WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical manufacturing

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Industry Chemicals 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Pt. 63, Subpt. F, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart F of Part 63—Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals Chemical name a CAS No. b Group...

  2. News: Good chemical manufacturing process criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    This news column covers topics relating to manufacturing criteria, machine to machine technology, novel process windows, green chemistry indices, business resilience, immobilized enzymes, and Bt crops.

  3. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of... Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  4. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.20 Section 455.20 Protection of Environment... Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.20 Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. (a) For the purpose of calculating and applying effluent...

  5. 77 FR 4522 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    .... On October 29, 2009 (74 FR 56008), the EPA issued the NESHAP for the nine chemical manufacturing area... requirement in 2011 (76 FR 15308, March 21, 2011). The chemical manufacturing area source categories were... below. 74 FR 56013-56014. In the preamble to the final rule, we noted that the chemical...

  6. 76 FR 13514 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Manufacturing Area Sources AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is... Manufacturing Area Sources. Among the provisions EPA is reconsidering is a requirement that certain affected... published final National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing...

  7. Sustainable Material Selection of Toxic Chemicals in Design and Manufacturing From Human Health Impact Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

    2009-01-01

    Toxic chemicals used in product design and manufacturing are grave concerns due to their significant impact on human health. Sustainable material selections are needed by industry to reduce the overall impact of toxic chemicals in both design and manufacturing. In this paper, we integrate the human health impact assessment into standard material selection process for developing a sustainable material selection metric for decision support in design and manufacturing. A schematic method is pres...

  8. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  9. A Schematic Method for Sustainable Material Selection of Toxic Chemicals in Design and Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Chris Yingchun; David Dornfeld

    2010-01-01

    Toxic chemicals used in product design and manufacturing are grave concerns due to their toxic impact on human health. Implementing sustainable material selection strategies on toxic chemicals can substantially improve the sustainability of products in both design and manufacturing processes. In this paper, a schematic method is presented for characterizing and benchmarking the human health impact of toxic chemicals, as a visual aid to facilitate decision-making in the material selection proc...

  10. Large Scale Manufacture of Catalyst for Making DME Developed by Southwest Chemical Research and Design Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Southwest Chemical Research and Design Institute (SCRDI) after tackling the key technology related with the catalyst for manufacture of DME through gas phase dehydration of methanol has made great breakthroughs in large scale preparation of catalyst for DME production.

  11. Survey of Alternative Feedstocks for Commodity Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Robinson, Sharon M [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    The current high prices for petroleum and natural gas have spurred the chemical industry to examine alternative feedstocks for the production of commodity chemicals. High feedstock prices have driven methanol and ammonia production offshore. The U.S. Chemical Industry is the largest user of natural gas in the country. Over the last 30 years, alternatives to conventional petroleum and natural gas feedstocks have been developed, but have limited, if any, commercial implementation in the United States. Alternative feedstocks under consideration include coal from unconventional processing technologies, such as gasification and liquefaction, novel resources such as biomass, stranded natural gas from unconventional reserves, and heavy oil from tar sands or oil shale. These feedstock sources have been evaluated with respect to the feasibility and readiness for production of the highest volume commodity chemicals in the United States. Sources of organic compounds, such as ethanol from sugar fermentation and bitumen-derived heavy crude are now being primarily exploited for fuels, rather than for chemical feedstocks. Overall, government-sponsored research into the use of alternatives to petroleum feedstocks focuses on use for power and transportation fuels rather than for chemical feedstocks. Research is needed to reduce cost and technical risk. Use of alternative feedstocks is more common outside the United States R&D efforts are needed to make these processes more efficient and less risky before becoming more common domestically. The status of alternative feedstock technology is summarized.

  12. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  13. TREATMENT OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING WASTEWATER FOR REUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research demonstrated the quality of water produced by each step of a state-of-the-art, commercially available process sequence and determined the feasibility and economics of renovating organic chemical watewater for reuse as boiler feedwater or cycle cooling water. The 5-g...

  14. Identification of goat milk powder by manufacturer using multiple chemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Rebecca J; Prosser, Colin G; Wakefield, Joshua W

    2016-02-01

    Concentrations of multiple elements and ratios of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were measured and combined to create a chemical fingerprint of production batches of goat whole milk powder (WMP) produced by different manufacturers. Our objectives were to determine whether or not differences exist in the chemical fingerprint among samples of goat WMP produced at different sites, and assess temporal changes in the chemical fingerprint in product manufactured at one site. In total, 58 samples of goat WMP were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as well as isotope ratio mass spectrometry and a suite of 13 elements (Li, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cs, and Ba), δ(13)C, and δ(15)N selected to create the chemical fingerprint. Differences in the chemical fingerprint of samples between sites and over time were assessed using principal components analysis and canonical analysis of principal coordinates. Differences in the chemical fingerprints of samples between production sites provided a classification success rate (leave-one-out classification) of 98.1%, providing a basis for using the approach to test the authenticity of product manufactured at a site. Within one site, the chemical fingerprint of samples produced at the beginning of the production season differed from those produced in the middle and late season, driven predominantly by lower concentrations of Na, Mg, K, Mn, and Rb, and higher concentrations of Ba and Cu. This observed temporal variability highlights the importance of obtaining samples from throughout the season to ensure a representative chemical fingerprint is obtained for goat WMP from a single manufacturing site. The reconstitution and spray drying of samples from one manufacturer by the other manufacturer enabled the relative influence of the manufacturing process on the chemical fingerprint to be examined. It was found that such reprocessing altered the chemical fingerprint, although the degree of alteration

  15. Effects of the manufacturing parameter and chemical composition on properties of HANA-4 cladding tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Yong; Kim, Yoon Ho; Jang, Hun; Choi, Min Young; Mok, Yong Kyoon [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    KEPCO NF conducted some researches to improve workability of HANA-4 cladding tube. It was changed to TREX outer diameter for increase Q-factor in first pilgering process related to the workability of cladding tube. In general, a increasing Q-factor leads to improvement yield of tubing manufacture in zirconium alloys. And decreasing of amount of alloying element changed cladding properties. The secondary phase particle analysis, the corrosion behavior and the texture were examined for HANA-4 alloys with adjustments of chemical compositions and TREX outer diameter for the purpose of enhancement formability. The precipitate type, size, and distribution of HANA-4 alloy were not changed as the chemical composition and the manufacturing parameters. The corrosion weight gain was decreased with reducing alloying elements, which considered the beneficial effect of reduced tin.

  16. Effects of the manufacturing parameter and chemical composition on properties of HANA-4 cladding tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KEPCO NF conducted some researches to improve workability of HANA-4 cladding tube. It was changed to TREX outer diameter for increase Q-factor in first pilgering process related to the workability of cladding tube. In general, a increasing Q-factor leads to improvement yield of tubing manufacture in zirconium alloys. And decreasing of amount of alloying element changed cladding properties. The secondary phase particle analysis, the corrosion behavior and the texture were examined for HANA-4 alloys with adjustments of chemical compositions and TREX outer diameter for the purpose of enhancement formability. The precipitate type, size, and distribution of HANA-4 alloy were not changed as the chemical composition and the manufacturing parameters. The corrosion weight gain was decreased with reducing alloying elements, which considered the beneficial effect of reduced tin

  17. Post-hoc Analysis on the R&D Capabilities of Chemical and Metallurgical Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Shah Anuar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how internal R&D, external R&D, and patenting affects the behavior of foreign, local, and joint-venture companies operating in manufacturing companies in Malaysia. Different types of manufacturing companies may have different approach in applying their R&D capabilities and patenting activity. The construct of this paper is based on the post-hoc analysis in evaluating how internal R&D, external R&D, and patenting affects the behavior of foreign, local, and joint-venture companies operating in manufacturing companies. This research was conducted using survey questionnaires. 124 companies in chemical and metallurgical manufacturing companies participated in this survey. It was indicated that these three companies behave differently when dealing with internal R&D, external R&D, and patenting. It can be concluded that these three types of companies have a different perspective on applying internal R&D, external R&D, and patenting which is based on their different business strategic direction. It is suggested that in the near future, researchers should concentrate and other types of manufacturing companies or they can involve more sample size in getting better generalization on the behavior of these companies.

  18. Fibre Laser Cutting and Chemical Etching of AZ31 for Manufacturing Biodegradable Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gökhan Demir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnesium-alloy stents shows promise as a less intrusive solution for the treatment of cardiovascular pathologies as a result of the high biocompatibility of the material and its intrinsic dissolution in body fluids. However, in addition to requiring innovative solutions in material choice and design, these stents also require a greater understanding of the manufacturing process to achieve the desired quality with improved productivity. The present study demonstrates the manufacturing steps for the realisation of biodegradable stents in AZ31 magnesium alloy. These steps include laser microcutting with a Q-switched fibre laser for the generation of the stent mesh and subsequent chemical etching for the cleaning of kerf and surface finish. Specifically, for the laser microcutting step, inert and reactive gas cutting conditions were compared. The effect of chemical etching on the reduction in material thickness, as well as on spatter removal, was also evaluated. Prototype stents were produced, and the material composition and surface quality were characterised. The potentialities of combining nanosecond laser microcutting and chemical etching are shown and discussed.

  19. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) / Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) Review and Applicability for Chemical Security Enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iveson, Steven W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Chemical Security Threat Reduction

    2014-11-01

    Global chemical security has been enhanced through the determined use and integration of both voluntary and legislated standards. Many popular standards contain components that specifically detail requirements for the security of materials, facilities and other vital assets. In this document we examine the roll of quality management standards and how they affect the security culture within the institutions that adopt these standards in order to conduct business within the international market place. Good manufacturing practices and good laboratory practices are two of a number of quality management systems that have been adopted as law in many nations. These standards are designed to protect the quality of drugs, medicines, foods and analytical test results in order to provide the world-wide consumer with safe and affective products for consumption. These standards provide no established security protocols and yet manage to increase the security of chemicals, materials, facilities and the supply chain via the effective and complete control over the manufacturing, the global supply chains and testing processes. We discuss the means through which these systems enhance security and how nations can further improve these systems with additional regulations that deal specifically with security in the realm of these management systems. We conclude with a discussion of new technologies that may cause disruption within the industries covered by these standards and how these issues might be addressed in order to maintain or increase the level of security within the industries and nations that have adopted these standards.

  20. Adsorption treatment of oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Wei-Lung, E-mail: wlchou@sunrise.hk.edu.tw [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34, Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Ta [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan Hsien 717, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wen-Chun; Chang, Shih-Yu [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34, Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2010-08-15

    In this study, metal hydroxides generated during electrocoagulation (EC) were used to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by EC. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system for various current densities and temperatures. The COD concentration in the oxide-CMP wastewater was effectively removed and decreased by more than 90%, resulting in a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg L{sup -1}). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process was best described using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities and temperatures. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model predictions matched satisfactorily with the experimental observations. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the COD adsorption of oxide-CMP wastewater on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K.

  1. Adsorption treatment of oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by electrocoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, metal hydroxides generated during electrocoagulation (EC) were used to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by EC. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system for various current densities and temperatures. The COD concentration in the oxide-CMP wastewater was effectively removed and decreased by more than 90%, resulting in a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg L-1). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process was best described using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities and temperatures. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model predictions matched satisfactorily with the experimental observations. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the COD adsorption of oxide-CMP wastewater on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K.

  2. Acid mine drainage treatment using by-products from quicklime manufacturing as neutralization chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarpola, Arja; Hu, Tao; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate whether by-products from quicklime manufacturing could be used instead of commercial quicklime (CaO) or hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2), which are traditionally used as neutralization chemicals in acid mine drainage treatment. Four by-products were studied and the results were compared with quicklime and hydrated lime. The studied by-products were partly burnt lime stored outdoors, partly burnt lime stored in a silo, kiln dust and a mixture of partly burnt lime stored outdoors and dolomite. Present application options for these by-products are limited and they are largely considered waste. Chemical precipitation experiments were performed with the jar test. All the studied by-products removed over 99% of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and approximately 60% of sulphate from acid mine drainage. However, the neutralization capacity of the by-products and thus the amount of by-product needed as well as the amount of sludge produced varied. The results indicated that two out of the four studied by-products could be used as an alternative to quicklime or hydrated lime for acid mine drainage treatment. PMID:25193795

  3. Investigation of reports of sexual dysfunction among male chemical workers manufacturing stilbene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, M.M.; Wegman, D.H.; Greaves, I.A.; Hammond, S.K.; Ellenbecker, M.J.; Spark, R.F.; Smith, E.R. (Univ. of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (USA))

    1990-01-01

    A Health Hazard Evaluation was conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in an area of a large chemical plant that manufactured the stilbene derivative 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, an intermediate used for the production of optical brightening agents. Men employed in the area reported problems with impotence. The study population consisted of 44 men aged 20-57 years (mean age 37) employed in the area at the time of the evaluation. An industrial hygiene investigation, health and work history questionnaire survey, physical examinations, and blood chemistry and serum hormone evaluation were conducted. Fourteen percent of the men reported symptoms of impotence over the preceding 6 or more months, 7% had potency problems of shorter duration, and 7% were not currently impotent but had experienced impotence for 6 or more months in the past; 36% experienced decreased libido, all since beginning work in the production area. Low levels of serum testosterone (less than 350 ng/dl) were observed in 37% of the men. The low serum testosterone concentrations were not accounted for fully by diurnal variation or an effect of rotating shift work. It is suggested that exposures to chemicals possessing estrogenic activity may be related to the observed health effects in these workers.

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV,...

  5. Feasibility of Detecting Byproducts of Chemical Weapons Manufacturing in Environmental Media: A Preliminary Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, L; Reynolds, J G; Koester, C; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; Love, A H; Viani, B E

    2003-03-01

    Quantitative information on the environmental transport and fate of organophosphorus nerve agents has been limited to studies conducted at high concentration representative of acute doses (Munroe et al. 1999). Nerve agents have relatively rapidly degradation rates at acute levels, and first order degradation pathways and half-lives have been characterized. However, similar knowledge is lacking in the open literature on the long-term environmental persistence of nerve agents, their manufacturing precursors and byproducts, and their degradation products, particularly at sub-acute or chronic health levels. Although many recent publications reflect low-level detection methods for chemical weapons signature compounds extracted from a variety of different media (e.g. D'Agostino et al., 2001; Kataoka et al., 2001), little of this work answers questions regarding their adsorptive character and chemical persistence. However, these questions are a central theme to both the detection of illegal chemical weapons manufacturing, as well as determining long-term cleanup needs and health risks associated with potential terrorist acts using such agents. Adsorption onto environmental surfaces can enhance the persistence of organophosphorus compounds, particularly with strong chelators like phosphonic acids. In particular, organophosphorus compound adsorption can lead to irreversible binding (e.g. Aubin and Smith, 1992), and current methods of chemical extraction and solid-state detection are challenged to detect them. This may be particularly true if the adsorbed compound is of a low initial concentration because it may be that the most preferred adsorption sites form the strongest bonds. This is particularly true in mixed media having various adsorption domains that adsorb at different rates (e.g. Weber and Huang, 1996). For high enough initial concentrations, sorption sites become saturated and solvent extraction has a relatively high efficiency. It is no surprise that many

  6. Chemical Manufacturing and Refining Industry Legitimacy: Reflective Management, Trust, Precrisis Communication to Achieve Community Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Robert L; Lee, Jaesub

    2016-06-01

    Calls for emergency right-to-know in the 1980s, and, in the 1990s, risk management planning, motivated U.S. chemical manufacturing and refining industries to operationalize a three-pronged approach to risk minimization and communication: reflective management to increase legitimacy, operational safety programs to raise trust, and community engagement designed to facilitate citizens' emergency response efficacy. To assess these management, operational, and communication initiatives, communities (often through Local Emergency Planning Committees) monitored the impact of such programs. In 2012, the fourth phase of a quasi-longitudinal study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of operational change and community outreach in one bellwether community. This study focuses on legitimacy, trust, and response efficacy to suggest that an industry can earn legitimacy credits by raising its safety and environmental impact standards, by building trust via that change, and by communicating emergency response messages to near residents to raise their response efficacy. As part of its campaign to demonstrate its concern for community safety through research, planning, and implementation of safe operations and viable emergency response systems, this industry uses a simple narrative of risk/emergency response-shelter-in-place-communicated by a spokes-character: Wally Wise Guy. PMID:26503696

  7. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to- Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Dougall, James [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Many U.S. manufacturing facilities generate unrecovered, low-grade waste heat, and also generate or are located near organic-content waste effluents. Bioelectrochemical systems, such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, provide a means to convert organic-content effluents into electric power and useful chemical products. A novel biochemical electrical system for industrial manufacturing processes uniquely integrates both waste heat recovery and waste effluent conversion, thereby significantly reducing manufacturing energy requirements. This project will enable the further development of this technology so that it can be applied across a wide variety of US manufacturing segments, including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, refinery, and pulp and paper industries. It is conservatively estimated that adoption of this technology could provide nearly 40 TBtu/yr of energy, or more than 1% of the U.S. total industrial electricity use, while reducing CO2 emissions by more than 6 million tons per year. Commercialization of this technology will make a significant contribution to DOE’s Industrial Technology Program goals for doubling energy efficiency and providing a more robust and competitive domestic manufacturing base.

  8. "Human Health Impact Characterization of Toxic Chemicals for Sustainable Design and Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

    2009-01-01

    A schematic method to characterize the human health impact of toxic chemicals is presented. This schematic method uses a streamlined three-tiered hierarchy process which includes intake, toxicity and persistence of a chemical release for its impact characterization. The human health impact of a chemical is represented by its position in a two-dimensional characterization plot, which enables the benchmarking of chemicals to be easily made by comparing the relative positions of the chemicals in...

  9. 77 FR 47115 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cayman Chemical Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... diethylamide (7315) I 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(n)-propylthiophenethylamine I (7348). Marihuana (7360) I... small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In reference to drug code...

  10. Applicability of chemical vapour polishing of additive manufactured parts to meet production-quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D. B.; Hansen, H. N.; Nielsen, J. S.;

    2014-01-01

    The Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) method is the most rapidly growing Additive Manufacturing (AM) method[1]. FDM employs a 2.5D deposition scheme which induce a step-ladder shaped surface definition [2], with seams of the individual layers clearly visible[3]. This paper investigate to which...

  11. Assessment of local wood species used for the manufacture of cookware and the perception of chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with their use in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensah John Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historical proven wood species have no reported adverse health effect associated with its past use. Different historical proven species have traditionally been used to manufacture different wooden food contact items. This study uses survey questionnaires to assess suppliers’, manufacturers’, retailers’ and consumers’ (end-users’ preferences for specific wood species, to examine the considerations that inform these preferences and to investigate the extent of awareness of the chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with wooden food contact material use. Methods Through the combined use of a cross sectional approach and a case study design, 25 suppliers, 25 manufacturers, 25 retailers and 125 consumers (end-users of wooden food contact materials in four suburbs in Kumasi Metropolitan Area (Anloga junction, Ahinsan Bus Stop, Ahwia-Pankrono and Race Course and Ashanti Akyim Agogo in the Ashanti Akyim North District of the Ashanti Region were administered with closed ended questionnaires. The questionnaires were prepared in English, but local language, Twi, was used to translate and communicate the content of the questionnaire where necessary. Results Suppliers’, manufacturers’ and retailers’ preferences for specific wood species for most wooden cookware differed from that of consumers (end-users. But all respondent groups failed to indicate any awareness of chemical benefits or chemical hazards associated with either the choice of specific wood species for specific wooden cookware or with the general use of wooden food contact materials. The lack of appreciation of chemical benefits or hazards associated with active principles of wooden cookware led to heavy reliance of consumers (end-users on the wood density, price, attractive grain pattern and colour or on the judgement of retailers in their choice of specific species for a wooden cookware. Conclusion This study contributes some practical suggestions

  12. Utilisation of fly ash for the management of heavy metal containing primary chemical sludge generated in a leather manufacturing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekaran, G.; Rao, B.P.; Ghanamani, A.; Rajamani, S. [Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai (India). Dept. of Environmental Technology

    2003-07-01

    The present study aims at disposal of primary chemical sludge generated in the tanning industry by solidification and stabilization process using flyash generated from thermal power plant along with binders and also on evaluating the leachability of heavy metal from the solidified product. The primary chemical sludge containing heavy metals iron and chromium were obtained from a garment leather manufacturing company at Chennai in India. The sludge was dried in open environment and it was powdered to fine size in a grinder. Binding increases stabilization of heavy metal in calcined sludge with refractory binders such as clay, fly ash, lime and ordinary Portland cement. Fly ash can be considered as the additional binder for producing stronger bricks, with high metal fixation efficiency, and minimum rate of removal of heavy metal and minimum diffusion co-efficient. 15 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. 78 FR 49547 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ..., 2013, 78 FR 23596, American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc., 101 Arc Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63146... Dimethyltryptamine (7435) I 1- piperidine I (7470). Dihydromorphine (9145) I Heroin (9200) I Normorphine (9313)...

  14. Determination of the chemical parameters and manufacturer of divins from their broadband transmission spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodasevich, M. A.; Sinitsyn, G. V.; Skorbanova, E. A.; Rogovaya, M. V.; Kambur, E. I.; Aseev, V. A.

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of multiparametric data on transmission spectra of 24 divins (Moldovan cognacs) in the 190-2600 nm range allows identification of outliers and their removal from a sample under study in the following consideration. The principal component analysis and classification tree with a single-rank predictor constructed in the 2D space of principal components allow classification of divin manufacturers. It is shown that the accuracy of syringaldehyde, ethyl acetate, vanillin, and gallic acid concentrations in divins calculated with the regression to latent structures depends on the sample volume and is 3, 6, 16, and 20%, respectively, which is acceptable for the application.

  15. Chemical characteristics of organic aerosols in Algiers city area: influence of a fat manufacture plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaa, Noureddine; Meklati, Brahim Youcef; Cecinato, Angelo

    Total concentrations and homologue distributions of organic fraction constituents have been determined in particulate matter emitted from different units of a fat manufacturer (i.e. oils refining and conditioning plants, and production and conditioning units of a soap industry) located in Algiers area, as well as in atmospheric aerosols. In particular n-alkanes, n-alkanoic and n-alkenoic acids, n-alkan-2-ones and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated. Organic aerosol contents varied broadly among the plant units, depending upon nature of the manufactured products. The percent composition of all classes of compounds investigated in ambient atmosphere was similar to those observed indoor at industrial plant units. Organic acids, n-alkanoic as well as n-alkenoic, appeared by far the most abundant organic constituents of aerosols, both indoor and outdoor, ranging from 7.7 to 19.8 and from 12.7 to 17.1 μg m -3, respectively. The huge occurrence of acids and n-alkanes in ambient aerosols was consistent with their high levels present in oil and fat materials. Among minor components of aerosols, n-alkan-2-ones and PAH, seemed to be related to thermally induced ageing and direct combustion of raw organic material used for oil and soap production.

  16. Surface Nano Structures Manufacture Using Batch Chemical Processing Methods for Tooling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Calaon, Matteo; Gavillet, J.;

    2011-01-01

    The patterning of large surface areas with nano structures by using chemical batch processes to avoid using highenergy intensive nano machining processes was investigated. The capability of different surface treatment methods of creating micro and nano structured adaptable mould inserts...... for subsequent polymer replication by injection moulding was analyzed. New tooling solutions to produce nano structured mould surfaces were investigated. Experiments based on three different chemical-based-batch techniques to establish surface nano (i.e. sub-μm) structures on large areas were performed. Three...... approaches were selected: (1) using Ø500 nm nano beads deposition for direct patterning of a 4” silicon wafer; (2) using Ø500 nm nano beads deposition as mask for 4” silicon wafer etching and subsequent nickel electroplating; (3) using the anodizing process to produce Ø500 nm structures on a 30x80 mm2...

  17. Real-time measurement of sub-PPM concentrations of airborne chemicals in semiconductor manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, M; Cohen, R

    1993-01-01

    Real-time mass spectroscopy (ICAMS) can provide hourly or daily estimates of employee exposure. Field calibration of the unit indicated essentially linear response from 0.01 (Cellosolve Acetate) and 0.03 ppm (Diglyme) to 1 ppm in semiconductor cleanrooms. The instrument can be programmed for 4 minute readings on a single compound, or for rotation among several chemicals, each requiring 4 minute dwell times for analysis. In contrast to full shift personal sampling methods to measure exposure, ICAMS offers insights into the occurrence of peak exposures. In addition, in the occupational environment ICAMS results can be integrated to estimate full-shift within a zone exposures. Thus, the ICAMS extends measurement sensitivities below those currently available and offers a viable alternative to personal sampling in the semiconductor industry. PMID:9857292

  18. Industrialization of Biology. A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Douglas C. [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The report stresses the need for efforts to inform the public of the nature of industrial biotechnology and of its societal benefits, and to make sure that concerns are communicated effectively between the public and other stakeholders. In addition to scientific advances, a number of governance and societal factors will influence the industrialization of biology. Industry norms and standards need to be established in areas such as read/write accuracy for DNA, data and machine technology specifications, and organism performance in terms of production rates and yields. An updated regulatory regime is also needed to accelerate the safe commercialization of new host organisms, metabolic pathways, and chemical products, and regulations should be coordinated across nations to enable rapid, safe, and global access to new technologies and products.

  19. Optimization of ammonia-peroxide water mixture (APM) for high volume manufacturing through surface chemical investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Shariq

    Ammonia-peroxide mixture (APM) is a widely used wet chemical system for particle removal from silicon surfaces. The conventional APM solution in a volume ratio of 1:1:5 (NH4OH:H2O2:H 2O) is employed at elevated temperatures of 70--80 °C. At these temperatures, APM solution etch es silicon at a rate of ˜3 A/min, which is unacceptable for current technology node. Additionally, APM solutions are unstable due to the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and evaporative loss of ammonium hydroxide resulting in the change in APM solution composition. This has generated interest in the use of dilute APM solutions. However, dilution ratios are chosen without any established fundamental relationship between particle-wafer interactions and APM solutions. Atomic force microscopy has been used to measure interaction forces between H-terminated Si surface and Si tip in APM solutions of different compositions. The approach force curves results show attractive forces in DI-water, NH 4OH:H2O (1:100) and H2O2:H2O (1:100) solutions at separation distances of less than 10 nm for all immersion times (2, 10 and 60 min) investigated. In the case of dilute APM solutions, the forces are purely repulsive within 2 min of immersion time. During retraction, the adhesion force between Si surface and Si tip was in the range of 0.8 nN to 10.0 nN. In dilute APM solutions, no adhesion force is measured between Si surfaces and repulsive forces dominated at all distances. These results show that even in very dilute APM solutions, repulsive forces exist between Si surface and particle re-deposition can be prevented. The stability of APM solutions has been investigated as a function of temperature (24--65 °C), dilution ratio (1:1:5--1:2:100), solution pH (8.0--9.7) and Fe2+ concentration (0--10 ppb) using an optical concentration monitor. The results show that the rate of H2O2 decomposition increased with an increase in temperature, solution pH and Fe2+ concentration. The kinetic analysis showed that

  20. 40 CFR 723.50 - Chemical substances manufactured in quantities of 10,000 kilograms or less per year, and chemical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a manufacturer must: (i) Submit a notice of intent to manufacture 30 days before manufacture begins... substance: (1) Serious acute (lethal or sublethal) effects. (2) Serious chronic (including carcinogenic and... paragraph. See 40 CFR 720.40(a)(2)(iv) for information on how to obtain e-PMN software. (i)...

  1. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  2. KEFIRS MANUFACTURED FROM CAMEL (CAMELUS DRAMEDARIUS MILK AND COW MILK: COMPARISON OF SOME CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kavas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the production possibilities of kefir from fresh camel milk fermented with grain. The findings were then compared with kefir manufactured from cow’s milk. Cow’s milk was fermented with 2.5% grains. The 1% (v/w glucose enriched camel’s milk was fermented with 10% grains and left in an incubator at 25°C. Physical-chemical and sensorial analyses of the kefir sampleswere measured on day one (18 hours of storage and microbiological analyses were measured on days one, three and five. Some physical-chemical parameters were found to be higherin camel milk and its kefir than in cow milk and its kefir, some were found to be close and some were found to be lower. Addition of 1% glucose and 10% grains to the camel milk affected the titrationacidity and viscosity of kefir to significant levels. The kefir produced from camel milk was perceived as sourer, whereas its other properties were found to be close to those of cow milk. Thecholesterol levels of camel milk and its kefir were detected to be higher when compared to those of cow milk and its kefir, but the cholesterol level decreased in both examples after the productionof kefir. In terms of the composition of fatty acids, it was determined that SFA and the small, medium chain fatty acids ratio was low in camel milk and its kefir, but MUFA and the long chainfatty acids ratio was high. PUFA ratio was high in camel milk but low in its kefir. In microbiological analysis, yeast levels increased in kefir samples with the Lactobacillus ssp. strains, and theincrease in the number of yeasts was higher than in the cow milk kefir. In kefir samples, Lactobacillus ssp. strains increased on day one and three of storage, but diminished after day three.

  3. Mining Available Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency to Support Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling of Chemical Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Sarah A; Meyer, David E; Edelen, Ashley N; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Abraham, John P; Barrett, William M; Gonzalez, Michael A; Randall, Paul M; Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo; Smith, Raymond L

    2016-09-01

    Demands for quick and accurate life cycle assessments create a need for methods to rapidly generate reliable life cycle inventories (LCI). Data mining is a suitable tool for this purpose, especially given the large amount of available governmental data. These data are typically applied to LCIs on a case-by-case basis. As linked open data becomes more prevalent, it may be possible to automate LCI using data mining by establishing a reproducible approach for identifying, extracting, and processing the data. This work proposes a method for standardizing and eventually automating the discovery and use of publicly available data at the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemical-manufacturing LCI. The method is developed using a case study of acetic acid. The data quality and gap analyses for the generated inventory found that the selected data sources can provide information with equal or better reliability and representativeness on air, water, hazardous waste, on-site energy usage, and production volumes but with key data gaps including material inputs, water usage, purchased electricity, and transportation requirements. A comparison of the generated LCI with existing data revealed that the data mining inventory is in reasonable agreement with existing data and may provide a more-comprehensive inventory of air emissions and water discharges. The case study highlighted challenges for current data management practices that must be overcome to successfully automate the method using semantic technology. Benefits of the method are that the openly available data can be compiled in a standardized and transparent approach that supports potential automation with flexibility to incorporate new data sources as needed. PMID:27517866

  4. Mining Available Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency to Support Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling of Chemical Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Sarah A; Meyer, David E; Edelen, Ashley N; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Abraham, John P; Barrett, William M; Gonzalez, Michael A; Randall, Paul M; Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo; Smith, Raymond L

    2016-09-01

    Demands for quick and accurate life cycle assessments create a need for methods to rapidly generate reliable life cycle inventories (LCI). Data mining is a suitable tool for this purpose, especially given the large amount of available governmental data. These data are typically applied to LCIs on a case-by-case basis. As linked open data becomes more prevalent, it may be possible to automate LCI using data mining by establishing a reproducible approach for identifying, extracting, and processing the data. This work proposes a method for standardizing and eventually automating the discovery and use of publicly available data at the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemical-manufacturing LCI. The method is developed using a case study of acetic acid. The data quality and gap analyses for the generated inventory found that the selected data sources can provide information with equal or better reliability and representativeness on air, water, hazardous waste, on-site energy usage, and production volumes but with key data gaps including material inputs, water usage, purchased electricity, and transportation requirements. A comparison of the generated LCI with existing data revealed that the data mining inventory is in reasonable agreement with existing data and may provide a more-comprehensive inventory of air emissions and water discharges. The case study highlighted challenges for current data management practices that must be overcome to successfully automate the method using semantic technology. Benefits of the method are that the openly available data can be compiled in a standardized and transparent approach that supports potential automation with flexibility to incorporate new data sources as needed.

  5. Manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L. [eds.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

  6. Drug development and manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2015-10-13

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for detecting binding events and measuring binding selectivities between chemicals and receptors. XRF may also be used for estimating the therapeutic index of a chemical, for estimating the binding selectivity of a chemical versus chemical analogs, for measuring post-translational modifications of proteins, and for drug manufacturing.

  7. 76 FR 17778 - Control of Ergocristine, a Chemical Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Lysergic Acid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Proposed Rulemaking (75 FR 8287), such controls are deemed necessary for law enforcement to identify... illicitly manufacture the schedule I controlled substance lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). This rule is... (LSD) is a synthetic schedule I hallucinogen. It is the most potent hallucinogen known and...

  8. 21 CFR 1310.21 - Sale by Federal departments or agencies of chemicals which could be used to manufacture...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale by Federal departments or agencies of... DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF LISTED CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES § 1310.21 Sale by Federal departments or agencies of chemicals which could be used...

  9. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  10. Physico-chemical characteristic of aluminum alloy castings manufactured with cores containing fly ash as a base material

    OpenAIRE

    A. Baliński

    2008-01-01

    Castings were poured from PA9 aluminum alloy. Cores in the form of standard cylindrical specimens were made from the core mixture based on fly ash of the identified chemical and granular composition. The binder for the fly ash-based core mixture was chemically modified, hydrated sodium silicate. From the ready test castings, specimens were cut out for metallographic examinations and evaluation of morphology in the examined microregions. The structure was examined under a NEOPHOT 32 metallogra...

  11. Physico-chemical characteristic of aluminum alloy castings manufactured with cores containing fly ash as a base material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baliński

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Castings were poured from PA9 aluminum alloy. Cores in the form of standard cylindrical specimens were made from the core mixture based on fly ash of the identified chemical and granular composition. The binder for the fly ash-based core mixture was chemically modified, hydrated sodium silicate. From the ready test castings, specimens were cut out for metallographic examinations and evaluation of morphology in the examined microregions. The structure was examined under a NEOPHOT 32 metallographic microscope using metallographic polished sections etched and unetched. For the specimen surface morphology evaluation a STEREOSCAN 420 scanning electron microscope and SE1 detector were used. The X-ray microanalysis was made on an EDS LINK ISIS 300 microanalyser. The fly ash was observed to have no major effect on the structure and chemical composition of castings.

  12. Assessment of Semi-Quantitative Health Risks of Exposure to Harmful Chemical Agents in the Context of Carcinogenesis in the Latex Glove Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Saeed; Fallah Asadi, Ayda; Varmazyar, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Excessive exposure to chemicals in the workplace can cause poisoning and various diseases. Thus, for the protection of labor, it is necessary to examine the exposure of people to chemicals and risks from these materials. The purpose of this study is to evaluate semi-quantitative health risks of exposure to harmful chemical agents in the context of carcinogenesis in a latex glove manufacturing industry. In this cross-sectional study, semi-quantitative risk assessment methods provided by the Department of Occupational Health of Singapore were used and index of LD50, carcinogenesis (ACGIH and IARC) and corrosion capacity were applied to calculate the hazard rate and the biggest index was placed as the basis of risk. To calculate the exposure rate, two exposure index methods and the actual level of exposure were employed. After identifying risks, group H (high) and E (very high) classified as high-risk were considered. Of the total of 271 only 39 (15%) were at a high risk level and 3% were very high (E). These risks only was relevant to 7 materials with only sulfuric acid placed in group E and 6 other materials in group H, including nitric acid (48.3%), chromic acid (6.9%), hydrochloric acid (10.3%), ammonia (3.4%), potassium hydroxide (20.7%) and chlorine (10.3%). Overall, the average hazard rate level was estimated to be 4 and average exposure rate to be 3.5. Health risks identified in this study showed that the manufacturing industry for latex gloves has a high level of risk because of carcinogens, acids and strong alkalisand dangerous drugs. Also according to the average level of risk impact, it is better that the safety design strategy for latex gloves production industry be placed on the agenda. PMID:27165227

  13. SLUG FLOW PROCESSING IN MICROREACTORS FOR BIO-BASED CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING: SYNTHESIS AND OXIDATION OF 5-HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL AS POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yue, Jun; Deuss, Peter; Zhang, Zheng; Hommes, Arne; Heeres, Hero

    2016-01-01

    The ever increasing global demand on fossil resources that are limited in reserves has directed numerous research efforts recently towards the development of more sustainable feedstocks as the source for the production of fuels, chemicals and (performance) materials. Conversion of biomass (particula

  14. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p'- and o,p'-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p'- versus p,p'-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife. - DDT persists in the environment near a former manufacturing facility that ceased production over 40 years ago, and concentrations represent a risk to fish and piscivorous birds in the area

  15. In vitro cellular responses to silicon carbide particles manufactured through the Acheson process: impact of physico-chemical features on pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudard, Delphine; Forest, Valérie; Pourchez, Jérémie; Boumahdi, Najih; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice; Guilhot, Bernard; Cottier, Michèle; Grosseau, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) an industrial-scale product manufactured through the Acheson process, is largely employed in various applications. Its toxicity has been poorly investigated. Our study aims at characterizing the physico-chemical features and the in vitro impact on biological activity of five manufactured SiC powders: two coarse powders (SiC C1/C2), two fine powders (SiC F1/F2) and a powder rich in iron impurities (SiC I). RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to the different SiC particles and the cellular responses were evaluated. Contrary to what happens with silica, no SiC cytotoxicity was observed but pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory responses of variable intensity were evidenced. Oxidative stress (H₂O₂ production) appeared related to SiC particle size, while iron level regulated pro-inflammatory response (TNFα production). To investigate the impact of surface reactivity on the biological responses, coarse SiC C1 and fine SiC F1 powders were submitted to different thermal treatments (650-1400 °C) in order to alter the oxidation state of the particle surface. At 1400 °C a decrease in TNFα production and an increase in HO·, COO(·-) radicals production were observed in correlation with the formation of a surface layer of crystalline silica. Finally, a strong correlation was observed between surface oxidation state and in vitro toxicity. PMID:24603312

  16. Technology for Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste Generated during Uranium and Plutonium Chemical and Metallurgical Manufacturing in FSUE PO Mayak - 13616

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Created technological scheme for treatment of liquid radioactive waste generated while uranium and plutonium chemical and metallurgical manufacturing consists of: - Liquid radioactive waste (LRW) purification from radionuclides and its transfer into category of manufacturing waste; - Concentration of suspensions containing alpha-nuclides and their further conversion to safe dry state (calcinate) and moving to long controlled storage. The following technologies are implemented in LRW treatment complex: - Settling and filtering technology for treatment of liquid intermediate-level waste (ILW) with volume about 1500m3/year and alpha-activity from 106 to 108 Bq/dm3 - Membrane and sorption technology for processing of low-level waste (LLW) of radioactive drain waters with volume about 150 000 m3/year and alpha-activity from 103 to 104 Bq/dm3. Settling and filtering technology includes two stages of ILW immobilization accompanied with primary settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following flushing and drying of the pulp generated; secondary deep after settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following solid phase concentration by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration. Besides, the installation capacity on permeate is not less than 3 m3/h. Concentrates generated are sent to calcination on microwave drying (MW drying) unit. Membrane and sorption technology includes processing of averaged sewage flux by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration with total capacity of installations on permeate not less than 18 m3/h and sorption extraction of uranium from permeate on anionite. According to radionuclide contamination level purified solution refers to general industrial waste. Concentrates generated during suspension filtering are evaporated in rotary film evaporator (RFE) in order to remove excess water, thereafter they are dried on infrared heating facility. Solid concentrate produced is sent for long

  17. Utilization of wastewater originated from naturally fermented virgin coconut oil manufacturing process for bioextract production: physico-chemical and microbial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripetchkul, Sudarut; Kusuwanwichid, Sasithorn; Koonsrisuk, Songpon; Akeprathumchai, Saengchai

    2010-08-01

    Production of virgin coconut oil via natural fermentation has led to large amount of wastes being generated, i.e., coconut pulp and wastewater containing coconut crème. Objective of this study is to gain more insight into the feasibility of utilization of such wastes as raw materials together with several types of wastes such as fish waste and/or pineapple peel for bioextract production. Chemical, physico-chemical and biological changes including phytotoxicity of the fermented mixture were closely monitored. Physical observation suggested that fermentation of bioextract obtained with fish waste appeared to be complete within the first month of fermentation while bioextract obtained using pineapple waste seemed to be complete after 8 months post-fermentation. Fermentation broth is of blackish color with alcoholic as well as acidic odour with no gas bubble and/or yeast film present on top of the surface. During the whole fermentation interval, several attributes of both bioextracts, e.g., pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and organic acids, were statistically different. Further, the total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria present in pineapple bioextract were statistically higher than those of the fish bioextract (ppineapple bioextracts, respectively. In addition, qualities of both bioextracts conformed well with those specified by the Thai standard for liquid biofertilizer after 1 month fermentation. Results further showed that wastewater derived from virgin coconut oil manufacturing process could effectively be employed together with other types of wastes such as fish waste and pineapple peel for bioextract production. However, for the best bioextract quality, fermentation should be carefully planned since over fermentation led to bioextract of low qualities. PMID:20362440

  18. Impacts of supplementing chemical fertilizers with organic fertilizers manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Hao, Yangyang; Shen, Min; Zhao, Qingxin; Li, Qing; Hu, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Using pig manure (PM) compost as a partial substitute for the conventional chemical fertilizers (CFs) is considered an effective approach in sustainable agricultural systems. This study aimed to analyze the impacts of supplementing CF with organic fertilizers (OFs) manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) as well as the community structures and diversities of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRB) in bulk and cucumber rhizosphere soils. In this study, three organic fertilizers manufactured using the PM as a substrate, namely fresh PM, common OF, and bio-organic fertilizer (BF), were supplemented with a CF. Composted manures combined with a CF did not significantly increase TRB compared with the CF alone, but PM treatment resulted in the long-term survival of TRB in soil. The use of CF+PM also increased the risk of spreading TRGs in soil. As beneficial microorganisms in BF may function as reservoirs for the spread of antibiotic resistance genes, care should be taken when adding them to the OF matrix. The PM treatment significantly altered the community structures and increased the species diversity of TRB, especially in the rhizosphere soil. BF treatment caused insignificant changes in the community structure of TRB compared with CF treatment, yet it reduced the species diversities of TRB in soil. Thus, the partial use of fresh PM as a substitute for CF could increase the risk of spread of TRGs. Apart from plant growth promotion, BF was a promising fertilizer owing to its potential ability to control TRGs. PMID:27152658

  19. Chemical study of limestone and clay for cement manufacturing in Darukhula, Nizampur District,Nowshera, North West Frontier Province(N.W.F.P.), Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khurshid Ali; Noor-ul-Amin; M.Tahir Shah

    2008-01-01

    Limestone and clay samples were collected from Darukhula and adjoining areas of the Nizampur District,Nowshera, N.W.F.P., Pakistan, and analyzed for different parameters in order to search for new reserves of suitable material for the manufacture of different types of cements in N.W.EP. It was found that the area under study contains three types of limestones, including high grade limestone, Darukhula limestone and siliceous limestone, which contain 53%, 49.03% and 45.19% CaO, respectively, and three types of clay, including maroon color, yellow to yellowish-green color and green color clay containing 57.76%, 65.47% and 61.24% SiO2, respectively. Chemical analysis of the limestone and clay samples collected from the deposits in the area under study showed that all the dements found in these samples are within the range of permissible limits for the production of high-strength Portland cement,sulphate resisting cement and white cement. This paper covers the detailed version of the potential raw material deposits at Darukhula and adjoining areas of the Nizampur District.

  20. Computational manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a general framework for computational manufacturing. The methodology of computational manufacturing aims at integrating computational geometry, machining principle, sensor information fusion, optimization, computational intelligence and virtual prototyping to solve problems of the modeling, reasoning, control, planning and scheduling of manufacturing processes and systems. There are three typical problems in computational manufacturing, i.e., scheduling (time-domain), geometric reasoning (space-domain) and decision- making (interaction between time-domain and space-domain). Some theoretical fundamentals of computational manufacturing are also discussed.

  1. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  2. In vitro cellular responses to silicon carbide particles manufactured through the Acheson process: impact of physico-chemical features on pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Boudard, Delphine; Forest, Valérie; Pourchez, Jérémie; Boumahdi, Najih; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice; Guilhot, Bernard; Cottier, Michèle; Grosseau, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) an industrial-scale product manufactured through the Acheson process, is largely employed in various applications. Its toxicity has been poorly investigated. Our study aims at characterizing the physico-chemical features and the in vitro impact on biological activity of five manufactured SiC powders: two coarse powders (SiC C1/C2), two fine powders (SiC F1/F2) and a powder rich in iron impurities (SiC I). RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to the different SiC particles ...

  3. Cable manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  4. Leuconostoc bacteriophages from blue cheese manufacture: long-term survival, resistance to thermal treatments, high pressure homogenization and chemical biocides of industrial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujato, Silvina A; Guglielmotti, Daniela M; Ackermann, Hans-W; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Nine Leuconostoc mesenteroides phages were isolated during blue cheese manufacture yielding faulty products with reduced eye formation. Their morphologies, restriction profiles, host ranges and long-term survival rates (25°C, 8°C, -20°C and -80°C) were analysed. Based on restriction analysis, six of them were further examined regarding resistance to physical (heat and high pressure homogenization, HPH) and chemical treatments (ethanol, sodium hypochlorite, peracetic acid, biocides A, C, E and F). According to their morphology, L. mesenteroides phages studied in the present work belonged to the Caudovirales order and Siphoviridae family. Six distinct restriction patterns were obtained with EcoRV, HindIII, ClaI and XhoI enzymes, revealing interesting phage diversity in the dairy environment. No significant reductions in phage counts were observed after ten months of storage at -20°C and -80°C, while slightly and moderate decrease in phage numbers were noticed at 8°C and 25°C, respectively. The phages subjected to heat treatments generally showed high resistance at 63°C and moderate resistance at 72°C. However, 80°C for 30 min and 90°C for 2 min led to complete inactivation of viral particles. In general, the best ethanol concentration tested was 75%, as complete inactivation for most Leuconostoc phages within 30 min of incubation was achieved. Peracetic acid, and biocides A, C, E and F were highly effective when used at the same or at a moderately lower concentration as recommended by the producer. Usually, moderate or high concentrations (600-1,600 ppm) of sodium hypochlorite were necessary to completely inactivate phage particles. Leuconostoc phages were partially inactivated by HPH treatments as remaining viral particles were found even after 8 passes at 100 MPa. This is the first report of L. mesenteroides phages isolated from an Argentinean dairy cheese plant. The results of this work could be useful for establishing the most effective physical and

  5. Manufacturing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  6. Manufacturing Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, van F.J.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper identifies the changing needs and requirements with respect to the interfacing of manufacturing functions. It considers the manufacturing system, its components and their relationships from the technological and logistic point of view, against the background of concurrent engineering. Desi

  7. Dairy maturation of milk used in the manufacture of Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese: effects on physico-chemical characteristics, rennet-coagulation aptitude and rheological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacarne, Massimo; Summer, Andrea; Formaggioni, Paolo; Franceschi, Piero; Sandri, Sandro; Pecorari, Mauro; Vecchia, Paola; Mariani, Primo

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effects of dairy maturation on the physico-chemical characteristics and technological properties of milk used for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese manufacture. Three different operating conditions (CF1, CF2 and CF3) were considered. Full cream milk from the evening milking was stored on the farm and delivered to the cheese factory in churns (CF1) or in thermoregulated tanks at a temperature not lower than 18 degrees C (CF2 and CF3). The natural creaming (10-12 h overnight) was performed in a traditional large flat vat containing 10-12 hl (CF1 and CF2) or in thermoregulated large flat vats containing 60 hl at about 15 degrees C (CF3). Twenty-four, 24 and 22 maturation trials were performed in CF1, CF2, and CF3, respectively, during 2 consecutive years. A significant increase (P

  8. Papyrus Manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Bridget

    2009-01-01

    The papyrus plant that grew along the River Nile was used to manufacture writing material in ancient Egypt. It was employed throughout the Classical Period and beyond until superseded by paper in about 800 CE.

  9. Micro Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance....... If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development...... processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing...

  10. Smart Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  11. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  12. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF THE CONDITIONS REQUIRED FOR CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL MODIFICATION OF THE YEAST WASTE FROM BEER MANUFACTURING TO PRODUCE ADHESIVE COMPOSITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Davud Kadimaliev,; Vladimir Telyatnik,; Victor Revin,; Alexander Parshin,; Surhay Allahverdi,; Gokhan Gunduz; Elena Kezina,; Nejla Asık

    2012-01-01

    During the production of beer large amounts of yeast waste are generated. This paper considers the possible making of environmentally friendly adhesive compositions from such wastes. Chemical treatment of yeast wastes increases their adhesive characteristics. Chemical cross-linking with glutaric aldehyde and biological cross-linking by enzyme transglutaminase improves the moisture resistance of the adhesive compositions. In terms of their physical and mechanical parameters they are not inferi...

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF THE CONDITIONS REQUIRED FOR CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL MODIFICATION OF THE YEAST WASTE FROM BEER MANUFACTURING TO PRODUCE ADHESIVE COMPOSITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davud Kadimaliev,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During the production of beer large amounts of yeast waste are generated. This paper considers the possible making of environmentally friendly adhesive compositions from such wastes. Chemical treatment of yeast wastes increases their adhesive characteristics. Chemical cross-linking with glutaric aldehyde and biological cross-linking by enzyme transglutaminase improves the moisture resistance of the adhesive compositions. In terms of their physical and mechanical parameters they are not inferior to glues of natural origin and can be used for bonding paper, cardboard, and wood. The bonding strength of paper was 421.8 N / m, and that of wood was 27.8 MPa.

  15. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Gaëlle Sicaire

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil and non-food (bio fuel applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols. Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.

  16. Optimized manufacturable porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard;

    to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization. This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be manufactured directly using rapid manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting/sintering (SLM...

  17. Personal Chemical Exposure informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical Exposure science is the study of human contact with chemicals (from manufacturing facilities, everyday products, waste) occurring in their environments and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of events that cause or prevent adverse health outcomes. (adapted...

  18. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  19. Chemical and radiation stability of a proprietary cesium ion exchange material manufactured from WWL membrane and SuperLig{reg_sign} 644

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.; Berry, P.K.

    1996-09-01

    Pretreatment of nuclear process wastes for ion exchange removal of Cs and other radionuclides is one way to minimize amount of high-level radioactive waste at Hanford. This study evaluated Cs-selective SuperLig{reg_sign}644 (IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork UT) entrapped in a proprietary WWL web membrane (3M) for chemical/radiation stability in simulated caustic neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), 0.5M HNO{sub 3}, water, and air. After exposure up to 2.0E+09 rad, the material was evaluated for Cs uptake in 5M sodium NCAW simulants with varying Cs contents. Radiolytic stability appears to be sufficient for ion exchange pretreatment of radioactive Cs: essentially no decrease in Cs selectivity or loading (Kd) was observed during {sup 60}Cs gamma irradiation in water or 0.5M HNO{sub 3} up to 1.0E+09 rad. Cs Kd decreased by a factor of 2 after 2.0E+09 rad exposure. Cs Kd did not change during irradiation in 5M NCAW or ambient air up to 1.0E+08 rad, but decreased by more than an order of magnitude between 1.0E+08 and 2.0E+09 rad (not typical of process conditions). Chemical stability under caustic conditions is lower than in air or under neutral/acidic conditions. Results indicate that this material is less stable in caustic solution irrespective of radiation exposure. Samples of the membrane retained their physical form throughout the entire experiment and were only slightly brittle after exposure to 2.0E+09 rad. (The material evaluated was a finely ground (400 mesh) particulate engineered to form a polymeric fiber (WWL), not the macroscopic form of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 resin (20 to 50 mesh).)

  20. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  1. Changes in the chemical form of selenium observed during the manufacture of a selenium-enriched sourdough bread for use in a human nutrition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryszewska, M A; Ambroziak, W; Diowksz, A; Baxter, M J; Langford, N J; Lewis, D J

    2005-02-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and hydride generation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were used, respectively, to investigate changes in both the chemical form and the concentration of selenium during its bio-incorporation and bio-accumulation into rye seedlings. A 60-fold increase in the total level of selenium in the seedlings ('control' biomass = 0.99 mg kg(-1), 'enriched' biomass = 55.27 mg kg(-1)) was accompanied by a change from selenite to several organo-selenium forms, with more than 40% being present as selenomethionine. The seedling biomass was dried, ground and used as an ingredient in the production of a fermented sourdough bread (popular in Poland and many Eastern European countries). The selenium in the resulting bread was also characterized in terms of its speciation, as well as its total selenium content ('control' bread = 0.06 mg kg(-1), 'enriched' bread = 3.56 mg kg(-1)). The breads were then fed to 24 volunteers as part of a human intervention study designed to establish the efficacy of this mode of selenium supplementation. The human study data subsequently showed the bread was a good source of dietary selenium.

  2. Review of the impact of the Ukraine-EU free trade agreement on manufacturing industries (mechanical engineering, chemical and light industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Usenko

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a definition to the concept of ‘deep integration’ taken by the Ukrainian Government as a framework concept for the establishment of a Ukraine-EU free trade area. The paper uses the term ‘deep free trade’ or ‘free trade area +’. It offers a review of the Ukrainian economy and its readiness to open such industries as mechanical engineering, chemical and light industry to free trade with the EU. It examines which cooperative steps might be taken in the sectors in question in the framework of a free trade area by identifying specific features of those sectors in Ukraine and the EU through SWOT analysis and review of certain provisions in relevant agreements between the EU and other countries. It proposes to forecast the possible impact of a free trade area on stakeholders’ position regarding the agreement by using the ‘stakeholder approach’ (identifying and classifying interest groups and the European Commission’s method of ‘impact assessment’. Based on the results of this research, conclusions are made concerning the fundamental negotiation principles for talks between Ukraine and the EU as to the economic and trade component of the new ‘enhanced agreement.

  3. Comparative studies on the chemical and cell-based antioxidant activities and antitumor cell proliferation properties of soy milk manufactured by conventional and commercial UHT methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C; Liu, Zhisheng; Yuan, Shaohong; Zou, Yanping; Tan, Yingying

    2010-03-24

    The aims of this work were to compare antiproliferation, antioxidant activities and total phytochemicals and individual isoflavone profiles in soy milk processed by various methods including traditional stove cooking, direct steam injection, direct ultrahigh temperature (UHT), indirect UHT, and a two-stage simulated industry method, and a selected commercial soy milk product. Various processing methods significantly affected total saponin, phytic acid, and total phenolic content and individual isoflavone distribution. The laboratory UHT and the two-stage processed soy milk exhibited relatively higher total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, saponin and phytic acid than those processed by the traditional and steam processed methods. Thermal processing caused obvious intertransformation but did not cause severe degradation except for breaking down of aglycons. Thermal processing significantly increased antioxidant capacities of soy milk determined by chemical analyses, but decreased cellular antioxidant capacities as compared to the raw soy milk. The raw and all processed soy milk exhibited antipoliferative activities against human HL-60 leukemia cells, AGS gastric tumor cells, and DU145 prostate cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. The raw soy milk, but not the processed soy milk, exhibited a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect against colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that various thermal processing methods change not only phytochemcials but also potential health-promoting effects of soy milk.

  4. Additive manufacturing : A new option in manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Nestrell, Annéa

    2015-01-01

    GE Healthcare wants to investigate whether additive manufacturing would be an alternative method in their workshops in the Umeå plant. Additive manufacturing is called 3D printing in everyday language and manufactures details by building them up layer by layer in an automated machine. The purpose of this work is therefore to investigate how mature additive manufacturing methods are and how they could be used at GE. The work has been divided into three parts. The first section investigates ho...

  5. Desktop Manufacturing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Desktop manufacturing is the use of data from a computer-assisted design system to construct actual models of an object. Emerging processes are stereolithography, laser sintering, ballistic particle manufacturing, laminated object manufacturing, and photochemical machining. (SK)

  6. Tribology in Manufacturing Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The present book aims to provide research advances on tribology in manufacturing technology for modern industry. This book can be used as a research book for final undergraduate engineering course (for example, mechanical, manufacturing, materials, etc) or as a subject on manufacturing at the postgraduate level. Also, this book can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and tribology researchers, mechanical, mechanical, manufacturing and materials engineers, professionals in related industries with manufacturing and tribology.

  7. 21 CFR 1315.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1315.22 Section 1315.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any... desires to manufacture a quantity of the chemical must apply on DEA Form 189 for a manufacturing quota...

  8. Manufacturing network evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed...... by identifying the gaps in the reviewed literature. The paper is based on three case studies undertaken in Danish manufacturing companies to explore in detail their manufacturing plants and networks. The cases provide a sound basis for developing the research questions and explaining the interaction between...... different manufacturing plants in the network and their impact on network transformation. Findings – The paper highlights the dominant role of manufacturing plants in the continuously changing shape of a manufacturing network. The paper demonstrates that a product or process change at one manufacturing...

  9. Specialty Chemical Manufacturing Sector in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CPCIA

    2007-01-01

    @@ Evaluation of the top 100 enterprises (1)Overall economic index evaluation The sales revenue of the top 100 enterprises was RMB147.107 billion in 2006,accounting for 34.48% of the sector's total. The proportion was 25.69% in 2005.

  10. Framework for Grid Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈笠; 邓宏; 邓倩妮; 吴振宇

    2004-01-01

    With the development of networked manufacturing, it is more and more imminent to solve problems caused by inherent limitations of network technology, such as heterogeneity, collaboration collision, and decentralized control.This paper presents a framework for grid manufacturing, which neatly combines grid technology with the infrastructure of advanced manufacturing technology.The paper studies grid-oriented knowledge description and acquisition, and constructs a distributed knowledge grid model.The paper also deals with the protocol of node description in collaborative design, and describes a distributed collaborative design model.The protocol and node technology leads to a collaborative production model for grid manufacturing.The framework for grid manufacturing offers an effective and feasible solution for the problems of networked manufacturing.The grid manufacturing will become an advanced distributed manufacturing model and promote the development of advanced manufacturing technologies.

  11. Strategic Roles of Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng

    Addressing three development trends of manufacturing, this thesis aims to explore: (1) facing challenges on manufacturing (globalisation, knowledge-based manufacturing and servitisation of manufacturing), what kinds of roles does manufacturing play within industrial companies; (2) along...... with the trend of globalisation, how do industrial companies develop their global manufacturing networks? These two questions are actually interlinked. On the one hand, facing increasing offshoring and outsourcing of production activities, industrial companies have to understand how to develop their global...... manufacturing networks. On the other hand, ongoing globalisation also brings tremendous impacts to post-industrial economies (e.g. Denmark). A dilemma therefore arises, i.e. whether it is still necessary to keep manufacturing in these post-industrial economies; if yes, what kinds of roles manufacturing should...

  12. Design of chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes design of chemical plant, which includes chemical engineer and plan for chemical plant, development of chemical process, cost engineering pattern, design and process development, general plant construction plan, project engineering, foundation for economy on assets and depreciation, estimation for cost on capital investment and manufacturing cost, design with computers optimal design and method like fluid mechanics design chemical device and estimation for cost, such as dispatch of material and device writing on design report and appendixes.

  13. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  14. Manufacturing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johannes; Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Boer, Harry

    This report compares the manufacturing strategies, practices, performances and improvement activities of 39 companies that are representative for the Danish assembly industry with those of 804 companies from 19 other countries. The data supporting this report were collected in 2013 and concern......: • Manufacturing strategies pursued and implemented between 2010 and 2012. • Performance improvements achieved during that period. • Actual manufacturing practices and performances as well as competitive priorities in 2012. • Manufacturing strategies pursued for the years 2010-2012....

  15. Design for Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Bertran Comellas, Martí

    2012-01-01

    This Thesis, Design for Additive Manufacturing, has been mainly focused on the design process and the considerations to be taken into account when designing parts for Additive Manufacturing. It starts with an introduction to Additive Manufacturing, the different technologies and processes are described to let the readers understand their operating principle, materials used and their strengths and weaknesses. The applications of Additive manufacturing are also explained in the introductory ...

  16. Chemical Data Access Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This tool is intended to aid individuals interested in learning more about chemicals that are manufactured or imported into the United States. Health and safety...

  17. 219-S chemical compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GOODWIN, L.D.

    1999-08-31

    This document consists of tables of the materials that make up the ''wetted'' parts of the 219-S waste handling facility and a combination of manufacturer lists of chemicals that are not recommended.

  18. Environmentally benign silicon solar cell manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuo, Y.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Gee, J.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Menna, P. [National Agency for New Technologies Energy and Environment, Portici (Italy); Strebkov, D.S.; Pinov, A.; Zadde, V. [Intersolarcenter, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-09-01

    The manufacturing of silicon devices--from polysilicon production, crystal growth, ingot slicing, wafer cleaning, device processing, to encapsulation--requires many steps that are energy intensive and use large amounts of water and toxic chemicals. In the past two years, the silicon integrated-circuit (IC) industry has initiated several programs to promote environmentally benign manufacturing, i.e., manufacturing practices that recover, recycle, and reuse materials resources with a minimal consumption of energy. Crystalline-silicon solar photovoltaic (PV) modules, which accounted for 87% of the worldwide module shipments in 1997, are large-area devices with many manufacturing steps similar to those used in the IC industry. Obviously, there are significant opportunities for the PV industry to implement more environmentally benign manufacturing approaches. Such approaches often have the potential for significant cost reduction by reducing energy use and/or the purchase volume of new chemicals and by cutting the amount of used chemicals that must be discarded. This paper will review recent accomplishments of the IC industry initiatives and discuss new processes for environmentally benign silicon solar-cell manufacturing.

  19. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Manufacturing Initiative Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA supports the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office (AMNPO). Hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) the AMNPO is...

  20. CHARACTERIZATION AND CHEMICAL RECYCLING BY PYROLYSIS OF WASTE FROM WIND BLADES MANUFACTURING = CARACTERIZAÇÃO E RECICLAGEM QUÍMICA VIA PIRÓLISE DE RESÍDUOS DA FABRICAÇÃO DE PÁS EÓLICAS

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Carla Guerrero; Sandro Donnini Mancini; Carim Miguel Toubia

    2011-01-01

    Wind energy is a form of energy that its use is expanding, and with this growth has also increased the amount of waste generated in the manufacture of wind blades. A correct way to use and disposal of these wastes is recycling. However, these are made of composite materials, usually epoxy resin and glass fiber; and by having a thermosetting polymer (the epoxy resin) in their composition, the conventional recycling by fusion is not possible. Thus, the chemical recycling by pyrolysis is present...

  1. Discussion on advanced manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiankui

    2007-01-01

    Advanced manufacturing consists of continuity of manufacturing,its broad sense,and the core of the manufacturing process.The technology of continuous manufacturing is discussed according to both historical and modern perspectives.The relationship between human development and manufacturing technology is also discussed.Manufacturing is a continuously evolving topic.It is not only the foundation and means of imagination,conception,the science,and the technology of material change,but also the expression of national economy,national defense,and the support industries.The broad sense of manufacturing theory,which extends the concept of manufacturing,is an important development in the 20th century.The sense is analyzed in connection with design,material forming theory,synthesis of manufacturing technology,manufacturing modes,life cycle of product,hardware and sottware,and support environment,etc.At the same time,the core action and the development of the theory and technology of process is also discussed.At the end of this paper,the development directions of mechanical manufacturing science and technology are mentioned.

  2. MEASURING MANUFACTURING INNOVATIVENESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Henrik; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    2016-01-01

    Globalization and customization increases the pressure on manufacturing companies, and the ability to provide innovativeness is a potential source of competitive advantage. This paper positions the manufacturing entity in the innovation process, and investigates the relation between innovation vers...... technology and organizational concepts. Based on Danish survey data from the European Manufacturing Survey (EMS-2015) this paper finds that there is a relation between innovative companies, and their level of technology and use of organizational concepts. Technology and organizational concepts act...... as manufacturing levers to support the manufacturing and production system to provide innovativeness. The managerial implication lies in building manufacturing capabilities to support the innovative process, by standardization, optimization and creating stability in combination with automation and advanced...

  3. Metrics for Sustainable Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Vijayaraghavan, Athulan; Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    A sustainable manufacturing strategy requires metrics for decision making at all levels of the enterprise. In this paper, a methodology is developed for designing sustainable manufacturing metrics given the specific concerns to be addressed. A top-down approach is suggested that follows the framework of goal and scope definition: (1) goal- what are the concerns addressed and what is the appropriate metric type to achieve the goal (2) scope what is the appropriate geographic and manufacturing ex...

  4. Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility specializes in the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of advanced composite structures and materials for both...

  5. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  6. Paradigm Shift from Current Manufacturing to Social Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajeri, Babak

    2015-01-01

    The emergent phenomenon of social manufacturing is disrupting industries all over the world. Social manufacturing represents a new collaborative manufacturing paradigm. The shift from the current manufacturing paradigm to social manufacturing is facilitated by rapid development of mobile technologies, new digital manufacturing, and online social networks. There are already successful businesses that build upon the social manufacturing paradigm, e.g., in finance, hospitality, and transportatio...

  7. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Low Temperature Materials Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, David E [ORNL; Moon, Ji Won [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Datskos, Panos G [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Jang, Gyoung Gug [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL; Joshi, Pooran C [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy [ORNL

    2016-07-01

    The Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) low temperature materials synthesis project was established to demonstrate a scalable and sustainable process to produce nanoparticles (NPs) for advanced manufacturing. Previous methods to chemically synthesize NPs typically required expensive, high-purity inorganic chemical reagents, organic solvents and high temperatures. These processes were typically applied at small laboratory scales at yields sufficient for NP characterization, but insufficient to support roll-to-roll processing efforts or device fabrication. The new NanoFermentation processes described here operated at a low temperature (~60 C) in low-cost, aqueous media using bacteria that produce extracellular NPs with controlled size and elemental stoichiometry. Up-scaling activities successfully demonstrated high NP yields and quality in a 900-L pilot-scale reactor, establishing this NanoFermentation process as a competitive biomanufacturing strategy to produce NPs for advanced manufacturing of power electronics, solid-state lighting and sensors.

  8. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Low Temperature Materials Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moon, Ji-Won [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Armstrong, Beth L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Datskos, Panos G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gresback, Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ivanov, Ilia N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobs, Christopher B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jellison, Gerald Earle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jang, Gyoung Gug [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joshi, Pooran C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jung, Hyunsung [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Meyer, III, Harry M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Phelps, Tommy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) low temperature materials synthesis project was established to demonstrate a scalable and sustainable process to produce nanoparticles (NPs) for advanced manufacturing. Previous methods to chemically synthesize NPs typically required expensive, high-purity inorganic chemical reagents, organic solvents and high temperatures. These processes were typically applied at small laboratory scales at yields sufficient for NP characterization, but insufficient to support roll-to-roll processing efforts or device fabrication. The new NanoFermentation processes described here operated at a low temperature (~60 C) in low-cost, aqueous media using bacteria that produce extracellular NPs with controlled size and elemental stoichiometry. Up-scaling activities successfully demonstrated high NP yields and quality in a 900-L pilot-scale reactor, establishing this NanoFermentation process as a competitive biomanufacturing strategy to produce NPs for advanced manufacturing of power electronics, solid-state lighting and sensors.

  9. SUPREME SUstainable PREdictive Maintenance for manufacturing Equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Sieg-Zieba, Sophie; ADOLF, Thomas; Lucke, Dominik; Haug, Ralf; Boulet, Pierrick; García-Sedano, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Productivity improvements have major impact on economy and competitiveness in European manufacturing industry. Industrial maintenance contributes largely to this competitiveness through reliability and availability of production equipment. Especially in continuous production industries (energy, chemical, food, cement or paper sectors) the ratio "maintenance costs/added value product" is even higher than 25 %. Defect components or process failures can stop the whole production, therefore predi...

  10. Modern manufacturing engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book covers recent research and trends in Manufacturing Engineering. The chapters emphasize different aspects of the transformation from materials to products. It provides the reader with fundamental materials treatments and the integration of processes. Concepts such as green and lean manufacturing are also covered in this book.

  11. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  12. Improving Project Manufacturing Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpivaara Ville

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to develop firms’ project manufacturing coordination. The development will be made by centralizing the manufacturing information flows in one system. To be able to centralize information, a deep user need assessment is required. After user needs have been identified, the existing system will be developed to match these needs. The theoretical background is achieved through exploring the literature of project manufacturing, development project success factors and different frameworks and tools for development project execution. The focus of this research is rather in customer need assessment than in system’s technical expertise. To ensure the deep understanding of customer needs this study is executed by action research method. As a result of this research the information system for project manufacturing coordination was developed to respond revealed needs of the stakeholders. The new system improves the quality of the manufacturing information, eliminates waste in manufacturing coordination processes and offers a better visibility to the project manufacturing. Hence it provides a solid base for the further development of project manufacturing.

  13. Appraising manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2002-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the iss

  14. Assessing manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2004-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy-makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the iss

  15. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick...... (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization...... that the method provides manufacturing tolerant designs with little decrease in performance. As a positive side effect the robust design formulation also eliminates the longstanding problem of one-node connected hinges in compliant mechanism design using topology optimization....

  16. Flexible Manufacturing Systems: What's in It for the Manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A. R.; Peckman, Donald C.

    1987-01-01

    The authors define the Flexible Manufacturing System and outline its history. They describe what the processing time includes and provide advantages and disadvantages of Flexible Manufacturing Systems compared to conventional manufacturing. (CH)

  17. Polymers for chemical sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna C. Persaud

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical sensors play an increasingly important role in monitoring the environment we live in, providing information on industrial manufacturing processes and their emissions, quality control of foods and beverages, and a host of other applications. Electrically conductive plastics are being developed for many useful applications. Improvement in understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms by which electrical conduction occurs in these materials is now leading to a new generation of chemical sensors, which are reviewed in this article.

  18. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  19. Competitive Manufacturing Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rymaszewska, Anna; Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    The increasing complexity of business environments and the pressure for organizations on delivering new products faster while maintaining the superior quality of their products, has forced manufacturing organizations to rethink their operations. Managers responsible for manufacturing ramp-up need...... to constantly improve this process in terms of time to volume, according to predefined cost and quality measures. The importance of the success of this process can lead to a significant creation of competitive advantage. This paper addresses the challenges of the manufacturing ramp-up process in the context...

  20. Agile manufacturing concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Steven L.

    1994-03-01

    The initial conceptualization of agile manufacturing was the result of a 1991 study -- chaired by Lehigh Professor Roger N. Nagel and California-based entrepreneur Rick Dove, President of Paradigm Shifts, International -- of what it would take for U.S. industry to regain global manufacturing competitiveness by the early twenty-first century. This industry-led study, reviewed by senior management at over 100 companies before its release, concluded that incremental improvement of the current system of manufacturing would not be enough to be competitive in today's global marketplace. Computer-based information and production technologies that were becoming available to industry opened up the possibility of an altogether new system of manufacturing, one that would be characterized by a distinctive integration of people and technologies; of management and labor; of customers, producers, suppliers, and society.

  1. MEDICAL MANUFACTURING INNOVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosma Sorin Cosmin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these studies was to improve the design and manufacturing process by selective laser melting, of new medical implants. After manufacturing process, the implants were measured, microscopically and mechanical analyzed. Implants manufactured by AM can be an attractive option for surface coatings to improve the osseointegration process. The main advantages of customized implants made by AM process are: the precise adaptation to the region of implantation, better cosmesis, reduced surgical times and better performance over their generic counterparts. These medical manufacturing changes the way that the surgeons are planning surgeries and engineers are designing custom implant. AM process has eliminated the constraints of shape, size, internal structure and mechanical properties making it possible for fabrication of implants that conform to the physical and mechanical requirements of implantation according to CT images. This article will review some custom implants fabricated in DME using biocompatible titanium.

  2. Many Manufactured Nanosats Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To achieve the capability to affordably produce scores of nano-spacecraft for envisioned constellation missions, a new manufacturing process is needed to reduce the...

  3. Manufacturing parabolic mirrors

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The photo shows the construction of a vertical centrifuge mounted on an air cushion, with a precision of 1/10000 during rotation, used for the manufacture of very high=precision parabolic mirrors. (See Annual Report 1974.)

  4. Additively Manufactured Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Dushku, Matthew; Mueller, Paul

    2012-01-01

    New high-performance, carbon-fiber reinforced polymer material allows additive manufacturing to produce pressure vessels capable of high pressures (thousands of pounds per square inch). This advancement in turn allows integral hybrid propulsion which is revolutionary for both CubeSats and additively-manufactured spacecraft. Hybrid propulsion offers simplicity as compared to bipropellant liquid propulsion, significantly better safety compared to solid or monopropellant hydrazine propulsion, an...

  5. Optimized manufacturable porous materials

    OpenAIRE

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Topology optimization has been used to design two-dimensional material structures with specific elastic properties, but optimized designs of three-dimensional material structures are more scarsely seen. Partly because it requires more computational power, and partly because it is a major challenge to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization.This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be man...

  6. Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC), established in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Manufacturing Technology (ManTech) Program, is Navy...

  7. Developing the Manufacturing Process for Hylene MP Curing Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastwood, Eric

    2009-02-16

    This report details efforts to scale-up and re-establish the manufacturing process for the curing agent known as Hylene MP. First, small scale reactions were completed with varying conditions to determine key drivers for yielding high quality product. Once the optimum conditions were determined on the small scale, the scaled-up process conditions were determined. New equipment was incorporated into the manufacturing process to create a closed production system and improve chemical exposure controls and improve worker safety. A safe, efficient manufacturing process was developed to manufacture high quality Hylene MP in large quantities.

  8. 75 FR 104 - Manufacturing & Services' Sustainable Manufacturing Initiative; Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing & Services' Sustainable Manufacturing Initiative; Update ACTION: Notice and request for input on proposed new areas of work for the Sustainable Manufacturing Initiative... (ITA) Manufacturing & Services Unit held a Sustainability and U.S. Competitiveness Summit on October...

  9. Analysis of Welding Quality Control in the Process of Chemical Equipment Manufacture%化工设备制造过程中焊接质量控制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶林军

    2016-01-01

    The quality of the welding quality has important influence on the installation quality of chemical equipment . Welding process is different from other welding chemical equipment installation process , will greatly affect the use of equipment function . Chemical equipment due to poor working environment , chemical raw materials may be toxic and harmful , etc . , so the quality control is particularly important . Through the control of welding quality of chemical equipment , ensure the efficient operation of chemical equipment , has great practical significance .%焊接过程不同于其他焊接化工设备安装过程,会很大程度上影响设备的使用功能。化工设备由于工作环境比较恶劣,化学原料可能有毒有害等,因此进行质量控制尤为重要。焊接质量对化工设备的安装质量有着重要影响,本文通过对化工设备焊接质量的控制,保证化工设备高效运转,具有重大现实意义。

  10. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ole Sigmund

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded)or too thick (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization approach, under- and over-etching is modelled by image processing-based "erode" and "dilate" operators and the optimization problem is formulated as a worst case design problem. Applications of the method to the design of macro structures for minimum compliance and micro compliant mechanisms show that the method provides manufacturing tolerant designs with little decrease in performance. As a positive side effect the robust design formulation also eliminates the longstanding problem of one-node connected hinges in compliant mechanism design using topology optimization.

  11. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  12. Laser additive manufacturing of high-performance materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    This book entitled “Laser Additive Manufacturing of High-Performance Materials” covers the specific aspects of laser additive manufacturing of high-performance new materials components based on an unconventional materials incremental manufacturing philosophy, in terms of materials design and preparation, process control and optimization, and theories of physical and chemical metallurgy. This book describes the capabilities and characteristics of the development of new metallic materials components by laser additive manufacturing process, including nanostructured materials, in situ composite materials, particle reinforced metal matrix composites, etc. The topics presented in this book, similar as laser additive manufacturing technology itself, show a significant interdisciplinary feature, integrating laser technology, materials science, metallurgical engineering, and mechanical engineering. This is a book for researchers, students, practicing engineers, and manufacturing industry professionals interested i...

  13. 78 FR 67117 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an Opportunity to Apply for Membership on the Manufacturing Council.... manufacturing industry to fill five vacant positions on the Manufacturing Council (Council). The purpose of...

  14. Robust Manufacturing Control

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This contributed volume collects research papers, presented at the CIRP Sponsored Conference Robust Manufacturing Control: Innovative and Interdisciplinary Approaches for Global Networks (RoMaC 2012, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany, June 18th-20th 2012). These research papers present the latest developments and new ideas focusing on robust manufacturing control for global networks. Today, Global Production Networks (i.e. the nexus of interconnected material and information flows through which products and services are manufactured, assembled and distributed) are confronted with and expected to adapt to: sudden and unpredictable large-scale changes of important parameters which are occurring more and more frequently, event propagation in networks with high degree of interconnectivity which leads to unforeseen fluctuations, and non-equilibrium states which increasingly characterize daily business. These multi-scale changes deeply influence logistic target achievement and call for robust planning and control ...

  15. Laser in manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Generally a laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) is defined as "a device which uses a quantum mechanical effect, stimulated emission, to generate a coherent beam of light from a lasing medium of controlled purity, size, and shape". Laser material processing represents a great number of methods, which are rapidly growing in current and different industrial applications as new alternatives to traditional manufacturing processes. Nowadays, the use of lasers in manufacturing is an emerging area with a wide variety of applications, for example, in electronics, molds an

  16. Knowledge Management for Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OveRustungHjelmervik; 王克胜; 袁庆丰; 方明伦

    2004-01-01

    Technology development and implementation on the manufacturing arena has, throughout the years, frustrated employees over the requirement of constantly adjusting to new technologies. The employee's ability to learn is bounded, and thus limited. Looking at a modern production system, it is often a complicated array of technologies that have to be coordinated; or the technologies are coordinating themselves through artificial intelligence. This paper discusses the need for a holistic knowledge management approach to manufacturing,combining in-place technology with process management philosophy, in order for the firm's human resources to create, share, store and apply new knowledge.

  17. Developments in fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL has a long tradition of willingness to embrace technological challenge and a dedication to quality. This paper describes advances in the overall manufacturing philosophy at BNFL's Fuel Business Group and then covers how some new technologies are currently being employed in BNFL Fuel Business Group's flagship oxide complex (OFC), which is currently in its final stages of commissioning. This plant represents a total investment of some Pound 200 million. This paper also describes how these technologies are also being deployed in BNFL's MOX plant now being built at Sellafield and, finally, covers some new processes being developed for advanced fuel manufacture. (author)

  18. Manufacturing and automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken and examined, especially that referring to the problem’s relationship with reconciling the level of automation with the flexibility and productivity demanded by competitive, worldwide manufacturing.

  19. 7 CFR 760.20 - Payments to manufacturers of dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payments to manufacturers of dairy products. 760.20... Payments to Manufacturers Affected by Pesticides § 760.20 Payments to manufacturers of dairy products. An... for payment when dairy products are contaminated by chemicals, toxic substances (other than...

  20. Economic Evaluation of the Pesticides Manufacturing Sector in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CPCIA

    2007-01-01

    @@ The chemical pesticides manufacturing sector achieved rapid development in 2006. According to data provided by the National Bureau of Statistics, China had 723 chemical pesticide enterprises of considerable scale (all state-owned enterprises,and non state-owned enterprises with sales over RMB5.

  1. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, H. L.; J. Mazumder; DebRoy, T.

    2015-01-01

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the he...

  2. Nuclear fuel manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technologies used to manufacture nuclear fuel from uranium ore are outlined, with particular reference to the light water reactor fuel cycle. Capital and operating cost estimates for the processing stages are given, and the relevance to a developing uranium industry in Australia is discussed

  3. Virtual manufacturing in reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papstel, Jyri; Saks, Alo

    2000-10-01

    SMEs play an important role in manufacturing industry. But from time to time there is a shortage in resources to complete the particular order in time. Number of systems is introduced to produce digital information in order to support product and process development activities. Main problem is lack of opportunity for direct data transition within design system modules when needed temporary extension of design capacity (virtuality) or to implement integrated concurrent product development principles. The planning experience in the field is weakly used as well. The concept of virtual manufacturing is a supporting idea to solve this problem. At the same time a number of practical problems should be solved like information conformity, data transfer, unified technological concepts acceptation etc. In the present paper the proposed ways to solve the practical problems of virtual manufacturing are described. General objective is to introduce the knowledge-based CAPP system as missing module for Virtual Manufacturing in the selected product domain. Surface-centered planning concept based on STEP- based modeling principles, and knowledge-based process planning methodology will be used to gain the objectives. As a result the planning module supplied by design data with direct access, and supporting advising environment is expected. Mould producing SME would be as test basis.

  4. Manufacturing and Merchandising Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Anyone with a flair for business, product development, or promotion might consider a manufacturing or merchandising occupation. The music industry offers many career opportunities for administrators, salespersons, marketing specialists--the record industry offers positions from promotion manager to rack jobber. Describes instrument company…

  5. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently `los

  6. Performance adaptive manufacturing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Creutznacher, T.; Lepratti, R.; Lamparter, S.; Heinecke, G.

    2013-01-01

    Part of: Selinger, Günther (Ed.): Innovative solutions : proceedings / 11th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing, Berlin, Germany, 23rd - 25th September, 2013. - Berlin: Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin, 2013. - ISBN 978-3-7983-2609-5 (online). - http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:83-opus4-40276. - pp. 296-301.

  7. Transfer of manufacturing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing and unfolding relocation of activities is one of the major trends, that calls for attention in the domain of operations management. In particular, prescriptive models outlining: stages of the process, where to locate, and how to establish the new facilities have been studied, while th...... and dilemmas to be addressed when transferring manufacturing units....

  8. Manufacturing halal in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    production, trade and consumption. Based on fieldwork in Malaysia, this article explores how manufacturing companies understand and practise halal certification, standards and technoscience. I argue that while existing studies of halal overwhelmingly explore micro-social aspects such as the everyday...

  9. Historic trends in manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manufacturing accounts for more of the world's energy use - around 40% of final energy - than any other major sector. In the OECD countries, its share of final energy use declined from about 35% to 30% between 1973 and 1988 due to rising consumption in other sectors and decline in manufacturing. It plays a more important role outside the OECD countries, however, accounting for approximately 40% of energy use in the Soviet Union, 60% in China, and 35-45% in other LDCs. At a global level, it is difficult to separate manufacturing from total industrial energy use, but trends in the latter give a reasonably good picture of those in manufacturing, since the latter dominates industrial activity and energy use. The other main industrial activities - mining and construction - account for 10-20% of total industrial energy use in the OECD countries, about 20% in the former East Bloc, and around 20-25% in the LDCs. Total OECD industrial energy use has fluctuated since the early 1970s, but was less in 1988 than in 1973. In the LDCs and former East Bloc, growth has been more steady, though the growth trend for the latter has levelled off since 1988. Decrease in the relative importance of energy-intensive industries within the manufacturing sector contributed to a decline in energy use in the OECD countries. Much more important, however, were decreases in the energy intensities of the various industry groups that comprise the sector. In the Former East Bloc, there seems to have been relatively little structural change or change in intensities. There is evidence that energy intensities have declined in a number of LDCs. 21 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Polymers for chemical sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Persaud, Krishna C.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical sensors play an increasingly important role in monitoring the environment we live in, providing information on industrial manufacturing processes and their emissions, quality control of foods and beverages, and a host of other applications. Electrically conductive plastics are being developed for many useful applications. Improvement in understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms by which electrical conduction occurs in these materials is now leading to a new generation of ...

  11. Fundamentals of Digital Manufacturing Science

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Zude; Chen, Dejun

    2012-01-01

    The manufacturing industry will reap significant benefits from encouraging the development of digital manufacturing science and technology. Digital Manufacturing Science uses theorems, illustrations and tables to introduce the definition, theory architecture, main content, and key technologies of digital manufacturing science. Readers will be able to develop an in-depth understanding of the emergence and the development, the theoretical background, and the techniques and methods of digital manufacturing science. Furthermore, they will also be able to use the basic theories and key technologies described in Digital Manufacturing Science to solve practical engineering problems in modern manufacturing processes. Digital Manufacturing Science is aimed at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students, academic researchers and researchers in the manufacturing industry. It allows readers to integrate the theories and technologies described with their own research works, and to propose new ideas and new methods to...

  12. Evaluation on Decomposition granularity of Manufacturing Task in Manufacturing Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Task decomposition is on of the most important activities for manufacturing task planning in Manufacturing Grid. Many achievements in the methods to decompose manufacturing tasks have been obtained. But as for the decomposition granularity, the study and research are rare. Referring to the principle of “strong cohesion and weak coupling” in the software engineering field, the decomposition model of manufacturing task is built up, in which a manufacturing task is decomposed into different subtasks, and each subtask is composed of various processing events. On the basis of the model, the constraint among processing events within the subtasks is analyzed. Then the evaluation index on decomposition granularity of manufacturing task is put forward based on several definitions and evaluation steps for the decomposition granularity of manufacturing task are listed. Finally, examples to illustrate the idea of the paper are given. We hope the work of the paper can promote the study and application for Manufacturing Grid further.

  13. Manufacturing matters: conference explores challenges faced by Buffalo's manufacturing sector

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Schmitt; Richard Deitz; Ramon Garcia

    2002-01-01

    The June 6 conference "Manufacturing Matters" was sponsored by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Buffalo Branch in conjunction with the Western New York Technology Development Center and the Buffalo Niagara Partnership's Manufacturers Council.

  14. Manufacturing Renaissance : Return of manufacturing to western countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kianian, Babak; Larsson, Tobias; Tavassoli, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that the location of manufacturing is gradually shifting to the west again, i.e. Manufacturing Renaissance. Such claim is based on the recent observed trend and the discussion is contextualized within the established theory that has been able to explain the location of manufacturing, i.e. Product Life Cycle Model (PLC). Then the paper identifies and discusses the four main drivers of this new phenomenon. Finally, it is noted that the rerun of manufacturing should be kept in ...

  15. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  16. Modelling manufacturing inventories

    OpenAIRE

    John D. Tsoukalas

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents and applies a stage-of-fabrication inventory model to the UK manufacturing sector. The model emphasises the interaction between input (raw materials and work-in-process) and output (finished goods) inventories. This interaction is an important empirical regularity and proves critical for the ability of the model to fit the data. Decisions about input and output inventory investment cannot be considered in isolation from each other, but must be analysed jointly. Overall, th...

  17. Manufacturing of Lightweight Mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Fabrication of the lightweight mirror is one of the key techniques for many large optical systems. CAD,CAM and CNC technologies are adopted in designing and manufacturing such mirrors in CIOMP. Better working efficiency and higher lightweight grade have been achieved. The results show that mirrors up to 70% weight reduction and 0.02λ(rms.) surface accuracy or better can be obtained.

  18. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  19. Green Manufacturing Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Green Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications introduces the basic definitions and issues surrounding green manufacturing at the process, machine and system (including supply chain) levels. It also shows, by way of several examples from different industry sectors, the potential for substantial improvement and the paths to achieve the improvement. Additionally, this book discusses regulatory and government motivations for green manufacturing and outlines the path for making manufacturing more green as well as making production more sustainable. This book also: • Discusses new engineering approaches for manufacturing and provides a path from traditional manufacturing to green manufacturing • Addresses regulatory and economic issues surrounding green manufacturing • Details new supply chains that need to be in place before going green • Includes state-of-the-art case studies in the areas of automotive, semiconductor and medical areas as well as in the supply chain and packaging areas Green Manufactu...

  20. Manufacturing a Superconductor in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, John

    1989-01-01

    Described is the manufacture of a superconductor from a commercially available kit using equipment usually available in schools or easily obtainable. The construction is described in detail including equipment, materials, safety procedures, tolerances, and manufacture. (Author/CW)

  1. 77 FR 69794 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: On September 14, 2012, the Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration (ITA) published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 56811) soliciting applications...

  2. 77 FR 66179 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... manufacturing council. SUMMARY: On September 14, 2012, the Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 56811) soliciting applications for...

  3. 75 FR 80040 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: On November 23, 2010, the Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration published a notice in the Federal Register (75 FR 71417) soliciting applications to fill...

  4. 75 FR 30781 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: On March 16, 2010, the Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration published a notice in the Federal Register (75 FR 12507) soliciting applications for membership...

  5. Interpretation of physico-chemical and biokinetic data for dose calculation: example of an industrial depleted UO{sub 2} used in the MOX fuel manufacture; Interpretation des donnees physico-chimiques et biocinetiques pour le calcul de dose: exemple d`un compose industriel UO{sub 2} appauvri fabrique pour le combustible MOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansoborlo, E.; Chazel, V.; Houpert, P.; Henge-Napoli, M.H.; Paquet, F. [CEA VALRHO, 26 - Pierrelatte (France). Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1997-12-01

    Interpretation of physico-chemical and biokinetic data for dose calculation: Example of an industrial depleted UO{sub 2}, used in the MOX fuel manufacture. The implementation of the new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) allows to use experimental parameters in order to calculate a specific effective Dose Per Unit of Intake (DPUI) for each compound. The aim of this study is to define a methodology including analysis techniques, in vitro dissolution tests and in vivo experiment in rats) leading to the determination of these parameters, and to present different calculation methods such as GIGAFIT software for the interpretation of blood translocation data, and LUDEP software for the assessment of effective dose. This study has led, for an industrial uranium oxide compound UO{sub 2} (depleted uranium), which is used in the MOX fuel manufacture, to the assessment of the main physico-chemical and biological parameters entering into dose calculation: the average Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter AMAD 6.5 {mu}m; the specific surface SS = 2.68 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}; and the fraction and rate of transfer to blood which are ranging from 2.5 % to 44.4 % for {integral}{sub r}, 0.09 to 1.7 d{sup -1} for S{sub r} and 6.4 x 10{sup -4} to 1.5 x 10{sup -3} d{sup -1} for S{sub s}. All these results were inserted in LUDEP to determine the specific inhalation DPUI value given for this industrial UO{sub 2} as equal to 2.84 x 10{sup -6} Sv Bq{sup -1}. (author)

  6. Simulation in Semiconductor Manufacturing Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Arisha, Amr; Young, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Semiconductor manufacturing is one of the most complex industries in terms of technology and manufacturing procedure. The life cycle of a semiconductor facility (FAB) has many phases, in their life cycle including capacity planning, new products introduction, variation of products/technologies, and decline phase. The complexity of the manufacturing and the external forces from markets and technology growth make predicting the effects of changes in the manufacturing system problematic. Simulat...

  7. Additive Manufacturing for Large Products

    OpenAIRE

    Leirvåg, Roar Nelissen

    2013-01-01

    This thesis researches the possibility and feasibility of applying additive manufacturing technology in the manufacturing of propellers. The thesis concerns the production at the foundry Oshaug Metall AS. Their products consist of propellers and other large products cast in Nickel-Aluminium Bronze. This report looks at three approaches and applications for additive manufacturing at the foundry. These are additively manufactured pattern, sand mold and end metal parts. The available \\emph{State...

  8. Decision Guidance for Sustainable Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Guodong

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable manufacturing has significant impacts on a company's business performance and competitiveness in today's world. A growing number of manufacturing industries are initiating efforts to address sustainability issues; however, to achieve a higher level of sustainability, manufacturers need methodologies for formally describing, analyzing,…

  9. 77 FR 2275 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an opportunity to apply for membership on the Manufacturing Council... Manufacturing Council (Council). The purpose of the Council is to advise the Secretary of Commerce on...

  10. 76 FR 33244 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an Opportunity To Apply for Membership on the Manufacturing Council... Manufacturing Council (Council). The purpose of the Council is to advise the Secretary of Commerce on...

  11. 77 FR 56811 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an Opportunity to Apply for Membership on the Manufacturing Council... ] Manufacturing Council (Council) for a two-year term to begin in fall 2012. The purpose of the Council is...

  12. Potential health hazards of organic pigments and dyes used in the manufacture of paints and surface coatings. Appendix I: scientific basis for the proposed regulation of dyes derived from the chemical substances benzidine, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C.L.

    1978-05-08

    The scientific bases for regulating dyes derived from benzidine, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine are presented. Studies of these compounds have demonstrated that benzidine-type dyes undergo nearly complete cleavage to known potent human carcinogenic agents through several metabolic and biological pathways, that these metabolites are carcinogenic in human and animal studies, that the toxicity and carcinogenicity of benzidine-type dyes has been demonstrated in animals, and that there is a high incidence of bladder cancer among users of benzidine-type dyes. Industrial workers were at risk through the inhalation of dye dusts, absorption through skin exposure, and accidental ingestion. Industries involved included dye manufacture, textile finishing, leather working, and paper dyeing. Direct dyes sold for home and craft use that may contain benzidine type dyes were listed by brand name and company or distributor. Commercial trade names of dyes and pigments based on these chemical substances were listed. Chemical identification of benzidine type dyes was described. Alternatives to benzidine type dyes were suggested, and a history of legislative attempts to regulate benzidine type dye production was provided.

  13. Additive manufacturing of biologically-inspired materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studart, André R

    2016-01-21

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer an attractive pathway towards the fabrication of functional materials featuring complex heterogeneous architectures inspired by biological systems. In this paper, recent research on the use of AM approaches to program the local chemical composition, structure and properties of biologically-inspired materials is reviewed. A variety of structural motifs found in biological composites have been successfully emulated in synthetic systems using inkjet-based, direct-writing, stereolithography and slip casting technologies. The replication in synthetic systems of design principles underlying such structural motifs has enabled the fabrication of lightweight cellular materials, strong and tough composites, soft robots and autonomously shaping structures with unprecedented properties and functionalities. Pushing the current limits of AM technologies in future research should bring us closer to the manufacturing capabilities of living organisms, opening the way for the digital fabrication of advanced materials with superior performance, lower environmental impact and new functionalities. PMID:26750617

  14. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-01-01

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components. PMID:26553246

  15. Automatic design and manufacture of robotic lifeforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Hod; Pollack, Jordan B.

    2000-08-01

    Biological life is in control of its own means of reproduction, which generally involves complex, autocatalysing chemical reactions. But this autonomy of design and manufacture has not yet been realized artificially. Robots are still laboriously designed and constructed by teams of human engineers, usually at considerable expense. Few robots are available because these costs must be absorbed through mass production, which is justified only for toys, weapons and industrial systems such as automatic teller machines. Here we report the results of a combined computational and experimental approach in which simple electromechanical systems are evolved through simulations from basic building blocks (bars, actuators and artificial neurons); the `fittest' machines (defined by their locomotive ability) are then fabricated robotically using rapid manufacturing technology. We thus achieve autonomy of design and construction using evolution in a `limited universe' physical simulation coupled to automatic fabrication.

  16. Pulmonary toxicity of manufactured nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Brian Christopher

    Manufactured nanomaterials have become ubiquitous in science, industry, and medicine. Although electron microscopy and surface probe techniques have improved understanding of the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, much less is known about what makes nanomaterials toxic. Particulate matter less than 2.5 mum in effective aerodynamic diameter is easily inhaled and taken deep into the lungs. The toxicity of inhaled particulate matter is related to its size and surface chemistry; for instance, the smaller the size of particles, the greater their specific surface area. The chemistry and toxicity of insoluble particles depends on their surface area, since chemical reactions may happen with the environment on the surface. Oxidation and reduction may occur on the surfaces of particles after they are produced. For instance, it is known that carbonaceous particles from vehicle exhaust and industrial emission may interact with reactive species like ozone in their ambient environment, altering the surface chemistry of the particles. Reaction with species in the environment may cause changes in the chemical functionality of the surface and change the toxic properties of the particles when they are inhaled. Furthermore, metals on the surface of inhalable particles can contribute to their toxicity. Much attention has been given to the presence of iron on the surfaces of inhalable particles in the environment. After particle inhalation, particles are endocytosed by alveolar macrophages in the immune response to foreign matter. They are exposed to hydrogen peroxide in the oxidative burst, which can cause the iron-mediated production of hydroxyl free radicals via the Fenton reaction, causing oxidative stress that leads to inflammation and cell death. The toxicity of particles that contain metals depends on the redox activity and bioavailability of the metals, the causes of thich have not yet been adequately explored. In this thesis, electron paramagnetic spectroscopy showed

  17. APPLICATION OF ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED POLYMER COMPOSITE PROTOTYPES IN FOUNDRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Kuczko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method, developed by the authors, for manufacturing polymer composites with the matrix manufactured in a layered manner (via 3D printing – Fused Deposition Modeling out of a thermoplastic material. As an example of practical application of this method, functional prototypes are presented, which were used as elements of foundry tooling – patterns for sand molding. In case of manufacturing prototype castings or short series of products, foundries usually cooperate with modeling studios, which produce patterns by conventional, subtractive manufacturing technologies. If patterns have complex shapes, this results in high manufacturing costs and significantly longer time of tooling preparation. The method proposed by the authors allows manufacturing functional prototypes in a short time thanks to utilizing capabilities of additive manufacturing (3D printing technology. Thanks to using two types of materials simultaneously (ABS combined with chemically hardened resins, the produced prototypes are capable of carrying increased loads. Moreover, the method developed by the authors is characterized by manufacturing costs lower than in the basic technology of Fused Deposition Modeling. During the presented studies, the pattern was produced as a polymer composite and it was used to prepare a mold and a set of metal castings.

  18. Cloud manufacturing distributed computing technologies for global and sustainable manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Mehnen, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    Global networks, which are the primary pillars of the modern manufacturing industry and supply chains, can only cope with the new challenges, requirements and demands when supported by new computing and Internet-based technologies. Cloud Manufacturing: Distributed Computing Technologies for Global and Sustainable Manufacturing introduces a new paradigm for scalable service-oriented sustainable and globally distributed manufacturing systems.   The eleven chapters in this book provide an updated overview of the latest technological development and applications in relevant research areas.  Following an introduction to the essential features of Cloud Computing, chapters cover a range of methods and applications such as the factors that actually affect adoption of the Cloud Computing technology in manufacturing companies and new geometrical simplification method to stream 3-Dimensional design and manufacturing data via the Internet. This is further supported case studies and real life data for Waste Electrical ...

  19. 75 FR 38078 - Manufacturing and Services' Manufacture America Initiative and Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing and Services' Manufacture America Initiative and Events ACTION... manufacturing. SUMMARY: The International Trade Administration's Manufacturing and Services Unit is launching a... government agencies as well as universities. To address these challenges, the Manufacturing and...

  20. Effects of short-time heat treatment and subsequent chemical surface treatment on the mechanical properties, low-cycle fatigue behavior and corrosion resistance of a Ni-Ti (50.9 at.% Ni) biomedical alloy wire used for the manufacture of stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Effect of short-time heat treatments on functional properties of a NiTi alloy. → Negative effect of heat treatments on corrosion resistance. → Positive effect of heat treatments on fatigue life. → Positive influence of chemical treatment on both fatigue and corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Cold-drawn and straight-annealed NiTi wires (50.9% Ni) with a tensile strength of 1650 MPa were subjected to heat treatments at 450, 510 and 600 deg. C for 10 min in air to simulate the shape-setting process in the manufacture of stents. Afterwards, the wires were chemically etched in acidic baths containing HF, HNO3 and H2O, followed by boiling in water. Variations in the internal structure, surface state and chemistry and transformation behavior of the wires due to these treatments were examined in detail by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectrometry, glow discharge spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Mechanical properties were determined by tensile tests, and low-cycle fatigue behavior was measured by bend-type cyclic loading tests. Corrosion behavior was assessed by immersion tests and potentiodynamic measurements. A high tensile strength of the wire was shown to be attributable to a very fine-grained structure and work hardening. Heat treatment at 450-510 deg. C/10 min did not significantly affect the tensile strength of the wire. At 600 deg. C/10 min, the strength decreased by about 600 MPa due to recrystallization. The transformation temperatures first slightly increased after heat treatment at 450 deg. C and then reduced after treatments at higher temperatures due to changes in the composition of the B2 phase. The fatigue life was observed to prolong with both heat treatment and chemical etching. In contrast, the corrosion resistance worsened with heat treatment, but it improved significantly upon chemical etching. The observed behaviors are discussed in

  1. Effects of short-time heat treatment and subsequent chemical surface treatment on the mechanical properties, low-cycle fatigue behavior and corrosion resistance of a Ni-Ti (50.9 at.% Ni) biomedical alloy wire used for the manufacture of stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojtech, D., E-mail: Dalibor.Vojtech@vscht.cz [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Voderova, M.; Kubasek, J.; Novak, P.; Seda, P.; Michalcova, A.; Fojt, J. [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Hanus, J. [Department of Medical Biophysics, Charles University - Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove, Simkova 870, 500 38 Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Mestek, O. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2011-01-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Effect of short-time heat treatments on functional properties of a NiTi alloy. {yields} Negative effect of heat treatments on corrosion resistance. {yields} Positive effect of heat treatments on fatigue life. {yields} Positive influence of chemical treatment on both fatigue and corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Cold-drawn and straight-annealed NiTi wires (50.9% Ni) with a tensile strength of 1650 MPa were subjected to heat treatments at 450, 510 and 600 deg. C for 10 min in air to simulate the shape-setting process in the manufacture of stents. Afterwards, the wires were chemically etched in acidic baths containing HF, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O, followed by boiling in water. Variations in the internal structure, surface state and chemistry and transformation behavior of the wires due to these treatments were examined in detail by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectrometry, glow discharge spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Mechanical properties were determined by tensile tests, and low-cycle fatigue behavior was measured by bend-type cyclic loading tests. Corrosion behavior was assessed by immersion tests and potentiodynamic measurements. A high tensile strength of the wire was shown to be attributable to a very fine-grained structure and work hardening. Heat treatment at 450-510 deg. C/10 min did not significantly affect the tensile strength of the wire. At 600 deg. C/10 min, the strength decreased by about 600 MPa due to recrystallization. The transformation temperatures first slightly increased after heat treatment at 450 deg. C and then reduced after treatments at higher temperatures due to changes in the composition of the B2 phase. The fatigue life was observed to prolong with both heat treatment and chemical etching. In contrast, the corrosion resistance worsened with heat treatment, but it improved significantly upon chemical etching. The

  2. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  3. Technique for microswitch manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, T.; Kiyoyama, S.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step technique for microswitch manufacture is described: (1) A clad board is inlaid with a precious metal and the board is pressed. (2) One end of the fixed contact containing a precious metal inlay section is curved, and this edge of the precious metal inlay section becomes a fixed contact. (3) Inserts are formed in the unit body and terminal strips are placed through the top and bottom of the base and held. (4) The unit body is held by the base and the sequential contact strips are cut off. (5) Movable stripes are attached to the support of the terminal strips on the movable side and movable contacts are placed opposite the fixed contacts.

  4. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  5. Maintenance in sustainable manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stuchly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sustainable development is about reaching a balance between economic, social, and environmental goals, as well as people's participation in the planning process in order to gain their input and support. For a company, sustainable development means adoption of such business strategy and actions that contribute to satisfying present needs of company and stakeholders, as well as simultaneous protection, maintenance and strengthening of human and environmental potential which will be needed in the future. This new approach forces manufacturing companies to change their previous management paradigms. New management paradigm should include new issues and develop innovative methods, practices and technologies striving for solving problem of shortages of resources, softening environment overload and enabling development of environment-friendly lifecycle of products. Hence, its realization requires updating existing production models as they are based on previously accepted paradigm of unlimited resources and unlimited regeneration capabilities. Maintenance plays a crucial role because of its impact on availability, reliability, quality and life cycle cost, thus it should be one of the main pillars of new business running model.  Material and methods: The following paper is a result of research on the literature and observation of practices undertaken by a company within maintenance area. Results and conclusions: The main message is that considering sustainable manufacturing requires considerable expanding range of analysis and focusing on supporting processes. Maintenance offers numerous opportunities of decreasing influence of business processes on natural environment and more efficient resources utilization. The goal of maintenance processes realizing sustainable development strategy is increased profitability of exploitation and optimization of total lifecycle cost without disturbing safety and environmental issues. 

  6. Queijo gorgonzola fabricado com leite pasteurizado por ejetor de vapor e HTST: parâmetros físico-químicos e sensoriais Gorgonzola type cheese manufactured with milk pasteurized by the HTST and steam ejector systems: physic-chemical and sensory parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Gattini Sbampato

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de dois sistemas de pasteurização (High Temperature Short Time ¾ HTST¾ e ejetor de vapor nas características físico-químicas e sensoriais do queijo tipo Gorgonzola. As coletas de amostras de queijo e análises foram realizadas aos 5, 25, 45, 65 e 85 dias de maturação. Durante o período de maturação ocorreu aumento gradual de pH, sal/umidade e índice de acidez nos dois tratamentos. Os queijos fabricados com leite pasteurizado pelo sistema HTST obtiveram valores médios de pH superiores aos dos queijos fabricados com leite pasteurizado pelo sistema ejetor de vapor; os queijos fabricados com leite pasteurizado pelo sistema ejetor de vapor, obtiveram teores de índice de acidez e metilcetonas superiores aos dos queijos fabricados com leite pasteurizado pelo sistema HTST, indicando maior atividade lipolítica nesses queijos. Pela análise sensorial realizada aos 65 dias de maturação, pode se observar que não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos em relação à aparência, cor, consistência, textura e sabor. Porém foi observada diferença significativa com relação ao desenvolvimento do mofo e aroma. Os queijos fabricados com leite pasteurizado pelo sistema ejetor de vapor apresentaram maior atividade lipolítica e massa mais macia e fechada.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of two pasteurization systems (HTST and steam ejector on the physic-chemical and sensory characteristics of Gorgonzola type cheese. Sampling and analysis were conducted at 5, 25, 45, 65 and 85 days of ripening. Along the maturation period, pH, acidity index, salt/humidity, gradually increased. Cheeses manufactured with milk pasteurized by the HTST system had average values of pH higher than those manufactured with milk pasteurized by the steam ejector system. Milk pasteurized by the steam ejector system produced cheeses with higher acidity index (lipolysis and

  7. Green manufacturing processes and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davim, J. Paulo (ed.) [Aveiro Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Campus Universitario de Santiago

    2013-02-01

    This book provides the recent advances on green manufacturing processes and systems for modern industry. Chapter 1 provides information on sustainable manufacturing through environmentally-friendly machining. Chapter 2 is dedicated to environmentally-friendly machining: vegetable based cutting fluids. Chapter 3 describes environmental-friendly joining of tubes. Chapter 4 contains information on concepts, methods and strategies for zero-waste in manufacturing. Finally, chapter 5 is dedicated to the application of hybrid MCDM approach for selecting the best tyre recycling process.

  8. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  9. The evolution of manufacturing SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, James Scott; Rose-Anderssen, Christen; Ridgway, Keith; Böttinger, Fabian; Michen, Marcus; Agyapong-Kodua, Kwabena; Brencsics, Ivan; Nemeth, Istvan; Krain, Roland

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to develop hierarchical and cladistic classifications of manufacturing system evolution, incorporating evolving and interacting product, process and production system features. The objectives then are to systematically organise manufacturing systems and their characteristics in classifications Forty-six candidate species of manufacturing systems have been identified and organised in a 4th generation hierarchical classification with 14 'genera', 6 'families' 3 'orders' and 1...

  10. A Review of Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufui V. Wong; Aldo Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    Additive manufacturing processes take the information from a computer-aided design (CAD) file that is later converted to a stereolithography (STL) file. In this process, the drawing made in the CAD software is approximated by triangles and sliced containing the information of each layer that is going to be printed. There is a discussion of the relevant additive manufacturing processes and their applications. The aerospace industry employs them because of the possibility of manufacturing light...

  11. Haz-Mat Refresher: Chemical Precautions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Louis A.

    2012-01-01

    It is important that first responders remain aware of the possible hazards resulting from chemical accidents or the intentional use of chemicals in destructive devices. Chemical components can be utilized in the manufacturing of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), can enhance the effect of a more conventional device, or can pose hazards based on…

  12. RANKING OF MANUFACTURING SYSTEM CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHARFUDDIN AHMED KHAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A high-quality manufacturing system should be capable to meet the company goals. Moreover, it is essential for any organization that its manufacturing system should be aligned with company’s strategy. There is always a potential for improvement in components of manufacturing systems but it is also essential to identify theparticular areas of the components that need improvement. In this paper, we have discussed the most appropriate criterion for good manufacturing systems with the help of a survey that indentified the importance of seven different criteria according to the experts experience and we ranked them accordingly.

  13. Virtual CIM and Digital Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sev V.Nagalingam; Grier C.I.Lin

    2006-01-01

    Manufacturing enterprises play an important role in improving the economic environment of a country.Today, the capability to produce high quality products with shorter delivery time and the ability to produce according to the diverse customer requirements has become the characteristics of successful manufacturing industries. Application of intelligent manufacturing systems and Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) are the most effective methods for overcoming the issues faced by present day manufactures while retaining the employment level and revenue of a country in today's highly competitive global market. With the developments taking place in CIM and its related technologies, the application of CIM in manufacturing enterprises has become a reality from the dream. This paper highlights the historical developments towards automation and the need for CIM systems. Furthermore, it analyses some new terms such as agile manufacturing, digital manufacturing, agent-based manufacturing and others, which have been emerging recently, and argues all these new technologies are the subsystems of CIM. In addition, this paper provides a new direction in CIM to fulfil the emerging challenges in today's global market and to satisfy the emerging need of virtual enterprises in the form of Virtual CIM.

  14. Knowledge Transfer and Manufacturing Relocation in International Manufacturing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov

    2014-01-01

    This paper is built on six longitudinal case studies of knowledge transfer in manufacturing relocation. By focusing on tacit and explicit knowledge the paper introduces a model for identification of knowledge in relation to four task situations on the shop floor in a manufacturing environment...

  15. Manufacturing strategy issues in selected Indian manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahender Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some findings of Indian manufacturing sectors viz. automobile (especially two-wheeler, tractor and general manufacturing industry. Various manufacturing strategy issues such as competitive priorities, improvement activities, and performance measures, have been identified and assessed in Indian context. Sector wise comparison of competitive priorities, improvement activities i.e. advanced manufacturing technology (AMT, integrated information systems (IIS, and advanced management systems (AMS, and performance measure, is provided. Our results showed that most of the Indian companies are still emphasizing on quality. However, automobile sector has set to compete globally with high innovation rate, faster new product development, and continuous improvement. It is also observed that Indian companies are investing more in AMS as compared to IIS and AMT. Manufacturing competence index is also computed for each sector.

  16. The ecotoxicology and chemistry of manufactured nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Richard D; von der Kammer, Frank; Lead, Jamie R; Hassellöv, Martin; Owen, Richard; Crane, Mark

    2008-05-01

    The emerging literature on the ecotoxicity of nanoparticles and nanomaterials is summarised, then the fundamental physico-chemistry that governs particle behaviour is explained in an ecotoxicological context. Techniques for measuring nanoparticles in various biological and chemical matrices are also outlined. The emerging ecotoxicological literature shows toxic effects on fish and invertebrates, often at low mg l(-1) concentrations of nanoparticles. However, data on bacteria, plants, and terrestrial species are particularly lacking at present. Initial data suggest that at least some manufactured nanoparticles may interact with other contaminants, influencing their ecotoxicity. Particle behaviour is influenced by particle size, shape, surface charge, and the presence of other materials in the environment. Nanoparticles tend to aggregate in hard water and seawater, and are greatly influenced by the specific type of organic matter or other natural particles (colloids) present in freshwater. The state of dispersion will alter ecotoxicity, but many abiotic factors that influence this, such as pH, salinity, and the presence of organic matter remain to be systematically investigated as part of ecotoxicological studies. Concentrations of manufactured nanoparticles have rarely been measured in the environment to date. Various techniques are available to characterise nanoparticles for exposure and dosimetry, although each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages for the ecotoxicologist. We conclude with a consideration of implications for environmental risk assessment of manufactured nanoparticles.

  17. 76 FR 21917 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... October 8, 2010, and published in the Federal Register on October 20, 2010, (75 FR 64744), Cayman Chemical... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code...

  18. Attracting young talents to manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perini, Stefano; Oliveira, Manuel; Costa, Joao;

    2014-01-01

    a strong integrated strategy towards attracting young talent to manufacturing, by raising the aware-ness and providing the acquisition of new manufacturing skills. The key-concepts and the strategy to achieve learning objectives are presented. Finally, ManuSkills Five Pillars, i.e. Interaction...

  19. Manufacturing mobility in global operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2002-01-01

    The globalization trend inevitably affects the organization of manufacturing by enterprises. It offers opportunities to examine manufacturing from a global perspective and consequently to produce where it is most appropriate. However, globalization has also led to an increase in competitive pressure

  20. Servitisation in Danish Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Johansen, John

    2014-01-01

    ; Neely, 2008; Schmenner, 2009), and is perceived by many traditional manufacturers as a strategy for survival. Based on multiple cases of Danish companies, this paper discusses the main reasons and strategic implications of servitisation. Furthermore, it outlines the strategies for how traditional...... manufacturers can recoup the desired level of return from the developments associated with servitisation....

  1. Manufacturing best practices and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szász, Levente; Demeter, Krisztina; Boer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    There is an impressive body of literature about best manufacturing practices. The question is whether these practices are always best, in every situation. Aimed at investigating the effects of home and host country characteristics on the “goodness” of manufacturing practices, the paper tests whet...

  2. Training for New Manufacturing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, James

    1988-01-01

    Examines the effects of computer-based manufacturing technologies on employment opportunities and job skills. Describes the establishment of the Industrial Technology Institute in Michigan to develop and utilize advanced manufacturing technologies, and the institute's relationship to the state's community colleges. Reviews lessons learned from…

  3. Industrial Development for Manufacturing Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Šatrevičs, V

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the development for manufacturing companies is analysed based on historical review of competitive factors used by manufacturing industry. Development strategy is built understanding the development evolution. This allows us to identify important factors for performance improvements, using resource for improving strategy level and efficiency. Traditional strategy will be substituted by achieving certain competitive factors for sustainable development. Using this approach, author ...

  4. 75 FR 12507 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an opportunity to apply for membership on the Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce is currently seeking applications for membership on the...

  5. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  6. Designing MEMS for manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Alexander; Herrmann, Andreas; Yildiz, Goekhan; Schenk, Harald; Lakner, Hubert

    2004-10-01

    MEMS (micro electro-mechanical systems) are often expected to take a development as microelectronics did in the last 35 years. Several devices are already established in mass markets like acceleration sensors, gyros, pressure sensors, ink jet heads and the DLP micromirror array. On the other hand many companies have stopped their business after the telecom bubble. Others are struggling. Many dreams based on MEMS-devices that were not at all mature and could not be manufactured in high numbers. When a commercial product is the goal, several questions must be answered already in concept phase. The specifications must clearly reflect the requirements of the application. Performance and price must be competitive to any other technology. The relation between fabrication process and design is strong and mutual. The process must create all features of the device and the design must consider the limitations of the process. Only if the design is tolerant against all process variations reproducible performance can be achieved. And only if the design is robust in all process steps the devices can survive. Regarding the time and cost frame it is always preferable to change the layout rather than the process. This article looks at MEMS technology and identifies what has been adopted from CMOS, what is desirable to adopt and what needs new solutions. Examples are given in the fields of design, modeling layout, process, test, and packaging.

  7. Precision manufacturing using LIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective is the fabrication of small high-precision parts using LIGA, which can be used in a variety of industrial applications. LIGA is a combination of deep x-ray lithography, electroplating, and replication processes that enables the fabrication of microstructures with vertical dimensions several millimeters high, lateral dimensions in the micrometer range, and submicron tolerances. On beamline 10.3.2, at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), the Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO) has built an end station suitable for LIGA. The ALS is an excellent source of radiation for this application. The CXRO, in close collaboration with Sandia National Laboratory and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has developed the other essential process steps of mask making, resist development, x-ray exposure, and electroplating. This technology provides a powerful tool for mass production and miniaturization of mechanical systems into a dimensional regime not accessible by traditional manufacturing operations. We will present several applications that exploit the characteristics of the LIGA process: the fabrication of magnetic laminations for a high precision stepping motor; miniature octopole lens for advanced e-beam lithography; high-aspect-ratio x-ray collimating grids for astronomy; and microscopic tumblers for nuclear security. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  8. APPROACHES FOR SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G(U)NTHER Seliger; SEBASTIAN Kernbaum; MARCO Zettl

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable development is a holistic approach harmonizing ecological, economical and socio-political needs with respect to the superior objective of enhancing human living standards. Thereby the availability of natural resources and the conservation of the ecosystems have to be considered that future generations have the possibility to meet their own needs. A long-term economical development demands the transition from a source-sink economy to a cycle economy as a result of limited resources, limited environmental capacities to absorb waste and emissions as well as increasing needs of a growing population. A reference model for sustainability in manufacturing is presented and used to illustrate sustainable approaches with respect to management, technology, process and product. Adaptation of products and components is a vital element for supporting efficient reuse of products and components. Consequently adaptation contributes to the ambitious goals of sustainability. Technological enablers for adaptation as modularity, information and communication technology are exemplarily introduced. Moreover, approaches for disseminating knowledge in sustainability are given.

  9. Generalized Reactive Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓓智

    2001-01-01

    Generalized reactive manufacturing system named GRMS is introduced. GRMS is a human-centered system based on Multi-agent. Its management and control organization is made up of three types of agents named device agent,task agent and shop-floor agent. GRMS adopts a top down and bottom- up competition and cooperation strategy based on the dynamic sifter and funnel To constrain the behavior of agents, a reward and penaity policy is introduced into the system and the closed-loop adjustment of GRMS is realized through such policy.Agents for the same task should be cooperated with each other and agents for different tasks should compete for survival in the dynamic changing environment. A distributed-hierarchical architecture with three levels of master-slave relationships among agents are proposed.Self-propelled process planning is also discussed. In order to evaluate GRMS, a time-driven simulation system-GRMOSS is developed to check the physical consistency of GRMS.

  10. Advanced Manufacture of Reflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Roger [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2014-12-17

    The main project objective has been to develop an advanced gravity sag method for molding large glass solar reflectors with either line or point focus, and with long or short focal length. The method involves taking standard sized squares of glass, 1.65 m x 1.65 m, and shaping them by gravity sag into precision steel molds. The method is designed for high volume manufacture when incorporated into a production line with separate pre-heating and cooling. The performance objectives for the self-supporting glass mirrors made by this project include mirror optical accuracy of 2 mrad root mean square (RMS), requiring surface slope errors less than 1 mrad rms, a target not met by current production of solar reflectors. Our objective also included development of new methods for rapidly shaping glass mirrors and coating them for higher reflectivity and soil resistance. Reflectivity of 95% for a glass mirror with anti-soil coating was targeted, compared to the present ~94% with no anti-soil coating. Our mirror cost objective is ~$20/m2 in 2020, a significant reduction compared to the present ~$35/m2 for solar trough mirrors produced for trough solar plants.

  11. 杭菊栽培品种小黄菊鲜花和制成品香气组成分析%Analysis on chemical components of essential oils from fresh flowers and manufactured goods of Chrysanthemum cultivar Dendrathema grandiflorum‘Xiao Huang'Ju in Tongxiang City of Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梦馨; 沈学根; 周建松; 崔林; 韩宝瑜

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils of fresh flowers and manufactured goods of Chrysanthemum cultivar Dendrathema grandiflorum‘Xiao Huang'Ju were extracted by the simultaneous distillation extraction method , then detected by gas chromatography coupled of mass spectrum .The results were as follows:(1) Seventy-six and eighty-eight components were respectively identified from the fresh flowers and manufactured goods of ‘Xiao Huang'Ju, with monterpenes , sesquiterpenes and their oxygenous derivatives being the major chemical components ;(2) Sixty-two mutual chemical components were identified , with eucalyptol , camphor , verbenol acetate , hexamethyl-benzene and so on at high content level.(3) The compounds in essential oils of the fresh flowers which were at least ten times greater than those in essential oils of manufactured goods were camphene ,β-phellandrene,α-phellandrene, (E)-ocimene, (Z)-ocimene, bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-one, allo-ocimene, D-verbenone, safranal, hexamethyl-benzene;(4) Fourteen components were only identified from the essential oils of fresh flowers , such asα-thujenal ,α-fenchene , copaene and so on.(5) The relative contents of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, α-citral, palmitic acid,α-curcumene, (E)-limonene oxide,α-bisabol and so on in essential oils of manufactured goods were much more than those of fresh flower . ( 6 ) Twenty-six specific components were only identified from the manufactured goods, including thymol, benzeneacetaldehyde, α-terpineol, γ-cadinene and so on.The results revealed the chemical characteristics of aroma of ‘Xiao Huang'Ju, which can be used as the reference during its cultivating, processing and tasting .%以SDE法提取小黄菊鲜花和制成品的香精油,用GC-MS进行定性定量分析,发现:(1)从鲜花和制成品中分别检出76和88种化合物,主要成分是单萜、倍半萜及含氧衍生物;(2)鲜花和制成品中共有成分62种,其中含量较

  12. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, February 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-03-21

    This report, for February 1963 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and safety and security.

  13. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, December 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-01-22

    This report, for December 1963 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations. Weapons manufacturing operation; and safety and security.

  14. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, October 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-11-21

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, for October, 1962 discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; and weapons manufacturing operation.

  15. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, October 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J. F.; Johnson, W. E.; Reinker, P. H.; Warren, J. H.; McCullugh, R. W.; Harmon, M. K.; Gartin, W. J.; LaFollette, T. G.; Shaw, H. P.; Frank, W. S.; Grim, K. G.; Warren, J. H.

    1963-11-21

    This report, for October 1963 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and safety and security.

  16. Toxic Release Inventory Chemicals by Groupings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) makes available information for more than 600 toxic chemicals that are being used, manufactured, treated, transported, or...

  17. Business models for additive manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadar, Ronen; Bilberg, Arne; Bogers, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Digital fabrication — including additive manufacturing (AM), rapid prototyping and 3D printing — has the potential to revolutionize the way in which products are produced and delivered to the customer. Therefore, it challenges companies to reinvent their business model — describing the logic...... of creating and capturing value. In this paper, we explore the implications that AM technologies have for manufacturing systems in the new business models that they enable. In particular, we consider how a consumer goods manufacturer can organize the operations of a more open business model when moving from...... a manufacturer-centric to a consumer-centric value logic. A major shift includes a move from centralized to decentralized supply chains, where consumer goods manufacturers can implement a “hybrid” approach with a focus on localization and accessibility or develop a fully personalized model where the consumer...

  18. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  19. Improved technology for manufacture of carbon electrodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Platon; A Dumbrava; N Iutes-Petrescu; Luzia Simionescu

    2000-02-01

    Current industrial carbon electrodes are typically manufactured by blending petroleum coke particles (the filler) with molten coal tar pitch (the binder) and extruding the resultant mix to form the `green electrode’. This is then baked under controlled conditions. In case of usage as anodes in steel electric furnaces (or as other carbon and graphite products), the electrodes could undergo further processing like pitch impregnation or graphitization. During heat treatment, some of the organics are destructively distilled, vaporized or decomposed, resulting in carbon deposition in the electrode. As the vaporized materials exit the body of the electrode they cause porosity in the walls, which results in reduction in density, current carrying capacity and flexural strength. The paper presents investigations to improve some physico-chemical characteristics of these electrodes (such as coefficient of thermal expansion, mechanical strengths, density, pore volume, porosity etc.), obtained in different manufacture steps, by addition of varieties of coal tar pitch. These include attempts to improve the chemical compatibility of the coke-pitch system in the mixture and establish the method and the point of introduction of additive, the concentration required and appropriate analytical control during the entire manufacture. Methods of analysis used include thermogravimetry and porosimetry. The microstructure of the electrodes is investigated through a wide range and the data obtained include pore size and pore volume distribution, surface area, porosity, particle size distribution and type of pores. The overall results clearly indicate better characteristics and performance for electrodes with additives as against electrodes without them, such as lower porosity, lower thermal expansion coefficients and greater mechanical strength. These data are analyzed with respect to the process step and electrode type.

  20. Beryllium Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A

    2006-06-30

    This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61

  1. Advanced Manufacture of Reflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Roger [University of Arizona

    2014-12-17

    The main project objective has been to develop an advanced gravity sag method for molding large glass solar reflectors with either line or point focus, and with long or short focal length. The method involves taking standard sized squares of glass, 1.65 m x 1.65 m, and shaping them by gravity sag into precision steel molds. The method is designed for high volume manufacture when incorporated into a production line with separate pre-heating and cooling. The performance objectives for the self-supporting glass mirrors made by this project include mirror optical accuracy of 2 mrad root mean square (RMS), requiring surface slope errors <1 mrad rms, a target not met by current production of solar reflectors. Our objective also included development of new methods for rapidly shaping glass mirrors and coating them for higher reflectivity and soil resistance. Reflectivity of 95% for a glass mirror with anti-soil coating was targeted, compared to the present ~94% with no anti-soil coating. Our mirror cost objective is ~$20/m2 in 2020, a significant reduction compared to the present ~$35/m2 for solar trough mirrors produced for trough solar plants. During the first year a custom batch furnace was built to develop the method with high power radiative heating to simulate transfer of glass into a hot slumping zone in a production line. To preserve the original high polish of the float glass on both front and back surfaces, as required for a second surface mirror, the mold surface is machined to the required shape as grooves which intersect the glass at cusps, reducing the mold contact area to significantly less than 1%. The mold surface is gold-plated to reflect thermal radiation. Optical metrology of glass replicas made with the system has been carried out with a novel, custom-built test system. This test provides collimated, vertically-oriented parallel beams from a linear array of co-aligned lasers translated in a perpendicular direction across the reflector. Deviations of

  2. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  3. Micro manufacturing techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Ruxu; Li, Zifu

    2013-01-01

    Micro/meso-scale manufacturing has been developed in research fields of machining, forming, materials and others, but its potential to industries are yet to be fully realized. The theme of the current volume was to build a bridge joining academic research and industrial needs in micro manufacturing. Among the 12 papers selected for publication are three keynote addresses onmicro and desktop factories for micro/meso-scale manufacturing applicationsand future visions, tissue cutting mechanics and applications for needlecore biopsy and guidance, and micro-texturing onto amorphous carbonmaterials

  4. An Assessment of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies Implementation in Manufacturing Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Yasin Shaikh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of AMTs (Advanced Manufacturing Technologies has always been the high interest and core issue for the manufacturing enterprises to get rapid production for global market place. The developed countries have achieved its competitive advantage by implementing this unique model of technologies with full range of systems. In developing countries, the implementation of such technologies is not much common due to so many reasons, (political, social, economical and technical but entrepreneurs of growing economies are contemplating to reshape long term strategy to adopt Computer systems oriented technologies in their manufacturing companies to meet the growing needs of their indigenous market on one hand and to make a place in the international market on the other. Although, very few manufacturing organization do meet the global market requirements. But there is still lot of efforts to be taken for world class competition. An attempt has been made in this paper to develop a conceptual model taking in to account the three parameters such as, Direct, Indirect and Administrative AMTs. This research work further attempts to present an empirical data analysis conducted in the manufacturing enterprises in province of Sindh, Pakistan. The overall indigenous progress of manufacturing enterprises as according to the data collected from 60 companies reveals that the AMTs systems are partially understood and practiced that is also one of the cause towards slow progress of national exchequer.

  5. Integrated flexible manufacturing program for manufacturing automation and rapid prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S. L.; Brown, C. W.; King, M. S.; Simons, W. R.; Zimmerman, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Kansas City Division of Allied Signal Inc., as part of the Integrated Flexible Manufacturing Program (IFMP), is developing an integrated manufacturing environment. Several systems are being developed to produce standards and automation tools for specific activities within the manufacturing environment. The Advanced Manufacturing Development System (AMDS) is concentrating on information standards (STEP) and product data transfer; the Expert Cut Planner system (XCUT) is concentrating on machining operation process planning standards and automation capabilities; the Advanced Numerical Control system (ANC) is concentrating on NC data preparation standards and NC data generation tools; the Inspection Planning and Programming Expert system (IPPEX) is concentrating on inspection process planning, coordinate measuring machine (CMM) inspection standards and CMM part program generation tools; and the Intelligent Scheduling and Planning System (ISAPS) is concentrating on planning and scheduling tools for a flexible manufacturing system environment. All of these projects are working together to address information exchange, standardization, and information sharing to support rapid prototyping in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) environment.

  6. 77 FR 27029 - The Manufacturing Council: Teleconference Meeting of the Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... International Trade Administration The Manufacturing Council: Teleconference Meeting of the Manufacturing... Manufacturing Council (Council). The agenda may change to accommodate Council business. The final agenda will be... Manufacturing Council, Room 4043, 1401 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20230, telephone...

  7. Opportunities for Merging Chemical and Biological Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Stephen; Balskus, Emily P.

    2014-01-01

    Organic chemists and metabolic engineers use largely orthogonal technologies to access small molecules like pharmaceuticals and commodity chemicals. As the use of biological catalysts and engineered organisms for chemical production grows, it is becoming increasingly evident that future efforts for chemical manufacture will benefit from the integration and unified expansion of these two fields. This review will discuss approaches that combine chemical and biological synthesis for small molecu...

  8. Strategic Planning Improves Manufacturing Performance

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong

    2004-01-01

    A quantitative critique of 28 studies concludes that formal planning is valuable for firms. The results were particularly favorable for manufacturing firms: nine studies found formal planning to be associated with better performance and none found detrimental performance.

  9. Green manufacturing processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Davim J, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    This volume fulfills a pressing need in both academia and industry to follow the latest innovations in sustainable manufacturing. The contents cover a host of topics, from environmentally friendly machining techniques to developments in zero-waste production.

  10. Exposure monitoring of graphene nanoplatelets manufacturing workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Jong Hun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Boowook; Bello, Dhimiter; Kim, Jin Kwon; Lee, Gun Ho; Sohn, Eun Kyung; Lee, Kyungmin; Ahn, Kangho; Faustman, Elaine M; Yu, Il Je

    2016-01-01

    Graphenes have emerged as a highly promising, two-dimensional engineered nanomaterial that can possibly substitute carbon nanotubes. They are being explored in numerous R&D and industrial applications in laboratories across the globe, leading to possible human and environmental exposures to them. Yet, there are no published data on graphene exposures in occupational settings and no readily available methods for their detection and quantitation exist. This study investigates for the first time the potential exposure of workers and research personnel to graphenes in two research facilities and evaluates the status of the control measures. One facility manufactures graphene using graphite exfoliation and chemical vapor deposition (CVD), while the other facility grows graphene on a copper plate using CVD, which is then transferred to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet. Graphene exposures and process emissions were investigated for three tasks - CVD growth, exfoliation, and transfer - using a multi-metric approach, which utilizes several direct reading instruments, integrated sampling, and chemical and morphological analysis. Real-time instruments included a dust monitor, condensation particle counter (CPC), nanoparticle surface area monitor, scanning mobility particle sizer, and an aethalometer. Morphologically, graphenes and other nanostructures released from the work process were investigated using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Graphenes were quantified in airborne respirable samples as elemental carbon via thermo-optical analysis. The mass concentrations of total suspended particulate at Workplaces A and B were very low, and elemental carbon concentrations were mostly below the detection limit, indicating very low exposure to graphene or any other particles. The real-time monitoring, especially the aethalometer, showed a good response to the released black carbon, providing a signature of the graphene released during the opening of the CVD reactor

  11. Chemical contamination of material cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Material recycling represents a backbone of sustainable society in the context of circular economy. Ideally, materials are converted into products, used by the consumers, and discarded, just to be recycled and converted into newly manufactured products. Furthermore, materials may also contain...... acceptance of recycledmaterial‐based products. Paper and plastics are conventional materials used to manufacture a variety of products within main sectors of economy (i.e. packaging, transportation, construction, services, and other). A number of chemicals can be either intentionally or unintentionally added...... to these materials in the process of product manufacturing or final product conversion. Extend of chemical use, as well as their presence in paper and plastic products remains largely uninvestigated. The aim of this project is to obtain reliable quantitative data on presence of selected (potentially hazardous...

  12. Whither North Carolina furniture manufacturing?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Lacy

    2004-01-01

    North Carolina's furniture manufacturing industry has contracted in recent years as imports have gained a greater share of the domestic furniture market. Rapid growth of the furniture industry in China and a surge in exports from that country to the United States in particular have contributed to plant closings and consolidation of operations in the state. North Carolina's furniture manufacturers are adapting to the emergence of global competition and are developing new corporate strategies t...

  13. Production planning of biopharmaceutical manufacture.

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhdar, K.

    2006-01-01

    Multiproduct manufacturing facilities running on a campaign basis are increasingly becoming the norm for biopharmaceuticals, owing to high risks of clinical failure, regulatory pressures and the increasing number of therapeutics in clinical evaluation. The need for such flexible plants and cost-effective manufacture pose significant challenges for planning and scheduling, which are compounded by long production lead times, intermediate product stability issues and the high cost - low volume n...

  14. Emergence of sustainable manufacturing practices

    OpenAIRE

    Despeisse, Melanie; Mbaye, Fatou; Ball, Peter David; Levers, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable manufacturing appears to be a rapidly developing field and it would be expected that there is a growing body of knowledge in this area. Initial examination of the literature shows evidence of sustainable work in the areas of product design, supply chain, production technology and waste avoidance activities. Manufacturers publish metrics showing significant improvements in environmental performance at high level but information on how these improvements are achieved is sparse. Exam...

  15. Nano Manufacturing - Products and Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Alting, Leo

    2004-01-01

    The use of micro and nano technologies in components and products not only sets new demands to the manufacturing technologies. Product concepts have to be rethought and redefined in order to implement the micro and nano technologies into functional systems. Both a technology driven and a product...... driven approach can be used in this process. A framework for the product driven approach in nano manufacturing is presented and discussed. The general discussion will be supported by case studies covering polymers and metals....

  16. Technological Theory of Cloud Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Kubler, Sylvain; Holmström, Jan; Främling, Kary; Turkama, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, a flourishing number of concepts and architectural shifts appeared such as the Internet of Things, Industry 4.0, Big Data, 3D printing, etc. Such concepts are reshaping traditional manufacturing models, which become increasingly network-, service- and intelligent manufacturing-oriented. It sometimes becomes difficult to have a clear vision of how all those concepts are interwoven and what benefits they bring to the global picture (either from a service or business perspe...

  17. Comparison of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M. A.; Rashid, M.H.; Kajal, M.F.I.; Istiak, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study quality of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and to compare it with Chamcham manufactured from buffalo milk and mixture of cow and buffalo milk. Three types of Chamcham were prepared from cow milk(A), buffalo milk(B) and 50% cow +50% buffalo milk(C).In this experiment the quality of prepared Chamcham were evaluated with the help of chemical test. The moisture, total solids, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of cow milk and buffalo milk Chamch...

  18. EDF's surveillance on fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF has 58 PWR reactors requiring an annual supply of approximately 2,300 fuel assemblies. The issues of safety and reliability are important concerning the fuel given the risk of generic manufacturing issues. Being a nuclear power operator, EDF is responsible for the safety of the fuel being used in their vessels. EDF is subject to a French law which requires in particular the surveillance of the manufacture of the components involved in safety. This law is in some way an opportunity. It permits the entities involved to have an influence on the quality of components supplied which is an important condition to exercise an operational responsibility. EDF has applied for 30 years surveillance of the manufacturing processes of suppliers of fuel assemblies and contracts have specific clauses in order to organize this surveillance. In order to focus the surveillance on important matters, critical characteristics of the fuel have been determined between EDF and the suppliers to ensure the safety requirements. Activities related to the manufacturing and having an influence on these characteristics are subject to the surveillance required by regulation authorities. In order to obtain fuel assemblies that fulfill the safety requirements, EDF considers that several aspects need to be treated correctly: - The clear and sufficient definition of the components that constitutes the assembly (technical file: drawings and specifications), a definition which takes into account as far as possible the critical characteristics. - The demonstration of the efficiency, in terms of results, of complex manufacturing or controls steps (equipment qualification) included in the global manufacturing process (efficiency which depends on parameters that need to be defined and determined). - The definition of manufacturing processes (manufacturing quality plan) and the demonstration of their efficiency (qualification of manufacturing processes) to produce components that meet safety requirements

  19. Manufacturing of the canister shells T54 and T55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report constitutes a summary of the manufacturing test of the disposal canister copper shells T54 and T55. The copper billets were manufactured at Luvata Pori Oy, Finland. The hot-forming and machining of the copper shells were made at Vallourec and Mannesmann Tubes, Reisholz mill, Germany. The shells were manufactured with the pierce and draw method. Both of the pipes were manufactured separately in two phases. The first phase consisted of following steps: preheating of the billet, upsetting, piercing and the first draw with mandrel through drawing ring. After cooling down the block is measured and machined in case of excessive eccentricity or surface defects. In the second phase the block is heated up again and expanded and drawn in 6 sequences. In this process the pipe inside dimension is expanded and the length is increased in each step. Before the last, the 6th step, the bottom of the pipe is deformed in a sequence of special processes. During the manufacture of the first pipe, T54, some difficulties were detected with the centralization of the billet before upsetting. For the second manufacture of the T55, an additional steering ring was made and the result was remarkably more coaxial. After the manufacture and non-destructive inspections the shells were cut in pieces and three parts of each shell were taken for destructive testing. The three inspected parts were the bottom plate, a ring from the middle of the cylinder and a ring from the top of the cylinder. The destructive testing was made by Luvata Pori Oy. In spite of some practical difficulties and accidents during the manufacturing process, the results of the examinations showed that both of the test produced copper shells fulfilled all the specified requirements as for soundness (integrity), mechanical properties, chemical composition, dimensions, hardness and grain size. (orig.)

  20. CVD-Enabled Graphene Manufacture and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stephan; Braeuninger-Weimer, Philipp; Weatherup, Robert S

    2015-07-16

    Integrated manufacturing is arguably the most challenging task in the development of technology based on graphene and other 2D materials, particularly with regard to the industrial demand for “electronic-grade” large-area films. In order to control the structure and properties of these materials at the monolayer level, their nucleation, growth and interfacing needs to be understood to a level of unprecedented detail compared to existing thin film or bulk materials. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has emerged as the most versatile and promising technique to develop graphene and 2D material films into industrial device materials and this Perspective outlines recent progress, trends, and emerging CVD processing pathways. A key focus is the emerging understanding of the underlying growth mechanisms, in particular on the role of the required catalytic growth substrate, which brings together the latest progress in the fields of heterogeneous catalysis and classic crystal/thin-film growth. PMID:26240694

  1. Flake tantalum powder for manufacturing electrolytic capacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jilin; YANG Guoqi; PAN Luntao; LIU Hongdong; BAO Xifang

    2008-01-01

    The FTP200 flake tantalum powder was introduced.The microstructures of the powder with leaf-like primary particles having an average flakiness of 2 to 20 and porous agglomerated particles were observed.The chemical composition,physical properties,and electrical properties of the FTP200 powder were compared with those of the FTW300 nodular powder.The FTP200 powder is more sinter-resistant,and the surface area of the flake tantalum powder under sintering at high temperature has less loss than that of the nodular tantalum powder.The specific capacitance of the flake tantalum powder is higher than that of the nodular tantalum powder with the same surface area when anodized at high voltage,Thus,the flake tantalum powder is suitable for manufacturing tantalum solid electrolytic capacitors in the range of median and high (20-63 V) voltages.

  2. Innovations Help Chemical Makers Improve Growing Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Weike

    2007-01-01

    @@ With overheated construction all over the country, China's GDP continued its fast growth in the first half. After suffering an explosion at a Jilin aniline facility, another explosion at Cangzhou TDI and a big outbreak of water pollution at Wuxi, the chemical raw materials and chemical manufacturing sectors are getting strict supervision from the central government.

  3. Study on the Manufacturability Evaluation Based on Double-layer Model of Manufacturing Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Virtual organization is a new production patter and a principal part in advanced manufacturing systems such as agile manufacturing. Manufacturability evaluation is the necessary condition to form the virtual organization. A new manufacturability evaluation approach is described in this paper, which is carried out based on every process feature under the double-layer model of manufacturing resources proposed by authors. The manufacturing resources that build up the virtual organization are selected according to the results of manufacturability evaluation.

  4. Towards Measuring Investment in Flexible Foundry Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing flexibility is an important instrument to ensure the success of manufacturing systems in the modern day competitive and uncertain environment. The major hindrance in integrating flexibility into decision making process is that it is difficult to measure and be compared to future indefinable manufacturing scenarios. This paper presents a methodical concept utilizing real options to evaluate flexible foundry manufacturing system.

  5. Metrology for Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocker, Michael [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Stanfield, Eric [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The project was divided into three subprojects. The first subproject is Fuel Cell Manufacturing Variability and Its Impact on Performance. The objective was to determine if flow field channel dimensional variability has an impact on fuel cell performance. The second subproject is Non-contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks. The objective was to enable cost reduction in the manufacture of fuel cell plates by providing a rapid non-contact measurement system for in-line process control. The third subproject is Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM Soft Goods. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of Optical Scatterfield Microscopy as a viable measurement tool for in situ process control of catalyst coatings.

  6. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.J. (Utility Power Group, Chatsworth, CA (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This report documents Utility Power Group's (UPG) contract under Phase 1 of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Specifically, the report contains the results of a manufacturing technology cost analysis based on an existing PV module production facility. It also projects the cost analysis of a future production facility based on a larger module area, a larger production rate, and the elimination of several technical obstacles. With a coordinated 18-month engineering effort, the technical obstacles could be overcome. Therefore, if solutions to the financial obstacles concerning production expansion were found, UPG would be able to manufacture PV modules at a cost of under $1.25 per watt by 1994.

  7. Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiede, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is of great interest to manufacturing companies. Beyond considering individual processes and machines, the perspective on process chains and factories as a whole holds major potentials for energy efficiency improvements. To exploit these potentials, dynamic interactions of different processes as well as auxiliary equipment (e.g. compressed air generation) need to be taken into account. In addition, planning and controlling manufacturing systems require  balancing technical, economic and environmental objectives. Therefore, an innovative and comprehensive methodology – with a generic energy flow-oriented manufacturing simulation environment as a core element – is developed and embedded into a step-by-step application cycle. The concept is applied in its entirety to a wide range of case studies such as aluminium die casting, weaving mills, and printed circuit board assembly in order to demonstrate the broad applicability and the benefits that can be achieved.

  8. Advanced optical manufacturing digital integrated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Li, Wei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    It is necessarily to adapt development of advanced optical manufacturing technology with modern science technology development. To solved these problems which low of ration, ratio of finished product, repetition, consistent in big size and high precision in advanced optical component manufacturing. Applied business driven and method of Rational Unified Process, this paper has researched advanced optical manufacturing process flow, requirement of Advanced Optical Manufacturing integrated System, and put forward architecture and key technology of it. Designed Optical component core and Manufacturing process driven of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Digital Integrated System. the result displayed effective well, realized dynamic planning Manufacturing process, information integration improved ratio of production manufactory.

  9. Medical device regulation for manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, P; Jeswiet, J

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturers of medical devices are held to a higher standard than manufacturers of many other products due to the potential severity of the consequences of introducing inferior or unsafe products to the market-place. In Canada, the medical device industry is regulated by Health Canada under the Medical Device Regulations of the Food and Drug Act. The Medical Device Regulations define requirements of medical device design, development and manufacture to ensure that products reaching the public are safe and effective. Health Canada also requires that medical device manufacturers maintain distribution records to ensure that devices can be traced to the source and consumers can be contacted successfully in the event that a device is recalled. Medical devices exported from Canada must be compliant with the regulations of the country of import. The Canadian Medical Device Regulations were based on the Medical Device Directives of the European Union thus facilitating approval of Canadian devices for the European market. The United States Food and Drug Administration has separate and distinct requirements for safety and quality of medical devices. While effort has been made to facilitate approval and trade of Canadian medical devices in the United States and the European Union, obtaining approval from multiple regulatory bodies can result in increased device development time and cost. The Global Harmonization Task Force is an organization composed of members from Japanese, Australian, European, Canadian and American medical device regulatory bodies. This organization was formed with the objective of harmonizing medical device regulations in an effort to facilitate international trade and standardize the quality of medical devices available to all countries. This paper discusses the requirements that must be met by manufacturers when designing and manufacturing medical devices.

  10. Method for manufacturing glass frit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budrick, Ronald G.; King, Frank T.; Nolen, Jr., Robert L.; Solomon, David E.

    1977-01-01

    A method of manufacturing a glass frit for use in the manufacture of uniform glass microspheres to serve as containers for laser fusion fuel to be exposed to laser energy which includes the formation of a glass gel which is then dried, pulverized, and very accurately sized to particles in a range of, for example, 125 to 149 micrometers. The particles contain an occluded material such as urea which expands when heated. The sized particles are washed, dried, and subjected to heat to control the moisture content prior to being introduced into a system to form microspheres.

  11. Introduction to semiconductor manufacturing technology

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    IC chip manufacturing processes, such as photolithography, etch, CVD, PVD, CMP, ion implantation, RTP, inspection, and metrology, are complex methods that draw upon many disciplines. [i]Introduction to Semiconductor Manufacturing Technologies, Second Edition[/i] thoroughly describes the complicated processes with minimal mathematics, chemistry, and physics; it covers advanced concepts while keeping the contents accessible to readers without advanced degrees. Designed as a textbook for college students, this book provides a realistic picture of the semiconductor industry and an in-depth discuss

  12. Exploring manufacturing solutions for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Blichfeldt, Henrik; Bilberg, Arne;

    This exploratory study provides an overview over current state of manufacturing solutions in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in region of Southern Denmark. Building on manufacturing paradigms, this paper reveals relevant aspects for the development and implementation of improving SMEs......’ automation processes. The paper presents an embedded case study based on 10 low- and medium-tech Danish companies. Based on the development of production paradigms and the presented study, this research helps to understand key determinants and processes for SMEs’ exploration of future directions...

  13. Rapid Manufacturing - auch mit SLM

    OpenAIRE

    Spierings, Adriaan; Levy, Gideon

    2009-01-01

    Rapid Manufacturing (RM) wurde als Schlagwort in der letzten Zeit insbesondere aus dem Bereich des Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) bekannt. In dieser inzwischen über 15-jährigen Technologieentwicklung wurden in den vergangenen Jahren bedeutende Fortschritte erzielt, die die Bauteileigenschaften nahe an die Anforderungen für End-Teile heran brachten. So ist das RM denn auch weniger aus der Sicht grösserer Losgrösse zu verstehen. Viel mehr bedeutet Rapid Manufacturing, dass die Bauteile nach ei...

  14. A framework for distributed manufacturing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Leitão, Paulo; Restivo, Francisco

    2000-01-01

    The new organisational structures used in world wide manufacturing systems require the development of distributed applications, which present solutions to their requirements. The work research in the distributed manufacturing control leads to emergent paradigms, such as Holonic Manufacturing Systems (HMS) and Bionic Manufacturing Systems (BMS), which translates the concepts from social organisations and biological systems to the manufacturing world. This paper present a Framework for the deve...

  15. ON INTELLIGENTIZED TECHNOLOGIES FOR MODERN WELDING MANUFACTURING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shanben; Qiu Tao; Lin Tao; Wu Yixiong

    2003-01-01

    A short survey on researching and developing status of intelligent technologies in modem welding manufacturing is given. According to the developing trend of advanced manufacturing technology, a concept on intelligentized welding manufacturing engineering (IWME), is presented for systematization of researching and developing domains on welding automation, intelligentized welding,robotic and flexible welding and advanced welding manufacturing technologies. And key technologies of welding intelligent manufacturing and its developing trend in the future are investigated.

  16. Ion chromatography in the manufacture of multilayer circuit boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1990-09-01

    Ion chromatography (IC) has proven useful in analyzing chemical solutions used in the manufacture of multilayer circuit boards. The manufacturing process is described briefly and previously published IC methods are reviewed. Then, methods are described for determining chlorate and chlorite in a brown oxide solution; salicylic acid in an epoxy cure agent; formate, sulfate, and tartrate in an electroless copper bath; anionic detergents in a tin-lead brightener and in a cleaning solution; and aqueous photoresist and nonionic brightener in a tin-lead bath. Anion exchange, reverse phase HPLC on a poly(styrene/divinylbenzene), PS/DVB, column and 2-D liquid chromatography also are described. Chemically suppressed conductivity and photometric detection are used.

  17. How to assess exposure of aquatic organisms to manufactured nanoparticles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quik, Joris T.K.; Vonk, Jan Arie; Hansen, Steffen Foss;

    2011-01-01

    Ecological risk of chemicals is measured by the quotient of predicted no-effect concentrations and predicted exposure concentrations, which are hard to assess for manufactured nanomaterials (NMs). This paper proposes modifications to currently used models, in order to make them suitable for estim......Ecological risk of chemicals is measured by the quotient of predicted no-effect concentrations and predicted exposure concentrations, which are hard to assess for manufactured nanomaterials (NMs). This paper proposes modifications to currently used models, in order to make them suitable...... on sedimentation and dissolution of NMs in environmentally relevant systems. We deduce that the overall kinetics of water–sediment transport of NMs should be close to first order. The lack of data on dissolution of NMs under environmentally realistic conditions calls for a pragmatic decision on which rates...

  18. An Integrated Environment for Batch Process Development - From Recipe to Manufacture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batch process development involves the process of converting a chemical synthesis into an optimum, safe, robust, and economical process for manufacturing the chemical of desired quality at the ultimate desired scale. In this paper we describe a strategy for developing a set of integrated decision...

  19. Evaluation of Agile Manufacturing Enterprises%Evaluation of Agile Manufacturing Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄新刚; 王先逵; 刘成颖

    2001-01-01

    Agile manufacturing is an important manufacturing philosophy todevelop advanced manufacturing enterprises to improve competivity. The evaluation of Agile Manufacturing Enterprises (AME) is one of the key activities in implementing agile manufacturing. This paper proposes a method for evaluating AME, establishes a basic feature model of AME based on the feature tree and discusses the hierarchical decomposition algorithm based on the model with an example.

  20. 75 FR 10216 - The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... International Trade Administration The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY... Manufacturing Council will hold a meeting to discuss a variety of issues affecting the U.S. manufacturing... relating to the U.S. manufacturing industry. DATES: March 22, 2010. Time: 1:30-3 p.m. (ET)....

  1. Environmental release, fate and ecotoxicological effects of manufactured ceria nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, Blanche; Auffan, Melanie; Johnson, Andrew C.; Kaur, Inder; Arturo A Keller; Lazareva, Anastasiya; Lead, Jamie R.; Ma, Xingmao; Merrifield, Ruth C.; Svendsen, Claus; White, Jason C.; Jason M Unrine

    2014-01-01

    Recent interest in the environmental fate and effects of manufactured CeO2 nanomaterials (nanoceria) has stemmed from its expanded use for a variety of applications including fuel additives, catalytic converters, chemical and mechanical planarization media and other uses. This has led to a wave of publications on the toxicological effects of nanoceria in ecological receptor species, but only limited information is available on possible environmental releases, concentrations in ...

  2. Particle Oxidation Time for the Manufacture of Binderless Particleboard

    OpenAIRE

    Suhasman; Massijaya, M.Y.; Hadi, Y.S.; Santoso, A

    2011-01-01

    The oxidation treatment using hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulphate of wood particles can form free radicals of the wood chemical components essentially required in manufacturing binderless particleboard. The oxidation process is expected to have a certain optimal time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze relationship between the oxidation time and the characteristic of produced binderless particleboard. Three wood species from community forest, namely, sengon (Paraserianthes...

  3. Order release in synchronous manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, J.

    2010-01-01

    Synchronous manufacturing aims at achieving the benefits of intermittent production lines in production situations that operate without lines. Benefits such as short and constant throughput times and predictable capacity loading can be acquired through an appropriate design of the synchronous manufa

  4. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wauthle, Ruben; Van Der Stok, Johan; Yavari, Saber Amin; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of it

  5. Analysis of cellular manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heragu, Sunderesh; Meng, Gang; Zijm, Henk; Ommeren, van Jan-Kees

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present an open queuing network modeling approach to estimate performance measures of a cellular manufacturing layout. It is assumed a layout and production data for a planning period of specified length are available. The production data takes into account, processing and handli

  6. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  7. Agile manufacturing prototyping system (AMPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, P.

    1998-05-09

    The Agile Manufacturing Prototyping System (AMPS) is being integrated at Sandia National Laboratories. AMPS consists of state of the industry flexible manufacturing hardware and software enhanced with Sandia advancements in sensor and model based control; automated programming, assembly and task planning; flexible fixturing; and automated reconfiguration technology. AMPS is focused on the agile production of complex electromechanical parts. It currently includes 7 robots (4 Adept One, 2 Adept 505, 1 Staubli RX90), conveyance equipment, and a collection of process equipment to form a flexible production line capable of assembling a wide range of electromechanical products. This system became operational in September 1995. Additional smart manufacturing processes will be integrated in the future. An automated spray cleaning workcell capable of handling alcohol and similar solvents was added in 1996 as well as parts cleaning and encapsulation equipment, automated deburring, and automated vision inspection stations. Plans for 1997 and out years include adding manufacturing processes for the rapid prototyping of electronic components such as soldering, paste dispensing and pick-and-place hardware.

  8. New strategic roles of manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Johansen, John; Boer, Harry

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to view manufacturing from a new angle, and tries to look beyond fit, focus and trade-offs, approaches which may no longer be sufficient for long-term competitive success. Four cases from different industries are described and used to illustrate and discuss the possibility of manu...

  9. Experiences on IGSCC crack manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veron, P. [Equipos Nucleares, S.A., Maliano (Spain)

    1997-02-01

    The author presents his experience in manufacturing IGSCC realistic defects, mainly in INCONEL 600 MA Steam Generator Tubes. From that experience he extracts some knowledge about this cracking (influence of chemistry in the environment, stress state, crack growth rate, and occurrence in laboratory condition of break before leak).

  10. Chinese approaches to sustainable manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiyusufoglu, Ömer Sahin

    2013-01-01

    Part of: Selinger, Günther (Ed.): Innovative solutions : proceedings / 11th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing, Berlin, Germany, 23rd - 25th September, 2013. - Berlin: Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin, 2013. - ISBN 978-3-7983-2609-5 (online). - http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:83-opus4-40276. - pp. 1–4.

  11. Innovation in sustainable manufacturing education

    OpenAIRE

    Jawahir, I.S.; Badurdeen, F.; Rouch, K. E.

    2013-01-01

    Part of: Selinger, Günther (Ed.): Innovative solutions : proceedings / 11th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing, Berlin, Germany, 23rd - 25th September, 2013. - Berlin: Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin, 2013. - ISBN 978-3-7983-2609-5 (online). - http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:83-opus4-40276. - pp. 9-16.

  12. Water management in sustainable manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    ReFalo, Paul; Zammit, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Part of: Selinger, Günther (Ed.): Innovative solutions : proceedings / 11th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing, Berlin, Germany, 23rd - 25th September, 2013. - Berlin: Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin, 2013. - ISBN 978-3-7983-2609-5 (online). - http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:83-opus4-40276. - pp. 114–119.

  13. Organic photovoltaics: technologies and manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    It is assumed, that the organic electronics industries and organic solar cells in particular, are in the transition stage towards commercialization. The companies and R&D institutes in this area are moving now from research and development stage to manufacturing. The biggest challenges are how to sc

  14. Kalman Filtering for Manufacturing Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Oakes, Thomas; Tang, Lie; Robert G. Landers; Balakrishnan, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter presented a methodology, based on stochastic process modeling and Kalman filtering, to filter manufacturing process measurements, which are known to be inherently noisy. Via simulation studies, the methodology was compared to low pass and Butterworth filters. The methodology was applied in a Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process to filter data

  15. Credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byiers, Bruce; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn;

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses two industrial firm surveys to identify the key determinants of credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing. We construct five different measures of being credit constrained and estimate desired debt demand. Besides firm size and ownership structure, we find evidence that general...

  16. Hydrogen manufacturing using plasma reformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A.; Hochgreb, S.; O`Brien, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Manufacturing of hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuels is needed for a variety of applications. These applications include fuel cells used in stationary electric power production and in vehicular propulsion. Hydrogen can also be used for various combustion engine systems. There is a wide range of requirements on the capacity of the hydrogen manufacturing system, the purity of the hydrogen fuel, and capability for rapid response. The overall objectives of a hydrogen manufacturing facility are to operate with high availability at the lowest possible cost and to have minimal adverse environmental impact. Plasma technology has potential to significantly alleviate shortcomings of conventional means of manufacturing hydrogen. These shortcomings include cost and deterioration of catalysts; limitations on hydrogen production from heavy hydrocarbons; limitations on rapid response; and size and weight requirements. In addition, use of plasma technology could provide for a greater variety of operating modes; in particular the possibility of virtual elimination of CO{sub 2} production by pyrolytic operation. This mode of hydrogen production may be of increasing importance due to recent additional evidence of global warming.

  17. Improved Methods for Production Manufacturing Processes in Environmentally Benign Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available How to design a production process with low carbon emissions and low environmental impact as well as high manufacturing performance is a key factor in the success of low-carbon production. It is important to address concerns about climate change for the large carbon emission source manufacturing industries because of their high energy consumption and environmental impact during the manufacturing stage of the production life cycle. In this paper, methodology for determining a production process is developed. This methodology integrates process determination from three different levels: new production processing, selected production processing and batch production processing. This approach is taken within a manufacturing enterprise based on prior research. The methodology is aimed at providing decision support for implementing Environmentally Benign Manufacturing (EBM and low-carbon production to improve the environmental performance of the manufacturing industry. At the first level, a decision-making model for new production processes based on the Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (GSAA is presented. The decision-making model considers not only the traditional factors, such as time, quality and cost, but also energy and resource consumption and environmental impact, which are different from the traditional methods. At the second level, a methodology is developed based on an IPO (Input-Process-Output model that integrates assessments of resource consumption and environmental impact in terms of a materials balance principle for batch production processes. At the third level, based on the above two levels, a method for determining production processes that focus on low-carbon production is developed based on case-based reasoning, expert systems and feature technology for designing the process flow of a new component. Through the above three levels, a method for determining the production process to identify, quantify, assess, and optimize the

  18. Sustainable Development in Chemical Fiber Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flora Zhao

    2012-01-01

    The 18th China International Man-Made Fiber Conference (Xiaoshan 2012), themed on "How does Chemical Fiber Industry to Realize Sustainable Development against the Background of High-cost Era?", kicked off in Hangzhou on September 6th, 2012. More than 600 representatives from nearly 20 major chemical fiber manufacturing countries and regions all over the world were gathered together to discuss the sustainable development strategies of international chemical fiber industry in the context of the current compficated environment from different perspectives.

  19. Flavour chemicals in electronic cigarette fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, Peyton A; Karpinski, Clarissa D; Jessica E Brown; Luo, Wentai; Pankow, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most e-cigarette liquids contain flavour chemicals. Flavour chemicals certified as safe for ingestion by the Flavor Extracts Manufacturers Association may not be safe for use in e-cigarettes. This study identified and measured flavour chemicals in 30 e-cigarette fluids. Methods Two brands of single-use e-cigarettes were selected and their fluids in multiple flavour types analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For the same flavour types, and for selected confectionary fla...

  20. Advance Manufacturing Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    The Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) brings together manufacturers, research institutions, suppliers, and universities to investigate manufacturing processes, information, and materials technologies critical to advance domestic manufacturing of clean energy products, and to support energy productivity across the entire manufacturing sector.

  1. Avaliação físico-química e sensorial do iogurte natural produzido com leite de búfala contendo diferentes níveis de gordura Physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of plain yogurt manufactured from buffalo milk with different fat content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otaviano Carneiro Cunha Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A elaboração de iogurtes pode ser considerada uma excelente alternativa para a utilização industrial do leite de búfala. Entretanto, alguns problemas de aceitação por parte dos consumidores podem ocorrer devido ao elevado conteúdo de gordura do leite original. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar algumas características do iogurte natural batido elaborado com leite de búfala com os seguintes teores de gordura: integral, 3,0% (padronizado e 0,5% (desnatado. Os iogurtes foram embalados em frascos de polietileno de 1L e estocados a 5°C por 30 dias. Amostras foram colhidas nos dias 1, 15 e 30 e submetidas à análise de acidez, pH, viscosidade e avaliação sensorial. Os valores de acidez e pH não apresentaram diferenças (P > 0,05 entre os tratamentos, durante o período de estocagem. A viscosidade também não foi influenciada (P > 0,05 pelos níveis de gordura nos dias 1, 15 e 30. O iogurte produzido com leite padronizado apresentou notas maiores (P Yogurt can be considered an excellent alternative for utilization of buffalo milk. However, consumers may have some acceptance problems in relation to buffalo yogurt because of the original high fat content of the milk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate some characteristics of stirred plain yogurt produced from buffalo milk with the following fat levels: whole milk, 3.0% (standardized and 0.5% (skim. Yogurts were stored in 1L polyethylene bottles at 5°C for 30 days. Samples were collected at 1, 15 and 30 days of storage and submitted to the following analysis: acidity, pH, viscosity and sensorial evaluation. Acidity and pH values showed no differences (P > 0.05 among treatments during storage. Viscosity was not influenced (P > 0.05 by fat content in yogurts on days 1, 15 and 30 after manufacture. Standardized yogurt obtained higher scores (P < 0.05 for taste in sensorial analysis at 15 and 30 days storage. It is concluded that skimming of buffalo milk does not alter the

  2. Lean manufacturing in Indian context: A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to examine the implementation of Lean Manufacturing system in the Indian industries. Predominant elements of Lean Manufacturing, benefits gained after its implementation and obstacles observed by Indian Industry have been recognized. The results of this survey support the opinion that Lean Manufacturing had potential to improve the organizational performance of Indian industries. Nevertheless, Indian industries are required to be passionate to transform their manufacturing by adopting Lean manufacturing to gain the full benefits. A large numbers of literature papers are available on the better side of Lean manufacturing approach and its benefits gained by manufacturing organizations after implementation. But the adverse impacts of Lean manufacturing are not discussed to a great extent. Some drawbacks of Lean manufacturing are also highlighted in this paper.

  3. Biocatalysis for Biobased Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén de Regil

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The design and development of greener processes that are safe and friendly is an irreversible trend that is driven by sustainable and economic issues. The use of Biocatalysis as part of a manufacturing process fits well in this trend as enzymes are themselves biodegradable, require mild conditions to work and are highly specific and well suited to carry out complex reactions in a simple way. The growth of computational capabilities in the last decades has allowed Biocatalysis to develop sophisticated tools to understand better enzymatic phenomena and to have the power to control not only process conditions but also the enzyme’s own nature. Nowadays, Biocatalysis is behind some important products in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and bulk chemicals industry. In this review we want to present some of the most representative examples of industrial chemicals produced in vitro through enzymatic catalysis.

  4. Biocatalysis for biobased chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Regil, Rubén; Sandoval, Georgina

    2013-01-01

    The design and development of greener processes that are safe and friendly is an irreversible trend that is driven by sustainable and economic issues. The use of Biocatalysis as part of a manufacturing process fits well in this trend as enzymes are themselves biodegradable, require mild conditions to work and are highly specific and well suited to carry out complex reactions in a simple way. The growth of computational capabilities in the last decades has allowed Biocatalysis to develop sophisticated tools to understand better enzymatic phenomena and to have the power to control not only process conditions but also the enzyme's own nature. Nowadays, Biocatalysis is behind some important products in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and bulk chemicals industry. In this review we want to present some of the most representative examples of industrial chemicals produced in vitro through enzymatic catalysis. PMID:24970192

  5. 75 FR 78715 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packaging...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Small Entity Compliance Guide: Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packaging, Labeling, or Holding Operations for Dietary Supplements; Availability...) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice...

  6. 75 FR 36421 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Postapproval Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Postapproval Manufacturing Changes Reportable in Annual Reports; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``CMC Postapproval Manufacturing...

  7. 78 FR 49546 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; IRIX Manufacturing, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; IRIX Manufacturing... that on January 18, 2013, IRIX Manufacturing, Inc., 309 Delaware Street, Greenville, South...

  8. Chemical use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of research and activities related to chemical use on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. The chemicals used on the Refuge...

  9. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  10. Let others manufacture! Towards a new manufacturing framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Vilana Arto

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Global manufacturing virtual networks (GMVNs constitute a new type of vertical and horizontal relations between independent companies or even competitors where it is not needed to maintain internal manufacturing resources but to manage and share the network resources. The fluid relations that exist within the GMVNs allow them a very permeable organization easy to connect and disconnect from one to each other as well as to choose a set of partners with specific attributes. The result is a highly flexible system characterized by low barriers to entry and exit, geographic flexibility, low costs, rapid technological diffusion, high diversification through contract manufacturers and exceptional economies of scale and specialization. This paper analyses the causes behind the formation of such networks, their strategy, structure, dynamics and culture, taking into account areas such as strategic alliances between competitors, the permeable and diffuse nature of the network actors, the inherent paradox of collaborating with competitors, cross-cultural issues or information and communication technologies at the network level. This work will clarify and put these organizations in perspective and will analyze their evolution over the next few years.

  11. Progress and Future of Manufacturing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Yongxiang

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of manufacturing technology and the progress that has so far been made in this field.It points out that manufacturing technology is not only the pillar of material civilization and the base of spiritual civilization of man,but also the foundation of a country's competitivendess.The paper also attempts to review the future of manufacturing technology through the description of the new pattern of manufacturing market,new features of manufactured products,new characteristics of technologies as well as the emerging trends of manufacturing enterprises and man-agement in the 21 st cetury.

  12. Continued Evolution of Automated Manufacturing – Cloud-Enabled Digital Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hung Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to conventional manufacturing, digital manufacturing is not affected by marginal costs; that is, the cost for producing a single prototype is not different from producing several thousand ones. Digital manufacturing consequently eliminates the requirement for large sums of capital necessary for conventional manufacturing. Digital manufacturing combined with cloud platforms and cloud-enabled databases will allow large-quantity virtual product development while minimizing costs, which will consequently reflect on the efficient manufacturing of physical products.

  13. Mechanical Prototyping and Manufacturing Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The internship was located at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Innovation Design Center (IDC), which is a facility where the JSC workforce can meet and conduct hands-on innovative design, fabrication, evaluation, and testing of ideas and concepts relevant to NASA's mission. The tasks of the internship included mechanical prototyping design and manufacturing projects in service of research and development as well as assisting the users of the IDC in completing their manufacturing projects. The first project was to manufacture hatch mechanisms for a team in the Systems Engineering and Project Advancement Program (SETMAP) hexacopter competition. These mechanisms were intended to improve the performance of the servomotors and offer an access point that would also seal to prevent cross-contamination. I also assisted other teams as they were constructing and modifying their hexacopters. The success of this competition demonstrated a proof of concept for aerial reconnaissance and sample return to be potentially used in future NASA missions. I also worked with Dr. Kumar Krishen to prototype an improved thermos and a novel, portable solar array. Computer-aided design (CAD) software was used to model the parts for both of these projects. Then, 3D printing as well as conventional techniques were used to produce the parts. These prototypes were then subjected to trials to determine the success of the designs. The solar array is intended to work in a cluster that is easy to set up and take down and doesn't require powered servomechanisms. It could be used terrestrially in areas not serviced by power grids. Both projects improve planetary exploration capabilities to future astronauts. Other projects included manufacturing custom rail brackets for EG-2, assisting engineers working on underwater instrument and tool cases for the NEEMO project, and helping to create mock-up parts for Space Center Houston. The use of the IDC enabled efficient completion of these projects at

  14. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  15. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  16. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-03

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  17. RESHORING IN MANUFACTURING AND SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei MĂRGULESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The extent of offshoring and outsourcing recorded in manufacturing and services in the last two decades has gradually eroded the advantage of the global arbitrage of labor costs. Along with other factors, this process began to change the options of international relocation of some companies that initially had adopted such a strategy, generating a reverse trend for returning in the country of origin of manufacturing and other activities. This process, called "reshoring," has recently started to gain some consistency. The trend is most notable in the sphere of production. In terms of business and IT services we cannot yet speak of a tangible start of the reshoring phenomenon, as it does in the sphere of production. Nevertheless we can see a slowdown in the offshoring of services and the emergence of new strategies in the field.

  18. Reshoring in Manufacturing and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGHEI MĂRGULESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The extent of offshoring and outsourcing recorded in manufacturing and services in the last two decades has gradually eroded the advantage of the global arbitrage of labor costs. Along with other factors, this process began to change the options of international relocation of some companies that initially had adopted such a strategy, generating a reverse trend for returning in the country of origin of manufacturing and other activities. This process, called "reshoring" has recently started to gain some consistency. The trend is most notable in the sphere of production. In terms of business and IT services we cannot yet speak of a tangible start of the reshoring phenomenon, as it does in the sphere of production. Nevertheless we can see a slowdown in the offshoring of services and the emergence of new strategies in the field.

  19. The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

  20. Manufacturing considerations for cockpit AMLCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannella, Vincent; Lambie, Michael G.

    1994-06-01

    Most important decisions in planning the manufacturing of AMLCDs are interrelated. Plant layout depends upon machine design and process flow, which depend upon process design, material choices and handling techniques, which in turn depend upon available machine technology as well as product design. All of these must be subordinate to specifications of product performance and cost. Since many production processes and issues are interdependent, overlapping, or even conflicting, most planning decisions do not have a simple linear path. We assume a decision sequence for manufacturing planning as follows: product specification, product design, process specification and design, production machine specification and design, facility specification and design, operational design. We will examine options, interrelations and conflicts in several of these areas and discuss the problems and challenges which provide directions for future improvements.

  1. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  2. Manufacturing Outsourcing A Knowledge Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; O'Sullivan, David

    2012-01-01

    All companies which reach a critical size are faced with outsourcing decisions that can increase the value of their products and services primarily through lower costs, greater reliability and improved efficiency. Successful outsourcing decisions have an important knowledge dimension, where the outsourcing professionals need to be supported by historical and contextual knowledge regarding their own products performance but also the performance of suppliers. Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension explains in detail how a manager can acquire, create, transfer and use knowledge that optimizes their outsourcing decisions and improves the changes of marketplace success.              Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension gives examples of the key decisions that needs to be taken by managers regarding effective outsourcing. Decisions are divided around the structural and infrastructural aspects of outsourcing and the key knowledge that needs to be managed to support good de...

  3. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...). These accidents in turn caused the contamination of food products intended for human consumption (meat... machinery in food-packaging manufacturing establishments. Since PCB's are toxic chemicals, the PCB... materials: (1) New equipment or machinery for manufacturing food-packaging materials shall not contain...

  4. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...). These accidents in turn caused the contamination of food products intended for human consumption (meat... machinery in food packaging manufacturing establishments. Since PCB's are toxic chemicals, the PCB... materials: (1) New equipment or machinery for manufacturing food-packaging materials shall not contain...

  5. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    OpenAIRE

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors meas...

  6. Analysis of cellular manufacturing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Heragu, Sunderesh; Meng, Gang; Zijm, Henk; Ommeren, van, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present an open queuing network modeling approach to estimate performance measures of a cellular manufacturing layout. It is assumed a layout and production data for a planning period of specified length are available. The production data takes into account, processing and handling set-up times as well as transfer and process batch size information of multiple products that flow through the system. It is assumed that two sets of discrete material handling devices are used fo...

  7. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK.

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and mater...

  8. Lean Manufacturing Methodology for Shipyards

    OpenAIRE

    KOLIĆ, Damir; Fafandjel, Nikša; Zamarin, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Many shipyards today have made technological changes to their production facilities over the past decades. However, the building methodology has remained the same. Implementing a lean manufacturing approach to shipyards requires analysis of the present shipyard facilities. Likewise, the lean compliance level needs to be measured. After this, the steps for lean transformation are determined. In this work, a case study of a shipyard with a traditional panel-block assembly process is transformed...

  9. Progress in Bio-manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Yongnian; Wang Xiaohong; Xiong Zhuo; Liu Haixia; Li Shengjie

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we made a thorough and systematic expatiation of the definition, connotation and composition of bio-manufacture. Based on the different development stages and process of bioengineering, its main research direction and corresponding researches were reviewed. Furthermore, from the viewpoint of disciplinary crossing, integration and development, the main technological development direction of bio-engineering in the coming years was pointed out.

  10. Statistical Methods for Semiconductor Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Susto, Gian Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis techniques for non-parametric modeling, machine learning, filtering and prediction and run-to-run control for semiconductor manufacturing are described. In particular, algorithms have been developed for two major applications area: - Virtual Metrology (VM) systems; - Predictive Maintenance (PdM) systems. Both technologies have proliferated in the past recent years in the semiconductor industries, called fabs, in order to increment productivity and decrease costs. ...

  11. Exploring Danish Innovative Manufacturing Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perunovic, Zoran; Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    2005-01-01

    look at time and cost trade-off, the fifth innovation generation’s related performance and possible congruence between the fifth generation’s factors and motives for their implementation. The source of data is an existing survey ‘The Danish industry—Present and Future’. Results indicate that Danish...... manufacturing companies demonstrate an innovative performance close to the fourth generation of innovation, which is slightly different than it is perceived publicly....

  12. Are intelligent manufacturing systems sustainable?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, André; Trentesaux, Damien

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces and opens the debate on the place of "product-driven control" and, on a broader level, Intelligent Manufacturing and Services Systems in sustainable development and circular economy. First, IMS concept and perspectives on future industrial and economic systems, as well as their expected advantages and the challenges to be addressed are introduced. Different sustainability interpretations are then described. Third, our vision on possible impacts of IMS on a sustainable wo...

  13. Swarm Intelligence (SI) in Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Molinuevo, Javier Toral

    2010-01-01

    Manufacturing is a field of Engineering which is constantly changing. Due to this fact more and more complicated problems appear and have to be solved by engineers. Some of them are difficult to solve by usual numerical methods, as equations, so a new area is developing at present using Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques.There are many different tools like Genetic Algorithms, Fuzzy Logic Systems… but in this thesis we are going to focus on the Swarm Intelligence (SI) which tries to mimic...

  14. Geographic Concentration in China's Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Tongsheng; Gan Guohui

    2006-01-01

    This paper empirically examines variations and changes in manufacturing concentration and their determinants in China over the 1980-2003period with a sample of 26 industries. The analysis indicates that average industrial concentration has increased during the 1990s. Studies show that scale economies and industry policies are important determinants for industries geographical concentration; factor endowments and the location of foreign direct investment are also found to have a positive effect on concentration.

  15. Method of aluminium fluoride manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manufacture of aluminium fluoride is based on waste processing in uranium hexafluoride conversion to uranium oxides within the fuel cycle. The conversion is the stoichiometric conversion of uranium hexafluoride with aluminium nitrate to uranyl nitrate. This is extracted from the water phase by phosphoric acid trialkyl ester to an organic solvent and further processed. The discharge water phase is solidified by evaporation to solid aluminium fluoride and nitric acid. (M.S.)

  16. Chemical Leukoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Vestita, Michelangelo; Romita, Paolo; Filoni, Angela; Foti, Caterina; Angelini, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Chemical leukoderma, often clinically mimicking idiopathic vitiligo and other congenital and acquired hypopigmentation, is an acquired form of cutaneous pigment loss caused by exposure to a variety of chemicals that act through selective melanocytotoxicity. Most of these chemicals are phenols and aromatic or aliphatic catechols derivatives. These chemicals, however, are harmful for melanocytes in individuals with an individual susceptibility. Nowadays, chemical leukoderma is fairly common, caused by common domestic products. The presence of numerous acquired confetti- or pea-sized macules is clinically characteristic of chemical leukoderma, albeit not diagnostic. Other relevant diagnostic elements are a history of repeated exposure to a known or suspected depigmenting agent at the sites of onset and a macules distribution corresponding to sites of chemical exposure. Spontaneous repigmentation has been reported when the causative agent is avoided; the repigmentation process is perifollicular and gradual, taking place for a variable period of weeks to months. PMID:27172302

  17. FRIDA integral field unit manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Salvador; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Sánchez, Beatriz

    2014-07-01

    FRIDA (inFRared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias) has been designed as a cryogenic and diffraction limited instrument that will offer broad and narrow band imaging and integral field spectroscopy (IFS). Both, the imaging mode and IFS observing modes will use the same Teledyne 2Kx2K detector. This instrument will be installed at Nasmyth B station, behind the GTC Adaptive Optics system (GTCAO). FRIDA will provide the IFS mode using a 30 slices Integral Field Unit (IFU). This IFU design is based on the University of Florida FISICA where the mirror block arrays are diamond turned on monolithic metal blocks. The FRIDA IFU is of the slicer type; conformed mainly by 3 mirror blocks with 30 spherical mirrors each. It also has a Schwarzschild relay based on two off axis spherical mirrors and an afocal system of two parabolic off axis mirrors. Including two insertion mirrors the IFU holds 96 metal mirrors. All the mirrors have been manufactured by diamond turning techniques on monolithic blocks of aluminum 6061-T6 coated by a Nickel alloy. Except for the Schwarzschild relay and the insertion mirrors, 92 mirrors were manufactured by Corning in Keene NH, USA. The different blocks and mirrors are mounted on an opto-mechanical support that ensures the image quality and integrity of the complete IFU. In this work advances on the manufacturing of the FRIDA IFU components are described. Furthermore, the mirror blocks individual verification tests and are also described.

  18. Human factors in agile manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, C.

    1995-03-01

    As industries position themselves for the competitive markets of today, and the increasingly competitive global markets of the 21st century, agility, or the ability to rapidly develop and produce new products, represents a common trend. Agility manifests itself in many different forms, with the agile manufacturing paradigm proposed by the Iacocca Institute offering a generally accepted, long-term vision. In its many forms, common elements of agility or agile manufacturing include: changes in business, engineering and production practices, seamless information flow from design through production, integration of computer and information technologies into all facets of the product development and production process, application of communications technologies to enable collaborative work between geographically dispersed product development team members and introduction of flexible automation of production processes. Industry has rarely experienced as dramatic an infusion of new technologies or as extensive a change in culture and work practices. Human factors will not only play a vital role in accomplishing the technical and social objectives of agile manufacturing. but has an opportunity to participate in shaping the evolution of industry paradigms for the 21st century.

  19. Sustainability issues in laser-based additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, R.; Goel, A.; Bourell, D. L.

    Sustainability is a consideration of resource utilization without depletion or adverse environmental impact. In manufacturing, important sustainability issues include energy consumption, waste generation, water usage and the environmental impact of the manufactured part in service. This paper deals with three aspects of sustainability as it applies to additive manufacturing. First is a review of the research needs for energy and sustainability as applied to additive manufacturing based on the 2009 Roadmap for Additive Manufacturing Workshop. The second part is an energy assessment for selective laser sintering (SLS) of polymers. Using polyamide powder in a 3D Systems Vanguard HiQ Sinterstation, energy loss during a build was measured due to the chamber heaters, the roller mechanism, the piston elevators and the laser. This accounted for 95% of the total energy consumption. An overall energy assessment was accomplished using eco-indicators. The last topic is electrochemical deposition of porous SLS non-polymeric preforms. The goal is to reduce energy consumption in SLS of non-polymeric materials. The approach was to mix a transient binder with the material, to create an SLS green part, to convert the binder, and then to remove the open, connected porosity and to densify the part by chemical deposition at room temperature within the pore network. The model system was silicon carbide powder mixed with a phenolic transient binder coupled with electrolytic deposition of nickel. Deposition was facilitated by inserting a conductive graphite cathode in the part center to draw the positive nickel ions through the interconnected porous network and to deposit them on the pore walls. The Roadmap for Additive Manufacturing Workshop was sponsored by the National Science Foundation under Grant CMMI-0906212 and by the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-09-1-0558. The electrolytic deposition research was sponsored by the National Science Foundation, Grant CMMI-0926316.

  20. Statistical and Computational Techniques in Manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, interest in developing statistical and computational techniques for applied manufacturing engineering has been increased. Today, due to the great complexity of manufacturing engineering and the high number of parameters used, conventional approaches are no longer sufficient. Therefore, in manufacturing, statistical and computational techniques have achieved several applications, namely, modelling and simulation manufacturing processes, optimization manufacturing parameters, monitoring and control, computer-aided process planning, etc. The present book aims to provide recent information on statistical and computational techniques applied in manufacturing engineering. The content is suitable for final undergraduate engineering courses or as a subject on manufacturing at the postgraduate level. This book serves as a useful reference for academics, statistical and computational science researchers, mechanical, manufacturing and industrial engineers, and professionals in industries related to manu...

  1. Additive Manufacturing of Ion Thruster Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plasma Controls will manufacture and test a set of ion optics for electric propulsion ion thrusters using additive manufacturing technology, also known as 3D...

  2. SMP Bladder Tooling for Manufacturing Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CRG's shape memory polymer (SMP) Bladder Tooling is a cutting-edge manufacturing technology that can meet the manufacturing needs of the Ares launch vehicles. This...

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  4. PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT BY LEAN MANUFACTURING PHILOSOPHY

    OpenAIRE

    GYÖRGY KOVÁCS

    2012-01-01

    In the increasingly global marketplace, many manufacturers and service providers are applying lean manufacturing philosophy in order to optimize costs and quality gaining a competitive advantage. The paper summarises the advantages of application of lean philosophy in the manufacturing and service sectors, which focuses on value-added flow and the efficiency of the overall system. Lean manufacturing techniques and typical wastes are also detailed. The author describes the main general steps o...

  5. e-Manufacturing: Characteristics, applications and potentials

    OpenAIRE

    CHENG, K; Bateman, RJ

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an engineering oriented approach is proposed towards e-manufacturing and its applications. The characteristics and potential of e-manufacturing are presented with a number of application examples developed by the authors’ research group. The advances in e-manufacturing and applications are also highlighted and critically reviewed. The paper concludes with a further discussion on the promises and impact of e-manufacturing technology and philosophy on modern manufacturin...

  6. Power electronic modules design and manufacture

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, William W

    2004-01-01

    IntroductionSelection ProcedureMaterialsInsulating Substrate and MetallizationBase PlateBonding MaterialPower Interconnection and TerminalEncapsulantPlastic Case and Cover Manufacturing of Power IGBT ModulesManufacturing Process Process Control/Long-Term ReliabilityManufacturing FacilitiesManufacturing Flow Charts DesignThermal ManagementCircuit PartitioningDesign Guidelines and ConsiderationsThermal Results of Different Samples

  7. Making it in Ireland : Manufacturing 2020

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Manufacturing plays a crucial role in any economy. Manufacturing is a driver of innovation and technological advance, provides employment across a broad range of skills levels, and generates additional indirect jobs throughout the economy. The Action Plan for Jobs 2012 sees manufacturing as essential for a return to more sustainable export-led growth. This strategy has been developed in response to the Action to: Develop a long term vision for the manufacturing sector and put in place a strat...

  8. A reconceptualization of manufacturers' service strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Raddats, Chris; Kowalkowski, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: As part of service infusion, manufacturers use services to differentiate their products and provide growth. Although several attempts have been made to classify manufacturers' service strategies and offerings, most have been based on small purposive samples. The purpose of this article is to create a generic typology of manufacturers' service strategies. Methodology/approach: The unit of analysis was the manufacturer or strategic business unit. The data collection was based on a surv...

  9. Applicability of Operations Research in Manufacturing Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Semini, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Ever-increasing customer expectations and fierce competition in global markets force manufacturing companies to continuously enhance competitiveness to stay profitable. In recent years, they have realized that manufacturing logistics, i.e. the management of material and information flows in manufacturing companies, has a considerable potential to reduce costs, improve customer service and provide them with a competitive advantage. Manufacturing logistics decision-making is, however, a complex...

  10. Software Engineering applied to Manufacturing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Ruiz-Vanoye

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Optimization approaches have traditionally been viewed as tools for solving manufacturing problems, the optimization approach is not suitable for many problems arising in modern manufacturing systems due to their complexity and involvement of qualitative factors. In this paper we use a tool of software engineering applied to manufacturing problems. We use the Heuristics Lab software to determine and analyze the solution obtained for Manufacturing Problems.

  11. Manufacturing plant control challenges and issues

    OpenAIRE

    Morel, Gérard; Valckenaers, Paul; Faure, Jean-Marc; Pereira, Carlos Eduardo; Diedrich, Christian

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Enterprise control system integration between business systems, manufacturing execution systems and shop-floor process-control systems remains a key issue for facilitating the deployment of plant-wide information control systems for practical e-business-to-manufacturing industry-led issues. Achievement of the integration-in-manufacturing paradigm based on centralized/distributed hardware/software automation architectures is evolving using the intelligence-in-manufactur...

  12. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q11 Development and Manufacture of Drug Substances; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q11 Development and Manufacture of Drug Substances.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance describes approaches to developing and understanding the manufacturing process of a drug substance and provides guidance on what information should be provided in certain sections of the Common Technical Document (CTD). The guidance is intended to harmonize the scientific and technical principles relating to the description and justification of the development and manufacturing process of drug substances (both chemical entities and biotechnological/biological entities) to enable a consistent approach for providing and evaluating this information across the three regions. The discussion of principles in the guidance is intended to apply only to the manufacture of drug substance, not the manufacture of finished drug products. PMID:23227566

  13. Decomposition of energy consumption and energy intensity in Indian manufacturing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Binay Kumar Ray; Sudhakara Reddy, B.

    2007-01-01

    Of the total final energy consumption in India, the industrial sector accounts for about 37 percent, of which the manufacturing sector consumes about 66 percent (2004-2005 figures) with chemicals and petrochemicals, iron and steel, pulp and paper and cement industries being the largest energy users. In the recent past, energy intensity in the manufacturing sector has been decreasing. This decline is mainly due to fuel substitution away from coal in some of the sectors, most notably cement. Wh...

  14. R&D, Innovation and Growth: Evidence from Four Manufacturing Sectors in OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ulku, Hulya

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the relationship between R&D intensity, rate of innovation and the growth rate of output in four manufacturing sectors from 17 OECD countries. The findings suggest that the knowledge stock is the main determinant of innovation in all four manufacturing sectors and that R&D intensity increases innovation in the chemicals and the electrical and electronics sector. In addition, the rate of innovation has a positive effect on the growth rate of output ...

  15. Some topical problems in the manufacture of steels for reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manufacture is described of pressure vessel steels with low contents of harmful and trace elements, gases and non-metallic inclusions. The steels are made of pure charge raw materials in electric arc furnaces and refined outside of furnaces or using vacuum and reheating furnaces of the ASEA-SFK or FINKL-MOHR type. The chemical compositions of the individual steels being manufactured are shown. (J.B.)

  16. Evaluation of probiotic potential of yeasts isolated from traditional cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Milica Zivkovic; Neza Cadez; Ksenija Uroic; Marija Miljkovic; Maja Tolinacki; Petra Dousova; Blazenka Kos; Jagoda Suskovic; Peter Raspor; Ljubisa Topisirovic; Natasa Golic

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro probiotic potential of dairy yeast isolates from artisanal cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia. Methods. Twelve yeast strains isolated in from artisanal fresh soft and white brined cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia were used in the study. Survival in chemically-simulated gastrointestinal conditions, adherence to epithelial intestinal cells and proliferation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) cells were evalu...

  17. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt...

  18. Manufacturing: the new case for vertical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumpe, Ted; Bolwijn, Piet T.

    1988-01-01

    The article argues that the solid corporation will continue to view vertical integration as a critical part of manufacturing reform. Manufacturing reform and backward integration are related in insidious ways to the three stages of production over which the big manufacturers preside. Without integra

  19. Implementation of Information Systems in Manufacturing Area

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Peniak

    2006-01-01

    Paper deals with new trends regarding implementation of Information systems as one of the most important parts of manufacturing infrastructure. The main attention is paid to Manufacturing Execution Systems and Shop Floor integration regarded from the viewpoint of their implementation, manufacturing functions and integration.

  20. Handbook of manufacturing engineering and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The Springer Reference Work Handbook of Manufacturing Engineering and Technology provides overviews and in-depth and authoritative analyses on the basic and cutting-edge manufacturing technologies and sciences across a broad spectrum of areas. These topics are commonly encountered in industries as well as in academia. Manufacturing engineering curricula across universities are now essential topics covered in major universities worldwide.

  1. Implementation of Information Systems in Manufacturing Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Peniak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with new trends regarding implementation of Information systems as one of the most important parts of manufacturing infrastructure. The main attention is paid to Manufacturing Execution Systems and Shop Floor integration regarded from the viewpoint of their implementation, manufacturing functions and integration.

  2. 21 CFR 640.71 - Manufacturing responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacturing responsibility. 640.71 Section 640...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.71 Manufacturing responsibility. (a) All steps in the manufacturing of Source Plasma, including donor examination,...

  3. 27 CFR 20.192 - Manufacturing record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacturing record. 20... and Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.192 Manufacturing record. For each manufacturing process in which specially denatured spirits are used, the user shall record: (a) Quantity...

  4. 76 FR 79655 - Manufacturing Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Manufacturing Council will hold a..., trade agreements and other issues affecting the U.S. manufacturing sector and to determine the...

  5. 75 FR 71417 - Manufacturing Council Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council Membership AGENCY: International Trade Administration... Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce is currently seeking applications to fill one vacant position on the Manufacturing Council (Council). The purpose of the Council is to advise the Secretary...

  6. 16 CFR 1505.4 - Manufacturing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacturing requirements. 1505.4 Section... USE BY CHILDREN Regulations § 1505.4 Manufacturing requirements. (a) General. (1) Only materials safe...-equipped manufacturing establishment. Each component of a toy shall comply with the requirements set...

  7. 76 FR 39850 - The Manufacturing Council: Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... International Trade Administration The Manufacturing Council: Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ] ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Manufacturing Council..., energy regulation reform, trade agreements and other issues affecting the U.S. manufacturing sector...

  8. LEAN Manufacturing - Part of Business and Manufacturing Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne

      As part of an employment as Technology Architect at the company Linak in combination with research at the University of Southern Denmark, this paper will present results from a strategy process where Lean has been pointed out as being a very strategic element in the Linak Production System....... The mission with the strategy is to obtain competitive production in Denmark and in Western Europe based on the right combination of manufacturing principles, motivated and trained employees, level of automation, and cooperation with suppliers and customers worldwide. The strategy has resulted in technical......, organizational and management improvements in the company to what is named the Linak Production System.  ...

  9. Control of microstructure in soldered, brazed, welded, plated, cast or vapor deposited manufactured components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B.; Hallman, Russell L.

    2015-11-10

    Disclosed are methods and systems for controlling of the microstructures of a soldered, brazed, welded, plated, cast, or vapor deposited manufactured component. The systems typically use relatively weak magnetic fields of either constant or varying flux to affect material properties within a manufactured component, typically without modifying the alloy, or changing the chemical composition of materials or altering the time, temperature, or transformation parameters of a manufacturing process. Such systems and processes may be used with components consisting of only materials that are conventionally characterized as be uninfluenced by magnetic forces.

  10. Monitoring Chlorfenapyr in Green Tea during the Manufacturing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Atsushi; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Nakajima, Kenta

    In order to clarify the change in the leaves of agricultural chemicals during the green tea manufacturing process, we analyzed chlorfenapyr in tea leaves obtained at each processing stage by using an immunoassay. Chlorfenapyr is a novel broad-spectrum insecticide-miticide registered in many countries for the control of various insects and mite pests. Chlorfenapyr is stable and persistent in the environment. Furthermore, it is widely applied for tea cultivation in Japan. Therefore, we selected chlorfenapyr for analysis in this study. In the unrefined tea (Aracha) manufacturing process, the highest level of chlorfenapyr was 16.5 ppm, which was obtained in tea powder separated from leaves at the secondary drying stage. However, the level at the other processing stages in tea leaves was approximately 9 ppm, and no significant difference in the chlorfenapyr level was detected between the processing stages. After Aracha processing, tea leaves are classified on the basis of their size, shape and color; this is the refined tea (Shiagecha) manufacturing process. After this process, although a high level of chlorfenapyr was detected in bud tea (8.1 ppm) and honcha (on-grade tea; 6.2 ppm), the level in the other classified teas was approximately 4.0 ppm. Thus, this paper shows the difference in the chlorfenapyr level in tea leaves obtained at each processing stage. This indicated that there are significant differences in the agricultural chemical levels between the green tea processing stages.

  11. Chemical networks*

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Wing-Fai

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the fundamental ideas of how chemical networks are build, their strengths and limitations. The chemical reactions that occur in disks combine the cold phase reactions used to model cold molecular clouds with the hot chemistry applied to planetary atmosphere models. With a general understanding of the different types of reactions that can occur, one can proceed in building a network of chemical reactions and use it to explain the abundance of species seen in disks. One o...

  12. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for March 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-04-22

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for March 1963, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; and weapons manufacturing operation.

  13. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for September 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-10-21

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for September 1963, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations, facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and power and crafts operation.

  14. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for July 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-08-21

    This report, for July 1964 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and safety and security.

  15. 76 FR 57714 - The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... International Trade Administration The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY... Manufacturing Council will hold a meeting to hear updates from the Department of Commerce in addition to the... agreements and other issues affecting the U.S. manufacturing sector and to determine future areas of...

  16. 77 FR 26743 - The Manufacturing Council: Work Session of the Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... International Trade Administration The Manufacturing Council: Work Session of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY...: This notice sets forth the schedule and agenda for an open work session of the Manufacturing Council... Freescale Austin Technology and Manufacturing Center, 3501 Ed Bluestein Boulevard, Austin, Texas. All...

  17. 75 FR 60411 - The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... International Trade Administration The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY... Manufacturing Council will hold a meeting to discuss and identify the priority issues affecting the U.S. manufacturing industry, which may include increasing exports, supply chain and access to credit, among...

  18. 75 FR 80039 - The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... International Trade Administration The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY... Manufacturing Council will hold a meeting to discuss competitiveness, clean energy, export/import issues and workforce development issues affecting the U.S. manufacturing sector and to receive briefings from...

  19. CHARACTERIZATION AND CHEMICAL RECYCLING BY PYROLYSIS OF WASTE FROM WIND BLADES MANUFACTURING = CARACTERIZAÇÃO E RECICLAGEM QUÍMICA VIA PIRÓLISE DE RESÍDUOS DA FABRICAÇÃO DE PÁS EÓLICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Carla Guerrero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is a form of energy that its use is expanding, and with this growth has also increased the amount of waste generated in the manufacture of wind blades. A correct way to use and disposal of these wastes is recycling. However, these are made of composite materials, usually epoxy resin and glass fiber; and by having a thermosetting polymer (the epoxy resin in their composition, the conventional recycling by fusion is not possible. Thus, the chemical recycling by pyrolysis is presented as an alternative to the utilization of these wastes, especially glass fiber that they contain. After characterization of the waste from a wind blade industry, it was found that this was a material with more than 70% glass fiber and very dense. Pyrolysis tests were performed dry and with babassu oil, considered the most interesting face several possible and in which the waste stay completely immersed in facilitating the exchange of heat and swelling. In a heating system with vacuum, were obtained over 97% of fibers in 30 minutes at 310 °C, exactly the temperature that a thermogravimetric analysis showed to be the start of high rates of thermal degradation. = A energia eólica é uma forma de energia que seu uso encontra-se em expansão, e junto a esse crescimento, tem-se também o aumento da quantidade de resíduos gerados na fabricação das pás eólicas. Uma forma correta de destinação e aproveitamento desses resíduos é a reciclagem. Porém, esses são constituídos de materiais compósitos, geralmente a resina epóxi e a fibra de vidro; e por possuírem um polímero termofixo (a resina epóxi na sua composição, a reciclagem convencional via fusão não é possível. Desta forma, a reciclagem química via pirólise apresenta-se como uma alternativa para o aproveitamento desses resíduos, em especial da fibra de vidro que o contém. Após caracterização do resíduo de uma indústria de pás eólicas, verificou-se que se tratava de um material

  20. Low Cost Manufacturing of Composite Cryotanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Brent; Palm, Tod; Deo, Ravi; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews research and development of cryotank manufacturing conducted by Northrup Grumman. The objectives of the research and development included the development and validation of manufacturing processes and technology for fabrication of large scale cryogenic tanks, the establishment of a scale-up and facilitization plan for full scale cryotanks, the development of non-autoclave composite manufacturing processes, the fabrication of subscale tank joints for element tests, the performance of manufacturing risk reduction trials for the subscale tank, and the development of full-scale tank manufacturing concepts.

  1. Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly Gibson; Mark Norfolk

    2012-07-30

    The program goal of the Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center (OAEMC) is to support advanced energy manufacturing and to create responsive manufacturing clusters that will support the production of advanced energy and energy-efficient products to help ensure the nation's energy and environmental security. This goal cuts across a number of existing industry segments critical to the nation's future. Many of the advanced energy businesses are starting to make the transition from technology development to commercial production. Historically, this transition from laboratory prototypes through initial production for early adopters to full production for mass markets has taken several years. Developing and implementing manufacturing technology to enable production at a price point the market will accept is a key step. Since these start-up operations are configured to advance the technology readiness of the core energy technology, they have neither the expertise nor the resources to address manufacturing readiness issues they encounter as the technology advances toward market entry. Given the economic realities of today's business environment, finding ways to accelerate this transition can make the difference between success and failure for a new product or business. The advanced energy industry touches a wide range of industry segments that are not accustomed to working together in complex supply chains to serve large markets such as automotive and construction. During its first three years, the Center has catalyzed the communication between companies and industry groups that serve the wide range of advanced energy markets. The Center has also found areas of common concern, and worked to help companies address these concerns on a segment or industry basis rather than having each company work to solve common problems individually. EWI worked with three industries through public-private partnerships to sew together disparate segments helping to promote

  2. Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly Gibson; Mark Norfolk

    2012-07-30

    The program goal of the Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center (OAEMC) is to support advanced energy manufacturing and to create responsive manufacturing clusters that will support the production of advanced energy and energy-efficient products to help ensure the nation's energy and environmental security. This goal cuts across a number of existing industry segments critical to the nation's future. Many of the advanced energy businesses are starting to make the transition from technology development to commercial production. Historically, this transition from laboratory prototypes through initial production for early adopters to full production for mass markets has taken several years. Developing and implementing manufacturing technology to enable production at a price point the market will accept is a key step. Since these start-up operations are configured to advance the technology readiness of the core energy technology, they have neither the expertise nor the resources to address manufacturing readiness issues they encounter as the technology advances toward market entry. Given the economic realities of today's business environment, finding ways to accelerate this transition can make the difference between success and failure for a new product or business. The advanced energy industry touches a wide range of industry segments that are not accustomed to working together in complex supply chains to serve large markets such as automotive and construction. During its first three years, the Center has catalyzed the communication between companies and industry groups that serve the wide range of advanced energy markets. The Center has also found areas of common concern, and worked to help companies address these concerns on a segment or industry basis rather than having each company work to solve common problems individually. EWI worked with three industries through public-private partnerships to sew together disparate segments helping to promote

  3. Contemporary design and manufacturing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Taiyong; Zuo, Dunwen

    2013-01-01

    The special topic volume communicates the latest progress and research results of new theory, new technology, method, equipment and so on in Engineering Technology, and to grasp the updated technological and research trends in internationally. The major topics covered by the special volumes include Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Technologies, Control, Automation and Detection Systems, Advanced Design Technology, Optimization and Modeling. In 80 invited and peer-reviewed papers, mechanical and other engineers describe their recent and current research and results in advanced materials and

  4. Proactive Approach to Manufacturing Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bubeník

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Proposed concept of proactive manufacturing planning uses sets of knowledge to create plan. These sets of knowledge are gained from transformation of historical data of selected indicators. This concept uses the analysis of occurred events, which is done by applying data mining methods to known historical data. Results of analysis are then recorded into knowledge-based system for further use. Application of data mining techniques helps to find hidden relationships with high influence on final decision of planner. This concept aims to navigate planner during creation of real plans resulting from real situations. Unknown situations are modelled using simulation module. 

  5. Manufacturing industry and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manufacturing industry and nuclear power is discussed at two levels. There is the supplier level where the problems tend to be orthodox but take on a special peculiarity when applied to the nuclear market, and there is the level that may be termed nuclear politics and which has a number of aspects including energy policy, choice of reactor system, efficient uses of industrial resources and public acceptability. The role of the supplier is seen as searching for new orders, having secured an order performing the contract, and finally looking at the long term requirements of the industry. The choice of thermal reactor system, PWR, AGR, or BWR is discussed. (author)

  6. Manufacturing in the knowledge economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis; Winther, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies stress the relevance of a broad conceptualization of the knowledge economy which goes beyond the strong, current policy focus on high-tech industries. Today, low-tech industries continue to have a significant role in European manufacturing in terms of employment, value added......-tech industries. This calls for a rethinking of manufacturing’s position in contemporary capitalism and a redefinition of the central categories based on research and development (R & D) intensity that dominate the debate on the knowledge economy....

  7. Manufacturing method of photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Tae Ho; Ahn, Jin Ho; Biswas, Rana; Constant, Kristen P.; Ho, Kai-Ming; Lee, Jae-Hwang

    2013-01-29

    A manufacturing method of a photonic crystal is provided. In the method, a high-refractive-index material is conformally deposited on an exposed portion of a periodic template composed of a low-refractive-index material by an atomic layer deposition process so that a difference in refractive indices or dielectric constants between the template and adjacent air becomes greater, which makes it possible to form a three-dimensional photonic crystal having a superior photonic bandgap. Herein, the three-dimensional structure may be prepared by a layer-by-layer method.

  8. Selected Applications of Virtual Reality in Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak-Marcincin, Jozef

    2011-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has become an important and useful tool in science and engineering. VR applications cover a wide range of industrial areas from product design to analysis, from product prototyping to manufacturing. The design and manufacturing of a product can be viewed, evaluated and improved in a virtual environment before its prototype is made, which is an enormous cost saving. Virtual Manufacturing (VM) is the use of computer models and simulations of manufacturing processes to aid in the design and production of manufactured products. VM is the use of manufacturing-based simulations to optimize the design of product and processes for a specific manufacturing goal such as: design for assembly; quality; lean operations; and/or flexibility.

  9. Challenges in teaching modern manufacturing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaile, Gracious; Wang, Jyhwen; Gau, Jenn-Terng

    2015-07-01

    Teaching of manufacturing courses for undergraduate engineering students has become a challenge due to industrial globalisation coupled with influx of new innovations, technologies, customer-driven products. This paper discusses development of a modern manufacturing course taught concurrently in three institutions where students collaborate in executing various projects. Lectures are developed to contain materials featuring advanced manufacturing technologies, R&D trends in manufacturing. Pre- and post-surveys were conducted by an external evaluator to assess the impact of the course on increase in student's knowledge of manufacturing; increase students' preparedness and confidence in effective communication and; increase students' interest in pursuing additional academic studies and/or a career path in manufacturing and high technology. The surveyed data indicate that the students perceived significant gains in manufacturing knowledge and preparedness in effective communication. The study also shows that implementation of a collaborative course within multiple institutions requires a robust and collective communication platform.

  10. An additive manufacturing and e-printing based approach for flexible scalable manufacturing of Microsystems

    OpenAIRE

    Dickerhof, Markus; Kimmig, Daniel; Scholz, Steffen; Wögerer, Christian; Adamietz, Raphael; Pfleging, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies are gaining more and more of importance as key enabling technologies in future manufacturing, especially when a flexible scalable manufacturing of small medium series of customized parts is required. The paper describes a new approach for design manufacturing of complex three dimensional components building on a combination of laminated objects manufacturing and e-printing technologies, where the micro component is made up of stacks of functionalized layers...

  11. Chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  12. Chemical Radioprotectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Upadhyay

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Protection of biological systems against radiation damage is of paramount importance during accidental and unavoidable exposure to radiation. Several physico-chemical and biological factors collectively contribute to the damage caused by radiation and are, therefore, targets for developing radioprotectors. Work on the development of chemicals capable of protecting biological systemsfrom radiation damage was initiated nearly six decades ago with cysteine being the first molecule to be reported. Chemicals capable of scavenging free radicals, inducing oxygen depletion,antioxidants and modulators of immune response have been some of the radioprotectors extensively investigated with limited success. Mechanism of action of some chemical radioprotectors and their combinations have been elucidated, while further understanding is required in many instances. The present review elaborates on structure-activity relationship of some of the chemical radioprotectors, their evaluation, and assessment, limitation, and future prospects.

  13. Manufacturing poverty: the maquiladorization of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Botz, D

    1994-01-01

    Based on interviews with social workers, attorneys, feminists, union activists, and factory workers, the author argues that the maquiladora free trade zone of Northern Mexico portends developments under the North American Free Trade Agreement. Today some 500,000 Mexican workers labor in 2,000 factories for $4.50 a day in Mexico's maquiladoras. Two-thirds of the workers are women, many single women who head their households. These women work in the new, modern manufacturing plants in industrial parks, but live in squalid shantytowns without adequate water, sewage, or electricity. On the job, workers face exposures to toxic chemicals and dangerous work processes. The Mexican government does not have the political will, the trained personnel, or the equipment to monitor these occupational health problems. While Mexico's Constitution and labor laws guarantee workers the right to organize, bargain collectively, and strike, in practice the state controls the unions and opposes worker activism. In the face of employer and state repression workers are forced to organize secretly to fight for higher wages and safer conditions. PMID:7928008

  14. Simulating the Composite Propellant Manufacturing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Suzanne; Love, Gregory

    2000-01-01

    There is a strategic interest in understanding how the propellant manufacturing process contributes to military capabilities outside the United States. The paper will discuss how system dynamics (SD) has been applied to rapidly assess the capabilities and vulnerabilities of a specific composite propellant production complex. These facilities produce a commonly used solid propellant with military applications. The authors will explain how an SD model can be configured to match a specific production facility followed by a series of scenarios designed to analyze operational vulnerabilities. By using the simulation model to rapidly analyze operational risks, the analyst gains a better understanding of production complexities. There are several benefits of developing SD models to simulate chemical production. SD is an effective tool for characterizing complex problems, especially the production process where the cascading effect of outages quickly taxes common understanding. By programming expert knowledge into an SD application, these tools are transformed into a knowledge management resource that facilitates rapid learning without requiring years of experience in production operations. It also permits the analyst to rapidly respond to crisis situations and other time-sensitive missions. Most importantly, the quantitative understanding gained from applying the SD model lends itself to strategic analysis and planning.

  15. Membrane manufacture for peptide separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, DooLi

    2016-06-07

    Nanostructured polymeric membranes are key tools in biomedical applications such as hemodialysis, protein separations, in the food industry, and drinking water supply from seawater. Despite of the success in different separation processes, membrane manufacture itself is at risk, since the most used solvents are about to be banned in many countries due to environmental and health issues. We propose for the first time the preparation of polyethersulfone membranes based on dissolution in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate ([EMIM]DEP). We obtained a series of membranes tailored for separation of solutes with molecular weight of 30, 5, 1.3, and 1.25 kg mol-1 with respective water permeances of 140, 65, 30 and 20 Lm-2h-1bar-1. We demonstrate their superior efficiency in the separation of complex mixtures of peptides with molecular weights in the range of 800 to 3500 gmol-1. Furthermore, the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase separation leading to the pore formation in the membranes were investigated. The rheology of the solutions and the morphology of the prepared membranes were examed and compared to those of polyethersulfone in organic solvents currently used for membrane manufacture.

  16. Cleaning of parts for new manufacturing and parts rebuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Jeff

    1994-06-01

    Parts cleaning is the largest single expense, and the most time consuming activity, in rebuilding and new manufacturing. On average, 25% to 40% of the total labor and overhead burden is spent on cleaning. EPA and OSHA pressures add to the burden by making some methods and chemicals obsolete. Some of the processes and chemicals in current use will be curtailed and or outlawed in the future. How can a shops and industries make long term decisions or capital investments in cleaning and process improvements when the government keeps changing its rules? At the MART Corporation in Saint Louis, Missouri, we manufacture a line of cabinet-style batch cleaning machines known as Power Washers. Twenty years ago MART invented and patented the Power Washer process, a cleaning method that recycles wash solution and blasts contaminates as they are washed off the more heavily contaminated parts. Since the initial invention MART has continued to R&D the washing process and develop ancillary systems that comply with EPA and OSHA regulations. For applications involving new industrial parts or items requiring specification cleaned surfaces. MART provides filtration and solution conditioning systems, part drying operations, and triple rinsing. Units are available in stainless steel or higher alloys. We are not alone in the washer manufacturing business. You have many choices of cleaning solutions (no pun intended) which will perform in your operations and yield good results. As a manufacturer, we are interested in your success with our equipment. We have all heard the horror stories of companies having selected inappropriate cleaning systems and or processes which then brought the company to its knees, production wise. Assembly, appearance, warranty, and performance shortcomings of finished products can often be directly related to the cleaning process and its shortcomings.

  17. 78 FR 77426 - Meeting of the Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... International Trade Administration Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Manufacturing... manufacturing; manufacturing energy policy; tax policy and export growth; and innovation, research...

  18. 78 FR 63964 - Meeting of the Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... International Trade Administration Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Manufacturing... and public perception of manufacturing; manufacturing energy policy; tax policy and export growth;...

  19. Metabolic engineering: the ultimate paradigm for continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vikramaditya G; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2014-07-01

    Research and development (R&D) expenditures by pharmaceutical companies doubled over the past decade, yet candidate attrition rates and development times rose markedly during this period. Understandably, companies have begun downsizing their pipelines and diverting investments away from R&D in favor of manufacturing. It is estimated that transitioning to continuous manufacturing could enable companies to compete for a share in emerging markets. Accordingly, the model for continuous manufacturing that has emerged commences with the conversion of late-stage intermediates into the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a series of continuous flow reactors, followed by continuous solid processing to form finished tablets. The use of flow reactions for API synthesis will certainly generate purer products at higher yields in shorter times compared to equivalent batch reactions. However, transitioning from batch to flow configuration simply alleviates transport limitations within the reaction milieu. As the catalogue of reactions used in flow syntheses is a subset of batch-based chemistries, molecules such as natural products will continue to evade drug prospectors. Also, it is uncertain whether flow synthesis can deliver improvements in the atom and energy economies of API production at the scales that would achieve the levels of revenue growth targeted by companies. Instead, it is argued that implementing metabolic engineering for the production of oxidized scaffolds as gateway molecules for flow-based addition of electrophiles is a more effective and scalable strategy for accessing natural product chemical space. This new paradigm for manufacturing, with metabolic engineering as its engine, would also permit rapid optimization of production variables and allow facile scale-up from gram to ton scale to meet material requirements for clinical trials, thus recasting manufacturing as a tool for discovery.

  20. Economic Aspects of the Chemical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleske, Joseph V.

    Within the formal disciplines of science at traditional universities, through the years, chemistry has grown to have a unique status because of its close correspondence with an industry and with a branch of engineering—the chemical industry and chemical engineering. There is no biology industry, but aspects of biology have closely related disciplines such as fish raising and other aquaculture, animal cloning and other facets of agriculture, ethical drugs of pharmaceutical manufacture, genomics, water quality and conservation, and the like. Although there is no physics industry, there are power generation, electricity, computers, optics, magnetic media, and electronics that exist as industries. However, in the case of chemistry, there is a named industry. This unusual correspondence no doubt came about because in the chemical industry one makes things from raw materials—chemicals—and the science, manufacture, and use of chemicals grew up together during the past century or so.

  1. Literature Review on Dynamic Cellular Manufacturing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri Houshyar, A.; Leman, Z.; Pakzad Moghadam, H.; Ariffin, M. K. A. M.; Ismail, N.; Iranmanesh, H.

    2014-06-01

    In previous decades, manufacturers faced a lot of challenges because of globalization and high competition in markets. These problems arise from shortening product life cycle, rapid variation in demand of products, and also rapid changes in manufcaturing technologies. Nowadays most manufacturing companies expend considerable attention for improving flexibility and responsiveness in order to overcome these kinds of problems and also meet customer's needs. By considering the trend toward the shorter product life cycle, the manufacturing environment is towards manufacturing a wide variety of parts in small batches [1]. One of the major techniques which are applied for improving manufacturing competitiveness is Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS). CMS is type of manufacturing system which tries to combine flexibility of job shop and also productivity of flow shop. In addition, Dynamic cellular manufacturing system which considers different time periods for the manufacturing system becomes an important topic and attracts a lot of attention to itself. Therefore, this paper made attempt to have a brief review on this issue and focused on all published paper on this subject. Although, this topic gains a lot of attention to itself during these years, none of previous researchers focused on reviewing the literature of that which can be helpful and useful for other researchers who intend to do the research on this topic. Therefore, this paper is the first study which has focused and reviewed the literature of dynamic cellular manufacturing system.

  2. The Connotation of Digital Manufacturing Science and Its Expectation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zude; LIU Quan

    2006-01-01

    After reviewing the phylogeny of manufacturing activities and manufacturing science and summarizing the application actuality of digital manufacturing(DM) technologies in manufacturing, the theory supporting system of digital manufacturing science (DMS) were deeply researched, including calculation manufacturing science and manufacturing informatics, bionics mechanics, manufacturing intelligent science and technical management science and so on. Then the connation of digital manufacturing technologies were dissertated, includes the digital technology set of product life cycle, the digital manufacturing resources technology set, the manufacturing information technology set and technology characterizations of digital products. The developing directions of DMS in future were put forward at last.

  3. Conversion of lignocellulose into renewable chemicals by heterogeneous catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Ohta, Hidetoshi; Fukuoka, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Conversion of lignocellulose into renewable chemicals and fuels has received great attention for building up the sustainable societies. However, the utilisation of lignocellulose in the chemical industry has almost been limited for paper manufacturing because of the complicated chemical structure and persistent property of lignocellulose. Heterogeneous catalysis has the potential to selectively convert lignocellulosic biomasses into various useful chemicals, and this methodology has rapidly p...

  4. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  5. Digital manufacturing-the development direction of the manufacturing technology in the 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG You-lun; YIN Zhou-ping

    2006-01-01

    After introducing the concepts of digital manufacturing technology,the discipline framework of digital manufacturing is presented in the paper by discussing its basic concept,theory foundation,key technology and scientific problems in detail.As the core of the advanced manufacturing technology,digital manufacturing is gradually becoming the main manufacturing technology of the twenty-first century.Firstly,the main features of digital manufacturing are indicated and its key supporting technologies are investigated by grouping them into four levels related to product development, numerical control, production management,and enterprise collaboration,respectively.Moreover,the existing problems in the research on the multi-discipline theory foundation of digital manufacturing such as manufacturing informatics, computational manufacturing,and manufacturing intelligence,are also indicated.Then,the core scientific problems of digital manufacturing are discussed in depth,which focuses on digitization of manufacturing information,modeling of manufacturing constraints,high-speed and high-precision numerical control theory,and Internet-based collaboration and integration.Lastly, the development trends and application perspectives of digital manufacturing are concluded.

  6. Chemical Expertise: Chemistry in the Royal Prussian Porcelain Manufactory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Eighteenth-century chemists defined chemistry as both a "science and an art." By "chemical art" they meant not merely experimentation but also parts of certain arts and crafts. This raises the question of how to identify the "chemical parts" of the arts and crafts in eighteenth-century Europe. In this essay I tackle this question with respect to porcelain manufacture. My essay begins with a brief discussion of historiographical problems related to this question. It then analyzes practices involved in porcelain manufacture that can be reasonably identified as chemical practices or a chemical art. My analysis yields evidence for the argument that chemical experts and expertise fulfilled distinct technical functions in porcelain manufacture and, by extension, in eighteenth-century "big industry," along with its system of division of labor.

  7. Dynamic production scheduling in virtual cellular manufacturing systems

    OpenAIRE

    马俊; Ma, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Manufacturing companies must constantly improve productivity to respond to dynamic changes in customer demand in order to maintain their competitiveness and marketshares. This requires manufacturers to adopt more efficient methodologies to design and control their manufacturing systems. In recent decades, virtual cellular manufacturing (VCM), as an advanced manufacturing concept, has attracted increasing attention in the research community, because traditional cellular manufacturing is inadeq...

  8. 10 CFR 52.173 - Duration of manufacturing license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of manufacturing license. 52.173 Section 52.173... POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.173 Duration of manufacturing license. A manufacturing license... issuance. A holder of a manufacturing license may not initiate the manufacture of a reactor less than...

  9. Characterization of manufactured TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological advances in nanomaterials have allowed the development of new applications in industry, increasing the probability of finding airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects in the workplace, as well as in ambient air. Scientific studies on health and environmental risks have indicated that airborne nano-objects in ambient air have potential adverse effects on the health of exposed workers and the general population. For regulatory purposes, ambient measurements of particulate matter are based on the determination of mass concentrations for PM10 and PM2.5, as regulated in the European Directive 2008/50/EC. However, this legislation is not suitable for airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects. Parameters characterising ultrafine particles, such as particle number concentration and size distribution, are under consideration for future health-based legislation, to monitor workplaces and to control industrial processes. Currently, there are no existing regulations covering manufactured airborne nano-objects. There is therefore a clear, unaddressed need to focus on the toxicology and exposure assessment of nano-objects such as titanium dioxide (TiO2), which are manufactured and engineered in large quantities in industry. To perform reliable toxicology studies it is necessary to determine the relevant characteristics of nano-objects, such as morphology, surface area, agglomeration, chemical composition, particle size and concentration, by applying traceable methods. Manufacturing of nanomaterials, and their use in industrial applications, also require traceable characterisation of the nanomaterials, particularly for quality control of the process. The present study arises from the OECD WPMN sponsorship programme, supported by the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (ANSES), in order to develop analytical methods for the characterization of TiO2 nanoparticles in size and count size distribution, based on different

  10. Wind Turbine Manufacturing Process Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waseem Faidi; Chris Nafis; Shatil Sinha; Chandra Yerramalli; Anthony Waas; Suresh Advani; John Gangloff; Pavel Simacek

    2012-04-26

    To develop a practical inline inspection that could be used in combination with automated composite material placement equipment to economically manufacture high performance and reliable carbon composite wind turbine blade spar caps. The approach technical feasibility and cost benefit will be assessed to provide a solid basis for further development and implementation in the wind turbine industry. The program is focused on the following technology development: (1) Develop in-line monitoring methods, using optical metrology and ultrasound inspection, and perform a demonstration in the lab. This includes development of the approach and performing appropriate demonstration in the lab; (2) Develop methods to predict composite strength reduction due to defects; and (3) Develop process models to predict defects from leading indicators found in the uncured composites.

  11. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  12. Method for manufacturing magnetohydrodynamic electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killpatrick, Don H.; Thresh, Henry R.

    1982-01-01

    A method of manufacturing electrodes for use in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator comprising the steps of preparing a billet having a core 10 of a first metal, a tubular sleeve 12 of a second metal, and an outer sheath 14, 16, 18 of an extrusile metal; evacuating the space between the parts of the assembled billet; extruding the billet; and removing the outer jacket 14. The extruded bar may be made into electrodes by cutting and bending to the shape required for an MDH channel frame. The method forms a bond between the first metal of the core 10 and the second metal of the sleeve 12 strong enough to withstand a hot and corrosive environment.

  13. Manufacturing real wages in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia López V

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the recent evolution and determinants of real wages in Mexico’s manufacturing sector, using theories based on the assumption of imperfect competition both in the product and in the labour markets, especially wage-bargain theory, insider-outsider and mark-up models. We show evidence that the Mexican labour market does not behave as a traditional competitive market. The proposed explanation for this fact is that some workers benefit from advantages when compared with others, so that they can get a greater share of the proceedings of the productive process. Also, we find that changes in the degree of competition in the market for output influence the behaviour of real wages.

  14. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system.

  15. Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-09

    This report presents data provided by US-based manufacturers and importers of solar collectors. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the years 1974 through 1992. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the years 1982 through 1992. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1992. Appendix A describes the survey methodology. Appendix B contains the 1992 survey forms and instructions. Appendices C and D list the companies that responded to the 1992 surveys and granted permission for their names and addresses to appear in the report. Appendix E provides selected tables from this report with data shown in the International System of Units (SI) metric units. Appendix F provides an estimate of installed capacity and energy production from solar collectors for 1992.

  16. Josiah Wedgwood, Manufacturing and Craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Robin; Popp, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Craft and industrial manufacture are often seen as dichotomous, with craft being marginalized during the process of industrialization. We want to look beyond this position, searching for craft in places where it has gone unnoticed and where it might have bloomed anew in the interstices created...... by industrialization. We explore these questions by studying Josiah Wedgwood’s innovative craft and experimental practices, developed through a close reading of his extensive published correspondence. What we offer is a reinterpretation of Wedgwood’s practices positioned against the existing historiography, both...... standard and revisionist. Our reinterpretation is developed through application of a theoretical–methodological framework of phenomenological micro-history, in which craft is thought of primarily as a space that makes possible what Martin Heidegger called ‘occasioning’....

  17. Advanced manufacturing: Technology and international competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-02-01

    Dramatic changes in the competitiveness of German and Japanese manufacturing have been most evident since 1988. All three countries are now facing similar challenges, and these challenges are clearly observed in human capital issues. Our comparison of human capital issues in German, Japanese, and US manufacturing leads us to the following key judgments: Manufacturing workforces are undergoing significant changes due to advanced manufacturing technologies. As companies are forced to develop and apply these technologies, the constituency of the manufacturing workforce (especially educational requirements, contingent labor, job content, and continuing knowledge development) is being dramatically and irreversibly altered. The new workforce requirements which result due to advanced manufacturing require a higher level of worker sophistication and responsibility.

  18. Novel Nanotube Manufacturing Streamlines Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Nanotubes have novel qualities that make them uniquely qualified for a plethora of uses, including applications in electronics, optics, and other scientific and industrial fields. The NASA process for creating these nanostructures involves using helium arc welding to vaporize an amorphous carbon rod and then form nanotubes by depositing the vapor onto a water-cooled carbon cathode, which then yields bundles, or ropes, of single-walled nanotubes at a rate of 2 grams per hour using a single setup. This eliminates costs associated with the use of metal catalysts, including the cost of product purification, resulting in a relatively inexpensive, high-quality, very pure end product. While managing to be less expensive, safer, and simpler, the process also increases the quality of the nanotubes. Goddard's Innovative Partnerships Program (IPP) Office promoted the technology, and in 2005, Boise-based Idaho Space Materials Inc. (ISM) was formed and applied for a nonexclusive license for the single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) manufacturing technology. ISM commercialized its products, and the inexpensive, robust nanotubes are now in the hands of the scientists who will create the next generation of composite polymers, metals, and ceramics that will impact the way we live. In fact, researchers are examining ways for these newfound materials to be used in the manufacture of transistors and fuel cells, large screen televisions, ultra-sensitive sensors, high-resolution atomic force microscopy probes, supercapacitors, transparent conducting films, drug carriers, catalysts, and advanced composite materials, to name just a few of the myriad technologies to benefit.

  19. Second generation laser manufacturing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rocca, Aldo V.

    1996-03-01

    Laser processing can show its full capacity in laser multiprocessing systems applications in which the laser is not hindered by the constraints imposed when the laser is inserted in conventional systems without reassessing the overall system design. In these cases the laser process performance up to now was kept at very low levels because conventional systems would not need or accept higher ones. Instead now said performance must be brought to the upper limits inasmuch as the lasers will be the pacesetter for the performance of the new systems freed from all the old design bondage. Hence the importance to get the maximum performance from each process singly and from their combinations. Better understanding and control of the fluidynamic effects becomes mandatory because of their paramount role on process energy efficiency and thus process productivity and more important yet quality, repeatability and transferability. At present one of the dedicated laser multiprocessing systems of greatest interest is the laser cut-weld of which several have made appearance on the market. Next to come are the 'augmented' laser multiprocessing obtained by combining the laser with conventional processes in a manner which takes advantages of unexpected synergies permitted by the laser. In this manner, the system is allowed to outperform, in all aspects from productivity to quality, the already much higher performance of dedicated all laser multi- processing system. One of the most important 'augmented' laser multiprocessing is the cut- bend-weld. It should be clear that these flexible multiprocessing machines tend to grow naturally in multistation cells and their aggregation in isles and complete manufacturing centers; i.e., the first viable realizations of computer integrated manufacturing.

  20. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pills, who subsequently become pregnant or have a history of brownish facial discoloration. Scarring Reactivation of cold sores What can I expect after having a chemical peel? All peels require some follow-up care: ...

  1. Unnecessary Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anita

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

  2. Service-Oriented Strategies for Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Tim C.; Matzen, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    This chapter establishes PSS (Product/Service-Systems) approaches in the context of manufacturing firms and their existing product-oriented business. PSS can be seen as a strategy for manufacturing firms to gain competitive advantage in the market, but what market conditions and organisational......, customers and partners in business planning and strategy to reap the full benefits. Finally a path to how manufacturers can make the change from product to service-orientation is traced....

  3. Manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. K.; Whang, C. K.; Lee, J. H.; Youm, K. Y.; Hong, S. H.; Choi, H. Y.; An, C.; Park, I. W.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, W. J.; Yoon, K. B.; Kim, H. W.; Lee, I. B.; Lee, C. K.; Youm, J. H.; Oho, W. H.; Choi, B. K.; Jang, K. D.

    1996-12-01

    This report on the manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment contains working contents, scope and contents of a request working to the Machine Shop, also records the principal production design, manufacture contents and a relevant working drawing. The working content and scope of the Machine Shop is to support the successful and convenient performance of the R and D by manufacture and maintenance of all sorts of laboratory equipment. (author). 9 tabs., 12 figs.

  4. Lean manufacturing in Indian context: A survey

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Kumar; Vikas Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to examine the implementation of Lean Manufacturing system in the Indian industries. Predominant elements of Lean Manufacturing, benefits gained after its implementation and obstacles observed by Indian Industry have been recognized. The results of this survey support the opinion that Lean Manufacturing had potential to improve the organizational performance of Indian industries. Nevertheless, Indian industries are required to be passionate to transform their manufact...

  5. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  6. Economic benefits of metrology in manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carmignato, S.;

    2016-01-01

    In streamlined manufacturing systems, the added value of inspection activities is often questioned, and metrology in particular is sometimes considered only as an avoidable expense. Documented quantification of economic benefits of metrology is generally not available. This work presents concrete...... examples from industrial production, in which the added value of metrology in manufacturing is discussed and quantified. Case studies include: general manufacturing, forging, machining, and related metrology. The focus of the paper is on the improved effectiveness of metrology when used at product...

  7. Manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Chang Kyu; Hwang, Bong Ha; Lee, Jong Wha; Kim, Jong Kyun; Yeum, Ki Eon; Park, Myung Ku; Hong, Soon Eon; Choi, Ho Young; An, Dae Kyu; An, Choon; Park, In Won; Kim, Kyung Sik; Lee, Won Jae; Yoon, Ki Byung; Kim, Heung Woo; Lee, In Bae; Yeom, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Chul Ku; Sin, Keon Ju; Oh, Wan Ho; Seo, Yong Chil; Yang, Song Yeul; Lee, Young Soon; Choi, Byung Kwon; Chang, Kyung Duk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-01

    This report on the manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment contains working contents, scope and contents of request working to the machine shop, also records the principal production design, manufacture contents and a relevant working drawing. The working content and scope of the machine shop is to support the successful and convenient performance of the R and D by manufacture and maintenance of all sorts of laboratory equipment. 11 tabs., 3 figs. (Author) .new.

  8. Occupational Asthma in a Cable Manufacturing Company

    OpenAIRE

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Dehghan, Faezeh; Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Mohammadi, Saber; Golchin, Mahdie; Sadeghi, Zargham; Moafi, Masoud; Seyed Mehdi, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the past decade, incidence of asthma has increased, which might have been due to environmental exposures. Objectives: Considering the expansion of cable manufacturing industry in Iran, the present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of occupational asthma in a cable manufacturing company in Iran as well as its related factors. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on employees of a cable manufacturing company in Yazd, Iran, in 2012. The workers were divi...

  9. Knowledge-based system for manufacturing sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannini, Antonio; Aubry, Alexis; Panetto, Hervé; Dassisti, Michele; El Haouzi, Hind

    2012-01-01

    Today, sustainability becomes one of the biggest challenges. It represents a key issue in every production activity. To face this issue, a possible solution is to enhance knowledge usage in manufacturing and sustainability domains. In this paper, we extend the ONTO-PDM ontology for formalizing sustainable manufacturing knowledge. An industrial case is presented for instantiating the extension. Moreover we design a knowledge-based system, which exploits sustainable manufacturing knowledge for ...

  10. Manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report on the manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment contains working contents, scope and contents of a request working to the Machine Shop, also records the principal production design, manufacture contents and a relevant working drawing. The working content and scope of the Machine Shop is to support the successful and convenient performance of the R and D by manufacture and maintenance of all sorts of laboratory equipment. (author). 9 tabs., 12 figs

  11. Rapid Growth of China Petroleum Machinery Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhiqian; Sun Zuchen

    1996-01-01

    @@ With the rapid development of China petroleum industry, its petroleum machinery manufacturing industry has expanded greatly and petroleum equipment level in the oilfields are continuously improved. Since the 1980s,China has successfully imported the advanced international petroleum manufacturing technology. So far 57 relevant contracts have been signed with foreign countries,involving technology, equipment, technology consultant,joint production and joint venture, which offer big helps to upgrade the petroleum machinery manufacturing technology.

  12. Preparing the Next American Manufacturing Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraman, Khalil S.

    2010-01-01

    Manufacturing has a new face--and the future it offers is exciting. But in order to take advantage of what it offers, one needs a plan and he/she has to know how to execute it. In this article, the author discusses how the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) is working to get the message out that the future of advanced manufacturing will…

  13. Additive Manufacturing: Ensuring Quality for Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Theodore; Stephenson, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Reliable manufacturing requires that material properties and fabrication processes be well defined in order to insure that the manufactured parts meet specified requirements. While this issue is now relatively straightforward for traditional processes such as subtractive manufacturing and injection molding, this capability is still evolving for AM products. Hence, one of the principal challenges within AM is in qualifying and verifying source material properties and process control. This issue is particularly critical for applications in harsh environments and demanding applications, such as spacecraft.

  14. Laser polishing of additive laser manufacturing surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Benoit; MOGNOL, Pascal; Hascoët, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    International audience The additive laser manufacturing (ALM) technique is an additive manufacturing process which enables the rapid manufacturing of complex metallic parts and the creation of thin parts so as, for example, to decrease parts weight for biomechanical or aeronautic applications. Furthermore, compared with selective laser sintering technology, the ALM process allows creating more huge parts and material gradient. However, for aesthetic or tribological functions, the ALM surfa...

  15. Environmental Impact Assessment Studies in Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Kerbrat, Olivier; Le Bourhis, Florent; MOGNOL, Pascal; Hascoët, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    International audience This chapter focuses on the environmental studies in additive manufacturing. For a cleaner production, environmental impacts that occur during the manufacturing phase should be assessed with accuracy. First, the literature on all the studies led to the characterization of the environmental impact of additive manufacturing processes. The studies on electric energy consumption of these processes are analyzed here, and then some studies taking into account raw material ...

  16. A model for manufacturing cell job redesign

    OpenAIRE

    Gassmann, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Cellular manufacturing is widely viewed as an exemplary form of manufacturing organisation for small batch size production. A UK survey states that over 75% of British engineering industry have introduced or are planning to introduce cellular manufacturing methods in an attempt to improve competitiveness through improved product quality, responsiveness and flexibility (Ingersoll Engineers, 1990). Cells are known to foster these improvements through a focus on the methods of ...

  17. Continuous intensified separations for the chemicals industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, I.S.; Roelands, C.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Today, a lot of effort is going into intensifying reactions within the chemicals industry. Intensified processes are expected to delìver significant improvements in manufacturing processes, reducing equipment size and waste streams and increasing product yields and thereby delivering more sustainabl

  18. Solid State Lighting OLED Manufacturing Roundtable Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-03-31

    Summary of a meeting of OLED experts to develop proposed priority tasks for the Manufacturing R&D initiative, including task descriptions, discussion points, recommendations, and presentation highlights.

  19. Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-08-28

    A major accomplishment of the Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM) project was the development of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined part products. Key components of the framework are a manufacturing model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering working environment, knowledge-based software systems for design, process planning, and manufacturing and new production technologies for making products directly from design application software.

  20. Semiconductors integrated circuit design for manufacturability

    CERN Document Server

    Balasinki, Artur

    2011-01-01

    Because of the continuous evolution of integrated circuit manufacturing (ICM) and design for manufacturability (DfM), most books on the subject are obsolete before they even go to press. That's why the field requires a reference that takes the focus off of numbers and concentrates more on larger economic concepts than on technical details. Semiconductors: Integrated Circuit Design for Manufacturability covers the gradual evolution of integrated circuit design (ICD) as a basis to propose strategies for improving return-on-investment (ROI) for ICD in manufacturing. Where most books put the spotl

  1. Solution to manufacturing execution system; MES solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikawa, H.; Kato, T.; Tanaka, M. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-10

    In structuring supply chain management (SCM) in the manufacturing industry, the role of the manufacturing execution system (MES) is very important. In the region of SCM and enterprise resource planning (ERP), even if an optimum system is planned and supply chain planning (SCP) software is actually introduced, only a limited SCM effect can be expected. Fuji Electric has integrated long-cultivated manufacturing know-how into the solution to the MES with an intention to structure manufacturing-field-oriented SCM by linking solutions to SCM, ERP and logistics. (author)

  2. Design versus manufacturing data base management requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenna, E. G.

    1984-01-01

    Data base management systems are valuable manufacturing and design tools as these disciplines are exceptionally information intensive, requiring precise organization and control of data processing and utilization. One such data base manager is the IPAD* system, which was originally developed to support the design process but was expanded to incorporate the additional needs of manufacturing. To set the stage, an overview of the design and manufacturing process is presented. The different functions of computers in these processes are then discussed. Finally, the design and manufacturing requirements for a data base manager are compared and contrasted.

  3. Coordinating knowledge transfer within manufacturing networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Johansen, John; Boer, Harry

    2008-01-01

    Along with increasing globalization, the management of international manufacturing networks is becoming increasingly important for industrial companies. This paper mainly focuses on the coordination of knowledge transfer within manufacturing networks. In this context, we propose the time......-place matrix as a tool for mapping the distribution of knowledge within manufacturing networks. Using this tool, four important questions about the coordination of knowledge transfer within a manufacturing network are identified: know-where, know-what, know-when, know-how to transfer. The relationships among...... these questions are discussed, based on which a frame of thought is proposed that managers can use in their quest for network competitiveness....

  4. Subcontracting in electronics : from contract manufacturers to providers of electronic manufacturing services (EMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Liemt, Gijsbert van

    2007-01-01

    Discusses how the top contract manufacturers in the electronics industry try to become providers of electronic manufacturing services by deepening and broadening the rage of services that they offer and by diversifying into markets other than computing and telecommunications.

  5. Determinant factors in dynamics of global manufacturing virtual networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Vilana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the existence of a number of structural mechanisms that networks actors use to exert tacit power in the GMVNs. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis of the engine manufacturing aeronautical industry based on a quantitative approach with a binomial logistic model with a logit function. Findings and Originality/value: Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs exert a tacit power by occupying central positions in the network and having many structural holes. Suppliers, nevertheless, establish many strong and direct ties to increase trust with other network actors; while new actors establish, primarily, indirect ties to gain explicit knowledge. Research limitations/implications: Another similar works focused in other industrial segments like electronics, chemical o automotive would strengthen the findings of this work.Practical implications: The results of this work can facilitate, ex ante, the design of new GMVNs and increase drastically their efficiency.Originality/value: It classifies the internal operations of these organizations that, so far, were not analysed under this approach. Its conclusions can be used as a prescriptive model for other manufacturing networks.

  6. Additive Manufacturing of High-Entropy Alloys by Laser Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocelík, V.; Janssen, N.; Smith, S. N.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2016-07-01

    This contribution concentrates on the possibilities of additive manufacturing of high-entropy clad layers by laser processing. In particular, the effects of the laser surface processing parameters on the microstructure and hardness of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were examined. AlCoCrFeNi alloys with different amounts of aluminum prepared by arc melting were investigated and compared with the laser beam remelted HEAs with the same composition. Attempts to form HEAs coatings with a direct laser deposition from the mixture of elemental powders were made for AlCoCrFeNi and AlCrFeNiTa composition. A strong influence of solidification rate on the amounts of face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic phase, their chemical composition, and spatial distribution was detected for two-phase AlCoCrFeNi HEAs. It is concluded that a high-power laser is a versatile tool to synthesize interesting HEAs with additive manufacturing processing. Critical issues are related to the rate of (re)solidification, the dilution with the substrate, powder efficiency during cladding, and differences in melting points of clad powders making additive manufacturing processing from a simple mixture of elemental powders a challenging approach.

  7. Manufacturing facility of solar cell. Taiyo denchi no seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Takagi, Akira; Ban, Noriji; Ishihara, Mikiji.

    1990-01-09

    When a p-n junction type CdTe solar cell is manufactured by the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) , dislocation of the position of its p-n junction interface from the specified position and dislocation of the distribution of impurities in the direction of depth at the p layer and the n layer occur, inhibiting the manufacture of the p-n junction. In order to eliminate the above problem and manufacture a p-n junction type CdTe solar cell with high energy conversion efficiency by the MOCVD, this invention proposes to form a n type CdTe layer as the first layer on a substrate at the first substrate temperature, form a non-dope CdTe layer as the second layer at the second substrate temperature lower than the first substrate temperature, form a p type CdTe layer as the third layer at the third substrate temperature lower than the first substrate temperature and from the thickness that the second layer does not remain as an i layer due to diffusion of the impurities from the first and third layers and yet mutual diffusion of the impurities between the first and third layers is controlled. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Manufacture of sintered bricks of high density from beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium oxide bricks of nuclear purity 100 x 100 x 50 and 100 x 100 x 100 mm of very high density (between 2.85 and 3.00) are manufactured by sintering under pressure in graphite moulds at temperatures between 1,750 and 1,850 deg. C, and under a pressure of 150 kg/cm2. The physico-chemical state of the saw material is of considerable importance with regard to the success of the sintering operation. In addition, a study of the sintering of a BeO mixture with 3 to 5 per cent of boron introduced in the form of boric acid, boron carbide or elementary boron shows that high densities can only be obtained by sintering under pressure. For technical reasons of manufacture, only the mixture based on boron carbide is used. The sintering is carried out in graphite moulds at 1500 deg. C under 150 kg/cm2 pressure, and bricks can be obtained with density between 2,85 and 2,90. Laboratory studies and the industrial manufacture of various sinters are described in detail. (author)

  9. Additive Manufacturing of High-Entropy Alloys by Laser Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocelík, V.; Janssen, N.; Smith, S. N.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2016-04-01

    This contribution concentrates on the possibilities of additive manufacturing of high-entropy clad layers by laser processing. In particular, the effects of the laser surface processing parameters on the microstructure and hardness of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were examined. AlCoCrFeNi alloys with different amounts of aluminum prepared by arc melting were investigated and compared with the laser beam remelted HEAs with the same composition. Attempts to form HEAs coatings with a direct laser deposition from the mixture of elemental powders were made for AlCoCrFeNi and AlCrFeNiTa composition. A strong influence of solidification rate on the amounts of face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic phase, their chemical composition, and spatial distribution was detected for two-phase AlCoCrFeNi HEAs. It is concluded that a high-power laser is a versatile tool to synthesize interesting HEAs with additive manufacturing processing. Critical issues are related to the rate of (re)solidification, the dilution with the substrate, powder efficiency during cladding, and differences in melting points of clad powders making additive manufacturing processing from a simple mixture of elemental powders a challenging approach.

  10. EXPLORING LINKAGES BETWEEN MANUFACTURING FUNCTIONS, OPERATIONS PRIORITIES AND PLANT PERFORMANCE IN MANUFACTURING SMES IN MUMBAI

    OpenAIRE

    B.E. Narkhede; Nehete, R. S.; S. K. Mahajan

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, in order for small and medium scale enterprises to excel in performance, it is necessary to have congruency among the manufacturing functions and the operational priorities. In this paper a model is presented to know the relationship between the manufacturing functions, operation priorities and manufacturing performance. Using data collected from small and medium scale manufacturing enterprises in Mumbai and suburban region, this study examines the seven hypothesis based on the rela...

  11. Manufacturing complexity evaluation at the design stage for both machining and layered manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Kerbrat, Olivier; MOGNOL, Pascal; Hascoët, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, a methodology to estimate manufacturing complexity for both machining and layered manufacturing is proposed in order to realize tools (dies or molds) by a combination of a subtractive and an additive process. Manufacturability indexes are calculated at the tool design stage, these indexes provide an accurate view of which areas of the tool will advantageously be machined or manufactured by an additive process. In this case, tools are not seen as single p...

  12. Exploration and Understanding of Manufacturing Networks:From Manufacturing Centres Towards Global Inter-firm Relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The boundaries of manufacturing system have been ex te nded from factory to the international manufacturing network, supply network, va lue network and virtual network in recent decades, driven by intensified competi tion, fragmented market, globalised collaboration, and advanced technology. However, as the manufacturing system evolves into more and more complicated net work relationship, the fundamental concepts of manufacturing strategy focusing o n a product family and bridging its market, competitio...

  13. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to hot fire test an additively manufactured thrust chamber assembly TCA (injector and thrust chamber). GRC will install the additively manufactured Inconel 625 injector, two additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber barrels and one additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber nozzle on the test stand in Cell 32 and perform hot fire testing of the integrated TCA.

  14. Sustainable manufacturing: evaluation and modeling of environmental impacts in additive manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bourhis, Florent; Kerbrat, Olivier; Hascoët, Jean-Yves; MOGNOL, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    International audience Cleaner production and sustainability are of crucial importance in the field of manufacturing processes where great amounts of energy and materials are being consumed. Nowadays, additive manufacturing technologies such as direct additive laser manufacturing allow us to manufacture functional products with high added value. Insofar as environmental considerations become an important issue in our society, as well as legislation regarding environment become prominent (N...

  15. 77 FR 16158 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Processing, Packing, or Holding of Drugs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Processing, Packing, or Holding of Drugs; Revision of Certain Labeling... Administration (FDA) is amending the packaging and labeling control provisions of the current good manufacturing... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of July 29, 1997 (62 FR 40489) (the...

  16. 76 FR 80332 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, PR, Expansion of Manufacturing Authority; Amgen Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 7--Mayaguez, PR, Expansion of Manufacturing Authority; Amgen Manufacturing Limited (Biotechnology and Healthcare Products), Juncos, PR An application has been submitted to... of FTZ 7, requesting an expansion of the scope of manufacturing authority approved within Subzone...

  17. 77 FR 38269 - Approval for Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 7M; Amgen Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 7M; Amgen Manufacturing Limited (Biotechnology and Healthcare Products); Juncos, Puerto Rico Pursuant to its authority... Company, grantee of FTZ 7, has requested an expansion of the scope of manufacturing authority on behalf...

  18. 76 FR 21035 - Colfor Manufacturing, Inc., an AAM Company, Minerva, OH; Colfor Manufacturing, Inc., an AAM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Colfor Manufacturing, Inc., an AAM Company, Minerva, OH; Colfor Manufacturing, Inc., an AAM Company, Salem, OH; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... Assistance on March 17, 2010, applicable to workers of Colfor Manufacturing, Inc., Minerva, Ohio. The...

  19. Process Intensification Tools in the Small‐Scale Pharmaceutical Manufacturing of Small Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitic, Aleksandar; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical process industry is paying significant attention to the intensification of processes with the main aim of achieving increased productivity, improved economic status, and enhanced sustainability. The pharmaceutical industry is moving in the same direction and, therefore, dozens......‐scale pharmaceutical manufacturing of so‐called small molecules. The focus is on microwave radiation, microreactors, ultrasounds, and meso‐scale tubular reactors....

  20. Zambian manufacturing performance in comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szirmai, Adam; Yamfwa, Francis; Lwamba, Chibwe

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of Zambian manufacturing performance since 1964. It presents new estimates of labour productivity growth and total factor productivity growth. After a period of growth and labour productivity improvement till 1974, Zambian manufacturing suffered from increasing ineffi

  1. Empirical Progression of Lean Manufacturing: Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dilanthi M.G.S..

    2014-01-01

    Lean manufacturing has evolved over time devising with thinking of waste reduction. Many researchers have studied in this field and have tried to define the concept and to evaluate its performance. Therefore the main purpose of this paper is to recognize the conceptual evolution and to comprehend such empirical work related to lean manufacturing.

  2. Ultra-precision processes for optics manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William R.

    1991-12-01

    The Optics MODIL (Manufacturing Operations Development and Integration Laboratory) is developing advanced manufacturing technologies for fabrication of ultra precision optical components, aiming for a ten-fold improvement in precision and a shortening of the scheduled lead time. Current work focuses on diamond single point turning, ductile grinding, ion milling, and in/on process metrology.

  3. Manufacturing Capital Lingers in the Stock Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴程涛; 段铸; 张景宇; 张曙光

    2008-01-01

    Pressured by a slowdown in exports, cost increases and dwindling returns to manufacturing investments, China’s manufacturing capital has begun to shift to the real-estate and stock markets. As a matter of fact, the stock market had already felt a shock a couple of years ago when top domestic manufacturers like Midea, Gree, TCL and LMZ started to invest their idle capital in the real-estate and stock markets. Investments of manufacturing capital in both the real estate and stock markets have increased fluid capital and pushed up the value of both markets. Booms in both markets have in turn guaranteed investment returns of manufacturing capital, which further increased the stock market valuations of manufacturing capital. Such a cycle has created interest chains between listed manufacturers, the stock market and the real-estate market. Along with the ups and downs of the stock and real-estate markets, manufacturing capital now faces a dilemma: to escape or to persist? Where should it escape? When can the markets be profitable again? Just like the classic Shakespearean question: to be or not to be, that is the question.

  4. Manufacture of Semi-Conductor Grade Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ramakrishna

    1968-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods of manufacture of elemental Si are considered in the light of its occurrence and abundance in nature. The thermodynamics of the reactions involved in the manufacture and in the refining process has been discussed. Some commercial for obtaining semiconductor Grade Si are outlined.

  5. Empirical Progression of Lean Manufacturing: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilanthi M.G.S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing has evolved over time devising with thinking of waste reduction. Many researchers have studied in this field and have tried to define the concept and to evaluate its performance. Therefore the main purpose of this paper is to recognize the conceptual evolution and to comprehend such empirical work related to lean manufacturing.

  6. Manufacturing processes 2 grinding, honing, lapping

    CERN Document Server

    Klocke, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    Presents a view of the most common machining and non-machining manufacturing processes. This volume describes the characteristics of abrasive tools, their design and manufacturing, followed by the fundamentals of grinding fluids. It also discusses grinding of different materials (steel, cast iron, hard and brittle materials, nickel and titanium).

  7. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  8. Manufacturing Careers, Skilled Workers and the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In order to jumpstart the economy, "Made in the U.S.A." needs to be synonymous with in-demand, high-quality products sold throughout the world. Recognizing the importance of the manufacturing industry and its connection to a healthy economy, President Obama addressed Carnegie Mellon University and launched the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership…

  9. Dairy Product Manufacturing Costs at Cooperative Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, K. Charles

    1983-01-01

    Cost data are summarized for 14 plants manufacturing cheese, butter, and powder and average costs are presented for each product. Average cost curves are estimated for each plant. The scale of plant for least-cost operations is identified for plants of each product type. Plant capacity utilization and seasonal volume variation and their impacts on manufacturing cost are delineated.

  10. Quality and workflow integration in flexible manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, ten D.C.

    2012-01-01

    In recognising the relevance of production networks and flexible manufacturing, CNC Worknet aims to be a company that approaches the new era of flexible manufacturing by developing a novel business model that combines the technologies of e-Business with production networks. This business model is ba

  11. Recent development of cellular manufacturing systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Arora; A Haleem; M K Singh

    2013-06-01

    Cellular manufacturing system has been proved a vital approach for batch and job shop production systems. Group technology has been an essential tool for developing a cellular manufacturing system. The paper aims to discuss various cell formation techniques and highlights the significant research work done in past over the years and attempts to points out the gap in research.

  12. Ending the scourge of chemical weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brin, J.

    1993-04-01

    After more than 20 years of arduous negotiations, representatives from 131 countries gathered in Paris in January to sign a treaty banning the development, production, and transfer to other countries of chemical-warfare agents and their means of delivery. The treaty - called the Chemical Weapons Convention, or CWC - complements the more limited Geneva Protocol of 1925, which bans the use of toxic chemicals in warfare. When the CWC enters into force in about two years, it will prohibit the manufacture for military purposes of lethal chemicals such as sulfur mustard, which causes painful skin blistering and lung damage, and nerve agents, which cause rapid death by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses. The goal is to eliminate from the earth this particularly inhumane form of warfare. The paper discusses facets of the treaty, especially the verification challenge with its inspection on demand features. Short accompanying pieces discuss classifying chemicals and the destruction of chemical weapons under the CWC.

  13. Development of Integration in Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Trostmann, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Current international developments in the broad field of Product Data Technology are advancing rapidly and are leading up to new levels of technology in product model definition, product model communications, enterprise integration and cooperation. These developments will be of strategic signific......Current international developments in the broad field of Product Data Technology are advancing rapidly and are leading up to new levels of technology in product model definition, product model communications, enterprise integration and cooperation. These developments will be of strategic...... significance to all manufacturing industries.International standardization based on the product model definition standard STEP (ISO10303) is playing a key role in promoting a modern approach to Product Data Technology. The initial release of STEP, consisting of twelve essential parts, has recently been...... planning and control. From dealing with pure geometric motions of mechanisms described by shape and kinematics, these computer based systems can now handle more complete system models in order to obtain more reliable designs, and provide simulation results for more feasible robot off-line programming....

  14. Method of manufacturing support lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a method of manufacturing a support lattice for a reactor fuel assembly. A plurality of strip-like plates each having recesses formed at a predetermined longitudinal distance from the lateral end toward the lateral center intersect each other with the recesses being engaged to each other to assemble into a lattice-like configuration. Protrusions each extended from the lateral end faces are formed to the upper and the lower portions on the intersection for each of the strip-like plates and a window having a protrusion extended in the lateral direction is disposed in the central portion. Laser beams are condensed by a condenser lens so that the center line thereof agrees with the intersecting line of the strip-like plates. The condensed beams are irradiated vertically to the surface of the strip-like plates in the intermediate portion, to easily elevate temperature locally in the intermediate portion. Thus, a plurality of portions to be welded on the intersecting line of the support lattice can be welded all at once, to shorten the production step for the support lattices. (I.N.)

  15. Optimization of space manufacturing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Four separate analyses are detailed: transportation to low earth orbit, orbit-to-orbit optimization, parametric analysis of SPS logistics based on earth and lunar source locations, and an overall program option optimization implemented with linear programming. It is found that smaller vehicles are favored for earth launch, with the current Space Shuttle being right at optimum payload size. Fully reusable launch vehicles represent a savings of 50% over the Space Shuttle; increased reliability with less maintenance could further double the savings. An optimization of orbit-to-orbit propulsion systems using lunar oxygen for propellants shows that ion propulsion is preferable by a 3:1 cost margin over a mass driver reaction engine at optimum values; however, ion engines cannot yet operate in the lower exhaust velocity range where the optimum lies, and total program costs between the two systems are ambiguous. Heavier payloads favor the use of a MDRE. A parametric model of a space manufacturing facility is proposed, and used to analyze recurring costs, total costs, and net present value discounted cash flows. Parameters studied include productivity, effects of discounting, materials source tradeoffs, economic viability of closed-cycle habitats, and effects of varying degrees of nonterrestrial SPS materials needed from earth. Finally, candidate optimal scenarios are chosen, and implemented in a linear program with external constraints in order to arrive at an optimum blend of SPS production strategies in order to maximize returns.

  16. CORRECTIVE ACTION IN CAR MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rohne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this paper the important .issues involved in successfully implementing corrective action systems in quality management are discussed. The work is based on experience in implementing and operating such a system in an automotive manufacturing enterprise in South Africa. The core of a corrective action system is good documentation, supported by a computerised information system. Secondly, a systematic problem solving methodology is essential to resolve the quality related problems identified by the system. In the following paragraphs the general corrective action process is discussed and the elements of a corrective action system are identified, followed by a more detailed discussion of each element. Finally specific results from the application are discussed.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Belangrike oorwegings by die suksesvolle implementering van korrektiewe aksie stelsels in gehaltebestuur word in hierdie artikel bespreek. Die werk is gebaseer op ondervinding in die implementering en bedryf van so 'n stelsel by 'n motorvervaardiger in Suid Afrika. Die kern van 'n korrektiewe aksie stelsel is goeie dokumentering, gesteun deur 'n gerekenariseerde inligtingstelsel. Tweedens is 'n sistematiese probleemoplossings rnetodologie nodig om die gehalte verwante probleme wat die stelsel identifiseer aan te spreek. In die volgende paragrawe word die algemene korrektiewe aksie proses bespreek en die elemente van die korrektiewe aksie stelsel geidentifiseer. Elke element word dan in meer besonderhede bespreek. Ten slotte word spesifieke resultate van die toepassing kortliks behandel.

  17. Method to manufacture tungsten carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent deals with an improved method of manufacturing tungsten carbide. An oxide is preferably used as initial product whose particle size and effective surface approximately corresponds to that of the endproduct. The known methods for preparing the oxide are briefly given. Carbon monoxide is passed over the thus obtained oxide particles whereby the reaction mixture is heated to a temperature at which tungsten oxide and carbon monoxide react and tungsten carbide is formed, however, below that temperature at which the tungsten-containing materials are caked or sintered together. According to the method the reaction temperature is about below 9000C. The tungsten carbide produced has a particle size of under approximately 100 A and an active surface of about 20 m2/g. It has sofar not been possible with the usual methods to obtain such finely divided material with such a large surface. These particles may be converted back to the oxide by heating in air at low temperature without changing particle size and effective surface. One thus obtains a tungsten oxide with smaller particle size and larger effective surface than the initial product. (IHOE)

  18. The Economics of Big Area Addtiive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Lindahl, John [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Case studies on the economics of Additive Manufacturing (AM) suggest that processing time is the dominant cost in manufacturing. Most additive processes have similar performance metrics: small part sizes, low production rates and expensive feedstocks. Big Area Additive Manufacturing is based on transitioning polymer extrusion technology from a wire to a pellet feedstock. Utilizing pellets significantly increases deposition speed and lowers material cost by utilizing low cost injection molding feedstock. The use of carbon fiber reinforced polymers eliminates the need for a heated chamber, significantly reducing machine power requirements and size constraints. We hypothesize that the increase in productivity coupled with decrease in feedstock and energy costs will enable AM to become more competitive with conventional manufacturing processes for many applications. As a test case, we compare the cost of using traditional fused deposition modeling (FDM) with BAAM for additively manufacturing composite tooling.

  19. Agile manufacturing from a statistical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterling, R.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Initiatives Dept.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of agile manufacturing is to provide the ability to quickly realize high-quality, highly-customized, in-demand products at a cost commensurate with mass production. More broadly, agility in manufacturing, or any other endeavor, is defined as change-proficiency; the ability to thrive in an environment of unpredictable change. This report discusses the general direction of the agile manufacturing initiative, including research programs at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Department of Energy, and other government agencies, but focuses on agile manufacturing from a statistical perspective. The role of statistics can be important because agile manufacturing requires the collection and communication of process characterization and capability information, much of which will be data-based. The statistical community should initiate collaborative work in this important area.

  20. Lean Application to Manufacturing Ramp-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Irene; Rymaszewska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical overview of the concepts of lean and manufacturing ramp-up in an attempt to conceptualize the strategic areas in which lean philosophy and principles can be applied for continuous improvements. The application of lean principles during the final stage of a new...... product development process, that is, the ramp-up process, is a critical, early enabler of lean manufacturing. The manufacturing strategy literature conceptualizes a state of “leanness in operations,” which can consolidate both the concepts of lean and manufacturing ramp-up, providing a dual perspective....... Abstracting from the extant literature, the authors considered the competitiveness of manufacturing companies from two principal perspectives: the leanness of the ramp-up process and the new-value creation of quality managers. While much of the literature fails to acknowledge that the roots of lean actually...

  1. Multi-agent for manufacturing systems optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortea, E. M.; Tulbure, A.; Huţanu, C.-tin

    2016-08-01

    The paper is meant to be a dynamic approach to optimize manufacturing systems based on multi-agent systems. Multi-agent systems are semiautonomous decision makers and cooperate to optimize the manufacturing process. Increasing production the capacity is achieved by developing, implementing efficient and effective systems from control based on current manufacturing process. The model multi-agent proposed in this paper is based on communication between agents who, based on their mechanisms drive to autonomous decision making. Methods based on multi-agent programming are applied between flexible manufacturing processes and cooperation with agents. Based on multi-agent technology and architecture of intelligent manufacturing can lead to development of strategies for control and optimization of scheduled production resulting from the simulation.

  2. Fundamentals of semiconductor manufacturing and process control

    CERN Document Server

    May, Gary S

    2006-01-01

    A practical guide to semiconductor manufacturing from process control to yield modeling and experimental design Fundamentals of Semiconductor Manufacturing and Process Control covers all issues involved in manufacturing microelectronic devices and circuits, including fabrication sequences, process control, experimental design, process modeling, yield modeling, and CIM/CAM systems. Readers are introduced to both the theory and practice of all basic manufacturing concepts. Following an overview of manufacturing and technology, the text explores process monitoring methods, including those that focus on product wafers and those that focus on the equipment used to produce wafers. Next, the text sets forth some fundamentals of statistics and yield modeling, which set the foundation for a detailed discussion of how statistical process control is used to analyze quality and improve yields. The discussion of statistical experimental design offers readers a powerful approach for systematically varying controllable p...

  3. Frontiers in Chemical Engineering. Research Needs and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

    Chemical engineers play a key role in industries such as petroleum, food, artificial fibers, petrochemicals, plastics and many others. They are needed to tailor manufacturing technology to the requirements of products and to integrate product and process design. This report discusses how chemical engineers are continuing to address technological…

  4. Manufacturing fuel-switching capability, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Historically, about one-third of all energy consumed in the United States has been used by manufacturers. About one-quarter of manufacturing energy is used as feedstocks and raw material inputs that are converted into nonenergy products; the remainder is used for its energy content. During 1988, the most recent year for which data are available, manufacturers consumed 15.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of energy to produce heat and power and to generate electricity. The manufacturing sector also has widespread capabilities to switch from one fuel to another for either economic or emergency reasons. There are numerous ways to define fuel switching. For the purposes of the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), fuel switching is defined as the capability to substitute one energy source for another within 30 days with no significant modifications to the fuel-consuming equipment, while keeping production constant. Fuel-switching capability allows manufacturers substantial flexibility in choosing their mix of energy sources. The consumption of a given energy source can be maximized if all possible switching into that energy source takes place. The estimates in this report are based on data collected on the 1988 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), Forms 846 (A through C). The EIA conducts this national sample survey of manufacturing energy consumption on a triennial basis. The MECS is the only comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries. The MECS was first conducted in 1986 to collect data for 1985. This report presents information on the fuel-switching capabilities of manufacturers in 1988. This report is the second of a series based on the 1988 MECS. 8 figs., 31 tabs.

  5. Manufacturing fuel-switching capability, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, about one-third of all energy consumed in the United States has been used by manufacturers. About one-quarter of manufacturing energy is used as feedstocks and raw material inputs that are converted into nonenergy products; the remainder is used for its energy content. During 1988, the most recent year for which data are available, manufacturers consumed 15.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of energy to produce heat and power and to generate electricity. The manufacturing sector also has widespread capabilities to switch from one fuel to another for either economic or emergency reasons. There are numerous ways to define fuel switching. For the purposes of the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), fuel switching is defined as the capability to substitute one energy source for another within 30 days with no significant modifications to the fuel-consuming equipment, while keeping production constant. Fuel-switching capability allows manufacturers substantial flexibility in choosing their mix of energy sources. The consumption of a given energy source can be maximized if all possible switching into that energy source takes place. The estimates in this report are based on data collected on the 1988 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), Forms 846 (A through C). The EIA conducts this national sample survey of manufacturing energy consumption on a triennial basis. The MECS is the only comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries. The MECS was first conducted in 1986 to collect data for 1985. This report presents information on the fuel-switching capabilities of manufacturers in 1988. This report is the second of a series based on the 1988 MECS. 8 figs., 31 tabs

  6. A study on manufacturing and construction method of buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Sugita, Yutaka [Tokai Works, Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Waste Isolation Research Division, Barrier Performance Group, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Amemiya, Kiyoshi [Hazama Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    As an engineered barrier system in the geological disposal of high-level waste, multibarrier system is considered. Multibarrier system consists of the vitrified waste, the overpack and the buffer. Bentonite is one of the potential material as the buffer because of its low water permeability, self-sealing properties, radionuclides adsorption and retardation properties, thermal conductivity, chemical buffering properties, overpack supporting properties, stress buffering properties, etc. In order to evaluate the functions of buffer, a lot of experiments has been conducted. The evaluations of these functions are based on the assumption that the buffer is emplaced or constructed in the disposal tunnel (or disposal pit) properly. Therefore, it is necessary to study on the manufacturing / construction method of buffer. As the manufacturing / construction technology of the buffer, the block installation method and in-situ compaction method, etc, are being investigated. The block installation method is to emplace the buffer blocks manufactured in advance at the ground facility, and construction processes of the block installation method at the underground will be simplified compared with the in-situ compaction method. On the other hand, the in-situ compaction method is to introduce the buffer material with specified water content into the disposal tunnel and to make the buffer with high density at the site using a compaction machine. In regard to the in-situ compaction method, it is necessary to investigate the optimum finished thickness of one layer because it is impossible to construct the buffer at one time. This report describes the results of compaction property test and the summary of the past investigation results in connection with the manufacturing / construction method. Then this report shows the construction method that will be feasible in the actual disposal site. (J.P.N.)

  7. Ion chromatography in the manufacture of multilayer circuit boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Ion chromatography (IC) has proven useful in analyzing chemical solutions used in the manufacture of multilayer circuit boards. Unlike other chemical quantification techniques, IC provides results on ions not expected in the production solutions. Thus, solution contamination and break-down products can be monitored in every phase of the circuit board manufacturing. During the first phase, epoxy laminates experience an etchback, first in chromic acid, which can be analyzed for trace chloride and sulfate, then in ammonium bifluoride/HCl, which can be analyzed for fluoride and chloride. Following a wet-blasting to roughen up the surface, 20 microinches of copper are deposited using an electroless bath. Again, IC is applicable for monitoring formate, tartarate, and sulfate levels. Next, an acid copper bath is used to electroplate the through holes with 0.001 inches of ductile copper. This bath is analyzed for trace chloride. Photoimaging is then performed, and the organic solvents used can be assayed for trace ionic chloride. Finally, a fluoroboric acid-based tin-lead bath is used to deposit a solderable alloy. This bath is analyzed for fluoroborate, tin, and lead. In addition, mobile phase ion chromatography (MPIC) is used to monitor the nonionic organic brighteners in the baths.

  8. Chemical Mahjong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2011-01-01

    An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric…

  9. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... Chemical peels public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  10. Chemical pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, Andreas; Amstutz, Nahid; Delahaye, Sandra; Sadki, Asmaâ; Schenker, Sabine; Sieber, Regula; Zerara, Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    The physical and photophysical properties of three classic transition metal complexes, namely [Fe(bpy)3]2+, [Ru(bpy)3]2+, and [Co(bpy)3]2+, can be tuned by doping them into a variety of inert crystalline host lattices. The underlying guest-host interactions are discussed in terms of a chemical pressure.

  11. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil biodeg

  12. The Relationship Between of Manufacturing Flexibility, Innovation Capability, and Operational Performance in Indonesian Manufacturing SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanto, U. S.; Raihan

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between manufacturing flexibility competence and operational performance with technological innovation capability as mediator variables. A survey method was applied to collect data pertaining to the variables being investigated. The findings indicated that manufacturing flexibility competence is positively associated with technological innovation capability and operational performance. The findings also suggested that technological innovation capability types mediated positively to the operational performance implication of manufacturing flexibility competence. This implies that manufacturing organizations pursuing manufacturing flexibility competence need to develop technological innovation capability in obtaining a high operational performance.

  13. Manufacturing Communication: DCOM-MMS-based Approach for Flexible Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A design approach of manufacturing communication ispresented for flexible manufacturing system in this paper.The primary objective aims at making the flexible manufacturing control system provided with interoperability and rconfigurability.Based on describing manufacturing message specification (MMS) and distributed component object model (DCOM), a client/server manufacturing communication model is built with MMS standard and DCOM middleware, and thecommunication interfaces between MMS client and MMS server are designed with Microsoft interface definition language (MIDL) and abstract syntax notation one (ASN. 1) of MMS services. As a result, DCOM and MMS integration leads to such client/ server communication capabilities independent of different operating systems and manufacturing devices in flexible manufacturing automation environment. Finally, to verify the new design approach, a prototype system of robot control system has been implemented in MS 2000 Server/Professional Operating System and VC + + 6.0 Developer Environments.

  14. Measurement of manufacturing resolution for two photon polymerization structures with different manufacturing parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tien-Tung; Li, Wan-Jou; Chen, Sheng-Yuan; Hoi, Chi-Hou

    2015-02-01

    This paper studied manufacturing resolutions of micro structures made by two photon polymerization (TPP) technology with different manufacturing parameters. The light source used for the TPP manufacturing system was a low-cost 532 nm Nd:YAG green laser, and the material used was commercial resin Photomer 3015. Two objective lenses, one with magnification of 100 times (100x) and numerical aperture (NA) of 1.3 and the other with 50x and NA0.8 were used in TPP production. The manufacturing resolution, which is also named as voxel size, changed with different manufacturing parameters such as laser power and exposure time. The measurement results of TPP structures manufactured with different manufacturing parameters indicated that the minimum line width produced by the 100x-NA1.3 lens could be reduced down to 67 nanometer (nm), which was quite good for TPP systems with low-cost Nd:YAG laser.

  15. Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) For The Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    This Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Manufacturing Development Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project was conducted in two phases as a CRADA with Local Motors Inc. Phase 1 was previously reported as Advanced Manufacturing of Complex Cyber Mechanical Devices through Community Engagement and Micro-manufacturing and demonstrated the integration of components onto a prototype body part for a vehicle. Phase 2 was reported as Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for the Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles and demonstrated the high profile live printing of an all-electric vehicle using ONRL s Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology. This demonstration generated considerable national attention and successfully demonstrated the capabilities of the BAAM system as developed by ORNL and Cincinnati, Inc. and the feasibility of additive manufacturing of a full scale electric vehicle as envisioned by the CRADA partner Local Motors, Inc.

  16. Report of working committee 2 production of manufactured gases; Rapport du comite de travail 2 production de gaz manufactures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, F.S.

    2000-07-01

    The Committee's work during this triennium focused on 4 topic areas. They are: the potential of hydrogen in meeting long term energy demands, future development prospects for manufactured gas units/gasification of coal, biomass, and opportunity materials for the production of electricity and chemicals, recovery of methane from coal seams, and update on management of contaminated gas sites. This report presents the status and the potentials of present and future opportunities for the gas industry in the areas of manufactured gases including hydrogen and coal bed/mine methane. The idea of hydrogen as an energy carrier is getting increased attention these days for its promise of super clean emissions at the point of use. The development of fuel cells for stationary and mobile applications has highlighted the need of hydrogen production, storage and infrastructure. Hydrogen appears destined to be a major energy source of the future. The industry for gasification is growing, particularly for the production of electricity and chemicals from opportunity fuels, such as petroleum coke from refineries. Coal and biomass are also getting increased interests due to their promise of high efficiency and lower emissions. Methane from coal mines is also getting increased attention due not only to its environmental benefits but also to its favorable own economics. The future of the energy industry will be price and environmentally driven. A well-informed gas industry will be in a position to continue to play a major role in the future of the energy industry world-wide. (author)

  17. Lean Manufacturing Auto Cluster at Chennai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2012-10-01

    Due the presence of lot of automotive Industry, Chennai is known as Detroit of India, that producing over 40 % of the Indian vehicle and components. Lean manufacturing concepts have been widely recognized as an important tool in improving the competitiveness of industries. This is a continuous process involving everyone, starting from management to the shop floor. Automotive Component Industries (ACIs) in Ambattur Industrial Estate, Chennai has formed special purpose vehicle (SPV) society namely Ambattur Industrial Estate Manufacturers Association (AIEMA) Technology Centre (ATC) lean manufacturing cluster (ATC-LMC) during July 2010 under lean manufacturing competitiveness scheme, that comes under National Manufacturing Competitiveness Programme of Government of India. The Tripartite Agreement is taken place between National Productivity Council, consultants and cluster (ATC-LMC). The objective is to conduct diagnostic study, study on training and application of various lean manufacturing techniques and auditing in ten ACIs. The methodology adopted is collection of primary data/details from ten ACIs. In the first phase, diagnostic study is done and the areas for improvement in each of the cluster member companies are identified. In the second phase, training programs and implementation is done on 5S and other areas. In the third phase auditing is done and found that the lean manufacturing techniques implementation in ATC-LMC is sustainable and successful in every cluster companies, which will not only enhance competitiveness but also decrease cost, time and increase productivity. The technical efficiency of LMC companies also increases significantly.

  18. Lighting molded optics: Design and manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kočárková H.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Proper design and manufacturing of glass molded lenses need to be performed in several steps. The whole process from customer requirements to f nal functional product is shown on two examples - a lens for street light and a lens for spot light with narrow lighting angle. After discussing customer requirements, optical design is made. Thanks to various commercial softwares with optimization, manufacturer of the lens can work as well as a designer which enables simplif cation and acceleration of lens manufacturing, since limitations of the manufacturing process are considered during creation of the design. When the prototype is made, its functionality needs to be evaluated. This work shows measurement of light distribution for street light lens in a dark room using goniometer and measurement of light intensity for spot lens f xed on an optical bench. These measurements can reveal the root cause in case of lens malfunction, which enables to optimize manufacturing process or modify lens design accordingly. Designing, manufacturing and evaluation of molded optics under one roof enables creation of easily manufacturable design and fast solution of problems.

  19. Speciality chemicals from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J.J.; Knifton, J.F. (Shell Development Company, Houston, TX (USA))

    1992-04-01

    Texaco has undertaken research to investigate the use of carbon monoxide and hydrogen as building blocks for the manufacture of amidocarbonylation products. The amidocarbonylation reaction offers a convenient method to construct two functionalities - amido and carboxylate - simultaneously. Texaco has extended this chemistry to make a variety of speciality chemicals by tailoring cobalt catalysts. Products which have been made including: surface active agents such as the C{sub 14} - C{sub 16} alkyl amidoacids; surfactants; intermediates for sweeteners like aspartame; food additives like glutamic acid; and chelating agents such as polyamidoacids. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Chemical Product Design: A new challenge of applied thermodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2004-01-01

    Chemical products involving specialty chemicals and microstructured materials are often multicomponent systems. A number of five to 20 molecules is not unusual, comprising a range of different chemical compounds e.g. polymers, surfactants, solid particles and water. Milk is an example of such a p......Chemical products involving specialty chemicals and microstructured materials are often multicomponent systems. A number of five to 20 molecules is not unusual, comprising a range of different chemical compounds e.g. polymers, surfactants, solid particles and water. Milk is an example......, stability) of such products is often as important as their manufacture, while a number of non-traditional manufacturing/ separation processes are of relevance, e.g. emulsification, foaming, gelation, granulation and crystallization. Today, serious gaps exist in our thermodynamic modelling abilities when we...

  1. Transformation of Manufacturing Firms to Servitisation Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Chih-Cheng; Ma, Zheng; Tanev, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    a traditional manufacturing firm to service-oriented firms is the conspicuous lack of publications in this research stream. Applying a case study research approach, this study explores the transformation model for manufacturing SMEs to servitisation firms by adopting a network approach, and reveals......It is crucial for the manufacturing SMEs to reconsider their business strategy in order to be able to launch customer-centric solutions. This ability is associated with a paradigm shift from a product-orientation to service-orientation. One of the major challenges to success in transforming...

  2. Design To Manufacturing Process:Bumpy Road?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Ntegration between design and manufacturing is one of the topics that normally hits a lot of discussion in the product development and PLM space.To support this process becomes more and more important in a modern enterprise manufacturing organization.You can ask me why? Let me put is simple this is one of the most important processes that can drive cost optimization in the companies.Everything a company is making need to be first designed and later manufacturing.If it breaks nothing can help.

  3. Isotope separation and advanced manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Kan, T.

    This is the fourth issue of a semiannual report for the Isotope Separation and Advanced Materials Manufacturing (ISAM) Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Primary objectives include: (1) the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (UAVLIS) process, which is being developed and prepared for deployment as an advanced uranium enrichment capability; (2) Advanced manufacturing technologies, which include industrial laser and E-beam material processing and new manufacturing technologies for uranium, plutonium, and other strategically important materials in support of DOE and other national applications. This report features progress in the ISAM Program from October 1993 through March 1994.

  4. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Post, Brian K [ORNL; Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  5. Green electronics manufacturing creating environmental sensible products

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, John X

    2012-01-01

    Going ""green"" is becoming a major component of the mission for electronics manufacturers worldwide. While this goal seems simplistic, it poses daunting dilemmas. Yet, to compete effectively in the global economy, manufacturers must take the initiative to drive this crucial movement. Green Electronics Manufacturing: Creating Environmental Sensible Products provides you with a complete reference to design, develop, build, and install an electronic product with special consideration for the product's environmental impacts during its whole life cycle. The author discusses how to integrate the st

  6. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  7. Plant Evolution: A Manufacturing Network Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Johansen, John; Boer, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Viewing them as portfolios of products and processes, we aim to address how plants evolve in the context of a manufacturing network and how the evolution of one plant impacts other plants in the same manufacturing network. Based on discussions of ten plants from three Danish companies, we identify...... two different trajectories. Together, these trajectories determine the evolution of a manufacturing network. Factors appearing to affect the two trajectories include competencies built up, transferred or acquired locally, market potential, performance considerations, local, situational factors...

  8. Early cost estimation for additive manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Additive Manufacture (AM) is a novel manufacturing method; it is a process of forming components by adding materials. Owing to material saving and manufacturing cost saving, more and more research has been focused on metal AM technologies. WAAM is one AM technology, using arc as the heat sources and wire as the material to create parts with weld beads on a layer-by-layer basis. The process can produce components in a wide range of materials, including aluminum, titanium and steel. High deposi...

  9. Sensory properties and chemical composition of Sharri cheese from Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Agim Rysha; Frane Delaš

    2014-01-01

    Food sensory properties, analyses and chemical composition are very important because they provide information about product quality and end-user acceptance or preferences. An assessment of sensory characteristics and chemical composition of mountain sheep and cow’s-milk cheese from shepherd’s huts and industrial manufacturers in Kosovo was carried out. Consumer-oriented tests using a 9 point hedonic scale were conducted in order to determine Sharri cheese acceptability. Chemical parameters (...

  10. SU-8 negative photoresist for optical mask manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Alexei L.

    2000-06-01

    The requirements for better control, linearity, and uniformity of critical dimension (CD) on photomasks in fabrication of 180 and 150 nm generation devices result in increasing demand for thinner, more etching durable, and more sensitive e-beam resists. Novolac based resists with chemical amplification have been a choice for their sensitivity and stability during etching. However, difficult CD control due to the acid catalyzer diffusion and quite narrow post exposure bake (PEB) process window are some of the major drawbacks of these resists. SU-8 is recently introduced to the market negative photoresist. High sensitivity, fairly good adhesion properties, and relatively simple processing of SU-8 make it a good substitution for novolac based chemically amplified negative e-beam resists in optical mask manufacturing. The replacement of traditional chemically amplified resists by SU- 8 can increase the process latitude and reduce resist costs. Among the obvious drawbacks of SU-8 are the use of solvent- based developer and demand of oxygen plasma for resist removal. In this paper the use of SU-8 for optical mask manufacturing is reported. All steps of resist film preparation, exposure and development are paid a share of attention. Possibilities to use reactive ion etching (RIE) with oxygen in order to increase resist mask contrast are discussed. Special exposure strategy (pattern outlining) was employed to further improve the edge definition. The resist PEB temperature and time were studied to estimate their weight in overall CD control performance. Specially designed test patterns with 0.25 micrometer design rule could be firmly transferred into a chromium layer both by wet etching and ion milling. Influence of exposure dose variation on the pattern CD change was studied.

  11. The efficiency improvement potential for coal, oil and electricity in China's manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces an improved total-factor ESTR (energy-saving target ratio) index, which combines the sequence technique and the “energy direction” to a DEA (data envelopment analysis) model, in order to measure the possible energy saving potential of a manufacturing sector. Afterward, the energy saving potentials of four different energy carriers, namely coal, gasoline, diesel oil and electricity, for 27 manufacturing sectors during the period of 1998–2011 in China are calculated. The results and its policy implications are as follows: (1) the average ESTRs of coal, gasoline, diesel oil and electricity are 1.714%, 49.939%, 24.465% and 3.487% respectively. Hence, energy saving of manufacturing sectors should put more emphasis on gasoline and diesel oil. (2) The key sectors for gasoline saving is the energy-intensive sectors, while the key sectors for diesel oil saving is the equipment manufacturing sectors. (3) The manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products sector not only consumes a large amount of oil, but also has a low efficiency of oil usage. Therefore, it is the key sector for oil saving. (4) Manufacture of tobacco and manufacture of communication equipment, computers and other electronic equipment are the benchmark for the four major energy carriers of energy-saving ratios. - Highlights: • An improved total-factor energy-saving target ratio is proposed. • Energy saving potentials of energy carriers for sectors in 1998–2011 are calculated. • Policy implications for energy savings in sectors and energy carriers are discussed. • Some suggestions for the energy policies of China's economy are discussed

  12. 77 FR 50469 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY...: The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) announces that the Manufacturing Extension... Lellock, Manufacturing Extension Partnership, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100...

  13. 77 FR 55810 - Meeting of the Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... International Trade Administration Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Manufacturing... Jennifer Pilat, the Manufacturing Council, Room 4043, 1401 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC...

  14. 76 FR 22674 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY... announces that the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Advisory Board, National Institute of Standards... than May 2, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Lellock, Manufacturing Extension...

  15. 76 FR 53666 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY... National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) announces that the Manufacturing Extension...: Karen Lellock, Manufacturing Extension Partnership, National Institute of Standards and Technology,...

  16. 78 FR 40434 - Meeting of the Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... International Trade Administration Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Manufacturing...--Workforce and Public Perception of Manufacturing; Innovation, Research and Development; Tax Policy...

  17. 75 FR 50749 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY... announces that the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Advisory Board, National Institute of Standards... INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Lellock, Manufacturing Extension Partnership, National Institute of Standards...

  18. 78 FR 52505 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY... National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) announces that the Manufacturing Extension... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Lellock, Manufacturing Extension Partnership, National Institute...

  19. 77 FR 20790 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY... announces that the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Advisory Board, National Institute of Standards... INFORMATION section below. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Lellock, Manufacturing Extension...

  20. 75 FR 19941 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY... announces that the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Advisory Board, National Institute of Standards..., 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Lellock, Manufacturing Extension Partnership,...