, which were probably involved in gene losses, duplications, and neofunctionalizations. The alkaloid loci in the epichloae had unusual structures riddled with large, complex, and dynamic repeat blocks. This feature was not reflective of overall differences in repeat contents in the genomes, nor was it characteristic of most other specialized metabolism loci. The organization and dynamics of alkaloid loci and abundant repeat blocks in the epichloae suggested that these fungi are under selection for alkaloid diversification. We suggest that such selection is related to the variable life histories

  1. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Pseudomonas sp.JM2 isolated from active sewage sludge of chemical plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ma; Li Xu; Lingyun Jia

    2012-01-01

    It is important to screen strains that can decompose polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) completely and rapidly with good adaptability for bioremediation in a local area.A bacterial strain JM2,which uses phenanthrene as its sole carbon source,was isolated from the active sewage sludge from a chemical plant in Jilin,China and identified as Pseudomonas based on 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis.Although the optimal growth conditions were determined to be pH 6.0 and 37℃,JM2 showed a broad pH and temperature profile.At pH 4.5 and 9.3,JM2 could degrade more than 40% of fluorene and phenanthrene (50 mg/L each) within 4 days.In addition,when the temperature was as low as 4℃,JM2 could degrade up to 24% fluorene and 12% phenanthrene.This showed the potential for JM2 to be applied in bioremediation over winter or in cold regions.Moreover,a nutrient augmentation study showed that adding formate into media could promote PAH degradation,while the supplement of salicylate had an inhibitive effect.Furthermore,in a metabolic pathway study,salicylate,phthaiic acid,and 9-fluorenone were detected during the degradation of fluorene or phenanthrene.In conclusion,Pseudomonas sp.JM2 is a high performance strain in the degradation of fluorene and phenanthrene under extreme pH and temperature conditions.It might be useful in the bioremediation of PAHs.

  2. Influence of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and salinity on leaf injury, stomatal resistance, growth, and chemical composition of bean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Taylor, O.C.

    1983-01-01

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) growing in half-strength Hoagland solutions modified to provide three salinity levels of -40, -240, and -440 kPa, were exposed four times to 390 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ O/sub 3/, 520 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ SO/sub 2/, and 390 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ O/sub 3/ + 520 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ SO/sub 2/. Plants fumigated with SO/sub 2/ alone showed no injury. Primary leaves of O/sub 3/-treated plants were injured more than those of plants fumigated with the combination of O/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/. Pollutant injury to leaves decreased as salinity increased. Stomatal resistance on the abaxial surface of primary leaves of SO/sub 2/, and especially of (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/)-treated plants, increased sharply during fumigations, and returned to prefumigation levels the next day. Stomatal resistances of O/sub 3/-treated plants were similar to nonfumigated plants during the first phase of the experiment, but after the last fumigation, this resistance returned to essentially normal only in plants growing at the highest salinity level. Plant growth was suppressed by increased salinity. Root growth on O/sub 3/- and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/)-treated plants was reduced at all salinity levels. As salinity increased, plants accumulated Cl and Ca. Sodium increased in stems and roots, and decreased in leaves of plants grown in high Na-nutrient solutions. Plants fumigated with SO/sub 2/ and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/) had higher S content in roots than nonfumigated and O/sub 3/-treated plants. The highest S content in leaves was found in SO/sub 2/-treated plants at the -40 kPa salinity level. Accumulation of Ca in leaves and of Mg in roots was lowest in plants fumigated with O/sub 3/ alone and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/). Plants fumigated with O/sub 3/ alone and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/) accumulated more K in stems and leaves, and more Fe in roots and leaves, compared with nonfumigated and SO/sub 2/-treated plants. The O/sub 3/ and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/) effects on mineral content of the plants

  3. A proposal for chemical characterization and quality evaluation of botanical raw materials using glandular trichome microsampling of yacón (Polymnia sonchifolia, Asteraceae), an Andean medicinal plant

    OpenAIRE

    K. Schorr; F.B. Da Costa

    2003-01-01

    A proposal for chemical characterisation and quality evaluation of botanical raw materials by analysing the glandular trichomes from the leaves of two different populations of yacón (Polymnia sonchifolia Poeppig & Endlicher, Asteraceae) is described. This species is an Andean medicinal plant and the tea prepared with their leaves displays hypoglycemic property. The method was based on the glandular trichome microsampling using LC/DAD. Qualitative chromatographic fingerprints of the glands wer...

  4. Discussion of Wastewater Dephenolization Technology of Coal Chemical Plant%煤化工废水脱酚技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕可军; 王瑞; 孟鹏; 闫杰栋; 张庆; 李振东

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces 3 phenol-contained wastewaters of coal chemical plants, such as coal gasification wastewater, coking wastewater and semi coke production wastewater. And it discusses the application feasibility of steam dephenolization, active coke adsorption dephenolization, ion ex-change method, extraction dephenolization, emulsion membrane method and biochemical method etc. in the phenol-contained wastewater treatment of coal chemical plants. From the technical and economic perspective, this paper summarizes the advantaged dephenolization technology, which could promote the harmless treatment and recycle of the phenol-contained wastewater of coal chemical plants.%介绍了煤气化废水、焦化废水、兰炭生产废水等3种煤化工含酚废水;探讨水蒸气脱酚、活性焦吸附脱酚、离子交换法、萃取脱酚、乳状液膜法、生化法等在煤化工含酚废水中应用可行性;总结了在技术和经济上具有优势的脱酚技术,该技术可推动煤化工含酚废水的无害化和资源化。

  5. Enzymatic and chemical oxidation of polygalactomannans from the seeds of a few species of leguminous plants and characterization of the oxidized products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlini, Luca; Boccia, Antonella Caterina; Mendichi, Raniero; Galante, Yves M

    2015-03-20

    Plant polysaccharides are used in a growing number of applications, in their native or in chemically and/or biochemically modified forms. In the present work, we compare TEMPO-mediated oxidation with laccase of polygalactomannans (PGM) from different species of plant leguminous to chemical oxidation with NaClO/NaBr/TEMPO. We have investigated the gums from: locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua), tara (Caesalpinia spinosa), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus), sesbania (Sesbania bispinosa) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum). Upon laccase/TEMPO oxidation, PGM viscosity and concentration of reducing groups increased up to five-fold and structured, elastic, stable gels were formed, which could be degraded by hydrolysis with β-mannanase. Conversely, chemical oxidation with NaClO/NaBr/TEMPO caused a rapid, intermediate transition of the gum solutions to compact gels, that immediately reverted to liquid, with a lower viscosity than at the start and an increased concentration of reducing groups, similar to the reaction with laccase. We interpret the above as due to, in the case of laccase, oxidation of primary hydroxyl groups to aldehydes, able to form stable hemiacetalic bonds with free hydroxyl groups. While upon chemical oxidation, primary OH's are only transiently oxidized to aldehydes, followed by rapid oxidation of all carbonyl groups to carboxylates. In either cases, TEMPO appeared to cause a limited splitting of glycosidic bonds of PGM. Native and oxidized PGM were further characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and by rheology.

  6. The thermo-mechano-chemical fractionation of sunflower whole plant in twin-screw extruder, an opportunity for its biorefinery

    OpenAIRE

    Evon, Philippe; Vandenbossche, Virginie; Pontalier, Pierre-Yves; Rigal, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Biorefinery of sunflower whole plant is conducted according to an aqueous process using a twin-screw extruder. Aqueous extraction of oil is looked upon as an environmentally cleaner alternative technology to solvent extraction. Twin-screw extruder carries out three unit operations continuously: conditioning and grinding of whole plant, liquid/solid extraction and liquid/solid separation. Extraction efficiency depends on screw speed, and input flow rates of whole plant and water. In best condi...

  7. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A.; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78%) and β-caryophyllene (10.54%) for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%), camphor (12.730%), α-pinene (6.87%) and trans α-bergamotene (5.32%) for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%), α-pinene (20.11%), sabinene (10.26%), β-pinene (9.22%) and α-phellandrene (7.03%) for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%), β-caryophyllene (12.70%), thymol (11.88), γ-terpinene (9.17%) and thymyle acetate (7.64%) for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%)for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%), α-pinene (9.17%) and limonene (8.76%) for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%), camphene (12.70%), zingiberene (8.40%), β-bisabolene (7.83%) and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34%) for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides

  8. Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils of plants from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78%) and β-caryophyllene (10.54%) for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%), camphor (12.730%), α-pinene (6.87%) and trans α-bergamotene (5.32%) for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%), α-pinene (20.11%), sabinene (10.26%), β-pinene (9.22%) and α-phellandrene (7.03%) for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%), β-caryophyllene (12.70%), thymol (11.88), γ-terpinene (9.17%) and thymyle acetate (7.64%) for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%)for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%), α-pinene (9.17%) and limonene (8.76%) for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%), camphene (12.70%), zingiberene (8.40%), β-bisabolene (7.83%) and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34%) for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides

  9. Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils of plants from Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagora Bayala

    Full Text Available This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78% and β-caryophyllene (10.54% for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%, camphor (12.730%, α-pinene (6.87% and trans α-bergamotene (5.32% for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%, α-pinene (20.11%, sabinene (10.26%, β-pinene (9.22% and α-phellandrene (7.03% for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%, β-caryophyllene (12.70%, thymol (11.88, γ-terpinene (9.17% and thymyle acetate (7.64% for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%, α-pinene (9.17% and limonene (8.76% for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%, camphene (12.70%, zingiberene (8.40%, β-bisabolene (7.83% and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34% for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides showed the

  10. Changes in growth, physiological parameters and the hormonal status of Myrtus communis L. plants irrigated with water with different chemical compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Motos, José Ramón; Ortuño, María Fernanda; Álvarez, Sara; López-Climent, María Fernanda; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2016-02-01

    Myrtus communis, an important Mediterranean ornamental shrub, was used to study the effect of irrigation water with different chemical compositions in the plant response. A treatment with NaCl was used to establish the plant resistance to high salinity at long term. Plants were subjected to four irrigation treatments with drainage for three months: Control (0.8 dS m(-1)); two treatments using reclaimed water (RWs): RW1 (2.0 dS m(-1)) and RW2 (5.0 dS m(-1)); and NaCl (10.0 dS m(-1)). High levels of electric conductivity of RWs not affected plant growth, while NaCl decreased leaf dry weight. Coinciding with the accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the roots, soil water potential decreased, which hinders the mobilization of water to the leaves, decreasing leaf water potential. The osmotic adjustment in the NaCl treatment was due to Na(+) and Cl(-) ions, although the proline could contribute as an Osmo compatible solute, increasing the turgor plants. Also changes in cell walls rigidity minimize the negative effects on the water balance; however, a higher lipid peroxidation was observed in these plants. Stomatal closure was associated with a decrease in K(+) and an increase in abscisic acid. NaCl produced an increase in salicylic acid and did not affect jasmonic acid contents at the end of the experiment. Similar behavior in soil and leaf water potentials, although less pronounced than in NaCl, was shown in RW2 plants. The abscisic acid increased in the RW2 with respect to the control and a decrease in stomatal conductance was observed at the end of the experiment. Plants irrigated with RW1 behaved similarly to the control. PMID:26703779

  11. ESTE: Verification of Portable Optical and Thermal Imaging Devices for Leak Detection at Petroleum Refineries and Chemical Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an ESTE project summary brief. EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) is verifying the performance of portable optical and thermal imaging devices for leak detection at petroleum refineries and chemical plans. Industrial facilities, such as chemical p...

  12. Responsiveness summary for the engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of contaminated water impounded at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Proposed Management of Contaminated Water Impounded at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant Area in July 1990. The engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) examines various alternatives for the proposed action to manage contaminated surface water impounded at the chemical plant area. The primary objective is to minimize potential migration of contaminants from surface impoundments to the local environment. The EE/CA addresses water currently impounded in four waste raffinate pits and two small ponds and water that will be impounded in the future as a result of upcoming response actions. Radioactive and chemical contaminants are migrating from the currently impounded water to underlying on-site groundwater via seepage and to off-site surface water via runoff. The treatment process and facilities that will be provided for management of currently impounded water can subsequently be used to manage other contaminated water in the future. Based on the evaluation of various alternatives in the EE/CA, DOE determined that the best approach for managing surface water impounded at the chemical plant area would be to remove contaminants from the water and release the treatment water to the Missouri River via a natural drainage channel. To establish requirements for releasing this treated water, DOE applied for a modification to its existing discharge permit from the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (DNR) under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program. The EE/CA provided a major source of technical input to the application for modifying the permit. This responsiveness summary has been prepared to address the major issues identified in oral and written comments on the proposed action. 1 tab

  13. Weed host specificity of the aphid, Aphis spiraecola: developmental and reproductive performance of aphids in relation to plant growth and leaf chemicals of the Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, B K; Das, Jhuma

    2012-01-01

    Density, distribution, and nutritional quality of plants are the causal basis of host plant selection in aphids. Nutritional qualities of a plant vary according to its growth stage and also in response to seasonal variation. How host plant growth stages shape aphid performance was studied in Aphis spiraecola Patch (Homoptera: Aphididae) on the perennial Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson (Asterales: Asteraceae). This plant species is the preferred host in the hot and humid tropical parts of northeast and southern India. Variations in developmental and reproductive performances in apterous viviparous female aphids were recorded in relation to differences in leaf chemicals in different growth stages of C. odorata. Aphids reproduced at higher rates in the vegetative stage of C. odorata when developmental time was shortest, and fecundity was higher in a longer reproductive time. Intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate were also recorded to be higher in the vegetative stage of the weed host. In the vegetative stage, leaves contained higher quantity of proteins and nitrogen, which are vital for insect reproduction. Results of this study have demonstrated that A spiraecola showed synchronization of its developmental and reproductive performances to growth stages of C. odorata, which occur in high abundance in the study area. PMID:22950746

  14. Indoor-Biofilter Growth and Exposure to Airborne Chemicals Drive Similar Changes in Plant Root Bacterial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Chau, Linh; Pauliushchyk, Margarita; Anastopoulos, Ioannis; Anandan, Shivanthi; Waring, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the long durations spent inside by many humans, indoor air quality has become a growing concern. Biofiltration has emerged as a potential mechanism to clean indoor air of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are typically found at concentrations higher indoors than outdoors. Root-associated microbes are thought to drive the functioning of plant-based biofilters, or biowalls, converting VOCs into biomass, energy, and carbon dioxide, but little is known about the root microbial communities of such artificially grown plants, how or whether they differ from those of plants grown in soil, and whether any changes in composition are driven by VOCs. In this study, we investigated how bacterial communities on biofilter plant roots change over time and in response to VOC exposure. Through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, we compared root bacterial communities from soil-grown plants with those from two biowalls, while also comparing communities from roots exposed to clean versus VOC-laden air in a laboratory biofiltration system. The results showed differences in bacterial communities between soil-grown and biowall-grown plants and between bacterial communities from plant roots exposed to clean air and those from VOC-exposed plant roots. Both biowall-grown and VOC-exposed roots harbored enriched levels of bacteria from the genus Hyphomicrobium. Given their known capacities to break down aromatic and halogenated compounds, we hypothesize that these bacteria are important VOC degraders. While different strains of Hyphomicrobium proliferated in the two studied biowalls and our lab experiment, strains were shared across plant species, suggesting that a wide range of ornamental houseplants harbor similar microbes of potential use in living biofilters. PMID:24878602

  15. Indoor-biofilter growth and exposure to airborne chemicals drive similar changes in plant root bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jacob A; Hu, Yi; Chau, Linh; Pauliushchyk, Margarita; Anastopoulos, Ioannis; Anandan, Shivanthi; Waring, Michael S

    2014-08-01

    Due to the long durations spent inside by many humans, indoor air quality has become a growing concern. Biofiltration has emerged as a potential mechanism to clean indoor air of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are typically found at concentrations higher indoors than outdoors. Root-associated microbes are thought to drive the functioning of plant-based biofilters, or biowalls, converting VOCs into biomass, energy, and carbon dioxide, but little is known about the root microbial communities of such artificially grown plants, how or whether they differ from those of plants grown in soil, and whether any changes in composition are driven by VOCs. In this study, we investigated how bacterial communities on biofilter plant roots change over time and in response to VOC exposure. Through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, we compared root bacterial communities from soil-grown plants with those from two biowalls, while also comparing communities from roots exposed to clean versus VOC-laden air in a laboratory biofiltration system. The results showed differences in bacterial communities between soil-grown and biowall-grown plants and between bacterial communities from plant roots exposed to clean air and those from VOC-exposed plant roots. Both biowall-grown and VOC-exposed roots harbored enriched levels of bacteria from the genus Hyphomicrobium. Given their known capacities to break down aromatic and halogenated compounds, we hypothesize that these bacteria are important VOC degraders. While different strains of Hyphomicrobium proliferated in the two studied biowalls and our lab experiment, strains were shared across plant species, suggesting that a wide range of ornamental houseplants harbor similar microbes of potential use in living biofilters.

  16. Effects of fire and three fire-fighting chemicals on main soil properties, plant nutrient content and vegetation growth and cover after 10 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study addresses a knowledge-gap in the long-term ecological consequences of fire and fire-fighting chemicals. Ten years after a prescribed fire and the application of three fire-fighting chemicals, their effects on the soil–plant system were evaluated. Five treatments were established: unburnt soils (US) and burnt soils treated with water alone (BS), foaming agent (BS + Fo), Firesorb (BS + Fi) and ammonium polyphosphate (BS + Ap). Soils (0–2 cm depth) and foliar material of shrubs (Erica umbellata, Pterospartum tridentatum and Ulex micranthus) and trees (Pinus pinaster) were analysed for total N, δ15N, and soil-available and plant total macronutrients and trace elements. Soil pH, NH4+–N and NO3−–N; pine basal diameter and height; and shrub cover and height were also measured. Compared with US plots, burnt soils had less nitrates and more Mo. Although differences were not always significant, BS + Ap had the highest levels of soil available P, Na and Al. Plants from BS + Ap plots had higher values of δ15N (P. pinaster and E. umbellata), P (all species), Na (P. tridentatum and U. micranthus) and Mg (E. umbellata and P. tridentatum) than other treatments; while K in plants from BS + Ap plots was the highest among treatments for P. pinaster and the lowest for the shrubs. Pines in US plots were higher and wider than in burnt treatments, except for BS + Ap, where the tallest and widest trees were found, although half of them were either dead (the second highest mortality after BS + Fi) or had a distorted trunk. BS + Ap was the treatment with strongest effects on plants, showing E. umbellata the lowest coverage and height, P. tridentatum the highest coverage, U. micranthus one of the lowest coverages and being the only treatment where Genista triacanthos was absent. Consequently, it is concluded that both fire and ammonium polyphosphate application had significant effects on the soil–plant system after 10 years. - Highlights: • We hypothesized that fire

  17. Effects of fire and three fire-fighting chemicals on main soil properties, plant nutrient content and vegetation growth and cover after 10 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Fernández, M., E-mail: mariafernandez@iiag.csic.es; Gómez-Rey, M.X., E-mail: mxgomez@iiag.csic.es; González-Prieto, S.J., E-mail: serafin@iiag.csic.es

    2015-05-15

    The study addresses a knowledge-gap in the long-term ecological consequences of fire and fire-fighting chemicals. Ten years after a prescribed fire and the application of three fire-fighting chemicals, their effects on the soil–plant system were evaluated. Five treatments were established: unburnt soils (US) and burnt soils treated with water alone (BS), foaming agent (BS + Fo), Firesorb (BS + Fi) and ammonium polyphosphate (BS + Ap). Soils (0–2 cm depth) and foliar material of shrubs (Erica umbellata, Pterospartum tridentatum and Ulex micranthus) and trees (Pinus pinaster) were analysed for total N, δ{sup 15}N, and soil-available and plant total macronutrients and trace elements. Soil pH, NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N and NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N; pine basal diameter and height; and shrub cover and height were also measured. Compared with US plots, burnt soils had less nitrates and more Mo. Although differences were not always significant, BS + Ap had the highest levels of soil available P, Na and Al. Plants from BS + Ap plots had higher values of δ{sup 15}N (P. pinaster and E. umbellata), P (all species), Na (P. tridentatum and U. micranthus) and Mg (E. umbellata and P. tridentatum) than other treatments; while K in plants from BS + Ap plots was the highest among treatments for P. pinaster and the lowest for the shrubs. Pines in US plots were higher and wider than in burnt treatments, except for BS + Ap, where the tallest and widest trees were found, although half of them were either dead (the second highest mortality after BS + Fi) or had a distorted trunk. BS + Ap was the treatment with strongest effects on plants, showing E. umbellata the lowest coverage and height, P. tridentatum the highest coverage, U. micranthus one of the lowest coverages and being the only treatment where Genista triacanthos was absent. Consequently, it is concluded that both fire and ammonium polyphosphate application had significant effects on the soil–plant system after 10 years

  18. Analysis of Object and Bottle-Necks for Chemical Plant Retrofit%化工装置扩建改造的目标与瓶颈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡仰栋; 李玉刚; 韩方煜

    2001-01-01

    对化工装置扩建改造的目标与瓶颈进行了分析,阐述了目标与瓶颈在扩建改造过程中的相辅相成关系。给出了制定目标和发现瓶颈的一般原则,认为发现并去除瓶颈的顺序应该是先考虑信息瓶颈,然后考虑强度瓶颈,最后再考虑容积瓶颈。结合实例给出了目标与瓶颈分析在扩建改造中的应用。%Object and bottle-necks were analyzed for chemical plant retrofit.The relationship between object and bottle-necks in the process of plant expansion and revamping was related.A general rule to establish object and to find bottle-necks was given,which suggests that the sequence to find bottle-necks should be informational factors,intensive factors and extensive factors.An example was given to show the application of methods mentioned above in chemical plant retrofit.

  19. Biotic and physico-chemical conditions in a cooling reservoir of a coal-fired power plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Cholla Lake is a cooling reservoir for the coal fired Cholla electrical generating plant. The lake provides recreational fishing and water contact recreation. The...

  20. IPCS COLLABORATIVE STUDY ON PLANT SYSTEMS TO DETECT GENOTOXIC EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS: VICIA FABA CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATION ASSAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaborative study involving laboratories in six countries was initiated under the auspices of the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the World Health Organization ...

  1. Analytical and Radio-Histo-Chemical Experiments of Plants and Tissue Culture Cells Treated with Lunar and Terrestrial Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The nature and mechanisms of the apparent simulation of growth originally observed in plants growing in contact with lunar soil during the Apollo project quarantine are examined. Preliminary experiments employing neutron activated lunar soil indicate uptake of a few elements by plants. It was found that while the preliminary neutron activation technique allowed demonstration of uptake of minerals it presented numerous disadvantages for use in critical experiments directed at elucidating possible mechanisms of stimulation.

  2. The Possible Effects of Some Mineral Nutrients and Industrial Chemical Effuents on Wild Plants in Central Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Hayati, Attayeb A. [الطيب أحمد المصطفى حياتي; Abd-Elrhman, Fatima M. [فاطمة محمد عبد الرحمن

    2006-01-01

    The effects of some mineral nutrients and industrial chemical effluents from a textile factory and tanning activities on the growth and distribution of Typha angustata, Cyperus laevigatus. Paspalum viginatum, Cassia senna and Xanthium brasilicum at Al-Bagair Industrial Area, in central Sudan, were investigated. Three sites were selected for this study namely: the "Textile site", the main site in this study, represented by the area affected by disposals of chemical effluents from a textile fac...

  3. Impacts of chemical amendment and plant growth on lead speciation and enzyme activities in a shooting range soil: an x-ray absorption fine structure investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yohey; Matsufuru, Hiroki; Takaoka, Masaki; Tanida, Hajime; Sato, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    In situ chemical immobilization is a practical remediation technology for metal-contaminated soils because of its capability to reduce cost and environmental impacts. We assessed the immobilization effects of poultry waste amendment and plant growth (Panicum maximum Jacq.) on Pb speciation and enzyme activities in shooting range soils. Soil contaminated with Pb was obtained from the top 20 cm of a shooting range. To evaluate Pb mobility in the soil profile treated with plants and immobilizing amendment, we used large columns filled with Pb-contaminated soil (0-20 cm, surface soils) and non-contaminated soil (20-75 cm, subsurface soils). The column study demonstrated that the amendment reduced the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure-extractable Pb in the surface soil by 90% of the Control soil. Lead mobility from the surface to subsurface profiles was significantly attenuated by plant growth but was promoted by the amendment without plant application. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis revealed that the amendment reduced the proportion of PbCO(3) and Pb-organic complexes and transformed them into a more geochemically stable species of Pb(5)(PO(4))(3)Cl with 30 to 35% of the total Pb species. Applications of plant and amendment increased activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase in the surface soil with 2.7- and 1.1-fold greater than those in Control, respectively. The use of amendments in combination with plant growth may have potential as an integrated remediation strategy that enables Pb immobilization and soil biological restoration in shooting range soils. PMID:19465717

  4. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tánara Ótó (Dracocephalum palmatum Stephan, a Medicinal Plant Used by the North-Yakutian Nomads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismayl S. Zulfugarov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum palmatum Stephan (Lamiaceae is a medicinal plant used by the North-Yakutian nomads. From the crude ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of this plant, 23 compounds (phenylpropanoids, coumarins, flavonoids, and triterpenes were isolated. Among these, eight compounds (salvianolic acid B, caftaric acid, cichoric acid, umbelliferone, aesculetin, apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, isorhoifolin, and luteolin-4'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside were detected for the first time in the genus Dracocephalum. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The levels of most of the compounds detected in the cultivated sample were close to that of the wild sample, indicating the reproducibility of the biologically active compounds of D. palmatum through cultivation. Investigation into the biological activity of D. palmatum under in vitro conditions demonstrated that its extracts have a strong antioxidant effect due to the presence of high concentrations of phenolic compounds.

  5. Automatic chemical monitoring in the composition of functions performed by the unit level control system in the new projects of nuclear power plant units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, L. G.; Khrennikov, N. N.

    2014-08-01

    The article presents information on the state of regulatory framework and development of a subsystem for automated chemical monitoring of water chemistries in the primary and secondary coolant circuits used as part of the automatic process control system in new projects of VVER reactor-based nuclear power plant units. For the strategy of developing and putting in use the water chemistry-related part of the automated process control system within the standard AES-2006 nuclear power plant project to be implemented, it is necessary to develop regulatory documents dealing with certain requirements imposed on automatic water chemistry monitoring systems in accordance with the requirements of federal codes and regulations in the field of using atomic energy.

  6. An integrated approach to safer plant production on metal contaminated soils using species selection and chemical immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyuck Soo; Seo, Byoung-Hwan; Bae, Jun-Sik; Kim, Won-Il; Owens, Gary; Kim, Kwon-Rae

    2016-09-01

    In order to examine the species specific accumulation of heavy metals in medicinal crops, seven different common medicinal plants were cultivated on a Cd (55mgkg(-1)) and Pb (1283mgkg(-1)) contaminated soil. Subsequently, the effect of various immobilizing agents, applied in isolation and in combination, on Cd and Pb uptake by two medicinal plant species was examined. Cadmium and Pb root concentrations in medicinal plants grown in the control soil varied between 0.5 and 2.6mgkg(-1) for Cd and 3.2 and 36.4mgkg(-1) for Pb. The highest accumulation occurred in Osterici Radix (Ostericum koreanum) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and the lowest in Yam (Dioscorea batatas). Application of immobilizing agents significantly reduced both Cd and Pb concentrations in all medicinal plants examined, where the most effective single immobilizing agent was lime fertilizer (LF). Application of combination treatments involving sorption agents such as compost together with lime further decreased Cd and Pb concentrations from 1.3 and 25.3mgkg(-1) to 0.2 and 4.3mgkg(-1), respectively, which was well below the corresponding WHO guidelines. Thus appropriate immobilizing agents in combination with species selection can be practically used for safer medicinal plant production. PMID:27213564

  7. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Myrcianthes hallii (O. Berg McVaugh (Myrtaceae, a Traditional Plant Growing in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Chavez Carvajal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Myrcianthes hallii (O. Berg McVaugh (Myrtaceae is a plant native to Ecuador, traditionally used for its antiseptic properties. The composition of the hydro-methanolic extract of this plant was determined by submitting it to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC hyphenated to heated-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and UV detection. The presence of antimicrobial components prompted us to test the extract against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, multidrug-resistant and susceptible Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp. and Streptococcus pyogenes strains. The chromatographic analysis led to the identification of 38 compounds, including polyphenols and organic acids, and represents the first chemical characterization of this plant. The extract showed modest antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, with the exception of E. coli which was found to be less sensitive. Whilst methicillin-resistant strains usually display resistance to several drugs, no relevant differences were observed between methicillin-susceptible and resistant strains. Considering its long-standing use in folk medicine, which suggests the relative safety of the plant, and the presence of many known antibacterial polyphenolic compounds responsible for its antibacterial activity, the results show that M. hallii extract could be used as a potential new antiseptic agent. Moreover, new anti-infective biomaterials and nanomaterials could be designed through the incorporation of M. hallii polyphenols. This prospective biomedical application is also discussed.

  8. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program: radiological survey of the former Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corporation Uranium Recovery Pilot Plant, Nichols, Florida. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a radiological survey conducted at the site of a former uranium recovery pilot plant operated by the Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corporation is presented. All that remains of this operation is a concrete pad situated within the boundary of a phosphate products plant now operated by Conserv, Inc., at the Nichols, Florida site. The survey included measurements designed to characterize the residual radioactivity in the vicinity of this pilot plant and to compare the quantities with federal guidelines for the release of decontaminated property for unrestricted use. The results of this survey indicate that only small quantities of radioactivity exist above normal background levels for that area. Some soil contamination was found in the vicinity of a concrete pad on which the pilot plant stood. Much of this contamination was due to 226Ra and 238U. Some beta-gamma dose rates in excess of applicable guidelines were observed in this same area. External gamma-ray exposure rates at 1 m above the ground range from 20 to 100 μR/hr. None of the direct measurements of alpha contamination were above guideline levels

  9. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables.

  10. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables

  11. In vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of five new chemical compounds of plant origin by means of the human lymphocyte micronucleus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpato, R; Pistelli, L; Bertoli, A; Nieri, E; Migliore, L

    1998-04-01

    The micronucleus test in human peripheral lymphocytes is widely used in toxicology for the assessment of the genotoxic profile of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic, cytotoxic and antimitotic activity of five new compounds isolated from Prunus africana Hook or from Bupleurum fruticosum L. The experiments were conducted only in vitro. Results showed that none of the plant extracts, tested over a wide range of concentrations, increased the frequency of micronuclei. Only compounds 2 and 5 were found to be toxic for phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes at the maximum dose used. reserved.

  12. Investigation of the performance of a copper based oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion in a 120 kW pilot plant for gaseous fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A Cu based oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion has been tested. • A 120 kW pilot plant designed as dual circulating fluidized bed has been used. • Solids inventory and circulation have been identified as critical for performance. • The results are compared with other pilot plants using the same oxygen carrier. • Recommendations for improved reactor designs have been made based on the results. - Abstract: A copper based oxygen carrier prepared by impregnation on a highly porous alumina support (14.2 wt% active CuO) has been tested in a 120 kW chemical looping pilot plant. This oxygen carrier has already been under investigation in other pilot plants up to 10 kW fuel power and showed very good performance, i.e. full fuel conversion was achieved. During the experiments, natural gas has been used as fuel and variations of several process parameters like temperature, fuel power, solids inventory and solids circulation rate have been performed. The copper particles showed good performance regarding conversion of CO and H2 (almost full conversion) but only moderate conversion of CH4 (up to 80%) was achieved. The three process parameters fuel reactor temperature, solids circulation between air and fuel reactor and solids inventory have been identified as significant parameters for fuel conversion, i.e. increasing one of these parameters improves fuel conversion. Continuous analysis of the oxygen carrier particles revealed an initial decay of active CuO content caused by attrition on the external surface of the particles. The CuO content stabilized after 30 h of operation at around 9 wt% and no further decrease was observed

  13. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF TYPICAL PEAT-FORMING PLANTS LIPIDS OF WEST SIBERIA FOREST ZONE OLIGOTROPHIC BOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Викторовна Серебренникова

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the molecular composition and distribution of hydrocarbons and oxygen-containing compounds in the main bog peat-forming plants – scheuchzeria, sedge, cotton grass and sphagnum moss. It is shown that all plants contain n-alkanes, arenes, sesquiterpenes, fatty acids, esters, aldehydes, alcohols and ketones. The most representative group of hydrocarbons (HC in all bog plants are n-alkanes. Arenas are presented by bi-, tri- and tetracyclic structures. Ketones include acyclic compounds with normal and isoprenoid structure and alicyclic compounds with two, four and five cycles. Alcohols are presented by aliphatic and monoaromatic structures, aldehydes, fatty acids and esters – by compounds with acyclic structure. Tetra- and pentacyclic oxygen-containing substances includes steroid and triterpenoid alcohols and ketones.

  14. Effects of fire and three fire-fighting chemicals on main soil properties, plant nutrient content and vegetation growth and cover after 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, M; Gómez-Rey, M X; González-Prieto, S J

    2015-05-15

    The study addresses a knowledge-gap in the long-term ecological consequences of fire and fire-fighting chemicals. Ten years after a prescribed fire and the application of three fire-fighting chemicals, their effects on the soil-plant system were evaluated. Five treatments were established: unburnt soils (US) and burnt soils treated with water alone (BS), foaming agent (BS+Fo), Firesorb (BS+Fi) and ammonium polyphosphate (BS+Ap). Soils (0-2 cm depth) and foliar material of shrubs (Erica umbellata, Pterospartum tridentatum and Ulex micranthus) and trees (Pinus pinaster) were analysed for total N, δ(15)N, and soil-available and plant total macronutrients and trace elements. Soil pH, NH₄(+)-N and NO₃(-)-N; pine basal diameter and height; and shrub cover and height were also measured. Compared with US plots, burnt soils had less nitrates and more Mo. Although differences were not always significant, BS+Ap had the highest levels of soil available P, Na and Al. Plants from BS+Ap plots had higher values of δ(15)N (P. pinaster and E. umbellata), P (all species), Na (P. tridentatum and U. micranthus) and Mg (E. umbellata and P. tridentatum) than other treatments; while K in plants from BS+Ap plots was the highest among treatments for P. pinaster and the lowest for the shrubs. Pines in US plots were higher and wider than in burnt treatments, except for BS+Ap, where the tallest and widest trees were found, although half of them were either dead (the second highest mortality after BS+Fi) or had a distorted trunk. BS+Ap was the treatment with strongest effects on plants, showing E. umbellata the lowest coverage and height, P. tridentatum the highest coverage, U. micranthus one of the lowest coverages and being the only treatment where Genista triacanthos was absent. Consequently, it is concluded that both fire and ammonium polyphosphate application had significant effects on the soil-plant system after 10 years.

  15. Steam sauna and mother roasting in Lao PDR: practices and chemical constituents of essential oils of plant species used in postpartum recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Boer Hugo J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fundamental in traditional postpartum recovery in Lao PDR is the use of hotbeds, mother roasting, steam sauna and steam baths. During these treatments medicinal plants play a crucial role, but little has been published about how the treatments are carried out precisely, which species are used, the medicinal properties of these species, and the medicinal efficacy of their chemical constituents. Methods Sixty-five interviews, in 15 rural villages, with women of 4 different ethnic groups were conducted to survey confinement rituals, and postpartum plant use and salience. Essential oils from the main species used were extracted using steam distillation and the main chemical constituents characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Results A total of 10 different species were used by three or more of the ethnic groups included in this study. All species were used in steam sauna and bath, but only 3 species were used in hotbed and mother roasting. Essential oils of Amomum villosum, Amomum microcarpum and Blumea balsamifera were found to contain significant amounts of the following terpenes: β-pinene, camphor, bornyl acetate, borneol, linalool, D-limonene, fenchone, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpinene. Conclusions Many of these terpenes have documented antimicrobial and analgesic properties, and some have also synergistic interactions with other terpenes. The mode of application in hotbed and mother roasting differs from the documented mechanisms of action of these terpenes. Plants in these two practices are likely to serve mainly hygienic purposes, by segregating the mother from infection sources such as beds, mats, stools, cloth and towels. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through inhalation of essential oils vapors can possibly have medicinal efficacy, but is unlikely to alleviate the ailments commonly encountered during postpartum convalescence. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through dermal condensation of

  16. Chemical and molecular characterization of Phomopsis and Cytospora-like endophytes from different host plants in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abreu, Lucas M.; Costa, Sarah S.; Pfenning, Ludwig H.;

    2012-01-01

    affinities. Additional phenotypic characters, such as profiles of secondary metabolites, are needed for practical species recognition. We investigated 36 strains of Phomopsis spp. and Cytospora-like fungi, obtained as endophytes of different host plants in Brazil, using metabolite profiling based on HPLC...

  17. Effects of External Chemical Regulation on Bt Transgenic Cotton Plants under Combined Stress of High Temperature and Water Deficit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Gui-sheng; ZHANG Wang-ding; TONG Chen; LIN Yan; AN Lin-lin; LIU Gui-juan

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to find a possible way to combat or alleviate the negative effects caused by high temperature and water deficit at the growth stage of peak boll-setting.[Method] With Bt transgenic cotton GK22 as the test cultivar,a potted experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of the regulation of external substances(the water solutions of pix,urea and their mixture) on the physiological parameters,insecticidal protein content,yield and yield component of cotton plants in artificial climate chambers treated with high temperature and water deficit.[Result] The application of external pix,urea or their mixture was effective in stabilizing the physiological parameters of cotton plants,insecticidal protein content,yield and yield components.Compared with the exclusive application of pix and urea,the mixture of pix and urea played the most effective role in stabilizing the content of chlorophyll,soluble sugar and insecticidal protein,alleviating the increase of the content of free amino acids and proline,and increasing boll number per plant,boll weight and seed cotton yield.[Conclusion] The water solutions of pix,urea or their mixtures can be used to combat or alleviate the stress of high temperature and water deficit if they are sprayed onto cotton plants prior to stress occurrence.

  18. Experience-based behavioral and chemosensory changes in the generalist insect herbivore Helicoverpa armigera exposed to two deterrent plant chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, D.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Wang, C.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of larvae of the polyphagous moth species Helicoverpa armigera to two plant-derived allelochemicals were studied, both in larvae that had been reared on a diet devoid of these compounds and in larvae previously exposed to these compounds. In dual-choice

  19. CHEMICAL PLANT SAFETY AND LOSS PREVENTION (Papers Presented at the International Symposium on Safety Control and Risk Management, SCRM)

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Robert A.; Michigan, Midland

    1989-01-01

    Increased emphasis on safety and loss prevention over the last 50 years has engrained safety as one of the core values of The Dow Chemical Company. The safety emphasis starts at the very top, with the Environment, Health and Safety Committee of the Board

  20. Ecological consequences, genetic and chemical variations in fragmented populations of a medicinal plant, justicia adhatoda and implications for its conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justicia adhatoda from Kohat Plateau was selected for genetic diversity studies, due to its fragmented habitat, importance in traditional and pharmaceutical medicine and a lack of population structure studies. We had two hypotheses: that habitat loss posed a greater threat to populations than loss of genetic diversity, and that chemical diversity would be higher among different populations than within populations. Genetic diversity within and among populations was evaluated using PBA (P450 based analogue) markers. AMOVA analysis revealed that there was higher genetic diversity within populations (90%) than among populations (10%). No genetic drift was observed, i.e., genetic diversity within populations was maintained despite fewer numbers of individuals in fragmented populations. Surveys of J. adhatoda populations revealed that they were growing in harsh conditions and were imperiled due to extensive harvesting for commercial and domestic purposes. Chemical diversity was evaluated by GC-MS (Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry) analysis of 90% methanol and 1:2 chloroform:methanol extracts. GC-MS analysis of both the extracts showed nine and 18 chemical compounds, respectively, with higher chemical variations among populations. It is therefore recommended that efforts for the conservation of severely fragmented populations of J. adhatoda must be carried out along with sustainable harvesting. (author)

  1. Impact of pesticides on plant growth promotion of Vigna radiata and non-target microbes: comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sukriti; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2014-08-01

    To compare the target and non-target effects of two chemical-pesticides (chlorpyrifos and endosulfan) with that of a bio-pesticide (azadirachtin), Vigna radiata (mung bean) was grown in a randomized pot experiment with recommended and higher application rates of pesticides. Colony counts enumerating specific microbial populations, viz. fungi, Pseudomonas, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms, were performed. In addition, several plant growth parameters such as root and shoot lengths were also monitored. It was observed that the pesticides exerted a suppressive effect on different microbial communities under study in the initial 30 days period. The bacterial and fungal populations in chlorpyrifos treated plants increased thereafter. Endosulfan resulted in enhancement of fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, although phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms were suppressed at higher application rates. Azadirachtin, which is gaining popularity owing to its biological origin, did not result in enhancement of any microbial populations; on the other hand, it had a deleterious effect on phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. This study is the first to evaluate the non-target effects of pesticides with a comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides, and also stresses the importance of critical investigation of bio-pesticides before their wide spread application in agriculture. PMID:24799184

  2. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented

  3. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

  4. Distribution of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in rice plant components and physico-chemical effects of soil on their transportation to grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Saad Alsaffar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Radioactivity distribution and transfer factor (TF in plants are crucial parameters used to assess radioactive contamination in the environment and its risks to humans. In this study, the activities of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were successfully measured via gamma-ray spectrometry on rice plant components (root, straw, husk, and grain and on corresponding soil samples collected from paddy fields in Penang, Malaysia. Soil physico-chemical characteristics (pH, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, organic matter, and soil texture were also analyzed for their estimated effects on soil–grain TF. A major fraction of the total 226Ra and 232Th activities measured as 47% and 57%, respectively, were concentrated in the roots, whereas only about 9% and 8% were distributed in the grains, correspondingly. 40K activity accumulation was about 59% in the straw and 7% in the grains. Rice soil–grain TFs were observed in the ranges of (0.06–0.36 × 10−1 for 226Ra, (0.04–0.14 × 10−1 for 232Th, and (0.74–4.72 × 10−1 for 40K. Results showed that the selected radionuclide distributions in rice are dependent on component type, and their grain concentrations are not linearly related to their soil concentrations. These findings indicated that uptake predominantly depends on soil physico-chemical characteristics.

  5. Impact of pesticides on plant growth promotion of Vigna radiata and non-target microbes: comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sukriti; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2014-08-01

    To compare the target and non-target effects of two chemical-pesticides (chlorpyrifos and endosulfan) with that of a bio-pesticide (azadirachtin), Vigna radiata (mung bean) was grown in a randomized pot experiment with recommended and higher application rates of pesticides. Colony counts enumerating specific microbial populations, viz. fungi, Pseudomonas, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms, were performed. In addition, several plant growth parameters such as root and shoot lengths were also monitored. It was observed that the pesticides exerted a suppressive effect on different microbial communities under study in the initial 30 days period. The bacterial and fungal populations in chlorpyrifos treated plants increased thereafter. Endosulfan resulted in enhancement of fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, although phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms were suppressed at higher application rates. Azadirachtin, which is gaining popularity owing to its biological origin, did not result in enhancement of any microbial populations; on the other hand, it had a deleterious effect on phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. This study is the first to evaluate the non-target effects of pesticides with a comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides, and also stresses the importance of critical investigation of bio-pesticides before their wide spread application in agriculture.

  6. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of 15 nonprocess buildings (15 series) at the Weldon Spring Site Chemical Plant, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy, under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) a raffinate pits and chemical plant area and (2) a quarry. This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support a proposed removal action to manage 15 nonprocess buildings, identified as the 15 Series buildings, at the chemical plant on the Weldon Spring site. These buildings have been nonoperational for more than 20 years, and the deterioration that has occurred during this time has resulted in a potential threat to site workers, the general public, and the environment. The EE/CA documentation of this proposed action is consistent with guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that addresses removal actions at sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Actions at the Weldon Spring site are subject to CERCLA requirements because the site is on the EPA's National Priorities List. The objectives of this report are to (1) identify alternatives for management of the nonprocess buildings; (2) document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential threat to workers, the public, and the environment associated with these buildings; and (3) address environmental impact associated with the proposed action

  7. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  8. Chemical constituents in the essential oil of the endemic plant Cotula cinerea (Del.) from the southwest of Algeria简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed; Djellouli; Houcine; Benmehdi; Siham; Mammeri; Abdellah; Moussaoui; Laid; Ziane; Noureddine; Hamidi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To extract and identify the main constituents of the essential oil of Cotula cinerea(Del.)(Asteraceae family) from southwest of Algeria.Methods: The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation, from the aerial parts of the endemic plant Cotula cinerea which was collected in the region of Sahara from southwest of Algeria, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.Results: A total of 33 compounds were identified representing 98.66% of the oil. The main compounds were(E)-citral(24.01%), limonene epoxide cis-(18.26%), thymol methyl ether(15.04%), carvacrol(15.03%), trans-carveol(13.79%), carvone(3.06%) and trans-piperitol(2.54%).Conclusions: The main constituents in essential oil of the aerial part of the plant from southwest of Algeria were different from that collected from southeast of Algeria or in Morocco.

  9. Chemical constituents in the essential oil of the endemic plantCotula cinerea (Del.) from the southwest of Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Djellouli; Houcine Benmehdi; Siham Mammeri; Abdellah Moussaoui; Laid Ziane; Noureddine Hamidi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To extract and identify the main constituents of the essential oil ofCotula cinerea (Del.) (Asteraceae family) from southwest of Algeria. Methods: The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation, from the aerial parts of the endemic plantCotula cinerea which was collected in the region of Sahara fromsouthwest of Algeria, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: A total of 33 compounds were identified representing 98.66% of the oil. The main compounds were (E)-citral (24.01%), limonene epoxide cis- (18.26%), thymol methyl ether (15.04%), carvacrol (15.03%), trans-carveol (13.79%), carvone (3.06%) and trans-piperitol (2.54%). Conclusions: The main constituents in essential oil of the aerial part of the plant from southwest of Algeria were different from that collected from southeast of Algeria or in Morocco.

  10. Extrafloral nectar at the plant-insect interface: a spotlight on chemical ecology, phenotypic plasticity, and food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Plants secrete extrafloral nectar (EFN) as an induced defense against herbivores. EFN contains not only carbohydrates and amino acids but also pathogenesis-related proteins and other protective enzymes, making EFN an exclusive reward. EFN secretion is commonly induced after wounding, likely owing to a jasmonic acid-induced cell wall invertase, and is limited by phloem sucrose availability: Both factors control EFN secretion according to the optimal defense hypothesis. Non-ant EFN consumers include parasitoids, wasps, spiders, mites, bugs, and predatory beetles. Little is known about the relevance of EFN to the nutrition of its consumers and, hence, to the structuring of arthropod communities. The mutualism can be established quickly among noncoevolved (e.g., invasive) species, indicating its easy assembly is due to ecological fitting. Therefore, increasing efforts are directed toward using EFN in biocontrol. However, documentation of the importance of EFN for the communities of plants and arthropods in natural, invasive, and agricultural ecosystems is still limited. PMID:25564741

  11. The prospect of applying chemical elicitors and plant strengtheners to enhance the biological control of crop pests

    OpenAIRE

    Sobhy, Islam S.; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen; Ted C J Turlings

    2014-01-01

    An imminent food crisis reinforces the need for novel strategies to increase crop yields worldwide. Effective control of pest insects should be part of such strategies, preferentially with reduced negative impact on the environment and optimal protection and utilization of existing biodiversity. Enhancing the presence and efficacy of native biological control agents could be one such strategy. Plant strengthener is a generic term for several commercially available compounds or mixtures of com...

  12. Health and Natural Resources: The Extraction of Useful Chemicals from Plants and their Impact on Socio-Economic Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poverty reduction strategies in developing countries are based on the need to develop and improve the quality of life of people. The successful strategies link wealth creating activities of adding value to local resources with employment creation. These strategies lead to increased capacity to produce needed consumer goods such as food, fuel, construction materials, textiles and pharmaceuticals starting from local resources. Most value-adding transformations of materials to consumer goods use chemicals conversion processes

  13. Applicability of Vacuum Impregnation to Modify Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Nutritive Characteristics of Plant Origin Products—A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Radziejewska-Kubzdela; Róża Biegańska-Marecik; Marcin Kidoń

    2014-01-01

    Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water act...

  14. Volatiles from the Rare Australian Desert Plant Prostanthera centralis B.J.Conn (Lamiaceae): Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy L. Collins; Jones, Graham L; Nicholas J. Sadgrove

    2014-01-01

    Hydrodistilled essential oils and dichloromethane (DCM) extracted volatiles were taken from cultivated specimens of Prostanthera centralis, endemic to central Australia. All volatiles were chemically characterised by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) with the use of authentic standards, followed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was measured against a range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial species using a...

  15. Photochemical Alternation of Phragmites australis Plant Litter: New Insight into the Chemical Evolution of Particulate Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo, A. J.; Gelfond, C. E.; Kocar, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    The photolysis of natural organic matter (NOM) is a potential pathway for the alteration of material that is not easily biodegraded. Irradiation can alter the physical state of organic matter by facilitating the cycling between the particulate (POM) and dissolved (DOM) pools. However, a detailed understanding of the underlying chemical changes to the material in both phases is lacking. Here, we use a suspension of particles derived from Phragmites australis, a common marsh reed with high lignin content, as our model "recalcitrant" POM substrate. The solution was irradiated for three weeks with regular sampling, and the composition of the POM and the photo-produced DOM were measured separately using a suite of mass spectrometric and spectroscopic techniques. The chemical composition of individual molecules was measured by coupling soft ionization techniques (electrospray (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption (MALDI) to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Structural information, including the distribution of the major carbon containing functional groups, was obtained using a combination of FTIR for bulk analyses and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) for spatially resolved chemistry. Results are discussed in the context of differences in chemical composition and structure with increased irradiation time for both organic matter pools. We observed a general shift in the mass spectra of POM towards lower molecular weight masses and an increase in the abundance of ions in DOM as a function of irradiation time- hence the larger POM matrix is likely fragmenting into smaller species that are more soluble. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that the abundance of acidic and alcohol functionalities increased with irradiation in both carbon pools. These complementary approaches provide new detailed information about how the chemical composition of recalcitrant NOM evolves as it is exposed to sunlight.

  16. [Chemical composition of volatile oil from Chromolaena odorata and its effect on plant, fungi and insect growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Bing; Zhang, Maoxin; Kong, Chuihua; Pang, Xiongfei; Liang, Guangwen

    2003-05-01

    The volatile oil from C. odorata had a significant effect on the growth of plants, fungi and insects. The result showed that the seedling growth of five test plants was obviously inhibited, in the order of ryegrass > Chinese cabbage > radish > snap been > rice. The inhibitory effect of the oil at its middle concentration (800 mg.L-1) for Pyricularia grisea was the strongest, the next was to Phytophthora nicotianae, and the weakest was to Fusarium axysporum. The inhibitory percentage was 61.40%, 29.27% and 14.44%, respectively. The volatile oil from C. odorata at the dose of 10-20 microliters.plant-1 had a significant oviposition deterrent effect on Phyllotreta striolata and Plutella xylostella. The volatile oil from C. odorata was analyzed by GC/MS and thirty components were identified. Terpenoids compounds were major components of the volatile oil, such as trans-caryophyllene (16.58%), delta-cadinene (15.85%), alpha-copaene (11.58%), caryophyllene oxide (9.63%), germacrene-D (4.96%), and delta-humulene (4.32%). PMID:12924132

  17. Anti-tumor activity of Phyllanthus niruri (a medicinal plant) on chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Parmar, Jyoti; Verma, Preeti; Sharma, Priyanka; Goyal, P K

    2009-01-01

    Chemoprevention is an important strategy to control the process of carcinogenesis. The potential of using medicinal herbs as cancer chemopreventive nutraceuticals and functional food is promising. Thus, there is a need for exploring drugs/agents which act as chemopreventive agents. Phyllanthus niruri is a well known medicinal plant which has been used in Ayurvedic medicine as hepatoprotective, antiviral, antibacterial, analgesic, antispasmodic and antidiabetic. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of a hydro-alcoholic extract of the whole plant, in 7-9 week old male Swiss albino mice, on the two stage process of skin carcinogenesis induced by a single topical application of 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a)anthracene (100 microg/100 microl acetone) and two weeks later promoted by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone/three times a week) till the end of experiment (16 weeks). The oral administration of P. niruri at a dose of 1000 mg/kg/b.wt. at peri- (i.e. 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application) and post- (i.e. starting from the croton oil application) initiational phase of papillomagenesis caused significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor yield, tumor burden and cumulative number of papillomas as compared to carcinogen-treated controls. Furthermore, the average latent period was significantly increased in the PNE treated group. The results thus suggest that P. niruri extract exhibits significant anti-tumor activity, which supports the traditional medicinal utilization of this plant. PMID:20192590

  18. Cleaning chemical and mechanical of heat exchangers in french nuclear plants; Limpieza mecanica y quimica de intercambiadores de calor en centrales nucleares francesas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, J. t.; Guerra, P.; Carreres, C.

    2013-03-01

    This project was carried out under the frame of the approval of LAINSA as a supplier of EDF in France. The inspection performed on systems called the moisture separator reheaters (GSS) of CPO series reactor of EDF nuclear power plants has shown evidence of significant clogging due to deposits of magnetite inside the tubes of tube bundle. The pressure drop between inlet and outlet of the heating was close to maximum design criterion. This effect could result in equipment damage and loss of plant productivity. The aim of the work was the design, development, approval and implementation of a procedure for un blocking the tubes of the GSS respecting the integrity of materials and ensuring the harmlessness of cleaning procedures. The procedure used was to completely remove magnetite deposits in order to recover a passage diameter and a surface finish equivalent to the origin, thus avoiding the replacement of the GSS and obtaining a considerable reduction of costs. The achieve these objectives we have developed a procedure that is basically a mechanical pre-cleaning of all tubes of the GSS in order to unblock tem, followed by a chemical cleaning where magnetite is dissolved and crawled out of the tube bundle. The main results were: -Corrosion less than 10 microns. 100-110 Kg of magnetite removed by heat exchanger. -Final pressure drop similar to that of new equipment. -Waste water: 70 m{sup 3} per exchanger, which were managed by an authorized waste management company. This procedure has been applied successfully in 14 GSS type heat exchangers in Fessenheim and Bugey nuclear power plants in France between 2009 and 2011. This project demonstrates that the long experience of LAINSA in the Spanish nuclear industry along with the knowledge and experience in chemical cleaning of SOLARCA, have served to successfully work demanding and mature markets such as the French nuclear market, solving the problem of deposits of magnetite with an effective and safe method for the treated

  19. Chemical constituents and pharmacologic actions of Cynomorium plants%锁阳属植物的化学成分及药理作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙昊聪; 王硕; 李颖; 况园园; 马超美

    2013-01-01

    锁阳是锁阳科植物Cynomorium songaricum的根茎,是以具有强壮作用而著名的中药材.生长在北非及地中海地区的同属植物C coccineum被阿拉伯人看作是“宝药”.研究表明锁阳属植物的主要成分为酚类、甾体和三萜类化合物等.锁阳属植物的药理作用包括抗氧化、提高免疫力、抗糖尿病及神经保护等.锁阳的一些化学成分结构容易发生变化,因此不同生产条件得到的锁阳类药物成分会有所不同.该文综述锁阳属植物的药理作用及化学成分,检索的文献截至2011年底.%The stem of Cynomorium songaricum is a traditional Chinese medicine reputed to have tonic effects.C.coccineum growing in northern Africa and the Mediterranean region is regarded in Arabian medical practice as the "treasure of drugs".The major constituents of Cynomorium plants have been revealed to be phenolic compounds,steroids,triterpenes,etc.Pharmacologic studies showed that the Cynomorium plants had antioxidant,immunity-improving,anti-diabetic,neuroprotective,and other bioactivities.Some chemical constituents in Cynomorium plants are unstable,implying that the chemical components of the herbal medicines produced under different conditions may be variable.This review covers the literature published until December,2011 and describes the pharmacologic effects and secondary metabolites of Cynomorium species.

  20. Genetic and Chemical Profiling of Gymnema sylvestre Accessions from Central India: Its Implication for Quality Control and Therapeutic Potential of Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ashutosh Kumar; Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Singh, Seema; Bharati, Kumar Avinash; Jyotsana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gymnema sylvestre, a vulnerable plant species, is mentioned in Indian Pharmacopeia as an antidiabetic drug Objective: Study of genetic and chemical diversity and its implications in accessions of G. sylvestre Materials and Methods: Fourteen accessions of G. sylvestre collected from Central India and assessment of their genetic and chemical diversity were carried out using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) fingerprinting methods Results: Among the screened 40 ISSR primers, 15 were found polymorphic and collectively produced nine unique accession-specific bands. The maximum and minimum numbers of amplicones were noted for ISSR-15 and ISSR-11, respectively. The ISSR -11 and ISSR-13 revealed 100% polymorphism. HPLC chromatograms showed that accessions possess the secondary metabolites of mid-polarity with considerable variability. Unknown peaks with retention time 2.63, 3.41, 23.83, 24.50, and 44.67 were found universal type. Comparative hierarchical clustering analysis based on foresaid fingerprints indicates that both techniques have equal potential to discriminate accessions according to percentage gymnemic acid in their leaf tissue. Second approach was noted more efficiently for separation of accessions according to their agro-climatic/collection site Conclusion: Highly polymorphic ISSRs could be utilized as molecular probes for further selection of high gymnemic acid yielding accessions. Observed accession specific bands may be used as a descriptor for plant accessions protection and converted into sequence tagged sites markers. Identified five universal type peaks could be helpful in identification of G. sylvestre-based various herbal preparations. SUMMARY Nine accession specific unique bandsFive marker peaks for G. sylvestre.Suitability of genetic and chemical fingerprinting Abbreviations used: HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, ISSR: Inter Simple Sequence Repeats, CTAB: Cetyl

  1. The impact of variations of influent loading on the efficacy of an advanced tertiary sewage treatment plant to remove endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lisa A; Tremblay, Louis A; Northcott, Grant L; Boake, Michael; Lim, Richard P

    2016-08-01

    The impact of changes in influent load on the removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by sewage treatment has not been fully characterised. This study assessed the efficacy of an advanced tertiary sewage treatment plant (STP) to remove EDCs during normal and peak flow events of sewage influent using trace chemical analysis of selected EDCs and four estrogenic in vitro bioassays. During the summer holiday season, influent volume increased by 68%, nutrient concentrations by at least 26% and hydraulic retention time was reduced by 40% compared with base flow conditions. Despite these pressures on the treatment system the concentrations and mass loading of estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, Bisphenol A, 4-t-octylphenol and technical nonylphenol were not significantly higher (p>0.05) during the peak flow conditions compared with base flow conditions. Chemical analysis and in vitro bioassays showed that the efficacy of the STP in removing EDCs was not affected by the different loadings between baseline and peak flow regimes. This study demonstrates that large flow variations within the design capacity of advanced multi-stage STPs should not reduce the removal efficacy of EDCs.

  2. The impact of variations of influent loading on the efficacy of an advanced tertiary sewage treatment plant to remove endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lisa A; Tremblay, Louis A; Northcott, Grant L; Boake, Michael; Lim, Richard P

    2016-08-01

    The impact of changes in influent load on the removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by sewage treatment has not been fully characterised. This study assessed the efficacy of an advanced tertiary sewage treatment plant (STP) to remove EDCs during normal and peak flow events of sewage influent using trace chemical analysis of selected EDCs and four estrogenic in vitro bioassays. During the summer holiday season, influent volume increased by 68%, nutrient concentrations by at least 26% and hydraulic retention time was reduced by 40% compared with base flow conditions. Despite these pressures on the treatment system the concentrations and mass loading of estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, Bisphenol A, 4-t-octylphenol and technical nonylphenol were not significantly higher (p>0.05) during the peak flow conditions compared with base flow conditions. Chemical analysis and in vitro bioassays showed that the efficacy of the STP in removing EDCs was not affected by the different loadings between baseline and peak flow regimes. This study demonstrates that large flow variations within the design capacity of advanced multi-stage STPs should not reduce the removal efficacy of EDCs. PMID:27096490

  3. Exploring the Reuse Potential of Chemical Sludge from Textile Wastewater Treatment Plants in India-A Hazardous Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Patel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was conducted to explore the reuse potential of the chemical sludge (considered as hazardous waste as per Indian Government Hazardous Waste Management Rules generated from combined effluent treatment in textile clusters. These textile clusters mainly cover the cotton dyeing and printing operations. Approach: Therefore, treatability studies of chemical sludge were conducted using solidification/stabilization treatment to examine the possibility of its reuse in construction materials. The sludge was characterised for its physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals. Standard blocks of dimensions 70.6×70.6×70.6 mm were prepared, in which chemical sludge was used as a partial replacement of cement by mixing 30-70 % of sludge in cement. After the experimental curing, the blocks were evaluated for physical engineering properties such as hardening time, block density, unconfined compressive strength. The chemical properties were determined in terms of concentrations of heavy metals in the TCLP leachate. Results: The hardening time ranged between 30-45 h. The compressive strength in the sludge cement blocks ranged from 2.63-22.54 N mm-2 after 14 days of water curing and 6.48-24.89 N mmm-2 after 28 days of water curing for 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 % sludge replacement in cement. The block density varied between 1361. 3408-1813.8992 Kg m-3 after 14 days and 1386.3953-1842.3446 Kg m-3 after 28 days of water curing. The concentrations of heavy metals were negligible in the TCLP leachate and thus below USEPA regulatory limits. Conclusion/Recommendations: As far as structural applications is concerned, it is fulfilling the criteria of some of the classes (C to K as per the BIS standards of the bricks upto a strength of 25 N mm2. The use of sludge can definitely be explored for other structural and non-structural applications depending upon strength requirement. Other applications of textile sludge in the construction materials

  4. Analysis on the Current Status of Chemical Decontamination Technology of Steam Generators in the Oversea Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Taebin; Kim, Sukhoon; Kim, Juyoul; Kim, Juyub; Lee, Seunghee [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The steam generators in Hanbit Unit 3 and 4 are scheduled to be replaced in 2018 and 2019, respectively. Nevertheless, the wastes from the dismantled steam generators are currently just on-site stored in the NPP because there are no disposal measures for the waste and lack of the decontamination techniques for large-sized metallic equipment. In contrast, in the oversea NPPs, there are many practical cases of chemical decontamination not only for oversized components in the NPPs such as reactor pressure vessel and steam generator, but also for major pipes. Chemical decontamination technique is more effective in decontaminating the components with complicated shape compared with mechanical one. Moreover, a high decontamination factor can be obtained by using strong solvent, and thereby most of radionuclides can be removed. Due to these advantages, the chemical decontamination has been used most frequently for operation of decontaminating the large-sized equipment. In this study, an analysis on the current status of chemical decontamination technique used for the steam generators of the foreign commercial NPPs was performed. In this study, the three major chemical decontamination processes were reviewed, which are applied to the decommissioning process of the steam generators in the commercial NPPs of the United States, Germany, and Belgium. The three processes have the different features in aspect of solvent, while those are based in common on the oxidation and reduction between the target metal surface and solvents. In addition, they have the same goals for improving the decontamination efficiency and decreasing the amount of the secondary waste generation. Based on the analysis results on component sub-processes and major advantages and disadvantages of each process, Table 2 shows the key fundamental technologies for decontamination of the steam generator in Korea and the major considerations in the development process of each technology. It is necessary to prepare

  5. Influence of chemical properties of biomass plant agricultural origin on outlays energy incurred during the production of pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur KRASZKIEWICZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, was analysed made the measurements of the content of water, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur and chlorine in plant biomass of agricultural origin in the context of the impact of these features on the energy expenditures incurred in its pelleting. For the examined raw materials statistical analysis results showed negative linear trend between energy expenditures and: water content, total sulfur and chlorine. Positive linear trend between energy expenditures and: contents of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Wherein the coefficients of correlation expenditures energy and: carbon, hydrogen and chlorine are significant p<0.05.

  6. Chemical constituents from the submerged plant Potamogeton crispus and their effects on NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Ye; Jun Zhi Ma; Juan Xiong; Shu Ting Liu; Dong Wang; Chong Gang Yuan; Ji Yan Ma; Jin Feng Hu

    2012-01-01

    A new isopimarane-type diterpene (liwariverol,1) and eight known compounds were isolated and characterized from the EtOAc extract of the whole plant of Potamogeton crispus.The structure of 1 was elucidated to be 17-hydroxy-8αH-isopimara-9(11),15-diene by means of spectroscopic methods.Among the isolates,crenulatoside A (2),an acyclic sesquiterpene glycoside,was found to have anti-oxidative activity with enhancement of the expression of the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells at 100 μmol/L after a 24-h incubation.

  7. The evolution of plant chemical defence - new roles for hydroxynitrile glucosides in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Camilla

    types of adaptations enable plants to avoid the potential lethal effects of their own defence compounds. These adaptations include detoxification and stabilization by glycosylation and the genomic clustering of biosynthetic pathway genes. These two types are the main focus of this PhD thesis...... tissue disruption, their hydrolysis by a specific β-glucosidase results in the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide. Hydrolysis of the non-cyanogenic rhodiocyanosides by β-glucosidase activity is shown to produce an anti-fungal furanone. The biosynthetic pathways for these related hydroxynitrile glucosides...

  8. Profiling of triacylglycerols in plant oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmosphere pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using a novel mixed-mode column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Na; Wei, Fang; Lv, Xin; Wu, Lin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Chen, Hong

    2014-12-01

    In this investigation, a rapid and high-throughput method for profiling of TAGs in plant oils by liquid chromatography using a single column coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry was reported. A novel mixed-mode phenyl-hexyl chromatographic column was employed in this separation system. The phenyl-hexyl column could provide hydrophobic interactions as well as π-π interactions. Compared with two traditionally columns used in TAG separation - the C18 column and silver-ion column, this column exhibited much higher selectivity for the separation of TAGs with great efficiency and rapid speed. By comparison with a novel mix-mode column (Ag-HiSep OTS column), which can also provide both hydrophobic interactions as well as π-π interactions for the separation of TAGs, phenyl-hexyl column exhibited excellent stability. LC method using phenyl-hexyl column coupled with APCI-MS was successfully applied for the profiling of TAGs in soybean oils, peanut oils, corn oils, and sesame oils. 29 TAGs in peanut oils, 22 TAGs in soybean oils, 19 TAGs in corn oils, and 19 TAGs in sesame oils were determined and quantified. The LC-MS data was analyzed by barcodes and principal component analysis (PCA). The resulting barcodes constitute a simple tool to display differences between different plant oils. Results of PCA also enabled a clear identification of different plant oils. This method provided an efficient and convenient chromatographic technology for the fast characterization and quantification of complex TAGs in plant oils at high selectivity. It has great potential as a routine analytical method for analysis of edible oil quality and authenticity control.

  9. Membrane fouling and chemical cleaning of water treatment ultra filters in chemical plants%化工厂用水超滤处理中膜污染及化学清洗方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晶; 王丁; 荣玥

    2012-01-01

    以某化工厂除盐水处理工程为例,阐述了超滤装置的工艺流程和运行方式,分析了超滤的工作原理及处理过程中膜污染的形成原因,提出了控制膜污染的化学清洗方法和清洗控制参数,为此类水处理工艺的日常运行管理和维护提供技术参考。%According to the desalination water treatment engineering in a chemical plant, the process and operation mode of ultra filtration device was described, principle of ultra filtration and causes of membrane fouling were analyzed. The chemical cleaning of membrane fouling and cleaning parameters control methods listed in the article is technical reference for the daily operation, management and maintenance of this water treatment process.

  10. Effects of water additions, chemical amendments, and plants on in situ measures of nutrient bioavailability in calcareous soils of southeastern Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.E.; Belnap, J.; Beatty, S.W.; Webb, B.L.

    2006-01-01

    We used ion-exchange resin bags to investigate effects of water additions, chemical amendments, and plant presence on in situ measures of nutrient bioavailability in conjunction with a study examining soil controls of ecosystem invasion by the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. At five dryland sites in southeastern Utah, USA, resin bags were buried in experimental plots randomly assigned to combinations of two watering treatments (wet and dry), four chemical-amendment treatments (KCl, MgO, CaO, and no amendment), and four plant treatments (B. tectorum alone, the perennial bunchgrass Stipa hymenoides R. & S. alone, B. tectorum and S. hymenoides together, and no plants). Resin bags were initially buried in September 1997; replaced in January, April, and June 1998; and removed at the end of the study in October 1998. When averaged across watering treatments, plots receiving KCl applications had lower resin-bag NO 3- than plots receiving no chemical amendments during three of four measurement periods-probably due to NO 3- displacement from resin bags by Cl- ions. During the January-April period, KCl application in wet plots (but not dry plots) decreased resin-bag NH 4+ and increased resin-bag NO 3- . This interaction effect likely resulted from displacement of NH 4+ from resins by K+ ions, followed by nitrification and enhanced NO 3- capture by resin bags. In plots not receiving KCl applications, resin-bag NH 4+ was higher in wet plots than in dry plots during the same period. During the January-April period, resin-bag measures for carbonate-related ions HPO 42- , Ca2+, and Mn2+ tended to be greater in the presence of B. tectorum than in the absence of B. tectorum. This trend was evident only in wet plots where B. tectorum densities were much higher than in dry plots. We attribute this pattern to the mobilization of carbonate-associated ions by root exudates of B. tectorum. These findings indicate the importance of considering potential indirect effects of soil

  11. Chemical composition and repellency of essential oils from four medicinal plants against Ixodes ricinus nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Seedi, Hesham R; Khalil, Nasr S; Azeem, Muhammad; Taher, Eman A; Göransson, Ulf; Pålsson, Katinka; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2012-09-01

    In our search for effective tick repellents from plant origin, we investigated the effect of essential oils of four medicinal and culinary plants belonging to the family Lamiaceae on nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.). The essential oils of the dry leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) (L.), Mentha spicata (Spearmint) (L.), Origanum majorana (Majoram) (L.), and Ocimum basilicum (Basil) (L.) were isolated by steam distillation and 15 microg/cm2 concentration of oils was tested against ticks in a laboratory bioassay. The oils of R. officinalis, M. spicata, and O. majorana showed strong repellency against the ticks 100, 93.2, and 84.3%, respectively, whereas O. basilicum only showed 64.5% repellency. When tested in the field, the oils of R. officinalis and M. spicata showed 68.3 and 59.4% repellency at a concentration of 6.5 microg/cm2 on the test cloths. The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and the major compounds from the most repellent oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, linalool, 4-terpineol, borneol, and carvone. PMID:23025188

  12. Model-based evaluation of a chemical looping combustion plant for energy generation at a pre-commercial scale of 100 MWth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Scale-up considerations for a CLC reactor system are presented. • Reactor-level model was used to describe the operation of the reactor system. • Integration of the reactor system and steam turbine cycle was studied. • Plant-level model was used to evaluate the viability of CLC-integrated steam cycle. - Abstract: Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging combustion technology with an inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO2. The feasibility of CLC has been proven in various small-scale units worldwide, but the large-scale realization of theoretical or small-scale units is still lacking due to many technical challenges. Most of the existing CLC installations use a configuration of two interacting fluidized bed reactors, and even though the fluidized bed technology is mature and well-established, a high level of uncertainty is included in the attempts to up-scale the reactor system involved in CLC. For progressive scale-up of the new technology, a preliminary design of a 100 MWth pre-commercial CLC unit for gaseous fuels is presented. A reactor-level model was used to predict the performance of such a system, and as a result, the operation of the system was characterized and valuable information of the parameters affecting the process was received. For cost-effective energy generation with efficient CO2 capture, the power plant-level integration of CLC must be conducted carefully, and different plant configurations need to be investigated to find the most optimal solution. Hence, the integration of the reactor system and steam turbine cycle for power production was studied resulting in a suggested plant layout including a CLC boiler system, a simple heat recovery setup, and an integrated steam cycle with a three pressure level steam turbine. A plant-level model was used to evaluate the viability of the plant, and without the purification and compression of CO2, the net cycle efficiency of 42.8% was obtained. It was also found that a

  13. Ergonomics contribution to chemical risks prevention: An ergotoxicological investigation of the effectiveness of coverall against plant pest risk in viticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigou, Alain; Baldi, Isabelle; Le Frious, Patricia; Anselm, Rémy; Vallier, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the contribution of a trans-disciplinary approach focused on ergonomics and chemical risk control. We shall more precisely discuss how such an approach carried out in the field of agricultural work has made it possible to highlight serious shortcomings in the effectiveness of the coveralls that are supposed to protect vineyard workers from pesticides. The study results, as well as the whistle-blow that followed have questioned the control and prevention measures used until then. The aforementioned trans-disciplinary approach gathers knowledge and methods from epidemiology, industrial hygiene, occupational health and safety and ergonomics. Ergonomics were central in the development of the approach as it connected task and activity analysis with contamination measurements. Lastly, the first results that were obtained have been confirmed and reused by the AFSSET (Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire Environnement et Travail, the French governmental agency in charge of environmental health and occupational health and safety issues) regarding the agricultural sector but also for all other situations in which workers use coveralls as protection against chemical risks.

  14. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) against Selected Plant Pathogenic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagacha, John M.; Dossaji, Saifuddin F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) of Tagetes minuta against three phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis. The essential oils were extracted using steam distillation method in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus while antibacterial activity of the EOs was evaluated by disc diffusion method. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for analysis of the chemical profile of the EOs. Twenty compounds corresponding to 96% of the total essential oils were identified with 70% and 30% of the identified components being monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, respectively. The essential oils of T. minuta revealed promising antibacterial activities against the test pathogens with Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola being the most susceptible with mean inhibition zone diameters of 41.83 and 44.83 mm after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the EOs on the test bacteria were in the ranges of 24–48 mg/mL and 95–190 mg/mL, respectively. These findings provide a scientific basis for the use of T. minuta essential oils as a botanical pesticide for management of phytopathogenic bacteria.

  15. Haematological malignancies in childhood in Croatia: Investigating the theories of depleted uranium, chemical plant damage and 'population mixing'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of potential causes proposed to explain the reported increase of haematological malignancies in childhood during or after the war period in several countries include depleted uranium, chemical pollution and population mixing theory. The aim of this study was to define the population of Croatian children aged 0-14 years who were potentially exposed to each of those risks during the war and to investigate any possible association between the exposure and the incidence of haematological malignancies. The authors analyzed the data reported by the Cancer Registry of Croatia during the pre-war period (1986-1990), war period (1991-1995) and post-war period (1996-1999). In the group of 10 counties potentially exposed to depleted uranium and two counties where chemical war damage occurred, no significant difference in incidence of the studied haematological malignancies was noted in comparison to pre-war period. The incidence of lymphatic leukaemia significantly increased in four counties where population mixing had occurred during the war period, supporting the 'mixing theory'. In those counties, the incidence of Hodgkin's lymphoma decreased during and after the war. In Croatia as a whole, decreases in incidence of myeloid leukaemias during war and non-Hodgkin lymphoma after the war were noted

  16. Physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from coal-fired power plant, automobile and ship engine and charcoal kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwajin

    2015-04-01

    Similarities and differences in physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion generated particles from various sources were investigated. Coal-fired power plant, charcoal kiln, automobile and ship engine were major sources, representing combustions of coal, biomass and two different types of diesel, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with both SEM and HRTEM were used for physico-chemical analysis. Light absorbing properties were assessed using a spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Particles generated from different combustion sources and conditions demonstrate great variability in their morphology, structure and composition. From coal-fired power plant, both fly ash and flue gas were mostly composed of heterogeneously mixed mineral ash spheres, suggesting that the complete combustion was occurred releasing carbonaceous species out at high temperature (1200-1300 °C). Both automobile and ship exhausts from diesel combustions show typical features of soot: concentric circles comprised of closely-packed graphene layers. However, heavy fuel oil (HFO) combusted particles from ship exhaust demonstrate more complex compositions containing different morphology of particles other than soot, e.g., spherical shape of char particles composed of minerals and carbon. Even for the soot aggregates, particles from HFO burning have different chemical compositions; carbon is dominated but Ca (29.8%), S (28.7%), Na(1%), and Mg(1%) are contained, respectively which were not found from particles of automobile emission. This indicates that chemical compositions and burning conditions are significant to determine the fate of particles. Finally, from biomass burning, amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystallite structure are observed and they are generally formed by the condensation of low volatile species at low

  17. Chemical Structures of Plant Hydrolyzable Tannins Reveal Their in Vitro Activity against Egg Hatching and Motility of Haemonchus contortus Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, M T; Karonen, M; Ahern, J R; Baert, N; Payré, B; Hoste, H; Salminen, J-P

    2016-02-01

    The use of synthetic drugs against gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants has led to a situation where resistance to anthelmintics is widespread, and there is an urgent need for alternative solutions for parasite control. One promising approach is to use polyphenol-rich bioactive plants in animal feeds as natural anthelmintics. In the present work, the in vitro activity of a series of 33 hydrolyzable tannins (HTs) and their hydrolysis product, gallic acid, against egg hatching and motility of L1 and L2 stage Haemonchus contortus larvae was studied. The effect of the selected compounds on egg and larval structure was further studied by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated clear relationships between HT structure and anthelmintic activity. While HT size, overall flexibility, the types and numbers of functional groups, together with the linkage types between monomeric HTs affected the activity differently, the optimal structure was found with pentagalloylglucose.

  18. Influence of Photo period and Gamma Irradiation on Shoot Development and Chemical Composition of Yucca elephantipes Regel Plant in Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-Vitro propagated plant lets of Yucca elephantipes were placed under different photo periods (24/0, 16/8, and 0/24 L/D) for two months after cultured on MS medium supplemented with 40 g/l sucrose. Growing explants of Yucca elephantipes cultured on MS medium placed under photo period 24/0 L/D gave the highest shoot length and best proliferation than other treatments especially in subculture 3. Exposure to gamma irradiation at doses 0.0, 5 ,10, 20 and 40 Gy, and placed on the same conditions .Irradiated plantlets exhibited changes in shoot growth especially on photo period at 16/8 L/D than others, also with gamma irradiation at dose 20 Gy. Using gamma irradiation at level of 20 and 40 Gy stimulated both leaf shape and thickness of stem. The contents of total phenol, total saponin and some unsap contents were increased with increasing gamma irradiation

  19. Chemical characterization of bottom ashes generated during combustion of a Colombian mineral coal in a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottom ashes generated during combustion of a mineral coal from Colombia were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The interest in this particular coal is due to the fact that it will be used by a thermal power plant in Ceara, Northeastern Brazil, where it could produce over 900 tons of different residues/combustion products every day. Results from Xray fluorescence allowed identification and quantification of elements present in the sample: silicon (59,17%), aluminum (13,17%), iron (10,74%), potassium (6,11%), titanium (2,91%), calcium (4,97%), sulphur (0,84%) and others (2,09%). The X-ray diffraction revealed patterns from silica, mullite, calcium sulphate and hydrated sodium. Results obtained so far indicate that the material is a potential raw-material for use in the formulation of ceramic components (author)

  20. Applicability of Vacuum Impregnation to Modify Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Nutritive Characteristics of Plant Origin Products—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Radziejewska-Kubzdela

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food.

  1. Applicability of vacuum impregnation to modify physico-chemical, sensory and nutritive characteristics of plant origin products--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziejewska-Kubzdela, Elżbieta; Biegańska-Marecik, Róża; Kidoń, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food. PMID:25244012

  2. Application of Ozone and Oxygen to Reduce Chemical Oxygen Demand and Hydrogen Sulfide from a Recovered Paper Processing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Terry

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study was performed at the Fox River Fiber recovered paper processing company in DePere, Wisconsin, to determine the extent to which injection of oxygen and ozone could reduce the high chemical oxygen demand, COD, in the effluent and the effectiveness of the ozone/oxygen stream in suppressing production of hydrogen sulfide gas in downstream sewage lines. Adaptive Ozone Solutions, LLC, supplied the oxygen/ozone generation and injection system. Samples were analyzed both before and after oxygen/ozone injection. Hydrogen sulfide gas was continuously monitored at sewer stations downstream of Fox River Fiber. Results showed that with a very short contact time, effluent COD was reduced by over 15%. A simple kinetic model predicts that a contact time of fewer than 30 minutes could reduce COD by as much as 60%. In addition, downstream hydrogen sulfide gas production in the sewage mains was also better controlled, such that costly Bioxide applications could be reduced.

  3. Comparative analysis of different plant oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Annamaria; Héberger, Károly; Forgács, Esther

    2002-11-01

    Different vegetable oil samples (almond, avocado, corngerm, grapeseed, linseed, olive, peanut, pumpkin seed, soybean, sunflower, walnut, wheatgerm) were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. A gradient elution technique was applied using acetone-acetonitrile eluent systems on an ODS column (Purospher, RP-18e, 125 x 4 mm, 5 microm). Identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) was based on the pseudomolecular ion [M+1]+ and the diacylglycerol fragments. The positional isomers of triacylglycerol were identified from the relative intensities of the [M-RCO2]+ fragments. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a common multivariate mathematical-statistical calculation was successfully used to distinguish the oils based on their TAG composition. LDA showed that 97.6% of the samples were classified correctly.

  4. Comparative analysis of different plant oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Annamaria; Héberger, Károly; Forgács, Esther

    2002-11-01

    Different vegetable oil samples (almond, avocado, corngerm, grapeseed, linseed, olive, peanut, pumpkin seed, soybean, sunflower, walnut, wheatgerm) were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. A gradient elution technique was applied using acetone-acetonitrile eluent systems on an ODS column (Purospher, RP-18e, 125 x 4 mm, 5 microm). Identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) was based on the pseudomolecular ion [M+1]+ and the diacylglycerol fragments. The positional isomers of triacylglycerol were identified from the relative intensities of the [M-RCO2]+ fragments. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a common multivariate mathematical-statistical calculation was successfully used to distinguish the oils based on their TAG composition. LDA showed that 97.6% of the samples were classified correctly. PMID:12462617

  5. Effect of plant extracts Kitaibelia vitifolia on antioxidant activity, chemical characteristics, microbiological status and sensory properties of Pirotski kachkaval cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurćubić Vladimir S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of cheese (Pirotski kachkaval fortification by polyphenols attributed to Kitaibelia vitifolia ethanol herb extract, applied in two different manners (added to the cheese curd after texturizing or sprayed on surface of cheese. Investigation of the used antioxidant effects of polyphenols, physic-chemical composition, microbiological quality and sensory properties of Pirotski kachkaval was undertaken. Antioxidant activity of conventional and fortified cheese was evaluated by five contemporary and compatible methods, and revealed a slight emphasis on phenol-linked antioxidant activity of fortified samples of cheese in comparison to samples of the control group. Fortified Pirotski kachkaval had higher sensory evaluation scores than the controls. Statistically significant (P 0.05. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009 i br. OI 172016

  6. Equipment for leak monitoring of walls separating media in power and chemical installations, mainly nuclear power plants steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equipment is described for leak monitoring of walls separating media in power and chemical installations. The partition walls consistf o two coaxial tubes. The inner surface of the outer tube and the outer surface of the inner tube are in contact. The contact surface is broken by at least one groove. Slots between both contact surfaces are connected to the intertube space into which one or more slots open. The configuration decreases or excludes the adverse effect of thermal resistance. In case of a medium penetrating in between the inner and the outer tubes, pressure in the slots, groove and intertube space changes. The change in the pressure value is recorded and is a measure of the average size of medium penetration. (J.B.)

  7. Phytoremediation of Contaminated Chemical Plant Sites%化工污染场地植物修复研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万玉山; 陈艳秋; 黄利; 方慧

    2015-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to research phytoremediation effects on soils with combined pol ution. [Method] With simulation experiment, the test selected plants suitable for phytoremediation in soils pol uted with Pb-Cd, PAHs, and Pb-Cd-PAHs, respectively and ryegrass was grown to explore phytoremediation on contaminated sites by adjusting bio-availability. [Result] After 70 d growing of ryegrass, the content of available Pb in contaminated soils was 375.26 mg/kg, the content of Cd was 4.9 mg/kg after 90 d, and the content of B [a]P was 0.60 mg/kg after 100 d, which were al lower compared with soil limits. [Conclusion] Ryegrass is a suitable plant for phytoremediation.%[目的]研究植物对复合污染土壤的修复效果。[方法]采取模拟试验,进行 Pb-Cd复合污染、PAHs污染和 Pb-Cd-PAHs复合污染土壤修复植物的筛选,通过种植黑麦草,调控生物有效性影响因素对污染场地土壤进行修复。[结果]种植黑麦草70 d后污染土壤有效态 Pb的含量为375.26 mg/kg,90 d后土壤有效态 Cd含量为4.9 mg/kg,110 d后土壤有效态 B[a]P的含量为0.60 mg/kg,都低于土壤限值,能达到修复效果。[结论]黑麦草是适于复合污染土壤修复的植物。

  8. Effects of vegetable oil residue after soil extraction on physical-chemical properties of sandy soil and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zongqiang; Li, Peijun; Wilke, B M; Alef, Kassem

    2008-01-01

    Vegetable oil has the ability to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sandy soil for a remediation purpose, with some of the oil remaining in the soil. Although most of the PAHs were removed, the risk of residue oil in the soil was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the vegetable oil residue on higher plant growth and sandy soil properties after soil extraction for a better understanding of the soil remediation. Addition of sunflower oil and column experiment were performed on a PAH contaminated soil and/or a control soil, respectively. Soils were incubated for 90 d, and soil pH was measured during the soil incubation. Higher plant growth bioassays with Avena sativa L. (oat) and Brassica rapa L. (turnip) were performed after the incubation, and then soil organic carbon contents were measured. The results show that both the nutrient amendment and the sunflower oil degradation resulted in the decrease of soil pH. When these two process worked together, their effects were counteracted due to the consumption of the nutrients and oil removal, resulting in different pH profiles. Growth of A. sativa was adversely affected by the sunflower oil, and the nutrient amendments stimulated the A. sativa growth significantly. B. rapa was more sensitive to the sunflower oil than A. sativa. Only 1% sunflower oil addition plus nutrient amendment stimulated B. rapa growth. All the other treatments on B. rapa inhibited its growth significantly. The degradation of the sunflower oil in the soils was proved by the soil organic carbon content.

  9. Effects of vegetable oil residue after soil extraction on physical-chemical properties of sandy soil and plant growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Zongqiang; LI Peijun; B.M.Wilke; Kassem Alef

    2008-01-01

    Vegetable oil has the ability to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sandy soft for a remediation purpose, with some of the oft remaining in the soil. Although most of the PAHs were removed, the risk of residue oil in the soft was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the vegetable oil residue on higher plant growth and sandy soft properties after soil extraction for a better understanding of the soil remediation. Addition of sunflower oil and column experiment were performed on a PAH contaminated soil and/or a control soft, respectively. Soils were incubated for 90 d, and soil pH was measured during the soil incubation. Higher plant growth bioassays with Avena sativa L. (oat) and Brassica rapa L. (turnip) were performed after the incubation, and then soil organic carbon contents were measured. The results show that both the nutrient amendment and the sunflower oil degradation resulted in the decrease of soil pH. When these two process worked together, their effects were counteracted due to the consumption of the nutrients and oil removal, resulting in different pH profiles. Growth ofA. sativa was adversely affected by the sunflower oil, and the nutrient amendments stimulated the A. sativa growth significantly. B. rapa was more sensitive to the sunflower oil than A. sativa. Only 1% sunflower oft addition plus nutrient amendment stimulated B. rapa growth. All the other treatments on B. rapa inhibited its growth significantly. The degradation of the sunflower oft in the soils was proved by the soft organic carbon content.

  10. Improving the technology for sulfuric acid purification of BTK fraction at the Makeyevsk Coke Chemical Plant. Sovershenstvovaniye tekhnologii sernokislotnoy ochistki fraktsii BTK na Makeyevskom koksokhimzavode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korobchanskiy, V.I.; Dobrovolskaya, L.Ye.; Dzekunov, S.N.; Grebennikova, S.S.; Korobchanskiy, Yu.V.

    1983-01-01

    Data are cited about a study of the operation of an installation for sulfuric acid purification of a BTK fraction at the Makeyevsk Coke Chemical Plant (KKhZ). The purification is performed in a radiator mixer with the addition of unsaturated compounds, a piperylene fraction. The capability is shown of producing benzene for nitration of a high quality in existing equipment with an unchanged expenditure of raw material and secondary materials. The following ways for improvement are recommended: reduce the final boiling point of the fraction to 125 to 130 degrees; feed the piperylene fraction in two stages: behind the mixer pump and in the central part of the radiator mixer; and reduce the process length to 6 to 8 minutes.

  11. Solid-Fueled Pressurized Chemical Looping with Flue-Gas Turbine Combined Cycle for Improved Plant Efficiency and CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kunlei; Chen, Liangyong; Zhang, Yi; Richburg, Lisa; Simpson, James; White, Jay; Rossi, Gianalfredo

    2013-12-31

    The purpose of this document is to report the final result of techno-economic analysis for the proposed 550MWe integrated pressurized chemical looping combustion combined cycle process. An Aspen Plus based model is delivered in this report along with the results from three sensitivity scenarios including the operating pressure, excess air ratio and oxygen carrier performance. A process flow diagram and detailed stream table for the base case are also provided with the overall plant energy balance, carbon balance, sulfur balance and water balance. The approach to the process and key component simulation are explained. The economic analysis (OPEX and CAPX) on four study cases via DOE NETL Reference Case 12 are presented and explained.

  12. BAR-CODE BASED WEIGHT MEASUREMENT STATION FOR PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTAINERS AT THE MINING AND CHEMICAL COMBINE RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING PLANT NEAR KRASNOYARSK, SIBERIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the technical tasks being implemented to computerize the physical inventory taking (PIT) at the Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK) radiochemical plant under the US/Russian cooperative nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program. Under the MPC and A program, Lab-to-Lab task agreements with GKhK were negotiated that involved computerized equipment for item verification and confirmatory measurement of the Pu containers. Tasks under Phase I cover the work for demonstrating the plan and procedures for carrying out the comparison of the Pu container identification on the container with the computerized inventory records. In addition to the records validation, the verification procedures include the application of bar codes and bar coded TIDs to the Pu containers. Phase II involves the verification of the Pu content. A plan and procedures are being written for carrying out confirmatory measurements on the Pu containers

  13. 地面火炬在煤化工装置的工业化应用%Industrialized Application of Ground Flare in Coal Chemical Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓方; 孙少文

    2015-01-01

    介绍了地面火炬系统的工艺特点,并结合煤化工装置在生产过程中出现的相关问题,给出处理措施及相关建议。通过3年多的摸索,地面火炬系统整体运行情况良好。%The process features of ground flare system are introduced,in connection with problems of coal chemical plant in production,treatment measures and relevant suggestions are proposed.Through exploration for more than 3 years,the operation condition of the ground flare system is good on the whole.

  14. EFFECTS OF AFŞİN-ELBİSTAN POWER PLANT EMISSIONS ON THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF NEARBY SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten KARACA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of emissions of Afşin - Elbistan Coal - Fired Power Plant on the physical, chemical and biological properties of nearby soils was investigated. For this aim, soil samples were taken from the villages near the central and 30 km away through central in the dominant wind direction during two years and four different periods. Besides the physical and chemical properties of the soil samples, total and available S, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, F, urease, acid and alkali phosphatase and carbon diokside evaluation quantities were determined. It was found that, trace element and heavy metal contents of the soil samples taken from the dominant wind direction were higher than the soil samples taken from near central villages, especially concentration at sites closest to the power plant was much higher. On the other hand, urease, acid and alkali phosphatase enzyme activities of soils taken from the dominant wind direction of the central were decreased significantly (P < 0.05. Regreation analysis showed that negative correlation between the urease, acid and alkali phosphatase activities and all trace elements with the exception of iron, heavy metals, nitrate and CEC However, significant positive correlation were found between pH and organik matter of the soil samples taken from the dominant wind direction. There was no correlation between the CO2 evaluation and other elements in spite of negative correlation between CO2 and Mn, organic matter, clay content and CEC. There were negative correlation between the urease, acid and alkali phosphatase activities and CEC, N, correlation between the above-mentioned activities and pH and lime were positive of the soil samples taken from the near-central villages. However, it was obtained positive correlation between CO2 evaluation and pH, organic matter.

  15. Ecological and health risk-based characterization of agricultural soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the vicinity of a chemical plant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Niu, Junjie; Guo, Wenjiong; An, Xiangsheng; Zhao, Long

    2016-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from chemical plants can cause serious pollution of surrounding agricultural soils. A comprehensive study of agricultural soils was conducted in the vicinity of a chemical plant in China to characterize the soil PAH concentration, as well as their composition and sources. Human health and a screening-level ecological risk assessment were conducted for PAH contamination in agricultural soils. The results showed that the total concentrations of 16 priority PAHs ranged from 250.49 to 9387.26 ng g(-1), with an average of 2780.42 ng g(-1). High molecular weight PAHs (four to six rings) were the dominant component, accounting for more than 60% of all PAHs. Principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization model (PMF) suggested that diesel emissions, coal combustion, coke ovens, and fuel combustion and gasoline emissions were the main sources of PAHs in agricultural soils. The ecological risk assessment results based on the effects range-low (ERL), the effects range-median (ERM), and the ecological screening levels (ESL) indicated that the exposure to ∑PAH16 was >ERL, >ERM, and ≥ERL and ERM at 21.9, 0, and 21.9% of the soil sampling stations, the exposure to ∑PAH16 was >ESL at 78.1% of the soil sampling stations, and could induce biological effects in mammals. The Bapeq concentrations posed a potential carcinogenic risk to humans. Further risk management and control of soil PAHs in these agricultural soils is required to ensure the safety of the biocoenosis and human health. PMID:27565314

  16. 卷柏化学成分的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from whole plant of Selaginella tamariscina( Beauv.)Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景颖; 张红梅; 张国刚; 于秀妍; 刘虹霞; 孙晓亚

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究卷柏属植物卷柏(Selaginella tamariscina( Beauv.)Spring)的化学成分.方法 利用各种色谱法对卷柏的化学成分进行分离和纯化,通过理化性质和波谱数据分析进行结构鉴定.结果 从卷柏中分离并鉴定了8个化合物,分别为尿苷(uridine,1)、垫状卷柏双黄酮(pulvinatabiflavoine,2)、selaginellin(3)、selaginellin C(4)、熊果苷(arbutin,5)、腺苷(adenosine,6)、β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol,7)、胡萝卜苷(daucosterol,8).结论 化合物1为首次从卷柏属植物中分离得到,化合物2~4为首次从卷柏中分离得到.%Objective To study the chemical constituents of traditional Chinese medicine, the whole plant of Selaginella tamariscina(Beaav. )Spring. Methods Chemical constituents were isolated by various chromato-graphic methods and identified by physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Results Eight compounds were isolated and identified as uridine(1) ,pulvinatabiflavone(2) ,selaginellin(3),selaginellin C(4) ,arbu-tin(5) ,adenosine(6) ,β-sitosterol(7) ,and daucosterol(8). Conclusions Compound 1 is obtained from ge nus Selaginella for the first time. Compounds 2-4 are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  17. 化工型空分设备内压缩流程选择%Selection of inner compression process for chemical type air separation plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋旭

    2011-01-01

    介绍化工型空分设备的3种典型内压缩流程形式:空气循环单泵流程、空气循环双泵流程、氮气循环单泵流程,结合内压缩流程空分设备的一般考核标准,比较了3种流程形式的流程设计组织、综合能耗、精馏效果、运行安全、操作维护等方面,说明用户应合理选择适合产品规格要求的内压缩空分流程。%Here, 3 typical types of inner compression process for chemical type air separation plant are introduced: Air circulation single-pump process, air circulation dual-pump process, and nitrogen circulation single-pump process, and in combination with the general examination standards of inner compression process air separation plant the process design organization, comprehensive energy consumption, distillation effect, operation safety, operation and maintenance of the 3 types of process are compared, which indicates that the user shall rationally select the inner compression air separation process which meets the product specification.

  18. Correlation between chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils of some aromatic medicinal plants growing in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimanga, K; Kambu, K; Tona, L; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Hermans, N; Totté, J; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J

    2002-02-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils from 15 aromatic medicinal plant species growing in the Democratic Republic of Congo have been studied. More than 15 constituents in an amount higher than 0.1% were identified in each essential oil. 1,8-cineole, alpha and beta-pinene, p-cymene, myrcene, gamma-terpinene, alpha-terpineol and limonene were prevalent constituents in almost more than 10 selected plant species. Results from the antibacterial testing by the diffusion method indicate that all essential oils (5 microl per disc) inhibited the growth of selected bacteria at different extents. The most active antibacterial essential oils were those of the leaves of Eucalyptus camadulensis and Eucalyptus terticornis (12-30 mm zone diameter of inhibition). They showed particularly a most potent inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth (15-16 mm), followed by Eucalyptus robusta (12 mm). Essential oils from the leaves of Eucalyptus alba, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus deglupta, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus robusta, Aframomum stipulatum, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum americanum and that of the seeds of Monodora myristica showed also a good antibacterial activity (10-18 mm). Eucalyptus propinqua, Eucalyptus urophylla and Ocimum gratissimum essential oils were the less active samples against the selected bacteria. No correlation between the amount of major constituents such as 1,8-cineol, alpha-pinene, p-cymene, cryptone or thymol and the antibacterial activity was observed. PMID:11801384

  19. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of essential oils of two aromatic plants from Ivory Coast against Bemisia tabaci G. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tia, Etienne V; Adima, Augustin A; Niamké, Sébastien L; Jean, Gnago A; Martin, Thibaud; Lozano, Paul; Menut, Chantal

    2011-08-01

    Essential oils of aromatic plants with insecticidal properties are nowadays considered as alternative insecticides to protect cultures from attack by insect pest. The aims of the present work were to evaluate the toxicity of the essential oils vapors of two aromatic plants (Lippia multiflora Mold. and Aframomum latifolium K. Schum) against Bemisia tabaci and to characterize their chemical composition. The highest fumigant toxicity against B. tabaci adults was observed with the L. multiflora oil: by exposure to 0.4 microL/L air, the lethal time inducing 90% mortality (LT90) was below 2 hours for this essential oil whereas it reached 15 h in the case of the A. latifolium oil. Both oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS on two capillary columns. The oil of L. multiflora contained a majority of oxygenated terpenoids mainly represented by the two acyclic components linalool (46.6%) and (E)-nerolidol (16.5%); the oil of A. latifolium was dominated by hydrocarbonated terpenoids among them beta-pinene (51.6%) and beta-caryophyllene (12.3%) were the two major components.

  20. 化工厂供热发电机组节能分析%The Energy Saving Analysis of Heating Generating Units in a Chemical Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴春

    2012-01-01

    对基于某化工厂自备电厂两台25兆瓦抽汽发电汽轮机组抽汽、凝汽比例改变引起机组效率和供电标准煤耗变化等进行了定量分析,建立了数学模型,计算出对应的供电标准煤耗,并绘出性能曲线。根据机组计算结果,指出了影响机组运行经济技术指标的因素,提出了蒸汽系统设计、生产运行的优化方案。%The article emphatically gives a quantitative analysis of the generating unit efficiency and power supply standard coal consumption variation resulting from the extraction condensation ratio change of two 25Mw extraction turbine generating units in a certain chemical plant self-supply power plant and sets up a mathematic model.Corresponding power supply standard coal consumption is calculated based on this model and the characteristic curve is also drawn.In the light of the calculation results of the generating units,it points out the factors affecting the economic and technical indexes of the generating units’ operation and puts forward the optimization scheme for the steam system’s design and productive operation.

  1. A Development of Ceramics Cylinder Type Sulfuric Acid Decomposer for Thermo-Chemical Iodine-Sulfur Process Pilot Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatsuki, Isao; Fukui, Hiroshi; Ishino, Kazuo

    The hydrogen production method applying thermo-chemical Iodine-Sulfur process (IS process) which uses a nuclear high temperature gas cooled reactor is world widely greatly concerned from the view point of a combination as a clean method, free carbon dioxide in essence. In this process, it is essential a using ceramic material, especially SiC because a operation condition of this process is very corrosive due to a sulfuric acid atmosphere with high temperature and high pressure. In the IS process, a sulfuric acid decomposer is the key component which performs evaporating of sulfuric acid from liquid to gas and disassembling to SO2 gas. SiC was selected as ceramic material to apply for the sulfuric acid decomposer and a new type of binding material was also developed for SiC junction. This technology is expected to wide application not only for a sulfuric acid decomposer but also for various type components in this process. Process parameters were provided as design condition for the decomposer. The configuration of the sulfuric acid decomposer was studied, and a cylindrical tubes assembling type was selected. The advantage of this type is applicable for various type of components in the IS process due to manufacturing with using only simple shape part. A sulfuric acid decomposer was divided into two regions of the liquid and the gaseous phase of sulfuric acid. The thermal structural integrity analysis was studied for the liquid phase part. From the result of this analysis, it was investigated that the stress was below the strength of the breakdown probability 1/100,000 at any position, base material or junction part. The prototype model was manufactured, which was a ceramic portion in the liquid phase part, comparatively complicated configuration, of a sulfuric acid decomposer. The size of model was about 1.9m in height, 1.0m in width. Thirty-six cylinders including inlet and outlet nozzles were combined and each part article was joined using the new binder (slurry

  2. Design and evaluation of an IGCC power plant using iron-based syngas chemical-looping (SCL) combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new concept for power generation including carbon capture was found. • The air reactor temperature significantly influences the net efficiency. • The use of a CO2 turbine decreases the net efficiency. • Compared to a conventional IGCC with 90% CO2 capture the net efficiency increases. - Abstract: Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising combustion technology with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO2. This paper focuses on the design and thermodynamic evaluation of an integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process using syngas chemical looping (SCL) combustion for generating electricity. The syngas is provided by coal gasification; the gas from the gasifier is cleaned using high-temperature gas desulfurization (HGD). In this study, the oxygen carrier iron oxide (Fe2O3) is selected to oxidize the syngas in a multistage moving-bed reactor. The resulting reduced iron particles then consist of FeO and Fe3O4. To create a closed-cycle operation, these particles are partially re-oxidized with steam in a fluidized-bed regenerator to pure Fe3O4 and then fully re-oxidized in a fluidized-bed air combustor to Fe2O3. One advantage of this process is the co-production of hydrogen diluted with water vapor within the steam regenerator. Both the HGD and CLC systems are not under commercial operation so far. This mixture is fed to a gas turbine for the purpose of generating electricity. The gas turbine is expected to exhibit low NOx emissions due to the high ratio of water in the combustion chamber. Cooling the flue gas in the HRSG condenses the water vapor to yield high-purity CO2 for subsequent compression and disposal. To evaluate the net efficiency, two conventional syngas gasifiers are considered, namely the BGL slagging gasifier and the Shell entrained-flow gasifier. The option of using a CO2 turbine after the SCL-fuel reactor is also investigated. A sensitivity analysis is performed on the SCL-air reactor outlet

  3. Application Technology of Chemical Weed Control for Newly Planted Woodland%新植林地化学除草应用技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董培田; 李荣岐; 王韡烨

    2012-01-01

    Weed species and occurrence of abandoned lands, clearcutting blanks of Longshan & Tieshan Forest farm were investigated. Through application experiments of oxyfluorfen (goal) , sethoxydim, roundup, SYL granulated herbicide, result shows that: control effect of chemical weed is good and the cost is low in newly planted young woodland ;it have significance to change the forestry traditional farming methods and promote the development of modem forestry ; it proposed practical technical solutions and supporting measures for chemical weed control.%通过对七台河市龙山林场、铁山林场退耕地、人工林皆伐迹地幼林地杂草种类及发生规律调查,以割地草(果尔)、拿捕净、农达、撒益林颗粒剂等几种主要除草剂的应用试验,结果表明,新植幼林地化学除草效果好,成本低,对改变林业传统耕作方式,促进现代林业发展具有重要意义,同时提出了化学除草切实可行的技术方案和配套措施。

  4. Experimental studies on the dynamics of radionuclide transport in soils and plants: an investigation of the effects of soil type and chemical form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics and distribution of radioisotopes of Ce, Ru, I, Sr and Cs have been studied in soils and grass in greenhouse conditions. Two soil types, representative of localities close to existing nuclear installations, have been investigated in combination with two chemical forms of Ce, Ru, Sr and Cs. The effect of administration of iodine at two different periods of growth has been investigated using I-125 and I-131. The time-dependent behaviour of the radionuclides has also been investigated by means of four harvests at various times after administration of the radionuclides. Parameter values for sorption of radionuclides to soil inorganic and organic fractions were determined by means of serial chemical extraction of soils at each harvest, and for transport from soil to root and from root to shoot by means of assay of derived plant material. In addition, the vertical distribution of radionuclides in the soil profile was determined by means of external scanning of undisturbed pots. The data from these scans have been used to calculate transfer coefficients for loss of radionuclides from surface soil for comparison with soil solution and mass transport parameters used in the model. The results are discussed. (author)

  5. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E.; Rice, Clifford P.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Oskouie, Ali K.

    2015-01-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  6. Assessment of the water chemical quality improvement based on human health risk indexes: Application to a drinking water treatment plant incorporating membrane technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Roldán, Ramón; Rubalcaba, Alicia; Martin-Alonso, Jordi; González, Susana; Martí, Vicenç; Cortina, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    A methodology has been developed in order to evaluate the potential risk of drinking water for the health of the consumers. The methodology used for the assessment considered systemic and carcinogenic effects caused by oral ingestion of water based on the reference data developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS) for chemical contaminants. The exposure includes a hypothetical dose received by drinking this water according to the analysed contaminants. An assessment of the chemical quality improvement of produced water in the Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) after integration of membrane technologies was performed. Series of concentration values covering up to 261 chemical parameters over 5 years (2008-2012) of raw and treated water in the Sant Joan Despí DWTP, at the lower part of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain), were used. After the application of the methodology, the resulting global indexes were located below the thresholds except for carcinogenic risk in the output of DWTP, where the index was slightly above the threshold during 2008 and 2009 before the upgrade of the treatment works including membrane technologies was executed. The annual evolution of global indexes showed a reduction in the global values for all situations: HQ systemic index based on RAIS dropped from 0.64 to 0.42 for surface water and from 0.61 to 0.31 for drinking water; the R carcinogenic index based on RAIS was negligible for input water and varied between 4.2×10(-05) and 7.4×10(-06) for drinking water; the W systemic index based on the WHO data varied between 0.41 and 0.16 for surface water and between 0.61 and 0.31 for drinking water. A specific analysis for the indexes associated with trihalomethanes (THMs) showed the same pattern.

  7. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E; Rice, Clifford P; Minarik, Thomas A; Oskouie, Ali K

    2015-06-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  8. Physico-chemical changes in dissolved organic matters in the rhizosphere of plants grown in soil amended with organic wastes: an in-situ investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djae, Tanalou; Bravin, Matthieu; Garnier, Cédric; Mayen, Jean-Fabien; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    In agricultural context, prerequisite condition to forecast trace metal phytodisponibility is to evaluate trace metal speciation in the rhizosphere solution, especially in soil amended with organic wastes. The most advanced trace metal speciation models (e.g. WHAM, NICA-DONNAN) take into account dissolved organic matter (DOM) reactivity toward trace metals. Generally, the scientific community uses, a fixed percentage of DOM reactivity, usually of 40 % to 80 %, to predict trace metal speciation. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the binding capacity of DOM towards trace metals is much larger than expected. The aim of our study was to investigate the mechanisms supporting the variability in DOM reactivity by assessing the physico-chemical changes of DOM in the bulk-soil and rhizosphere in context of agricultural recycling of organic wastes. An in-situ experiment was conducted in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean). Two plant species, i.e. a graminaceous species the fescue (Festuca rubra) and a dicotyledonous species the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), were grown on a soil where we applied two types of organic wastes (pig manure compost and poultry manure compost) at three rates and a mineral fertilizer. Following this experiment, the soil either adhering to the roots (i.e. rhizosphere) or not (i.e. bulk-soil) was sampled and the soil solution was recovered by chemical extraction. DOM concentration, total acidity and DOM fluorescence were measured. Root activities and organic wastes induced variations in the physico-chemical parameters of DOM. DOM concentration tended to increase in bulk-soil with increasing organic waste application rate. DOM concentrations measured in rhizosphere are significantly greater than those in the bulk-soil especially when organic wastes were applied to soil. Preliminary results allow us to observe a decrease in the density of carboxylic-like (pKa

  9. Chemical Investigation and Hypotensive Activity study on some Myanmar Indigenous Medicinal Plants used in the Treatement of Hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of Myanmar indigenous medicinal plants used in the treatment of hypertension was conducted. The samples studied were Gant-ka-lar (Gisekia pharnaceoides), Dant-da-lun (Moringa oleifera), Egayit (Millingtonia hortensis), Sue-pan (Carthamus tinctarius), Kauk-yoe-nwe (Oxystelma esculentum), Shauk (Citrus medica) Kyet-lei-san (Vitex glabrata), and Sin-ngo-myet (Eleusine indica). In all these samples, determination of potassium had been conducted through its natural K activity by high purity germanium gamma counter and by NaI (Tl) selective channel and 'Aloka' gross gamma scintillation counters. Quantitative determination of the two elements (Na, K) and nine elements (Mg, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb) in these samples were carried out by flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), respectively. In addition, elemental analysis for these samples was conducted by using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. Moreover, organic compounds present in water extracts of Gant-ka-lar and Dant-da-lun were studied by phytochemical investigation. The hypotensive activities of different water extracts of Gant-ka-lar and Dant-da-lun were studied by using tail cuff method employing ''Wistar-kyoto'' rats. It was found that gant-Ka-Lar to be most effective in the treatment of hypertension

  10. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase: The application of a plant secondary metabolite enzyme in biocatalytic chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Kerstin; Schmid, Andreas; Julsing, Mattijs K

    2016-09-10

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCAS) from the secondary metabolism of Cannabis sativa L. catalyzes the oxidative formation of an intramolecular CC bond in cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) to synthesize Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), which is the direct precursor of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). Aiming on a biotechnological production of cannabinoids, we investigated the potential of the heterologously produced plant oxidase in a cell-free system on preparative scale. THCAS was characterized in an aqueous/organic two-liquid phase setup in order to solubilize the hydrophobic substrate and to allow in situ product removal. Compared to the single phase aqueous setup the specific activity decreased by a factor of approximately 2 pointing to a substrate limitation of CBGA in the two-liquid phase system. However, the specific activity remained stable for at least 3h illustrating the benefit of the two-liquid phase setup. In a repeated-batch setup, THCAS showed only a minor loss of specific activity in the third batch pointing to a high intrinsic stability and high solvent tolerance of the enzyme. Maximal space-time-yields of 0.121gL(-1)h(-1) were reached proving the two-liquid phase concept suitable for biotechnological production of cannabinoids. PMID:27369551

  11. Chemical prospection of important ayurvedic plant Tinospora cordifolia by UPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS and NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Manju; Verma, Praveen Kumar; Awasthi, Shiv; Kumar, Neeraj; Lal, Brij; Singh, Bikram

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and accurate ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric method (UPLC-MS) was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of four bioactive compounds, syringin (3), cordifolioside A (4), magnoflorine (6) and tinocordiside (10) in the stem of Tinospora cordifolia. The analysis was performed using an Acquity C18 column and gradient elution of 0.05% formic acid in water and acetonitrile at a detection wavelength of 267 nm in 5 min. A high correlation coefficient (r2 > 0.998) indicated good correlation between investigated compounds concentration and their peak area within the test ranges. The LODs for compounds 3, 4, 6 and 10 were 1.95, 0.97, 3.90 and 0.97 ng/mL, respectively, and LOQs were 6.64, 3.20, 12.87 and 3.20 ng/mL, respectively. The overall intra- and inter-day variations of the four compounds were less than 1%. The variation of these four bioactive compounds in T. cordifolia hosted on fifteen different trees was also determined. The compounds (3, 4, 6 and 10) were found in high amount in the T. cordifolia hosted on Azadirachta indica and Mangifera indica as compared with other plants. Twelve compounds were identified on the basis of their mass and UV-vis spectra. The NMR fingerprinting of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, fatty acid methyl esters, polysaccharides and marker components of T. cordifolia. PMID:25920217

  12. Volatiles from the Rare Australian Desert Plant Prostanthera centralis B.J.Conn (Lamiaceae: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L. Collins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodistilled essential oils and dichloromethane (DCM extracted volatiles were taken from cultivated specimens of Prostanthera centralis, endemic to central Australia. All volatiles were chemically characterised by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS with the use of authentic standards, followed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR Spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was measured against a range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial species using a micro-titre plate broth dilution assay. Twenty-two compounds were identified as components of the sweet smelling aromatic essential oil and DCM extracts, both showing a relatively high abundance of prostantherol. The volatiles extracted using DCM, differed only in the relative abundance of the major components and the lack of ledol and squamulosone. This study constitutes the first time ledol and squamulosone have been identified in a Prostanthera species. Antimicrobial assays showed moderate to high inhibitory activity against some Gram-positive bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans.

  13. Hygienic and microbiological influences exerted on natural water biotopes by algae and the growth of water plants. 2. Communication: improvement of the chemical and bacteriological water quality by the natural growth of aquatic plants (author's transl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graef, W.; Kersch, D.; Pawlofsky, C.M.

    1981-12-01

    For a natural pond, whose waters are used for recreational purposes (swimming) and are subject to waste water inflow, the biological purifying function of a zone overgrown with reeds and aquatic plants was ascertained by means of chemical and bacteriological water quality parameters. In the years from 1975 to 1980 the contents of ammonia, nitrites, nitrates, phosphates and chlorides as well as the colony counts (CFU/ml), the coli titres and the content of fruiting myxobacteria were determined from water samples, both during the lush-growth summer period and the low-growth winter season. The location of the 6 sampling points systematically extended from the sewage outlet via the tributary ditch, in front of and behind the natural growth zone as far as the swimming waters. The test series showed - that in the tributary ditch and especially during the passage through the upper water zone densely overgrown with aquatic plants, the proportion of degradable nitrogen compounds and phosphates is distinctly reduced beyond the extent of reduction by dilution processes, - that the colony counts in the effluent water as well as the content of E. coli and of the fruiting myxobacteria, which act as indirect faecal indicator, are also reduced considerably, - that the biological purifying of the vegetation zone is definitely higher in summer than during the low-growth winter months. From this the conclusion can be drawn that for maintaining and furthering an adequate water quality of recreational waters compromised by waste water, the preservation of the naturally growing aquatic plants both in the water itself and on the banks is absolutely necessary.

  14. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by

  15. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by

  16. Controle químico de plantas aquáticas: Polygonum lapathifolium Chemical control of aquatic plants: Polygonum lapathifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Terra

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de alguns herbicidas no controle de Polygonum lapathifolium. O experimento foi instalado e conduzido no Núcleo de Pesquisas Avançadas em Matologia, pertencente à Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas da UNESP - Botucatu-SP. Plantas de P. lapathifolium foram coletadas no rio Tietê e cultivadas em caixas d'água de fibra de vidro de 0,6 x 0,6 x 0,45 m, contendo 15 cm de solo. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: 2,4-D amina a 720 a 1.440 g e.a. ha-1; diquat a 480 g i.a. ha-1; glyphosate a 2.400 e 3.360 g e.a. ha-1 + Aterbane 0,5% v/v; imazapyr a 250 e 500 g e.a. ha-1; e testemunha sem aplicação de herbicida. A aplicação foi realizada com um pulverizador costal pressurizado a CO2, a pressão constante de 2,0 bars, equipado com barra de pulverização munida de dois bicos de jato plano, tipo Teejet XR 110.02 VS. O consumo de calda foi de 200 L ha-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. As avaliações foram visuais, atribuindo-se notas para os sintomas de injúrias de acordo com uma escala percentual. Apenas o herbicida glyphosate, independentemente da dose utilizada, controlou as plantas de Polygonum lapathifolium, atingindo 100% aos 46 dias após a aplicação. Inicialmente o herbicida diquat promoveu injúrias severas, entretanto, no decorrer do período de avaliações, elas se dissiparam e as plantas rebrotaram.The objective of this trial was to study the efficacy of some herbicides in controlling P. lapathifolium. The experiment was carried out at Núcleo de Pesquisas Avançadas em Matologia of the Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas/Botucatu - São Paulo, Brazil. Polygonum lapathifolium plants were collected in the Tietê River and cultivated in 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.45 m fiber glass tanks containing 15 cm of soil. The herbicides used were 2,4-D amine at 720 and 1,440 g e.a. ha-1, diquat at 480 g a.i. ha-1, glyphosate at 2,400 and 3,360 g e

  17. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Elaeagnus indica Servett. (Elaeagnaceae plant leaf extracts against dengue and malaria vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Srinivasan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available MMosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, methanol and petroleum benzene leaf extracts of E. indica were tested against fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi and dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. Highest larval mortality was found in acetone leaf extracts against A. aegypti (LC50 and LC90 values of 2.97027and 5.9820 mg/ml and A. stephensi (LC50 and LC90 values of 3.92501 and 68.3250 mg/ml respectively. GC-MS analysis of plant extracts of acetone solvent revealed 19 compounds, of which the major compounds were -Thujone 1-Isopropyl-4-Methylbicyclo(3.1.0Hexan-3-One 1- (6.71%, 1,6- Cyclodecadiene, 1-Methyl-5-Methylene-8-(1-Methylethyl-, [S-(E,E]-Germacra-1(10,4(15,5-Trie N (3.11%, L-(+-Ascorbic Acid 2,6-Dihexadecanoate (4.06%, 2-Cyclohexylcyclohexanol [1,1'-Bicyclohexyl]-2-Ol (3.16%, Dotriacontane N- Bicetyl (58.7% and Tetrapentacontane (3.85%. E. indica offers promise as potential biocontrol agent against major dengue and malaria mosquitoes particularly in larvicidal effect. Our results shows acetone leaf extracts of E. indica have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for control of mosquito vectors.

  18. Dimensional and chemical characterization of particles at a downwind receptor site of a waste-to-energy plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, G; Stabile, L; Avino, P; Vanoli, R

    2010-07-01

    In the last years numerous epidemiological studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of particulate matter on human health. In industrialized areas, anthropogenic activities highly contribute to the fine and ultrafine particle concentrations. Then, it is important to characterize the evolution of particle size distribution and chemical composition near these emission points. Waste incineration represents a favorable technique for reducing the waste volume. However, in the past, municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) had a bad reputation due to the emission of toxic combustion byproducts. Consequently, the risk perception of the people living near MWIs is very high even if in Western countries waste incineration has nowadays to be considered a relatively clean process from a technical point of view. The study here presented has an exemplary meaning for developing appropriate management and control strategies for air quality in the surrounding of MWIs and to perform exposure assessment for populations involved. Environment particles were continuously measured through a SMPS/APS system over 12 months. The monitoring site represents a downwind receptor of a typical MWI. Furthermore, elements and organic fractions were measured by means of the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and using dichotomous and high volume samplers. Annual mean values of 8.6 x 10(3)+/-3.7 x 10(2)part.cm(-3) and 31.1+/-9.0 microg m(-3) were found for number and mass concentration, typical of a rural site. Most of the elements can be attributed to long-range transport from other natural and/or anthropogenic sources. Finally, the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons present low concentrations with a mean value of 24.6 ng m(-3). PMID:20100651

  19. Dimensional and chemical characterization of particles at a downwind receptor site of a waste-to-energy plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years numerous epidemiological studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of particulate matter on human health. In industrialized areas, anthropogenic activities highly contribute to the fine and ultrafine particle concentrations. Then, it is important to characterize the evolution of particle size distribution and chemical composition near these emission points. Waste incineration represents a favorable technique for reducing the waste volume. However, in the past, municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) had a bad reputation due to the emission of toxic combustion byproducts. Consequently, the risk perception of the people living near MWIs is very high even if in Western countries waste incineration has nowadays to be considered a relatively clean process from a technical point of view. The study here presented has an exemplary meaning for developing appropriate management and control strategies for air quality in the surrounding of MWIs and to perform exposure assessment for populations involved. Environment particles were continuously measured through a SMPS/APS system over 12 months. The monitoring site represents a downwind receptor of a typical MWI. Furthermore, elements and organic fractions were measured by means of the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and using dichotomous and high volume samplers. Annual mean values of 8.6 x 103 ± 3.7 x 102 part. cm-3 and 31.1 ± 9.0 μg m-3 were found for number and mass concentration, typical of a rural site. Most of the elements can be attributed to long-range transport from other natural and/or anthropogenic sources. Finally, the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons present low concentrations with a mean value of 24.6 ng m-3.

  20. Iodine and Selenium Biofortification with Additional Application of Salicylic Acid Affects Yield, Selected Molecular Parameters and Chemical Composition of Lettuce Plants (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoleń, Sylwester; Kowalska, Iwona; Czernicka, Małgorzata; Halka, Mariya; Kęska, Kinga; Sady, Włodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    Iodine (I) and selenium (Se) are included in the group of beneficial elements. They both play important roles in humans and other animals, particularly in the regulation of thyroid functioning. A substantial percentage of people around the world suffer from health disorders related to the deficiency of these elements in the diet. Salicylic acid (SA) is a compound similar to phytohormones and is known to improve the efficiency of I biofortification of plants. The influence of SA on Se enrichment of plants has not, however, been recognized together with its effect on simultaneous application of I and Se to plants. Two-year studies (2014–2015) were conducted in a greenhouse with hydroponic cultivation of lettuce in an NFT (nutrient film technique) system. They included the application of I (as KIO3), Se (as Na2SeO3) and SA into the nutrient solution. KIO3 was used at a dose of 5 mg I⋅dm-3 (i.e., 39.4 μM I), while Na2SeO3 was 0.5 mg Se⋅dm-3 (i.e., 6.3 μM Se). SA was introduced at three doses: 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 mg⋅dm-3 nutrient solutions, equivalent to 0.724, 7.24, and 72.4 μM SA, respectively. The tested combinations were as follows: (1) control, (2) I + Se, (3) I + Se + 0.1 mg SA⋅dm-3, (4) I + Se + 1.0 mg SA⋅dm-3 and (5) I + Se + 10.0 mg SA⋅dm-3. The applied treatments had no significant impact on lettuce biomass (leaves and roots). Depending on the dose, a diverse influence of SA was noted with respect to the efficiency of I and Se biofortification; chemical composition of leaves; and mineral nutrition of lettuce plants, including the content of macro- and microelements and selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) gene expression. SA application at all tested doses comparably increased the level of selenomethionine (SeMet) and decreased the content of SA in leaves. PMID:27803709