WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical munitions burial

  1. Innovative permeable cover system to reduce risks at a chemical munitions burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powels, C.C.; Bon, I.; Okusu, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    An innovative permeable sand cover with various integrated systems has been designed to contain and treat the Old O-Field chemical munitions landfill at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The 18,200 m 2 (4.5 acre) landfill was used from the mid 1930s to the mid 1950s for the disposal of chemical, incendiary, and explosive munitions from domestic and foreign origins, together with contaminated wastes associated with the development and production of chemical warfare agents (CWA). The site is suspected to be contaminated with white phosphorous (WP) (which when dry, spontaneously burns when exposed to air), shock sensitive picric acid fuses and has the potential to contain large quantities of CWA-filled munitions. Historically, one to three explosions or fires occurred per ten-year period at the landfill. Such events have the potential to cause a CWA release to the environment, which could potentially affect densely populated areas. Recovery and decontamination projects conducted at the site in the late 1940s and early 1950s used large amounts of decontamination chemicals (containing solvents) and fuels which further contaminated the area. The groundwater downgradient of the landfill is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, metals, explosives and CWA degradation compounds and is currently being contained by a groundwater extraction and treatment system. This report describes a remedial action program for the site

  2. Underwater Munitions Expert System to Predict Mobility and Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-14

    for predicting the location and possible burial of underwater munitions is required to advise site managers as they plan...that region above the given UXO relative density, which is defined as the UXO density divided by the sand grain density, ( nominally 2650 g...0.0 + 2.5*dsed ; % nominal bed roughness if no burial % (Potentially in future version, ripple height

  3. Munition Burial by Local Scour and Sandwaves: large-scale laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    Our effort has been the direct observation and monitoring of the burial process of munitions induced by the combined action of waves, currents and pure oscillatory flows. The experimental conditions have made it possible to observe the burial process due to both local scour around model munitions as well as the passage of sandwaves. One experimental facility is the Large Oscillating Water Sediment Tunnel (LOWST) constructed with DURIP support. LOWST can reproduce field-like conditions near the sea bed. The second facility is a multipurpose wave-current flume which is 4 feet (1.20 m) deep, 6 feet (1.8 m) wide, and 161 feet (49.2 m) long. More than two hundred experiments were carried out in the wave-current flume. The main task completed within this effort has been the characterization of the burial process induced by local scour as well in the presence of dynamic sandwaves with superimposed ripples. It is found that the burial of a finite-length model munition (cylinder) is determined by local scour around the cylinder and by a more global process associated with the formation and evolution of sandwaves having superimposed ripples on them. Depending on the ratio of the amplitude of these features and the body's diameter (D), a model munition can progressively get partially or totally buried as such bedforms migrate. Analysis of the experimental data indicates that existing semi-empirical formulae for prediction of equilibrium-burial-depth, geometry of the scour hole around a cylinder, and time-scales developed for pipelines are not suitable for the case of a cylinder of finite length. Relative burial depth (Bd / D) is found to be mainly a function of two parameters. One is the Keulegan-Carpenter number, KC, and the Shields parameter, θ. Munition burial under either waves or combined flow, is influenced by two different processes. One is related to the local scour around the object, which takes place within the first few hundred minutes of flow action (i.e. short

  4. Observation of Burial and Migration of Instrumented Surrogate Munitions Deployed in the Swash Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristaudo, D.; Puleo, J. A.; Bruder, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    Munitions (also known as unexploded ordnance; UXO) in the nearshore environment due to past military activities, may be found on the beach, constituting a risk for beach users. Munitions may be transported from offshore to shallower water and/or migrate along the coast. In addition, munitions may bury in place or be exhumed due to hydrodynamic forcing. Observations on munitions mobility have generally been collected offshore, while observations in the swash zone are scarce. The swash zone is the region of the beach alternately covered by wave runup where hydrodynamic processes may be intense. Studies of munitions mobility require the use of realistic surrogates to quantify mobility/burial and hydrodynamic forcing conditions. Four surrogates (BLU-61 Cluster Bomb, 81 mm Mortar, M151-70 Hydra Rocket and M107 155 mm High Explosive Howitzer) were developed and tested during large-scale laboratory and field studies. Surrogates house sensors that measure different components of motion. Errors between real munitions and surrogate parameters (mass, center of gravity and axial moment of inertia) are all within an absolute error of 20%. Internal munitions sensors consist of inertial motion units (for acceleration and angular velocity in and around the three directions and orientation), pressure transducers (for water depth above surrogate), shock recorders (for high frequency acceleration to detect wave impact on the surrogate), and an in-house designed array of optical sensors (for burial/exposure and rolling). An in situ array of sensors to measure hydrodynamics, bed morphology and sediment concentrations, was deployed in the swash zone, aligned with the surrogate deployment. Data collected during the studies will be shown highlighting surrogate sensor capabilities. Sensors response will be compared with GPS measurements and imagery from cameras overlooking the study sites of surrogate position as a function of time. Examples of burial/exposure and migration of surrogates

  5. Resolving the Role of the Dynamic Pressure in the Burial, Exposure, Scour, and Mobility of Underwater Munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilooly, S.; Foster, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    In nearshore environments, the motion of munitions results from a mixture of sediment transport conditions including sheet flow, scour, bedform migration, and momentary liquefaction. Incipient motion can be caused by disruptive shear stresses and pressure gradients. Foster et al. (2006) incorporated both processes into a single parameter, indicating incipient motion as a function of the bed state. This research looks to evaluate the role of the pressure gradient in positional state changes such as burial, exposure, and mobility. In the case of munitions, this may include pressure gradients induced by vortex shedding or the passing wave. Pressure-mapped model munitions are being developed to measure the orientation, rotation, and surface pressure of the munitions during threshold events leading to a new positional state. These munitions will be deployed in inner surf zone and estuary environments along with acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs), pore water pressure sensors, a laser grid, and a pencil beam sonar with an azimuth drive. The additional instruments allow for near bed and far field water column and sediment bed sampling. Currently preliminary assessments of various pressure sensors and munition designs are underway. Two pressure sensors were selected; the thin FlexiForce A201 sensors will be used to indicate munition rolling during threshold events and diaphragm sensors will be used to understand changes in surrounding pore water pressure as the munition begins to bury/unbury. Both sensors are expected to give quantitative measurements of dynamic pressure gradients in the flow field surrounding the munition. Resolving the role of this process will give insight to an improved incipient motion parameter and allow for better munition motion predictions.

  6. Chemical Munitions Dumped at Sea near the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M.; Bissonnette, M. C.; Briggs, C. W.; Shjegstad, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Sea disposal was once internationally accepted as an appropriate method for disposal of excess, obsolete, and unserviceable conventional and chemical munitions. The past decade has seen an increase in the number and complexity of studies to assess the effects of historical munitions disposal in the oceans. The Hawai`i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) is a comprehensive deep-water (300-600 meter) investigation designed to determine the potential impact of sea-disposed munitions on the ocean environment, and vice versa, at a disposal site south of Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii. Historical records indicated that as many as 16,000 mustard-filled bombs were disposed in this area following World War II. A secondary objective of HUMMA is to determine best practices and technologies for mapping and sampling sea-disposed munitions. The overarching result from five HUMMA field programs conducted over a decade is that the greatest risk from munitions derives from direct contact; there is little evidence that leakage from munitions into the surrounding environment has a direct pathway to affect human health and the impact on the surrounding environment in Hawaii is detectable only at trace levels. This finding should be modulated based on the quantity of physical samples, which were collected around detected at control sites. Both findings support a hypothesis that the impacts of sea-disposed munitions change over time. This presentation will describe the technical approach and results of the 2014 HUMMA field program using Jason 2.

  7. Informal Workshop on Burial and Mobility Modeling of Munitions in the Underwater Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Engineers (USACE) funding (e.g., HEC - RAS – http://www.hec.usace.army.mil/software/ hec - ras /). 4.3. Near Field Versus Far Field Near field...Naval Research PI – Principal Investigator PMRF – Pacific Missile Range Facility RAS – Risk Assessment System RI – Remedial Investigation SERDP...concept for the prototype Risk Assessment System ( RAS ) links output from a probabilistic SERDP REPORT – INFORMAL WORKSHOP ON BURIAL AND MOBILITY

  8. Chemical Warfare Materiel in Sediment at a Deep-Water Discarded Military Munitions Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, C. W.; Bissonnette, M. C.; Edwards, M.; Shjegstad, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the release and transformation of chemical agent (CA) at underwater discarded military munitions (DMM) sites is essential to determine the potential risk to human health and impact on the ocean environment; yet few studies have been conducted at sites in excess of 250 m, the depth at which most U.S. CA munitions were disposed. Maritime construction workers installing cables or pipelines at a CA DMM site, as well as fishermen and scientific researchers deploying bottom-contact gear, represent possible exposure pathways to human receptors. The Hawai`i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) sought to characterize a historic munitions sea-disposal site at depths between 400-650 m. During the 2014 HUMMA Sampling Survey, the Jason 2 remotely operated vehicle was used to collect sediments within two meters of suspected World War II chemical munitions, confirmed to be 100-lb M47 series bombs containing sulfur mustard. When environmental media was brought to the surface, samples were screened for distilled sulfur mustard (HD) and related agent breakdown products (ABP) (collectively referred to as chemical warfare materiel [CWM]). Detectable concentrations of HD and/or its ABP 1,4-dithiane were found in sediments collected at all CA DMM sites; HD was also detected at two control sites. The location and extent of munitions casing deterioration strongly influenced the distribution and level of CWM in sediment. The interior of the casing contained levels of CWM orders of magnitudes higher than that observed in the surrounding sediment at one meter distance, indicating the majority of the CWM is hydrolyzed as it is released from the munitions casing and a fraction of the fill materiel persists in the environment for decades following disposal. Although the potential for future site users to become exposed to CWA in recovered sediments and debris exists, the level of risk is significantly mitigated by the depth and location of the sea-disposal site.

  9. Acute toxicity of sea-dumped chemical munitions: Luminating the environmental toxicity of legacy compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed Abdullah Christensen, Ilias; Sanderson, Hans; Baatrup, Erik

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the disarmament of Germany after the Second World War, 65,000 tons of chemical munitions were dumped in the Baltic Sea. Approximately 13,000 tons containing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) of which 11,000 tons were dumped in the Bornholm Basin east of Bornholm. This paper addresses...

  10. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  11. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  12. Distribution of chemical warfare agent, energetics, and metals in sediments at a deep-water discarded military munitions site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Christian; Shjegstad, Sonia M.; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Edwards, Margo H.

    2016-06-01

    There is a strong need to understand the behavior of chemical warfare agent (CWA) at underwater discarded military munitions (DMM) sites to determine the potential threat to human health or the environment, yet few studies have been conducted at sites in excess of 250 m, the depth at which most U.S. chemical munitions were disposed. As part of the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA), sediments adjacent to chemical and conventional DMM at depths of 400-650 m were sampled using human occupied vehicles (HOVs) in order to quantify the distribution of CWA, energetics, and select metals. Sites in the same general area, with no munitions within 50 m in any direction were sampled as a control. Sulfur mustard (HD) and its degradation product 1,4-dithiane were detected at each CWA DMM site, as well as a single sample with the HD degradation product 1,4-thioxane. An energetic compound was detected in sediment to a limited extent at one CWA DMM site. Metals common in munitions casings (i.e., Fe, Cu, and Pb) showed similar trends at the regional and site-wide scales, likely reflecting changes in marine sediment deposition and composition. This study shows HD and its degradation products can persist in the deep-marine environment for decades following munitions disposal.

  13. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  14. Chemical speciation of plutonium in the radioactive waste burial ground at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1978-08-01

    The plutonium chemical species in two types of samples from the Savannah River Plant burial ground for radioactive waste were identified. Samples analyzed were water and sediment from burial ground monitoring well C-17 and soil from an alpha waste burial trench. Soluble plutonium in the monitoring well was less than 12A in diameter, was cationic, and contained about 43% Pu(VI) and 25% Pu(IV). The equilibrium distribution coefficient (K /sub d/) for soluble plutonium from the well water (pH 7) to burial ground soil was about 60. Soil plutonium from the waste trench was not cation-exchanged; 78% of the soil plutonium was associated with metallic oxides in the soil. Approximately 9% of the Pu was contained in the crystalline soil matrix. Thus, about 87% of the plutonium in the soil was in a relatively immobile form. Ion-exchangeable and organic acid forms of plutonium amounted to only about 2.5% each. The bulk of the plutonium now on burial ground soils will be immobile except for movement of soil particles containing plutonium. 6 tables

  15. Development of Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination Near the Carcass Burial Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Choi, J.; Kim, M.; Choi, J.; Lee, M.; Lee, H.; Jeon, S.; Bang, S.; Noh, H.; Yoo, J.; Park, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, D.; Lee, Y.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    A serious outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) and avian influenza (AI) led to the culling of millions of livestock in South Korea from late 2010 to earlier 2011. Because of the scale of FMD and AI epidemic in Korea and rapid spread of the diseases, mass burial for the disposal of carcass was conducted to halt the outbreak. The improper construction of the burial site or inappropriate management of the carcass burial facility can cause the contamination of groundwater mainly due to the discharges of leachate through the base of disposal pit. The leachate from carcass burial contains by products of carcass decay such as amino acids, nitrate, ammonia and chloride. The presence of these chemical components in groundwater can be used as indicators demonstrating contamination of groundwater with leachate from carcass. The major concern about using these chemical indicators is that other sources including manures, fertilizers and waste waters from human or animal activities already exist in farming area. However, we lack the understanding of how groundwater contamination due to mass burial of carcass can be differentiated from the contamination due to livestock manures which shows similar chemical characteristics. The chemical compositions of the leachate from carcass burial site and the wastewater from livestock manure treatment facilities were compared. The chemical compositions considered include total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, organic nitrogen (Organic nitrogen =TN-Ammonium Nitrogen- Nitrate nitrogen), ammonia, chloride, sodium, potassium and amino acids (20 analytes). The ratios of concentrations of the chemical compositions as indicators of contamination were determined to distinguish the sources of contamination in groundwater. Indicators which showed a linear relationship between two factors and revealed a distinct difference between the carcass leachate and livestock manure were chosen. In addition, the background level of the

  16. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon. Final Phase 1 environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  17. Bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, and metals in deep-sea shrimp from discarded military munitions sites off Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Shelby; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Dupra, Vilma; Edwards, Margo

    2016-06-01

    The bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals at former military deep-water disposal sites is poorly understood. This paper presents the results of human-food-item biota sampling to assess the potential for bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, arsenic, and additional munitions-related metals in deep-sea shrimp tissue samples collected during the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) project to date. The HUMMA investigation area is located within a former munitions sea-disposal site located south of Pearl Harbor on the island of O'ahu, Hawai'i, designated site Hawaii-05 (HI-05) by the United States Department of Defense. Indigenous deep-sea shrimp (Heterocarpus ensifer) were caught adjacent to discarded military munitions (DMM) and at control sites where munitions were absent. Tissue analysis results showed that chemical warfare agents and their degradation products were not present within the edible portions of these samples at detectable concentrations, and energetic materials and their degradation products were detected in only a few samples at concentrations below the laboratory reporting limits. Likewise, arsenic, copper, and lead concentrations were below the United States Food and Drug Administration's permitted concentrations of metals in marine biota tissue (if defined), and their presence within these samples could not be attributed to the presence of DMM within the study area based on a comparative analysis of munitions-adjacent and control samples collected. Based on this current dataset, it can be concluded that DMM existing within the HUMMA study area is not contributing to the bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals for the biota species investigated to date.

  18. Analysis of Biota to Evaluate the Risks Associated with Chemical Warfare Materiel Present in Sea-Disposed Military Munitions to Human Health and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, C. W.; Bissonnette, M. C.; Edwards, M.; Shjegstad, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Thousands of 100-lb M47A series bombs containing sulfur mustard were disposed in the ocean following World War II yet few studies have been conducted at sites in excess of 250 m, the depth where most discarded military munitions (DMM) were disposed. The Hawai`i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) project was conducted to evaluate the risk from chemical warfare materiel (CWM) in DMM to human health, measuring ecological differences between the disposal area and nearby but otherwise similar areas, and evaluating the most efficient platforms for surveying DMM sea-disposal sites located at depths between 400-650 m. During the 2014 HUMMA Sampling Survey, the Jason 2 remotely operated vehicle was used to collect data. Shrimp were collected and analyzed to assess the potential for bioaccumulation of CWM, energetics and metals from munitions. No CWM was detected in H. ensifer tissue samples, indicating bioaccumulation is not occurring. Low levels of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 4-amino-2,6-­dinitrotoluene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, nitrobenzene, arsenic, copper, and lead were detected and the concentrations were not significantly different at DMM and control sites. No visible deformities, eroded fins, lesions, or tumors were observed on the shrimp living in the vicinity of M47A bombs. Given these results and under current and potential future uses of the HUMMA study area, health risks to likely receptors are within EPA acceptable levels. Photographic data and benthic infauna analysis were used to study benthic organisms that lived on or near munitions. There was no statistically distinguishable difference between organism distributions in dense and sparse munitions fields. Conventional munitions were found to have the greatest number of benthic infauna individuals, with control sites generally having the least number of individuals. This is consistent with the benthic macro-fauna analysis, which shows that munitions provide habitat.

  19. Estimation of the potential leakage of the chemical munitions based on two hydrodynamical models implemented for the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakacki, Jaromir; Golenko, Mariya

    2014-05-01

    Two hydrodynamical models (Princeton Ocean Model (POM) and Parallel Ocean Program (POP)) have been implemented for the Baltic Sea area that consists of locations of the dumped chemical munitions during II War World. The models have been configured based on similar data source - bathymetry, initial conditions and external forces were implemented based on identical data. The horizontal resolutions of the models are also very similar. Several simulations with different initial conditions have been done. Comparison and analysis of the bottom currents from both models have been performed. Based on it estimating of the dangerous area and critical time have been done. Also lagrangian particle tracking and passive tracer were implemented and based on these results probability of the appearing dangerous doses and its time evolution have been presented. This work has been performed in the frame of the MODUM project financially supported by NATO.

  20. Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions (Joseph F. Bunnett and Marian Mikotajczyk, Eds.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Benjamin

    1999-10-01

    What do Knute Rockne, Notre Dame's famed football coach, and Lewisite, a chemical warfare agent dubbed "the dew of death", have in common? Both owe their discovery to Father Julius Arthur Nieuwland.1 Rockne's legacy lives on in the Fighting Irish and their tradition of excellence on the gridiron. Lewisite, together with other arsenical- and mustard-type chemical warfare agents, provide a legacy that lives on, too, but with less cheerful consequences. The book Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions makes clear the challenges faced in dealing with those consequences. This book documents the proceedings of a workshop devoted to arsenical- and mustard-type chemical warfare agents and their associated munitions. The workshop, held in Poland in 1996, included nine lectures, eight posters, and three discussion groups; and the contents of all these are presented. Major support for the workshop came from the Scientific Affairs Division of NATO as part of on ongoing series of meetings, cooperative research projects, and related efforts dealing with problems leftover from the Cold War and, in the case of the arsenicals and mustards, from conflicts dating to World War I. These problems can be seen in contemporary accounts, including a January 1999 news report that the U.S. Department of Defense intends to survey Washington, DC, areas near both American University and the Catholic University of America (CUA), site of the original synthesis of Lewisite, for chemical warfare agents and other materials disposed at the end of World War I.2 The first nine chapters of the book present the workshop's lectures. Of these, readers interested in chemical weapon destruction might find especially useful the first chapter, in which Ron Mansley of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons presents a scholarly overview covering historical aspects of the arsenicals and mustards; their production and use; prospective destruction

  1. Benthic communities in chemical munitions dumping site areas within the Baltic deeps with special focus on nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwicki, Lech; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of biological effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) dumped in the Baltic Sea has been one of the tasks of the Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment (CHEMSEA) project. Three sites have been selected for investigation: Bornholm Deep, Gotland Deep and Gdansk Deep. Fauna collected from these locations were compared with the reference area located between the studied regions at similar depths below 70 m. In total, four scientific cruises occurred in different seasons between 2011 and 2013. The total lack of any representatives of macrozoobenthos in all of the investigated dumping sites was noted. As a practical matter, the Baltic deeps were inhabited by nematodes as the only meiofauna representatives. Therefore, nematodes were used as a key group to explore the faunal communities inhabiting chemical dumping sites in the Baltic deeps. In total, 42 nematode genera belonging to 18 families were identified, and the dominant genus was Sabatieria (Comesomatidae), which constituted 37.6% of the overall nematode community. There were significant differences in nematode community structure (abundance and taxa composition) between the dumping areas and the reference site (Kruskal-Wallis H=30.96, pnematode assemblages could mirror the environmental conditions.

  2. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pueblo Depot Activity, Colorado. Final, Phase 1: Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, J.W.; Blasing, T.J.; Ensminger, J.T.; Johnson, R.O.; Schexnayder, S.M.; Shor, J.T.; Staub, W.P.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1995-04-01

    Under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the US Army proposes to dispose of lethal chemical agents and munitions stored at eight existing Army installations in the continental United States. In 1988, the US Army issued the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP. The FPEIS and the subsequent Record of Decision (ROD) identified an on-site disposal process as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. That is, the FPEIS determined the environmentally preferred alternative to be on-site disposal in high-temperature incinerators, while the ROD selected this alternative for implementation as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. In this Phase I report, the overall CSDP decision regarding disposal of the PUDA Stockpile is subjected to further analyses, and its validity at PUDA is reviewed with newer, more detailed data than those providing the basis for the conclusions in the FPEIS. The findings of this Phase I report will be factored into the scope of a site-specific environmental impact statement to be prepared for the destruction of the PUDA stockpile. The focus of this Phase I report is on those data identified as having the potential to alter the Army`s previous decision regarding disposal of the PUDA stockpile; however, several other factors beyond the scope of this Phase I report must also be acknowledged to have the potential to change or modify the Army`s decisions regarding PUDA.

  3. Analysis of Chemical Composition of Non-Ferrous Metal Items from the Ananyino Burial Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saprykina Irina А.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of an analysis conducted by the authors in order to study chemical composition of items from non-ferrous metals found on the Ananyino burial ground. A number of research methods, including OES, XRF and TXRF was applied to study a selection of 387 samples of arrow- and spearheads, celts, tail-pieces, warhammers, poleaxes, knives and daggers, as well as items of attire and jewelry, some sporadic details of harness and bridle. The fi ndings are quite comparable. The results were classifi ed by the geochemical principle of 1,0% alloyage threshold. It was found out that the sample primarily consists of copper items, including “pure” copper and copper with a wide range of trace elements (particularly, Ni, As, Sb. The core (48% consists of copper items with traces of antimony and arsenic, or “pure” copper (7%, tin or triple bronze (40%; it also includes some other types of alloys based on copper or silver (5%. As the analysis has shown, complex ores seem to be the most probable source of copper. Traditionally, the Urals, the Sayan and the Altay Mountains, Kazakhstan and the Northern Caucasus were regarded as the most probable minefi elds to supply ores to the barren regions of Eastern Europe. While ore sources for products made of metallurgical “pure” copper are localized within the Ural mining and metallurgical region, metal sources for items cast from different groups of alloys (rather than imports of ready-made products require further research.

  4. Combined Biological and Chemical Mechanisms for Degradation of Insensitive Munitions in the Presence of Alternate Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-21

    substrate for respiration or fermentation , a process called endogenous respiration and endogenous fermentation respectively. In most treatments with...commercial product, process , or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement...showed that DNAN can be readily reduced by chemical and biological processes at pH 7 within 24 hours, and at pH 8 and 9 in

  5. Selective-placement burial of drilling fluids: 1. Effects on soil chemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, M.L.; Hartmann, S.; Ueckert, D.N.; Hons, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    Burial of spent drilling fluids used in petroleum and natural gas exploration was evaluated for reducing soil contamination caused by conventional, surface disposal of these wastes on arid and semiarid rangelands. Simulated reserve pits at two locations provided burial depths of 30, 90 (with and without a 30-cm capillary barrier of coarse limestone), and 150 cm below the surface, with sequential replacement of stockpiled subsoil and topsoil. The drilling fluids contained extremely high concentrations of soluble salts, with Na and Cl being the dominant soluble ions. Upward migration of contaminants was evaluated over a 20-month period. Soluble salts migrated upward 15 to 30 cm into the overlying soil, and salt movement appeared to be governed to a greater extent by diffusive rather than convective flow mechanisms. Capillary barriers of coarse limestone effectively reduced salt movement at one of the two sites. Sodium, Ca, and Cl were the dominant mobile ions. Exchangeable Na percentages did not increase in soil increments > 15 cm above buried drilling wastes. Barium, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn in drilling fluids did not migrate into overlying soil. Movement of contaminants was similar where fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.], a deep-rooted shrub, and buffalograss [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm], a shallow-rooted grass, were used for revegetation

  6. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Miller, R.L.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Johnson, R.O.; Tolbert, V.R.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Rickert, L.W.; Rogers, G.O.; Staub, W.P.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this Phase I report is to examined the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) in light of more detailed and more recent data than those included in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EPEIS). Two principal issues are addressed: (1) whether or not the new data would result in identification of on-site disposal at ANAD as the environmentally preferred alternative (using the same selection method and data analysis tools as in the FPEIS), and (2) whether or not the new data indicate the presence of significant environmental resources that could be affected by on-site disposal at ANAD. In addition, a status report is presented on the maturity of the disposal technology (and now it could affect on-site disposal at ANAD). Inclusion of these more recent data into the FPEIS decision method resulted in confirmation of on-site disposal for ANAD. No unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD have been identified. A review of the technology status identified four principal technology developments that have occurred since publication of the FPEIS and should be of value in the implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD: the disposal of nonlethal agent at Pine Bluff Arsenal, located near Pine Bluff, Arkansas; construction and testing of facilities for disposal of stored lethal agent at Johnston Atoll, located about 1300 km (800 miles) southwest of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean; lethal agent disposal tests at the chemical agent pilot plant operations at Tooele Army Depot, located near Salt Lake City, Utah; and equipment advances. 18 references, 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. 2008 Munitions Executive Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-21

    Improvement Initiative • Problem : • Ballistic performance • Parts Obsolescence • Producibility Issues • Solution: • Flight telemetry • Results...Reduced Manufacturing Costs, Increased reliability, Better understanding, Reduced complexity, Reduced touch labor, Reduced material costs • SATISFIED...Rocket Motor Demil R&D Technology •Munitions parts make-up: Munitions Items Disposition Action System ( MIDAS ) Training Directorate •Ammunition

  8. Mineralogical, chemical and K-Ar isotopic changes in Kreyenhagen Shale whole rocks and <2 µm clay fractions during natural burial and hydrous-pyrolysis experimental maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauer, Norbert; Lewan, Michael D.; Dolan, Michael P.; Chaudhuri, Sambhudas; Curtis, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Progressive maturation of the Eocene Kreyenhagen Shale from the San Joaquin Basin of California was studied by combining mineralogical and chemical analyses with K–Ar dating of whole rocks and sequence, indicating that there is no detectable variation in the crystallo-chemical organization of the K-bearing alumino-silicates with depth. No supply of K from outside of the rock volumes occurred, which indicates a closed-system behavior for it. Conversely, the content of the total organic carbon (TOC) content decreases significantly with burial, based on the progressive increasing Al/TOC ratio of the whole rocks. The initial varied mineralogy and chemistry of the rocks and their <2 μm fractions resulting from differences in detrital sources and depositional settings give scattered results that homogenize progressively during burial due to increased authigenesis, and concomitant increased alteration of the detrital material.

  9. A Wide Area Risk Assessment Framework for Underwater Military Munitions Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, K. T.; Calantoni, J.

    2017-12-01

    Our objective was to develop a prototype statistical framework supporting Wide Area Assessment and Remedial Investigation decisions relating to the risk of unexploded ordnance and other military munitions concentrated in underwater environments. Decision making involving underwater munitions is inherently complex due to the high degree of uncertainty in the environmental conditions that force munitions responses (burial, decay, migration, etc.) and associated risks to the public. The prototype framework provides a consistent approach to accurately delineating contaminated areas at underwater munitions sites through the estimation of most probable concentrations. We adapted existing deterministic models and environmental data services for use within statistical modules that allowed the estimation of munition concentration given historic site information and environmental attributes. Ultimately this risk surface can be used to evaluate costs associated with various remediation approaches (e.g. removal, monitoring, etc.). Unfortunately, evaluation of the assessment framework was limited due to the lack of enduser data services from munition site managers. Of the 450 U.S. sites identified as having potential contamination with underwater munitions, assessment of available munitions information (including historic firing or disposal records, and recent ground-truth munitions samples) indicated very limited information in the databases. Example data types include the most probable munition types, approximate firing / disposal dates and locations, and any supportive munition survey or sampling results. However the overall technical goal to integrate trained statistical belief networks with detailed geophysical knowledge of sites, of sensors and of the underwater environment was demonstrated and should allow probabilistic estimates of the most likely outcomes and tradeoffs while managing uncertainty associated with military munitions response.

  10. Military Munitions Waste Working Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the Military Munitions Waste Working Group in its effort to achieve the goals directed under the Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT Committee) for environmental restoration and waste management. The Military Munitions Waste Working Group identified the following seven areas of concern associated with the ordnance (energetics) waste stream: unexploded ordnance; stockpiled; disposed -- at known locations, i.e., disposal pits; discharged -- impact areas, unknown disposal sites; contaminated media; chemical sureties/weapons; biological weapons; munitions production; depleted uranium; and rocket motor and fuel disposal (open burn/open detonation). Because of time constraints, the Military Munitions Waste Working Group has focused on unexploded ordnance and contaminated media with the understanding that remaining waste streams will be considered as time permits. Contents of this report are as follows: executive summary; introduction; Military Munitions Waste Working Group charter; description of priority waste stream problems; shortcomings of existing approaches, processes and technologies; innovative approaches, processes and technologies, work force planning, training, and education issues relative to technology development and cleanup; criteria used to identify and screen potential demonstration projects; list of potential candidate demonstration projects for the DOIT committee decision/recommendation and appendices

  11. Military Munitions Waste Working Group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-30

    This report presents the findings of the Military Munitions Waste Working Group in its effort to achieve the goals directed under the Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT Committee) for environmental restoration and waste management. The Military Munitions Waste Working Group identified the following seven areas of concern associated with the ordnance (energetics) waste stream: unexploded ordnance; stockpiled; disposed -- at known locations, i.e., disposal pits; discharged -- impact areas, unknown disposal sites; contaminated media; chemical sureties/weapons; biological weapons; munitions production; depleted uranium; and rocket motor and fuel disposal (open burn/open detonation). Because of time constraints, the Military Munitions Waste Working Group has focused on unexploded ordnance and contaminated media with the understanding that remaining waste streams will be considered as time permits. Contents of this report are as follows: executive summary; introduction; Military Munitions Waste Working Group charter; description of priority waste stream problems; shortcomings of existing approaches, processes and technologies; innovative approaches, processes and technologies, work force planning, training, and education issues relative to technology development and cleanup; criteria used to identify and screen potential demonstration projects; list of potential candidate demonstration projects for the DOIT committee decision/recommendation and appendices.

  12. Insensitive Munitions Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Insensitive Munitions Testing at RTC is conducted (IAW MILSTD-2105) at Test Area 4. Our engineers and technicians obtain data for hazards classification and safety...

  13. Optimization of Munitions Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    zones of land around each facility place a significant economic cost on the storage of munitions (Schreyer, 1970: 1). Munitions storage is a subject...ADDTOT, BTOTAL 353 REAL MPH,MW ,MPD, MPU ,4,MPNEW,MCD 354 IF (SW2.NE.0) GO TO 1 355 SW2 - 1 356 WRITE (6,2) 357 GO TO 3 358 1 IF (REC.EQ.0) GO TO 4 359 IF

  14. Implementation of the NEMO model for estimating the spread of leakage from chemical munitions in the Baltic Sea - the first approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewski, Jan

    2017-04-01

    After the Second World War, during the Potsdam Conference a decision about demilitarization of Germany was made, and as a consequence, ammunition including chemical warfare agents (CWA) was dumped into the basins of the Baltic Sea. This type of weapon was stored in metal barrels that were under strong influence of electrochemical oxidation, also known as corrosion. Several tens years later, scientists were wondering what consequences for marine ecosystem could a leakage from this weapon bring. Although over 70 years passed since the Second World War, the influence of potential leakage of the CWA has not been properly estimated. Thus, the main goal of this work is to estimate dangerous area caused by potential leakage using the NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) ocean model. The NEMO ocean model is developed by the European Consortium including research institutes from France, England and Italy. The first step of this work is to implement the model for the area of the Baltic Sea. It requires generation of horizontal and vertical grid, bathymetry, atmospheric forces and lateral boundary conditions. Implemented model will have to be checked - it means it will have to pass a validation process. The Baltic Sea is one of the best measured sea in the World - as a consequence a lot of data are freely available for researchers. After validation and tuning up the model, implementation of passive tracer is planned. Passive tracer is the prognostic variable that could represent concentration of potential leakage and does not have influence on the density of the model. Based on distribution of the passive tracer, dangerous areas in the locations of dumpsites will be assessed. The research work was funded by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund) under the Interreg Baltic Sea Region Programme 2014-2020, project #R013 DAIMON (Decision Aid for Marine Munitions).

  15. Munitions Classification Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    members of the community to make their own additions to any, or all, of the classification libraries . The next phase entailed data collection over less......Include area code) 04/04/2016 Final Report August 2014 - August 2015 MUNITIONS CLASSIFICATION LIBRARY Mr. Craig Murray, Parsons Dr. Thomas H. Bell, Leidos

  16. Missile/Munition Integration Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A large complex contained within approximately 600 acres with security fencing, controlled access gates, and a munitions convoy access road. The complex is capable...

  17. Toxicity of binary chemical munition destruction products: methylphosphonic acid, methylphosphinic acid, 2-diisopropylaminoethanol, DF neutralent, and QL neutralent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Rebecca E; Hafez, Ahmed M; Kremsky, Jonathan N; Bizzigotti, George O

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the toxicity and environmental impact of neutralents produced from the hydrolysis of binary chemical agent precursor chemicals DF (methylphosphonic difluoride) and QL (2-[bis(1-methylethyl)amino]ethyl ethyl methylphosphonite). Following a literature review of the neutralent mixtures and constituents, basic toxicity tests were conducted to fill data gaps, including acute oral and dermal median lethal dose assays, the Ames mutagenicity test, and ecotoxicity tests. For methylphosphonic acid (MPA), a major constituent of DF neutralent, the acute oral LD(50) in the Sprague-Dawley rat was measured at 1888 mg/kg, and the Ames test using typical tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli was negative. The 48-h LC(50) values for pH-adjusted DF neutralent with Daphnia magna and Cyprinodon variegatus were > 2500 mg/L and 1593 mg/L, respectively. The acute oral LD(50) values in the rat for QL neutralent constituents methylphosphinic acid (MP) and 2-diisopropylaminoethanol (KB) were both determined to be 940 mg/kg, and the Ames test was negative for both. Good Laboratory Practice (GLP)-compliant ecotoxicity tests for MP and KB gave 48-h D. magna EC(50) values of 6.8 mg/L and 83 mg/L, respectively. GLP-compliant 96-h C. variegatus assays on MP and KB gave LC(50) values of 73 and 252 mg/L, respectively, and NOEC values of 22 and 108 mg/L. QL neutralent LD(50) values for acute oral and dermal toxicity tests were both > 5000 mg/kg, and the 48-h LD(50) values for D. magna and C. variegatus were 249 and 2500 mg/L, respectively. Using these data, the overall toxicity of the neutralents was assessed.

  18. Sea-dumped CW munitions - the European component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.; Stock, T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to outline the European magnitude of sea-dumped CW munitions. Hereby the paper attempts to provide an overview on historical dumping activities, both for conventional and chemical munitions. The potential dangers which might result from these dumping activities are discussed in brief. Among others the differences in deep sea dumping and dumping in shallow waters are evaluated. Further, the presentation will outline and discuss the different technology steps: (a) identification, (b) recovery, (c) transportation and (d) destruction (on- or off-shore), necessary for possible cleaning of dumping sites. Thereafter an evaluation of the different technologies available/applied is performed, in particular on the destruction part. Hereby the already practised experience is displayed. Based upon existing treaty regimes an actual judgment of possible application of treaty provisions for demanding cleaning up operations is discussed. The question if treaty obligations can be used to force cleaning operations is debated. A possible match of the technology package available with the scope/magnitude of the munitions dumping problem is discussed. Hereby the gaps between the size of the problem and the most suitable technologies for recovery and destruction are illustrated. The resulting answers should be regarded as possible technical guidelines for future development activities as well existing limitations to solve the problems. The papers will result in some general guidelines for future prospect on the issues of dumped munitions, in particular chemical munitions under the European context.(author)

  19. Correlation between chemical composition of dental calculus and bone samples in ancient human burials: perspectives in paleonutritional studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capasso, L.; Di Tota, G.; Bondioli, L.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The authors describe the results of an assay based on the comparison between chemical composition of dental calculus and bone respectively obtained from teeth and bones of ancient skeletons. The chemical analysis has been performed by synchrotron light. The concentrations of the following oligoelements having paleonutritional correlations were analysed: Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sr and Ca. The authors demonstrate that- in a given individual the concentration of such elements in the bone sample were in the range of those obtained for the same elements in the sample of dental calculus. Such correspondence suggests that the chemical analysis of dental calculus may give paleonutritional indications analogous to those deriving from the analysis of bone samples. The authors underline also that the use of dental calculus has a distinct advantage over the use of bone samples, since it may allow a diachronic investigation. In fact, dental calculus typically presents a concentric pattern of growth, and the chemical composition of each layer may vary in accordance with temporal dietary variations. This is not the case for bone. This fact is the theoretical basis for the possible future development of techniques directed to the reconstruction of variations in the dietary habits of ancient individuals, possibly in relation to environmental seasonal changes

  20. REMOTE SENSING IN DETECTING BURIED MUNITIONS FROM WORLD WAR I

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among othe...

  1. Spread, Behavior, and Ecosystem Consequences of Conventional Munitions Compounds in Coastal Marine Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. Beck

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal marine environments are contaminated globally with a vast quantity of unexploded ordnance and munitions from intentional disposal. These munitions contain organic explosive compounds as well as a variety of metals, and represent point sources of chemical pollution to marine waters. Most underwater munitions originate from World Wars at the beginning of the twentieth century, and metal munitions housings have been impacted by extensive corrosion over the course of the following decades. As a result, the risk of munitions-related contaminant release to the water column is increasing. The behavior of munitions compounds is well-characterized in terrestrial systems and groundwater, but is only poorly understood in marine systems. Organic explosive compounds, primarily nitroaromatics and nitramines, can be degraded or transformed by a variety of biotic and abiotic mechanisms. These reaction products exhibit a range in biogeochemical characteristics such as sorption by particles and sediments, and variable environmental behavior as a result. The reaction products often exhibit increased toxicity to biological receptors and geochemical controls like sorption can limit this exposure. Environmental samples typically show low concentrations of munitions compounds in water and sediments (on the order of ng/L and μg/kg, respectively, and ecological risk appears generally low. Nonetheless, recent work demonstrates the possibility of sub-lethal genetic and metabolic effects. This review evaluates the state of knowledge on the occurrence, fate, and effect of munition-related chemical contaminants in the marine environment. There remain a number of knowledge gaps that limit our understanding of munitions-related contaminant spread and effect, and the need for additional work is made all the more urgent by increasing risk of release to the environment.

  2. Shallow land burial handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    The facility development phases (preliminary analysis, site selection, facility design and construction, facility operation, and facility closure/post-closure) are systematically integrated into a logical plan for developing near surface disposal plans. The Shallow Land Burial Handbook provides initial guidance and concepts for understanding the magnitude and the complexity of developing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

  3. Burial No. 67 of the Keliysky Burial Ground (Ingushetia Highlands)

    OpenAIRE

    Narozhny Evgeniy I; Narozhny Vitaliy E.

    2012-01-01

    Martial burial No, 67 from excavations of Keliyskiy burial ground in Ingushetia highlands is introduced into scientific use. The grave goods contained in the burial are quite traditional: a knife, arrowheads, belt buckles dating from the Golden Horde epoch. An iron helmet with a visor is a find standing apart. Helmets of the kind are similar not only to those found in burial sites of Ingushetia, but also to the helmets discovered in the burials of the Golden Horde nomads, which makes it possi...

  4. The Steksovo II burial ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martianov Vladimir N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the results of many-years’ (1990-2010 excavations on the ancient Mordovian Steksovo II burial ground site. The burial ground had functioned in the 3rd to 13th centuries AD. The investigations revealed hundreds of burials, which enabled the researchers to judge upon the wealth of material items found and the variety of burial rites of the population that had formed the burial ground. The 1st millennium AD is characterized by bi-ritualism, while inhumation is characteristic of the 11-13th-century period; horses’ burials were also discovered. The data of the burial ground make it possible to modify the concept of the stages in ancient Mordovians ethnogenesis. It is generally attributed to the Erzya Mordvins, but in early burials the combination of the Erzya and Moksha ancientries is traced. Complexes of the items of crucial importance for the chronology of the burial are discussed in the article with a representation of statistical data characterizing funeral rites and traditions.

  5. Munitions and Explosives of Concern Survey Methodology and In-field Testing for Wind Energy Areas on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, C.; Carton, G.; Trembanis, A. C.; Edwards, M.; Miller, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    Munitions and explosives of concern (MEC) are present in U.S. waters as a result of past and ongoing live-fire testing and training, combat operations, and sea disposal. To identify MEC that may pose a risk to human safety during development of offshore wind facilities on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) is preparing to develop guidance on risk analysis and selection processes for methods and technologies to identify MEC in Wind Energy Areas (WEA). This study developed a process for selecting appropriate technologies and methodologies for MEC detection using a synthesis of historical research, physical site characterization, remote sensing technology review, and in-field trials. Personnel were tasked with seeding a portion of the Delaware WEA with munitions surrogates, while a second group of researchers not privy to the surrogate locations tested and optimized the selected methodology to find and identify the placed targets. This in-field trial, conducted in July 2016, emphasized the use of multiple sensors for MEC detection, and led to further guidance for future MEC detection efforts on the Atlantic OCS. An April 2017 follow on study determined the fate of the munitions surrogates after the Atlantic storm season had passed. Using regional hydrodynamic models and incorporating the recommendations from the 2016 field trial, the follow on study examined the fate of the MEC and compared the findings to existing research on munitions mobility, as well as models developed as part of the Office of Naval Research Mine-Burial Program. Focus was given to characterizing the influence of sediment type on surrogate munitions behavior and the influence of mophodynamics and object burial on MEC detection. Supporting Mine-Burial models, ripple bedforms were observed to impede surrogate scour and burial in coarse sediments, while surrogate burial was both predicted and observed in finer sediments. Further, incorporation of

  6. Request for interim approval to operate Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground as a chemical waste landfill for disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl waste in submarine reactor compartments. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, G.D.

    1994-06-01

    This request is submitted to seek interim approval to operate a Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 chemical waste landfill for the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. Operation of a chemical waste landfill for disposal of PCB waste is subject to the TSCA regulations of 40 CFR 761. Interim approval is requested for a period not to exceed 5 years from the date of approval. This request covers only the disposal of small 10 quantities of solid PCB waste contained in decommissioned, defueled submarine reactor compartments (SRC). In addition, the request applies only to disposal 12 of this waste in Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground (Trench 94) in the 13 200 East Area of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Facility. Disposal of this waste will be conducted in accordance with the Compliance 15 Agreement (Appendix H) between the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and 16 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. During the 5-year interim approval period, the DOE-RL will submit an application seeking final 18 approval for operation of Trench 94 as a chemical waste landfill, including 19 any necessary waivers, and also will seek a final dangerous waste permit from 20 the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for disposal of lead 21 shielding contained in the SRCS.

  7. Request for interim approval to operate Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground as a chemical waste landfill for disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl waste in submarine reactor compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, G.D.

    1994-06-01

    This request is submitted to seek interim approval to operate a Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 chemical waste landfill for the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. Operation of a chemical waste landfill for disposal of PCB waste is subject to the TSCA regulations of 40 CFR 761. Interim approval is requested for a period not to exceed 5 years from the date of approval. This request covers only the disposal of small 10 quantities of solid PCB waste contained in decommissioned, defueled submarine reactor compartments (SRC). In addition, the request applies only to disposal 12 of this waste in Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground (Trench 94) in the 13 200 East Area of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Facility. Disposal of this waste will be conducted in accordance with the Compliance 15 Agreement (Appendix H) between the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and 16 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. During the 5-year interim approval period, the DOE-RL will submit an application seeking final 18 approval for operation of Trench 94 as a chemical waste landfill, including 19 any necessary waivers, and also will seek a final dangerous waste permit from 20 the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for disposal of lead 21 shielding contained in the SRCS

  8. Problems of solidificated radioactive wastes burial into deep geological structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedrovskij, O.L.; Leonov, E.A.; Romadin, N.M.; Shishcits, I.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    Perspectives are noted of the radioactive wastes burial into deep geopogical structures. For these purposes it has been proposed to investigate severap types of rocks, which do not have intensive gas-generation when beeng heated; salt deposits and clays. Basing on the results of calculations it has been shown that the dimentions of zones of substantial deformations in the case of the high-level radioactive wastes burial to not exceed several hundreds of meters. Conclusion is made that in the case of choosing the proper geotogicat structure for burial and ir the case of inclusion in the structure of the burial site a zone of sanitary alienation, it is possible to isolate wastes safely for all the period of preservation. Preliminary demands have been formulated to geological structures and underground burial sites. As main tasks for optimizatiop of burial sited are considered: determination of necessary types, number and reliability of barriers which ensure isolation of wastes; to make prognoses of the stressed and deformed state of a geological massif on the influence of thermal field; investigation in changes of chemical and physical properties of rocks under heat, radiative and chemical influence; estimation of possible diffusion of radioactivity in a mountin massif; development of a rational mining-thechnological schemes of the burual of wastes of different types. A row of tasks in the farmeworks of this probtem are sotved successfutty. Some resutts are given of the theoretical investigations in determination of zones of distructions of rocks because of heat-load [ru

  9. The Environmental Challenge of Military Munitions and Federal Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the Department of Defense (DoD) must address the contamination legacy left by military munitions and explosives of concern (MEC) and other hazardous munitions materials from military live-fire training or testing.

  10. Beads from Inhumation Rite Burials of Gnezdovo Burial Mound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrova Olga P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The beads from 33 inhumation burials at Gnezdovo burial mound are examined in the article. The beads (total 367 were crafted from stretched tube (258, stretched stick (3, winding (45, press molding (2 pcs., welding (2 pcs., and mosaic beads (9 pcs.. The burial mound contains virtually no broken beads, including the settlement's most common yellow glass beads. Besides glass beads, cornelian, crystal, amber and faience beads have been registered among the burial mound material, as well as beads crafted with metal. Apart from beads, grave inventories contained a series of pendants with a bead strung on a wire ring. The considered complexes contain five pendants of this type. Besides Gnezdovo, similar pendants have been discovered in Kiev, Timerev, Pskov and Vladimir barrows. A comparison between bead sets from Gnezdovo and Kiev burial mounds allows to conclude that the general composition and occurrence frequency of beads is identical for these burials. At the same time, beads crafted with rock crystal, cornelian and metal are more frequently discovered in Kiev inhumations.

  11. 78 FR 76574 - Burial Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ..., Congress' clear motivation was to make burial benefits ``easier to administer, i.e., through existing VA...'' means any action taken to honor the memory of a deceased individual. 38 CFR 38.600. 3.1701 Deceased...

  12. 19 CFR 145.53 - Firearms and munitions of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firearms and munitions of war. 145.53 Section 145.53 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... munitions of war. Importations of firearms, munitions of war, and related articles are subject to the import...

  13. Defense Industrial Base (DIB): Munitions Realignment for 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    munitions DIB by companies like Coca Cola , Quaker Oats, and Eastman Kodak. As industrial mobilization quickly increased, the requirements decreased...industry and the munitions DIB. This report documented the volatility associated with the production of munitions and financial risks to which

  14. A two-stage extraction procedure for insensitive munition (IM) explosive compounds in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Deborah; Gurtowski, Luke; Nestler, Catherine C; Johnson, Jared; Larson, Steven

    2016-12-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is developing a new category of insensitive munitions (IMs) that are more resistant to detonation or promulgation from external stimuli than traditional munition formulations. The new explosive constituent compounds are 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), nitroguanidine (NQ), and nitrotriazolone (NTO). The production and use of IM formulations may result in interaction of IM component compounds with soil. The chemical properties of these IM compounds present unique challenges for extraction from environmental matrices such as soil. A two-stage extraction procedure was developed and tested using several soil types amended with known concentrations of IM compounds. This procedure incorporates both an acidified phase and an organic phase to account for the chemical properties of the IM compounds. The method detection limits (MDLs) for all IM compounds in all soil types were regulatory risk-based Regional Screening Level (RSL) criteria for soil proposed by the U.S. Army Public Health Center. At defined environmentally relevant concentrations, the average recovery of each IM compound in each soil type was consistent and greater than 85%. The two-stage extraction method decreased the influence of soil composition on IM compound recovery. UV analysis of NTO established an isosbestic point based on varied pH at a detection wavelength of 341 nm. The two-stage soil extraction method is equally effective for traditional munition compounds, a potentially important point when examining soils exposed to both traditional and insensitive munitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Technical data summary: Plan for closure of the 643-G burial ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    This report involves the actions of closing the 643-G burial ground which involves waste removal, stabilization, and capping. Remedial action involves the removing of the transuranic waste and closing of the grid wells. The closure cap for the burial site will consist of native soil, clay, and gravel. This will assure long-term physical and chemical stability. (MB)

  16. Hawaii Munitions Monitoring Station and Natural Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M.; Trimble, A. Z.; Rognstad, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Hundreds of thousands of tons of conventional munitions were fired into the ocean at military ranges or deliberately disposed at sea during the twentieth century. Potential contaminants from munitions and explosives of concern (MEC) affect virtually every coast in the United States, including Alaska, the Hawaiian Islands, Guam, American Samoa and other U.S. territories as well as inland waterways. It is necessary to develop methods to assess the concentrations of munitions constituents present at a site to address concerns about the presence of environmentally relevant concentrations and their potential impacts. Having a well-characterized site to test instruments and methods is important for continued development and refinement of technology. Most sites are too big to characterize comprehensively in three dimensions over time periods lasting days or longer. We are working to develop a monitoring station and natural laboratory near Oahu, Hawaii to create a cost-effective demonstration and validation natural laboratory where emerging technologies can be evaluated and compared. Ordnance Reef (OR) is an ideal location to establish a munitions monitoring station for historical, logistical and environmental reasons. OR is an area of shallow fringing reef measuring approximately 4.2 km by 2.2 km along the Waianae coast of Oahu that was used as a disposal area for military munitions following World War II. OR has been the subject of multiple investigations including an inventory of munitions conducted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2002 and a screening-level risk investigation conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the University of Hawaii in 2006. As a result, there are multiple datasets collected over the past fifteen years that can be leveraged to serve as a baseline for the natural laboratory. These extant datasets are being supplemented with data from integrated unmanned systems deployed at OR to characterize and visualize the

  17. Shallow Land Burial Technology - Humid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.C.; Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1983-01-01

    The Shallow Land Burial Technology - Humid Project is being conducted for the Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program with the objective of identifying and demonstrating improved technology for disposing of low-level solid waste in humid environments. Two improved disposal techniques are currently being evaluated using nine demonstration trenches at the Engineered Test Facility (ETF). The first is use of a cement-bentonite grout applied as a waste backfill material prior to trench closure and covering. The second is complete hydrologic isolation of waste by emplacement in a trench that is lined on all four sides, top and bottom using synthetic impermeable lining material. An economic analysis of the trench grouting and lining demonstration favored the trench lining operation ($1055/demonstration trench) over trench grouting ($1585/demonstration trench), with the cost differential becoming even greater (as much as a factor of 6 in favor of lining for typical ORNL trenches) as trench dimensions increase and trench volumes exceed those of the demonstration trenches. In addition to the evaluation of trench grouting and lining, major effort has centered on characterization of the ETF site. Though only a part of the overall study, characterization is an extremely important component of the site selection process; it is during these activities that potential problems, which may obviate the site from further consideration, are found. Characterization of the ETF has included studies of regional and site-specific geology, the physical and chemical properties of the soils in which the demonstration trenches are located, and hydrology of the small watershed of which the ETF is a part. 12 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  18. Safety and vulnerability simulation of munitions; Modelisation du comportement de munitions en securite et vulnerabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desailly, D.; Briquet, B.; Brunet, P.; Guegant, Y.; Houdusse, D.; Prost, M. [Groupe SNPE Propulsion/ Centre de Recherches du Boucher, 91 - Vert le Petit (France)

    2002-09-01

    Vulnerability of new weapon systems to accidental and hostile environments is a major concern for military operations and many research programs have been so investigated of SNPE Propulsion. Before they were accepted as being safe and suitable for introduction into military inventories systems underwent a wide range of expensive type qualification trials. There was a need therefore, to develop a greater understanding of the reaction mechanisms that affect the behaviour of confined energetic materials when subjected to external stimuli and computer models to control the resulting hazard. As part of this program SNPE Propulsion has developed a method for modelling Cook-off response in order to master the design of insensitive munitions (IM). The behavior of energetic materials when they are submitted to a thermal threat is complex and follows two different time scales: thermochemical processes, counted in minutes even hours whereas pyrotechnic reaction may require a few microseconds. It was shown that the reaction level is ruled by the competition between pressure generated from the cook-off reaction and stress release resulting from break-up confinement. After self-ignition phenomenon and under some confinement and thermal conditions burning can accelerate to deflagration and lead to a deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) event. The method requires'modular tools describing each physical phenomenon. Works have been first focused on the development of experimental facilities to characterise thermal chemical properties and reactivity of thermally damaged energetic material. Consequently the first part of the model describing self-heating and pyrolysis processes has been implemented in an implicit solver. Simulations have shown quite accurate predictions (ignition temperature, time to event) and proved the effectiveness of this approach. Recent developments are.thus concentrated on the numerical modelling of the reaction violence level prediction hence a

  19. Continuous Monitoring of Mobility, Burial and Re exposure of Underwater Munitions in Energetic Near Shore Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    measured using a PPK GPS backpack system. A walking survey from the base of the foreshore dunes to 1 m water depth was performed at low tide and...Current (AWAC) profiler to measure column flows and waves; an Imagenex 881A rotary fan- beam sidescan to measure small- to medium-scale bedforms...swapped for a 2-axis rotary pencil- beam sonar. Nearbed hydrodynamic sensors were set on sampling schedules to resolve waves, turbulence, and longer

  20. Depleted uranium munitions - where are we now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spratt, Brian G.

    2002-01-01

    There are very different views on the health hazards of DU munitions. Most of the concerns of veterans and their advisors focus on the radiological effects of DU and consequently these are the focus of this editorial. Effects on the kidney and environmental consequences are, however, considered in the second of the Royal Society reports and the main conclusions of both of the reports are outlined in the summary document published in this issue of the journal. The main radiological concerns focus on the irradiation of lung tissues from inhaled DU particles and irradiation resulting from the translocation of inhaled particles to the thoracic lymph nodes.The overwhelming scientific view, presented in the two Royal Society reports and in other independent reviews, is that the main risks of exposure to DU aerosols are an increase in lung cancer and (from chemical toxicity) damage to the kidney, although these are likely to be evident only following substantial intakes. The equivalent doses to the thoracic lymph nodes following inhalation of DU particles are about ten times greater than those to the lung, but the former tissue is considered to be relatively insensitive to radiation-induced cancers. So far, large-scale epidemiological studies of UK and US Gulf War veterans have shown no increase in mortality from cancer, or kidney disease, but these studies need to be continued to see if any significant excess mortality from these causes appears. As mentioned previously, more sensitive epidemiological studies should be possible if groups of soldiers who have known exposures to DU can be identified. Adverse reproductive effects have been observed in rodents exposed to uranium although most of these effects are evident after relatively large daily intakes of uranium. The possibility of effects on reproductive health (from DU or other toxic exposures) is being studied in both UK and US Gulf War veterans. Results from the UK epidemiological study are not yet available but

  1. Remote Machining and Evaluation of Explosively Filled Munitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is used for remote machining of explosively loaded ammunition. Munition sizes from small arms through 8-inch artillery can be accommodated. Sectioning,...

  2. Textiles from Scythian burial complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fialko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Northern Black Sea steppes were excavated more than three thousand Scythian burial mounds. In the studied burials were discovered large quantities of artifacts, but leather and textile items are preserved only in a few cases. Some ideas about Scythian costume are found in the works of Greek authors. In this regard, extremely important is the funerary complex dated with the 4th century BC, discovered in barrow Vishnevaja Moghila (Zaporizhia region, Ukraine. In the crypt, which remained undisturbed over time, was found a burial of a Scythian girl. The unique condition of preservation of the textiles and leather findings allowed reconstructing the entire costume of the Scythian. It consisted of six layers of clothing. Various pieces of clothing were made from different materials: white linen cloth, orange satin fabric, reddish-brown fur, black cloth, fur, red skin. This discovery is one of a kind in the Northern Black Sea region, which is currently a reference example of female costume of early nomads of the region.

  3. High-power VCSELs for smart munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Jon; MacDougal, Michael; Cole, Garrett; Snyder, Donald

    2006-08-01

    The next generation of low-cost smart munitions will be capable of autonomously detecting and identifying targets aided partly by the ability to image targets with compact and robust scanning rangefinder and LADAR capabilities. These imaging systems will utilize arrays of high performance, low-cost semiconductor diode lasers capable of achieving high peak powers in pulses ranging from 5 to 25 nanoseconds in duration. Aerius Photonics is developing high-power Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) to meet the needs of these smart munitions applications. The authors will report the results of Aerius' development program in which peak pulsed powers exceeding 60 Watts were demonstrated from single VCSEL emitters. These compact packaged emitters achieved pulse energies in excess of 1.5 micro-joules with multi kilo-hertz pulse repetition frequencies. The progress of the ongoing effort toward extending this performance to arrays of VCSEL emitters and toward further improving laser slope efficiency will be reported.

  4. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1, followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1 and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC, lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  5. Large-Scale Laboratory Experiments of Initiation of Motion and Burial of Objects under Currents and Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, B. J.; Wu, H.; Wenzel, S. P.; Gates, S. J.; Fytanidis, D. K.; Garcia, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    Unexploded ordnances (UXOs) can be found at the bottom of coastal areas as the residue of military wartime activities, training or accidents. These underwater objects are hazards for humans and the coastal environment increasing the need for addressing the knowledge gaps regarding the initiation of motion, fate and transport of UXOs under currents and wave conditions. Extensive experimental analysis was conducted for the initiation of motion of UXOs under various rigid bed roughness conditions (smooth PVC, pitted steel, marbles, gravels and bed of spherical particles) for both unidirectional and oscillatory flows. Particle image velocimetry measurements were conducted under both flow conditions to resolve the flow structure estimate the critical flow conditions for initiation of motion of UXOs. Analysis of the experimental observations shows that the geometrical characteristics of the UXOs, their properties (i.e. volume, mass) and their orientation with respect to the mean flow play an important role on the reorientation and mobility of the examined objects. A novel unified initiation of motion diagram is proposed using an effective/unified hydrodynamic roughness and a new length scale which includes the effect of the projected area and the bed-UXO contact area. Both unidirectional and oscillatory critical flow conditions collapsed into a single dimensionless diagram highlighting the importance and practical applicability of the proposed work. In addition to the rigid bed experiments, the burial dynamics of proud UXOs on a mobile sand bed were also examined. The complex flow-bedform-UXOs interactions were evaluated which highlighted the effect of munition density on burial rate and final burial depth. Burial dynamics and mechanisms for motion were examined for various UXOs types, and results show that, for the case of the low density UXOs under energetic conditions, lateral transport coexists with burial. Prior to burial, UXO re-orientation was also observed

  6. FUDS Military Munitions Response Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    supporting decision rules - Phytoremediation of Arsenic -Advanced EMI and Multi-component Sensors (4 types) -Advanced Anomaly Classifications (4 types...Culebra, PR  Frankford Arsenal , PA  Orlando Range and Chemical Yard, FL  Pinecastle Jeep Range, FL  Spring Valley, DC  Waikoloa Maneuver

  7. Health and environmental problems of using antiarmour munitions containing depleted uranium core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matousek, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the 1970s, core of depleted uranium commenced to be introduced into the breakthrough antitank munitions of various calibers and types in order to considerably enhance their effectiveness due to extremely high density in comparison with steel. The health and environmental threats of using this munitions and other weaponry where depleted uranium has been utilised as counterbalance stem from the pyrophoric character of uranium, burnt due to material deformation and friction when penetrating armour targets creating thus highly respirable aerosol of uranium oxides that are deposited in alveoli after being inhaled or in other tissues after being ingested. Composition and main properties of depleted uranium are presented. Chronic effects of deposited particles of uranium oxides are due to internal irradiation of sensitive organs at proceeding radioactive decay accompanied with alpha irradiation. Long-term internal irradiation by radionuclides producing alpha-rays leads to proved risk of increased incidence of carcinoma and leukaemia not to speak on chronic chemical toxicity of uranium, independent of its isotopic composition. Environmental impact of extensive use of munitions with depleted uranium in the recent armed conflicts is assessed. (authors)

  8. Underwater Munitions Expert System: Preliminary Design Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-21

    analysis  would  usually  be  performed,   where  separation  by   sieving  results  in  the  PMF  of  sand  grain...locations  they  might  potentially   aggregate .    Furthermore,  given  knowledge  of  the  types  of   munitions...feature  that   Netica  provides  is  the  ability  to  do  sensitivity   analysis ,

  9. Shallow-land-burial handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Davis, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    The initial draft of the Shallow-Land Burial Handbook has been prepared and submitted to the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for review and comment. The Handbook informs the reader of the current way in which low-level wastes are being handled, outlines the legal and institutional problems that would be involved in developing and licensing such a facility, and describes in some detail the considerations and data needs for siting, designing, operating, and closing such a facility. The initial draft is not a Handbook that provides answers to all questions, nor insures that following the steps detailed in the Handbook guarantees that the facility will be licensed. It does illustrate the types of actions that must be considered and the types of information required to achieve successful operations

  10. The Bahrain Burial Mound Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen; Johansen, Kasper Lambert

    2007-01-01

    the majority of burial mounds have been removed to make way for roads and housing, and in this process about 8000 mounds have been excavated; of these only c. 265 have been published. In 2006 the Bahrain Directorate for Culture & National Heritage and Moesgaard Museum decided on a collaborative project...... process of linking relevant information to the mounds have been initiated in the course of which excavation data of individual monument is being fed into a relational database. Our preliminary study of the digital maps of the mound cemeteries has revealed an abundance of interesting patterns...... that immediately gave rise to puzzling new questions that will direct the future explorations of the project. Of particular interest is a distinctive new type of elite monuments situated to the south of the so-called Royal Mounds in the centre of the island. The newly discovered type of mounds apparently reflect...

  11. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki J Hendrick

    Full Text Available The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura, the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus, showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa. With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally

  12. Investigation of a new passive sampler for the detection of munitions compounds in marine and freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joseph K; Vlahos, Penny; Smith, Richard; Tobias, Craig

    2018-07-01

    Over the last century, unexploded ordnances have been disposed of in marine shelf systems because of a lack of cost-effective alternatives. Underwater unexploded ordnances have the potential to leak 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), commonly used chemical munitions, and contaminate local waters, biota, and sediments. The rate at which this contamination occurs in the environment is relatively unknown, and the cost- and time-prohibitive nature of sampling across sites makes mapping difficult. In the present study we assessed the efficacy of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) for sampling relatively soluble munitions compounds over a range of environmental conditions (i.e., changes in temperature and salinity) and optimized the composition of the passive sampling polymer. The EVA sampler was able to successfully detect ambient concentrations of lingering munitions compounds from field sites containing unexploded ordnances. The sampler affinity for the munitions in terms of an EVA-water partition coefficient was greater than the standard octanol water values for each target compound. Partitioning of compounds onto EVA over the natural ranges of salinity did not change significantly, although uptake varied consistently and predictably with temperature. Increasing the vinyl acetate to ethylene ratio of the polymer corresponded to an increase in uptake capacity, consistent with enhanced dipole-dipole interactions between the munitions and the polymer. This sampler provides a cost-effective means to map and track leakage of unexploded ordnances both spatially and temporally. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:1990-1997. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  13. Burial container subsidence load stress calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veith, E.M.

    1995-11-01

    This document captures the supporting analyses conducted to determine if the LLCE (Long-Length Contaminated Equipment) burial containers are structurally adequate under different trench closure scenarios. The LLCE is equipment that was inside tank farm tanks

  14. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment

  15. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  16. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. S. Thompson

    2006-12-28

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities.

  17. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.S.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities

  18. Decommissioning and decontamination (burial ground stabilization) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The decommissioning and decontamination of retired Hanford facilities and the future use of surrounding landscapes require isolation of contaminated wastes from the biosphere. Burial ground stabilization studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of physical barriers for isolating contaminated wastes in shallow-land burial sites from plants and animals. This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of using a layer of loose rock between the waste and the surface soil covering to prevent both plant root and animal penetrations

  19. Optimal Control of Sensor Threshold for Autonomous Wide Area Search Munitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kish, Brian A; Jacques, David R; Pachter, Meir

    2005-01-01

    The optimal employment of autonomous wide area search munitions is addressed. The scenario considered involves an airborne munition searching a battle space for stationary targets in the presence of false targets...

  20. Extent of Stream Burial and Relationships to Watershed Area, Topography, and Impervious Surface Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy E. Weitzell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stream burial—the routing of streams through culverts, pipes, and concrete lined channels, or simply paving them over—is common during urbanization, and disproportionately affects small, headwater streams. Burial undermines the physical and chemical processes governing life in streams, with consequences for water quality and quantity that may amplify from headwaters to downstream receiving waters. Knowledge of the extent of stream burial is critical for understanding cumulative impacts to stream networks, and for future decision-making allowing for urban development while protecting ecosystem function. We predicted stream burial across the urbanizing Potomac River Basin (USA for each 10-m stream segment in the basin from medium-resolution impervious cover data and training observations obtained from high-resolution aerial photography in a GIS. Results were analyzed across a range in spatial aggregation, including counties and independent cities, small watersheds, and regular spatial grids. Stream burial was generally correlated with total impervious surface area (ISA, with areas exhibiting ISA above 30% often subject to elevated ratios of stream burial. Recurring patterns in burial predictions related to catchment area and topographic slope were also detected. We discuss these results in the context of physiographic constraints on stream location and urban development, including implications for environmental management of aquatic resources.

  1. Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) Munition Classification System enhancements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, O.A.; Huggard, J.C.

    1997-09-18

    Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) is a non-destructive evaluation technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technology has resulted in three generations of instrumentation, funded by the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), specifically designed for field identification of chemical weapon (CW) munitions. Each generation of ARS instrumentation was developed with a specific user in mind. The ARS1OO was built for use by the U.N. Inspection Teams going into Iraq immediately after the Persian Gulf War. The ARS200 was built for use in the US-Russia Bilateral Chemical Weapons Treaty (the primary users for this system are the US Onsite Inspection Agency (OSIA) and their Russian counterparts). The ARS300 was built with the requirements of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in mind. Each successive system is an improved version of the previous system based on learning the weaknesses of each and, coincidentally, on the fact that more time was available to do a requirements analysis and the necessary engineering development. The ARS300 is at a level of development that warrants transferring the technology to a commercial vendor. Since LANL will supply the computer software to the selected vendor, it is possible for LANL to continue to improve the decision algorithms, add features where necessary, and adjust the user interface before the final transfer occurs. This paper describes the current system, ARS system enhancements, and software enhancements. Appendices contain the Operations Manual (software Version 3.01), and two earlier reports on enhancements.

  2. Shallow land burial technology: humid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.C.; Yeh, G.T.

    1984-01-01

    Applying engineered modifications to present shallow land burial (SLB) practices is one method of ensuring safe operation and improving overall disposal-site performance. Two such engineered modifications, trench lining and grouting, are being demonstrated and evaluated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Engineered Test Facility (ETF), using nine 28-m 3 experimental trenches containing compacted low-level waste (LLW). Concurrent to this field demonstration experiment, two finite-element hydrologic models have been developed to model water movement and solute transport at a waste disposal site. This paper covers progress made in these two areas during FY 1984. Though the economic analysis of the two trench treatments favored Hypalon lining (lining costs were 33% lower at this demonstration scale), results of field experiments examining waste hydrologic isolation favored the cement-bentonite grout treatment. Data from water pump-out and water pump-in tests, combined with observed intratrench water-level fluctuations, suggest that the original goal of constructing watertight liners in three experimental trenches was not achieved. In addition, trench-cover subsidence of approx. 2% of the total trench depth has been measured over two of the three lined trenches but has not occurred over any of the three grouted or three control (untreated) trenches. The evaluation of the two trench treatments is continuing. However, results indicate that the cement-bentonite treatment, implemented at a cost of $160/m 3 of grout, provides a degree of waste isolation not afforded by the lined and control trenches and should be considered for use at SLB sites with water-related problems. 11 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  3. NDIA 2018 IM and EM Technology Symposium: Innovative Insensitive Munition Solutions for Enhanced Warfighter Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-26

    2018 IM & EM TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM INNOVATIVE INSENSITIVE MUNITION SOLUTIONS FOR ENHANCED WARFIGHTER EFFECTIVENESS April 23 – 26, 2018 Doubletree by...IM & EM TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM On behalf of the Insensitive Munitions and Energetic Materials Committee and our MSIAC partner, I would like to...welcome you to the 2018 Insensitive Munitions and Energetic Materials Technology Symposium. This international gathering of the top chemists, system

  4. Hydrologic transport of radionuclides from low-level waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    The physical characteristics of the virgin site and of the disturbed site after burial drastically affect the transport of radionuclides from buried waste. The disturbance of the land surface during the waste burial operation causes changes in the local ground-water regimen. These changes can increase the water table elevation and cause the occurrence of perched water in burial trenches. The combination of these changes may lead to submersion of the waste and to increased radionuclide transport from the burial site in both surface and groundwater. Factors such as ion exchange can retard or in some cases, with competing ions, can also mobilize radionuclides and increase their discharge into ground and surface water. Because of complexing agents (organics) contained in the waste, increased mobility of some radionuclides can be expected. The chemical form of radionuclides in the water, the ground-water quality, and the chemistry of the geologic formation in which the waste is buried all influence the movement of radionuclides in the hydrologic system. For the assessment of the environmental impact of low-level waste burial, models capable of simulating both the chemical and the physical factors that affect hydrologic transport must be available. Several models for conducting such simulation are presently available. However, the input parameters used in these models are highly variable; and the accuracy of parameter measurement must be considered in evaluating the reliability of simulated results

  5. Hydrologic transport of radionuclides from low-level waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.

    1977-01-01

    The physical characteristics of the virgin site and of the disturbed site after burial drastically affect the transport of radionuclides from buried waste. The disturbance of the land surface during the waste burial operation causes changes in the local ground-water regimen. These changes can increase the water table elevation and cause the occurrence of perched water in burial trenches. The combination of these changes may lead to submersion of the waste and to increased radionuclide transport from the burial site in both surface and ground water. Factors such as ion exchange can retard or in some cases, with competing ions, can also mobilize radionuclides and increase their discharge into ground and surface water. Because of complexing agents (organics) contained in the waste, increased mobility of some radionuclides can be expected. The chemical form of radionuclides in the water, the ground-water quality, and the chemistry of the geologic formation in which the waste is buried all influence the movement of radionuclides in the hydrologic system. For the assessment of the environmental impact of low-level waste burial, models capable of simulating both the chemical and the physical factors that affect hydrologic transport must be available. Several models for conducting such simulation are presently available. However,the input parameters used in these models are highly variable, and the accuracy of parameter measurement must be considered in evaluating the reliability of simulated results

  6. Shallow land burial of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Rose, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    The authors discuss low-level, solid radioactive wastes buried in the ground since the startup of nuclear operations by the Manhattan Engineer District in the early 1940's. These operations were originally intended to be temporary so the primary consideration in locating land burial sites was their accessibility from the source of waste production. Early land-burial facilities were located on large reservations owned by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and operated by their prime contractors. Shallow land burial consists of excavating a trench or vault, emplacing the waste, minimizing void space within the disposal unit, and covering the waste with earth to control access to the waste. Problems encountered in the land-burial of radioactive wastes are classified into areas which relate to the environmental characteristics of the sites, waste characteristics, operational practices and control, and predictive capability. The most serious environmentally related problems involve water management. Water provides primary vehicle for both erosional processes, which affect the structural integrity of the waste trenches, and for the migration of radionuclides. Although there is consensus that the current level of off-site movement of radionuclides from operating burial grounds does not constitute an immediate health hazard, there is less certainty with respect to the ability of the facilities to provide long-term containment and isolation

  7. Migration of radionuclides following shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlet, J.; Golchert, N.W.

    1980-01-01

    A study of radionuclide migration was conducted at a facility used from 1944 to 1949 for the shallow land burial of radwaste produced during operations with two reactors and related nuclear research. It is situated in glacial drift 45 m thick. Underlying the drift is a generally level Silurian dolomite bedrock 60 m thick. The thickness of the drift decreases as the surface slopes downhill (north) until the dolomite reaches the surface and forms the bed of a river, 700 m to the north. This study was begun after tritiated water was detected in two picnic wells north of the facility, between the burial plot and the river. Surface and subsurface measurements indicate that tritium is migrating out of the burial site, but no other radionuclides have left the plot. The tritium concentrations decrease with distance from the plot. Tritium was found in the subsoil at all depths sampled, so the ground beneath and immediately around the plot contains tritium down to the dolomite aquifer. Time of travel of water from the burial plot to the nearest well is estimated to be 54 months. This would imply the peak concentration would reach the dolomite in about 35 years. By this time, 86% of the tritium would have disappeared by radioactive decay. The cyclical nature of the tritium content in the two wells implies that tritiated water is carried from the burial site by the spring rains when they recharge the groundwater supply

  8. Water budget for SRP burial ground area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, J.E.; Emslie, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide migration from the SRP burial ground for solid low-level waste has been studied extensively. Most of the buried radionuclides are fixed on the soil and show negligible movement. The major exception is tritium, which when leached from the waste by percolating rainfall, forms tritiated water and moves with the groundwater. The presence of tritium has been useful in tracing groundwater flow paths to outcrop. A subsurface tritium plume moving from the southwest corner of the burial ground toward an outcrop near Four Mile Creek has been defined. Groundwater movement is so slow that much of the tritium decays before reaching the outcrop. The burial ground tritium plume defined to date is virtually all in the uppermost sediment layer, the Barnwell Formation. The purpose of the study reported in this memorandum was to investigate the hypothesis that deeper flow paths, capable of carrying substantial amounts of tritium, may exist in the vicinity of the burial ground. As a first step in seeking deeper flow paths, a water budget was constructed for the burial ground site. The water budget, a materials balance used by hydrologists, is expressed in annual area inches of rainfall. Components of the water budget for the burial ground area were analyzed to determine whether significant flow paths may exist below the tan clay. Mean annual precipitation was estimated as 47 inches, with evapotranspiration, run-off, and groundwater recharge estimated as 30, 2, and 15 inches, respectively. These estimates, when combined with groundwater discharge data, suggest that 5 inches of the groundwater recharge flow above the tan clay and that 10 inches flow below the tan clay. Therefore, two-thirds of the groundwater recharge appears to follow flow paths that are deeper than those previously found. 13 references, 10 figures, 5 tables

  9. Observations of Munitions Mobility During a Nor'easter at Wallops Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C.; Frank, D. P.; Braithwaite, E. F., III; Hagg, R. K.; Calantoni, J.

    2017-12-01

    Unexploded ordnance (or munitions) may migrate, bury, or become exposed over time, and may pose a hazard to both humans and environment. Understanding the behavior of munitions under various wave and current conditions is central to management and remediation of contaminated underwater sites. We embedded Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) into inert replicas of large caliber munitions (81 mm - 155 mm), herein referred to as `smart munitions'. Several smart munitions were deployed in the field with IMUs logging at 16 Hz continuously. Simultaneously the local hydrodynamic conditions were monitored to correlate any resulting munitions mobility. Here, we present the response of the smart munitions to wave and current conditions observed during a nor'easter off the coast of Wallops Island, Virginia USA in about 10 m water depth. During the nor'easter, peak significant wave heights of 2.8 m were observed in 10 m water depth. Over a roughly 10-hour period, an 81 mm smart munition migrated approximately 206 ft in a net onshore direction. Displacement and heading of the migrated smart munition were estimated by divers during the recovery. Integration of the trajectory of motion for the smart munition using a custom signal processing algorithm was in good agreement with the diver measurements. Discussion will focus on the relationship of the local sediment type and the potential for munitions mobility.

  10. Evaluation of the metabolic fate of munitions material (TNT & RDX) in plant systems and initial assessment of material interaction with plant genetic material. Validation of the metabolic fate of munitions materials (TNT, RDX) in mature crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The goals of this effort were to confirm and expand data related to the behavior and impacts of munitions residues upon human food chain components. Plant species employed included corn (Zea mays), alfalfa (Medicago sativa). spinach (Spinacea oleraceae), and carrot (Daucus carota). Plants were grown from seed to maturity (70 to 120 days) in a low-fertility soil (Burbank) amended with either {sup 14}C-TNT or {sup 14}C-RDX at which time they were harvested and analyzed for munitions uptake, partitioning, and chemical form of the munition or munition-metabolite. All four of the plant species used in this study accumulated the {sup 14}C-TNT- and RDX-derived label. The carrot, alfalfa, and corn demonstrated a higher percentage of label retained in the roots (62, 73, and 83% respectively). The spinach contained less activity in its root (36%) but also contained the highest TNT specific activity observed (>4600 jig TNT equivalents/g dry wt.). The specific uptake values of RDX for the spinach and alfalfa were comparable to those previously reported for wheat and bean (314 to 590 {mu}g RDX-equivalents/g dry wt. respectively). An exception to this may be the carrot where the specific activity was found to exceed 4200 {mu}g RDX-equivalents/g dry wt. in the shoot. The total accumulation of TNT by the plants ranged from 1.24% for the spinach to 2.34% for the carrot. The RDX plants ranging from 15% for the spinach to 37% for the carrot. There was no identifiable TNT or amino dinitrotoluene (ADNT) isomers present in the plants however, the parent RDX compound was found at significant levels in the shoot of alfalfa (> 1 80 {mu}g/g) and corn (>18 {mu}g/g).

  11. Alternatives to shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuck, P.H.; Wacks, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses disposal alternatives that suggest there is a great diversity of man-made and natural spaces that should be considered as alternative sites for LLW disposal. Dry caverns outside of karst regions with integrated subsurface drainage might be given further consideration. The excavation of new space in tectonically and chemically stable rock formations also shows considerable promise. The principal problems in using either existing or new space involve hydrology, rock mechanics, chemical stability of the wall-rock minerals, and socio-political interactions. The chemical, physical and radiological properties of the wastes will also enter into the evaluation. All seven of these aspects will have to be examined in detail before a solution to the problem of minimizing radionuclide transport into the biosphere can be outlined

  12. Cluster munitions: public health and international humanitarian law perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2008-02-01

    As a result of civilian deaths in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Chechnya, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq and Lebanon, cluster munitions have been recognised to pose a grave threat to civilian populations because of their limited precision and problematically high rate of initial failure to explode. Efforts are intensifying to ban cluster munitions and to mandate those who have discharged them to defuse them effectively so as to reduce the risks to civilians. This editorial reviews these efforts and identifies a need for them to be actively supported by both the legal and medical communities.

  13. Radionuclide distributions and migration mechanisms at shallow land burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, L.J.; Toste, A.P.; Thomas, C.W.; Rickard, W.H.; Nielson, H.L.; Campbell, R.M.; McShane, M.C.; Wilkerson, C.L.; Robertson, D.E.

    1991-02-01

    During the past several years, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted research at the Maxey Flats Disposal Site (MFDS) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This work has identified the spectrum of radionuclides present in the waste trenches, determined the processes that were occurring relative to degradation of radioactive material within the burial trenches, determined the chemical and physical characteristics of the trench leachates and the chemical forms of the leached radionuclides, determined the mobility of these radionuclides, investigated the subsurface and surface transport processes, determined the biological uptake by the native vegetation, developed strategies for environmental monitoring, and investigated other factors that influence the long-term fate of the radionuclide inventory at the disposal site. This report is a final summary of the research conducted by PNL and presents the results and discussions relative to the above investigative areas. 45 refs., 31 figs., 17 tabs

  14. Engineering evaluation of the 618-9 Burial Ground expedited response action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    Throughout Hanford Site history, chemical waste products were disposed via burial in trenches. One such trench was the 618-9 Burial Ground, located in the 600 Area on the Hanford Site. The 618-9 Burial Ground was suspected to contain approximately 5,000 ga (19,000 L) of uranium contaminated solvent in 55-gal (208-L) steel drums. On December 20, 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) was instructed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) to initiate planning necessary to implement an expedited response action (ERA) for the 618-9 Burial Ground. The project was to be implemented in two phases: (1) removal of immediate human health and environmental hazards and (2) remediation of contaminated soil. Phase 1 of the project was initiated February 15, 1991. During Phase 1 activities approximately 700 gal (2,650 L) of methyl isobutyl ketone (hexone) and 900 gal (3,400 L) of kerosene solvent were removed from the 618-9 Burial Ground. A significant amount of scrap process equipment/building debris was excavated. The results of an environmental risk assessment for chemicals above detection further determined that risks posed by other detected constituents to human health and the environment are negligible. A compilation of activities utilized for determining subsequent remediation activities for the 618-9 Burial Ground is presented. This includes: (1) Phase 1 activities, (2) sampling performed and associated data results, (3) results of the risk assessment, and (4) applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. 13 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Using waterjet in reverse logistic operations in discarded munitions processing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hloch, S.; Tozan, H.; Yagimli, M.; Valíček, Jan; Rokosz, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2011), s. 267-271 ISSN 1330-3651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : abrasive waterjet * anti tank bullet * automatic line Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.347, year: 2011 http://hrcak.srce.hr/search/?q=Using+waterjet+in+reverse+logistic+operations+in+discarded+munitions+processing

  16. Computational Modeling of Hydrodynamics and Scour around Underwater Munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Xu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Munitions deposited in water bodies are a big threat to human health, safety, and environment. It is thus imperative to predict the motion and the resting status of the underwater munitions. A multitude of physical processes are involved, which include turbulent flows, sediment transport, granular material mechanics, 6 degree-of-freedom motion of the munition, and potential liquefaction. A clear understanding of this unique physical setting is currently lacking. Consequently, it is extremely hard to make reliable predictions. In this work, we present the computational modeling of two importance processes, i.e., hydrodynamics and scour, around munition objects. Other physical processes are also considered in our comprehensive model. However, they are not shown in this talk. To properly model the dynamics of the deforming bed and the motion of the object, an immersed boundary method is implemented in the open source CFD package OpenFOAM. Fixed bed and scour cases are simulated and compared with laboratory experiments. The future work of this project will implement the coupling between all the physical processes.

  17. Service life determination of munition during expeditionary missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, W.P.C. de; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    For a more in-depth understanding of the aging processes of munitions in expeditionary operations, research is performed with respect to the influence of transport, storage and use on the safety of ammunition. Within this programme the influences of parameters like temperature, humidity, vibrations,

  18. Preliminary Problem Definition Study on Munitions-Related Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    Thorium-230, Radium-226, Lead- 210 and Polonium - 210 by Plants," Radiat. Bot., 10(3), 293-295. Ernst, W. (1968), "Ecological Studies on Plants Grown on...dechlorane in the environment and its bioconcentration and biomagnifica- tion through the food chain. In mammals, dechlorane has been shown to be tei-atogenic...08 5. Phytotoxicity .o......................208 *6. Environmental Fate ....................... 210 7. Availability of Literature for

  19. SRS Burial Ground Complex: Remediation in Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, M.; Crapse, B.; Cowan, S.

    1998-01-01

    Closure of the various areas in the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) represents a major step in the reduction of risk at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a significant investment of resources. The Burial Ground Complex occupies approximately 195 acres in the central section of the SRS. Approximately 160 acres of the BGC consists of hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites that require remediation. Of these source acres, one-third have been remediated while two-thirds are undergoing interim or final action. These restoration activities have been carried out in a safe and cost effective manner while minimizing impact to operating facilities. Successful completion of these activities is in large part due to the teamwork demonstrated by the Department of Energy, contractor/subcontractor personnel, and the regulatory agencies. The experience and knowledge gained from the closure of these large disposal facilities can be used to expedite closure of similar facilities

  20. The disappearance of European smiths' burials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2015), s. 121-143 ISSN 0959-7743 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M300021203 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : elite * burial * forging tools * symbolic * ritual * prehistory * Early Middle Ages * Marxism-Leninism Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  1. Validation of Passive Sampling Devices for Monitoring of Munitions Constituents in Underwater Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    TNT TOC TSS Low Order Detonation Munitions constituents Munitions Debris Method Detection Limit Munitions and explosives of concern Mean low...Total organic carbon ( TOC ) and grain size distribution from stations A1, T10, T11, and T12 at BSS...16 syringes/stn) TNT, ADNTs, DNTs, RDX 4 locations in BSS based on positive POCIS results Sediment 5 TOC , grain size 4, co-located with sediment

  2. Munitions in the Underwater Environment: State of the Science and Knowledge Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    the Munitions Items Disposition Action System ( MIDAS ). Munitions constituents (MCs) can be identified through the known munitions type. The MIDAS and...physical damage to the casing, adjacent or touching metals, and water or substrate qualities such as temperature, pH, or Redox potential. The...environments, little is known on modeling the fate of MCs in the underwater environment. One of the anticipated problems in predicting the fate and

  3. Evaluation of burial ground soil covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    Solid radioactive waste burial at the Savannah River Plant between 1955 and 1972 filled a 76-acre site. Burial operations then were shifted to an adjacent site, and a program was begun to develop a land cover that would: (1) minimize soil erosion; and (2) protect the buried waste from deep-rooted plants, since radionuclides can be recycled by uptake through root systems. In anticipation of the need for a suitable soil cover, five grass species were planted on 20 plots (4 plots of each species) at the burial ground (Facility 643-G) in 1969. The grass plots were planted for evaluation of viability, root depth, and erosion protection existing under conditions of low fertility and minimum care. In addition, 16 different artificial soil covers were installed on 32 plots (each cover on two plots) to evaluate: (1) resistance of cover to deterioration from weathering; (2) resistance of cover to encroachment by deep-rooted plants; and (3) soil erosion protection provided by the cover. All test plots were observed and photographed in 1970 and in 1974. After both grass and artificial soil covers were tested five years, the following results were observed: Pensacola Bahia grass was the best of the five cover grasses tested; and fifteen of the sixteen artificial covers that were tested controlled vegetation growth and soil erosion. Photographs of the test plots will be retaken at five-year intervals for future documentation

  4. Classification of burial rituals of the cemeteries without burial mounds in regions of the Tsarevskoe ancient settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedashkovsky Leonard F.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Article is dedicated to analysis of burial rituals of the Golden Horde cemeteries without burial mounds in surroundings of the Tsarevskoe ancient settlement. 51 burials (19.9% of total number in mausoleums or in crypts can be attributed as burials of the Golden Horde aristocracy. In the graves found without burial mounds the most wide-spread were of western, south-western and north-western (which could be considered as azimuth deviation from western orientations (they comprise 94.9% of all burials, which are peculiar to the majority of the urban Muslim population of the Golden Horde. However it must be considered that 56 from these burials (21.9% of total number are burials of necropolis of the population of Old Russian settlement of the Vodyanskoe site. Comparing the aristocratic (in mausoleums and crypts burials without burial mounds in the Lower Volga, it is possible conclude that their percentage was significantly higher in the region of the Tsarevskoe settlement, than in other regions; these data allow to assume here the greatest density of residence of settled elite of the Golden Horde. The smallest share of Muslim burials in coffins in the Lower Volga (44.9% and the maximal one of burials with grave goods (13.6% recorded in the region of the Tsarevskoe site. Burial grounds in the region of the Tsarevskoe ancient settlement were in vicinity of the settlements, that is clearly testified about the degree of territorial closeness of cemeteries of settled population of the Golden Horde with urban and rural settlements of the considered period.

  5. Strategic Munitions Planning in Non-Conventional Asymmetric Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Conventional Asymmetric Operations RTO-MP-SAS-081 16 - 3 with a clearly structured, sized and located military force. The principles of Lanchester ...stockpiles and calculated munitions requirements. REFERENCES [1] Prague Summit Declaration, November 2002. [2] J. Fletcher, The Lanchester Legacy... Lanchester battles, Journal of the Operational Research Society, Vol. 50 No. 3, March 1999. [13] W. Freeman, A Study of Ammunition Consumption, Master of

  6. The Political Economy of the Munitions Supply Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    advantage in production, and further identified which munitions products can be procured offshore with only limited effects on operational liabilities...comparative advantage and access to global supply chains. A few options exist: fixed-price contracts may be indexed to exogenously-given input prices and... franchisees bid their true costs.47 Third, once supply is forthcoming, the franchisee has an incentive to minimize costs unless the franchiser is known

  7. Destruction of Chemical Weapons: Evaluation of the Donovan Contained Detonation Chamber (CDC) Poelkapelle, Belgium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeBisschop, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    The Royal Military Academy (RMA) of Belgium was requested by the Belgium Minister of Defense to study alternatives to destroy WWI chemical munitions in an environmentally safe manner (RMA Study F0016...

  8. Trauma-related infections due to cluster munitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Youssef; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Fares, Jawad; Bedrosian, Nora; Yared, Nadine

    2013-12-01

    Trauma-related infections remain a concerning and potentially avoidable complication of conflict-related injuries. During the Israeli conflict in South Lebanon, more than four million sub-munitions were dropped over South Lebanese soil. In this study, we will explore the different types of infection caused by sub-munitions and penetrating agents. This prospective study took place from 2006 to 2012 at the Lebanese University within the Faculty of Medical Sciences' departments. This study sample consisted of 350 injured casualties. Patients suffered from blast injuries with fragmentations targeting the head, face, torso, abdomen, pelvis and extremities. Of the 350 causalities studied, 326 (93.1%) were males, and 24 (6.9%) were females. Ages varied between 10 and 70 years, with the average age being 27 years. Of the 350 patients studied, 68 (19.4%) developed infections. Infections varied between pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, Candida and fungus and sometimes led to necrosis. Vaccinations, antibiotic therapies and proper wound irrigation must be performed at appropriate emergency units. Excision and complete debridement of necrotic and contaminated tissue should also be performed. The Convention on Cluster Munitions of 2008 should be adhered to, as these weapons indiscriminately and disproportionately harm civilians, thereby violating the well-established international principles governing conflict. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-8 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-8 Burial Ground, also referred to as the Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 8, 318-8, and the Early Solid Waste Burial Ground. During its period of operation, the 618-8 site is speculated to have been used to bury uranium-contaminated waste derived from fuel manufacturing, and construction debris from the remodeling of the 313 Building

  10. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-3 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-3 Solid Waste Burial Ground, also referred to as Burial Ground Number 3 and the Dry Waste Burial Ground Number 3. During its period of operation, the 618-3 site was used to dispose of uranium-contaminated construction debris from the 311 Building and construction/demolition debris from remodeling of the 313, 303-J and 303-K Buildings

  11. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.; Anselm, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground. This burial ground, formerly called Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 1, was the original solid waste disposal site for the 100-F Area. Eight trenches contained miscellaneous solid waste from the 105-F Reactor and one trench contained solid waste from the biology facilities

  12. Shallow land burial - why or why not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Ledbetter, J.O.; Rohlich, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes a master's thesis on the state-of-the-art for shallow land burial of solid low-level radioactive wastes. The coverage of the thesis, which is condensed for this paper, ranges from site selection to problem case histories. Inherent in such coverage is the assessment of risk, the discussion of operational and management problems and the real significance of off-site migration. This topic is discussed in light of the stands taken that the migration is a serious problem and that it is not. Emphasis is on the engineering parameters of importance in site selection, and what pretreatment, if any, is needed

  13. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. J. Farris and H. M. Sulloway

    2008-01-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste.

  14. Great Moravian burial grounds in Rajhrad and Rajhradice

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrychová, Soňa

    2015-01-01

    The diploma thesis presented deals with an overall assessment of the Great Moravian burial ground in Rajhrad (Brno- venkov), which was excavated in the years 1972 to 1976. The work is based on a catalogue of this burial ground and the neighbouring one in Rajhradice published by Čeněk Staňa. It follows individual aspects of funeral rites at a necropolis and evaluates the inventory of the graves. Based on the findings, the work dates the burial ground, compares with burial ground in Rajhradice ...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1231 - Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... children and step-children; an individual's brothers, sisters, parents, adoptive parents, and the spouses... are set aside for the burial arrangements of the eligible child's ineligible parent or parent's spouse... separation; i.e., a circumstance beyond an individual's control which makes conversion/separation impossible...

  16. Los Alamos Experimental Engineering Waste Burial Facility: design considerations and preliminary experimental plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Experimental Engineered Waste Burial Facility is a field test site where generic experiments can be performed on several scales to get the basic information necessary to understand the processes occurring in low-level waste disposal facilities. The experiments include hydrological, chemical, mechanical, and biological factors. In order to separate these various factors in the experiments and to extrapolate the experimental results to actual facilities, experiments will be performed on several different scales

  17. 40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation of solid waste military munitions. 266.203 Section 266.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS... applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for hazardous waste...

  18. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section 266.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS... applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for hazardous waste regulation of...

  19. 28 CFR 0.89 - Authority to seize arms and munitions of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... war. 0.89 Section 0.89 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.89 Authority to seize arms and munitions of war. The Director... arms and munitions of war, and other articles, pursuant to section 1 of title VI of the act of June 15...

  20. Validation of Passive Sampling Devices for Monitoring of Munitions Constituents in Underwater Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Research and Development Program [SERDP] project #ER-2542) into the canister would provide enhancement of the quantitative estimation of the TWA...Department of Defense EOD Explosive Ordnance Disposal EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency EQL Environmental Quantitation Limit EST...Laboratory Quantitation Limit MC Munitions Constituents mL Milliliter MR Munitions Response NESDI Navy’s Environmental Security Development to

  1. Dialectics of Burial and Teritoriality in Barclays Ayakoroma's A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is conceived to investigate the subjects of death, burial, pride and territorial supremacy in African drama with special focus on A Matter of Honour by Barclays Ayakoroma. The study becomes crucial because the question of burial and struggle over rights of possession of a corpse by two parties has become a ...

  2. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake J Beaulieu

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams can increase watershed-scale N retention.

  3. Customary right to befitting burial: a jurisprudential appraisal of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These symbols reveal unique rights for the people's entitlement. Among the rights to which an African is entitled is the right to befitting burial/funerals. This right comes with it, certain duties and/or obligations. The aim of this paper is to deconstruct the elements of applicable burial customs with a view to demonstrating their ...

  4. Project TN-030: hydrogeology - ORNL radioactive waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Continuation of an effort started in 1980, the water-level and precipitation data collected during the early years of the project were compiled into a series of five basic data reports. Technical advice on the design of piezometers in Burial Ground 5 was provided, and their construction has been monitored. Field work has continued, principally in Burial Grounds 5 and 6

  5. URBAN STREAM BURIAL INCREASES WATERSHED-SCALE NITRATE EXPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial reduces the capacity of streams to remove nitrate (NO3-) from the water column by in...

  6. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation

  7. "Interred with their bones" - linking soil micromorphology and chemistry to unlock the hidden archive of archaeological human burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothwell, Don; Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Keely, Brendan; Pickering, Matt; Wilson, Clare

    2010-05-01

    "Interred with their bones" Acronym: InterArChive - an ERC-funded project *** " Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; " I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. " The evil that men do lives after them; " The good is oft 'interred with their bones'; " So let it be with Caesar. William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act III, Scene 2. *** Background The state of decay within soils in archaeological graves is often such that degradable objects are not preserved in a condition that can be visually recognised. However, microscopic soil features, inorganic element distributions and organic residues can be measured. Thus, archaeological burial soils have the potential to reveal signatures of decay; pre-burial treatment; presence and nature of associated clothing and perishable artefacts; diet of the individual; cause of death; evidence of morbidity and drug-use. Aims • To develop and test a multidisciplinary approach linking soil micromorphology and chemistry to recover environmental and cultural information; • Revealing the hidden archaeological archive within the burial soil • Developing soil sampling and analysis recommendations for archaeological human burials Methods 1: Sampling and soil field description from archaeological sites contrasting in soil, geology, age, and culture and from experimental piglet burials 2: Microscopic/micromorphological analysis (micro-scale observations) of remains and features in burial soils. We will establish the order of occurrence, spatial patterns, displacement, mode of formation and decay of micromorphological features including exotic components, parasites, hair and remnants of footwear and clothing [cf. pilot study of soils from Yemen]; microfabrics and textural pedofeatures, also to facilitate resolution of body decay products from other accumulations. 3: Microprobe analysis (nano-scale) will generate elemental maps of soil thin sections, allowing identification of features with distinct chemical signatures

  8. Low-level waste shallow burial assessment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Little, C.A.; Emerson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Exposures from Shallow Trench Operationns) is a computer code developed under United States Environmental Protection Agency funding to evaluate possible health effects from radionuclide releases from shallow, radioctive-waste disposal trenches and from areas contaminated with operational spillage. The model is intended to predict radionuclide transport and the ensuing exposure and health impact to a stable, local population for a 1000-year period following closure of the burial grounds. Several classes of submodels are used in PRESTO to represent scheduled events, unit system responses, and risk evaluation processes. The code is modular to permit future expansion and refinement. Near-surface transport mechanisms considered in the PRESTO code are cap failure, cap erosion, farming or reclamation practices, human intrusion, chemical exchange within an active surface soil layer, contamination from trench overflow, and dilution by surface streams. Subsurface processes include infiltration and drainage into the trench, the ensuing solubilization of radionuclides, and chemical exchange between trench water and buried solids. Mechanisms leading to contaminated outflow include trench overflow and downwad vertical percolation. If the latter outflow reaches an aquifer, radiological exposure from irrigation or domestic consumption is considered. Airborne exposure terms are evaluated using the Gaussian plume atmospheric transport formulation as implemented by Fields and Miller

  9. Uprooting and burial of invasive alien plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollmann, Johannes Christian; Brink-Jensen, Kasper; Frandsen, Sally I.

    2011-01-01

    (Japanese Rose), an invasive shrub in north-western Europe with negative effects on coastal biodiversity. Two months after uprooting and burial in dunes of north-eastern Denmark, 89% of the 58 shrubs resprouted from roots and rhizomes; on average 41 resprouts per shrub. Resprout density was twice as high...... at former shrub margins compared with the center; resprouts were taller and originated from more superficial soil layers at the margin than in the center. Resprouting was negatively correlated with fragment depth, and no resprouts were observed from greater than 15 cm depth. The number of resprouts...... increased with fragment dry mass (0.5–168.5 g). After 18 months with harrowing the species was still resprouting, flowering, and fruiting, albeit with no difference between shrub margin and center. Resprouts were taller (26 cm) and coverage was higher (0–4%) after two compared with three times harrowing...

  10. Managing soil moisture on waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.E.; Ratzlaff, T.D.

    1991-11-01

    Shallow land burial is a common method of disposing of industrial, municipal, and low-level radioactive waste. The exclusion of water from buried wastes is a primary objective in designing and managing waste disposal sites. If wastes are not adequately isolated, water from precipitation may move through the landfill cover and into the wastes. The presence of water in the waste zone may promote the growth of plant roots to that depth and result in the transport of toxic materials to above-ground foliage. Furthermore, percolation of water through the waste zone may transport contaminants into ground water. This report presents results from a field study designed to assess the the potential for using vegetation to deplete soil moisture and prevent water from reaching buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Our results show that this approach may provide an economical means of limiting the intrusion of water on waste sites

  11. Burial of a Man-At-Arms in Kudash I Burial Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazantseva Olga A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article features a comprehensive analysis of items discovered in male burial 160 of Kudash I burial ground – a unique source of materials for the research of interactions between the local and foreign population on the Middle Kama region in 3rd – 5th centuries A.D. The monument is located in Bardymsky district of Perm Krai. The complex of metal objects comprises a set of personal protective armament rarely discovered in the Kama region: an open-work helmet, a set of plate armour, a sword, a spear head, a knife and "crooked scythes". The article contains a description of the grave, its structure, morphology and classification of findings, as well as the results of an investigation of the manufacturing technology of the following armament and implements: sword, spear head, knife, and "crooked scythe" conducted using the metallographic method. It also features a graphical reconstruction of the warriors’s protective armament – the helmet. The authors determined counterparts of the grave complex discovered at archaeological sites in the Middle Kama region and the Altai Mountains. The apparel of the man-at-arms represents a unique set of protective and offensive armament. The armour of the deceased is complemented by an open-work ceremonial helmet with an aventail, which suggests that the grave belonged to a military commander. The date of burial was determined on the basis of artefact study results as late 4th – early 5th centuries A.D.

  12. Ground-penetrating radar in characterizing and monitoring waste-burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandness, G.A.; Kimball, C.S.

    1982-02-01

    Potential environmental hazards are associated with buried chemical and nuclear wastes because of the possibilities of inadvertent excavation or migration of toxic chemicals or radionuclides into groundwater or surface water bodies. Concern is often related to the fact that many existing waste burial sites have been found to be inadequately designed and/or poorly documented. New technology and innovative applications of current technology are needed to locate, characterize, and monitor the wastes contained in such sites. The work described in this paper is focused on the use of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) for those purposes

  13. Depleted uranium instead of lead in munitions: the lesser evil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-03-01

    Uranium has many similarities to lead in its exposure mechanisms, metabolism and target organs. However, lead is more toxic, which is reflected in the threshold limit values. The main potential hazard associated with depleted uranium is inhalation of the aerosols created when a projectile hits an armoured target. A person can be exposed to lead in similar ways. Accidental dangerous exposures can result from contact with both substances. Encountering uranium fragments is of minor significance because of the low penetration depth of alpha particles emitted by uranium: they are unable to penetrate even the superficial keratin layer of human skin. An additional cancer risk attributable to the uranium exposure might be significant only in case of prolonged contact of the contaminant with susceptible tissues. Lead intoxication can be observed in the wounded, in workers manufacturing munitions etc; moreover, lead has been documented to have a negative impact on the intellectual function of children at very low blood concentrations. It is concluded on the basis of the literature overview that replacement of lead by depleted uranium in munitions would be environmentally beneficial or largely insignificant because both lead and uranium are present in the environment.

  14. Depleted uranium instead of lead in munitions: the lesser evil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    Uranium has many similarities to lead in its exposure mechanisms, metabolism and target organs. However, lead is more toxic, which is reflected in the threshold limit values. The main potential hazard associated with depleted uranium is inhalation of the aerosols created when a projectile hits an armoured target. A person can be exposed to lead in similar ways. Accidental dangerous exposures can result from contact with both substances. Encountering uranium fragments is of minor significance because of the low penetration depth of alpha particles emitted by uranium: they are unable to penetrate even the superficial keratin layer of human skin. An additional cancer risk attributable to the uranium exposure might be significant only in case of prolonged contact of the contaminant with susceptible tissues. Lead intoxication can be observed in the wounded, in workers manufacturing munitions etc; moreover, lead has been documented to have a negative impact on the intellectual function of children at very low blood concentrations. It is concluded on the basis of the literature overview that replacement of lead by depleted uranium in munitions would be environmentally beneficial or largely insignificant because both lead and uranium are present in the environment. (opinion)

  15. 20000G shock energy harvesters for gun-fired munition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemin, J.; Boisseau, S.; Olmos, L.; Gallardo, M.; Despesse, G.; Robert, T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a 20000G shock energy harvester dedicated to gun-fired munitions and based on a mass-spring resonant structure coupled to a coil-magnet electromagnetic converter. The 20000G shock energy is firstly stored in the spring as elastic potential energy, released as mass-spring mechanical oscillations right after the shock and finally converted into electricity thanks to the coil-magnet transducer. The device has been modeled, sized to generate 200mJ in 150ms, manufactured and tested in a gun-fired munition. The prototype sizes 117cm 3 and weighs 370g. 210mJ have been generated in a test bench and 140mJ in real conditions; this corresponds to a mean output power of 0.93W (7.9mW/cm 3 ) and a maximum output power of 4.83W (41.3mW/cm 3 ) right after the shock. (paper)

  16. 20000G shock energy harvesters for gun-fired munition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemin, J.; Boisseau, S.; Olmos, L.; Gallardo, M.; Despesse, G.; Robert, T.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a 20000G shock energy harvester dedicated to gun-fired munitions and based on a mass-spring resonant structure coupled to a coil-magnet electromagnetic converter. The 20000G shock energy is firstly stored in the spring as elastic potential energy, released as mass-spring mechanical oscillations right after the shock and finally converted into electricity thanks to the coil-magnet transducer. The device has been modeled, sized to generate 200mJ in 150ms, manufactured and tested in a gun-fired munition. The prototype sizes 117cm3 and weighs 370g. 210mJ have been generated in a test bench and 140mJ in real conditions; this corresponds to a mean output power of 0.93W (7.9mW/cm3) and a maximum output power of 4.83W (41.3mW/cm3) right after the shock.

  17. About the problem of self-burial of radioactive wasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosachevskij, L.Ya.; Syui, L.S.

    1999-01-01

    Problem dealing with self-burial of finite thickness spherical container with radioactive waste into the melting rock was approached. The elaborated mathematical model in contrast to the available ones takes account of thermal losses in the hard rock and in the melting behind the container as well as, the back heat release at melting hardening. Calculation conducted for the particular case of self-burial into granite demonstrates that accounting of these factors increases essentially the maximum permissible radius when container remains in the solid state and decreases the rate of its burial [ru

  18. Formulation development and characterization of cellulose acetate nitrate based propellants for improved insensitive munitions properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate nitrate (CAN was used as an insensitive energetic binder to improve the insensitive munitions (IM properties of gun propellants to replace the M1 propellant used in 105 mm artillery charges. CAN contains the energetic nitro groups found in nitrocellulose (NC, but also acetyl functionalities, which lowered the polymer's sensitivity to heat and shock, and therefore improved its IM properties relative to NC. The formulation, development and small-scale characterization testing of several CAN-based propellants were done. The formulations, using insensitive energetic solid fillers and high-nitrogen modifiers in place of nitramine were completed. The small scale characterization testing, such as closed bomb testing, small scale sensitivity, thermal stability, and chemical compatibility were done. The mechanical response of the propellants under high-rate uni-axial compression at, hot, cold, and ambient temperatures were also completed. Critical diameter testing, hot fragment conductive ignition (HFCI tests were done to evaluate the propellants' responses to thermal and shock stimuli. Utilizing the propellant chemical composition, theoretical predictions of erosivity were completed. All the small scale test results were utilized to down-select the promising CAN based formulations for large scale demonstration testing such as the ballistic performance and fragment impact testing in the 105 mm M67 artillery charge configurations. The test results completed in the small and large scale testing are discussed.

  19. Bioconcentration factors and plant-water partition coefficients of munitions compounds in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba-Sanchez, Tifany L; Kuo, Dave T F; Allen, Herbert E; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2017-12-01

    Plants growing in the soils at military ranges and surrounding locations are exposed, and potentially able to uptake, munitions compounds (MCs). The extent to which a compound is transferred from the environment into organisms such as plants, referred to as bioconcentration, is conventionally measured through uptake experiments with field/synthetic soils. Multiple components/phases that vary among different soil types and affect the bioavailability of the MC, however, hinder the ability to separate the effects of soil characteristics from the MC chemical properties on the resulting plant bioconcentration. To circumvent the problem, this work presents a protocol to measure steady state bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for MCs in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using inert laboratory sand rather than field/synthetic soils. Three MCs: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), and 2,4-dinitroanisole (2,4-DNAN), and two munition-like compounds (MLCs): 4-nitroanisole (4-NAN) and 2-methoxy-5-nitropyridine (2-M-5-NPYNE) were evaluated. Approximately constant plant biomass and exposure concentrations were achieved within a one-month period that produced steady state log BCF values: 0.62 ± 0.02, 0.70 ± 0.03, 1.30 ± 0.06, 0.52 ± 0.03, and 0.40 ± 0.05 L kg plant dwt -1 for TNT, 2,4-DNT, 2,4-DNAN, 4-NAN, and 2-M-5-NPYNE, respectively. Furthermore, results suggest that the upper-bounds of the BCFs can be estimated within an order of magnitude by measuring the partitioning of the compounds between barley biomass and water. This highlights the importance of partition equilibrium as a mechanism for the uptake of MCs and MLCs by barley from interstitial water. The results from this work provide chemically meaningful data for prediction models able to estimate the bioconcentration of these contaminants in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Micromorphological Aspects of Forensic Geopedology II: Ultramicroscopic vs Microscopic Characterization of Phosphatic Impregnations on Soil Particles in Experimental Burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, S. I. E.; Trombino, L.; Cattaneo, C.

    2012-04-01

    Grows up the importance of the role played by soil scientists in the modern forensic sciences, in particular when buried human remains strongly decomposed or skeletonized are found in different environment situations. Among the different techniques normally used in geopedology, it is usefull to apply in such forensic cases, soil micromorphology (including optical microscopy and ultramicroscopy) that has been underused up today, for various kind of reasons. An interdisciplinary Italian-team, formed by earth scientists and legal medicine, is working on several sets of experimental burial of pigs and piglets in different soil types and for different times of burial, in order to get new evidences on environmental behaviour related to the burial, focalising on geopedological and micropedological aspects. The present work is focused on: - ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) characterization of the phosphatic impregnation (by body fluids) on soils sampled under the dead bodies of five couples of pigs, buried respectively for one month, six month, one year, two years and two years and half in two different areas; - microscopic (petrographic microscope) and ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) cross characterization of the phosphatic impregnation (by body fluids) on soils sampled under the dead bodies of several piglets, buried for twenty months. The first results show trends of persistency of such phosphatic features, mainly related to the grain size of the impregnated soil particles and weather conditions (or seasons) of exhumation, while apparently time since burial is only marginally effective for the investigated burial period. Further experiments are in progress in order to clarify the pathways of phosphorus precipitation and leaching for longer times of burial and different seasons of exhumation, both from the microscopic and the pedological/chemical point of view.

  1. Treatment of Bottled Liquid Waste During Remediation of the Hanford 618-10 Burial Ground - 13001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulk, Darrin E.; Pearson, Chris M.; Vedder, Barry L.; Martin, David W.

    2013-01-01

    A problematic waste form encountered during remediation of the Hanford Site 618-10 burial ground consists of bottled aqueous waste potentially contaminated with regulated metals. The liquid waste requires stabilization prior to landfill disposal. Prior remediation activities at other Hanford burial grounds resulted in a standard process for sampling and analyzing liquid waste using manual methods. Due to the highly dispersible characteristics of alpha contamination, and the potential for shock sensitive chemicals, a different method for bottle processing was needed for the 618-10 burial ground. Discussions with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to development of a modified approach. The modified approach involves treatment of liquid waste in bottles, up to one gallon per bottle, in a tray or box within the excavation of the remediation site. Bottles are placed in the box, covered with soil and fixative, crushed, and mixed with a Portland cement grout. The potential hazards of the liquid waste preclude sampling prior to treatment. Post treatment verification sampling is performed to demonstrate compliance with land disposal restrictions and disposal facility acceptance criteria. (authors)

  2. Treatment of Bottled Liquid Waste During Remediation of the Hanford 618-10 Burial Ground - 13001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulk, Darrin E.; Pearson, Chris M.; Vedder, Barry L.; Martin, David W. [Washington Closure Hanford, LLC, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A problematic waste form encountered during remediation of the Hanford Site 618-10 burial ground consists of bottled aqueous waste potentially contaminated with regulated metals. The liquid waste requires stabilization prior to landfill disposal. Prior remediation activities at other Hanford burial grounds resulted in a standard process for sampling and analyzing liquid waste using manual methods. Due to the highly dispersible characteristics of alpha contamination, and the potential for shock sensitive chemicals, a different method for bottle processing was needed for the 618-10 burial ground. Discussions with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to development of a modified approach. The modified approach involves treatment of liquid waste in bottles, up to one gallon per bottle, in a tray or box within the excavation of the remediation site. Bottles are placed in the box, covered with soil and fixative, crushed, and mixed with a Portland cement grout. The potential hazards of the liquid waste preclude sampling prior to treatment. Post treatment verification sampling is performed to demonstrate compliance with land disposal restrictions and disposal facility acceptance criteria. (authors)

  3. Modeling of Sediment Mechanics for Mine Burial Prediction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brandes, Horst

    2004-01-01

    Numerical model development and testing were carried out for the purpose of assessing the influence of seafloor liquefaction on the burial of mines in shallow water due to cyclic loading by surface water waves...

  4. Waste migration studies at the Savannah River Plant burial ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Oblath, S.B.; Hawkins, R.H.; Grant, M.W.; Hoeffner, S.L.; King, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste burial ground at the Savannah River Plant is a typical shallow-land-burial disposal site in a humid region. Studies of waste migration at this site provide generic data for designing other disposal facilities. A program of field, laboratory, and modeling studies for the SRP burial ground has been conducted for several years. Recent results of lysimeter tests, soil-water chemistry studies, and transport modeling are reported. The lysimeter experiments include ongoing tests with 40 lysimeters containing a variety of defense wastes, and recently concluded lysimeter tests with tritium and plutonium waste forms. The tritium lysimeter operated 12 years. In chemistry studies, measurements of soil-water distribution coefficients (K/sub d/) were concluded. Current emphasis is on identification of trace organic compounds in groundwater from the burial site. Development of the dose-to-man model was completed, and the computer code is available for routine use. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Optimization of Intelligent Munition Warfare Using Agent-Based Simulation Software and Design of Experiments Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Floersheim, Bruce; Hou, Gene

    2006-01-01

    ... mechanism for a number of vehicles caught in the killzone. Thus, it is useful to study and attempt to model through equations and simulation the interaction between enemy agents and these new munitions...

  6. National Security Strategy and the Munitions' Paradox: Self-Sufficiency or Maximum Efficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McChesney, Michael

    1998-01-01

    ... that the United States military strategy may not be credible to likely regional aggressors. Conversely, DoD acquisition leadership believes industry consolidation should continue and the munitions base should be expanded to include US allies...

  7. Energetic materials standards – Chemical compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuukkanen, I.M.; Bouma, R.H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Subgroup A Energetic Materials Team, SG/A (EMT), develops and maintains standards that are relevant to all life-cycle phases of ammunition/weapon systems. STANAG 4147 is the standard regarding chemical compatibility of explosives with munition components, and is a document of prime importance.

  8. Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffenden, R.; Kimmell, T.

    2002-01-01

    This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable

  9. U.S. Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity (ATTACC) for Munitions (AFM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Army Training Support Center USDA United States Department of Agriculture USGS United States Geological Survey USLE Universal Soil Loss Equation...Range condition is a function of climate, soil , and hydrology. The munitions impact, constituent load, and range condition are modeled using AFM...For ArcGIS v2 to attain expected concentrations of munitions constituents and corresponding risk due to exposure through soil - and water-related

  10. Tritium in the burial ground of the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder, M.L.

    1993-06-01

    This memorandum reviews the available information on tritium-contaminated material discarded to burial grounds. Tritium was the first isotope studied because it represents the most immediate concern with regard to release to the environment. Substantial amounts of tritium are known to be present in the ground water underneath the area, and outcropping of this ground water in springs and seeps has been observed. The response to this release of tritium from the burial ground is a current concern. The amount of tritium emplaced in the burial ground facilities is very uncertain, however, some general conclusions can be made. In particular, most of the tritium buried is associated with spent equipment and other waste, rather than spent melts. Correspondingly, most of the tritium in the ground water seems to be associated with burials of this type, rather than the spent melts. Maps are presented showing the location of burials of tritiated waste by type, and the location of the largest individual burials according to COBRA records

  11. Packaging design criteria modified fuel spacer burial box. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    Various Hanford facilities must transfer large radioactively contaminated items to burial/storage. Presently, there are eighteen Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (FSBBs) available on the Hanford Site for transport of such items. Previously, the FSBBS were transported from a rail car to the burial trench via a drag-off operation. To allow for the lifting of the boxes into the burial trench, it will be necessary to improve the packagings lifting attachments and provide structural reinforcement. Additional safety improvements to the packaging system will be provided by the addition of a positive closure system and package ventilation. FSBBs that are modified in such a manner are referred to as Modified Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (MFSBs). The criteria provided by this PDC will be used to demonstrate that the transfer of the MFSB will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by a package meeting offsite transportation requirements. This fulfills the onsite transportation safety requirements implemented in WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. A Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) will be prepared to evaluate the safety of the transfer operation. Approval of the SARP is required to authorize transfer. Criteria are also established to ensure burial requirements are met

  12. Safety analysis of the Chernobyl accident origin decontamination waste burials in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skurat, V.V.; Shiryaeva, N.M.; Myshkina, N.K.; Gvozdev, A.A.; Serebryanyj, G.Z.; Golikova, N.B.

    2002-01-01

    Potential dangerous of the decontamination waste burials was estimated by means of the generalized multicompartmental model. Characteristics of 24 the most large and unfavorable decontamination waste burials are shown and an estimate of their safety is given. The burial effect zones were determined (100-300 m). A reliability of the forecasting estimate of potential dangerous radioactive contamination of ground waters near the burials was checked on example of the Dudichi decontamination waste burial

  13. Bioinspired polarization navigation sensor for autonomous munitions systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakos, G. C.; Quang, T.; Farrahi, T.; Deshpande, A.; Narayan, C.; Shrestha, S.; Li, Y.; Agarwal, M.

    2013-05-01

    Small unmanned aerial vehicles UAVs (SUAVs), micro air vehicles (MAVs), Automated Target Recognition (ATR), and munitions guidance, require extreme operational agility and robustness which can be partially offset by efficient bioinspired imaging sensor designs capable to provide enhanced guidance, navigation and control capabilities (GNC). Bioinspired-based imaging technology can be proved useful either for long-distance surveillance of targets in a cluttered environment, or at close distances limited by space surroundings and obstructions. The purpose of this study is to explore the phenomenology of image formation by different insect eye architectures, which would directly benefit the areas of defense and security, on the following four distinct areas: a) fabrication of the bioinspired sensor b) optical architecture, c) topology, and d) artificial intelligence. The outcome of this study indicates that bioinspired imaging can impact the areas of defense and security significantly by dedicated designs fitting into different combat scenarios and applications.

  14. The health hazards of depleted uranium munitions. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Depleted uranium is a toxic and weakly radioactive metal used for a variety of purposes. Perhaps its most controversial use is in battlefield munitions, where it can be widely dispersed in the form of fine particles and shrapnel that may enter the bodies of combatants and others through inhalation, ingestion or wounding. It is a matter of legitimate public concern whether the use of this material in this way could create unacceptable health hazards or damage to the environment. The objective of our study has been to provide the best scientific understanding of the ways in which the material may be distributed, how it may be taken up by humans, and the potential implications for health. For politicians, any hazards to health have to be balanced against the military advantages that the use of these munitions confers. We have not tried to reach a judgment on these political issues, but we believe that a better scientific understanding of the extent of the hazards will make it easier for these wider questions to be addressed in a more objective way. This report is the first of two, and addresses the likely levels of exposure to depleted uranium, the resulting radiological risks, and the lessons to be learned from epidemiological studies. Our second report will address toxicological risks and environmental issues. So far, we conclude that risks from radiation are low for most soldiers on the battlefield, and for civilians who later return to the area. However, there are uncertainties about the maximal levels of exposure to depleted uranium on the battlefield, and there may be circumstances in which a few soldiers are exposed to levels of depleted uranium that result in a significant risk to health. Further studies are needed to determine the levels of exposure to depleted uranium that might occur on the battlefield and to judge whether such higher risks are likely to occur in practice

  15. Ferroan dolomite cement in Cambrian sandstones: burial history and hydrocarbon generation of the Baltic sedimentary basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sliaupa, S.; Cyziene, J.; Molenaar, Nicolaas

    2008-01-01

    The conditions and timing of carbonate cementation in Cambrian sandstones of the Baltic sedimentary basin were determined by oxygen and carbon stable isotope and chemical data in combination with optical and cathodoluminescence petrographic studies. Studied samples represent a range in present...... burial depth from 340 to 2150 m. The carbonate cement is dominantly ferroan dolomite that occurs as dispersed patches of poikilotopic crystals. Temperatures of dolomite precipitation, based on delta O-18 values, range from 27 degrees C in the shallow buried to 95 degrees C in the deep buried sandstones...

  16. Effects of urban stream burial on nitrogen uptake and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanization has resulted in extensive burial and channelization of headwater streams, yet little is known about impacts on stream ecosystem functions critical for reducing downstream nitrogen pollution. To characterize the biogeochemical impact of stream burial, we measured NO3- uptake, using 15N-NO3- isotope tracer releases, and whole stream metabolism, during four seasons in three paired buried and open streams reaches within the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long-term Ecological Research Network. Stream burial increased NO3- uptake lengths, by a factor of 7.5 (p < 0.01) and decreased nitrate uptake velocity and areal nitrate uptake rate by factors of 8.2 (p = 0.01) and 9.6 (p < 0.001), respectively. Stream burial decreased gross primary productivity by a factor of 9.2 (p < 0.05) and decreased ecosystem respiration by a factor of 4.2 (p = 0.06). From statistical analysis of Excitation Emissions Matrices (EEMs), buried streams were also found to have significantly less labile dissolved organic matter. Furthermore, buried streams had significantly lower transient storage and water temperatures. Overall, differences in NO3- uptake and metabolism were primarily explained by decreased transient storage and light availability in buried streams. We estimate that stream burial increases daily watershed nitrate export by as much as 500% due to decreased in-stream retention and may considerably decrease carbon export via decreased primary production. These results

  17. Groundwater monitoring in the Savannah River Plant Low Level Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.

    1983-12-31

    This document describes chemical mechanisms that may affect trace-level radionuclide migration through acidic sandy clay soils in a humid environment, and summarizes the extensive chemical and radiochemical analyses of the groundwater directly below the SRP Low-Level Waste (LLW) Burial Ground (643-G). Anomalies were identified in the chemistry of individual wells which appear to be related to small amounts of fission product activity that have reached the water table. The chemical properties which were statistically related to trace level transport of Cs-137 and Sr-90 were iron, potassium, sodium and calcium. Concentrations on the order of 100 ppM appear sufficient to affect nuclide migration. Several complexation mechanisms for plutonium migration were investigated.

  18. Burial history of two potential clay host formations in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, J.; Wouters, L.; Van Marcke, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    When dealing with long term stability of repository host rocks, it is important to consider and learn from all past geological events since the deposition of the formations. The burial history of the Boom Clay and Ypresian Clays, both considered as potential host rocks in Belgium, illustrates that the North Belgian region was tectonically relatively stable since deposition. In Northern Belgium, where both formations are located at a few hundreds meters of depth, tectonic movements were relatively small and no significant uplifts took place. The burial history of the Boom Clay in Mol, where the HADES underground research facility is located illustrates this. On the poster, the burial history for both formations is presented at two locations each: one location in the outcrop region and one research site location, where the formation is currently buried under a few 100 metres of sediment. (authors)

  19. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhuang

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  20. Organic Carbon Burial in Brazilian Mangrove Sediments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, C.; Smoak, J. M.; Sanders, L.; Patchineelam, S.

    2010-12-01

    This study reviews the organic carbon (OC) burial rates in mangrove forests, margins and mud flats in geographically distinct areas of the Brazilian coastline. We exam the burial rates, taking into account the geomorphology of each region. Our initial results indicate that the Northeastern region of Brazil is sequestering significantly more OC than in the Southeastern areas, being that the mass sediment accumulation rates remained consistent within the forests as opposed to large variations found in the mudflats. The other pertinent factor was OC content, which differed substantially in respect to region. Given that the mangrove forests of the Southeastern regions of Brazil may be more susceptible to a rising sea level, as these areas are constricted by vast mountain ranges, this work attempts to put in perspective the possible impacts of climate change on mangrove ecosystems and OC burial along the Brazilian coastal ocean. We also compare our result to global averages.

  1. The Semiotics of Pemature Burial: Feminism in a Postfeminist Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hawkesworth

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I will explore how the death of feminism is represented in order to plumb the larger meanings embedded in proclamations of feminism’s symbolic death. I will begin by investigating two mechanisms by which feminism’s death has been produced to unearth the tacit values of feminism’s morticians. I will then consider competing accounts of the “signs of death” in order to explore how particular assumptions about the ontology of feminism are tied to specific forms of metaphorical death. Given the particular kind of distortion involved in the premature burial of a thriving global feminism, the final section of the article situates contemporary feminism’s death knell in the context of a gendered history of live burial practices. By excavating and interpreting such archaic practices, I will link the rhetorical burial of contemporary feminism to an ongoing effort to undermine feminist struggles for social justice.

  2. 618-11 Burial Ground USRADS radiological surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendling, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes and documents the results of the radiological surveys conducted from February 4 through February 10, 1993 over the 618-11 Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. In addition, this report explains the survey methodology using the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS). The 618-11 Burial Ground radiological survey field task consisted of two activities: characterization of the specific background conditions and the radiological survey of the area. The radiological survey of the 618-11 Burial Ground, along with the background study, were conducted by Site Investigative Surveys Environmental Restoration Health Physics Organization of the Westinghouse Hanford Company. The survey methodology was based on utilization of the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) for automated recording of the gross gamma radiation levels at or near six (6) inches and at three (3) feet from the surface soil

  3. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  4. Soil Burial of Polylactic Acid/Paddy Straw Powder Biocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorulnajwa Diyana Yaacob

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the biodegradability of polylactic acid (PLA/paddy straw powder (PSP biocomposites. Environmental degradation was evaluated by composting the biocomposite samples into the soil. Different techniques, including mechanical tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, were used to obtain a view of the degradation that occurred during the soil burial of the biocomposites. Results of the mechanical tests showed that an increasing content of PSP in the biocomposites decreased the tensile strength and elongation at break (EB, while it increased the modulus of elasticity after six months of exposure. Scanning electron microscopy on the surface after soil burial showed that the filler was poorly wetted by the matrix. This explains the reduction in tensile strength and the elongation at break after soil burial. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the crystallinity of the biocomposites increased with longer composting periods.

  5. 48 CFR 225.770 - Prohibition on acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. 225.770 Section 225... of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. This section...

  6. 48 CFR 252.225-7007 - Prohibition on Acquisition of United States Munitions List Items from Communist Chinese Military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of United States Munitions List Items from Communist Chinese Military Companies. 252.225-7007 Section... Chinese Military Companies. As prescribed in 225.1103(4), use the following clause: Prohibition On Acquisition of United States Munitions List Items From Communist Chinese Military Companies (SEP 2006) (a...

  7. Free span burial inspection pig. Phase B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This report deals with design and construction of a pipeline pig for on-line internal inspection of offshore trenched gas pipelines for pipeline burial, free spans, exposures and loss of concrete weight coating. The measuring principle uses detection of the natural gamma radiation emitted by sea bed formations and the concrete coating of the pipe to map pipeline condition. The gamma ray flux penetrating to the internal side of the pipeline is an effect of the outside conditions. The measuring principle was confirmed in a occasionally present in the gas, blurred seriously sensor signals of the previous instrumentation. The continued project activities have been divided in two phases. Phase A comprised design and construction of a detector system, which could identify and quantify radioactive components from decay of radon-222. During Phase A a new gamma detector was tested in full scale exposed to radon-222. New data analysis procedures for the correction for the influence of radon-222 inside the pipeline, where developed and its utility successfully demonstrated. During Phase B the new detector was mounted in a pipeline pig constructed for inspection of 30-inch gas pipelines. Working conditions were demonstrated in three runs through the southern route of the DONG owned 30-inch gas pipelines crossing the Danish strait named the Great Belt. The FSB-technology found 88% of the free spans identified with the latest acoustic survey. The FSB-technology found in addition 22 free spans that were termed ''invisible'', because they were not identified by the most recent acoustic survey. It is believed that ''invisible free spans'' are either real free spans or locations, where the pipeline has no or very little support from deposits in the pipeline trench. The FSB-survey confirmed all exposed sections longer than 20 metres found by the acoustic survey in the first 21 kilometre of the pipeline. However, the FSB-survey underestimated

  8. Estimated erosion rate at the SRP burial ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.H.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1978-04-01

    The rate of soil erosion at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) burial ground can be calculated by means of the universal soil loss equation. Erosion rates estimated by the equation are more suitable for long-term prediction than those which could be measured with a reasonable effort in field studies. The predicted erosion rate at the SRP burial ground ranges from 0.0007 cm/year under stable forest cover to 0.38 cm/year if farmed with cultivated crops. These values correspond to 170,000 and 320 years, respectively, to expose waste buried 4 ft deep

  9. Taenia sp. in human burial from Kan River, East Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepchenko, Sergey Mikhailovich; Ivanov, Sergey Nikolaevich; Vybornov, Anton Vasilevich; Alekseevich, Tsybankov Alexander; Sergeyevich, Slavinsky Vyacheslav; Lysenko, Danil Nikolaevich; Matveev, Vyacheslav Evgenievich

    2017-05-01

    We present an arhaeoparasitological analysis of a unique burial from the Neftprovod II burial ground in East Siberia, which dated from the Bronze Age. Analysis of a sediment sample from the sacral region of the pelvis revealed the presence of Taenia sp. eggs. Because uncooked animal tissue is the primary source of Taenia, this indicated that the individual was likely consuming raw or undercooked meat of roe deer, red deer, or elk infected with Taenia. This finding represents the oldest case of a human infected with Taenia sp. from Eastern Siberia and Russia.

  10. Alternatives to the burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J. Mark

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The approach for management of LLRW in different countries has evolved differently due to many factors such as culture and public sentiment, systems of government, public policy, and geography. There are also various methods to disposition LLRW including but not limited to: - Long term statutes and unconditional or conditional release of material, - Direct Burial, - Treatment (Processing) → Burial, - Treatment → Unconditional Release, - Recycle for Unconditional Release or Reuse Within Any Industry, - Controlled Recycle within Nuclear Industry. (author)

  11. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Risk Analysis of the Continued Storage of Chemical Munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    assessment. has been utilized in various industries for some time. Insurance companies have long used actuarial data for statistical eva- luations to justify...hand, are examples of major industry efforts to quantify risks of low-frequency events for which no good actuarial data exist. The nuclear power...not all the components exhibit the asm reliability. Intrinsic variations can N be caused, for example, by different ianupacturers, mrinten.c prac- tices

  12. Preliminary Problem Definition Study of 48 Munitions Related Chemicals. Volume I. Explosives Related Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    may be used depending on the desired alcohol/ketone ratio. The oxidation product is hydrolyzed and separated from the catalyst and unreacted...173- ’CU3 Choline, lecithin TMA TMA-*O Exogjenous Kidney - - DMA --- - - - - - - - - - - Endiageuot .s Excretion Sarcosine A -- ", -- Crea tinine N

  13. Optimal path planning for video-guided smart munitions via multitarget tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Jeffrey M.; Vasquez, Juan R.

    2006-05-01

    An advent in the development of smart munitions entails autonomously modifying target selection during flight in order to maximize the value of the target being destroyed. A unique guidance law can be constructed that exploits both attribute and kinematic data obtained from an onboard video sensor. An optimal path planning algorithm has been developed with the goals of obstacle avoidance and maximizing the value of the target impacted by the munition. Target identification and classification provides a basis for target value which is used in conjunction with multi-target tracks to determine an optimal waypoint for the munition. A dynamically feasible trajectory is computed to provide constraints on the waypoint selection. Results demonstrate the ability of the autonomous system to avoid moving obstacles and revise target selection in flight.

  14. Mesolithic burial place in La Martina Cave (Dinant, Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewez, M.; Gilot, E.; Groessens-Van-Dyck, M.C.; Cordy, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The ''La Martina'' cave is located near Dinant (Belgium). Although the sediments had been shoveled out in the mid XIXth century, a calcic breccia has provided prehistoric bones. We can distinguish a Pleistocene fauna with cave bear, one Mesolithic burial place with two cromagnoid skeletons, from the 6th millennium BC, and some Holocene faunal remains. (authors). 7 refs

  15. Waste analysis plan for the low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for the Low-Level Burial Grounds that are located in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize and obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit

  16. Quantification and presence of human ancient DNA in burial place ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantification and presence of human ancient DNA in burial place remains of Turkey using real time polymerase chain reaction. ... A published real-time PCR assay, which allows for the combined analysis of nuclear or ancient DNA and mitochondrial DNA, was modified. This approach can be used for recovering DNA from ...

  17. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulloway, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground located in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit of the 100-F Area on the Hanford Site. The trenches received waste from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm, including animal manure, animal carcasses, laboratory waste, plastic, cardboard, metal, and concrete debris as well as a railroad tank car

  18. Waste analysis plan for the low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, C.R.

    1996-09-19

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, and obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit.

  19. Quantification and presence of human ancient DNA in burial place ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... burial place remains of Turkey using real time ... DNA was isolaled from fossil bone tissue remains with Bio Robot EZ1 and ... the increase in the amount of DNA as it is amplified. The ... species or human blood in this work.

  20. Eksplozivne materije za neosetljiva ubojna sredstva / Explosive substances for insensitive munitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radun Jeremić

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available U skladu sa sve strožim zahtevima za očuvanje životne sredine i većom bezbednošću, tendencije u razvoju suvremenih ubojnih sredstava (UbS, pored povećanja pouzdanosti i efikasnosti, usmerene su i na povećanje sigurnosti pri njihovoj proizvodnji, skladištenju, manipulaciji i upotrebi. Na taj način dobijena je nova kategorija UbS, tzv. neosetljiva UbS, kod kojih je verovatnoća neželjenog aktiviranja pod dejstvom spoljnih impulsa svedena na minimum. Suština rešavanja ovog problema je primena eksplozivnih materija koje su mnogo manje osetljive na spoljne uticaje u odnosu na standardne. Osnovni zahtev koji se pri tome postavlja je da taktičko-tehničke karakteristike ostanu na nivou ili budu bolje u odnosu na postojeća UbS. U radu je ukratko objašnjen koncept razvoja neosetljivih UbS i dat pregled najznačajnijih rezultata istraživanja u oblasti eksplozivnih materija koje zadovoljavaju zahteve za primenu u neosetljivim UbS. / According to severe environment protection and safety requirements, tendencies in development of modern munitions, besides of increasing reliability and efficiency, are directed to decreasing of danger during their processing, storing, handling and operating. In that manner the new category of munitions has been obtained, named insensitive munitions, with a minimum probability of unplanned activating. The best method for solving this problem is using of explosive substances that are more insensitive according to standard ones. The main requirement is the tactical and technical characteristics stay at the level or to be better according to the existing munitions. In this paper the developing concept of insensitive munitions is shortly explained and presented a review of most important research results of explosive materials that fulfill requirements for applying in insensitive munitions.

  1. Electromagnetic survey of the K1070A burial ground at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.; Emery, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The K1070A burial ground, located at the K-25 Site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, received chemical and radioactive wastes from the late 1940s until 1975. Analysis of water samples collected from nearby monitoring wells indicates that contamination is migrating offsite. In November 1991, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) personnel collected high-resolution electrical terrain conductivity data at the K1070A burial ground. A Model EM31 terrain conductivity meter manufactured by Geonics Limited was used in conjunction with the ORNL-developed Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) to perform the survey. The purposeof the survey was to provide Environmental Restoration (ER) staff with a detailed map of the spatial variation of the apparent electrical conductivity of the shallow subsurface (upper 3 m) to assist them in siting future monitoring wells closer to the waste area without drilling into the buried waste

  2. Environmental analysis burial of offsite low-level waste at SRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poe, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    The environmental effects of receipt and burial of low-level naval waste generated at Department of Energy Laboratories are assessed in this environmental analysis. Through 1979, this low-level DOE waste was sent to the NRC-licensed burial ground operated by Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., at Barnwell, South Carolina. DOE announced on October 26, 1979, that DOE-generated low-level waste would no longer be buried at commercial waste burial sites. SRP was selected to receive the naval waste described in this analysis. Receipt and burial of these wastes will have a negligible effect on SRP's environment and increase only slightly the environmental effects of the SRP operations discussed in the EIS on SRP waste management operations. The environmental effects of burial of this waste at Chem-Nuclear Burial Ground or at the SRP Burial Ground are described in this environmental analysis to permit assessment of incremental effects caused by the decision to bury this naval waste in the SRP Burial Ground rather than in the Barnwell Burial Ground. The radiological effects from burial of this waste in either the SRP or Chem-Nuclear Burial Ground are very small when compared to those from natural background radiation or to the annual population dose commitment from operation of SRP. The environmental effects of burial at SRP to dose commitments normally received by the population surrounding SRP are compared

  3. Funeral dress and textiles in 17th and 19th century burials in Ostrobothnia, Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipkin, S.; Vajanto, K.; Kallio-Seppä, T.; Kuokkanen, T.; Niinimäki, S.; Väre, T.; van Bommel, M.; Grömer, K.; Pritchard, F.

    2015-01-01

    The 17th-19th-century burial materials from northern Ostrobothnia are studied in order to consider the value, origin and meaning of textiles especially in child burials. The focus is on the preservation, quality and dyes of burial textiles unearthed at the yard of Oulu Cathedral as well as the

  4. Sarmatian Burials Near the Astanino Village in the Eastern Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropotov Viktor Valeryevich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article contains the materials of two Sarmatian burials that had been studied in 1966-1967 years by the Kerch expedition of Institute of Archeology of Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (the chief of expedition – A.M. Leskov in the Astanino village in the Eastern Crimea. These burials had been made on small depth in embankments of barrows of the bronze epoch, therefore it is not possible to track contours of funeral constructions. The dead were laid on their backs, heads turned to the North and the North-West. The utensils buried in the same tombs included two ceramic gray-clay pelikes, two gray-clay bowls, a red-gloss vessel, a red-clay pottery, a set of glass and cornelian beads, and the Egyptian faience beads. These things allow to exactly date the investigated complexes within the second half of the 1st century BC – the beginnings of the 1st century AD. The main distinctive characteristics of Early-Sarmatian burials of Northern Pontic region consist in the use of already existing barrows for burial places, orientations of the dead in the Northern sector, the insignificant depth of burials. Therefore published monuments should be also referred to them. A small number of such complexes with their distribution on the quite big territory between the Don and Dnepr rivers testify to the low density of the nomadic population at that time. The antique sources of the end of the 2nd – 1st centuries BC mention the presence of Roxolani in the given region. The described complexes supplement our poor knowledge of Sarmatian antiquities of the Eastern Crimea and specify the direct contacts of nomads of Northern Pontic region to the antique centers, in immediate proximity from which they had been located.

  5. Evaluation of the ORNL area for future waste burial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomenick, T.F.; Byerly, D.W.; Gonzales, S.

    1983-10-01

    Additional waste-burial facilities will be needed at ORNL within this decade. In order to find environmentally acceptable sites, the ORNL area must be systematically evaluated. This document represents the first step in that selection process. Geologic and hydrologic data from the literature and minor field investigations are used to identify more favorable sites for Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 7. Also underway at this time is a companion study to locate a Central Waste Storage Area which could be used in the future to accommodate wastes generated by the X-10, Y-12, and K-25 facilities. From the several watershed options available, the Whiteoak Creek drainage basin is selected as the most promising hydrologic regime. This area contains all past and present waste-disposal facilities and is thus already well monitored. The seven bedrock units within the ORNL area are evaluated as potential burial media. Shales of the Conasauga Group, which are currently used for waste burial in the Whiteoak Creek drainage basin, and the Knox Group are considered the leading candidates. Although the residuum derived from and overlying the Knox dolomite has many favorable characteristics and may be regarded as having a high potential for burial of low-level wastes, at the present it is unproven. Therefore, the Conasauga shales are considered a preferable option for SWSA 7 within the ORNL area. Since the Conasauga interval is currently used for waste burial, it is better understood. One tract in Melton Valley that is underlain by Conasauga shales is nominated for detailed site-characterization studies, and several other tracts are recommended for future exploratory drilling. Exploration is also suggested for a tract in the upper Whiteoak Creek basin where Knox residuum is the shallow subsurface material

  6. Swept frequency acoustic interferometry technique for chemical weapons verification and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, D.N.; Anthony, B.W.; Lizon, D.C.

    1995-03-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for rapid on-site verification and monitoring of chemical munitions, such as artillery shells and bulk containers. Present NDE techniques provide only limited characterizations of such munitions. This paper describes the development of a novel noninvasive technique, swept-frequency acoustic interferometry (SFAI), that significantly enhances the capability of munitions characterizations. The SFAI technique allows very accurate and simultaneous determination of sound velocity and attenuation of chemical agents over a large frequency range inside artillery shells, in addition to determining agent density. The frequency-dependent sound velocity and attenuation can, in principle, provide molecular relaxation properties of the chemical agent. The same instrument also enables a direct fill-level measurement in bulk containers. Industrial and other applications of this general-purpose technique are also discussed.

  7. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  8. Modeling midwave infrared muzzle flash spectra from unsuppressed and flash-suppressed large caliber munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Bryan J.; Perram, Glen P.; Gross, Kevin C.

    2012-07-01

    Time-resolved infrared spectra of firings from a 152 mm howitzer were acquired over an 1800-6000 cm-1 spectral range using a Fourier-transform spectrometer. The instrument collected primarily at 32 cm-1 spectral and 100 Hz temporal resolutions. Munitions included unsuppressed and chemically flash suppressed propellants. Secondary combustion occurred with unsuppressed propellants resulting in flash emissions lasting ˜100 ms and dominated by H2O and CO2 spectral structure. Non-combusting plume emissions were one-tenth as intense and approached background levels within 20-40 ms. A low-dimensional phenomenological model was used to reduce the data to temperatures, soot absorbances, and column densities of H2O, CO2, CH4, and CO. The combusting plumes exhibit peak temperatures of ˜1400 K, areas of greater than 32 m2, low soot emissivity of ˜0.04, with nearly all the CO converted to CO2. The non-combusting plumes exhibit lower temperatures of ˜1000 K, areas of ˜5 m2, soot emissivity of greater than 0.38 and CO as the primary product. Maximum fit residual relative to peak intensity are 14% and 8.9% for combusting and non-combusting plumes, respectively. The model was generalized to account for turbulence-induced variations in the muzzle plumes. Distributions of temperature and concentration in 1-2 spatial regions demonstrate a reduction in maximum residuals by 40%. A two-region model of combusting plumes provides a plausible interpretation as a ˜1550 K, optically thick plume core and ˜2550 K, thin, surface-layer flame-front. Temperature rate of change was used to characterize timescales and energy release for plume emissions. Heat of combustion was estimated to be ˜5 MJ/kg.

  9. Grout testing and characterization for shallow-land burial trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallent, O.K.; Sams, T.L.; Tamura, T.; Godsey, T.T.; Francis, C.L.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1986-10-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop grout formulations suitable for in situ stabilization of low-level and transuranic (TRU) waste in shallow-land burial trenches at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The acceptabilities of soil, ordinary particulate, and fine particulate grouts were evaluated based on phase separation, compressive strength, freeze/thaw, penetration resistance, rheological, water permeability, column, and other tests. Soil grouts with soil-to-cement weight ratios from 0.91 to 1.60 were found to be suitable for open trench or drum disposal. Ordinary particulate grouts containing type I,II Portland cement, class C fly ash, bentonite, water, and a fluidizer were formulated to fill large voids within the soil/waste matrix of a closed shallow-land burial trench. Fine particulate grouts containing fine (mean particle size, 9.6 m) cement and water were formulated to fill smaller voids and to establish a grout-soil barrier to prevent water intrusion into the grouted waste trench. Solution, or chemical grouts, were evaluated as possible substitutes for the fine particulate grouts

  10. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Epler, J.S.; Rose, R.R.

    1980-03-01

    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control

  11. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Epler, J.S.; Rose, R.R.

    1980-03-01

    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control.

  12. How burial diagenesis of chalk sediments controls sonic velocity and porosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2003-01-01

    Based on P-wave velocity and density data, a new elastic model for chalk sediments is established. The model allows the construction of a series of isoframe (IF) curves, each representing a constant part of the mineral phase contributing to the solid frame. The IF curves can be related to the pro......Based on P-wave velocity and density data, a new elastic model for chalk sediments is established. The model allows the construction of a series of isoframe (IF) curves, each representing a constant part of the mineral phase contributing to the solid frame. The IF curves can be related.......1 or higher. Upon burial, the sediments lose porosity by mechanical compaction, and concurrently, the calcite particles recrystallize into progressively more equant shapes. High compaction rates may keep the particles in relative motion, whereas low compaction rates allow the formation of contact cement...... this process testifies to the absence of chemical compaction by calcite-calcite pressure dissolution, as well as to the porosity-preserving effect of contact cementation. At sufficient burial stress, the presence of stylolites indicates that pressure dissolution takes place between calcite., and silicates...

  13. The health hazards of depleted uranium munitions. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    There has been a substantial amount of public discussion on the health effects of the use of depleted uranium (DU), especially on the battlefield. The RoyaI Society therefore convened an independent expert Working Group to review the present state of scientific knowledge about the health and environmental effects of DU, in order to inform public debate. This is the first of two reports. It deals with the amounts of DU to which soldiers could be exposed on the battlefield, the risks from radiation, and what we know from epidemiological studies. We consider past and potential future exposures, the most likely exposures and the 'worst-case' exposures that cannot be excluded. Our second report, to be published later this year, will address the risks from toxic poisoning and environmental issues including risks to civilian populations. The group has consulted widely. It has focused on what is known scientifically about aspects that are relevant to health and has not considered the merits of using DU in munitions. Nor does this report analyse Gulf War syndrome, which has been the subject of other reports. DU is a toxic and weakly radioactive heavy metal that may have adverse consequences to human health, particularly if it enters the body through inhalation, ingestion or wounding. On the battlefield it is used in kinetic energy weapons designed to penetrate the armour of tanks and other vehicles. On impact substantial amounts of DU may be dispersed as particles that can be inhaled and as shrapnel. Our approach has been to estimate the typical levels of exposure on the battlefield over a wide range of scenarios, and the worst-case exposures that individuals are unlikely to exceed. From these we calculate the potential health risks from radiation. We have also considered epidemiological studies of occupational exposures to uranium in other situations as an independent source of information on the risks of inhaling DU particles, although we recognise that the

  14. The health hazards of depleted uranium munitions. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    There has been a substantial amount of public discussion on the health effects of the use of depleted uranium (DU), especially on the battlefield. The RoyaI Society therefore convened an independent expert Working Group to review the present state of scientific knowledge about the health and environmental effects of DU, in order to inform public debate. This is the first of two reports. It deals with the amounts of DU to which soldiers could be exposed on the battlefield, the risks from radiation, and what we know from epidemiological studies. We consider past and potential future exposures, the most likely exposures and the 'worst-case' exposures that cannot be excluded. Our second report, to be published later this year, will address the risks from toxic poisoning and environmental issues including risks to civilian populations. The group has consulted widely. It has focused on what is known scientifically about aspects that are relevant to health and has not considered the merits of using DU in munitions. Nor does this report analyse Gulf War syndrome, which has been the subject of other reports. DU is a toxic and weakly radioactive heavy metal that may have adverse consequences to human health, particularly if it enters the body through inhalation, ingestion or wounding. On the battlefield it is used in kinetic energy weapons designed to penetrate the armour of tanks and other vehicles. On impact substantial amounts of DU may be dispersed as particles that can be inhaled and as shrapnel. Our approach has been to estimate the typical levels of exposure on the battlefield over a wide range of scenarios, and the worst-case exposures that individuals are unlikely to exceed. From these we calculate the potential health risks from radiation. We have also considered epidemiological studies of occupational exposures to uranium in other situations as an independent source of information on the risks of inhaling DU particles, although we recognise that the parallels may

  15. U-Th Burial Dates on Ostrich Eggshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, W. D.; Fylstra, N. D.; Tryon, C. A.; Faith, J. T.; Peppe, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Obtaining precise and accurate dates at archaeological sites beyond the range of radiocarbon dating is challenging but essential for understanding human origins. Eggshells of ratites (large flightless birds including ostrich, emu and others) are common in many archaeological sequences in Africa, Australia and elsewhere. Ancient eggshells are geochemically suitable for the U-Th technique (1), which has about ten times the range of radiocarbon dating (>500 rather than 50 ka), making eggshells attractive dating targets. Moreover, C and N isotopic studies of eggshell provide insights into paleovegetation and paleoprecipitation central to assessing past human-environment interactions (2,3). But until now, U-Th dates on ratite eggshell have not accounted for the secondary origin of essentially all of their U. We report a novel approach to U-Th dating of eggshell that explicitly accounts for secondary U uptake that begins with burial. Using ostrich eggshell (OES) from Pleistocene-Holocene east African sites, we have measured U and 232Th concentration profiles across OES by laser ablation ICP-MS. U commonly peaks at 10s to 100s of ppb and varies 10-fold or more across the ~2 mm thickness of OES, with gradients modulated by the layered structure of the eggshell. Common Th is high near the shell surfaces, but low in the middle "pallisade" layer of OES, making it optimal for U-Th dating. We determine U-Th ages along the U concentration gradient by solution ICP-MS analyses of two or more fractions of the pallisade layer. We then estimate OES burial dates using a simple model for diffusive uptake of uranium. Comparing such "U-Th burial dates" with radiocarbon dates for OES calcite from the same shells, we find good agreement in 7 out of 9 cases, consistent with rapid burial and confirming the accuracy of the approach. The remaining 2 eggshells have anomalous patterns of apparent ages that reveal they are unsuitable for U-Th dating, thereby providing reliability criteria innate

  16. Late Sarmatian Elite Military Burial From the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivosheev Mikhail Vasilyevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the burial of a warrior of Late Sarmatian time from the Southern Urals. The complex from mound no. 4 of the burial mound Taksai I is distinguished by large size of barrow and grave. The reconstructed height of the mound was less than 2 meters. The depth of the burial pit was more than 3 meters. For Late Sarmatian culture such dimensions of sepulchral structures are unique. Under the mound the ritual platform from mainland soil was discovered. The found inventory of a warrior-rider included: horse bridle, a set of bladed weapons consisting of a long sword, dagger and knife, as well as a small bronze cauldron. Analysis of inventory allows us to date this burial to the second half of the 3rd century A.D. This burial belongs to an elite funerary complexes of Late Sarmatian culture and is a burial of professional warriors. This social stratum was formed in Late Sarmatian society at the end of the 2nd - first half of the 3rd century A.D. Most of these graves are dating back to the first half of the 3rd century A.D and were found in the Low Don and in the Volga region. The situation in these regions changed in that period due to the invasion of the tribes of the North-Caucasian origin. Their occurrence is associated with the destruction of the Tanais in the Lower Don region and the spread of graves in the T-shaped catacombs in the steppe monuments. The tradition of burying warriors-horsemen of high social status almost disappears in the Volga-Don steppes after the middle of 3rd century A.D. In the Southern Urals where these processes had an indirect influence, the existence of traditional hierarchies of Late Sarmatian society could continue until the end of the 3rd century A.D. Among the parts of a horse bridle the researchers discovered bronze B-shape buckle. These buckles are widely distributed in the 4th-5th centuries A.D. in the basin of the Kama river and the Danube river. The found buckle is the earliest currently known

  17. Decision Support Tools for Munitions Response Performance Prediction and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Oldenburg. A discrimination algorithm for UXO using time domain electromagnetic induction . Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, 6:91...the course of a munitions response project. Unexploded ordnance (UXO), electromagnetic (EM), sensors, electromagnetic induction (EMI), data...approach defines a detection channel that is a linear combination of received channels. The weightings of received channels comprising the optimized

  18. Progressing Insensitive Munitions: Benefits and Techniques for Proactively Addressing Environmental Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    X Worm Tubifex tubifex X X X Black worm Lumbriculus X Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea X Estuarine/marine water column Mysid shrimp Americamysis...Objective: Characterize traditional and insensitive munitions (IMs) impacts on amphibian larvae to manage a candidate for T&E status that inhabit

  19. Dissolution of NTO, DNAN, and Insensitive Munitions Formulations and Their Fates in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    plastic bags to save the (a) (b) ERDC/CRREL TR-14-23 10 sample even if the bottle should break from ice formation. During each collection, we...Bacillus sp. Biodegradation 23 (2): 287–295. Prak, D.L., and D. O’Sullivan. 2012. Photochemical Transformation of Munitions Constituents in Marine

  20. Acoustic Scattering from Munitions in the Underwater Environment: Measurements and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K.; Kargl, S. G.; Espana, A.

    2017-12-01

    Acoustical scattering from elastic targets has been a subject of research for several decades. However, the introduction of those targets into the ocean environment brings new complexities to quantitative prediction of that scattering. The goal of our work has been to retain as much of the target physics as possible while also handling the propagation to and from the target in the multi-path ocean environment. Testing of the resulting predictions has been carried out via ocean experiments in which munitions are deployed on and within the sediment. We will present the overall philosophy used in the modeling and then compare model results to measurements. A 60 cm long 30 cd diameter aluminum cylinder will be used as a canonical example and then a sample of results for a variety of munitions will be shown. Finally, we will discuss the use of both the models and measurements in assessing the ability of sonar to discriminate munitions from other man-made targets. The difficulty of this challenge will be made apparent via results from a recent experiment in which both munitions and man-made "clutter" were deployed on a rippled sand interface.

  1. Shallow ground burial of low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, A.; Cooper, M.B.; Hargrave, N.J.; Munslow-Davies, L.

    1989-01-01

    Acceptance criteria for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes are presented for adoption throughout Australia, a continent in which there are readily available areas in arid, sparsely inhabited places, likely to be suitable as sites for shallow ground burial. Drawing upon overseas practices and experiences, criteria have been developed for low-level waste disposal and are intended to be applicable and relevant to the Australian situation. Concentration levels have been derived for a shallow ground burial facility assuming a realistic institutional control period of 200 years. A comparison is made between this period and institutional control for 100 years and 300 years. Longer institutional control periods enable the acceptance of higher concentrations of radionuclides of intermediate half-lives. Scenarios, which have been considered, include current Australian pastoral practices and traditional Aboriginal occupancy. The derived radionuclide concentration levels for the disposal of low level wastes are not dissimilar to those developed in other countries. 17 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  2. Preliminary report on a glass burial experiment in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Zhu, B.F.; Robinson, R.S.; Wicks, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results of a two-year burial experiment in granite are discussed. Three compositions of simulated alkali borosilicate waste glasses were placed in boreholes approximately 350 meters deep. The glass sample configurations include mini-cans (stainless steel rings into which glass has been cast) and pineapple slices (thin sections from cylindrical blocks). Assemblies of these glass samples were prepared by stacking them together with granite, compacted bentonite and metal rings to provide several types of interfaces that are expected to occur in the repository. The assemblies were maintained at either ambient mine temperature (8 to 10 0 C) or 90 0 C. The glasses were analyzed before burial and after one month storage at 90 0 C. The most extensive surface degradation occurred on the glasses interfaced with bentonite. In general, very little attack was observed on glass surfaces in contact with the other materials. The limited field and laboratory data are compared

  3. Touchstones from early medieval burials in Tuna in Alsike, Sweden

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, February (2014), s. 422-429 ISSN 0305-4403 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M300021203 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * Viking Age * elite * boat burial * touchstone * precious metal * zinc * nickel Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.196, year: 2014

  4. Discovery of a predynastic elephant burial at Hierakonpolis, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Adams

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available It has long been known that the ancient Egyptians buried such animals as dogs, baboons and cattle, sometimes in human tombs and sometimes in separate graves of their own. Now excavation in a cemetery associated with the large settlement of Hierakonpolis has led to the unexpected discovery of a 5700-year-old elephant burial. Here the Research Curator of the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology at UCL describes the discovery and discusses its significance.

  5. Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is documented

  6. Development of waste unit for use in shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, K.

    1986-01-01

    A hexagonal waste unit has been developed for use in shallow land burial of low- and medium-level radioactive waste. The waste units used as overpack on empty standard 210 1 drums have been tested for tightness and mechanical resistance. Experimental burial of 21 empty full-size units has demonstrated the emplacement of the containers and the sealing of the crevises between them with molten bitumen. The development of the experimental burial with time is being followed. Three different conceptual designs for advanced burial systems using the hexagonal standard units are described. The outer barrier is a thick concrete structure covered by 2, 10 or 20 m soil, respectively. The waste units were cast from a normal high-quality concrete as well as from Densit, a new, very strong and impermeable type of concrete prepared by the combined use of silica-fume (microsilica) and a superplastizicer as additives. The migration of Cl - , Cs + and tritiated water was found to be much slower in Densit than in normal concrete. In combination with leaching measurements for Cs + from the same materials the results are used to present some theoretical considerations concerning transport through solution-filled pore systems as dependent on pore-size distribution, tortuosity, etc. A method based on neutron-activated cement cast in form of thin plates has been developed and used to study the dissolution chemistry of concrete. A preliminary model is presented. Indications for precipitation mechanisms were obtained. Densit was demonstrated to ensure a high degree of corrosion protection for steel reinforcement. The reason is mainly the high electrical resistivity combined with low diffusive transport in the material. The pozzolanic reaction results in somewhat lower pH in the pore water than in normal concrete, but the effect is not so pronounced that the passivation of steel reinforcement is endangered

  7. Enhanced Site Characterization of the 618-4 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Chien, Yi-Ju

    2001-09-25

    This report describes the results obtained from deployment of the Enhanced Site Characterization System (ESCS) at the Hanford Site's 618-4 Burial Ground. The objective of this deployment was to use advanced geostatistical methods to integrate and interpret geophysical and ground truth data, to map the physical types of waste materials present in unexcavated portions of the burial ground. One issue of particularly interest was the number of drums (containing depleted uranium metal shavings or uranium-oxide powder) remaining in the burial ground and still requiring removal.Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART), a neural network classification method, was used to cluster the study area into 3 classes based on their geophysical signatures. Multivariate statistical analyses and discriminant function analysis (DFA) indicated that the drum area as well as a second area (the SW anomaly) had similar geophysical signatures that were different from the rest of the burial ground. Further analysis of the drum area suggested that as many as 770 drums to 850 drums may remain in that area. Similarities between the geophysical signatures of the drum area and the SW anomaly suggested that excavation of the SW anomaly area also proceed with caution.Deployment of the ESCS technology was successful in integrating multiple geophysical variables and grouping these observations into clusters that are relevant for planning further excavation of the buried ground. However, the success of the technology could not be fully evaluated because reliable ground truth data were not available to enable calibration of the different geophysical signatures against actual waste types.

  8. Discovery of a predynastic elephant burial at Hierakonpolis, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Adams

    1998-01-01

    It has long been known that the ancient Egyptians buried such animals as dogs, baboons and cattle, sometimes in human tombs and sometimes in separate graves of their own. Now excavation in a cemetery associated with the large settlement of Hierakonpolis has led to the unexpected discovery of a 5700-year-old elephant burial. Here the Research Curator of the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology at UCL describes the discovery and discusses its significance.

  9. Decommissioning of commercial shallow-land burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.S.; Holter, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    Estimated costs and safety considerations for decommissioning LLW burial grounds have been evaluated. Calculations are based on a generic burial ground assumed to be located at a western and an eastern site. Decommissioning modes include: (1) site stabilization followed by long-term care of the site; and (2) waste relocation. Site stabilization is estimated to cost from $0.4 million to $7.5 million, depending on the site and the stabilization option chosen. Long-term care is estimated to cost about $100,000 annually, with somewhat higher costs during early years because of increased site maintenance and environmental monitoring requirements. Long-term care is required until the site is released for unrestricted public use. Occupational and public safety impacts of site stabilization and long-term care are estimated to be small. Relocation of all the waste from a reference burial ground is estimated to cost more than $1.4 billion and to require more than 20 years for completion. Over 90% of the cost is associated with packaging, transportation, and offsite disposal of the exhumed waste. Waste relocation results in significant radiation exposure to decommissioning workers

  10. Examination of representative drum from 618-9 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.R.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The work described in this report was conducted in pursuance of Task E of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Solid Waste Technology Support Program for Westinghouse Hanford Company. Task E calls for a determination of the corrosion rate of low-carbon steels under typical Hanford Site conditions. To meet this objective, Pacific Northwest Laboratory examined one intact drum that was judged to be representative of the largely intact drums excavated at the 618-9 Burial Ground located west of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site. Six samples were examined to characterize the drum, its composition, and its corrosion and corrosion products. The drum, which was found empty, was constructed of low-carbon steel. Its surface appeared relatively sound. The drum metal varied in thickness, but the minimum thickness in the samples was near 0.020 in. The corrosion corresponds to approximately 25 to 35 mils of metal loss, roughly a 1 mil/yr corrosion rate. Corrosion products were goethite and maghymite, expected products of iron buried in soil. Apparently, the drum leaked some time ago, but the cause of the leakage is unknown because records of the drums and their burial are limited. The drum was empty when found, and it is possible that it could have failed by pitting rather than by general corrosion. A pitting rate of about 3.5 mils/yr would have caused loss of drum integrity in the time since burial

  11. Report on waste burial charges: Escalation of decommissioning waste disposal costs at low-level waste burial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    One of the requirements placed upon nuclear power reactor licensees by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is for the licensees to periodically adjust the estimate of the cost of decommissioning their plant, in dollars of the current year, as part of the process to provide reasonable assurance that adequate funds for decommissioning will be available when needed. This report, which is scheduled to be revised annually, contains the development of a formula for escalating decommissioning cost estimates that is acceptable to the NRC, and contains values for the escalation of radioactive waste burial costs, by site and by year. The licensees may use the formula, the coefficients, and the burial escalation factors from this report in their escalation analysis, or may use an escalation rate at least equal to the escalation approach presented herein. 4 refs., 2 tabs

  12. A new safety assessment model for shallow land burial of LLW based on multicomponent sorption theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, N.; Asano, T.; Tasaka, H.

    1984-01-01

    A new model on the radionuclide migration in underground environment is developed based on ''multicomponent sorption theory''. The model is capable of predicting the behaviors of the coexisting materials in soil-ground water system as ''multicomponent sorption phenomena'' and also predicting the radinuclide migration affected by the changes of concentrations of coexisting materials. The model is not a ''statistical model'' but a ''chemical model'' based on the ''ion exchange theory'' and ''adsorption theory''. Additionally, the model is a ''kinetic model'' capable of estimating the effect of ''rate of sorption'' on the radionuclide migration. The validity of the model was checked by the results of column experiments for sorption. Finally, sample calculations on the radionuclide migration in reference shallow land burial site were carried out for demonstration

  13. Geotechnical reduction of void ratio in low-level radioactive waste burial sites: treatment alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Carlson, R.A.; McGuire, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A substantial quantity of low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes has been interred in shallow land burial structures throughout the United States. Many of these structures (trenches, pits, and landfills) have proven to be unstable. Some surface feature manifestations such as large cracks, basins, and cave-ins are caused by voids filling and physico-chemical degradation and solubilization of the buried wastes which could result in the release of contamination. The surface features represent a potential for increased contamination transport to the biosphere via water, air, biologic, and direct pathways. Engineering alternatives for the reduction of buried waste and matrix materials voids are identified and discussed. As a guideline, a reduction of the voids within the waste to 80% or more of maximum relative dry density (a measure of in situ voids within the waste) is proposed. The advantages, disadvantages, and costs of each alternative are evaluated. Falling mass and pile driving engineering alternatives were selected for further development

  14. Micromorphological aspects of forensic geopedology: time-dependent markers of decomposition and permanence in soil in experimental burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangarini, Sara; Cattaneo, Cristina; Trombino, Luca

    2014-05-01

    The importance of the role played by soil scientists grows up in the modern forensic sciences, in particular when buried human remains strongly decomposed or skeletonized are found in different environment situations. An interdisciplinary team, formed by earth and legal medicine researchers from the University of Milan is working on several sets of experimental burial of pigs in different soil types and for different times of burial, in order to get new evidences on environmental responses to the burial, focusing specifically on geopedological and micropedological aspects. The present work is aimed at the micromorphological (petrographic microscope) and ultramicroscopic (SEM) cross characterization of bone tissue in buried remains, in order to describe bone alteration pathways due both to decomposition and to permanence in soil. These methods allow identifying in the tissues of analysed bones: - Unusual concentrations of metal oxides (i.e. Fe, Mn), in the form of violet-blue colorations (in XPL), which seem to be related to chemical conditions in the burial area; their presence could be a method to discriminate permanence in soil rather than a different environment of decomposition. - Magnesium phosphate (i.e. Mg3(PO4)2 ) crystallizations, usually noticed in bones buried from 7 to 103 weeks; their presence seems to be related to the decomposition both of the bones themselves and of soft tissues. - The presence of significant sulphur levels (i.e. SO3) in bones buried for over 7 weeks, which seem to be related to the transport and fixation of soft tissues decomposition fluids. These results point out that micromorphological techniques coupled with spatially resolved chemical analyses allow identifying both indicators of the permanence of the remains into the soil (i.e. metal oxides concentrations) and time-dependent markers of decomposition (i.e. significant sulphur levels and magnesium phosphate) in order to determine PMI (post-mortem-interval) and TSB (time-since-burial

  15. Screening Level Ecological Risk Assessments of Some Military Munitions and Obscurant-related Compounds for Selected Threatened and Endangered Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Von Stackleberg, Katherine; Amos, Craig; Butler, C; Smith, Thomas; Famely, J; McArdle, M; Southworth, B; Steevens, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    ...) associated with munitions. This study evaluates the potential long-term impacts on selected threatened and endangered species resulting from dispersion and deposition of vapors and particles found in the fog oils...

  16. Report on waste burial charges. Escalation of decommissioning waste disposal costs at low-level waste burial facilities, Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    One of the requirements placed upon nuclear power reactor licensees by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is for the licensees to periodically adjust the estimate of the cost of decommissioning their plants, in dollars of the current year, as part of the process to provide reasonable assurance that adequate funds for decommissioning will be available when needed. This report, which is scheduled to be revised periodically, contains the development of a formula for escalating decommissioning cost estimates that is acceptable to the NRC. The sources of information to be used in the escalation formula are identified, and the values developed for the escalation of radioactive waste burial costs, by site and by year, are given. The licensees may use the formula, the coefficients, and the burial escalation factors from this report in their escalation analyses, or they may use an escalation rate at least equal to the escalation approach presented herein. This fourth revision of NUREG-1307 contains revised spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference PWR and the reference BWR and the ratios of disposal costs at the Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina sites for the years 1986, 1988, 1991 and 1993, superseding the values given in the May 1993 issue of this report. Burial cost surcharges mandated by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) have been incorporated into the revised ratio tables for those years. In addition, spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference reactors and ratios of disposal costs at the two remaining burial sites in Washington and South Carolina for the year 1994 are provided. These latter results do not include any LLRWPAA surcharges, since those provisions of the Act expired at the end of 1992. An example calculation for escalated disposal cost is presented, demonstrating the use of the data contained in this report

  17. Mathematical model quantifies multiple daylight exposure and burial events for rock surfaces using luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiesleben, Trine; Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew; Jain, Mayank; Al Khasawneh, Sahar; Hvidt, Søren; Jakobsen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of rock surfaces has increased significantly over the last few years, as the potential of the method has been explored. It has been realized that luminescence-depth profiles show qualitative evidence for multiple daylight exposure and burial events. To quantify both burial and exposure events a new mathematical model is developed by expanding the existing models of evolution of luminescence–depth profiles, to include repeated sequential events of burial and exposure to daylight. This new model is applied to an infrared stimulated luminescence-depth profile from a feldspar-rich granite cobble from an archaeological site near Aarhus, Denmark. This profile shows qualitative evidence for multiple daylight exposure and burial events; these are quantified using the model developed here. By determining the burial ages from the surface layer of the cobble and by fitting the new model to the luminescence profile, it is concluded that the cobble was well bleached before burial. This indicates that the OSL burial age is likely to be reliable. In addition, a recent known exposure event provides an approximate calibration for older daylight exposure events. This study confirms the suggestion that rock surfaces contain a record of exposure and burial history, and that these events can be quantified. The burial age of rock surfaces can thus be dated with confidence, based on a knowledge of their pre-burial light exposure; it may also be possible to determine the length of a fossil exposure, using a known natural light exposure as calibration. - Highlights: • Evidence for multiple exposure and burial events in the history of a single cobble. • OSL rock surface dating model improved to include multiple burial/exposure cycles. • Application of the new model quantifies burial and exposure events.

  18. Mathematical model quantifies multiple daylight exposure and burial events for rock surfaces using luminescence dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Trine Holm; Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of rock surfaces has increased significantly over the last few years, as the potential of the method has been explored. It has been realized that luminescence-depth profiles show qualitative evidence for multiple daylight exposure...... and burial events. To quantify both burial and exposure events a new mathematical model is developed by expanding the existing models of evolution of luminescenceedepth profiles, to include repeated sequential events of burial and exposure to daylight. This new model is applied to an infrared stimulated...... events. This study confirms the suggestion that rock surfaces contain a record of exposure and burial history, and that these events can be quantified. The burial age of rock surfaces can thus be dated with confidence, based on a knowledge of their pre-burial light exposure; it may also be possible...

  19. Studies of Pre-Mongol Bulgar Burials in the Territory of the Astrakhan Oblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutukov Dmitriy V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The funeral ceremonial features traced in three Bulgar burials, which have been discovered during archaeological excavations on the burial grounds named "Shchuchii", "Posol’skii" and "Kovyl’nyi" (Astrakhan oblast, are discussed in the article. The burials are dated, respectively, to the early 10th century, the early 9th century, and the late 8th – early 9th centuries. The funeral gifts include mainly ceramic vessels. The "Posol’skii" burial site also yielded jewelry and weapon fragments (bow plates. In two burials ("Posol’skii" and "Kovyl’nyi", sheep bones were recorded. The burials apparently reflect the process of the Bulgars settling in the southern direction to the Lower Volga river area, up to its deltaic part

  20. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-1, 105-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance criteria for the 118-B-1, 105-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-B Reactor and P-10 Tritium Separation Project and also received waste from the 105-N Reactor. The burial ground received reactor hardware, process piping and tubing, fuel spacers, glassware, electrical components, tritium process wastes, soft wastes and other miscellaneous debris

  1. Biomass burial and storage to reduce atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, N.

    2012-04-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a theoretical carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC/y, but probably 1-3 GtC/y can be realized in practice. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other environmental concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from forest industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be 14/tCO2 (50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The low cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is possible because the technique uses the natural process of photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe, and can be stopped at any time, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  2. Burial history influence on the generation of some Italian oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattavelli, L.; Novelli, L. (AGIP SPA, San Donato Milanese (Italy))

    1990-05-01

    Many Italian oils were sourced by Triassic source rock; evidence of this exists in the Po Plain. In the Adriatic Sea, and offshore southern Sicily. Bulk and geochemical characteristics of these oils are quite dissimilar: heavy oils as well as gasolines were discovered. Such differences are partly attributable to the organic matter type and to environmental conditions, but the role of the source rock's burial histories is fundamental in determining oil characteristics. The different burial histories in these two areas definitely account for these differences. In the Po Plain, the Raethian Argilliti di Riva di Solto Formation, source rock of condensates of the Malossa area, started to generate very early as a consequence of the noticeable Rhaetian-Liassic subsidence. The generation of oil continued for a long geological time, but probably hydrocarbons were lost for the lack of traps. Only condensates, generated by the further Pliocene-Quaternary burial, were accumulated in the Neogene traps. In the western part of the Po Plain, Gaggiano and Villafortuna oils (34 and 40{degree} API), sourced by the Ladinian Meride Formation, were generated only during the sizeable Neogene-Quaternary subsidence. The high heating rate in this case probably enhanced expulsion efficiency, allowing secondary migration toward shallower depths and, consequently, preventing hydrocarbons from secondary cracking. Offshore in southern Sicily (Gela field), the recent subsidence (Pliocene-Pleistocene) is responsible for Triassic source rock maturation. In this case the shallower depth reached by the source rock and, consequently, the lower temperatures at which maturity occurred are partly responsible for the generation of heavy oils, even if other factors such as early expulsion due to tectonics and organic matter type probably play a more important role.

  3. Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.B.; Jacobs, D.G.; Lee, D.W.

    1986-02-01

    The performance objectives included in regulations for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (10 CFR 61 for commercial waste and DOE Order 5820.2 for defense waste) are generic principles that generate technical requirements which must be factored into each phase of the development and operation of a shallow land burial facility. These phases include a determination of the quantity and characteristics of the waste, selection of a site and appropriate facility design, use of sound operating practices, and closure of the facility. The collective experience concerning shallow land burial operations has shown that achievement of the performance objectives (specifically, waste isolation and radionuclide containment) requires a systems approach, factoring into consideration the interrelationships of the phases of facility development and operation and their overall impact on performance. This report presents the technical requirements and procedures for the development and operation of a shallow land burial facility for low-level radioactive waste. The systems approach is embodied in the presentation. The report is not intended to be an instruction manual; rather, emphasis is placed on understanding the technical requirements and knowing what information and analysis are needed for making informed choices to meet them. A framework is developed for using the desired site characteristics to locate potentially suitable sites. The scope of efforts necessary for characterizing a site is then described and the range of techniques available for site characterization is identified. Given the natural features of a site, design options for achieving the performance objectives are discussed, as are the operating practices, which must be compatible with the design. Site closure is presented as functioning to preserve the containment and isolation provided at earlier stages of the development and operation of the facility

  4. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  5. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived form the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the main text. This Volume contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text

  6. Disposal of radioactive waste in land burial facilities at Studsvik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, G.; Haegg, C.; Bergman, C.

    1987-01-01

    The report presents the formal background for the handling of the Studsvik application for permission to build a plant for deposition of radioactive waste in land burial facilities. The SSI (National Swedish Institute of Radiation Protection) basis for assessment is reported and relevant factors are presented. The radiation doses calculated by the SSI do not exceed a few microsievert per annum in spite of very pessimistic assumptions. The report constitutes assessment material for the standpoint to be taken by the board of SSI. (L.F.)

  7. Munitions having an insensitive detonator system for initiating large failure diameter explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, III, William Leroy

    2015-08-04

    A munition according to a preferred embodiment can include a detonator system having a detonator that is selectively coupled to a microwave source that functions to selectively prime, activate, initiate, and/or sensitize an insensitive explosive material for detonation. The preferred detonator can include an explosive cavity having a barrier within which an insensitive explosive material is disposed and a waveguide coupled to the explosive cavity. The preferred system can further include a microwave source coupled to the waveguide such that microwaves enter the explosive cavity and impinge on the insensitive explosive material to sensitize the explosive material for detonation. In use the preferred embodiments permit the deployment and use of munitions that are maintained in an insensitive state until the actual time of use, thereby substantially preventing unauthorized or unintended detonation thereof.

  8. Phosphorus burial and diagenesis in the central Bering Sea (Bowers Ridge, IODP Site U1341): Perspectives on the marine P cycle

    OpenAIRE

    März, C; Poulton, SW; Wagner, T; Schnetger, B; Brumsack, H-J

    2014-01-01

    To reconstruct the cycling of reactive phosphorus (P) in the Bering Sea, a P speciation record covering the last ~4Ma was generated from sediments recovered during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 323 at Site U1341 (Bowers Ridge). A chemical extraction procedure distinguishing between different operationally defined P fractions provides new insight into reactive P input, burial and diagenetic transformations. Reactive P mass accumulation rates (MARs) are ~20-110μmol/cm/ka, ...

  9. Cost Of Compliance On Munitions Consolidation From Lualualei To West Loch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    well as the opportunity to drastically reduce the transportation of ordnance to and from the Lualualei Annex through local community roads and areas...single road and the availability of CULT trucks and/or drivers that could impede an expeditious response in a contingency operation. This project...to distribute munitions to the fleet. This consolidation plan will also reduce the infrastructure costs for ordnance storage, maintenance , and

  10. Validation of Passive Sampling Devices for Monitoring of Munitions Constituents in Underwater Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    and explosives of concern (MEC) corroding, breaching, and leaking MC into the water column (Darrach, Chutjian, and Plett, 1998; GMI, 2007; Lewis et...underwater UWMM have the potential to corrode, breach, and leak munitions constituents (MCs) such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5...Wang et al., 2013), a number of challenges prevent accurate assessment of environmental exposure using traditional water , sediment, and tissue

  11. Environmental Assessment: Demolition of Munitions Storage Area Facilities at Ellsworth AFB, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    CEQ Council on Environmental Quality CFR Code of Federal Regulations CO Carbon Monoxide cpm Counts per Minute CRM Cultural Resource Manager...newspaper advertisement in the Rapid City Journal announcing the availability of the Draft EA for a 30-day public and agency review to facilitate...Ellsworth Air Force Base Munitions Storage Area Environmental Assessment Page 2-5 public involvement in the project. This advertisement was published one

  12. Waste migration in shallow burial sites under unsaturated flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicholz, G.G.; Whang, J.

    1987-01-01

    Unsaturated conditions prevail in many shallow-land burial sites, both in arid and humid regions. Unless a burial site is allowed to flood and possibly overflow, a realistic assessment of any migration scenario must take into account the conditions of unsaturated flow. These are more difficult to observe and to model, but introduce significant changes into projected rates of waste leaching and waste migration. Column tests have been performed using soils from the Southeastern coastal plain to observe the effects of varying degrees of ''unsaturation'' on the movement of radioactive tracers. The moisture content in the columns was controlled by maintaining various levels of hydrostatic suction on soil columns whose hydrodynamic characteristics had been determined carefully. Tracer tests, employing Cs-137, I-131 and Ba-133 were used to determine migration profiles and to follow their movement down the column for different suction values. A calculational model has been developed for unsaturated flow and seems to match the observations fairly well. It is evident that a full description of migration processes must take into account the reduced migration rates under unsaturated conditions and the hysteresis effects associated with wetting-drying cycles

  13. Chalk porosity and sonic velocity versus burial depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Gommesen, Lars; Krogsbøll, Anette Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Seventy chalk samples from four formations in the overpressured Danish central North Sea have been analyzed to investigate how correlations of porosity and sonic velocity with burial depth are affected by varying mineralogy, fluid pressure, and early introduction of petroleum. The results show th...... for fluid pressure because the cementing ions originate from stylolites, which are mechanically similar to fractures. We find that cementation occurs over a relatively short depth interval.......Seventy chalk samples from four formations in the overpressured Danish central North Sea have been analyzed to investigate how correlations of porosity and sonic velocity with burial depth are affected by varying mineralogy, fluid pressure, and early introduction of petroleum. The results show...... that porosity and sonic velocity follow the most consistent depth trends when fluid pressure and pore-volume compressibility are considered. Quartz content up to 10% has no marked effect, but more than 5% clay causes lower porosity and velocity. The mineralogical effect differs between P-wave and shear velocity...

  14. The Application of GPR in Florida for Detecting Forensic Burials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Koppenjan; J. J. Schultz; S. Ono; H. Lee

    2003-01-01

    A study was performed at the University of Florida to measure ground penetrating radar(GPR) performance for detecting forensic burials. In controlled scenarios, 24 burials were constructed with pig cadavers. Two soils were utilized to represent two of the most common soil orders in Florida: an Entisol and an Ultisol. Graves were monitored on a monthly basis for time periods up to 21 months with grid data acquired with pulsed and swept-frequency GPR systems incorporating several different frequency antennas. A small subset of the graves was excavated to assess decomposition and relate to the GPR images during the test. The grave anomalies in the GPR depth profiles became less distinctive over time due to body decomposition and settling of the disturbed soil (backfill) as it compacted. Soil type was a major factor. Grave anomalies became more difficult to recognize over time for deep targets that were within clay. Forensic targets that were in sandy soil were recognized for the duration of this study. Time elapsed imagery will be presented to elucidate the changes, or lack thereof, of grave anomalies over the duration of this study. Further analysis was performed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) reconstruction of images in 2-D and 3-D.

  15. Genetic research at a fivefold children's burial from medieval Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Jessica; Melisch, Claudia; Powers, Natasha; Geppert, Maria; Zander, Judith; Purps, Josephine; Spors, Birgit; Nagy, Marion

    2015-03-01

    Berlin originated from the two twin cities Berlin and Cölln, which both were founded at the beginning of the 13th century. However the real date of their foundation as well as the origin of the first settlers is still unknown. On the Berlin site the historic city center is still visible in the Nikolaiviertel, but the medieval origin of Cölln disappeared almost completely. In 2007 a large scale excavation, which comprised an area of about 1700m(2) of the historical center of the St. Peters church, recovers the remains of Cölln's first citizens and span a period of 500 years of medieval population. Here we present the first genetic analysis of a fivefold children's burial from excavations in Berlin. The genetic data unveiled next to ancestry and eye color data also the kinship and the gender of the five individuals. Together with the archeological context the new gained information help to shed more light on the possible reasons for this burial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  17. Rock stresses associated with burial of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voight, B.

    1977-01-01

    Rock stress changes related to long-term deep storage of nuclear waste involve thermoelastic and pore fluid pressure changes associated with excavation and heating. Computer models are being examined to assess the question of thermally-induced fracturing in storage rock surrounding radioactive waste containers. Stresses are evaluated in three dimensions, employing elastic-plastic finite element codes. Potential failure conditions are expressed in terms of ''effective stresses,'' and force and thermal fields are incremented to produce an appropriate load path. In general, heating in vicinity of waste containers produces a zone of high compression bonded by a zone of circumferential and axial tension. (At this conference an analogous case of thermal stresses was documented and illustrated for larger-scale temperature domains associated with geothermal areas in Iceland.) Fractures are possible in radial directions as well as perpendicular to the axis of the cylindrical heat source. In addition, the mechanical effect of a vapor pulse will be explored by a two-phase numerical fluid transport model used in conjunction with mechanical finite element models. This portion of the work, being conducted jointly with C. R. Faust and J. W. Mercer of the US Geological Survey, should provide a preliminary appreciation of the possible effect of phase changes on fracturing of burial sites. Preliminary work suggests the possibility of establishing design criteria (e.g., design burial depth, depth of canister below storage vault) in order to minimize problems of potential rock fracture

  18. Comparative Study of Christian and Pagan Burial Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Bazaraitė

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws a chronological timeline comparing burial customs and construction traditions in the cradle of Christian religion, and pagan traditions on the Eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, precisely Lithuania, since the early ages of Christianity (1c. A.D. until nowadays. This paper searches for reasons that could have effected cultural transformations, a shifting relation between inhumation and incineration in European culture. In the Ancient Roman culture, people used to cremate their dead before Christianity set in. Baltic pagans at the time were burying their dead in stone circles, and started incineration only during the Middle Ages. Then Christianity was a powerful institution indoctrinating European daily culture. Meanwhile, in the territory of Lithuania pagan culture was erased only in the 15th century, i.e. about 600 years ago, leaving evident vestiges on traditions and customs of nowadays. These revelations of pagan culture are usually mistaken as Christian or Catholic. The paper focuses on architectural and urban aspects of burial architecture, taking into account social and historical conditions.

  19. Ancient Item Spoilage Ritual Used in Nomadic Burial Rite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beisenov Arman Z.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the findings of items in ancient burials which were intentionally spoiled prior to deposition in graves. This tradition was widely spread both in terms of chronology and geography, and therefore cannot be attributed to any individual cultures or regions. The authors present new information on the ritual obtained during an investigation of Borsyk burial mound of the Middle Sarmatian period located in West Kazakhstan. The central grave of barrow 6 contained a heavily damaged bronze cauldron. The grave was looted in antiquity. Individual scattered bones of a human skeleton and minor gold foil adornments from the ceremonial dress of a nobleman were discovered in the grave. The authors suggest that the cauldron was intentionally deformed by the participants of an ancient mortuary and memorial ritual. According to the principal hypothesis concerning the essence of this ritual, spoilage of the items was related to the idea of assign the items with “different” and “transcendent” properties, which resulted from the necessity of burying the owner. Cauldrons played an important role in the life of steppe leaders. The authors assume a sacral nature of the use of cauldrons in the culture of steppe peoples associated with feasts, battles, and sacred hunting. Perhaps, there was a tradition of burying cauldrons together with their owners after spoiling the items in view of the concept of the other world and the role of a heroic leader therein.

  20. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived from the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. This volume contains the main text. Volume 2 contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text. This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report are the preliminary interpretations of the hydrogeologic environment of six low-level burial grounds, which comprise four waste management areas (WMAs) located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretations were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the construction of 35 ground-water monitoring wells as well as a multitude of previously existing boreholes. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a ground-water monitoring program initiated in 1986. This ground-water monitoring program is based on requirements for interim status facilities in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976)

  1. Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The single dangerous waste permit identification number issued to the Hanford Site by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology is US Environmental Protection Agency/State Identification Number WA 7890008967. This identification number encompasses a number of waste management units within the Hanford Site. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Low-Level Burial Grounds, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B Permit Application. The original Part A, submitted in November 1985, identified landfills, retrievable storage units, and reserved areas. An explanation of subsequent Part A revisions is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology

  2. REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite. After the end of t...

  3. Environmental toxicity of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) - MicrotoxTM and Spontaneous Locomotor Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Morten Swayne; Sanderson, Hans; Baatrup, Erik

    After the 2nd World War the CWAs were prohibited by law and 11,000 tonnes of toxic agents were dumped in the Bornholm Basin east of Bornholm. The dumped chemical munitions have not reached attention from politicians and scientists until recently. During earlier projects, such as MERCW (2005...

  4. 618-10 Burial Ground Trench Remediation and 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground Nonintrusive Characterization of Vertical Pipe Units Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, J. W.

    2012-06-28

    A “lessons learned” is a noteworthy practice or innovative approach that is captured and shared to promote repeat application, or an adverse work practice/experience that is captured and shared to avoid reoccurrence. This document provides the lessons learned identified by the 618-10 Burial Ground trench remediation and the 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground nonintrusive characterization of the vertical pipe units (VPUs).

  5. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel and J. M. Capron

    2007-07-25

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes.

  6. About the burial of nuclear power plants, damaged or in the process of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbrond, J.

    1994-01-01

    Some underground mining methods leave deep empty holes in the earth's surface behind them. In this paper it is described how to use such mining methods for the burial of damaged nuclear power plants and for the decommissioning by burial of nuclear reactors. The design of a new power plant should be integrated with that of an escapeway - an underground arrangement for burial. The described mining methods are block caving for catastrophy burial, and various stoping methods for planned burial and decommissioning. Blind shaft sinking by full face boring machines for burial and decommissioning of the reactor vessel is also described. All the described activities of mining and shaft sinking are well known. The total costs of burial by these methods are estimated using standard mining industry cost data. These include the costs for normal mine ventilation and groundwater control. However, the estimates of the cost and duration do not include the capital and operational costs of the pre- and post burial activities of ventilation and groundwater control related to the radioactivity. (author)

  7. About One of Burials of Novotitorovka Culture From the Territory of Kuban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya A. Balabanova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the burial complex and the skull of the Novotitorovka culture from burial no. 35 of the Ovalny burial mound, Kalininsky district of the Krasnodar region. The burial itself was non-inventory, but it was synchronous with burial no. 26. Both burials were excavated from the level of the ancient surface and covered by the same barrow. The bones from the studied burial belonged to a young man, who died at the age of 20-25. His craniological type is characterized by meso-dolichocrania, ellipsoidal vertical norm, the average width of forehead, wide and low face, orthognathy-like in a vertical plane and slightly profiled at the level of low eye sockets. The face is also characterized by narrow and sharply protruding nasal bones. The article also deals with the possible relationship between the tribes of the Novotitorovka culture and the Azov-Black Sea sites of Catacomb culture. This conclusion is based on the results of intergroup comparison by the method of canonical analysis. The studied skull of the Novotitorovka culture has a morphological complex that characterizes the groups of burials of the Catacomb culture localized on the terraces of the Ingul river and on the terraces of the Don river left bank. This conclusion calls into question the archaeologists’ hypothesis on the connection of the the Novotitorovka culture with the tribes of the Novosvobodnenskaya culture and the Maykop culture.

  8. Introduction: Life Space and Burial Space in the Post-Apartheid City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Landscapes of the dead are always, simultaneously, landscapes of the living. It is this coterminousness of life and death that gives the burial site its salience and emotional power. Different societies, at different times, renegotiate the relationship between what anthropologists call 'life space\\' and 'burial space\\', depending on ...

  9. Hiding from swans: optimal burial depth of sago pondweed tubers foraged by Bewick's swans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santamaría, L.; Rodriguez-Girones, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    1 We used a combination of laboratory and field experiments to test the hypothesis that the burial depth of Potamogeton pectinatus tubers will vary with local sediment type and swan predation pressure. 2 In the field, mortality due to predation by swans decreased linearly with burial depth (from 100

  10. The study of secondary burial in Mycenaean mortuary traditions: a new approach to the evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Olivia A.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines the methodological and interpretative frameworks proposed as the most holistic and inclusive manner for studying Mycenaean burial data. It provides a deeper exploration of mortuary themes, such as secondary burial, and argues that human remains should be studied in correlation

  11. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.; Capron, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes

  12. Necropolis on Bor lake: New reports on Bronze age burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapuran Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the social and anthropological aspects of burial rituals during the Middle Bronze Age in Timočka Krajina. Decades of systematic research of necropolises and reconnaissance in the basin of the Crni Timok proved an increase in number of sites around ore - rich areas of the east Kučaj mountains as well as around Romuliana site and the fertile valleys of Džanovo polje (Map. 1. The quantitative increase in settlements was reflected by the emergence of large necropolises, only three of which have been systematically explored; those in Trnjani, Magura and Bor Lake (Fig. 1; Plan 1. Analysis of geographical features of many settlements and their position in relation to natural resources helped define two communities, one of which carried out mining and metallurgical activities, while the other group engaged in the production of food. Both groups lived in the immediate vicinity and mutual dependence, functioning within a developed market for copper production. During the exploration of the necropolis near Bor Lake in 1997, the remains of burnt skeletons were collected from burial structures 2/97 and 13/97 (Fig. 2; Plans 2 and 3. Anthropological analysis of the cremated remains of the deceased showed that high temperatures were used during the cremation process, which we assume could have only been achieved in metallurgical furnaces. This is confirmed by the fact that the skeletal fragments contain traces of melted metal, as well as finds of bronze slag inside urns and grave structures in the necropolis in Trnjani (Figs. 3 and 4; Tables 1-4. Burial ritual of this kind was not proved by systematic archaeological research of necropolises in the basin of Crni Timok, although anthropological data collected from necropolises linked to metallurgical settlements may indicate some guidelines in the ritual cremation of prominent members of these communities. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177020: Arheologija Srbije

  13. Improvement in operating incident experience at the Savannah River Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornman, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes generated at the Savannah River Plant and Laboratory are stored at the Savannah River burial ground. These wastes have accumulated from >20 years of reprocessing nuclear fuels and materials for defense programs at the Savannah River Plant. Burial in earthen trenches and aboveground storage for transuranic materials are the principal modes of storage. The infrequent operating incidents that have occurred during the 20-year period have been analyzed. The incidents can be categorized as those causing airborne contamination, waterborne contamination, or vegetation contamination through penetration of plant roots into contaminated soil. Contamination was generally confined to the immediate area of the burial ground. Several incidents occurred because of unintentional burial or exhumation of material. The frequency of operating incidents decreased with operating experience of the burial ground, averaging only about two incidents per year during the last six years of operation

  14. The Remediation of Hanford's Last Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds in the 300 Area: 618-7 and 618-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haass, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) River Corridor Closure Project, Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) has completed remediation of more than seven low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The records of decision for the burial grounds required excavation, characterization, and transport of contaminated material to a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976-compliant hazardous waste landfill. This paper discusses the challenges and lessons learned from remediating the last two major burial grounds in the 300 Area: 618-7 and 618-1. The 618-7 Burial Ground was in operation from 1960 through 1973, during which it received waste from the production of Zircaloy (zirconium alloy) jacketed metallic uranium fuel rods and thoria targets for the production of uranium-233. Its major remediation challenges included the recovery, characterization, and disposal of 550 drums and disposal of two compressed gas cylinders that were suspected to contain highly toxic chemicals. Approximately 100 of the drums contained Zircaloy metal turnings that could be pyrophoric under certain conditions. Remediation activities were completed in December 2008. The 618-1 Burial Ground was in operation from 1945 (i.e., the beginning of Hanford operations) through 1951. It received waste from 300 Area laboratories that conducted experimental work associated with World War II and Cold War era processes for fuel fabrication and the production of plutonium. Some of the wastes were associated with highly radioactive irradiated material. Remediation of this burial ground is still in progress and is expected to be completed by June 2009. Information presented in this paper will be an aid to those involved in the planning, design, and remediation of burial grounds located on the DOE complex. (authors) Remediation of the 618-7 Burial Ground was completed in December 2008; the 618-1 Burial Ground is proceeding without incident and is expected to be completed in June

  15. Mine burial in the seabed of high-turbidity area—Findings of a first experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeye, Matthias; Fettweis, Michael; Legrand, Sebastien; Dupont, Yves; Van Lancker, Vera

    2012-07-01

    The seabed of the North Sea is covered with ammunition dating back from World Wars I and II. With increasing human interference (e.g. fisheries, aggregate extraction, harbor related activities), it forms a threat to the safety at sea. In this study, test mines were deployed on a sandy seabed for 3 months to investigate mine burial processes as a function of hydrodynamic and meteorological conditions. The mine experiment was conducted in a shallow (9 m), macrotidal environment characterized by highly turbid waters (yearly and depth-averaged suspended particulate matter concentration of 100 mg l-1). Results showed some variability of the overall mine burial, which corresponded with scouring processes induced by a (sub-) tidal forcing mechanism. The main burial events however were linked to storm-related scouring processes, and subsequent mine roll into the resulting pit. Two storms affecting the mines during the 3-month experiment resulted in enduring increases in burial volume to 60% and 80%, respectively. More cyclic and ephemeral burial and exposure events appear to be linked to the local hydrodynamic regime. During slack tides, suspended sediment settles on the seabed, increasing the burial volume. In between slack tides, sediment is resuspended, decreasing the burial volume. The temporal pattern of this never reported burial mechanism, as measured optically, mimics the cyclicity of the suspended sediment concentration as recorded by ultrasonic signals at a nearby benthic observatory. Given the similarity in response signals at the two sites, we hypothesize that the formation of high-concentrated mud suspensions (HCMS) is a mechanism causing short-term burial and exposure of mines. This short-term burial and exposure increase the chance that mines are 'missed' during tracking surveys. Test mines contribute to our understanding of the settling and erosion of HCMS, and thus shed a light on generic sedimentary processes.

  16. Subsidence and settlement and their effect on shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    Subsidence and settlement are phenomena that are much more destructive than generally thought. In shallow land burials they may lead to cracking of the overburden and eventual exposure and escape of waste material. The primary causes are consolidation and cave-ins. Laboratory studies performed at Los Alamos permit us to predict settlement caused by consolidation or natural compaction of the crushed tuff overburden. Examples of expected settlement and subsidence are calculated based on the known geotechnical characteristics of crushed tuff. The same thing is done for bentonite/tuff mixes because some field experiments were performed using this additive (bentonite) to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the crushed tuff. Remedial actions, i.e., means to limit the amount of settlement, are discussed. Finally, we briefly comment on our current field experiment, which studies the influence of subsidence on layered systems in general and on biobarriers in particular

  17. Onset of scour below pipelines and self-burial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Truelsen, Christoffer; Sichmann, T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study on the onset of scour below and self-burial of pipelines in currents/waves. Pressure was measured on the surface of a slightly buried pipe at two points, one at the upstream side and the other at the downstream side of the pipe, both...... in the sand bed. The latter enabled the pressure gradient (which drives a seepage flow underneath the pipe) to be calculated. The results indicated that the excessive seepage flow and the resulting piping are the major factor to cause the onset of scour below the pipeline. The onset of scour occurred always...... locally (but not along the length of the pipeline as a two-dimensional process). The critical condition corresponding to the onset of scour was determined both in the case of currents and in the case of waves. Once the scour breaks out, it will propagate along the length of the pipeline, scour holes being...

  18. Alternatives To The Burial Of Low-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J. Mark

    2008-01-01

    The approach for management of LLRW in different countries has evolved differently due to many factors such as culture and public sentiment, systems of government, public policy, and geography. There are also various methods to disposition LLRW including but not limited to: - Long term statutes and unconditional or conditional release of material; - Direct Burial; - Treatment (Processing); - Burial; - Treatment; - Unconditional Release; - Recycle for Unconditional Release or Reuse Within Any Industry; - Controlled Recycle within Nuclear Industry. This paper examines the options of controlled recycle of material within the nuclear industry and cites several successful examples. Controlled recycling of LLRW materials within the nuclear industry has been demonstrated to be practical and economical. The reuse of materials within the nuclear industry properly addressed stakeholder concerns for material being used for what they believe to be improper purposes. There are a number of environmental benefits including: - Preservation of resources; - Energy Conservation (in cases where less energy is required to recycle/reuse as compared to mainstream new fuel storages. - Preservation of burial space at disposal sites. In many cases recycling is cost beneficial as compared to other options to disposition the LLRW. In some cases burial costs are comparatively higher. To further the advancement of controlled recycle countries must continue to embrace the concept and create large enough feedstocks of like type material to achieve economies of scale. Additionally, a mechanism to uniformly track material to show where material has been moved and ultimately dispositioned would also contribute to enhancing the endorsement of controlled recycling. There is a large amount of LLRW material that could potentially be recycled. To date, 100 mines, 90 commercial power reactors, over 250 research reactors and a number of fuel cycle facilities, have been retired from operation. Some of these

  19. Burial stress and elastic strain of carbonate rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Burial stress on a sediment or sedimentary rock is relevant for predicting compaction or failure caused by changes in, e.g., pore pressure in the subsurface. For this purpose, the stress is conventionally expressed in terms of its effect: “the effective stress” defined as the consequent elastic...... strain multiplied by the rock frame modulus. We cannot measure the strain directly in the subsurface, but from the data on bulk density and P‐wave velocity, we can estimate the rock frame modulus and Biot's coefficient and then calculate the “effective vertical stress” as the total vertical stress minus...... the product of pore pressure and Biot's coefficient. We can now calculate the elastic strain by dividing “effective stress” with the rock frame modulus. By this procedure, the degree of elastic deformation at a given time and depth can be directly expressed. This facilitates the discussion of the deformation...

  20. High integrity container evaluation for solid waste disposal burial containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, W.S.

    1996-01-01

    In order to provide radioactive waste disposal practices with the greatest measure of public protection, Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) adopted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirement to stabilize high specific activity radioactive waste prior to disposal. Under NRC guidelines, stability may be provided by several mechanisms, one of which is by placing the waste in a high integrity container (HIC). During the implementation process, SWD found that commercially-available HICs could not accommodate the varied nature of weapons complex waste, and in response developed a number of disposal containers to function as HICs. This document summarizes the evaluation of various containers that can be used for the disposal of Category 3 waste in the Low Level Burial Grounds. These containers include the VECTRA reinforced concrete HIC, reinforced concrete culvert, and the reinforced concrete vault. This evaluation provides justification for the use of these containers and identifies the conditions for use of each

  1. Subsidence and settlement and their effect on shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    Subsidence and settlement are phenomena that are much more destructive than generally thought. In shallow land burials they may lead to cracking of the overburden and eventual exposure and escape of waste material. The primary causes are consolidation and cave-ins. Laboratory studies performed at Los Alamos permit us to predict settlement caused by consolidation or natural compaction of the crushed tuff overburden. Examples of expected settlement and subsidence are calculated based on the known geotechnical characteristics of crushed tuff. The same thing is done for bentonite/tuff mixes because some field experiments were performed using this additive (bentonite) to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the crushed tuff. Remedial actions, i.e., means to limit the amount of settlement, are discussed. Finally, we briefly comment on our current field experiment, which studies the influence of subsidence on layered systems, in general, and on biobarriers, in particular. 16 references, 7 figures, 5 tables

  2. Determination of post-burial interval using entomology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; Sharma, Sahil; Sharma, Arun

    2016-08-01

    Insects and other arthropods are used in different matters pertinent to the criminal justice system as they play very important role in the decomposition of cadavers. They are used as evidence in a criminal investigation to determine post mortem interval (PMI). Various researches and review articles are available on forensic entomology to determine PMI in the terrestrial environment but very less work has been reported in context to buried bodies. Burring the carcass, is one of the methods used by criminals to conceal the crime. So, to drive the attention of researchers toward this growing field and to help various investigating agencies, the present paper reviews the studies done on determination of post-burial interval (PBI), its importance and future prospective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Alternative techniques for low-level waste shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.; Mezga, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Experience to date relative to the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) indicates that the physical stability of the disposal unit and the hydrologic isolation of the waste are the two most important factors in assuring disposal site performance. Disposal unit stability can be ensured by providing stable waste packages and waste forms, compacting backfill material, and filling the void spaces between the packages. Hydrologic isolation can be achieved though a combination of proper site selection, subsurface drainage controls, internal trench drainage systems, and immobilization of the waste. A generalized design of a LLW disposal site that would provide the desired long-term isolation of the waste is discussed. While this design will be more costly than current practices, it will provide additional confidence in predicted and reliability and actual site performance

  4. Migration of tritium from a nuclear waste burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, R.H.

    1975-09-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) has routinely and continuously monitored the local environment (land, water, air, flora, and fauna) since 1951. As part of this intensive program, a three-part study was made to assess the tritium migration from an onsite burial ground for solid nuclear wastes and the resulting dose-to-man. A major source of tritium is buried, massive, Li-Al residues (referred to as melts) from the thermal extraction step in the SRP tritium production process. A melt with its extraction crucible and lid were immersed in water to measure the amounts of tritium released as HTO and HT to the water and to air. The result was a rapid release of 23 curies, of which approximately 99 percent was HTO that remained in the immersion water, and 1 percent was HT that passed into the air. (auth)

  5. Low-level burial grounds dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This document is submitted to request an exemption for Trench 94 from dangerous waste landfill liner and leachate collection and removal system (hereinafter referred to as liner/leachate system) requirements. This exemption request is based on an evaluation which demonstrates that burial in Trench 94 of cathodically protected submarine reactor compartments (SRC), which contain lead and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) as hazardous constituents, is as effective as disposal in a landfill having a liner/leachate system. This demonstration also considers the effectiveness of burial in Trench 94 in terms of preventing long-term migration of contaminants to groundwater or surface water. Modeling results indicate that release of contaminants to the groundwater or surface water will not occur until after long periods of time and that even after reaching the groundwater, contaminants will not be in excess of current regulatory limits, such as drinking water standards. Chapter 1.0 provides introductory information concerning this request, including the scope of the exemption request and relevant background information. The five subsequent chapters provide information needed to support the exemption request. Chapter 2.0 discusses the regulatory basis for the exemption request and presents performance objectives related to regulatory requirements. Chapter 3.0 provides a description of the site and its operation. Chapter 4.0 describes the wastes subject to this exemption request Chapter 5.0 discusses the performance of the disposal site with respect to performance objectives. Finally, Chapter 6.0 presents the actual request for exemption from requirements for a liner/leachate system. 30 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Migration and biological transfer of radionuclides from shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This document is the final report of the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Migration and Biological Transfer of Radionuclides from Shallow Land Burial. It contains a description of the objectives of the CRP, its meetings, its achievements and the work of this individual members. Some early experiences in the operation of shallow land repositories have indicated that in the short-term, at least, radioactive wastes can be disposed of safely. However, while these experiences are encouraging, the safety of shallow-land burial for radioactive wastes remains to be demonstrated in the longer term. Some of the industrialized and more developed countries represented have well established disposal programmes for low level wastes (UK, France, USA, Japan, Sweden, Czechoslovakia, Argentina, India) while some of the developing countries represented are still at the preliminary planning stage (Thailand, Iraq). Accordingly, the interests of the participants are concerned with different aspects. Those from countries with existing facilities tend to be more interested in the development and improvement of safety assessment techniques and of a coherent long term disposal philosophy. Participants from countries without disposal facilities tend to be mainly concerned with basic experimental studies aimed at obtaining an understanding of radionuclide behaviour in soils. However, this division was by no means complete and on-going experimental studies were also reported by participants from USA, Canada and France. A total of 11 research agreements and 5 research contracts were allocated, but in addition a number of independent observers attended each of the three Research Coordination Meetings (RCMs). The RCMs were held in Vienna 4-8 November 1985, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, 7-11 September 1987, and Paris, France 17-21 April 1989. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Organic carbon burial in fjords: Terrestrial versus marine inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xingqian; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Savage, Candida; Smith, Richard W.

    2016-10-01

    Fjords have been identified as sites of enhanced organic carbon (OC) burial and may play an important role in regulating climate change on glacial-interglacial timescales. Understanding sediment processes and sources of sedimentary OC are necessary to better constrain OC burial in fjords. In this study, we use Fiordland, New Zealand, as a case study and present data on surface sediments, sediment down-cores and terrestrial end-members to examine dynamics of sediments and the sources of OC in fjord sediments. Sediment cores showed evidence of multiple particle sources, frequent bioturbation and mass-wasting events. A multi-proxy approach (stable isotopes, lignin-phenols and fatty acids) allowed for separation of marine, soil and vascular plant OC in surface sediments. The relationship between mass accumulation rate (MAR) and OC contents in fjord surface sediments suggested that mineral dilution is important in controlling OC content on a global scale, but is less important for specific regions (e.g., New Zealand). The inconsistency of OC budgets calculated by using MAR weighted %OC and OC accumulation rates (AR; 6 vs 21-31 Tg OC yr-1) suggested that sediment flux in fjords was likely underestimated. By using end-member models, we propose that 55% to 62% of total OC buried in fjords is terrestrially derived, and accounts for 17 ± 12% of the OCterr buried in all marine sediments. The strong correlation between MAR and OC AR indicated that OC flux will likely decrease in fjords in the future with global warming due to decrease in sediment flux caused by glacier denudation.

  8. Burial trench dynamic compaction demonstration at a humid site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    This task has the objective of determining the degree of consolidation which can be achieved by dynamic compaction of a closed burial trench within a cohesive soil formation. A seven-year-old burial trench in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was selected for this demonstration. This 251 m 3 trench contained about 80 Ci of mixed radionuclides, mostly 90 Sr, in 25 m 3 of waste consisting of contaminated equipment, dry solids, and demolition debris. Prior to compaction, a total trench void space of 79 m 3 was measured by pumping the trench full of water with corrections for seepage. Additional pre-compaction characterization included trench cap bulk density (1.68 kg/L), trench cap permeability (3 x 10 -7 m/s), and subsurface waste/backfill hydraulic conductivity (>0.01 m/s). Compaction was achieved by repeatedly dropping a 4-ton steel-reinforced concrete cylinder from heights of 4 to 8 m using the whipline of a 70-ton crane. The average trench ground surface was depressed 0.79 m, with some sections over 2 m, yielding a surveyed volumetric depression which totaled to 64% of the measured trench void space. Trench cap (0 to 60 cm) bulk density and permeability were not affected by compaction indicating that the consolidation was largely subsurface. Neither surface nor airborne radioactive contamination were observed during repeated monitoring during the demonstration. Dynamic compaction was shown to be an excellent and inexpensive (i.e., about $20/m 2 ) method to collapse trench void space, thereby hastening subsidence and stabilizing the land surface. 15 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  9. High-level waste glass field burial tests at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnyk, T.W.; Walton, F.B.; Johnson, H.L.

    1983-06-01

    In 1960 June, 25 nepheline syenite-based glass hemispheres containing the fission products 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 144 Ce and 106 Ru were buried below the water table in fluvial sand at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Soil and groundwater concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs have been determined since then and the data have been interpreted using kinetically limited migration models to deduce the leaching history of the glass for these burial conditions. The leaching history derived from the field data is compared to laboratory leaching of samples from a glass hemisphere retrieved in 1978, and also to pre-burial laboratory leaching of identical hemispheres. The time dependence of the leach rates observed for the buried specimens suggests that leaching is being inhibited by the formation of a protective surface layer, although no direct observation of this layer has been made. Using an average leach rate of 5.6 x 10 -14 kg/(m 2 .s) derived from the field data for the period 1966 to 1977, it is estimated that it would require approximately 20 million years to dissolve the glass hemispheres. The effect of the kinetic limitations of the fission-product/fluvial-sand interactions is discussed with respect to the migration of 90 Sr and 137 Cs over a 20-a time scale. It is concluded that kinetically limited sorption by oxyhydroxides rather than equilibrium ion exchange controls the long-term migration of 90 Cr; the action of the oxyhydroxides immobilizes the 90 Sr on the longer time scale. Cesium is initially rapidly bound to the micaceous fraction of the sand. On a longer time scale, slow remobilization of 137 Cs in particulate form is observed and is believed to be related to bacterial action

  10. Characterization and Neutralization of Arsenical-Based WWII Era Chemical Munition Fills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    of 4. Oxalic glycolic, and glyoxylic acids were the major products formed at pH values of 6 and 8. The final step is the oxidation of organic acids ...54 22. Summary of Analytical Results for the Nitric Acid Reagent ............................ 55 23. Summary of Properties of 20 wt... acid (DPAOA). Other arsenic-containing degradation products analyzed for by CE include the inorganic components, arsenate (AsO4) and m-arsenite (AsO2

  11. Developing Quantum Chemical and Polyparameter Models for Predicting Environmentally Significant Parameters for New Munition Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-31

    in fish , plants, and soil invertebrates have been used to build the models. In addition the BCFs for a soil invertebrate (oligochaete Eisenia......Streit B, Nagel R. Tubifex tubifex as a link in food chain transfer of hexachlorobenzene from contaminated sediment to fish . Hydrobiologia

  12. Financial Accounting for the Chemical Agents and Munitions Destruction, Defense Appropriation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The overall audit objective was to assess management controls and compliance with laws and regulations to produce accurate information for financial statements required by the Chief Financial Officers Act...

  13. Formation of Burial Mounds of the Sarmatian Time in the Basin of the Esaulovsky Aksai River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Korobkova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the features of the formation of the burial mounds in the basin of the Esaulovsky Aksai river in the Sarmatian period. Most of the burial mounds of the region begin to form in the Bronze Age and continue to function throughout the early, middle and early late-Sarmatian periods. Most of the burial mounds were located on the watersheds and above-flood terraces of different levels. All of them are characterized by same principles of planning, barrows in them are stretched in a chain in the natural form of the terrace on which the burial mound was built. The territories developed already in the Bronze Age were chosen for creating mounds in the early Sarmatian period. The main part of them is concentrated on a small section landplot of the middle course of the Esaulovsky Aksai river. During the Middle Sarmatian period, the main part of barrows were also located in the middle course of the Esaulovsky Aksai, but represented 2 plots. One of these plots continues to use large burial mounds of the previous period, and the other one undergoes the creation of small barrow groups consisting usually of two-three barrows containing the richest burials of the region with the “classical” set of Middle Sarmatian features. In the late Sarmatian period, as well as in the previous stages of the Sarmatian culture, the burial mounds of the middle course of the Esaulovsky Aksai continue to be used, which cease to function no later than at the first half of the 3rd century AD. But the territory of actively used burial mounds changes, and the main complexes of that time concentrate in the upper reaches, where new burial mounds are created and continue to function until the end of the Sarmatian era.

  14. Resurrection imageries: A study of the motives for extravagant burial rituals in ancient Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike in the New Testament whereby faith in Christ can resurrect the dead, the ancient Egyptians believed that the bereaved created the resurrection of their deceased through burial rituals and by encouraging the living to serve their kings. They thought that faith alone in god or the gods was not enough to resurrect the dead, thus they seemingly superimposed resurrection alongside burials. Using the various forms of Egyptian burial rituals and evaluated from the perspective of the Christian concept of resurrection, this researcher attempts to search for the motives behind specific Egyptian burial rituals. The researcher proposes that the activities of the bereaved or of the living over the dead were paramount in resurrecting the dead in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this research is, firstly, to explain how the Egyptian burial rituals influenced their thoughts on resurrection and, secondly, to show that the Egyptian god(s might have depended on the living to raise the dead.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The ancient Egyptians lived their lives mainly to satisfy the interests of the dead, hence their extensive burial rituals. Whilst they believed in the power of the gods to raise the dead, there seemed to be another motive behind their burial practices which suggested that the living may have had more power to raise the dead. The power was realised in the activities of the living in the form of burials, tomb designs, mummification, food offering, and in remembering the dead. This research explains that these burial activities were relevant in resurrecting the dead without which the gods alone were not able to do that.

  15. Economical study on the choice of the methods for processing radioactive waste with regard for their further burial.; Ehkonomicheskie issledovaniya po vyboru sposobov pererabotki radioaktivnykh otkhodov s uchetom ikh dal`nejshego zakhoroneniya.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdeev, O K; Lyakhov, V F [Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr z dezaktivatsyiyi ta kompleksnogo povodzhennya z radyioaktivnimi vyidkhodami, Zhovtyi Vodi (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Results of economical studies in the field of rational application of different methods of processing of low- and middle-active RAW are presented. They are as follows: burning, compaction, metal decontamination by chemical treatment and remelting, hardening of RAW. It is shown that efficient use of the processes of burning, supercompaction, chemical and pyrodecontamination of metal may be achieved only when processing considerable amounts of waste under conditions of a single Centre for processing and burial of RAW.

  16. A Biography of the Trousered Munitions Women’s Uniform of World War 1

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Ce chapitre fournit une vue d’ensemble de la recherche pour un exemple survivant de l’uniforme de pantalons des « munitionettes », alors que les travailleurs dans les usines de munitions dans la Première Guerre Mondiale étaient reconnus. Si nous examinons la réaction sur les femmes qui portent un vêtement d’homme et les discussions d’émancipation de cet uniforme, ces recherches ont étudié considérablement les archives jadis moins utilisées dans l’histoire des vêtements. Comme il n’existe plus...

  17. Ancient tombs in China and shallow ground burial of solid low-intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yawen; Gu Cunli

    1987-01-01

    Having reviewed the experiences with ancient tombs in China, particularly the experiences with tomb siting, configuration of tombs, backfilling materials, civil engineering techniques, sealing techniques, drainage system, antiseptic techniques, a comparison between the ancient tombs and the shallow ground burial of solid radioactive wastes is made. The authors believe that the brilliant achievements of ancient tombs in China in keeping ancient corpses and funeral objects are a historical evidence for safety of shallow ground burial of radioactive wastes, and that the main experiences with the ancient tombs may be useful to shallow ground burial of solid radioactive wastes

  18. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  19. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  20. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  1. Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m 3 ) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time

  2. Effects of sand burial on the survival and growth of two shrubs dominant in different habitats of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hao; Zhao, Ha-Lin; Zhao, Xue-Yong; Zuo, Xiao-An; Wang, Shao-Kun; Chen, Min

    2017-04-01

    Plants that grow in dune ecosystems always suffer from sand burial. Shrubs play implications on the healthy functioning of dune ecosystems due to control blowing sand. However, the survival and growth responses of shrubs to sand burial remain poorly understood. The survival rate and seedling height of two shrubs (Artemisia halodendron and Lespedeza davurica) along with the soil properties under different burial depths were examined in order to reveal the causing ecophysiological attributes of sand burial on shrubs in the desertified region. It was found that A. halodendron can survive a burial depth of 6 cm greater than its seedling height, which is a dominant shrub in mobile dunes with intense burial, whereas a burial depth equivalent to three fourths of its seedling height is detrimental to L. davurica, which is dominant in fixed dunes with less burial. The reasons for the shrub death under sand burial were associated with the physical barrier to vertical growth and the reduction in photosynthetic area. In conclusion, A. halodendron can facilitate the stabilization of mobile dunes because of their high tolerance to the frequent and intensive sand burial, while L. davurica can be beneficial for the recovery process because of their higher survival rates under shallow burial following restoration of mobile dunes.

  3. Review of corrective measures to stabilize subsidence in shallow-land burial trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, R.D.; Staub, W.P.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, D.W.; Pin, F.G.; Witten, A.J.

    1983-05-01

    Shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive wastes is frequently followed by subsidence: the slumping, cave-in, or depression of the trench's surface. This report describes and evaluates the measures proposed for correcting subsidence, including roller compaction, grouting, explosives, surcharging, falling mass, pile driving, in situ incineration, and accelerated decomposition. Subsidence, which has occurred at all the major waste disposal sites, has two major causes: filling of packing voids (spaces between waste containers) and filling of interior voids (spaces within containers). Four additional mechanisms also contribute to subsidence: collapse of trench walls, chemical and biological degradation, soil consolidation, and shrink and swell phenomena. Corrective measures for subsidence are evaluated on three criteria: effectiveness, applicability, and cost. The evaluation indicates that one method, falling mass, is considered to be effective, widely applicable, and relatively low in cost, suggesting that this would be the most generally useful technique and would yield the greatest payoff from further development and field trials. There are many uncertainties associated with the cost and effectiveness of corrective measures which can best be resolved by experimental field demonstrations. Site-specific analyses for each disposal area are recommended, to determine which techniques are appropriate and to evaluate the overall desirability of applying corrective measures

  4. Selective-placement burial of drilling fluids: 2. Effects on buffalograss and fourwing saltbrush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, M.L.; Hartmann, S.; Ueckert, D.N.; Hons, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    Surface disposal of spent drilling fluids used in petroleum and natural gas exploration causes surface soil contamination that severely inhibits secondary plant succession and artificial revegetation efforts. Selective-placement burial was evaluated at two locations in western Texas for on-site disposal of drilling fluids in arid and semiarid regions. Establishment, yield, and chemical composition of fourwing saltbrush [Atriplex canescens (Pursh Nutt.)] and buffalograss [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] transplants on undisturbed soils and on plots with spent drilling fluids and cuttings buried 30, 90 (with and without a 30-cm coarse limestone capillary barrier) and 150 cm were compared. Survival of both species was 97 to 100% 17 months after planting on plots with buried drilling wastes. Canopy cover and aboveground biomass of fourwing saltbrush were greater over buried drilling wastes than on untreated plots, whereas canopy cover and aboveground biomass of buffalograss were not affected by the treatments. Significant increases in Na, M, and Mg concentrations in buffalograss after 17 months on plots with drilling fluids buried 30 cm deep at one location indicated plant uptake of some drilling fluid constituents. Elevated Zn concentrations in fourwing saltbush indicated that a portion of the Zn in the drilling fluids was available for plant uptake, while no evidence of plant accumulation of Ba, Cr, Cu, or Ni from drilling fluids was detected

  5. Biobarriers used in shallow-burial ground stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.F.

    1979-03-01

    These data show that cobblestone can be effective as a barrier to burrowing animals and insects, but not totally effective as a barrier to plant roots. Because of variable weather patterns at Hanford, five to six year studies are recommended for further evaluation of the effectiveness of different materials as biobarriers to radioactive substances. The following criteria must be met to present plant roots from entering buried waste and transporting radioactive or other elements to the soil surface where they can enter the food web: (1) the burial zone beneath the cover should be kept dry; (2) enough soil or other water-retaining substance should be placed in the cover to hold annual precipitation; (3) plants or other substances should be placed in the cover to remove soil moisture from site each year via evaporation and plant transpiration; and (4) different additions to the cover should be designed and placed over the buried waste to prevent burrowing animals from causing channelization of water through the cover to the lower levels. Stone size appeared to affect the plants' rate of root growth since root growth slowed in the air spaces between stones. Root toxin was 100% effective as a means of keeping roots out of the buried waste; this method could be used as a barrier modification where no plant cover is needed. 9 figures, 2 tables

  6. Dating floodplain sediments using tree-ring response to burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J.M.; Vincent, K.R.; Shafroth, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Floodplain sediments can be dated precisely based on the change in anatomy of tree rings upon burial. When a stem of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) or sandbar willow (Salix exigua) is buried, subsequent annual rings in the buried section resemble the rings of roots: rings become narrower, vessels within the rings become larger, and transitions between rings become less distinct. We combined observations of these changes with tree-ring counts to determine the year of deposition of sedimentary beds exposed in a 150-m-long trench across the floodplain of the Rio Puerco, a rapidly filling arroyo in New Mexico. This method reliably dated most beds thicker than about 30 cm to within a year of deposition. Floodplain aggradation rates varied dramatically through time and space. Sediment deposition was mostly limited to brief overbank flows occurring every few years. The most rapid deposition occurred on channel-margin levees, which migrated laterally during channel narrowing. At the decadal timescale, the cross-section-average sediment deposition rate was steady, but there was a shift in the spatial pattern of deposition in the 1980s. From 1936 to 1986, sediment deposition occurred by channel narrowing, with little change in elevation of the thalweg. After 1986 sediment deposition occurred by vertical aggradation. From 1936 to 2000 about 27 per cent of the arroyo cross-section filled with sediment. The rate of filling from 1962 to 2000 was 0·8 vertical m/decade or 85 m2/decade.

  7. Numerical modelling of GPR electromagnetic fields for locating burial sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carcione José M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground-penetrating radar (GPR is commonly used for locating burial sites. In this article, we acquired radargrams at a site where a domestic pig cadaver was buried. The measurements were conducted with the ProEx System GPR manufactured by the Swedish company Mala Geoscience with an antenna of 500MHz. The event corresponding to the pig can be clearly seen in the measurements. In order to improve the interpretation, the electromagnetic field is compared to numerical simulations computed with the pseudo-spectral Fourier method. A geological model has been defined on the basis of assumed electromagnetic properties (permittivity, conductivity and magnetic permeability. The results, when compared with the GPR measurements, show a dissimilar amplitude behaviour, with a stronger reflection event from the bottom of the pit. We have therefore performed another simulation by decreasing the electrical conductivity of the body very close to that of air. The comparison improved, showing more reflections, which could be an indication that the body contains air or has been degraded to a certain extent that the electrical resistivity has greatly increased.

  8. Design for the second phase Rokkasho LLW burial facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumata, Tadamasa

    1997-01-01

    Rokkasho Low Level radioactive Waste management center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (hereafter called JNFL) has been operating for five years and about 90,000 (200 liter) drums have already been buried. Currently, JNFL is planning the 2nd phase of the burial program. The basic design of the new facility has been completed and applied for license additionally. Wastes buried in the 2nd phase facility are mainly dry active wastes from nuclear power plants. Inflammable wastes except for plastics are incinerated before they are disposed, because organic materials can generate gas and their degraded materials affect the distribution coefficients of the radionuclides. Most of the aluminum wastes which can generate hydrogen gas by corrosion are also removed from the waste. The 2nd phase facility accepts metal, plastics and non-flammable wastes. These are solidified with mortar in the 200 liter drums at the power plants. The radioactive inventory of the 2nd phase facility is considered to be as much as that of the 1st phase facility. (author)

  9. Books, Baths, and Burials: Notes on Certain Nineteenth Century Adoptive Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    Early legislation relating to street lighting, baths and washhouses, burial of the dead, public libraries and public improvements in England and Wales, reflected Parliament's suspicion of local democracy and distrust of local authorities. (9 references) (Author)

  10. Low-level burial grounds dangerous waste permit application design documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    This document serves a supplement to the already existing ''Low-Level Burial Ground Dangerous Waste Permit Application Design Documents.'' This paper contains information regarding drawings, construction specifications, and liner/leachate compatibility test plans

  11. Phosphorus recycling and burial in Baltic Sea sediments with contrasting redox conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mort, Haydon P; Slomp, Caroline P; Gustafson, Bo G

    2010-01-01

    . Most burial of P takes place as organic P. We find no evidence for significant authigenic Ca–P formation or biogenic Ca–P burial. The lack of major inorganic P burial sinks makes the Baltic Sea very sensitive to the feedback loop between increased hypoxia, enhanced regeneration of P and increased......In this study, redox-dependent phosphorus (P) recycling and burial at 6 sites in the Baltic Sea is investigated using a combination of porewater and sediment analyses and sediment age dating (210Pb and 137Cs). We focus on sites in the Kattegat, Danish Straits and Baltic Proper where present...... be accounted for in budgets and models for the Baltic Sea....

  12. LASL experimental engineered waste burial facility: design considerations and preliminary plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The LASL Experimental Engineered Waste Burial Facility is a part of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program on Shallow-Land Burial Technology. It is a test facility where basic information can be obtained on the processes that occur in shallow-land burial operations and where new concepts for shallow-land burial can be tested on an accelerated basis on an appropriate scale. The purpose of this paper is to present some of the factors considered in the design of the facility and to present a preliminary description of the experiments that are initially planned. This will be done by discussing waste management philosophies, the purposes of the facility in the context of the waste management philosophy for the facility, and the design considerations, and by describing the experiments initially planned for inclusion in the facility, and the facility site

  13. Public Laws Authorization and Appropriations Acts 1969-2007 for the U.S. Army Chemical Materials Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-06

    agents, chemical herbicides , smoke and other obscuration materials. (2) The term "lethal chemical agent and munition" means a chemical agent or...military purposes and harmless to human beings under normal circumstances. (k) EFFECTIVE DATE -- The provisions of this section shall take effect on...the ecological and physiological dangers inherent in the use of herbicides , and (B) the 117 ecological and Physiological effects of the defoliation

  14. In-Flight Self-Alignment Method Aided by Geomagnetism for Moving Basement of Guided Munitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-biao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to power-after-launch mode of guided munitions of high rolling speed, initial attitude of munitions cannot be determined accurately, and this makes it difficult for navigation and control system to work effectively and validly. An in-flight self-alignment method aided by geomagnetism that includes a fast in-flight coarse alignment method and an in-flight alignment model based on Kalman theory is proposed in this paper. Firstly a fast in-flight coarse alignment method is developed by using gyros, magnetic sensors, and trajectory angles. Then, an in-flight alignment model is derived by investigation of the measurement errors and attitude errors, which regards attitude errors as state variables and geomagnetic components in navigation frame as observed variables. Finally, fight data of a spinning projectile is used to verify the performance of the in-flight self-alignment method. The satisfying results show that (1 the precision of coarse alignment can attain below 5°; (2 the attitude errors by in-flight alignment model converge to 24′ at early of the latter half of the flight; (3 the in-flight alignment model based on Kalman theory has better adaptability, and show satisfying performance.

  15. Exploring sustainable burial practices in South Africa: Potential challenges and opportunities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leuta, T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available . In addition to the various faiths/religions, many cultures believe that burial is the most respectful and dignified way to treat the body, and for loved ones to find comfort in having a specific gravesite to visit. The primary drawback to conventional... across a range of cultures and religions. 3. The way forward This paper aimed to enhance an understanding of the challenges faced by South African municipalities concerning inadequate land for cemetery development. Burial forms part of important...

  16. PROBLEMS OF THE BURIAL REGISTERS IN TURKEY: A QUALITATIVE STUDY ON MATERNAL MORTALITY

    OpenAIRE

    ERGÖÇMEN, Banu Akadlı; YÜKSEL, İlknur

    2006-01-01

    In this article deficiencies of the burial registers in Turkey are discussed with specificemphasis on maternal mortality. The analysis is based on the qualitative data of “Turkey NationalMaternal Mortality Study, 2005”. This article aims to understand the reasons behind thedeficiencies in reporting and registering of the maternal deaths through interviews conducted withthe officers in charge of the burial registers in urban and rural settlements as well as the personsresponsible in recording ...

  17. Recycling and shallow land burial as goals for fusion reactor materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponti, C.

    1988-01-01

    The acceptability of each natural element as a constituent for fusion reactor materials has been determined for the purpose of limiting long-lived radioactivity, so that the material could be recycled or disposed of by near-surface burial. The results show that there is little incentive for optimizing the composition of steels for recycling. The development of a steel with an optimized composition that would allow reaching shallow land burial conditions even for the first wall is more interesting and feasible

  18. Cover integrity in shallow land burial of low-level wastes: hydrology and erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, L.J.; Nyhan, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Applications of a state-of-the-art technology for simulating hydrologic processes and erosion affecting cover integrity at shallow land waste burial sites are described. A nonpoint source pollution model developed for agricultural systems has been adapted for application to waste burial sites in semiarid and arid regions. Applications include designs for field experiments, evaluation of slope length and steepness, evaluation of various soil types, and evaluation of vegetative cover influencing erosion rates and the water balance within the soil profile

  19. Mirrors in the Burial Rites of Saryarka Population in the Golden Horde Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasenova Bakhyt M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the mirrors which were originally discovered in ancient Turkic burials, but became widely spread as late as in the Golden Horde period, which was largely accounted for by the intensification of contacts due to the establishment of the Mongol Empire. High-quality Chinese mirrors and their local imitations have been discovered across the entire vast territory in which the steppe peoples established new state formations. The authors support the opinion advanced by many researchers, according to which the mirrors represent ritual items. There is evidence of the fact that in the ancient Turkic period mirrors were characteristic of female burials. This information is partially confirmed for the developed medieval period as well, for paleoanthropological characteristics are not always available. The authors provide information on the conditions in which mirrors have been discovered in the burials of the historical period in question. The article features the first description of individual mirrors discovered in the burials of the steppe area of Kazakhstan. Of considerable interest is the discovery of one of the mirrors underneath a grave in a female burial conducted in accordance with the Muslim funerary rite. The authors attempt to identify the role of individual items in the burial rite of the medieval period, in this case mirrors, as a marker of gender identity.

  20. Field studies of erosion-control technologies for arid shallow land-burial sites at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.V.; DePoorter, G.L.; Hakonson, T.E.; Perkins, B.A.; Foster, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The field research program involving corrective measures technologies for arid shallow land-burial sites is described. Research performed for a portion of this task, the identification, evaluation, and modeling of erosion control technologies, is presented in detail. In a joint study with USDA-ARS, soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments was measured and compared with data from undisturbed soil surfaces with natural plant cover. The distribution of soil particles in the runoff was measured for inclusion in CREAMS (a field scale model for Chemicals, Runoff and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems). Neutron moisture gauge data collected beneath the erosion plots are presented to show the seasonal effects of the erosion control technologies on the subsurface component of water balance. 12 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  1. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Risk Analysis of the Disposal of Chemical Munitions at Regional or National Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    4-4i = I7-75 IA A uj11 wj M 2 i w bo 1o. P2 ari *fa3 IL L z - = a 2 1.- I 24 -~ 2 z 2 2 ~ o~t 0 I, I ’" a a c .3 0 5 , C., ZZ ~C -) ZZ 4 cc 4cc acca ...IN C I N - I CL- 0.0 0 00 C61. IA f6 .4 Q 0 0 0 0 0 C o 3 OF-- 04- 0 .0 0 0 u 0 0 0 W 0 -’ - 000 ’. 4-3 .0-4 0 0 04 0 41. . 11 . ,. ~ :!~r 0. 19 000 0

  2. Managing soil moisture on waste burial sites in arid regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.E.; Ratzlaff, T.D.; Nowak, R.S.; Markham, O.D.

    1993-01-01

    In semiarid regions, where potential evapotranspiration greatly exceeds precipitation, it is theoretically possible to preclude water form reaching interred wastes by (i) providing a sufficient cap of soil to store precipitation that falls while plants are dormant and (ii) establishing sufficient plant cover to deplete soil moisture during the growing season, thereby emptying the water storage reservoir of the soil. Here the authors discuss the theory and rationale for such an approach and then present the results of a field study to test its efficacy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). They examined the capacity of four species of perennial plants to deplete soil moisture on simulated waste trenches and determined the effective water storage capacity of the soil. Those data enabled them to estimate the minimum depth of fill soil required to prevent deep drainage. Any of the species studied can use all of the plant-available soil water, even during a very wet growing season. The water storage capacity of the soil studied is 17% by volume, so a trench cap of 1.6 m of soil should be adequate to store precipitation received at the INEL while plants are dormant. They recommend a fill soil depth of 2 m to provide a margin of safety in case water accumulates in local areas as a result of heavy snow accumulation, subsidence, or runoff. Fill soil requirements and choice of plant species will vary, but the concepts and general approach are applicable to other shallow land burial sites in arid or semiarid regions. 23 refs., 5 figs

  3. On the Semantics of Plates from the Shilovka Burial Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonyakova (Chuvilo Natalia A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the finds made on the sites located in the Middle Volga region and Siberia, ivory plaques of high artistic value used to adorn combat saddle pommel are met. They would bear floral ornamentation or depict hunting scenes, reflecting the spiritual world of a nomad warrior. These images are dated widely, but not later than the 7th or 8th centuries. They were drawn with a sharp cutter and blackened down the lines. Of special interest are the bone plates from the Shilovka burial ground site (Uyanovsk oblast with the following images: two dragons in a heraldic posture, deer hunt scenes, horsemen in ambush, fight with a bear, and defense of the fortress. In the author’s opinion, the Shilovka plates depict a dramatic episode in the life of a Turkic warlord, which occurred in the midst of hostilities. During the hunt, a huge bear was unleashed against him. Part of his heavily armed convoy (or suite fled; some soldiers got ambushed (the enemy shot them from armor-piercing bows. Saving his life, the captain knelt and bent his bow, whose string broke at the most inopportune moment. Perhaps he died fighting a bear. One can assume that it was a stratagem of the enemy, which decided the outcome of the war. The symbol of victory on the plates is represented by the dragons, frozen in a heraldic posture, and expressing the basic principle of life characteristic of the nomad warriors in the Early Middle Ages: prosperity and well-being at a price of war and victories. The plaques were placed into the winner’s grave.

  4. Tracking and Interception of Ground-Based RF Sources Using Autonomous Guided Munitions with Passive Bearings-Only Sensors and Tracking Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ezal, Kenan; Agate, Craig

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of tracking and intercepting a potentially moving ground-based RF source with an autonomous guided munition that has a passive bearings-only sensor located on its nose...

  5. Operation Iraqi Freedom: DOD Should Apply Lessons Learned Concerning the Need for Security over Conventional Munitions Storage Sites to Future Operations Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Agostino, Davi M

    2007-01-01

    The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is releasing a report today on lessons learned concerning the need for security over conventional munitions storage sites that provides the basis for this testimony...

  6. PRESENTED 03/01/2006: 2006 REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington, DC was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite

  7. THE ROLE OF HISTORICAL AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS IN THE REMEDIATION OF WWI CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION IN THE SPRING VALLEY SUPERFUND SITE, WASHINGTON, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  8. Time-temperature-burial significance of Devonian anthracite implies former great (approx.6.5 km) depth of burial of Catskill Mountains, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, G.M.; Sanders, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of coalified plant debris in Tully-correlative strata of the Gilboa Formation (uppermost Middle Devonian) within the eastern Catskill Mountains of New York State have been converted to anthracite having a vitrinite reflectance of 2.5%. This implies a level of organic metamorphism (LOM) of 16. The specimens are about 350 m.y. old; if 200 m.y. is taken as the duration of the time of exposure to the maximum geothermal temperature, then the LOM of 16 and other thermal indicators imply a maximum temperature of 190 0 C. Using a geothermal gradient of 26 0 C.km -1 (17 0 F.1,000 ft -1 ), a former depth of burial of 6.5 km is implied. Such former deep burial is not usually inferred for the Catskills, but it is consistent with the idea that the thick (about 6.4 km or 21,000 ft) Carboniferous strata of northeastern Pennsylvania formerly extended northeast far enough to bury the Catskills. The lack of metamorphism of the Paleozoic strata lying about 4.5 km beneath the Tully-correlative rocks and exposed in the adjacent Hudson Valley places low limits on the former geothermal gradient; this supports the concept of great depth of former burial of the Catskills. For example, 6.5 km of former burial and a geothermal gradient of 26 0 C.km -1 imply a temperature of 307 0 C for the base of the Paleozoic. By contrast, only 1 km of former burial requires a geothermal gradient of 170 0 C.km -1 , which would have subjected the base of the Paleozoic to a temperature of 955 0 GAMMA, which is far higher than the 600 to 650 0 C recently inferred for the Acadian-age metamorphism of the Taconic allochthon in southwestern Massachusetts and adjoining areas

  9. Hybrid analysis of multiaxis electromagnetic data for discrimination of munitions and explosives of concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, M. J.; Asch, T. H.; Oden, C.

    2012-08-01

    The remediation of land containing munitions and explosives of concern, otherwise known as unexploded ordnance, is an ongoing problem facing the U.S. Department of Defense and similar agencies worldwide that have used or are transferring training ranges or munitions disposal areas to civilian control. The expense associated with cleanup of land previously used for military training and war provides impetus for research towards enhanced discrimination of buried unexploded ordnance. Towards reducing that expense, a multiaxis electromagnetic induction data collection and software system, called ALLTEM, was designed and tested with support from the U.S. Department of Defense Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. ALLTEM is an on-time time-domain system that uses a continuous triangle-wave excitation to measure the target-step response rather than traditional impulse response. The system cycles through three orthogonal transmitting loops and records a total of 19 different transmitting and receiving loop combinations with a nominal spatial data sampling interval of 20 cm. Recorded data are pre-processed and then used in a hybrid discrimination scheme involving both data-driven and numerical classification techniques. The data-driven classification scheme is accomplished in three steps. First, field observations are used to train a type of unsupervised artificial neural network, a self-organizing map (SOM). Second, the SOM is used to simultaneously estimate target parameters (depth, azimuth, inclination, item type and weight) by iterative minimization of the topographic error vectors. Third, the target classification is accomplished by evaluating histograms of the estimated parameters. The numerical classification scheme is also accomplished in three steps. First, the Biot-Savart law is used to model the primary magnetic fields from the transmitter coils and the secondary magnetic fields generated by currents induced in the target materials in the

  10. Hybrid analysis of multiaxis electromagnetic data for discrimination of munitions and explosives of concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, M.J.; Asch, T.H.; Oden, C.

    2012-01-01

    The remediation of land containing munitions and explosives of concern, otherwise known as unexploded ordnance, is an ongoing problem facing the U.S. Department of Defense and similar agencies worldwide that have used or are transferring training ranges or munitions disposal areas to civilian control. The expense associated with cleanup of land previously used for military training and war provides impetus for research towards enhanced discrimination of buried unexploded ordnance. Towards reducing that expense, a multiaxis electromagnetic induction data collection and software system, called ALLTEM, was designed and tested with support from the U.S. Department of Defense Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. ALLTEM is an on-time time-domain system that uses a continuous triangle-wave excitation to measure the target-step response rather than traditional impulse response. The system cycles through three orthogonal transmitting loops and records a total of 19 different transmitting and receiving loop combinations with a nominal spatial data sampling interval of 20 cm. Recorded data are pre-processed and then used in a hybrid discrimination scheme involving both data-driven and numerical classification techniques. The data-driven classification scheme is accomplished in three steps. First, field observations are used to train a type of unsupervised artificial neural network, a self-organizing map (SOM). Second, the SOM is used to simultaneously estimate target parameters (depth, azimuth, inclination, item type and weight) by iterative minimization of the topographic error vectors. Third, the target classification is accomplished by evaluating histograms of the estimated parameters. The numerical classification scheme is also accomplished in three steps. First, the Biot–Savart law is used to model the primary magnetic fields from the transmitter coils and the secondary magnetic fields generated by currents induced in the target materials in the

  11. Field demonstration of in situ grouting of radioactive solid waste burial trenches with polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Fontaine, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrations of in situ grouting with polyacrylamide were carried out on two undisturbed burial trenches and one dynamically compacted burial trench in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The injection of polyacrylamide was achieved quite facilely for the two undisturbed burial trenches which were filled with grout, at typical pumping rates of 95 L/min, in several batches injected over several days. The compacted burial trench, however, failed to accept grout at more than 1.9 L/min even when pressure was applied. Thus, it appears that burial trenches, stabilized by dynamic compaction, have a permeability too low to be considered groutable. The water table beneath the burial trenches did not respond to grout injections indicating a lack of hydrologic connection between fluid grout and the water table which would have been observed if the grout failed to set. Because grout set times were adjusted to less than 60 min, the lack of hydrologic connection was not surprising. Postgrouting penetration testing revealed that the stability of the burial trenches was increased from 26% to 79% that measured in the undisturbed soil surrounding the trenches. In situ permeation tests on the grouted trenches indicated a significant reduction in hydraulic conductivity of the trench contents from a mean of 2.1 x 10 -3 to 1.85 x 10 -5 cm/s. Preliminary observations indicated that grouting with polyacrylamide is an excellent method for both improved stability and hydrologic isolation of radioactive waste and its incidental hazardous constituents

  12. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-05-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground.

  13. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground

  14. Roman Bronze Vessels From the Late Sarmatian Burial of the Lebedevka Burial-Ground in Western Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treister Mikhail Yuryevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to studying cultural monuments – bronze vessels, a jug and a basin from the barrow no. 1/1967 of the Lebedevka Late Sarmatian burial mound (Western Kazakhstan, dating back to the middle of the 3rd century AD at the latest. These items do not find exact parallels among the bronze vessels of provincial Rome. Although the shape of the jug handle with a curved leaf turned upright between two horizontally arranged swan heads has parallels on the so-called “composite jug with handles” (“gegliederten Henkelkrügen”, the cylindrical form of the jug’s neck peculiar of the glass jugs of allegedly Syrian manufacture of the second half of the 3rd-4th centuries AD is very unusual. Even more unusual is a basin with horizontally bent rim and elaborate handles with pearls on a high narrow stand-ring. The XRF analyses of the Lebedevka jug’s metal revealed that its body and handle were made of a copper-based alloy with very high admixtures of zinc (24-27 % and inconsiderable additions of lead (up to 3 %. A similar alloy was used for manufacturing a vessel in the form of a crouching young negro from Niederbieber. Most objects of provincial Roman import reached Western Kazakhstan via the Bosporan kingdom along the Northern branch of the Silk Road. The above discussed bronze vessels from Lebedevka let suggest, that the nomads could receive some import articles that were brought along the caravan routes leading from Egypt and Syria to the East.

  15. Groundwater monitoring in the Savannah River Plant low-level waste burial ground: a summary and interpretation of the analytical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    This document describes chemical mechanisms that may affect trace-level radionuclide migration through acidic sandy clay soils in a humid environment, and summarizes the extensive chemical and radiochemical analyses of the groundwater directly below the SRP Low-Level Waste (LLW) Burial Ground (643-G). Anomalies were identified in the chemistry of individual wells which appear to be related to small amounts of fission product activity that have reached the water table. The chemical properties which were statistically related to trace-level transport of Cs-137 and Sr-90 were iron, potassium, sodium and calcium. Concentrations on the order of 100 ppM appear sufficient to affect nuclide migration. Several complexation mechanisms for plutonium migration were investigated, but most of these were shown to be incapable of mobilizing more than trace quantities of plutonium. The parameters of greatest importance were oxidation-reduction potential, pH, dissolved organic carbon, phosphate and carbonate. Of these, organic and phosphate complexation had the greatest potential for mobilizing plutonium in the SRP groundwater. In the absence of such complexants, plutonium would be essentially immobile in the soil/water system of the SRP burial ground. 50 references, 8 figures, 2 tables

  16. Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë L Hutchison

    Full Text Available Sedimentation in the sea occurs through natural processes, such as wave and tidal action, which can be exacerbated during storms and floods. Changes in terrestrial land use, marine aggregate extraction, dredging, drilling and mining are known to result in substantial sediment deposition. Research suggests that deposition will also occur due to the modern development of marine renewable energy. The response to individual burial under three depths of sediment, three sediment fractions and five burial durations was investigated in two mussel species, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis in specialist mesocosms. Both mussel species showed substantial mortality, which increased with duration of burial and burial by finer sediment fractions. M. modiolus was better able to survive short periods of burial than M. edulis, but at longer durations mortality was more pronounced. No mortality was observed in M. modiolus in burial durations of eight days or less but by 16 days of burial, over 50% cumulative mortality occurred. Under variable temperature regimes, M. edulis mortality increased from 20% at 8°C to over 60% at 14.5 and 20°C. Only M. edulis was able to emerge from burial, facilitated by increased byssus production, laid mostly on vertical surfaces but also on sediment particles. Emergence was higher from coarse sediment and shallow burials. Byssus production in M. edulis was not related to the condition index of the mussels. Results suggest that even marginal burial would result in mortality and be more pronounced in warm summer periods. Our results suggest that in the event of burial, adult M. modiolus would not be able to emerge from burial unless local hydrodynamics assist, whereas a small proportion of M. edulis may regain contact with the sediment water interface. The physiological stress resulting in mortality, contribution of local hydrodynamics to survival and other ecological pressures such as mussels existing in aggregations, are

  17. Methane Recycling During Burial of Methane Hydrate-Bearing Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, K.; Flemings, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    We quantitatively investigate the integral processes of methane hydrate formation from local microbial methane generation, burial of methane hydrate with sedimentation, and methane recycling at the base of the hydrate stability zone (BHSZ) with a multiphase multicomponent numerical model. Methane recycling happens in cycles, and there is not a steady state. Each cycle starts with free gas accumulation from hydrate dissociation below the BHSZ. This free gas flows upward under buoyancy, elevates the hydrate saturation and capillary entry pressure at the BHSZ, and this prevents more free gas flowing in. Later as this layer with elevated hydrate saturation is buried and dissociated, the large amount of free gas newly released and accumulated below rapidly intrudes into the hydrate stability zone, drives rapid hydrate formation and creates three-phase (gas, liquid and hydrate) equilibrium above the BHSZ. The gas front retreats to below the BHSZ until all the free gas is depleted. The shallowest depth that the free gas reaches in one cycle moves toward seafloor as more and more methane is accumulated to the BHSZ with time. More methane is stored above the BHSZ in the form of concentrated hydrate in sediments with relatively uniform pore throat, and/or with greater compressibility. It is more difficult to initiate methane recycling in passive continental margins where the sedimentation rate is low, and in sediments with low organic matter content and/or methanogenesis reaction rate. The presence of a permeable layer can store methane for significant periods of time without recycling. In a 2D system where the seafloor dips rapidly, the updip gas flow along the BHSZ transports more methane toward topographic highs where methane gas and elevated hydrate saturation intrude deeper into the hydrate stability zone within one cycle. This could lead to intermittent gas venting at seafloor at the topographic highs. This study provides insights on many phenomenon associated with

  18. Recovery of macrobenthic assemblages following experimental sand burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Barrón

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was supported by a fund provided by the Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (UNAM and a fund provided to Celia Olabarria in 2004 and 2005 by the University of Vigo for overseas short stays.AbstractPeriodic inundation by sand is a very common feature of rocky coasts throughout the world. Even so, there have been few direct observations or experiments to investigate the role of sediments on intertidal rocky shores. We designed a field experiment in Mazatlán Bay, Mexico, to test the initial impact and subsequent recovery of intertidal macrobenthic assemblages exposed to sand burial at two sites of varying wave exposure. Both sites supported different natural assemblages. Treatment plots for the addition of sediment and control plots (50 × 50 cm, separated by at least 1.5 m, were randomly placed across the mid-water tidal level. The initial response of the resident macrobenthos and the subsequent recolonization was monitored over a period of 95 days. The main effect of sediment deposition at both sites was mortality and removal of biota due to smothering. The recovery process was rapid and may in part have been the result of the mechanism by which the small, disturbed patches were recolonized. Most of the invertebrates colonized the patches as adults; several seaweeds exhibited vegetative growth as the major mechanism of colonization (e.g., Ulva lactuca Linnaeus, 1753, Amphiroa valonioides Yendo, 1902 and Chaetomorpha antennina (Borgensen Kutzing, 1849. The rate of recovery varied between the sites, however. Recovery of species numbers proceeded quickly at the sheltered site (day 7, but took 95 days at the exposed site. In contrast, biomass reached control levels by day 45 at the sheltered site, but already by day 15 at the exposed site. By day 95, the assemblages recovered to 83.5% and 81% similarity with the controls at the sheltered and exposed sites respectively. Although differences in wave exposure could be very

  19. [Effect of shifting sand burial on evaporation reduction and salt restraint under saline water irrigation in extremely arid region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Xin-Wen; Lei, Jia-Qiang; Li, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Yong-Dong

    2014-05-01

    The Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt is drip-irrigated with high saline groundwater (2.58-29.70 g x L(-1)), and shifting sand burial and water-salt stress are most common and serious problems in this region. So it is of great importance to study the effect of shifting sand burial on soil moisture evaporation, salt accumulation and their distribution for water saving, salinity restraint, and suitable utilization of local land and water resources. In this study, Micro-Lysimeters (MLS) were used to investigate dynamics of soil moisture and salt under different thicknesses of sand burial (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm), and field control experiments of drip-irrigation were also carried out to investigate soil moisture and salt distribution under different thicknesses of shifting sand burial (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 cm). The soil daily and cumulative evaporation decreased with the increase of sand burial thickness in MLS, cumulative evaporation decreased by 2.5%-13.7% compared with control. And evaporative inhibiting efficiency increased with sand burial thickness, evaporative inhibiting efficiency of 1-5 cm sand burial was 16.7%-79.0%. Final soil moisture content beneath the interface of sand burial increased with sand burial thickness, and it increased by 2.5%-13.7% than control. The topsoil EC of shifting sand in MLS decreased by 1.19-6.00 mS x cm(-1) with the increasing sand burial thickness, whereas soil salt content beneath the interface in MLS increased and amplitude of the topsoil salt content was higher than that of the subsoil. Under drip-irrigation with saline groundwater, average soil moisture beneath the interface of shifting sand burial increased by 0.4% -2.0% compare with control, and the highest value of EC was 7.77 mS x cm(-1) when the sand burial thickness was 10 cm. The trend of salt accumulation content at shifting sand surface increased firstly, and then decreased with the increasing sand burial thickness. Soil salt contents beneath the

  20. Riding Horse Harness (Based on Materials from the Chulkovo Burial Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishakov Valeriy V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The items of riding horse harness (bits with psalia, stirrups, buckles, decorations of bridles are analyzed in the article on the basis of the materials from the Chulkovo (Murom burial ground site of the 8th-10th centuries, located on right bank of the Oka river. It has been established that the use of horse harness items by the Muroma culture population, which had left the Chulkovo burial ground, is in full correspondence with the general traditions of the Finno-Ugric peoples of the Volga river region characteristic of the 8th-10th centuries. The shapes of the bits correspond to both the steppe (bits with S-shaped and straight psalia and the local traditions (bits with two and three moving rings. A tendency to uniformity is observed in the tradition of stirrups production. The main differences of the Muroma burial grounds from the neighboring Mordovian ones consist in the presence of horse burials (not known among the Mordovians, and, on the other hand, in a practically complete lack of horse harness in the funeral set of human burials. It can be assumed that the importance of cavalry with the Muromа was lower than with the Mordovians who were living next to the steppe world.

  1. Initial site characterization and evaluation of radionuclide contaminated soil waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Rickard, W.H.; Sandness, G.A.

    1977-02-01

    A survey of historical records and literature containing information on the contents of 300 Area and North Burial Grounds was completed. Existing records of radioactive waste location, type, and quantity within each burial ground facility were obtained and distributed to cooperating investigators. A study was then initiated to evaluate geophysical exploration techniques for mapping buried waste materials, waste containers, and trench boundaries. Results indicate that a combination of ground penetrating radar, magnetometer, metal detector, and acoustic measurements will be effective but will require further study, hardware development, and field testing. Drilling techniques for recovering radionuclide-contaminated materials and sediment cores were developed and tested. Laboratory sediment characterization and fluid transport and monitoring analyses were begun by installation of in situ transducers at the 300 North Burial Ground site. Biological transport mechanisms that control radionuclide movement at contaminated sites were also studied. Flora and fauna presently inhabiting specific burial ground areas were identified and analyzed. Future monitoring of specific mammal populations will permit determination of dose rate and pathways of contaminated materials contained in and adjacent to burial ground sites

  2. Transport of explosive chemicals from the landmine burial in granular soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El transporte de compuestos químicos relacionados con explosivos (ERCs en suelos se estudió durante procesos de infiltración y evaporación de agua como función del contenido de agua del suelo y la temperatura. Los experimentos fueron desarrollados en dos columnas cilíndricas uniformes de 100 cm de longitud empacadas con arena homogénea, equipada con sensores de presión de aire y de agua y puntos de muestreo para monitorear las condiciones hidráulicas y los perfiles de concentraciones de ERCs en el suelo. Los cristales de TNT y DNT fueron localizados en una membrana porosa y se enterraron como fuente puntual cerca de la superficie del suelo. Las distribuciones espaciales y temporales de la concentración de solutos conservadores fueron utilizadas para evaluar el comportamiento del transporte de TNT y del DNT en suelo granular. Las variaciones de velocidad y la comparación con los resultados de la simulación numérica usando el modelo HYDRUS-2D indica la presencia de flujos preferenciales. El contenido de agua y el movimiento de agua alrededor de la fuente enterrada de TNT y DNT influencia altamente su transporte en suelos granulares y cerca de la superficie que interactúa con la atmósfera. La formación de caminos preferenciales son atribuidos a la alteración de las propiedades del suelo debido al enterramiento de las fuentes de ERC y a las heterogeneidades en el contenido de agua. Las alteraciones alrededor de la fuente enterrada que conlleva a heterogeneidades hidráulicas, influye en el transporte cerca a la fuente. El flujo preferencial produce un movimiento más rápido y mayor dispersión de los solutos durante los periodos de infiltración, e influencia la tasa de mezcla en el sistema.

  3. Site selection criteria for the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconer, K.L.; Hull, L.C.; Mizell, S.A.

    The shallow land burial of low-level waste must be accomplished in a manner that ensures the public and biosphere are protected from harmful amounts of radiation. This can be attained by selecting, designing, operating and closing sites such that contaminants never leave the site boundary in levels above regulatory limits. Site design, operation and closure are all functions of the characteristics of the site selected. As a result, the site selection process offers the most effective means for optimizing safe, efficient and economical low-level waste burial practices. The purpose of this document is to set forth criteria for the selection of shallow land burial sites. Criteria are standard rules, by which the ability of a site to meet waste management goals can be judged. They are comprehensive, universal, and qualitative and are applicable in any geologic environment. Site selection criteria provide the framework for the siting process

  4. Effect of phosphogypsum on workers and population's radiation exposure in vicinity of phosphogypsum waste burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.; Raja, G.; Sawaf, A.M.

    1997-05-01

    The phosphogypsum waste burial site was studied in more details of radiation viewpoint. This waste results from phosphate industry. The study covered ground water, nearby houses, air and emission rates of radon from this waste burial site. Results showed increasing of radiation exposure in the studied site and nearby area for both workers and population. Fortunately, this area was studied before instruction of the waste burial site. So it was easy to compare the new results with the previous ones and see the difference. Indoor radon concentration increased about 70%. Results also showed high emission rates which result in significant dose. The site needs continuous monitoring because the amount of phosphogypsum is increasing. Also groundwater should be monitored continuously to see the effect of the waste in the future if it happened. (author). 5 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Effect of phosphogypsum on workers and population's radiation exposure in vicinity of phosphogypsum waste burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.; Raja, G.; Sawaf, A.

    1998-01-01

    The phosphogypsum waste burial site was studied in more details of radiation viewpoint. This waste results from phosphate industry. The study covered ground water, nearby houses, air and emission rates of radon from this waste burial site. Results showed increasing of radiation exposure in the studied site and nearby area for both workers and population. Fortunately, this area was studied before instruction of the waste burial site. So it was easy to compare the new results with the previous ones and see the difference. Indoor radon concentration increased about 70%. Results also showed high emission rates which result in significant dose. The site needs continuous monitoring because the amount of phosphogypsum is increasing. Also groundwater should be monitored continuously to see the effect of the waste in the future if it happened. (author)

  6. DOE program for improvement practices for shallow burial of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckhoner, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The practice of burying solid radioactive waste in relatively shallow pits or trenches at government nuclear sites dates back to the Manhattan Project. In some cases, where local conditions were considered unfavorable, intersite shipment of waste has been required. This general concept was later used at commercially-operated sites under Federal or state regulation. The purpose, scope, and results of a DOE program begun several years ago for improvements of burial ground disposal methods are reviewed. The program includes the re-evaluation of the original siting and of operating practices at existing burial grounds (including monitoring for migration of activity); the development of improved criteria for siting of new grounds that might be required as the defense site operations continue; and development of corrective measures such as diking and better draining for possible unsatisfactory conditions that might be detected. The possible applications of these findings to commercial burial grounds is discussed

  7. Female Headdress from Dubrovskiy Burial Ground of 4th–5th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnopeоrov Alexander A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the remains of a female headdress from Dubrovskiy burial ground of Mazunino type in the Kama region of Udmurtia. The burial is defined by the Migration Period, and the leader of the excavations generally attributed it to the 4th – 5th centuries AD. As widely known, female dress was a status symbol, a sign of belonging to a tribe. The headdress studied here belonged to a young woman, whose status was demonstrated through the context of this collective burial and the grave goods. The type of the headdress is reconstructed by its constructive details, peculiar location of metallic decorations and preserved organics. According to the authors, the headdress had the front part (frontal piece on a solid base with decorative elements, and a soft back part (a shawl with metallic details. The authors refer to archaeological analogies and ethnographic parallels, which allow reconstructing the cultural context of the find.

  8. NSC confirms principles for safety review on Radioactive Waste Burial Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission authorized the scope of Principles for Safety Examination on Radioactive Waste Burial Facilities as suitable, the draft report for which was established by the Special Committee on Safety Standards of Radioactive Waste (Chairman Prof. Masao Sago, Science University of Tokyo) and reported on March 10 to the NSC. The principles include the theory that the facility must be controlled step by step, corresponding to the amount of radioactivity over 300 to 400 years after the burial of low-level solid radioactive waste with site conditions safe even in the event of occurrence of a natural disaster. The principles will be used for administrative safety examination against the application of the business on low-level radioactive waste burial facility which Japan Nuclear Fuel Industries, Inc. is planning to install at Rokkashomura, Aomori Prefecture. (author)

  9. Burial diagenesis of deep sea chalk as reflected in Biot's coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul

    2013-01-01

    to limestone as burial increases and porosity decreases. The porosity decrease is accompanied by an increasing velocity to elastic waves, and consequently a decreasing Biot's coefficient, as estimated from velocity and density of core samples. When the effective burial stress is normalized to total horizontal....... In the ooze, we find that the natural compaction causes an increasing stress on grain contact area, indicating that the ooze particles become strongly strained. In the chalk section, contact cement is probably the reason why particles become less strained as porosity declines. In the limestone, stress...... on particles apparently is low and not correlated with porosity, probably because the pore-filling cementation in this interval causes Biot's coefficient to decline as burial increases. Limestone from the water zone of the North sea Chalk Group follows the same stress trend as deep sea limestone. These results...

  10. Migration studies at the Savannah River Plant shallow land burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Oblath, S.B.; Hawkins, R.H.; Emslie, R.H.; Ryan, J.P. Jr.; King, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide migration from the Savannah River Plant low-level waste burial ground was studied in ongoing programs that provide generic data on a shallow land burial site in a humid region and support local waste disposal operations. Field, laboratory, and theoretical work continued in four areas. (1) Subsurface Monitoring: Groundwater around the burial ground was monitored for traces of radioactivity and mercury. (2) Lysimeter Tests: Gamma-emitting radionuclides were identified by sensitive methods in defense waste lysimeter percolate waters. Results from these and other lysimeters containing tritium, I-129, or Pu-239 sources are given. (3) Soil-Water Chemistry: Experiments on specific factors affecting migration of Cs-137 showed that potassium significantly increases cesium mobility, thus confirming observations with trench waters. Distribution coefficients for ruthenium were measured. (4) Transport Modeling: Efforts to refine and validate the SRL dose-to-man model continued. Transport calculations were made for tritium, Sr-90, Tc-99, and TRU radionuclides. 12 references, 3 tables

  11. Exploration of the burial apartments in tomb complex AS 68. Preliminary report of the 2013 fall season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Vymazalová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of the tomb complex of king’s daughter Sheretnebty, which was discovered in 2012, continued in the archaeological season of 2013. In October–November, the work concentrated on the underground parts of the tombs, including the burial shafts and burial chambers. In tomb AS 68c, two shafts were unusually deep; at a depth of 11.00 m under the ground the burial chambers of a man and a woman had been hewn. The man’s chamber contained a large sarcophagus of fine limestone and the remains of his burial and his tomb equipment, while the woman’s chamber remained largely unfinished and contained her rather simple burial placed on the floor. The so far discovered evidence indicates that this was the burial of Princess Sheretnebty. Another four shafts in the tomb contained four other burials of a female and three males, most probably the couple’s descendants. In addition, the shafts in the two western rock-cut tombs were explored. In the tomb of Shepespuptah (AS 68b, a single shaft was dug in the tomb’s chapel, while the tomb owner was buried in a burial chamber south of the chapel. The shaft in the chapel was large but reached only 1.40 m deep and was never finished and never used for burial. The two shafts in the tomb of Duaptah (AS 68a revealed the burials of two men; the southern shaft belonged to Duaptah himself while the northern shaft to a certain Nefermin. The burials were mostly very simple, and all of them were disturbed by tomb robbers. The preserved bones might, however, still reveal important details about the individuals buried in the rock-cut tombs, and they will therefore be studied in order to trace the family relationships among the tomb owners.

  12. New hydroxyproline radiocarbon dates from Sungir, Russia, confirm early Mid Upper Palaeolithic burials in Eurasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Nalawade-Chavan

    Full Text Available Sungir (Russia is a key Mid-Upper Palaeolithic site in Eurasia, containing several spectacular burials that disclose early evidence for complex burial rites in the form of a range of grave goods deposited along with the dead. Dating has been particularly challenging, with multiple radiocarbon dates ranging from 19,160±270 to 28,800±240 BP for burials that are believed to be closely similar in age. There are disparities in the radiocarbon dates of human bones, faunal remains and charcoal found on the floor of burials. Our approach has been to develop compound-specific methods using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC to separate single amino acids, such as hydroxyproline, and thereby avoid the known human contamination on the bones themselves. Previously, we applied this technique to obtain radiocarbon dates of ∼30,000 BP for Sungir 2, Sungir 3 and a mammoth bone from the occupation levels of the site. The single amino acid radiocarbon dates were in good agreement with each other compared to all the dates previously reported, supporting their reliability. Here we report new hydroxyproline dates for two more human burials from the same site, Sungir 1 and Sungir 4. All five hydroxyproline dates reported are statistically indistinguishable and support an identical age for the group. The results suggest that compound-specific radiocarbon analysis should be considered seriously as the method of choice when precious archaeological remains are to be dated because they give a demonstrably contaminant-free radiocarbon age. The new ages are, together with the previously dated 'Red Lady of Paviland' human in the British Isles, the earliest for Mid Upper Palaeolithic burial behaviour in Eurasia, and point to the precocious appearance of this form of rite in Europe Russia.

  13. New hydroxyproline radiocarbon dates from Sungir, Russia, confirm early Mid Upper Palaeolithic burials in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalawade-Chavan, Shweta; McCullagh, James; Hedges, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sungir (Russia) is a key Mid-Upper Palaeolithic site in Eurasia, containing several spectacular burials that disclose early evidence for complex burial rites in the form of a range of grave goods deposited along with the dead. Dating has been particularly challenging, with multiple radiocarbon dates ranging from 19,160±270 to 28,800±240 BP for burials that are believed to be closely similar in age. There are disparities in the radiocarbon dates of human bones, faunal remains and charcoal found on the floor of burials. Our approach has been to develop compound-specific methods using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to separate single amino acids, such as hydroxyproline, and thereby avoid the known human contamination on the bones themselves. Previously, we applied this technique to obtain radiocarbon dates of ∼30,000 BP for Sungir 2, Sungir 3 and a mammoth bone from the occupation levels of the site. The single amino acid radiocarbon dates were in good agreement with each other compared to all the dates previously reported, supporting their reliability. Here we report new hydroxyproline dates for two more human burials from the same site, Sungir 1 and Sungir 4. All five hydroxyproline dates reported are statistically indistinguishable and support an identical age for the group. The results suggest that compound-specific radiocarbon analysis should be considered seriously as the method of choice when precious archaeological remains are to be dated because they give a demonstrably contaminant-free radiocarbon age. The new ages are, together with the previously dated 'Red Lady of Paviland' human in the British Isles, the earliest for Mid Upper Palaeolithic burial behaviour in Eurasia, and point to the precocious appearance of this form of rite in Europe Russia.

  14. Phosphorus burial in the ocean over glacial-interglacial time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tamburini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of nutrients, such as phosphorus (P, and their impact on primary productivity and the fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 over glacial-interglacial periods are intensely debated. Suggestions as to the importance of P evolved from an earlier proposal that P actively participated in changing productivity rates and therefore climate change, to most recent ones that changes in the glacial ocean inventory of phosphorus were important but not influential if compared to other macronutrients, such as nitrate. Using new data coming from a selection of ODP sites, we analyzed the distribution of oceanic P sedimentary phases and calculate reactive P burial fluxes, and we show how P burial fluxes changed over the last glacial-interglacial period at these sites. Concentrations of reactive P are generally lower during glacial times, while mass accumulation rates (MAR of reactive P show higher variability. If we extrapolate for the analyzed sites, we may assume that in general glacial burial fluxes of reactive P are lower than those during interglacial periods by about 8%, because the lack of burial of reactive P on the glacial shelf reduced in size, was apparently not compensated by burial in other regions of the ocean. Using the calculated changes in P burial, we evaluate their possible impact on the phosphate inventory in the world oceans. Using a simple mathematical approach, we find that these changes alone could have increased the phosphate inventory of glacial ocean waters by 17–40% compared to interglacial stages. Variations in the distribution of sedimentary P phases at the investigated sites seem to indicate that at the onset of interglacial stages, shallower sites experienced an increase in reactive P concentrations, which seems to point to P-richer waters at glacial terminations. All these findings would support the Shelf-Nutrient Hypothesis, which assumes that during glacial low stands nutrients are transferred from shallow sites

  15. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Decontamination and decommissioning regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, F.A.; Smith, R.F.; Phillips, S.J.

    1979-03-01

    The Hanford 300 Area Burial Grounds characterization project has identified four management alternatives for disposition of the burial grounds. These alternatives are: (1) abandonment, (2) entombment, (3) perpetual care, and (4) exhumation and translocation. Major Federal statutes and regulations that could apply to management alternatives are identified along with the constraints that applicable laws could impose. This analysis includes explicit attention to the uncertainty surrounding various legal constraints. Also specified are legislative developments as well as trends in other agencies and the courts, obtained by review of legislative proceedings, statutes and regulations, that could result in legislation or policies posing additional constraints

  16. Novel experiments for understanding the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.; Hakonson, T.E.

    1981-01-01

    Data on the basic processes that occur in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes are needed to engineer facilities with guaranteed performance, to validate models for system predictions, and to provide input to models that consider contaminant pathways out of the facility. Two types of novel experiments that will provide experimental data on the basic processes in shallow land burial facilities are described in this paper. Generic experiments that give data on the movement of water and radionuclides and an experiment that is particularly important for semi-arid sites are described

  17. Determination of burial dose in incompletely bleached fluvial samples using single grains of quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, A.S.; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    We determine the burial dose in three known-age incompletely bleached fluvial samples using single grains of quartz. Estimation of burial dose in incompletely bleached samples requires that the characteristics of the well-bleached part of the distribution are known in order to distinguish between...... well-bleached and poorly bleached grains. It is especially important to investigate if the uncertainties assigned to individual estimates of dose adequately describe the observed variability in well-bleached dose distributions. We investigate this by quantifying the overdispersion in laboratory-bleached...

  18. Limits for the burial of the Department of Energy transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Potential limits for the shallow earth burial of transuranic elements were examined by simplified models of the individual pathways to man. Pathways examined included transport to surface steams, transport to ground water, intrusion, and people living on the burial ground area after the wastes have surfaced. Limits are derived for each pathway and operational limits are suggested based upon a dose to the organ receiving the maximum dose rate of 0.5 rem/y after 70 years of exposure for the maximum exposed individual

  19. Limits for the burial of the Department of Energy transuranic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1979-01-15

    Potential limits for the shallow earth burial of transuranic elements were examined by simplified models of the individual pathways to man. Pathways examined included transport to surface steams, transport to ground water, intrusion, and people living on the burial ground area after the wastes have surfaced. Limits are derived for each pathway and operational limits are suggested based upon a dose to the organ receiving the maximum dose rate of 0.5 rem/y after 70 years of exposure for the maximum exposed individual.

  20. An integrated theoretical and experimental investigation of insensitive munition compounds adsorption on cellulose, cellulose triacetate, chitin and chitosan surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtowski, Luke A; Griggs, Chris S; Gude, Veera G; Shukla, Manoj K

    2018-02-01

    This manuscript reports results of combined computational chemistry and batch adsorption investigation of insensitive munition compounds, 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7) and nitroguanidine (NQ), and traditional munition compound 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on the surfaces of cellulose, cellulose triacetate, chitin and chitosan biopolymers. Cellulose, cellulose triacetate, chitin and chitosan were modeled as trimeric form of the linear chain of 4 C 1 chair conformation of β-d-glucopyranos, its triacetate form, β-N-acetylglucosamine and D-glucosamine, respectively, in the 1➔4 linkage. Geometries were optimized at the M062X functional level of the density functional theory (DFT) using the 6-31G(d,p) basis set in the gas phase and in the bulk water solution using the conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) approach. The nature of potential energy surfaces of the optimized geometries were ascertained through the harmonic vibrational frequency analysis. The basis set superposition error (BSSE) corrected interaction energies were obtained using the 6-311G(d,p) basis set at the same theoretical level. The computed BSSE in the gas phase was used to correct interaction energy in the bulk water solution. Computed and experimental results regarding the ability of considered surfaces in adsorbing the insensitive munitions compounds are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Possibility of use of Azgir underground nuclear cavities for burial of sulfur and her toxic compounds - products of oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, E.Z.; Adymov, Zh.I.

    1998-01-01

    The intensive growth of production oil and gas in Western Kazakhstan increases ecological vulnerability of an environment and a fauna because of the pressure of negative consequences arising with production, refining and transportation of the oil raw material, and also because of pernicious influence of accompanying products and wastes of oil refining manufacture being chemically dangerous and toxic, requiring special conditions of the handling, warehousing and storage for provision of ecological safety. A problem of the reclamation, safe warehousing, storage and long-term disposal (burial) of such accompanying products and wastes, as for example, sulfur and its compounds till now is not solved. For example, the mass of the accumulated mountains of crystal sulfur makes on cautious calculations from 2 up to 3 million tonnes also creates real danger of the propagation and harmful influence on the environment. The neutralization of sulfur and its compounds means removal them from the active handling with an environment, i.e. creation of such conditions in which sulfur products for a long time cannot cause harm atmosphere, underground medium and waters, vegetative and animal world. For it is offered to use underground cavities in a salt dome raising Large Azgir and the funnel-shaped hollow in persalt rocks formed as a result of underground nuclear explosions, carried out in 1978-1979 years near village Azgir Atyrau province. The sulfur products is possible to place on a long safe storage in funnel-shaped hollow (the A9 platform) volume 1,5 million cubic meters, by keeping, if necessary, an possibility of their extraction for needs of the future generations or to remove in underground nuclear cavities in stone salt (the A8 and A11 platforms) total volume 330000 cubic meters, from which it is not provided in the future to take out the sulfur products. At this the sulfur is removed from an environment on a storage or burial in the inactive form, i.e. the sulfur products

  2. Description of atomic burials in compact globular proteins by Fermi-Dirac probability distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Antonio L C; de Rezende, Júlia R; Pereira de Araújo, Antônio F; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2007-02-01

    We perform a statistical analysis of atomic distributions as a function of the distance R from the molecular geometrical center in a nonredundant set of compact globular proteins. The number of atoms increases quadratically for small R, indicating a constant average density inside the core, reaches a maximum at a size-dependent distance R(max), and falls rapidly for larger R. The empirical curves turn out to be consistent with the volume increase of spherical concentric solid shells and a Fermi-Dirac distribution in which the distance R plays the role of an effective atomic energy epsilon(R) = R. The effective chemical potential mu governing the distribution increases with the number of residues, reflecting the size of the protein globule, while the temperature parameter beta decreases. Interestingly, betamu is not as strongly dependent on protein size and appears to be tuned to maintain approximately half of the atoms in the high density interior and the other half in the exterior region of rapidly decreasing density. A normalized size-independent distribution was obtained for the atomic probability as a function of the reduced distance, r = R/R(g), where R(g) is the radius of gyration. The global normalized Fermi distribution, F(r), can be reasonably decomposed in Fermi-like subdistributions for different atomic types tau, F(tau)(r), with Sigma(tau)F(tau)(r) = F(r), which depend on two additional parameters mu(tau) and h(tau). The chemical potential mu(tau) affects a scaling prefactor and depends on the overall frequency of the corresponding atomic type, while the maximum position of the subdistribution is determined by h(tau), which appears in a type-dependent atomic effective energy, epsilon(tau)(r) = h(tau)r, and is strongly correlated to available hydrophobicity scales. Better adjustments are obtained when the effective energy is not assumed to be necessarily linear, or epsilon(tau)*(r) = h(tau)*r(alpha,), in which case a correlation with hydrophobicity

  3. 77 FR 64361 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste Burial Facilities AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... 15, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level... for low-level waste. DATES: Submit comments by November 15, 2012. Comments received after this date...

  4. Effects of sand burial and seed size on seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling biomass of anabasis aphylla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.T.; Chu, G.M.; Jiang, P.; Wang, M.

    2017-01-01

    Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to test the effects of sand burial (0-2 cm) and seed size (small, medium and large) on seed germination and seedling growth of Anabasis aphylla, which is typically used as a windbreak and for the fixation of sand in the Gurbantunggut desert of Xinjiang, region of northwest China. The results showed that sand burial significantly affected seed germination, seedling emergence, survival and biomass of A. aphylla. The seed germination rate, seedling emergence rate, seedling survival rate and biomass were highest at the 0.2 and 0.5 cm sand burial depths. At different burial depths, different sizes of A. aphylla seed showed a significant difference in the germination and emergence rate. At the same sand burial depth, the seedling emergence rate of the large seeds was significantly higher than that of medium and small seeds. At sand burial depth of 0.2-2 cm, germination of large seeds and seedling survival rates were significantly higher than those at the same sand burial depth for medium seed germination, and the latter was significantly higher than for small seed. We speculate that tolerance to sand burial and diversity of seed size increased the adaption of A. aphylla to this environment, contributing to its dominance in the windy and sandy area of Gurbantunggut desert. (author)

  5. System analysis of shallow land burial. Volume 2: technical background. Technical report, 26 November 1979-23 January 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.; Buckley, D.; Donelson, S.; Dura, V.; Hecht, M.

    1981-03-01

    This is volume two of a three volume set detailing the activities and results of the System Analysis of Shallow Land Burial Project. Activities under four project tasks are described: Task 1 - Identify Potential Radionuclide Release Pathways, Task 2 - Systems Model for Shallow Land Burial of Low-Level Waste, Task 3 - Sensitivity and Optimization Study and Task 4 - Reference Facility Dose Assessment

  6. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Material and High Explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a 252 Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  7. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the 'metal line' of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  8. Natural analogue study for low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste shallow burial disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Cunli; Fan Zhiwen; Huang Yawen; Cui Anxi; Liu Xiuzheng; Zhang Jinshen

    1995-01-01

    The paper makes a comparison of low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste shallow burial disposal with Chinese ancient tombs in respects of siting, engineering structures, design principle and construction procedures. Results showed that Chinese ancient tombs are very good analogue for low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste shallow burial disposal. Long-term preservation of ancient tombs and buried objects demonstrated that low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste shallow burial disposal would be safe if suitable sites were selected, reasonable engineering structures and good backfill materials were adopted, and scientific construction procedures were followed. The paper reports for the first time the testing results of certain ancient tomb backfill materials. The results indicated that the materials have so low a permeability as 1.5 x 10 -8 cm/s , and strong adsorption to radionuclides Co and Cs with the distribution coefficients of 1.4 x 10 4 mL/g and 2.1 x 10 4 mL/g, and the retardation factors of 4.4 x 10 4 and 7.7 x 10 4 respectively. Good performance of these materials is important assurance of long-term preservation of the ancient tombs. These materials may be considered to be used as backfill materials in low-and-intermediate level radioactive shallow burial disposal. (4 figs., 10 tabs.)

  9. The distinguishing characteristics of interlayer oxidation zone and burial ancient ground oxidation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanshi; Zhou Wenbin

    1998-01-01

    The author discusses the main characteristics of interlayer oxidation zones and the burial ancient ground oxidation zones of Uranium deposit No. 512 in Xinjiang Uigur municipality. The epigenetic genesis, depending on some aquifer, the tongue-like in section, having the zonation along dip direction and having certain mineral assemblage are the typical features for interlayer oxidation zones

  10. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site, Fleming County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehner, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Burial trenches at the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site cover an area of about 20 acres, and are located on a plateau, about 300 to 400 feet above surrounding valleys. All waste is buried in the Nancy Member of the Borden Formation, and most is in the weathered shale (regolith) part of this member. Recharge to the rocks is probably by infiltration of rainfall through regolith at the top of the hill. At least two water tables are present: near the base of the regolith, at a depth of about 25 feet and; in the Ohio Shale, at a depth of about 300 feet. About 95 percent of ground-water discharge to streams is from colluvium on hillsides and valley alluvium. The remaining 5 percent is discharge from bedrock, of which about 0.5 percent is from rocks underlying the burial area. Waste radionuclides in the subsurface, other than tritium, were observed only in the regolith of the Nancy Member. Only tritium was observed with certainty in deeper rocks and in the adjacent valley alluvium. Other waste radionuclides were in streamwater and stream sediment, and may have been transported with overland runoff from the surface of the burial site. (USGS)

  11. Radioactive solid waste inventories at United States Department of Energy burial and storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.

    1987-06-01

    Radioactive solid waste inventories are given for United States Department of Energy (DOE) burial and storage sites. These data are obtained from the Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS) and reflect the inventories as of the end of the calendar year 1986. 4 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Burial customs, the afterlife and pollution of death in ancient Greece

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Funerary practices in ancient Greece were influenced by contemporary views on the afterlife and by concepts of pollution, but also by a desire to limit costs and a need to prevent the process of burial from causing inconvenience to the community or providing an opportunity for exploitation by those with ulterior political ...

  13. Social Security in Zimbabwe : Phase II: Zunde raMambo and Burial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Phase II of this study the Zimbabwean team selected the Zunde raMambo and burial societies for an in-depth study. Four provinces were selected and key informants were interviewed from senior officials to members of these organizations at the grassroots. Zunde raMambo, which provide for the contingency of famine ...

  14. Burial rites for Ken Saro-Wiwa and the Ogoni Nine: implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ogoni were not happy with both the multi-national oil company (Shell – SPDC) and the Federal Government of Nigeria of the careless, tormenting and humiliating ways the corpses of these heroes were handled at death and buried at the Port Harcourt cemetery outside Ogoni land. In Ogoni tradition, the type of burial ...

  15. Design criteria burial containers for non-transuranic solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    The criteria, replace HW-83959 and apply to containers constructed specifically for the containment of beta-gamma radioactively contaminated waste removed from an area controlled by radiation work procedures, transported across an uncontrolled area where there is risk of a radiation release to the environs, and buried in an approved radioactive waste burial ground

  16. Burial depth distribution of fennel pondweed tubers (Potamogeton pectinatus) in relation to foraging by Bewick's swans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidding, B.; Nolet, B.A.; van Eerden, M.R.; Guillemain, M.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Deep burial in the sediment of tubers of fennel pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) has been explained in terms of avoidance by escape against consumption by Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii) in autumn. We therefore expected changes in foraging pressure to ultimately result in a change in

  17. Effects of experimental stem burial on radial growth and wood anatomy of pedunculate oak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copini, P.; Decuyper, M.; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W.; Gärtner, H.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Ouden, den J.

    2015-01-01

    In dendrogeomorphology, abrupt changes in wood anatomy are frequently used to date the exact year of burial and exposure events. However, few studies have addressed the precision and underlying mechanisms of these changes. In a field experiment, performed in a drift-sand area in the Netherlands, we

  18. Effect of Time and Burial Depth on Breaking Seed dormancy and Germination of Weed Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marzie mazhari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Weeds limit crop growth, development and yield through competing. Seed bank of weeds in field is one of the sources which can affect weed management and their control methods. Environmental conditions during seed maturation and following dispersal interact to influence the germination phenology of many species. Disturbance plays a key role in the maintenance of habitat for many plant species, particularly referrals, for example, fire ephemerals, desert annuals, and arable weeds. Seed germination and emergence depend on endogenous and exogenous factors. Viable seeds are dormant when all environmental conditions are appropriate for germination but seeds fail to germinate. Thus, dormancy plays an important ecological role in preventing seed germination, being a major contributor to seed persistence of some species in soil. Buried seeds of annual weeds are certainly subjected to different soil moisture conditions during their dormancy release season (winter according to the annual rainfall pattern and burial depth. Shallow buried seeds are exposed to soil moisture fluctuations that could affect their dormancy status. Laboratory studies showed that desiccation and subsequent re-hydration of seeds could stimulate germination and modify seed light requirements. Seeds buried in deeper layers of the soil would not be exposed to such fluctuations in soil moisture, but would be exposed to different soil moisture environments depending on weather and soil characteristics. The effects of interactions between temperature, and soil or seed moisture, on seed dormancy changes have been reported for several species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effect of time and burial depth treatments on seed germination and seedling emergence of Aegilops cylindrica, Agropyrom repens, Avena fatua, Bromus dantoniae, Cynodon dactylon, Cyprus rotundus, Setaria viridis, Anthriscus sylvestris, Centurea cyanus. Materials and Methods: In

  19. Re-evaluating luminescence burial doses and bleaching of fluvial deposits using Bayesian computational statistics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, A.C.; Wallinga, J.; Versendaal, Alice; Makaske, A.; Middelkoop, H.; Hobo, N.

    2015-01-01

    The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signal from fluvial sediment often contains a remnant from the previous deposition cycle, leading to a partially bleached equivalent-dose distribution. Although identification of the burial dose is of primary concern, the degree of bleaching could

  20. Re-evaluating luminescence burial doses and bleaching of fluvial deposits using Bayesian computational statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, A. C.; Wallinga, J.; Hobo, N.; Versendaal, A. J.; Makaske, B.; Middelkoop, H.

    2015-01-01

    The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signal from fluvial sediment often contains a remnant from the previous deposition cycle, leading to a partially bleached equivalent-dose distribution. Although identification of the burial dose is of primary concern, the degree of bleaching could

  1. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Old Burial Ground (OBG) source control technology and inventory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P.; Rehder, T.E.; Kanzleiter, J.P.

    1996-10-02

    This report has been developed to support information needs for wastes buried in the Burial Ground Complex. Information discussed is presented in a total of four individual attachments. The general focus of this report is to collect information on estimated source inventories, leaching studies, source control technologies, and to provide information on modeling parameters and associated data deficiencies.

  2. Waste Analysis Plan for the Low-Level Burial Grounds [CANCELLED] Reissued as HNF-5841

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    Canceled see HNF-5841 Rev 0. This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for the Low-Level Burial Grounds which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit

  3. Preliminary fire hazard analysis for the PUTDR and TRU trenches in the Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaschott, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document represents the Preliminary Fire Hazards Analysis for the Pilot Unvented TRU Drum Retrieval effort and for the Transuranic drum trenches in the low level burial grounds. The FHA was developed in accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A to address major hazards inherent in the facility

  4. Dance as a Medium for Social Stability: A Case of Umuada Burial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most importantly, dance is an art form that is so involving that dancers and audience could get so encompassed in participatory communalism that differences can be shade or forgotten in the course of performances. The Umuada burial performance is a typical example of a dance performance that can be so involving that in ...

  5. Metal-touching tools from ancient graves: The case of a Roman period royal burial

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Martin; Holub, Milan; Zavřel, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 18, April (2018), s. 333-342 ISSN 2352-409X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-22207S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Roman period * elite * burial * touchstone * cinnabar * nickel * speiss Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  6. Redox-dependent phosphorus burial in modern and ancient marine sediments. Geologica Ultraiectina (334)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraal, P.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient in Earth’s biosphere that helps regulate marine primary productivity. Burial in sediments is the only pathway for long-term removal of P from the marine reservoir, the efficiency of which depends strongly on the redox state of the bottom waters;

  7. Phosphorus burial as a function of paleoproductivity and redox conditions in Arabian Sea sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenau, S.J.; Reichart, G.-J.; Lange, G.J. de

    2005-01-01

    Abstract—In this study the response of sedimentary phosphorus (P) burial to changes in primary productivity and bottom water oxygen concentrations during the Late Quaternary is investigated, using two sediment cores from the Arabian Sea, one recovered from the continental slope and the other from

  8. Chronology of 3rd–5th Century Female Graves from Tarasovo Burial Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldina Rimma D.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the concluding part a series of works by the authors on the dating of burials from the unique 1st–5th century Tarasovo burial ground in the Middle Kama region. The first article was dedicated to the chronology of graves dating back to the early Nyrgynda stage (1st–2nd centuries of this monument. The second and third publications feature an analysis of the chronology of 3rd–5th century male burials. The present work describes 160 female burials of 3rd–5th centuries analyzed from the perspective of chronology. Similarly to previous research, the three main methods employed by the authors of this research include those of formal typology, cultural stratigraphy and the nearest neighbour method. A total of 12 chronological groups were singled out as a result: 1st half of 3rd century A.D. (group 1; 2nd half of 3rd century (2; 3rd century (3; 4th century (group 4; 2nd half of 3rd–4th centuries (5а; 3rd–4th centuries (5б; 1st half of 5th century (6; 2nd half of 5th century (7; 5th century (group 8; 2nd half of 4th–5th centuries (9; 4th–5th centuries (10; 2nd half of 3rd–5th centuries

  9. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Old Burial Ground (OBG) source control technology and inventory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, G.P.; Rehder, T.E.; Kanzleiter, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    This report has been developed to support information needs for wastes buried in the Burial Ground Complex. Information discussed is presented in a total of four individual attachments. The general focus of this report is to collect information on estimated source inventories, leaching studies, source control technologies, and to provide information on modeling parameters and associated data deficiencies

  10. Photochemical transformation of the insensitive munitions compound 2,4-dinitroanisole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Balaji, E-mail: anandharaob@ornl.gov [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Wei [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cai, Qingsong; Anderson, Todd [Department of Environmental Toxicology, The Institute of Environment and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Gu, Baohua, E-mail: gub1@ornl.gov [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The insensitive munitions compound 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) is increasingly being used as a replacement for traditional, sensitive munitions compounds (e.g., trinitrotoluene [TNT]), but the environmental fate and photo-transformation of DNAN in natural water systems are currently unknown. In this study, we investigated the photo-transformation rates of DNAN with both ultraviolet (UV) and sunlight irradiation under different environmentally relevant conditions. Sunlight photo-transformation of DNAN in water was found to follow predominantly pseudo-first-order decay kinetics with an average half-life (t{sub 1/2}) of approximately 0.70 d and activation energy (E{sub a}) of 53 kJ mol{sup −1}. Photo-transformation rates of DNAN were dependent on the wavelength of the light source: irradiation with UV-B light (280–315 nm) resulted in a greater quantum yield of transformation (ϕ{sub UV-B} = 3.7 × 10{sup −4}) than rates obtained with UV-A light (ϕ{sub UV-A} = 2.9 × 10{sup −4} at 316–400 nm) and sunlight (ϕ{sub sun} = 1.1 × 10{sup −4}). Photo-oxidation was the dominant mechanism for DNAN photo-transformation, based on the formation of nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup −}) and nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup −}) as major N species and 2,4-dinitrophenol as the minor species. Environmental factors (e.g., temperature, pH, and the presence or absence of naturally dissolved organic matter) displayed modest to little effects on the rate of DNAN photo-transformation. These observations indicate that sunlight-induced photo-transformation of DNAN may represent a significant abiotic degradation pathway in surface water, which may have important implications in evaluating the potential impacts and risks of DNAN in the environment. - Highlights: ► DNAN photo-transformation kinetics was dependent on light source and temperature. ► Photolysis produced harmful by-products that included dinitrophenol and nitrate. ► Photo-oxidation was determined to be the likely pathway of DNAN

  11. Two Catacombs of Late Sarmatian Time From Pashkovsky Burial Mound no. 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limberis Natalya Yuryevna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with two burials from the Kuban basin region excavated in Pashkovsky burial mound no. 2 belonging to Maeotian Pashkovskoe ancient settlement. The burials were made in catacombs of similar construction and orientation. The narrow grave entrances and grave chambers are situated in-line. The grave chambers of the catacombs adjoin one other that probably was the reason for plunder of a little earlier burial no. 2. There were the complete horse skeleton, the cow skull and the sheep chap in the grave entrance ofthe catacomb no. 2. A skeleton of a man (about 50 years old was in extended supine position diagonally across the grave chamber, his scull had SSW orientation. Grave goods found near the buried man include the gray-clay bowl and the mug-jar, the iron spearhead, the long sword and the dagger, the bit with wheel-shaped cheek-pieces, the sickle, the knives and the shoe buckles, the glass bead, the chalk rock bead, the bronze buckle and fibula. The catacomb no. 2 plundered in ancient times situated north-ward of the first one, the southern border of the grave chamber is partially cutted by catacomb no. 1. In the grave entrance of the catacomb no. 1 there were the remains of the horse skeleton and the sheep skull. Grave goods scattered in grave chamber included the gray-clay bowl, pieces of chalk, the bronze ring, fragments of the iron buckle, rod, hasp, silver temple ring, bronze escutcheon for the box lock, the iron snap-up loop and fragments of silver flacon with a cover. Late Sarmatian burial rites and grave goods give evidence of the belonging these burials to spokesmen of the equestrian order. The chronological range of the burials stays within terms from the second half of 2nd to the middle of 3rd century A.D. The lower date of the catacomb no. 1 turns toward the end of the 2nd century A.D., the upper date is limited by the first half of the 3rd century A.D. The catacomb no. 2 is stratigraphically older. The eques status of

  12. Organic carbon burial rates in mangrove sediments: Strengthening the global budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Smith, Thomas J., III; Sanders, Christian J.; Hoare, Armando

    2012-09-01

    Mangrove wetlands exist in the transition zone between terrestrial and marine environments and as such were historically overlooked in discussions of terrestrial and marine carbon cycling. In recent decades, mangroves have increasingly been credited with producing and burying large quantities of organic carbon (OC). The amount of available data regarding OC burial in mangrove soils has more than doubled since the last primary literature review (2003). This includes data from some of the largest, most developed mangrove forests in the world, providing an opportunity to strengthen the global estimate. First-time representation is now included for mangroves in Brazil, Colombia, Malaysia, Indonesia, China, Japan, Vietnam, and Thailand, along with additional data from Mexico and the United States. Our objective is to recalculate the centennial-scale burial rate of OC at both the local and global scales. Quantification of this rate enables better understanding of the current carbon sink capacity of mangroves as well as helps to quantify and/or validate the other aspects of the mangrove carbon budget such as import, export, and remineralization. Statistical analysis of the data supports use of the geometric mean as the most reliable central tendency measurement. Our estimate is that mangrove systems bury 163 (+40; -31) g OC m-2 yr-1 (95% C.I.). Globally, the 95% confidence interval for the annual burial rate is 26.1 (+6.3; -5.1) Tg OC. This equates to a burial fraction that is 42% larger than that of the most recent mangrove carbon budget (2008), and represents 10-15% of estimated annual mangrove production. This global rate supports previous conclusions that, on a centennial time scale, 8-15% of all OC burial in marine settings occurs in mangrove systems.

  13. Evolution of organic carbon burial in the Global Ocean during the Neogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Z.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Although only a small fraction of the organic carbon (OC) that rains from surface waters is eventually buried in the sediments, it is a process that controls the organic sub-cycle of the long-term carbon cycle, and the key for atmospheric O2, CO2 and nutrient cycling. Here we constrain the spatiotemporal variability of OC burial by quantifying the total organic carbon (TOC) mass accumulation rate (MAR) over the Neogene (23.0-2.6 Ma) by compiling the TOC, age model and sediment density data from sites retrieved by the Deep Sea Drilling Program, Ocean Drilling Program, and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. We screened all available sites which yielded 80 sites with adequate data quality, covering all major ocean basins and sedimentary depositional environments. All age models are updated to the GTS 2012 timescale so the TOC MAR records from different sites are comparable. Preliminary results show a clear early Miocene peak of OC burial in many sites related to high sediment flux which might reflect the orogenic uplift and/or glacier erosion. Places that receive high influx of terrigenous inputs become "hotspots" for Neogene burial of OC. At "open ocean" sites, OC burial seems to be more impacted by marine productivity changes, with a pronounced increase during the middle Miocene "Monterey Formation" and late Miocene - early Pliocene "Biogenic Bloom". Upon the completion of the data collection, we will further explore the regional and global OC burial in the context of tectonic uplift, climate change and the evolution of primary producers and consumers during the last 23 million years of Earth history.

  14. Assessing global carbon burial during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2, Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, J. D.; Lyons, T. W.; Lowery, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Reconstructing the areal extent and total amount of organic carbon burial during ancient events remains elusive even for the best documented oceanic anoxic event (OAE) in Earth history, the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event ( 93.9 Ma), or OAE 2. Reports from 150 OAE 2 localities provide a wide global distribution. However, despite the large number of sections, the majority are found within the proto-Atlantic and Tethyan oceans and interior seaways. Considering these gaps in spatial coverage, the pervasive increase in organic carbon (OC) burial during OAE2 that drove carbon isotope values more positive (average of 4‰) can provide additional insight. These isotope data allow us to estimate the total global burial of OC, even for unstudied portions of the global ocean. Thus, we can solve for any `missing' OC sinks by comparing our estimates from a forward carbon-isotope box model with the known, mapped distribution of OC for OAE 2 sediments. Using the known OC distribution and reasonably extrapolating to the surrounding regions of analogous depositional conditions accounts for only 13% of the total seafloor, mostly in marginal marine settings. This small geographic area accounts for more OC burial than the entire modern ocean, but significantly less than the amount necessary to produce the observed isotope record. Using modern and OAE 2 average OC rates we extrapolate further to appropriate depositional settings in the unknown portions of seafloor, mostly deep abyssal plains. This addition significantly increases the predicted amount buried but still does not account for total burial. Additional sources, including hydrocarbon migration, lacustrine, and coal also cannot account for the missing OC. This difference points to unknown portions of the open ocean with high TOC contents or exceptionally high TOC in productive marginal marine regions, which are underestimated in our extrapolations. This difference might be explained by highly productive margins within the

  15. Organic carbon burial rates in mangrove sediments: strengthening the global budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Smith, Thomas J.; Sanders, Christian J.; Hoare, Armando

    2012-01-01

    Mangrove wetlands exist in the transition zone between terrestrial and marine environments and as such were historically overlooked in discussions of terrestrial and marine carbon cycling. In recent decades, mangroves have increasingly been credited with producing and burying large quantities of organic carbon (OC). The amount of available data regarding OC burial in mangrove soils has more than doubled since the last primary literature review (2003). This includes data from some of the largest, most developed mangrove forests in the world, providing an opportunity to strengthen the global estimate. First-time representation is now included for mangroves in Brazil, Colombia, Malaysia, Indonesia, China, Japan, Vietnam, and Thailand, along with additional data from Mexico and the United States. Our objective is to recalculate the centennial-scale burial rate of OC at both the local and global scales. Quantification of this rate enables better understanding of the current carbon sink capacity of mangroves as well as helps to quantify and/or validate the other aspects of the mangrove carbon budget such as import, export, and remineralization. Statistical analysis of the data supports use of the geometric mean as the most reliable central tendency measurement. Our estimate is that mangrove systems bury 163 (+40; -31) g OC m-2 yr-1 (95% C.I.). Globally, the 95% confidence interval for the annual burial rate is 26.1 (+6.3; -5.1) Tg OC. This equates to a burial fraction that is 42% larger than that of the most recent mangrove carbon budget (2008), and represents 10–15% of estimated annual mangrove production. This global rate supports previous conclusions that, on a centennial time scale, 8–15% of all OC burial in marine settings occurs in mangrove systems.

  16. Do manganese nodules grow or dissolve after burial? Results from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattan, J. N.; Parthiban, G.

    2007-07-01

    Fifty buried manganese nodules at different depth intervals were recovered in 12 sediment cores from the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB). A maximum of 15 buried nodules were encountered in one sediment core (AAS-22/GC-07) and the deepest nodule was recovered at 5.50 m below seafloor in core AAS-04/GC-5A. Approximately 80% of the buried nodules are small in size (˜2 cm diameter) in contrast to the Atlantic Ocean and Peru Basin (Pacific Ocean) where the majority of the buried nodules are large, ˜8 cm and >6 cm, respectively. Buried nodule size decreases with core depth and this distribution appears to be similar to the phenomenon of "Brazil Nut Effect". Buried nodules exhibit both smooth and rough surface textures and are ellipsoidal, elongated, rounded, sub rounded, irregular and polynucleated. Buried nodules from siliceous ooze are enriched in Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mo, Ga, V and Rb whereas those from red clay are enriched in Fe, Co, Ti, U, Th, Y, Cr, Nb and Rare Earth Elements (REE). Buried nodules from siliceous ooze suggest their formation under hydrogenetic, early digenetic and diagenetic processes whereas those from red clay are of hydrogenetic origin. REE are enriched more than 1.5 times in buried nodules from red clay compared to siliceous ooze. However, the mode of incorporation of REE into buried nodules from both sedimentary environments is by a single authigenic phase consisting of Fe-Ti-P. Shale-normalized REE patterns and Ce anomalies suggest that nodules from siliceous ooze formed under more oxidizing conditions than those from red clay. Nodules buried at depths between 1.5 and 2.5 m are diagenetic (Mn/Fe ratio 10-15), formed in highly oxic environments (large positive Ce anomalies) and record aeolian dust (high Eu anomalies). Chemical composition, surface texture and morphology of buried nodules are similar to those of surface nodules from the same basin. Furthermore, buried nodule compositions do not exhibit any distinct patterns within the core depth

  17. Digital Device Architecture and the Safe Use of Flash Devices in Munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Richard B.; Flowers, David; Bergevin, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Flash technology is being utilized in fuzed munition applications and, based on the development of digital logic devices in the commercial world, usage of flash technology will increase. Digital devices of interest to designers include flash-based microcontrollers and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Almost a decade ago, a study was undertaken to determine if flash-based microcontrollers could be safely used in fuzes and, if so, how should such devices be applied. The results were documented in the Technical Manual for the Use of Logic Devices in Safety Features. This paper will first review the Technical Manual and discuss the rationale behind the suggested architectures for microcontrollers and a brief review of the concern about data retention in flash cells. An architectural feature in the microcontroller under study will be discussed and its use will show how to screen for weak or failed cells during manufacture, storage, or immediately prior to use. As was done for microcontrollers a decade ago, architectures for a flash-based FPGA will be discussed, showing how it can be safely used in fuzes. Additionally, architectures for using non-volatile (including flash-based) storage will be discussed for SRAM-based FPGAs.

  18. Penetrating injury to the chest by an attenuated energy projectile: a case report and literature review of thoracic injuries caused by "less-lethal" munitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porto Leonardo BO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present the case of a patient who sustained a penetrating injury to the chest caused by an attenuated energy rubber bullet and review the literature on thoracic injuries caused by plastic and rubber "less-lethal" munitions. The patient of this report underwent a right thoracotomy to extract the projectile as well as a wedge resection of the injured lung parenchyma. This case demonstrates that even supposedly safe riot control munition fired at close range, at the torso, can provoke serious injury. Therefore a thorough investigation and close clinical supervision are justified.

  19. Penetrating injury to the chest by an attenuated energy projectile: a case report and literature review of thoracic injuries caused by "less-lethal" munitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende-Neto, Joao; Silva, Fabriccio Df; Porto, Leonardo Bo; Teixeira, Luiz C; Tien, Homer; Rizoli, Sandro B

    2009-06-26

    We present the case of a patient who sustained a penetrating injury to the chest caused by an attenuated energy rubber bullet and review the literature on thoracic injuries caused by plastic and rubber "less-lethal" munitions. The patient of this report underwent a right thoracotomy to extract the projectile as well as a wedge resection of the injured lung parenchyma. This case demonstrates that even supposedly safe riot control munition fired at close range, at the torso, can provoke serious injury. Therefore a thorough investigation and close clinical supervision are justified.

  20. Thermocouple-based Temperature Sensing System for Chemical Cell Inside Micro UAV Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanhui; Feng, Yue; Lou, Haozhe; Zhang, Xinzhao

    2018-03-01

    Environmental temperature of UAV system is crucial for chemical cell component inside. Once the temperature of this chemical cell is over 259 °C and keeps more than 20 min, the high thermal accumulation would result in an explosion, which seriously damage the whole UAV system. Therefore, we develop a micro temperature sensing system for monitoring the temperature of chemical cell thermally influenced by UAV device deployed in a 300 °C temperature environment, which is quite useful for insensitive munitions and UAV safety enhancement technologies.

  1. Soil burial method for plastic degradation performed by Pseudomonas PL-01, Bacillus PL-01, and indigenous bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shovitri, Maya; Nafi'ah, Risyatun; Antika, Titi Rindi; Alami, Nur Hidayatul; Kuswytasari, N. D.; Zulaikha, Enny

    2017-06-01

    Lately, plastic bag is becoming the most important pollutant for environment since it is difficult to be naturally degraded due to it consists of long hydrocarbon polymer chains. Our previous study indicated that our pure isolate Pseudomonas PL-01 and Bacillus PL-01 could degrade about 10% plastic bag. This present study was aimed to find out whether Pseudomonas PL01 and Bacillus PL01 put a positive effect to indigenous bacteria from marginal area in doing plastic degradation with a soil burial method. Beach sand was used as a representative marginal area, and mangrove sediment was used as a comparison. Plastics were submerged into unsterile beach sand with 10% of Pseudomonas PL-01 or Bacillus PL-01 containing liquid minimal salt medium (MSM) separately, while other plastics were submerged into unsterile mangrove sediments. After 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks, their biofilm formation on their plastic surfaces and plastic degradation were measured. Results indicated that those 2 isolates put positive influent on biofilm formation and plastic degradation for indigenous beach sand bacteria. Bacillus PL-01 put higher influent than Pseudomonas PL-01. Plastic transparent was preferable degraded than black and white plastic bag `kresek'. But anyhow, indigenous mangrove soil bacteria showed the best performance in biofilm formation and plastic degradation, even without Pseudomonas PL-01 or Bacillus PL-01 addition. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis complemented the results; there were attenuated peaks with decreasing peaks transmittances. This FTIR peaks indicated chemical functional group changes happened among the plastic compounds after 16 weeks incubation time.

  2. Mammalian Toxicity of Munition Compounds. Phase II. Effects of Multiple Doses. Part III. 2,6-Dinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    and the neuromuscular effects in these dogs were not due to hypocalcemia . The lowest serum calcium concen- tration in these dogs was 4.2 meq/liter...motor end plate might produce a local hypocalcemia . Such a mechanism is purely speculative. Qualitatively and quantitavely, most of the effects of 2,6...I ýNw,- -MIM I/ MIDWEST RESEARCH INS14ITUTE H0q .3L I LU -_ MAMMALIAN TOXICITY OF MUNITIONS COMPOUlNDSPHASE II: EFFECTS OF MiULTIPLE DOSES C* •PART

  3. Post-traumatic stress disorder in adult victims of cluster munitions in Lebanon: a 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Jawad; Gebeily, Souheil; Saad, Mohamad; Harati, Hayat; Nabha, Sanaa; Said, Najwane; Kanso, Mohamad; Abdel Rassoul, Ronza; Fares, Youssef

    2017-08-18

    This study aims to explore the short-term and long-term prevalence and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among victims of cluster munitions. A prospective 10-year longitudinal study that took place in Lebanon. Two-hundred-and-forty-four Lebanese civilian victims of submunition blasts, who were injured in 2006 and were over 18 years old, were interviewed. Included were participants who had been diagnosed with PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) and the PTSD Checklist - Civilian Version in 2006. Interviewees were present for the 10-year follow-up. PTSD prevalence rates of participants in 2006 and 2016 were compared. Analysis of the demographical data pertaining to the association of long-term PTSD with other variables was performed. p Values <0.05 were considered statistically significant for all analyses (95% CI). All the 244 civilians injured by cluster munitions in 2006 responded, and were present for long-term follow-up in 2016. The prevalence of PTSD decreased significantly from 98% to 43% after 10 years (p<0.001). A lower long-term prevalence was significantly associated with male sex (p<0.001), family support (p<0.001) and religion (p<0.001). Hospitalisation (p=0.005) and severe functional impairment (p<0.001) post-trauma were significantly associated with increased prevalence of long-term PTSD. Symptoms of negative cognition and mood were more common in the long run. In addition, job instability was the most frequent socioeconomic repercussion among the participants (88%). Psychological symptoms, especially PTSD, remain high in war-affected populations many years after the war; this is particularly evident for Lebanese civilians who were victimised by cluster munitions. Screening programmes and psychological interventions need to be implemented in vulnerable populations exposed to war traumas. Officials and public health advocates should consider the socioeconomic implications, and

  4. Computer-based test system for the Tactical Airfield Attack Munition (TAAM) safing, arming, and fuzing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warhus, J.; Castleton, R.; Lanning, S.

    1981-12-01

    Testing and quality assurance of large numbers of firing systems are an essential part of the development of the Tactical Airfield Attack Munition (TAAM). A computerized test and data acquisition system has been developed to make the testing and quality assurance workload manageable. The system hardware utilizes an LSI-11/23 computer, a Tektronix 7612 transient digitizer, and various other programmable instruments and power supplies. The system is capable of measuring and analyzing mechanical shock and fireset transient waveforms, automating testing sequences, and making records and comparisons of the test results. The system architecture is flexible for general purpose firing system development work

  5. China action of "Cleanup Plan for Polychlorinated Biphenyls Burial Sites": emissions during excavation and thermal desorption of a capacitor-burial site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Zhou, Lingli; Xue, Nandong; Li, Fasheng; Wu, Guanglong; Ding, Qiong; Yan, Yunzhong; Liu, Bo

    2013-10-01

    Scarce data are available so far on emissions in a given scenario for excavation and thermal desorption, a common practice, of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). As part of China action of "Cleanup Plan for PCBs Burial Sites", this study roughly estimated PCBs emissions in the scenario for a capacitor-burial site. The concentrations of total PCBs (22 congeners) in soils were in the range of 2.1-16,000μg/g with a mean of 2300μg/g, among the same order of magnitude as the highest values obtained in various PCBs-contaminated sites. Only six congeners belonging to Di-, Tri-, and Tetra-CBs were observed above limits of detection in air samples in the scenario, partially which can be estimated by the USEPA air emission model. Comparing concentrations and composition profiles of PCBs in the soil and air samples further indicated a leaked source of commercial PCBs formulations of trichlorobiphenyl (China PCB no. 1). The measures taken if any to mitigate the volatilization and movement of PCBs and to minimize worker exposure were discussed for improvements of the excavation practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Low-Level Burial Grounds dangerous waste permit application: Request for exemption from lined trench requirements and from land disposal restrictions for residual liquid at 218-E-12B Burial Ground Trench 94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This document has been prepared and is being submitted to the respective agencies to satisfy three objectives of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) concerning Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground. The 218-E-12B Burial Ground is located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Facility. Figure 1-1 shows the general location of the Hanford Site. The 218-E-12B Burial Ground is one of eight burial grounds included in the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG), a treatment, storage and/or disposal (TSD) unit. Decommissioned, defueled naval submarine reactor compartments (SRCs) contain radioactivity caused by exposure of structural components to neutrons during normal operation of the submarines. After all the alternatives were evaluated in the US Department of the Navy 1984 environmental impact statement (EIS) (USN 1984), land burial of the SRCs was selected as the preferred disposal option. The SRCs currently are sent to Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground. In addition to radioactivity, the SRCs disposed in. The DOE-RL's three objectives in preparing and submitting this document are as follows. Request from Ecology an exemption from dangerous waste landfill liner and leachate collection and removal system (hereinafter referred to as liner/leachate system) requirements for Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground. Petition Ecology to exempt residual liquid in the SRCs from land disposal restrictions. Obtain EPA Region 10 review and comment on the request to Ecology for exemption from liner/leachate system requirements

  7. Shallow land burial: experience and developments at Oak Ridge and Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Since the mid-1940's, in excess of 250,000 m 3 of low- and intermediate-level radioactive solid waste, generated in operations at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), has been disposed of by on-site shallow land burial and retrievable storage in dry volcanic tuff. Guidelines have been developed at LASL which regulate the construction of waste disposal facilities, burial and storage operations, disposal site maintenance and restoration, and documentation of all waste disposal activities. Monitoring programs at the past and current solid waste disposal sites have continued to show that, with the exception of low levels of tritium, no migration of contaminants away from their disposal location has been detected

  8. Evaluation of dynamic compaction of low level waste burial trenches containing B-25 boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullin, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Savannah River Site, owned by the US Department of Energy, is preparing to close an additional 13.8 ha of burial grounds under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act. In preparation for this closure, the dynamic compaction facility was designed and constructed to address unresolved design issues. Among these issues is the evaluation of the ability for dynamic compaction to consolidate buried low level waste containers. A model burial trench containing simulated clean wastes was dynamically compacted, after which the materials were excavated and compaction quantified. The test determined that under existing success criteria, the bottom tier of stacked B-25 boxes were not being consolidated. A quasi-structural layer was formed midway through the stacked boxes, which absorbed the compactive energy. Resulting from these observations and the data collected, a new success criterion is recommended which depends on the relative displacement per drop. The test successfully demonstrated that dynamic compaction will consolidate buried metal boxes

  9. Technology development for the design of shallow land burial facilities at semiarid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.V.; Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Three experiments are described: effectiveness of a moisture barrier and the physical basis for capillary barriers; trench cap designs for long term stabilization including biointrusion barrier testing; and joint DOE/NRC tracer migration experiment. In the first, a barrier concept known as the wick effect is being field tested to control the movement of water on top of and around shallow land burial trenches. The barrier is composed of bentonite and tuff. In the second, the performance is measured of a conventional and an improved trench cover design on surface water dynamics, in limiting biological intrusion, and under both natural and enhanced precipitation regimes. The third experiment evaluates leaching and transport of solutes in sandy silt backfill used in shallow land burial at Los Alamos and compares results with laboratory-derived parameter estimates. 6 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  10. Burial of Zostera marina seeds in sediment inhabited by three polychaetes: laboratory and field studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Kristensen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The large number of seeds produced by eelgrass, Zostera marina, provides this plant with a potential to disperse widely and colonise newareas. After dispersal, seedsmust be buried into sediment for assuring long-term survival, successful germination and safe seedling development. Seedsmay be buried...... eelgrass seed bank at the ecosystemscale. Some species have a positive effect by burying seeds to shallow depths and thereby reducing seed predation and facilitating seed germination, while other species bury seeds too deep for successful seed germination and seedling development....... passively by sedimentation or actively through sediment reworking by benthic fauna.We evaluated the effect of three polychaetes on the burial rate and depth of eelgrass seeds. Burial was first measured in controlled laboratory experiments using different densities of Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor (400...

  11. Overview of Milestone E activities, greater confinement than shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezga, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    In summary, the objective of Milestone E is to provide the technology and documentation needed to open a site providing greater confinement than shallow land burial. To that end, ORNL has prepared a technical position paper defining greater confinement disposal, options for achieving it, and the need for this disposal technology. In order to meet the objective of the milestones, the LLWMP evaluated the full range of options to shallow land burial and decided to focus on a combination of greater depth solidification containment and engineered barriers. The program identified a series of research needs and then focused program efforts on resolving those needs. These tasks are proceeding on schedule at this time but budget reductions may have an impact on our ability to maintain the schedule

  12. Erosion of earth covers used in shallow land burial at Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Depoorter, G.L.; Drennon, B.J.; Simanton, J.R.; Foster, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory and the USDA-ARS examined soil erosion and water balance relationships for a trench cap used for the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waters at Los Alamos, NM. Eight 3.05 by 10.7 m plots were installed with bare soil, tilled, and vegetated surface treatments on a 15 by 63 m trench cap constructed from soil and crushed tuff layers. A rotating boom rain simulator was used to estimate the soil erodibility and cover-management factors of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) for this trench cap and for two undisturbed plots with natural vegetative cover. The implications of the results of this study are discussed relative to the management of infiltration and erosion processes at waste burial sites and compared with similar USDA research performed throughout the USA

  13. Changes in CaCO3 Burial Trump the Biological Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toggweiler, J.; Dunne, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    The dramatic increases in atmospheric CO2 at the ends of ice ages are usually attributed to a one-two punch coming from the ocean. First, a weakened biological pump vents organically cycled CO2 from the deep ocean via changes in the ventilation of the deep ocean around Antarctica. The initial CO2 increase is then augmented by an enhancement of CaCO3 burial due to a process called CaCO3 compensation (after Broecker, W. S and T.-H. Peng, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 1, 15-29, 1987). Here, we argue that the importance of the biological pump has been exaggerated. The main effect comes from circulation-induced changes in the burial of CaCO3. As shown in a recent paper by Andreas Schmittner and co-authors (Schmittner, A., E. Brook and J. Ahn, Impact of the ocean's overturning circulation on atmospheric CO2, in Ocean Circulation: Mechanisms and Impacts, Geophys. Monogr. 173, A. Schmittner, J. Chiang, and S. Hemming, eds., pp. 209-246, AGU, 2007) changes in the ventilation of the deep ocean around Antarctica gave rise to 20-30 ppm increases in atmospheric CO2 every 5,000-7,000 years during isotope stages 3 and 4 (30,000 to 70,000 years ago). None of these venting events gave rise to a compensation response. Meanwhile, Jaccard et al. (Science, 308, 1003-1006, 2005) show that all the big CO2 increases during terminations through stage 11 were accompanied by huge increases in CaCO3 burial. This suggests that the enhanced burial of CaCO3 is obligatory rather than compensatory with respect to the dramatic CO2 increases. Broecker and Peng's compensation idea is based on an assumption that the rain of CaCO3 to the sea floor is the same everywhere. More specifically, it assumes that there is no spatial correlation between the production of CaCO3 at the surface and the burial on the sea floor. We find instead that the production and burial of CaCO3 tend to be co-located in regional "hot spots" and that burial in the hot spots balances the input of Ca++ and HCO3- ions in rivers. The

  14. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Plaste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, 'operating' treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Low-Level Burial Grounds (this document, DOE/RL-88-20)

  15. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Task IV. Biological transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.; Rickard, W.H.; Rogers, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    The characteristics of radioactive waste burial sites at the 300 area burial grounds on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, southeastern Washington were studied. The potential vectors of radionuclide transport studied were vegetation and animals. The overall results showed a low potential for uptake and transport of radionuclides from the 300 area sites. However, additional methods to control physical and biological mechanisms may contribute to the effectiveness of waste burial practices. From the results, the Biological Transport task recommended field studies which include reduction of soil erosion and addition of biobarriers to plants and animals. Vegetation plays a major role in reducing soil erosion, and thereby maintaining the backfill over the burial sites. Of the several species found on the 300 area sites, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) appears to be the most desirable as a cover. Besides retarding erosion, it has a shallow root system (does not easily penetrate buried material); it has a low affinity for radionuclide uptake; and its tissues are not easily blown away. Small mammals (specifically, mice) appear to have the most potential for radionuclide exposure and uptake. Small mammals were live-trapped within 10 x 10-meter trap grids. Each animal trapped was surgically implanted with a thermoluminescent dosimeter. When the animal was recaptured, the dosimeter was removed and read for exposure. Exposures were reported in milli-Roentgens. The most consistently trapped small mammals were the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Results from the dosimeter readings showed that some of those animals had higher than background exposures. Biobarriers to animals could be considered as a mechanism to reduce the potential for radionuclide transport

  16. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Task IV. Biological transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.; Rickard, W.H.; Rogers, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    The characteristics of radioactive waste burial sites at the 300 area burial grounds on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, southeastern Washington were studied. The potential vectors of radionuclide transport studied were vegetation and animals. The overall results showed a low potential for uptake and transport of radionuclides from the 300 area sites. However, additional methods to control physical and biological mechanisms may contribute to the effectiveness of waste burial practices. From the results, the Biological Transport task recommended field studies which include reduction of soil erosion and addition of biobarriers to plants and animals. Vegetation plays a major role in reducing soil erosion, and thereby maintaining the backfill over the burial sites. Of the several species found on the 300 area sites, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) appears to be the most desirable as a cover. Besides retarding erosion, it has a shallow root system (does not easily penetrate buried material); it has a low affinity for radionuclide uptake; and its tissues are not easily blown away. Small mammals (specifically, mice) appear to have the most potential for radionuclide exposure and uptake. Small mammals were live-trapped within 10 x 10-meter trap grids. Each animal trapped was surgically implanted with a thermoluminescent dosimeter. When the animal was recaptured, the dosimeter was removed and read for exposure. Exposures were reported in milli-Roentgens. The most consistently trapped small mammals were the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Results from the dosimeter readings showed that some of those animals had higher than background exposures. Biobarriers to animals could be considered as a mechanism to reduce the potential for radionuclide transport.

  17. Radioactive solid waste inventories at United States Department of Energy burial and storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.

    1986-06-01

    Radioactive solid waste inventories are given for United States Department of Energy (DOE) burial and storage sites. These data are obtained from the Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS) and reflect the inventories as of the end of the calendar year 1985. This report differs from previous issues in that the data cutoff date is December 31, 1985, rather than the fiscal year end. Another difference from previous issues is that data for the TRU categories 1 and 6 have been omitted

  18. Recent experience with the land burial of solid low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    Low-level, nuclear fuel cycle wastes are being disposed of at six commercially operated sites in the United States of America. Similar wastes resulting from Federal activities are being disposed of at five Federally operated sites. The hydrology, geology, climate and operational practices at these sites vary greatly. At three sites in the wetter eastern United States which have low-permeability burial media, it is difficult to keep water from getting into the trenches. Two commercial burial sites in New York and Kentucky have not performed as planned. Authorization to operate these facilities was based on site analyses which, it was believed, demonstrated that the buried radioactive wastes would not migrate from the site during their hazardous lifetime (i.e. for hundreds of years). In ten years or less, however, radioactivity has been detected offsite from these two sites. Radioactivity has migrated offsite from the Federal burial site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, also. State and Federal authorities have stated that the radioactivity in the environment around the site was not a health hazard at this time. Information is presented on recent disposal practices and experience at these three low-level burial facilities. Based on this experience, the paper (1) briefly describes operations and problems at the sites; (2) suggests factors which led to the problems; (3) identifies problems which appear to be generic to disposal in humid climates; (4) identifies specific problems which could either reduce the ability to predict the impact of disposal operations or reduce the retention capability of the site; and (5) recommends improvements which can be made in site selection, development, and operation to reduce the environmental impact of the site. (author)

  19. Yield and Depth of Burial Hydrodynamic Calculations in Granodiorite: Implications for the North Korean Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    the existence of a test site body wave magnitude (mb) bias between U. S. and the former Soviet Union test sites in Nevada and Semipalatinsk . The use...YIELD AND DEPTH OF BURIAL HYDRODYNAMIC CALCULATIONS IN GRANODIORITE:IMPLICATIONS FOR THE NORTH KOREAN TEST SITE Esteban Rougier, Christopher R...Korean test site and the May 2009 test . When compared to the Denny and Johnson (1991) and to the Heard and Ackerman (1967) cavity radius scaling models

  20. Hanford environment as related to radioactive waste burial grounds and transuranium waste storage facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.J.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1977-06-01

    A detailed characterization of the existing environment at Hanford was provided by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) in the Final Environmental Statement, Waste Management Operations, Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington, December 1975. Abbreviated discussions from that document are presented together with current data, as they pertain to radioactive waste burial grounds and interim transuranic (TRU) waste storage facilities. The discussions and data are presented in sections on geology, hydrology, ecology, and natural phenomena. (JRD)

  1. Fluxes and burial of particulate organic carbon along the Adriatic mud-wedge (Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesi, T.; Langone, L.; Giani, M.; Ravaioli, M.; Miserocchi, S.

    2012-04-01

    Clinoform-shaped deposits are ubiquitous sedimentological bodies of modern continental margins, including both carbonate and silicoclastic platforms. They formed after the attainment of the modern sea level high-stand (mid-late Holocene) when river outlets and shoreline migrated landward. As clinoform-shape deposits are essential building blocks of the infill of sedimentary basins, they are sites of intense organic carbon (OC) deposition and account for a significant fraction of OC burial in the ocean during interglacial periods. In this study, we focused on sigmoid clinoforms that are generally associated with low-energy environments. In particular, we characterized the modern accumulation and burial of OC along the late-Holocene sigmoid in the Western Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). This sedimentary body consists of a mud wedge recognizable on seismic profiles as a progradational unit lying on top the maximum flooding surface that marks the time of maximum landward shift of the shoreline attained around 5.5 kyr cal BP. In the last two decades, several projects have investigated sediment dynamics and organic geochemistry along the Adriatic mud wedge (e.g., PRISMA, EURODELTA, EuroSTRATAFORM, PASTA, CIPE, VECTOR). All these studies increased our understanding of strata formation and organic matter cycling in this epicontinental margin. The overarching goal of this study was to combine the results gained during these projects with newly acquired data to assess fluxes to seabed and burial efficiency of organic carbon along the uppermost strata of the Adriatic mud-wedge. Our study benefited of an extensive number of radionuclide-based (Pb-210, and Cs-137) sediment accumulation rates and numerous biogeochemical data of surface sediments and sediment cores (organic carbon, total nitrogen, radiocarbon measurements, carbon stable isotopes, and biomarkers). In addition, because the accumulation of river-borne sediment may or may not be linked to a specific source, another

  2. Structure of automated system for tracking the formation and burial of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Intermediate- and low-activity wastes are formed when radionuclides are used in science, industry, agriculture, and medicine. A centralized system, including territorial specialized complexes and radioactive-waste burial sites (RWBS), has been created for collection, processing, and long-term storage. At this time, however, the records kept of wastes for long-term storage and assessment of their preparation for burial do not come up to current scientific and technical requirements at most RWBSs in Russia. It is necessary, therefore, to create an automated tracking system. Earlier studies, considered the design of a system for monitoring and recording the handling of sources of ionizing radiation, which are the most hazardous part of the wastes. The novel proposed automated system incorporates distinctive functional elements and makes for higher quality waste processing and efficient data exchange. It performs such functions as recording the wastes earmarked for burial, processing, and long-term storage, and where they are stored in the RWBS; ensuring an optimum cycle of collection, transportation, processing, and long-term storage of wastes; recording planned monitored levels of discharges and ejections of substances at the RWBSs; recording the wastes delivered for storage and stored on RWBSs; making calculations, including an estimate of the costs of transport, processing, and storage of wastes for each enterprise, with allowance for penalties; classifying wastes according to processing methods and determining the optimum operating regime and technological facilities; identifying the parameters of wastes delivered for processing and burial; and predicting the deliveries of wastes to RWBSs, planning the construction of new special storage facilities and containers for temporary and long-term storage of wastes

  3. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-3, Minor Construction Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-3, Minor Construction Burial Ground waste site. This site was an open field covered with cobbles, with no vegetation growing on the surface. The site received irradiated reactor parts that were removed during conversion of the 105-F Reactor from the Liquid 3X to the Ball 3X Project safety systems and received mostly vertical safety rod thimbles and step plugs

  4. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of rodents at a waste burial site, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, J.R.; Bennett, K.D.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    Small mammals were sampled at two waste burial sites (Sites 1 and 2) at Area G, TA-54, and a control site outside Area G (Site 3) to identify radionuclides that are present within surface and subsurface soils at waste burial sites, to compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and to identify the primary mode of contamination to small mammals, either through surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of at least five animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for americium ( 241 Am), strontium ( 90 Sr), plutonium ( 238 Pu and 239 Pu), total uranium (U), and examined by gamma spectroscopy (including cesium [ 137 Cs]). Significantly higher (parametric t-test at p = 0.05) levels of total U, 241 Am, 238 Pu, and potassium ( 40 K) were detected in pelts as compared to the carcasses of small mammals at TA-54. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were nearly equal to or exceeded the mean concentrations in the pelts. The results show higher concentrations in pelts compared to carcasses which is similar to what has been found at waste burial/contaminated sites outside of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Site 1 had significantly higher (alpha = 0.05, P = 0.0095) total U concentrations in carcasses than Sites 2 and 3. Site 2 had significantly higher (alpha = 0.05, P = 0.0195) 239 Pu concentrations in carcasses than either Site 1 or Site 3

  5. Transuranic element uptake and cycling in a forest over an old burial ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Tuckfield, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The consequences of returning the Savannah River Site (SRS) burial ground area to general public access at the time of completion of the SRS mission is being investigated. This study includes evaluation of the radiological impact to inhabitants of the area under a number of scenarios that include the return of the land to farming or forestry use with or without exhumation of the buried waste

  6. Preliminary hydrogeologic investigation of the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site, Fleming County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehner, Harold H.

    1979-01-01

    Burial trenches at the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site , Fleming County, Ky., cover an area of about 0.03 square mile, and are located on a plateau, about 300 to 400 feet above surrounding valleys. Although surface-water characteristics are known, little information is available regarding the ground-water hydrology of the Maxey Flats area. If transport of radionuclides from the burial site were to occur, water would probably be the principal mechanism of transport by natural means. Most base flow in streams around the burial site is from valley alluvium, and from the mantle of regolith, colluvium, and soil partially covering adjacent hills. Very little base flow is due to ground-water flow from bedrock. Most water in springs is from the mantle, rather than from bedrock. Rock units underlying the Maxey Flats area are, in descending order, the Nancy and Farmers Members of the Borden Formation, Sunbury, Bedford, and Ohio Shales, and upper part of the Crab Orchard Formation. These units are mostly shales, except for the Farmers Member, which is mostly sandstone. Total thickness of the rocks is about 320 feet. All radioactive wastes are buried in the Nancy Member. Most ground-water movement in bedrock probably occurs in fractures. The ground-water system at Maxey Flats is probably unconfined, and recharge occurs by (a) infiltration of rainfall into the mantle, and (b) vertical, unsaturated flow from the saturated regolith on hilltops to saturated zones in the Farmers Member and Ohio Shale. Data are insufficient to determine if saturated zones exist in other rock units. The upper part of the Crab Orchard Formation is probably a hydrologic boundary, with little ground-water flow through the formation. (USGS)

  7. Hanford environment as related to radioactive waste burial grounds and transuranium waste storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.J.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1977-06-01

    A detailed characterization of the existing environment at Hanford was provided by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) in the Final Environmental Statement, Waste Management Operations, Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington, December 1975. Abbreviated discussions from that document are presented together with current data, as they pertain to radioactive waste burial grounds and interim transuranic (TRU) waste storage facilities. The discussions and data are presented in sections on geology, hydrology, ecology, and natural phenomena

  8. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, R.H.

    1997-08-12

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Plaste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Low-Level Burial Grounds (this document, DOE/RL-88-20).

  9. Silver Tableware from the Nomad Burials of 13th –14th Centuries on the East European Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chkhaidze Victor N.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers 31 nomad burials of 13th – 14th cc. containing prestigious silverware (waist bowls, ladles and goblets discovered in the territory of nine regions of the East European Plain (Trans-Volga, Volga, Don, Cis-Caucasus, Kuban, Donets, Dnieper, Ob, Bug and Trans-Dniester regions. It is one of the most informative and expressive groups of nomadic burial inventories only available for the the representatives of the ruling elite and included in the attributes of nomadic aristocracy of 13th – 14th cc. The description of each finding is provided together with the aggregate data concerning the dating of the burials, their type and the gender of the deceased. The authors consider the role of tableware in burial rites and its correspondence the representatives of family and tribal nomadic Golden Horde aristocracy.

  10. Sea-dumped chemical weapons: environmental risk, occupational hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, M I; Sexton, K J; Vearrier, D

    2016-01-01

    Chemical weapons dumped into the ocean for disposal in the twentieth century pose a continuing environmental and human health risk. In this review we discuss locations, quantity, and types of sea-dumped chemical weapons, related environmental concerns, and human encounters with sea-dumped chemical weapons. We utilized the Ovid (http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com) and PubMed (http://www.pubmed.org) search engines to perform MEDLINE searches for the terms 'sea-dumped chemical weapons', 'chemical warfare agents', and 'chemical munitions'. The searches returned 5863 articles. Irrelevant and non-English articles were excluded. A review of the references for these articles yielded additional relevant sources, with a total of 64 peer-reviewed articles cited in this paper. History and geography of chemical weapons dumping at sea: Hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical munitions were disposed off at sea following World War II. European, Russian, Japanese, and United States coasts are the areas most affected worldwide. Several areas in the Baltic and North Seas suffered concentrated large levels of dumping, and these appear to be the world's most studied chemical warfare agent marine dumping areas. Chemical warfare agents: Sulfur mustard, Lewisite, and the nerve agents appear to be the chemical warfare agents most frequently disposed off at sea. Multiple other type of agents including organoarsenicals, blood agents, choking agents, and lacrimators were dumped at sea, although in lesser volumes. Environmental concerns: Numerous geohydrologic variables contribute to the rate of release of chemical agents from their original casings, leading to difficult and inexact modeling of risk of release into seawater. Sulfur mustard and the organoarsenicals are the most environmentally persistent dumped chemical agents. Sulfur mustard in particular has a propensity to form a solid or semi-solid lump with a polymer coating of breakdown products, and can persist in this state on the ocean floor

  11. GPR and ERT detection and characterization of a mass burial, Spanish Civil War, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Melendi, David; Gonzalez-Quirós, Andrés; Roberts, Daniel; García García, María Del Carmen; Caunedo Domínguez, Amaya; Pringle, Jamie K; Fernández-Álvarez, José-Paulino

    2018-06-01

    Around 27,000 people were killed in the province of Asturias during the Spanish Civil War, with several thousands killed after the war ended. There are currently over 2,000 known mass burial locations throughout Spain, but many more are unknown. Geophysics is a useful tool employed to help in the active attempts to document and improve knowledge about victims from this conflict. This paper details a non-invasive study of the Cementerio de El Salvador, in the city of Oviedo, Northern Spain. Part of the cemetery contains a known mass burial with approximately 1,300 individuals from the Spanish Civil War and post-war repression eras. Multi-frequency near-surface geophysical techniques were undertaken, after permission, to enhance knowledge about which, if any, techniques should be used to detect, delineate and analyse such mass graves. Multi-frequency (250MHz and 500MHz) ground-penetrating radar surveys were acquired together with 2D and 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography datasets. The results have established the limits of the mass grave and improve the knowledge of the internal mass grave structure. The paper also shows the importance of considering the climatic conditions during data acquisition. This has important implications for the successful detection of recent historical mass burials using near-surface geophysics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Organic carbon burial in a mangrove forest, margin and intertidal mud flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Naidu, A. Sathy; Sanders, Luciana M.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.

    2010-12-01

    The flux of total organic carbon (TOC) to depositional facies (intertidal mud flat, margin and forest) was quantified for a tropical mangrove forest in Brazil. Results indicate that these mangrove margins and intertidal mudflats are sites of large TOC accumulation, almost four times greater than the global averages for mangrove forests. The TOC burial rates were determined from organic carbon content in sediment cores which were dated using 210Pb. Burial rates were calculated to be 1129, 949, and 353 (g m -2 yr -1), for the mud flat, margin and forest, respectively. Sediment accumulation rates (SAR) were estimated to be 7.3, 5.0 and 2.8 mm yr -1. Sediment characterization (δ 13C, δ 15N, TOC/TN and mud fraction) indicated a representative mangrove system with a record of consistent organic matter flux of up to 100 years. Because of substantial burial of organic carbon in mangrove ecosystems, their role in the global carbon budget must be considered. More importantly, as climate change influences temperature and sea level, mangrove ecosystems will respond to specific climatic conditions.

  13. RETRIEVING SUSPECT TRANSURANIC WASTE FROM THE HANFORD BURIAL GROUNDS PROGRESS PLANS AND CHALLENGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRENCH, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the scope and status of the program for retrieval of suspect transuranic (TRU) waste stored in the Hanford Site low-level burial grounds. Beginning in 1970 and continuing until the late 1980's, waste suspected of containing significant quantities of transuranic isotopes was placed in ''retrievable'' storage in designated modules in the Hanford burial grounds, with the intent that the waste would be retrieved when a national repository for disposal of such waste became operational. Approximately 15,000 cubic meters of waste, suspected of being TRU, was placed in storage modules in four burial grounds. With the availability of the national repository (the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), retrieval of the suspect TRU waste is now underway. Retrieval efforts, to date, have been conducted in storage modules that contain waste, which is in general, contact-handled, relatively new (1980's and later), is stacked in neat, engineered configurations, and has a relatively good record of waste characteristics. Even with these optimum conditions, retrieval personnel have had to deal with a large number of structurally degraded containers, radioactive contamination issues, and industrial hazards (including organic vapors). Future retrieval efforts in older, less engineered modules are expected to present additional hazards and difficult challenges

  14. Soil burial biodegradation studies of palm oil-based UV-curable films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajau, Rida; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Abdurahman, Mohamad Norahiman; Salih, Ashraf Mohammed; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Azman, Anis Asmi; Hamidi, Nur Amira

    2016-01-01

    The palm oil-based ultraviolet (uv)-curable films were subjected to an outdoor soil burial test to investigate the biodegradation under natural environment. The films were burial in the soil experiment plot at the Nuclear Malaysia’s Dengkil complex. The uv-curable films were synthesized from the epoxidized palm oil acrylated (EPOLA) resin and the polyurethane palm oil (POBUA) resin, respectively. Biodegradation tests are more specific to burial film in soil experiments for 12 months under natural conditions. The biodegradability of palm oil resin based uv-curable films were investigated and compared with the petrochemical resin based film. The films properties were compared with respect to properties of the thermal characteristic, the crystallinity, the morphology and the weight loss which are analyzed using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the scanning electron microscope (SEM), an optical microscope and the weight loss of film calculation. These findings suggested that the palm oil-based uv-curable films show quite satisfactory biodegradation levels

  15. Soil burial biodegradation studies of palm oil-based UV-curable films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajau, Rida; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Abdurahman, Mohamad Norahiman; Salih, Ashraf Mohammed; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Azman, Anis Asmi; Hamidi, Nur Amira

    2016-01-01

    The palm oil-based ultraviolet (uv)-curable films were subjected to an outdoor soil burial test to investigate the biodegradation under natural environment. The films were burial in the soil experiment plot at the Nuclear Malaysia's Dengkil complex. The uv-curable films were synthesized from the epoxidized palm oil acrylated (EPOLA) resin and the polyurethane palm oil (POBUA) resin, respectively. Biodegradation tests are more specific to burial film in soil experiments for 12 months under natural conditions. The biodegradability of palm oil resin based uv-curable films were investigated and compared with the petrochemical resin based film. The films properties were compared with respect to properties of the thermal characteristic, the crystallinity, the morphology and the weight loss which are analyzed using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the scanning electron microscope (SEM), an optical microscope and the weight loss of film calculation. These findings suggested that the palm oil-based uv-curable films show quite satisfactory biodegradation levels.

  16. On the Origin of the Dragon Image on the Plate from Shilovka Burial Mound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liphanov Nicolay А.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article analyzes an unique image of two opposed dragons engraved on a bone plate discovered in 1992 at barrow No.1 of Shilovka burial mound located on the right bank of the Volga river in Ulyanovsk Oblast (the excavations were conducted by R.S. Bagautdinov. The burial mound is related to the cattle breeding population of late 7th century. The article considers different hypotheses concerning the origin of these dragon images in the artistic traditions of various regions: China (A.V. Komar, D.G. Savinov, B. Totev, Pelevina, Central Asia (V.G. Kotov, V.E. Flyorova, India (N.A. Fonyakova. According to the author, this image has no apparent iconographic parallels in the traditions of these regions. Such analogues are found in the art of the Mediterranean where the ancient images of various mythological creatures exist alongside the image of the sea dragon “ketos” which later became part of the Christian tradition. The appearance of this monster in the images of the first half – middle of the 1st millennium A.D. is practically identical to the dragons from Shilovka burial mound. According to the author, certain impact on the formation of the considered dragon image was made by Iranian art.

  17. Deconstructing The Stereotypes Of Women Throough A Female Voice In Burial Rites (2013 By Hannah Kent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Ayuningtyas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Patriarchal society regulates how women should behave and act. If a woman obeys the social rules, she will be labeled as a good woman. On the other hand, if a woman does not follow the social values, she will be immediately categorized as an evil woman and given negative stereotypes. This binary opposition between a good woman and a bad woman is often criticized by the feminists because they think this categorization burdens women. This issue is also highlighted by Hannah Kent in her novel Burial Rites (2013. This novel is set in a rural society in Iceland in the 19th century with its patriarchal values, focusing on a woman named Agnes that will soon be executed. This theme interested the researcher to study Burial Rites more deeply using feminist perspective. Characters, setting and point of view are the intrinsic elements discussed in this research. The result of the analysis shows that through these three elements, Burial Rites describes society’s stereotypes about ‘evil women’ and there is an effort from the author to deconstruct the stereotype through a female voice.

  18. In-situ high-resolution gamma-spectrometric survey of burial ground-monitoring wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, W.W.

    1981-09-01

    In situ high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with an intrinsic germanium detector assembly of special design surveyed the burial ground monitoring wells to locate and identify gamma emitters that may have migrated from the burial trenches toward the water table. Gamma-ray spectra were acquired as a function of depth in each well and recorded on magnetic tape. These spectra were reduced by a series of computer programs to produce count rate versus depth profiles for natural and man-made activities. The original spectra and the profiles have been archived on magnetic tape for comparison with similar future surveys. Large amounts of man-made activities were observed in some of the burial trenches; however, below the trench bottoms, only very low but detectable amounts of 60 Co and 137 Cs were observed in eleven wells. The highest level of man-made gamma activity observed below the trench bottoms has a count rate roughly equal to that observed for uranium daughter activities which are natural to the subsoil

  19. Soil burial biodegradation studies of palm oil-based UV-curable films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajau, Rida, E-mail: rida@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Salleh, Mek Zah, E-mail: mekzah@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik, E-mail: nik-ghazali@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Abdurahman, Mohamad Norahiman, E-mail: iman5031@yahoo.com [Division of Radiation Processing Technology, Malaysia Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Salih, Ashraf Mohammed, E-mail: ashraf.msalih@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Processing, Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum, 1111 Sudan (Sudan); Fathy, Siti Farhana, E-mail: farhana811@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience (IBS), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Azman, Anis Asmi, E-mail: anisasmi18@gmail.com; Hamidi, Nur Amira, E-mail: amirahamidi93@yahoo.com [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 11800 USM, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    The palm oil-based ultraviolet (uv)-curable films were subjected to an outdoor soil burial test to investigate the biodegradation under natural environment. The films were burial in the soil experiment plot at the Nuclear Malaysia’s Dengkil complex. The uv-curable films were synthesized from the epoxidized palm oil acrylated (EPOLA) resin and the polyurethane palm oil (POBUA) resin, respectively. Biodegradation tests are more specific to burial film in soil experiments for 12 months under natural conditions. The biodegradability of palm oil resin based uv-curable films were investigated and compared with the petrochemical resin based film. The films properties were compared with respect to properties of the thermal characteristic, the crystallinity, the morphology and the weight loss which are analyzed using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the scanning electron microscope (SEM), an optical microscope and the weight loss of film calculation. These findings suggested that the palm oil-based uv-curable films show quite satisfactory biodegradation levels.

  20. Low-level radioactive waste management handbook series: corrective measures technology for shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to serve as a handbook to operators of low-level waste burial sites for dealing with conditions which can cause problems in waste isolation. This handbook contains information on planning and applying corrective actions, and is organized in such a way as to assist the operator in associating problems or potential problems with causative conditions. Thus, the operator is encouraged to direct actions at those conditions, rather than the possible temporary expedient of treating symptoms. In Chapter 2 of this handbook, corrective action planning is briefly presented. Chapter 3 discusses the application of corrective measures by addressing, in separate sections, the following conditions which can occur at burial sites: eroding trench cover; permeable trench cover; subsidence of trench; groundwater entering trenches; trench intrusion by deep-rooted plants; and trench intrusion by burrowing animals. In each of these sections, a condition is introduced and related to burial-site problems. It is followed by a discussion of alternative methods for correcting the condition. This discussion includes descriptive information, application considerations for these alternatives, a listing of potential advantages and disadvantages, presentation of generalized cost information, and in conclusion, a statement of recommendations regarding application of corrective action technologies. 66 references, 21 figures, 24 tables

  1. Advances in the self-burial concept for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    The self-burial concept for deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste seeks to utilize the radioactive decay heat emitted by the wastes to melt rock and allow descent by gravity into crystalline rock for isolation. Logan developed the governing equations for the self-disposal process in a paper published in 1973 and 1974 showing that moderate waste concentrations in capsules 1 to 2 m in diameter could descend through granite or basalt to considerable depths, in some cases grater than 10 km. Safety considerations related to filling, handling, and initial cooling of such large capsules prior to release, plus the severe container material environment, has prevented use of the concept. Byalko in Russia recently proposed using a sulfur-filled borehole as a conduit for conveying small capsules down to an accumulation zone at a safe depth of several kilometers. This advance in the self-burial concept overcomes previous problems with self-burial. First, capsules of 0.3 m or less in diameter are relatively simple to fill and handle. Second, investigations indicate that once emplaced at an initial accumulation depth, rock-melting can proceed without an enveloping waste container

  2. Geophysical Investigation of the 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds, 300-FF-2 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrom, K.A.; Bolin, D.J.; Mitchell, T.H.

    1997-09-01

    This document summarizes the results of geophysical investigations conducted at two radioactive solid waste burial grounds, 618-10 and 618-11. The burial grounds are located approximately 4.5 miles and 7 miles north of the 300 Area, respectively. These sites are within the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit, where geophysical techniques are being used to characterize the distribution of solid waste in the subsurface as part of the Limited Field Investigations for this operable unit

  3. Shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive wastes: preliminary simulations of long-term health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Little, C.A.; Emerson, C.J.; Hiromoto, G.

    1982-01-01

    PRESTO, a computer code developed for the Environmental Protection Agency for the evaluation of possible health effects associated with shallow-land rad-waste burial areas, has been used to perform simulations for three such sites. Preliminary results for the 1000 y period following site closure suggest that shallow burial, at properly chosen sites, is indeed an appropriate disposal practice for low-level wastes. Periods of maximum risk to subject populations are also inferred

  4. Barbarians in the City: Burials of the Germans in the Urban Cemeteries of Northern Illyricum in the Early Byzantine Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miсhеl Kazanskiy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the topography of the burials of the Early Byzantine period (5th – 6th centuries, containing in their inventory items of German origin found in some cities of Northern Illyricum, whose necropolises were subjected to extensive excavations: Sirmium, Singidunum, Viminacium (present-day Northern Serbia. Two different types of burial places with German objects were witnessed on these city burials: isolated burials on cemeteries common to the whole population and separate cemeteries with the predominance of the German element. It can be assumed that these different types of organization of the funerary space correspond to different forms of settling of barbarians in the cities of the northern borderland of the Late Roman / Early Byzantine Illyricum. The barbarous presence in the urban burial context is very slight. In Syrmium, which repeatedly fell under the power of the barbarians (priests, gepids, a few barbarous burials were committed in cemeteries, which belonged mainly to the Roman city population, which indicates a fairly deep integration of the outgoing barbarians into the urban late-antique environment. In Singidunum and Viminacium, the frontier fortresses on the Danube, special “barbarian” cemeteries stand out, since the barbarians settled here were primarily a military force, that is, a separate social group with its own structure. It is also possible that unlike Sirmium, where archaeological traces of the presence of the Roman population are clearly revealed, barbarian mercenaries and their families accounted for a numerical majority in the garrison towns of the Danube borderland.

  5. The value of trophic interactions for ecosystem function: dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Hannah M; Bardgett, Richard D; Louzada, Julio; Barlow, Jos

    2016-12-14

    Anthropogenic activities are causing species extinctions, raising concerns about the consequences of changing biological communities for ecosystem functioning. To address this, we investigated how dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in the Brazilian Amazon. First, we conducted a burial and retrieval experiment using seed mimics. We found that dung beetle biomass had a stronger positive effect on the burial of large than small beads, suggesting that anthropogenic reductions in large-bodied beetles will have the greatest effect on the secondary dispersal of large-seeded plant species. Second, we established mesocosm experiments in which dung beetle communities buried Myrciaria dubia seeds to examine plant emergence and survival. Contrary to expectations, we found that beetle diversity and biomass negatively influenced seedling emergence, but positively affected the survival of seedlings that emerged. Finally, we conducted germination trials to establish the optimum burial depth of experimental seeds, revealing a negative relationship between burial depth and seedling emergence success. Our results provide novel evidence that seed burial by dung beetles may be detrimental for the emergence of some seed species. However, we also detected positive impacts of beetle activity on seedling recruitment, which are probably because of their influence on soil properties. Overall, this study provides new evidence that anthropogenic impacts on dung beetle communities could influence the structure of tropical forests; in particular, their capacity to regenerate and continue to provide valuable functions and services. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Magnetic and Geochemical Records of Glacial Terminations, Weathering and Carbon Burial in the Southeastern South China Sea for the Last 800 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, S.; Kao, S.; Hsu, S.; Lee, T.; Velasco, V. M.; Soon, W.; Chen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Rebuilding of past climate and oceanographic records from monsoon dominated Asia is of vital importance for understanding the causes and mechanisms of global and regional climate changes at orbital-millennial timescales. South China Sea (SCS) provides the best marine platform to investigate a number of paleoclimate and paleoceanographic problems on different timescales mainly because of high sedimentation rates, good preservation of microfossils and the location of SCS as a connector between the Western Pacific Warm Pool and the SE Asian monsoon. Here we investigate magnetic, geochemical and isotopic records from a piston core MD97-2142 rose from the southeastern SCS to understand the past glacial terminations, chemical weathering and carbon burial on orbital to millennial timescales for the last 800 kyr. Terrigenous content and Al/Ti ratio reveal higher terrigenous input during glacial periods and vice versa during interglacials. Proxies of chemical weathering reveal larger fluctuations between 150 and 500 kyr than that of the last 150 kyr. Records of C/N ratio and carbon isotope of total organic carbon (δ13CTOC) mimic each other with higher marine productivity during marine isotope stages (MIS) 8, 10 and 12. Enrichment factors of Mn and Mo (EF Mn and EF Mo) show roughly an opposite pattern with 1 in most odd MIS, whereas <~1 EF Mn was evident in even MIS, suggesting that the former condition was likely attributed to bottom water ventilation associated with high sea levels during interglacials. We found through two endmember mixing model of δ13CTOC that lower burial of terrigenous fraction of TOC (OCTERR) during glacial intervals (MIS 6, 8, 10 and 12), but vice versa during interglacial (MIS 7, 9 and 11) periods. Our bulk magnetic susceptibility (MS) time series documents the last seven glacial terminations (T1-T7) with distinctive behaviors of T4 and T6. Wavelet analysis of MS record exhibits statistically significant periodicity at 239 kyr, 142 kyr, 85 kyr, 45

  7. Deep-burial microporosity in upper Jurassic Haynesville oolitic grainstones, East Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravis, Jeffrey J.

    1989-07-01

    Secondary micromoldic porosity generated during deep-burial diagenesis occurs pervasively in Upper Jurassic Haynesville oolitic grainstones in East Texas and constitutes the major pore type in these gas reservoirs. Petrographic and geochemical relationships establish that development of this microporosity postdates emplacement of bitumen and most pressure solution fabrics in the reservoir grainstones. Microporosity development is strictly controlled by depositional texture and is restricted to either active shoal complex grainstones or thicker grainstones shed downramp by storm processes. Haynesville diagenetic and porosity relationships are consistent along the entire length of the east flank of the East Texas Basin, a distance greater than 100 km; identical relationships have also been observed along the west flank of this basin. Haynesville micromoldic porosity development is confined principally to ooids but also occurs in normally "stable" calcitic skeletal grains like oysters. Resultant micropores are a few microns across or less; complete dissolution of ooids to form oomoldic macroporosity is not observed in Haynesville limestones. Nearly all primary porosity in the Haynesville is now occluded by carbonate cement. Confirmation of a late, deep-burial origin for Haynesville secondary microporosity is based on physical relationships observed in numerous cores, regional petrography and geochemical data. Collectively, these observations demonstrate that Haynesville sediments were never locally or regionally exposed to freshwater but have undergone progressive burial diagenesis punctuated by a major late dissolution event which created the microporosity. Key observations which support Haynesville deep-burial microporosity development include: (1) petrographic relationships which demonstrate microporosity developed after emplacement of bitumen; (2) lack of subaerial exposure features in core, both atop shoal complexes and at the contact between the Haynesville and

  8. Carbon burial and storage in tropical salt marshes under the influence of sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fernández, A C; Carnero-Bravo, V; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A; Pérez-Bernal, L H; Amaya-Monterrosa, O A; Bojórquez-Sánchez, S; López-Mendoza, P G; Cardoso-Mohedano, J G; Dunbar, R B; Mucciarone, D A; Marmolejo-Rodríguez, A J

    2018-07-15

    Coastal vegetated habitats can be important sinks of organic carbon (C org ) and mitigate global warming by sequestering significant quantities of atmospheric CO 2 and storing sedimentary C org for long periods, although their C org burial and storage capacity may be affected by on-going sea level rise and human intervention. Geochemical data from published 210 Pb-dated sediment cores, collected from low-energy microtidal coastal wetlands in El Salvador (Jiquilisco Bay) and in Mexico (Salada Lagoon; Estero de Urias Lagoon; Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve) were revisited to assess temporal changes (within the last 100years) of C org concentrations, storage and burial rates in tropical salt marshes under the influence of sea level rise and contrasting anthropization degree. Grain size distribution was used to identify hydrodynamic changes, and δ 13 C to distinguish terrigenous sediments from those accumulated under the influence of marine transgression. Although the accretion rate ranges in all sediment records were comparable, C org concentrations (0.2-30%), stocks (30-465Mgha -1 , by extrapolation to 1m depth), and burial rates (3-378gm -2 year -1 ) varied widely within and among the study areas. However, in most sites sea level rise decreased C org concentrations and stocks in sediments, but increased C org burial rates. Lower C org concentrations were attributed to the input of reworked marine particles, which contribute with a lower amount of C org than terrigenous sediments; whereas higher C org burial rates were driven by higher mass accumulation rates, influenced by increased flooding and human interventions in the surroundings. C org accumulation and long-term preservation in tropical salt marshes can be as high as in mangrove or temperate salt marsh areas and, besides the reduction of C org stocks by ongoing sea level rise, the disturbance of the long-term buried C org inventories might cause high CO 2 releases, for which they must be protected as a part of

  9. Radionuclide dynamics and health implications for the New York nuclear service center's radioactive waste burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszek, J.M.; Strnisa, F.V.; Baxter, C.F.

    1976-01-01

    A commercial radioactive waste burial site has operated since 1963 at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center. Solid low-level radioactive wastes are buried in trenches excavated from a very fine-grained heterogeneous mixture of silt and clay (silty till) and are then covered with the excavated material. Despite many operational precautions, water levels in three burial trenches rose to within a few centimeters of the covering material by late 1973. Activity levels of HTO, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs in trench water and core samples were measured to obtain preliminary information on the degree of subsurface radionuclide migration from the burial trenches into the surrounding soil. Tritium concentrations measured in void-space water from vertical cores appeared to peak in the cover material 1.5 to 2m below the ground surface. Concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the silty till were greatest near the surface of the cover material. Concentrations of HTO and 90 Sr, measured in a series of slant-hole core samples collected until the trench was intercepted, showed tritium migration to have progressed less than 0.3m, while 90 Sr migration appeared to be somewhat less. The preliminary data suggest that: (a) radionuclide migration from the burial trenches into the undisturbed silty till is slight; (b) radioactivity in the surface soil is not necessarily caused by migration of trench water; (c) groundwater movement is not massive; (d) rainwater infiltration, with settlement and compaction of buried wastes, is the most likely cause of rising trench water levels; and (e) surface contamination may occur from spills during burial operations, from trench digging, and from deposition of stack effluents from a nearby nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. By January 1975 the steadily rising water levels in three trenches were approximately 1m above the undisturbed soil from which the trenches were excavated, resulting in increased radioactivity levels in local streams draining the site. To

  10. Forensic Geopedology and Micropedology: New Indications and Lookouts from Pigs Experimental Burials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, Stephania Irmgard Elena; Trombino, Luca

    2013-04-01

    The role played by soil scientists in the modern forensic science is very real and important, above all in the crime scenes when buried remains, both strongly decomposed or skeletal, are found. Thanks to a PhD project on Forensic Geopedology, an interdisciplinary team of the Universities of Milano and Milano Bicocca, has been working for the last four years on several sets of experimental burials of pigs and piglets, in different soil types and for different times of burial, in order to get new evidences on environmental responses to the burial, including geopedological and micropedological aspects. The present work constitutes a conclusive synthesis of results emerged from comparative soil characterizations, listed as follow: - Grainsize analyses; - Determination of pH in H2O and KCl; - Total Nitrogen and Organic Carbon analyses: - Quantification of Available Phosphorous; - Determination of Cation Exchange Capacity and Base Saturation; - Analyses of Volatile Fatty Acids; - Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy analyses; - Petrographic Optical Microscope analyses (including thin sections descriptions). It is proposed a diachronic picture of the project where it is possible to follow the variability of significance of the different kinds of analyses carried out. The achieved results, especially when cross-checked, are very stimulating as regards the setting of analytical protocols for: - The determination of time since burial (TSB); - The discrimination between primary and secondary burials; - The identification of corpses concealments. All the analyses and different approaches discussed and addressed in this work require extreme care when applied to real forensic scenarios; however, the protocols tested can be a piece of a large and articulated puzzle that depicts the major forensic case studies in which Geopedology can be of help in solving problems or in answering some peculiar questions. It is important to understand that a science so

  11. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING ROOTS EXPOSED TO THE MUNITION HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRINITRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabidopsis thaliana root transcriptome responses to the munition, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), were assessed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Comparison of the transcriptional profile for the RDX response to a profile previously described for Ar...

  12. Performance Assessment Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Site Low-Level Burial Grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, requires a disposal authorization statement authorizing operation (or continued operation) for low-level waste disposal facilities. In fulfillment of these requirements, a disposal authorization statement was issued on October 25, 1999, authorizing the Hanford Site to transfer, receive, possess, and dispose of low-level radioactive waste at the 200 East Area burial grounds and the 200 West Area burial grounds. One of the conditions is that monitoring plans for the 200 East Area and 200 West Area low-level burial grounds be written and approved by the Richland Operations Office. As a result of a record of decision for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Program and acceptance of the Hanford Site Solid Waste Environmental Impact Statement, the use of the low-level burial ground (LLBG) as a disposal facility for low-level and mixed low-level wastes has been restricted to lined trenches and the Navy reactor-compartment trench only. Hence, as of July 2004, only the two lined trenches in burial ground 218-W-5 (trenches 31 and 34, see Appendix A) and the Navy reactor-compartment trench in burial ground 218 E 12B (trench 94) are allowed to receive waste. When the two lined trenches are filled, the LLBG will cease to operate except for reactor compartment disposal at trench 94. Remaining operational lifetime of the LLBG is dependent on waste volume disposal rates. Existing programs for air sampling and analyses and subsidence monitoring are currently adequate for performance assessment at the LLBG. The waste disposal authorization for the Hanford Site is based (in part) on the post-closure performance assessments for the LLBG. In order to maintain a useful link between operational monitoring (e.g., Resource Conservation and Recovery Act [RCRA], Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, and State Waste Discharge Permits), constituents, monitoring frequencies, and boundaries require

  13. Two items: Transcription of a presentation by Dr. E. L. Albenesius, ''SRS burial ground operation from an historical perspective''; video tape entitled ''Burial ground operation''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1992-01-01

    On February 6, 1992, approximately 35 SRS personnel from DOE, WSRC, and Dames and Moore attended a very informative talk given by Dr. E.L. Albenesius who discussed the operation of the SRS Burial Ground from an historical perspective. Dr. Albenesius, a Du Point retiree, formerly served as research manager of SRL's Environmental Effects and Solid Waste Management Technology Divisions among other assignments. One notable point Dr. Albenesius made was in answer to a question concerning what was the most important thing that could be done to reduce the hazard to man from buried waste. His response was to remove as much plutonium as practical prior to closure. In order to preserve this valuable information for the record, the program was audiotaped from which a point-by-point chronological transcription, with minor editing, was prepared

  14. Legacy in the Sand: The United States Army Armament, Munitions and Chemical Command in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-21

    States Army Medical Department, over 1.5 million British-designed Small Box Respirator ( SBR ) masks, utilizing activated coconut charcoal as a filter, had...conflicts this nation will tfce-short in rjuration but of high intensity. In such a war, relance must bpp oaced upon the established stockpile and the...Supply System SAW squad automatic weapon SBA Small Business Administration SBR small box respirator SCR senior command representati’e SCRAM self-contained

  15. Evaporation Rates of Chemical Warfare Agents Measured Using 5 CM Wind Tunnels. 2. Munitions Grade Sulfur Mustard From Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    micropores and the pH of 0.1 g sand in 2 mL water, measured after 24 hr using pH paper, was 6. The measured bulk and tapped densities of the sand...o oasr^^roryrgQcor-»infO KNceend’-ojnrS^’u:* ^ t\\i kO N © co uS oS - <- eg CM M (M n eft ^ eg ni r»i s rt...O cn o o 2 eft — cn co in ^ ^ iri — 3 *- t- — n vt rt CD £ 2 9 a H d a -i --’ p | E •i = ° 2r ^ A

  16. Evaporation Rates of Chemical Warfare Agents Measured using 5 cm Wind Tunnels III. Munition-Grade Sulfur Mustard on Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    tD O o o 1 1 1 1 — -_.-^_ 1 o in o...O < < < h- SH h Q 1 1-6 o o Is. c x X •g m LU o o O X o N O o c cj o LU ro ra Q "o tD w co tu o o c c s o 5...D Si a flj CO CD CO CJ o o a) » S. 8- 1 S Js 5 co 0 m 0 (£ £ £ o Q. 8 .9

  17. Evidence of elevated pressure and temperature during burial of the Salem Limestone in south-central Indiana, USA, and its implications for surprisingly deep burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambers, Clifford P.

    2001-09-01

    A minor, normal fault related to compaction of the grainstone shoal facies of the Salem Limestone in south-central Indiana provides an unusual opportunity to test the pressure and temperature of both faulting and associated stylolitization. Syn-deformational sphalerite occurs in voids along the fault where it intersects an organic-rich shale parting in the sand flat facies overlying the grainstone. The sphalerite contains fluid inclusions that can be used for microthermobaric measurements. Most fluid inclusions in the sphalerite are demonstrably cogenetic with the host sphalerite and of the two-phase aqueous type common in Indiana, although many contain petroleum and others contain gas. Crushing tests in kerosene indicate that the aqueous inclusions contain dissolved methane in varying amounts as high as 1000 ppm. Microthermometry shows that late sphalerite growth, late fault movement, and late stylolitization all occurred as conditions approached 108°C and 292 bars. This pressure is in accord with a normal, basinal, geothermal gradient of 32.5°C/km that would produce the observed temperature under hydrostatic conditions at a burial depth of 2.7 km using an average fluid density of 1.1 g/cm 3. These results serve as a reminder that fluid inclusions in diagenetic minerals hold important temperature and pressure information regarding burial diagenesis of Paleozoic rocks across the North American midcontinent. Detailed study of dissolved gases in fluids trapped in disseminated sphalerite that is common across the midcontinent could help resolve the enigma of sedimentary rocks with high thermal maturity exposed at the surface across the region.

  18. UAV-imaging to model growth response of marram grass to sand burial: Implications for coastal dune development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolet, Corjan; van Puijenbroek, Marinka; Suomalainen, Juha; Limpens, Juul; Riksen, Michel

    2018-04-01

    Vegetated coastal dunes have the capacity to keep up with sea-level rise by accumulating and stabilizing wind-blown sand. In Europe, this is attributed to marram grass (Ammophila arenaria), a coastal grass species that combines two unique advantages for dune-building: (1) a very high tolerance to burial by wind-blown sand, and (2) more vigorous growth due to positive feedback to sand burial. However, while these vegetation characteristics have been demonstrated, observational data has not been used to model a function to describe the growth response of Ammophila to sand burial. Studies that model coastal dune development by incorporating positive feedback, as a result, may be hampered by growth functions that are unvalidated against field data. Therefore, this study aims to parameterize an empirical relationship to model the growth response of Ammophila to burial by wind-blown sand. A coastal foredune along a nourished beach in the Netherlands was monitored from April 2015 to April 2016. High-resolution geospatial data was acquired using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Growth response of Ammophila, expressed by changes in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (Δ NDVI) and vegetation cover (Δ Cover), is related to a sand burial gradient by fitting a Gaussian function using nonlinear quantile regression. The regression curves indicate an optimal burial rate for Ammophila of 0.31 m of sand per growing season, and suggest (by extrapolation of the data) a maximum burial tolerance for Ammophila between 0.78 (for Δ Cover) and 0.96 m (for Δ NDVI) of sand per growing season. These findings are advantageous to coastal management: maximizing the potential of Ammophila to develop dunes maximizes the potential of coastal dunes to provide coastal safety.

  19. Project TN-030: hydrogeology, ORNL radioactive waste burial grounds. US Geological Survey annual report, FY 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Near Burial Ground 3, five wells were cored through Unit F of the Chickamauga Limestone, previously considered to be a probable barrier to ground-water flow. Cores revealed that in this area Unit F actually consists of two continuous silty shale/shaley siltstone members with an interbedded limestone member. Weathering stains in the core and small-size solution openings revealed by televiewer logging indicate that this unit likely has greater permeability than previously described. A unique instrumentation system was designed and installed in six wells to provide information about hydraulic heads in the three geologic units immediately underlying the site. Sediment retrieved from two wells 450 feet and 1300 feet from the site was found to contain as much as 335 pCi/g and 0.83 pCi/g, respectively, of cesium-137. In Burial Ground 5 the construction of four clusters of piezometers of special design was compelted. The deepest wells were cored, geophysical logs were made of each piezometer, and hydraulic conductivities of the bedrock were measured in 50-foot depth increments. No contamination that could be measured by field instrumentation was found in the bedrock. Geophysical logs were made of several older wells in Burial Grounds 5 and 6 and the ILW area. Spectral logging identified the isotopes 60 Co and/or 137 Cs in several well bores. Tritium was found to still be present in water from wells used five years ago during tracer tests in two different areas, suggesting that an inefficient retardive mechanism for this nuclide exists in fine-grained geologic material

  20. Under the mission steps : an 800 year-old human burial from south Tanna, Vanuatu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flexner, J.L.; Willie, E.

    2015-01-01

    Archaeological excavations at the late-19th century mission house at Kwamera, south Tanna Island, Vanuatu uncovered an inhumation directly underneath the mission step. Radiocarbon dating of the context revealed this burial to date to the 12th or 13th century AD. In addition to providing new information about the deeper past on Tanna, this finding provides some interesting material for thinking about long-term relationships to ancestors and sacred places on the island and how these related to interactions with missionaries in the 1800s.

  1. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 2, Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived form the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the main text. This Volume contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text.

  2. State of the art review of alternatives to shallow land burial of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    A review of alternatives to shallow land burial for disposal of low level radioactive waste was conducted to assist ORNL in developing a program for the evaluation, selection, and demonstration of the most acceptable alternatives. The alternatives were categorized as follows: (1) near term isolation concepts, (2) far term isolation concepts, (3) dispersion concepts, and (4) conversion concepts. Detailed descriptions of near term isolation concepts are provided. The descriptions include: (1) method of isolation, (2) waste forms that can be accommodated, (3) advantages and disadvantages, (4) facility and equipment requirements, (5) unusual operational or maintenance requirements, (6) information/technology development requirements, and (7) related investigations of the concept

  3. Preliminary research work on building of repositories for burial of NPP radioactive waste in loess beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanov, G.; Prodanov, Ya.

    1984-02-01

    The choice of a disposal site for burial of intermediate and low-level wastes from the NPS depends on a complex of conditions, requirements and methods resulting from the complex geologo-geographic and demographic conditions in the People's Republic of Bulgaria. The analysis of the geologic conditions shows that the various structures of the rocks, the tectonism, the seismicity in vast regions, the lack of plateau basalts hinder the choice of convenient sites for radioactive waste disposal. In Bulgaria the loess massives are studied and proposals are made to use them as a suitable environment for building of radioactive waste repositories

  4. WIPP/SRL Program - characterization of samples for burial in WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzscheiter, R.C.; Wicks, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    The laboratory studies described in this report characterize the performance and homogeneity of waste glass from a 2-ft-dia glass slice taken from a full-scale 2 ft by 10 ft canister filled with glass at TNX. The leaching performance of glass samples extracted from the slice was determined as a function of radial position and will be used in support of existing programs. The waste glass produced at TNX and used for the burial tests in WIPP was very homogeneous. The extent of glass leaching in brine (using standard MCC-1 leach tests and based on boron extraction) was 15X less than that of leaching in deionized water

  5. Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application design documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document presents the Functional Design Criteria for trenches to be constructed to receive solid radioactive mixed waste (RMW) from on and offsite generators. The new RMW disposal facilities are considered modifications to or lateral expansion of the existing low-level waste burial grounds. The new facilities upgrade the existing disposal practice for RMW to the minimum technology requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The proposed locations for the two facilities are: 218-E-10 for drag-off-waste packages and, 218-W-4C for non drag-off waste packages

  6. Determining timing of Alaska Range exhumation and glaciation through cosmogenic nuclide burial dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sortor, R. N.; Goehring, B. M.; Bemis, S. P.; Ruleman, C.; Nichols, K. A.; Ward, D. J.; Frothingham, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Alaska Range is a transpressional orogen with modern exhumation initiating 6 Ma. The stratigraphic record of unroofing and uplift of the foreland basin is largely preserved along the northern flank of the Alaska Range in the Pliocene-Pleistocene aged Nenana Gravel, an extensive alluvial fan and braidplain deposit. Chronometric control on the Nenana Gravel is largely lacking, with the limited available age control based on a single Ar-Ar tephra date in an underlying unit and via stratigraphic inferences for the upper portions. Higher-resolution dating of the Nenana Gravel unit is imperative in order to quantify deposition rates and the timing of uplift and deformation of the foreland basin. Furthermore, a glacial unit has been found to lie unconformably on top of the unit at Suntrana Creek and may represent the initiation of glacial advances in the Alaska Range. We present a suite of 26Al/10Be cosmogenic nuclide burial ages collected from the lower, middle, and upper sections of the Nenana Gravel at Suntrana Creek, as well as the overlying glacial unit. Three samples from the lower Nenana Gravel yield an isochron burial age of 4.42+0.67/-0.13 Ma, which represents initiation of Nenana Gravel deposition and may equate to early unroofing of the Alaska Range. Two samples collected from the middle of the Nenana Gravel unit produced an average simple burial age of 2.25+/-0.45 Ma, with a single sample stratigraphically above dating to 0.99 +/-1.60. Two samples from the upper-most portion of the Nenana Gravel yielded an average simple burial age of 1.27+/-0.22 Ma, and one sample from the glacial unit overlying the Nenana Gravel was dated to 0.97+/-0.06 Ma, representing one of the earliest glacial advances in the region. In addition, the age of the glacial unit provides a minimum age for inception of foreland basin uplift and abandonment of the Nenana Gravel in this region.

  7. Status of corrective measures technology for shallow land burial at arid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.V.; Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.; Lopez, E.A.; Herrera, W.J.; Langhorst, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The field research program involving corrective measure technologies for arid shallow land burial sites is described. Soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments was measured and compared with similar data from agricultural systems across the United States. Report of field testing of biointrusion barriers continues at a closed-out waste disposal site at Los Alamos. Final results of an experiment designed to determine the effects of subsidence on the performance of a cobble-gravel biobarrier system are reported, as well as the results of hydrologic modeling activities involving biobarrier systems. 11 refs., 10 figs

  8. The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Anzick, Sarah L.; Waters, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Montana. The human bones date to 10,705 ± 35 (14)C years bp (approximately 12,707-12,556 calendar years bp) and were directly associated with Clovis tools. We sequenced the genome to an average depth of 14.4× and show that the gene flow from the Siberian Upper Palaeolithic Mal'ta population into Native...... directly related to contemporary Native Americans. An alternative, Solutrean, hypothesis posits that the Clovis predecessors emigrated from southwestern Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum. Here we report the genome sequence of a male infant (Anzick-1) recovered from the Anzick burial site in western...

  9. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Spalding, B.P.

    1991-01-01

    A restoration technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability and decreased potential for leachate migration following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-10-07

    The 618-11 (Wye or 318-11) burial ground received transuranic (TRTJ) and mixed fission solid waste from March 9, 1962, through October 2, 1962. It was then closed for 11 months so additional burial facilities could be added. The burial ground was reopened on September 16, 1963, and continued operating until it was closed permanently on December 31, 1967. The burial ground received wastes from all of the 300 Area radioactive material handling facilities. The purpose of this document is to characterize the 618-11 solid waste burial ground by describing the site, burial practices, the disposed wastes, and the waste generating facilities. This document provides information showing that kilogram quantities of plutonium were disposed to the drum storage units and caissons, making them transuranic (TRU). Also, kilogram quantities of plutonium and other TRU wastes were disposed to the three trenches, which were previously thought to contain non-TRU wastes. The site burial facilities (trenches, caissons, and drum storage units) should be classified as TRU and the site plutonium inventory maintained at five kilograms. Other fissile wastes were also disposed to the site. Additionally, thousands of curies of mixed fission products were also disposed to the trenches, caissons, and drum storage units. Most of the fission products have decayed over several half-lives, and are at more tolerable levels. Of greater concern, because of their release potential, are TRU radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-240, and Np-237. TRU radionuclides also included slightly enriched 0.95 and 1.25% U-231 from N-Reactor fuel, which add to the fissile content. The 618-11 burial ground is located approximately 100 meters due west of Washington Nuclear Plant No. 2. The burial ground consists of three trenches, approximately 900 feet long, 25 feet deep, and 50 feet wide, running east-west. The trenches constitute 75% of the site area. There are 50 drum storage units (five 55-gallon steel drums welded together

  11. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    The 618-11 (Wye or 318-11) burial ground received transuranic (TRTJ) and mixed fission solid waste from March 9, 1962, through October 2, 1962. It was then closed for 11 months so additional burial facilities could be added. The burial ground was reopened on September 16, 1963, and continued operating until it was closed permanently on December 31, 1967. The burial ground received wastes from all of the 300 Area radioactive material handling facilities. The purpose of this document is to characterize the 618-11 solid waste burial ground by describing the site, burial practices, the disposed wastes, and the waste generating facilities. This document provides information showing that kilogram quantities of plutonium were disposed to the drum storage units and caissons, making them transuranic (TRU). Also, kilogram quantities of plutonium and other TRU wastes were disposed to the three trenches, which were previously thought to contain non-TRU wastes. The site burial facilities (trenches, caissons, and drum storage units) should be classified as TRU and the site plutonium inventory maintained at five kilograms. Other fissile wastes were also disposed to the site. Additionally, thousands of curies of mixed fission products were also disposed to the trenches, caissons, and drum storage units. Most of the fission products have decayed over several half-lives, and are at more tolerable levels. Of greater concern, because of their release potential, are TRU radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-240, and Np-237. TRU radionuclides also included slightly enriched 0.95 and 1.25% U-231 from N-Reactor fuel, which add to the fissile content. The 618-11 burial ground is located approximately 100 meters due west of Washington Nuclear Plant No. 2. The burial ground consists of three trenches, approximately 900 feet long, 25 feet deep, and 50 feet wide, running east-west. The trenches constitute 75% of the site area. There are 50 drum storage units (five 55-gallon steel drums welded together

  12. Hydrology of the solid waste burial ground as related to potential migration of radionuclides, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Jack T.; Robertson, J.B.; Janzer, V.J.; Saindon, L.G.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made (1970-1974) to evaluate the geohydrologic and geochemical controls on subsurface migration of radionuclides from pits and trenches in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) solid waste burial ground and to determine the existence and extent of radionuclide migration from the burial ground. A total of about 1,700 sediment, rock, and water samples were collected from 10 observation wells drilled in and near the burial ground of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, formerly the National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS). Within the burial ground area, the subsurface rocks are composed principally of basalt. Wind- and water-deposited sediments occur at the surface and in beds between the thicker basalt zones. Two principal sediment beds occur at about 110 feet and 240 feet below the land surface. The average thickness of the surficial sedimentary layer is about 15 feet while that of the two principal subsurface layers is 13 and 14 feet, respectively. The water table in the aquifer beneath the burial ground is at a depth of about 580 feet. Fission, activation, and transuranic elements were detected in some of the samples from the 110- and 240-foot sedimentary layers. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Characterization of Bacterial Community Dynamics during the Decomposition of Pig Carcasses in Simulated Soil Burial and Composting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Bo-Min; Kim, Yu Mi; Jeon, Jun Min; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-12-28

    Soil burial is the most widely used disposal method for infected pig carcasses, but composting has gained attention as an alternative disposal method because pig carcasses can be decomposed rapidly and safely by composting. To understand the pig carcass decomposition process in soil burial and by composting, pilot-scale test systems that simulated soil burial and composting were designed and constructed in the field. The envelope material samples were collected using special sampling devices without disturbance, and bacterial community dynamics were analyzed by high-throughput pyrosequencing for 340 days. Based on the odor gas intensity profiles, it was estimated that the active and advanced decay stages were reached earlier by composting than by soil burial. The dominant bacterial communities in the soil were aerobic and/or facultatively anaerobic gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas, Gelidibacter, Mucilaginibacter , and Brevundimonas . However, the dominant bacteria in the composting system were anaerobic, thermophilic, endospore-forming, and/or halophilic gram-positive bacteria such as Pelotomaculum, Lentibacillus, Clostridium , and Caldicoprobacter . Different dominant bacteria played important roles in the decomposition of pig carcasses in the soil and compost. This study provides useful comparative date for the degradation of pig carcasses in the soil burial and composting systems.

  14. Experiments to determine the migration potential for water and contaminants in shallow land-burial facilities: design, emplacement, and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.; Abeele, W.V.; Burton, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    Although there have been many laboratory studies on water movement and contaminant transport, there is a need for more large scale field experiments. Large scale field experiments are necessary to (1) measure hydraulic conductivities on a scale typical of actual shallow land burial facilities and hazardous waste disposal facilities, (2) allow comparisons to be made between full scale and laboratory measurements, (3) verify the applicability of calculational methods for determining unsaturated hydraulic conductivities from water retention curves, and (4) for model validation. Experiments that will provide the information to do this are described in this paper. The results of these experiments will have applications for both the shallow land burial of low level radioactive wastes and the disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. These experiments will provide results that can be used in model verification for system performance. This type of data on experiments done at this scale has not been available, and are necessary for validating unsaturated transport models and other models used to predict long term system performance. Even though these experiments are done on crushed Bandelier Tuff, most models use physical properties of the backfill material such as density, porosity, and water retention curves. For this reason, once the models are validated in these experiments, they can be applied with confidence to other materials as long as the material properties are well characterized. In addition, from known water movement rates, calculable from the results of these experiments, requirements for other parts of the system such as liners, water diversion systems, and system cap requirements can be determined. Lastly, the results of these experiments and their use in model verification will provide a sound scientific basis on which to base decisions on system requirements and system design

  15. State workshop on shallow land burial and alternative disposal concepts: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    Three of the major conclusions reached by state participants were the following: (1) Significant data gaps and information needs have to be addressed before timely state decisionmaking can be accomplished. State participants felt a generic cost/risk/benefit analysis for all viable alternatives would be useful and might best be performed by the federal government on behalf of the states. (2) Recognizing the imprecision in summarizing overall attitudes of the workshop participants, alternative disposal concepts that appear to be the most favorably perceived when rank ordered by critical factors are augered holes with liners, belowground vaults, earth mounded concrete bunkers, aboveground vaults and mined cavities. (3) The public appears to place greater confidence in disposal methods that incorporate man-made engineered barriers because of some past problems at closed shallow land burial facilities. Concern was expressed by workshop participants that the public may not consider the perceived risks associated with shallow land burial to be acceptable. In addition to the four 10 CFR Part 61, Subpart C performance objectives, public acceptance of risk was considered to be a critical factor by state officials in selecting a disposal technology. The states should take the lead in pursuing development-oriented analyses, such as detailed concept engineering and economic feasibility studies. It is not within the purview of NRC responsibility to undertake such studies

  16. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, William B; Nelson, Peter N; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  17. Do ENSO and Coastal Development Enhance Coastal Burial of Terrestrial Carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macreadie, Peter I; Rolph, Timothy C; Boyd, Ron; Schröder-Adams, Claudia J; Skilbeck, Charles G

    2015-01-01

    Carbon cycling on the east coast of Australia has the potential to be strongly affected by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) intensification and coastal development (industrialization and urbanization). We performed paleoreconstructions of estuarine sediments from a seagrass-dominated estuary on the east coast of Australia (Tuggerah Lake, New South Wales) to test the hypothesis that millennial-scale ENSO intensification and European settlement in Australia have increased the transfer of organic carbon from land into coastal waters. Our data show that carbon accumulation rates within coastal sediments increased significantly during periods of maximum millennial-scale ENSO intensity ("super-ENSO") and coastal development. We suggest that ENSO and coastal development destabilize and liberate terrestrial soil carbon, which, during rainfall events (e.g., La Niña), washes into estuaries and becomes trapped and buried by coastal vegetation (seagrass in this case). Indeed, periods of high carbon burial were generally characterized as having rapid sedimentation rates, higher content of fine-grained sediments, and increased content of wood and charcoal fragments. These results, though preliminary, suggest that coastal development and ENSO intensification--both of which are predicted to increase over the coming century--can enhance capture and burial of terrestrial carbon by coastal ecosystems. These findings have important relevance for current efforts to build an understanding of terrestrial-marine carbon connectivity into global carbon budgets.

  18. Interim Action Proposed Plan for the old radioactive waste burial ground (643-E)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFalls, S.

    1995-12-01

    This Interim Action Proposed (IAPP) is issued by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), which functions as the lead agency for SRS remedial activities, and with concurrence by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The purpose of this IAPP is to describe the preferred interim remedial action for addressing the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground (ORWBG) unit located in the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. On December 21, 1989, SRS was included on the National Priorities List (NPL). In accordance with Section 120 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), DOE has negotiated a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA, 1993) with EPA and SCDHEC to coordinate remedial activities at SRS. Public participation requirements are listed in Sections 113 and 117 of CERCLA. These requirements include establishment of an Administrative Record File that documents the selection of remedial alternatives and allows for review and comment by the public regarding those alternatives. The SRS Public Involvement Plan (PIP) (DOE, 1994) is designed to facilitate public involvement in the decision-making process for permitting closure, and the selection of remedial alternatives. Section 117(a) of CERCLA, 1980, as amended, requires publication of a notice of any proposed remedial action

  19. Computerized methodology for evaluating the long-range radiological impact of shallow-land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Little, C.A.; Emerson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    A computerized methodology has been implemented to calculate the risk to local and intermediate-range (up to 80 km distant) populations resulting from water- and air-borne transport of radionuclides present in low-level wastes buried in shallow trenches such as those used at Oak Ridge. Our computer code, PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations), was developed under United States Environmental Protection Agency funding to evaluate possible health effects resulting from shallow burial operations. Sources of contamination include radionuclide releases from the trenches and from areas contaminated with operational spillage. The model is intended to predict radionuclide transport and the ensuing exposure and health impact to at-risk populations for a 1000-year period following cessation of burial ground operations. Several classes of submodels are used in PRESTO to represent scheduled event, unit system response, and risk evaluation processes. Examples of scheduled events are trench cap failure, stabilization of insoluble surface contaminant, the onset of farming or reclamation practices, and human intrusion. Unit system response submodels simulate processes such as infiltration of rainwater into the trench and erosion of soil overburden from the trench cover. System response submodels generate parameters used repeatedly in the 1000-year simulation loop

  20. Integrated report on radionuclide migration at the Savannah River shallow land burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, O.A. Jr.

    1989-03-01

    The impact of the SRP Solid Radioactive Waste Burial Ground on the environment has been studied since the early 1970s in four subtasks: subsurface monitoring of groundwater, lysimeter tests of waste, soil-water chemistry effects, and radionuclide transport modeling. This document summarizes and integrates the results of the four subtasks. More information has been gathered on the behavior of radionuclides in a solid waste disposal facility located in a humid region than from any other waste disposal site in the world. The design of closure for the SRP Burial Ground has been given a firm technical basis. The limiting pathways for radionuclide migration have been determined to be infiltrating rainwater and root penetration. Closure designs must therefore address both these factors. The designs for new storage/disposal facilities have also been given a firm technical basis. The major conclusions are that tritium will be stored for decay and not allowed to contact the groundwater, waste containing long-lived radionuclides such as iodine-129 must be stored for later geologic disposal, and above and below ground concrete vaults should be used for disposal of other low-level radioactive waste. 61 refs., 18 figs. 8 tabs

  1. Chronology of the Third – Fifth Centuries Male Graves from the Tarasovo Burial Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldina Rimma D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the chronological attribution of male graves from the late Mazunino stage of the Tarasovo burial ground and is a sequel to an earlier article about dating of the early Nyrgynda stage (1st – 2nd centuries of the same site. The three main methods employed in this research include those of formal typology, cultural stratigraphy and the nearest neighbor method. Eighty-six male graves of the third-fifth centuries were analyzed, with 12 identified as a result: first half of the 3rd c. AD (group 1, second half of the 3rd c. AD (2; 3rd c. (3; first half of the 4th c. (group 4; second half of the 3rd – 4th c. (5; third quarter of the 4th c. (6; fourth quarter of the 4th c. (group 7; second half of the 4th c. (8; second half of the 4th – 5th c. (9; 4th – 5th cc. (10; second half of the 3rd – 5th cc. (11 and 3rd – 5th cc. (12. This article minutes investigates the first six groups, while the rest will be covered in the next publication. Artifacts form the third – fifth century female graves of the Tarasovo burial ground will be studied separately.

  2. Experimental burial inhibits methanogenesis and anaerobic decomposition in water-saturated peats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodau, Christian; Siems, Melanie; Beer, Julia

    2011-12-01

    A mechanistic understanding of carbon (C) sequestration and methane (CH(4)) production is of great interest due to the importance of these processes for the global C budget. Here we demonstrate experimentally, by means of column experiments, that burial of water saturated, anoxic bog peat leads to inactivation of anaerobic respiration and methanogenesis. This effect can be related to the slowness of diffusive transport of solutes and evolving energetic constraints on anaerobic respiration. Burial lowered decomposition constants in homogenized peat sand mixtures from about 10(-5) to 10(-7) yr(-1), which is considerably slower than previously assumed, and methanogenesis slowed down in a similar manner. The latter effect could be related to acetoclastic methanogenesis approaching a minimum energy quantum of -25 kJ mol(-1) (CH(4)). Given the robustness of hydraulic properties that locate the oxic-anoxic boundary near the peatland surface and constrain solute transport deeper into the peat, this effect has likely been critical for building the peatland C store and will continue supporting long-term C sequestration in northern peatlands even under moderately changing climatic conditions.

  3. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived from the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. This volume contains the main text. Volume 2 contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text. This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report are the preliminary interpretations of the hydrogeologic environment of six low-level burial grounds, which comprise four waste management areas (WMAs) located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretations were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the construction of 35 ground-water monitoring wells as well as a multitude of previously existing boreholes. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a ground-water monitoring program initiated in 1986. This ground-water monitoring program is based on requirements for interim status facilities in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976).

  4. Modeling the flow of water in and around shallow burial trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suen, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Water flow through a generic low-level waste burial trench has been modeled for a vertical cross-section perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of an elongated trenched, using the finite element code, FEMWATER, in two-dimensional vertical mode. The grid consists of 513 nodes and 468 variable-size quadrilateral elements, and the simulation domain is about 56 m (H) /times/ 34 m (V). The traench, which is situated in the unsaturated zone, measures approximately 28 m wide and 10 m deep in cross-section, and is composed of three types of soil - a high-conductivity gravel cap on top, a low-conductivity clay layer beneath it, and backfill soil in the waste burial region. The rest of the domain is made up of undisturbed soil. Different cases have been simulated by varying boundary conditions, geometry and hydraulic properties. These results are used in radionuclide transport calculations to determine the ''source term'' (4). In addition, numerical experiments provide valuable information in trench design, such as, the geometry of the moisture barrier. Results from these experiments indicates that a moderate extension (8 m) of the clay layer beyond the sides of the trench can significantly reduce the net water flow (by 42%). They also show that sparsely distributed waste package have minimal effect on the net flow through the trench. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Legacy of human-induced C erosion and burial on soil-atmosphere C exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oost, Kristof; Verstraeten, Gert; Doetterl, Sebastian; Notebaert, Bastiaan; Wiaux, François; Broothaerts, Nils; Six, Johan

    2012-11-20

    Carbon exchange associated with accelerated erosion following land cover change is an important component of the global C cycle. In current assessments, however, this component is not accounted for. Here, we integrate the effects of accelerated C erosion across point, hillslope, and catchment scale for the 780-km(2) Dijle River catchment over the period 4000 B.C. to A.D. 2000 to demonstrate that accelerated erosion results in a net C sink. We found this long-term C sink to be equivalent to 43% of the eroded C and to have offset 39% (17-66%) of the C emissions due to anthropogenic land cover change since the advent of agriculture. Nevertheless, the erosion-induced C sink strength is limited by a significant loss of buried C in terrestrial depositional stores, which lagged the burial. The time lag between burial and subsequent loss at this study site implies that the C buried in eroded terrestrial deposits during the agricultural expansion of the last 150 y cannot be assumed to be inert to further destabilization, and indeed might become a significant C source. Our analysis exemplifies that accounting for the non-steady-state C dynamics in geomorphic active systems is pertinent to understanding both past and future anthropogenic global change.

  6. Legacy of human-induced C erosion and burial on soil–atmosphere C exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oost, Kristof; Verstraeten, Gert; Doetterl, Sebastian; Notebaert, Bastiaan; Wiaux, François; Broothaerts, Nils; Six, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Carbon exchange associated with accelerated erosion following land cover change is an important component of the global C cycle. In current assessments, however, this component is not accounted for. Here, we integrate the effects of accelerated C erosion across point, hillslope, and catchment scale for the 780-km2 Dijle River catchment over the period 4000 B.C. to A.D. 2000 to demonstrate that accelerated erosion results in a net C sink. We found this long-term C sink to be equivalent to 43% of the eroded C and to have offset 39% (17–66%) of the C emissions due to anthropogenic land cover change since the advent of agriculture. Nevertheless, the erosion-induced C sink strength is limited by a significant loss of buried C in terrestrial depositional stores, which lagged the burial. The time lag between burial and subsequent loss at this study site implies that the C buried in eroded terrestrial deposits during the agricultural expansion of the last 150 y cannot be assumed to be inert to further destabilization, and indeed might become a significant C source. Our analysis exemplifies that accounting for the non–steady-state C dynamics in geomorphic active systems is pertinent to understanding both past and future anthropogenic global change. PMID:23134723

  7. Chronology of the 1st–2nd Century Graves from the Tarasovo Burial Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldina Rimma D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the chronology of graves dating back to the early (1st – 2nd centuries AD – Nyrgynda stage of the 1st – 5th century Tarasovo burial ground, a classical monument attributed to the Cheganda culture of the Pyany Bor cultural-historical community. Cultural stratigraphy is applied as a research method. Artifacts from the early stage were correlated for 37 male and 102 female complexes, separately. The analysis of grave goods from male burials showed the following three chronological groups, that can be distinguished at the Nyrgynda stage: 1st century (group 1, 2nd century (group 2 and 1st – 2nd centuries AD (group 3. The goods from female graves are more representative and various, so three more groups with shorter chronological lives can be singled out: the fi rst half of the 2nd century (group 2а, the second half of the 2nd century (group 2б and the 1st – fi rst half of the 2nd century (group 4. Certainly, the suggested chronology leaves room for any eventual corrections subject to new findings.

  8. Constraining Marsh Carbon Budgets Using Long-Term C Burial and Contemporary Atmospheric CO2 Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbrich, I.; Giblin, A. E.; Hopkinson, C. S.

    2018-03-01

    Salt marshes are sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide that respond to environmental changes related to sea level rise and climate. Here we assess how climatic variations affect marsh-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide in the short term and compare it to long-term burial rates based on radiometric dating. The 5 years of atmospheric measurements show a strong interannual variation in atmospheric carbon exchange, varying from -104 to -233 g C m-2 a-1 with a mean of -179 ± 32 g C m-2 a-1. Variation in these annual sums was best explained by differences in rainfall early in the growing season. In the two years with below average rainfall in June, both net uptake and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index were less than in the other three years. Measurements in 2016 and 2017 suggest that the mechanism behind this variability may be rainfall decreasing soil salinity which has been shown to strongly control productivity. The net ecosystem carbon balance was determined as burial rate from four sediment cores using radiometric dating and was lower than the net uptake measured by eddy covariance (mean: 110 ± 13 g C m-2 a-1). The difference between these estimates was significant and may be because the atmospheric measurements do not capture lateral carbon fluxes due to tidal exchange. Overall, it was smaller than values reported in the literature for lateral fluxes and highlights the importance of investigating lateral C fluxes in future studies.

  9. Evaluating biological transport of radionuclides at low-level waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, L.L.; Kennedy, W.E.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of the work reported here is to develop and demonstrate methods for evaluating the long-term impact of biological processes at low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites. As part of this effort, we developed order-of-magnitude estimates of dose-to-man resulting from animal burrowing activity and plant translocation of radionuclides. Reference low-level waste sites in both arid and humid areas of the United States were examined. The results of our evaluation for generalized arid LLW burial site are presented here. Dose-to-man estimates resulting from biotic transport are compared with doses calculated from human intrusion exposure scenarios. Dose-to-man estimates, as a result of biotic transport, are of the same order of magnitude as those resulting from a more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at LLW sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by our findings. These results indicate that biotic transport has the long-term potential to mobilize radionuclides. Therefore, biotic transport should be carefully evaluated during burial site assessment

  10. Siting, design and cost of shallow land burial facilities in northern New England. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    This study investigated the technical feasibility and cost of shallow land burial (SLB) as one low-level radioactive waste disposal option for Maine and the northern New England states of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. The results are presented in five chapters addressing the licensing process for an SLB facility, the siting process, the engineering design, the cost of disposal, and the cost of transportation. Chapter 2 reviews the Federal and State licensing processes and requirements for development of an SLB facility. Included in this discussion are the stages in the life cycle of SLB facility. Chapter 3 provides site selection criteria for Maine and presents a proposed site selection methodology. The site selection criteria are defined and the reasoning behind their selection is explained. Chapter 4 discusses SLB trench and facility designs and costs. To accommodate different waste volume scenarios, differently sized facilities are discussed, representing Maine going-it-alone and a northern New England compact. Designs and costs of scenarios including nuclear power plant decommissioning wastes are also discussed. Cost estimates of licensing, facility construction, operation, closure, and post closure care are presented for the different waste volume scenarios. Chapter 5 presents estimates of what it would cost LLW generators to dispose of their waste in a Maine-only or a northern New England shallow land burial facility. The reliability of the estimates and their sensitivity to changes in waste volume are also discussed. Chapter 6 examines transportation costs

  11. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of Six 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludowise, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    This report provides the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of six solid waste disposal sites (referred to as burial grounds) located in the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit (OU) on the Hanford Site. These six sites (618-1, 618-2, 618-3, 618-7, 618-8, and 618-13 Burial Grounds) were determined to have a total radionuclide inventory (WCH 2005a, WCH 2005d, WCH 2005e and WCH 2006b) that exceeds the DOE-STD-1027 Category 3 threshold quantity (DOE 1997) and are the subject of this analysis. This FHC document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the FHC and commitments for the 300-FF-2 Burial Grounds Remediation Project

  12. Effect of phosphogypsum on workers and population`s radiation exposure in vicinity of phosphogypsum waste burial site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, I; Hushari, M; Raja, G; Sawaf, A M [Atomic Energy Commission, Dept. of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1997-05-01

    The phosphogypsum waste burial site was studied in more details of radiation viewpoint. This waste results from phosphate industry. The study covered ground water, nearby houses, air and emission rates of radon from this waste burial site. Results showed increasing of radiation exposure in the studied site and nearby area for both workers and population. Fortunately, this area was studied before instruction of the waste burial site. So it was easy to compare the new results with the previous ones and see the difference. Indoor radon concentration increased about 70%. Results also showed high emission rates which result in significant dose. The site needs continuous monitoring because the amount of phosphogypsum is increasing. Also groundwater should be monitored continuously to see the effect of the waste in the future if it happened. (author). 5 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of Six 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Ludowise

    2006-12-12

    This report provides the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of six solid waste disposal sites (referred to as burial grounds) located in the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit (OU) on the Hanford Site. These six sites (618-1, 618-2, 618-3, 618-7, 618-8, and 618-13 Burial Grounds) were determined to have a total radionuclide inventory (WCH 2005a, WCH 2005d, WCH 2005e and WCH 2006b) that exceeds the DOE-STD-1027 Category 3 threshold quantity (DOE 1997) and are the subject of this analysis. This FHC document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the FHC and commitments for the 300-FF-2 Burial Grounds Remediation Project.

  14. Surface erosion and hydrology of earth covers used in shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bent, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    Shallow land burial is the current method of disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the United States. The most serious technical problems encountered in shallow land burial are water-related. Water is reported to come into contact with the waste by erosion of earth covers or through infiltration of precipitation through the earth covers. The objectives of this study were to: compare and evaluate the effects of crested wheatgrass and streambank wheatgrass on surface erosion of simulated earth covers at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), characterize the surface hydrology, and estimate cumulative soil loss for average and extreme rainfall events and determine if the waste will become exposed during its burial life due to erosion. 30 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs

  15. Effects of sediment burial disturbance on macro and microelement dynamics in decomposing litter of Phragmites australis in the coastal marsh of the Yellow River estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhigao; Mou, Xiaojie

    2016-03-01

    From April 2008 to November 2009, a field decomposition experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sediment burial on macro (C, N) and microelement (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Mn) variations in decomposing litter of Phragmites australis in the coastal marsh of the Yellow River estuary. Three one-off sediment burial treatments [no sediment burial (0 mm year(-1), S0), current sediment burial (100 mm year(-1), S10), and strong sediment burial (200 mm year(-1), S20)] were laid in different decomposition sites. Results showed that sediment burials showed significant influence on the decomposition rate of P. australis, in the order of S10 (0.001990 day(-1)) ≈ S20 (0.001710 day(-1)) > S0 (0.000768 day(-1)) (p macro and microelement in decomposing litters of the three burial depths exhibited different temporal variations except for Cu, Zn, and Ni. No significant differences in C, N, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Mn concentrations were observed among the three burial treatments except for Cu and Ni (p > 0.05). With increasing burial depth, N, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Mn concentrations generally increased, while C, Pb, and Zn concentrations varied insignificantly. Sediment burial was favorable for C and N release from P. australis, and, with increasing burial depth, the C release from litter significantly increased, and the N in litter shifted from accumulation to release. With a few exceptions, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Mn stocks in P. australis in the three treatments evidenced the export of metals from litter to environment, and, with increasing burial depth, the export amounts increased greatly. Stocks of Cu and Ni in P. australis in the S10 and S20 treatments were generally positive, evidencing incorporation of the two metals in most sampling times. Except for Ni, the variations of C, N, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Mn stocks in P. australis in the S10 and S20 treatments were approximated, indicating that the strong burial episodes (S20) occurred in P. australis marsh in the future

  16. Multiple episodes of dolomitization and dolomite recrystallization during shallow burial in Upper Jurassic shelf carbonates: eastern Swabian Alb, southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, C.

    1998-10-01

    The Upper Jurassic of the eastern Swabian Alb is composed of oolitic platform sands with associated microbe-siliceous sponge mounds at the platform margins. They are surrounded by argillaceous or calcareous mudstones and marl-limestone alternations, deposited in adjacent marl basins. Partial to complete dolomitization is predominantly confined to the mound facies. Six types of dolomite, as well as one type of ankerite, document a complex diagenetic history during shallow burial with multiple episodes of dolomite formation and recrystallization. The earliest massive matrix dolomitization is Ca-rich, has slightly depleted oxygen isotope values relative to Late Jurassic seawater, and carbon isotopic values in equilibrium with Late Jurassic seawater. This initial massive matrix dolomitization occurred during latest Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous and is related to pressure dissolution during very shallow burial at temperatures of at least 50°C. Hydrologic conditions and mass-balance calculations indicate that burial compaction provided sufficient fluids for dolomitization. Mg is derived from negligibly modified seawater, that was expelled from the adjacent off-reef strata into the mound facies. Position of the mounds along the platform margins controlled the distribution of the shallow-burial dolomite. Covariant trends between textural modification, increasing stoichiometry, partial changes in trace element content (Mn, Fe, Sr) and depletion in stable isotopes as well as distinctive CL pattern illustrate two recrystallization phases of the precursor matrix dolomite during further burial at elevated temperatures. Strong Sr enrichment of the second phase of recrystallized dolomite is ascribed to Sr-rich meteoric waters descending from overlying aragonite-bearing reef limestones or evaporite-bearing peritidal carbonates. Late-stage coarsely crystalline dolomite cements occur as vug and fracture fillings and formed during burial. Ankerite, associated with sulphide and

  17. Long-term sequential monitoring of controlled graves representing common burial scenarios with ground penetrating radar: Years 2 and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, John J.; Walter, Brittany S.; Healy, Carrie

    2016-09-01

    Geophysical techniques such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have been successfully used for forensic searches to locate clandestine graves and physical evidence. However, additional controlled research is needed to fully understand the applicability of this technology when searching for clandestine graves in various environments, soil types, and for longer periods of time post-burial. The purpose of this study was to determine the applicability of GPR for detecting controlled graves in a Spodosol representing multiple burial scenarios for Years 2 and 3 of a three-year monitoring period. Objectives included determining how different burial scenarios are factors in producing a distinctive anomalous response; determining how different GPR imagery options (2D reflection profiles and horizontal time slices) can provide increased visibility of the burials; and comparing GPR imagery between 500 MHz and 250 MHz dominant frequency antennae. The research site contained a grid with eight graves representing common forensic burial scenarios in a Spodosol, a common soil type of Florida, with six graves containing a pig carcass (Sus scrofa). Burial scenarios with grave items (a deep grave with a layer of rocks over the carcass and a carcass wrapped in a tarpaulin) produced a more distinctive response with clearer target reflections over the duration of the monitoring period compared to naked carcasses. Months with increased precipitation were also found to produce clearer target reflections than drier months, particularly during Year 3 when many grave scenarios that were not previously visible became visible after increased seasonal rainfall. Overall, the 250 MHz dominant frequency antenna imagery was more favorable than the 500 MHz. While detection of a simulated grave may be difficult to detect over time, long term detection of a grave in a Spodosol may be possible if the disturbed spodic horizon is detected. Furthermore, while grave visibility increased with the 2D

  18. Searching for the IRA "disappeared": ground-penetrating radar investigation of a churchyard burial site, Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair

    2005-11-01

    A search for the body of a victim of terrorist abduction and murder was made in a graveyard on the periphery of a major conurbation in Northern Ireland. The area is politically sensitive and the case of high profile. This required non-invasive, completely non-destructive and rapid assessment of the scene. A MALA RAMAC ground-penetrating radar system was used to achieve these objectives. Unprocessed and processed 400 MHz data show the presence of a collapse feature above and around a known 1970s burial with no similar collapse above the suspect location. In the saturated, clay-rich sediments of the site, 200 MHz data offered no advantage over 400 MHz data. Unprocessed 100 MHz data shows a series of multiples in the known burial with no similar features in the suspect location. Processed 100 MHz lines defined the shape of the collapse around the known burial to 2 m depth, together with the geometry of the platform (1 m depth) the gravedigger used in the 1970s to construct the site. In addition, processed 100 MHz data showed both the dielectric contrast in and internal reflection geometry of the soil imported above the known grave. Thus the sequence, geometry, difference in infill and infill direction of the grave was reconstructed 30 years after burial. The suspect site showed no evidence of shallow or deep inhumation. Subsequently, the missing person's body was found some distance from this site, vindicating the results and interpretation from ground-penetrating radar. The acquisition, processing, collapse feature and sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the known burial and empty (suspect) burial site may be useful proxies for other, similar investigations. GPR was used to evaluate this site within 3 h of the survey commencing, using unprocessed data. An additional day of processing established that the suspect body did not reside here, which was counter to police and community intelligence.

  19. Options for the destruction of chemical weapons and management of the associated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Ron G

    2006-09-01

    The destruction of chemical weapons is a hazardous operation. The degree of hazard posed, however, is not uniform and is dependent on the specific chemical agent and the configuration of the weapon or bulk storage vessel in which it is contained. For example, a highly volatile nerve agent in an explosively configured munition, such as a rocket, poses a very different hazard from that of a bulk storage container of viscous mustard gas. Equally the handling of recovered, often highly corroded, World War (WW)I or WWII chemical munitions will pose a very different hazard from that associated with dealing with modern chemical weapons stored under the appropriate conditions. Over the years, a number of technologies have been developed for the destruction of chemical weapons. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. None of them provide a universal solution to the problem. When assessing options for the destruction of these weapons and the management of the associated risks, therefore, it is important to give due consideration and weight to these differences. To ensure that the destruction technology selected takes due account of them and that the resulting overall risk assessment accurately reflects the actual risks involved.

  20. Treatment/Disposal Plan for Drummed Waste from the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, 618-4 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this plan is to support selection of a safe, environmentally responsible, and cost-effective treatment and disposal method for drums containing depleted uranium metal chips submerged in oil that have been and will be excavated from the 618-4 Burial Ground. Remediation of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, 618-4 Burial Ground was initiated in fiscal year (FY) 1998 as an excavation and removal operation. Routine processes were established to excavate and ship contaminated soil and debris to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) for disposal

  1. Procedures and technology for shallow-land burial. Low-level radioactive-waste-management handbook series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    This handbook provides technical information on the requirements, activities, and the roles of all parties involved in the development and operation of new shallow land burial facilities for disposal of low-level radioactive waste. It presents an overview of site selection, design, construction, operation, and closure. Low-level waste shallow land burial practices and new technology applications are described. The handbook is intended to provide a basis for understanding the magnitude and complexity of developing new low-level waste disposal facilities

  2. Arsenal of democracy in the face of change: Precision Guided Munitions (PGMs), their evolution and some economic considerations, Working Paper No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.

    1990-08-01

    A brief study was made of some of the forces driving the move to Precision Guided Munitions (PGMs), including the quest for military effectiveness, combat experience, and logistic compression. PGMs cost from a few hundred to a few thousand dollars per Kg but are tens to hundreds of times more effective than conventional munitions. A year's peacetime plateau production of each US PGM can be carried by a few C-5 aircraft. Surge quantities of PGMs are within US airlift capabilities, taking some of the risk out of off-shore procurement. The improving capability of antiaircraft PGMs and the escalating cost of combat aircraft (50 to 100-fold in constant dollars since WW II) may bring into question the economic viability of manned attack aircraft. The same may be true to a slightly lesser degree for heavy armored vehicles. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. Understanding the Burial and Migration Characteristics of Deep Geothermal Water Using Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Inorganic Carbon Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal water samples taken from deep aquifers within the city of Kaifeng at depths between 800 and 1650 m were analyzed for conventional water chemical compositions and stable isotopes. These results were then combined with the deuterium excess parameter (d value, and the contribution ratios of different carbon sources were calculated along with distributional characteristics and data on the migration and transformation of geothermal water. These results included the conventional water chemical group, hydrogen, and oxygen isotopes (δD-δ18O, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and associated isotopes (δ13CDIC. The results of this study show that geothermal water in the city of Kaifeng is weakly alkaline, water chemistry mostly comprises a HCO3-Na type, and the range of variation of δD is between −76.12‰ and −70.48‰, (average: −74.25‰, while the range of variation of δ18O is between −11.08‰ and −9.41‰ (average: −10.15‰. Data show that values of d vary between 1.3‰ and 13.3‰ (average: 6.91‰, while DIC content is between 91.523 and 156.969 mg/L (average: 127.158 mg/L. The recorded range of δ13CDIC was between −10.160‰ and −6.386‰ (average: −9.019‰. The results presented in this study show that as depth increases, so do δD and δ18O, while d values decrease and DIC content and δ13CDIC gradually increase. Thus, δD, δ18O, d values, DIC, and δ13CDIC can all be used as proxies for the burial characteristics of geothermal water. Because data show that the changes in d values and DIC content are larger along the direction of geothermal water flow, so these proxies can be used to indicate migration. This study also shows demonstrates that the main source of DIC in geothermal water is CO2thathas a biological origin in soils, as well as the dissolution of carbonate minerals in surrounding rocks. Thus, as depth increases, the contribution of soil biogenic carbon sources to DIC decreases while the influence

  4. Transuranic element uptake and cycling in a forest over an old burial ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E.; Tuckfield, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    The consequences of returning the Savannah River Site (SRS) burial ground area to general public access at the time of completion of the SRS mission is being investigated. This study was established with the objective of determining the uptake of buried, low-level, transuranic waste from unlined earthen trenches by forest vegetation. From SRS startup in 1953 through 1974, solid waste contaminated with α-emitting transuranic nuclides was buried, unencapsulated, in earthen trenches. Burial records show that this material includes plutonium-238 ( 238 Pu), plutonium isotopes 239 and 240 ( 239,240 Pu), americium-241 ( 241 Am), and neptunium-237 ( 237 Np). In 1979, two tree plots were established, one over a trench in the burial ground and the other in an area without trenches. In the 2 years following establishment of the tree plots, 1979 and 1980, whole trees of each species were collected from each plot and analyzed for 239 Pu and 238 Pu. Beginning in 1986, needle samples were collected from selected pine trees in each of the plots. Because of poor growth and survival, the hardwood trees were not sampled after 1980. The results of data analysis support the conclusions that: (1) there is more 238 Pu uptake by pine tree seedlings than the other species, (2) there is greater transuranic radionuclide uptake in grown pine trees than in seedlings, and (3) there are greater concentrations of transuranic radionuclides in the grown pine trees on the trench plots than in the pine trees on the control plot. These data indicate that tree roots will extract transuranic isotopes from buried, low level waste. The amount of radioisotopes moved from the trenches to the surface is small and the level in the trees is low enough that dose from direct exposure will be very small. A model was developed to estimate the potential for the transfer from the SRS alpha trenches. The results suggest that even following 100 years of transport, the transuranic, alpha dose from consuming food crops

  5. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-W. Shao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the “colour change” of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the “colure change” is used to evaluate the “real” surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The“Lingdao man No.1”, is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P. excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by

  6. Phanerozoic burial, uplift and denudation of the Equatorial Atlantic margin of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Bonow, Johan M.; Green, Paul F.; dall'Asta, Massimo; Roig, Jean-Yves; Theveniaut, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    We have initiated a study aimed at understanding the history of burial, uplift and denudation of the South American Equatorial Atlantic Margin (SAEAM Uplift) including the Guiana Shield to provide a framework for investigating the hydrocarbon prospectivity of the offshore region. We report first results including observations from fieldwork at the northern and southern flank of the Guiana Shield. The study combines apatite fission-track analysis (AFTA) and vitrinite reflectance data from samples of outcrops and drillcores, sonic velocity data from drill holes and stratigraphic landscape analysis (mapping of peneplains) - all constrained by geological evidence, following the methods of Green et al. (2013). The study will thus combine the thermal history from AFTA data with the denudation history from stratigraphic landscape analysis to provide magnitudes and timing of vertical movements (Japsen et al. 2012, 2016). Along the Atlantic margin of Suriname and French Guiana, tilted and truncated Lower Cretaceous strata rest on Precambrian basement (Sapin et al. 2016). Our AFTA data show that the basement underwent Mesozoic exhumation prior to deposition of the Lower Cretaceous cover. Sub-horizontal peneplains define the landscape of the Guiana Shield at elevations up to 500 m a.s.l. As these sub-horizontal peneplains truncate the tilted, sub-Cretaceous surface along the Atlantic margin, these peneplains were therefore formed and uplifted in post-Cretaceous time. This interpretation is in good agreement with our AFTA data that define Paleogene exhumation along the margin and with the results of Theveniaut and Freyssinet (2002) who used palaeomagnetic data to conclude that bauxitic surfaces across basement at up to 400 m a.s.l. on the Guiana Shield formed during the Palaeogene. Integration of the results from AFTA with stratigraphic landscape analysis (currently in progress) and geological evidence will provide a robust reconstruction of the tectonic development of the

  7. Technology development for the design of shallow land burial facilities at arid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.V.; Cokal, E.J.; Perkins, B.A.; Lane, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The field research program involving technology development for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Field tests of biointrusion barriers at waste disposal sites and in experimental plots at Los Alamos are reported. Results of completed and on-going experiments with migration barriers for water and contaminant movement are presented. An envelope wick experiment for subsurface water management is described, and preliminary field data are reported. An integrated field experiment was designed to test individual SLB component tests related to erosion control, biobarriers, and subsurface capillary and migration barriers, and the progress made in emplacing the experiment is presented. Efforts to utilize the field data collected to validate hydrologic models (TRACR3D) important to waste management strategies are also presented. 11 references, 14 figures, 1 table

  8. Habitat requirements and burrowing depths of rodents in relation to shallow waste burial sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gano, K.A.; States, J.B.

    1982-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the literature and summarize information on factors affecting habitat selection and maximum recorded burrowing depths for representative small mammals that we consider most likely to inhibit waste burial sites in arid and semi-arid regions of the West. The information is intended for waste management designers who need to know what to expect from small mammals that may be present at a particular site. Waste repositories oculd be designed to exclude the deep burrowing rodents of a region by creating an unattractive habitat over the waste. Summaries are given for habitat requirements of each group along with generalized modifications that could be employed to deter habitation. Representatives from the major groups considered to be deep burrowers are discussed. Further, detailed information about a particular species can be obtained from the references cited.

  9. Habitat requirements and burrowing depths of rodents in relation to shallow waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gano, K.A.; States, J.B.

    1982-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the literature and summarize information on factors affecting habitat selection and maximum recorded burrowing depths for representative small mammals that we consider most likely to inhibit waste burial sites in arid and semi-arid regions of the West. The information is intended for waste management designers who need to know what to expect from small mammals that may be present at a particular site. Waste repositories oculd be designed to exclude the deep burrowing rodents of a region by creating an unattractive habitat over the waste. Summaries are given for habitat requirements of each group along with generalized modifications that could be employed to deter habitation. Representatives from the major groups considered to be deep burrowers are discussed. Further, detailed information about a particular species can be obtained from the references cited

  10. Waste analysis plan for the low-level burial grounds. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste 5 acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall 6 processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for disposal at the Low-Level 7 Burial Grounds (LLBG), which are located in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of 8 the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not 9 include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of 10 mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. 11 The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. The 12 LLBG also receive low-level radioactive waste for disposal. The requirements 13 of this WAP are not applicable to this low-level waste

  11. Millennial-scale variability in Holocene aquatic productivity from Burial Lake, Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenbinder, Matthew S.; Abbott, Mark B.; Stoner, Joseph S.; Ortiz, Joseph D.; Finney, Bruce P.; Dorfman, Jason M.; Stansell, Nathan D.

    2018-05-01

    Holocene records of lacustrine primary production are commonly used to reconstruct past changes in environmental and climatic conditions. While several methods exist to infer paleoproductivity trends, few studies to date have applied multiple geochemical indices in the same core sequence from Arctic lakes to evaluate their fidelity and sensitivity to specific climate variables over long (Holocene length) timescales. In this study, we evaluate sub-century to millennial-scale fluctuations in paleoproductivity over the Holocene using geochemical (biogenic opal and sedimentary chlorin) analyses of sediments from Burial Lake in the western Brooks Range, Alaska. Large fluctuations in opal and related proxies occur at millennial timescales over the last 10,000 years. We interpret the changes in opal to result from variability in diatom productivity, which is indirectly mediated by climate primarily through changes in the duration of the ice-free growing season and the availability of limiting nutrients at this oligotrophic, tundra lake. Comparison of the opal and sedimentary chlorin record, which is correlated with TOC, shows contrasting patterns on both short (century to multi-century) and relatively long (millennial) time scales. The concentration of opal far exceeds that of TOC and variations in sediment dry bulk density, driven by changes in the accumulation of opal, are likely responsible in part for the variations in sedimentary chlorin. Further, C/N ratio values indicate a mixed algal-terrestrial source of sedimentary organic matter. This result highlights the complexity in the climatic interpretation of sedimentary chlorin as an index of whole lake production, because the signal is prone to dilution/concentration from opal and also reflects a combination of aquatic and terrestrial production. Time series analysis of the productivity records indicates the presence of a significant ∼1500-yr oscillation in opal concentration, which has been found in North Atlantic

  12. Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes. A selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Tappen, J.

    1978-06-01

    The data file was built to provide information support to DOE researchers in the field of low-level radioactive waste disposal and management. The scope of the data base emphasizes studies which deal with the ''old'' Manhattan sites, commercial disposal sites, and the specific parameters which affect the soil and geologic migration of radionuclides. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data base to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the ''Measured Radionuclides'' field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the ''Measured Parameters'' field. The 504 references are rated indicating applicability to shallow land burial technology and whether interpretation is required. Indexes are provided for author, geographic location, title, measured parameters, measured radionuclides, keywords, subject categories, and publication description

  13. Some Questions on the Fixation of Radioisotopes in Connexion with the Problem of their Safe Burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimakov, P. V.; Kulichenko, V. V.

    1960-07-01

    For the safe disposal of radioactive wastes it is essential that they be securely fixed in a suitable material for a long period. This is true regardless of the place or medium chosen for disposal. The chief source of danger in any given 'burial ground' is the threat of possible leakage resulting in the buried radioisotopes being dispersed in the environment. In recent times attention has been primarily directed to the question of disposing of the fission-produced radioisotopes which are formed in large quantities in many-countries during the release of energy through the fission of heavy nuclei in various nuclear power units (reactors). The present paper will discuss certain questions connected with the processing and disposal of wastes containing fission-produced isotopes.

  14. A summary of ecological investigations at the burial ground complex, Savannah River Site - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G.P.; Hartman, G.D.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.; Roach, J.L.; Specht, W.L.; Westbury, H.M.; Wike, L.D.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of three ecological investigations that were conducted in 1994 at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The three topics of study included remote sensing, aquatic toxicity testing, and qualitative surveys of herpetofauna and small mammals. Interim reports from each investigation are included in the appendices (A, B, and C). The objectives of the remote sensing effort were to compile historical aerial photography of the BGC and to develop a land use/cover map of the complex using recent aerial imagery. The goal of the aquatic toxicity testing was to determine if surface waters were toxic to aquatic biota whereas the objectives of the vertebrate surveys were to identify the species diversity and relative abundances of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals inhabiting the study area.

  15. Treatability tests on water from a low-level waste burial ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Lab-scale treatability tests on trench water from a low-level waste burial ground have shown that the water can be successfully treated by existing wastewater treatment plants at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water from the four most highly contaminated trenches that had been identified to date was used in the treatability tests. The softening and ion exchange processes used in the Process Wastewater Treatment Plant removed Sr-90 from the trench water, which was the only radionuclide present at above the discharge limits. The air stripping and activated carbon adsorption processes used in the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant removed volatile and semi-volatile organics, which were the main contaminants in the trench water, to below detection limits. 6 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Development of corrective measures technology for shallow land burial facilities at arid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.V.; Perkins, B.A.; Lane, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The field research program involving corrective measure technologies for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments was measured and compared with similar data from agricultural systems across the United States. Field testing of biointrustion barriers at closed-out waste disposal sites at Los Alamos and in the experimental clusters are reported. The final results of an experiment designed to measure the extent of contaminant transport to the surface of a SLB facility, and the influence of plants on this relationship, are presented. An experiment designed to determine the effects of subsidence on the performance of a cobble-gravel biobarrier system is described and current field data are presented. 11 references, 11 figures, 5 tables

  17. Development of technology for the design of shallow land burial facilities at arid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.V.; Drennon, B.J.; Herrera, W.J.; Lopez, E.A.; Langhorst, G.J.; Stallings, E.A.; Walker, R.D.; Martinez, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Los Alamos field research program involving technology development for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Field data are presented for an integrated field experiment, which was designed to test individual SLB component experiments related to erosion control, biobarriers, and subsurface capillary and migration barriers. Field tests of biointrusion barriers at waste disposal sites and in experimental plots are reported. The results of a joint DOE/NRC experiment to evaluate leaching and transport of sorbing (Cs, Sr, Li) and nonsorbing (I, Br) solutes in sandy silt backfill are presented for steady-state and unsteady-state flow conditions. A capillary barrier experiment performed in a large caisson (3-m diameter, 6.1 m deep) is described and a year's worth of field data is presented

  18. Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes. A selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Tappen, J. (comps.)

    1978-06-01

    The data file was built to provide information support to DOE researchers in the field of low-level radioactive waste disposal and management. The scope of the data base emphasizes studies which deal with the ''old'' Manhattan sites, commercial disposal sites, and the specific parameters which affect the soil and geologic migration of radionuclides. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data base to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the ''Measured Radionuclides'' field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the ''Measured Parameters'' field. The 504 references are rated indicating applicability to shallow land burial technology and whether interpretation is required. Indexes are provided for author, geographic location, title, measured parameters, measured radionuclides, keywords, subject categories, and publication description. (DLC)

  19. Geophysical investigation of trench 4, Burial Ground 218-W-4C, 200 west area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesler, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains the results of a geophysical investigation conducted to characterize Trench 4, located in Burial Ground 218-W-4C, 200 West Area. Trench 4 is where transuranic (TRU) waste is stored. The primary objective of these geophysical investigations was to determine the outer edges of the trench/modules and select locations for plate-bearing tests. The test locations are to be 5 to 8 ft. beyond the edges of the trench. Secondary objectives include differentiating between the different types of waste containers within a given trench, determining the amount of soil cover over the waste containers, and to locate the module boundaries. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) were the methods selected for this investigation

  20. Alternatives to control subsidence at low-level radioactive waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Carlson, R.A.

    1981-09-01

    A substantial quantity of low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes has been interred in shallow land burial structures throughout the United States. Many of these structures (trenches, pits, and landfills) have experienced geotechnical subsidence problems and may require stabilization. Ground surface manifestations of subsidence include: large cracks, basins, and cave-ins. Subsidence is primarily caused by void filling, and physicochemical degradation and solubilization of buried wastes. These surface features represent a potential for increased contamination transport to the biosphere via water, air, biologic, and direct pathways. Engineering alternatives for the reduction of buried waste and matrix materials voids are identified and discussed. The advantages, disadvantages, and costs of each alternative are evaluated. Falling mass, pile driving and in situ incineration engineering alternatives were selected for further development